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Conflict of Interest :
1. Project Engineering wants to minimize capital costs as the
only criteria,
2. Maintenance Engineering wants to minimize repair hours as
the only criteria,
3. Production wants to maximize uptime hours as the only
criteria,
4. Reliability Engineering wants to avoid failures as the only
criteria,
5. Accounting wants to maximize project net present value as
the only criteria, and
6. Shareholders want to increase stockholder wealth as the
only criteria.

LCC can be used as a management decision tool for harmonizing


the never ending conflicts by focusing on facts, money, and time.

 Life Cycle Costing is a process to determine  The total costs of owning the building over its
predicted life span including initial capital cost,
the sum of all the costs associated with an
occupation costs, operating costs, and the cost
asset or part thereof, including acquisition, incurred or benefit derived from the disposal of
installation, operation, maintenance, the asset at the end of its life
refurbishment and disposal costs.  A technique to ascertain a suitable balance
 The total cost throughout its life including between capital cost on initial provision and costs
planning, design, acquisition and support incurred as a consequence of use
costs and any other costs directly attributable
to owning or using the asset

 Metode untuk mengevaluasi alternatif


to estimate the overall costs of project
investasi proyek bangunan berdasarkan
alternatives and to select the design that
biaya inisial, biaya operasional, dan biaya
ensures the facility will provide the lowest
pemeliharaan selama umur ekonomis
overall cost of ownership consistent with its
bangunan
quality and function

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 Biaya siklus-hidup (life-cycle costing) adalah proses yang “SUSTAINING ASSETS” Planning Acquisition
logis dan sistematis untuk menyusun total biaya aset • Identifikasi kebutuhan
• Review pilihan
• Non assets alternatives
• Evaluasi resiko
mulai dari konsepsi sampai dengan Penghapusannya. • Cost/benefit • Core –aset milik
• Aset sewa
 Life-cycle costing harus mencakup penilaian terhadap • Kerjasama

biaya-biaya dari:
- Perencanaan; Monitoring and
Performance management
- Pengadaan; SUSTAINABLE
• Continous monitoring
- Operasi dan pemeliharaan; dan DEVELOPMENT • Pengukuran
• Pencapaian hasil
- Penghapusan. • Optimalisasi kinerja
• Program maintenance
• Habis ekonomis • Penilaian aset
• Replacement • Kondisi dan penggunaan
• Renewel
• Redeployment Operation &
Disposal Maintenace

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 Biaya Perencanaan : Biaya yang terkait dengan penyusunan solusi


aset sampai pada tahap aset siap deiperoleh/diadakan
◦ Studi ilmiah
◦ Lamporan dampak lingkungan
◦ Studi kelayakan
 Biaya Pengadaan : Terkait dengan pengadaan awal aset
◦ Biaya bangunan/konstruksi
◦ Biaya komisi
◦ Biaya pengangkutan dan pemasangan/instalasi
 Biaya Operasi dan Pemeliharaan : Pengeluaran atas operasi sehari-
hari dari suatu peralatan/aset.
◦ Biaya energi
◦ Pembersihan
◦ Pemeliharaan
◦ Operator
 Biaya Penghapusan : Mencakup kerugian finansial atas penghapusan
aset sebelum berakhirnya umur manfaat yang diharapkan

 the assessment and comparison of  The purpose of an LCCA is to estimate the


options/alternatives during the design/ overall costs of project alternatives and to
acquisition phase select the design that ensures the facility will
 Considers all cost components within asset options over the provide the lowest overall cost of ownership
asset’s life
 Does not directly consider benefits or revenue streams that are
consistent with its quality and function.
generally assumed to be equal amongst the options being
compared (benefits and revenues are considered in the
evaluation of options).

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The required data categories for a life cycle cost analysis


PHYSICAL DATA
OCCUPANCY DATA Superficial floor area
Occupancy Profile Types of Boilers/Heating
System
Formula Dasar :
Functionality
Hours of Life Windows area
Particular Features Functional area
Number of Occupants
LCC = Initial Cost + Future Cost – Salvage value
Walls & Ceilings

COST DATA
Number of Sanitary Fittings
LCC Calculation (for Building) :
TYPES OF LIFE
Acquisition Cost
Capital Cost CYCLE DATA
Taxes
LCC = I + Repl + E + W + OM&R + O - Res
PERFORMANCE DATA
Inflation Maintenance Cycles
Discount Rate  I = PV investment costs (if incurred at base date, they need not be
Cleaning Cycles discounted)
Management Cost Thermal Conductivitiy
Replacement Cost
QUALITY DATA  Repl = PV capital replacement costs
Occupancy Time
Maintenance Cost
Condition of :
Electricity  E = PV of energy costs
Operating Cost
-Sanitary Fittings
Gas  W = PV of water costs
-Pipework OM&R = PV of non-fuel operating, maintenance and repair costs
Cleaning Cost 
-Furnishing
Demolition Cost  O = PV of other costs
-Boiler
Insurance  Res = PV residual value (resale value, salvage value) less disposal costs
-Decoration
-Fabric
-Road Surfing

 Initial costs may include capital investment costs for land


acquisition, construction, or renovation and for the
equipment needed to operate a facility
 Energy and Water Costs
 Initial Costs—Purchase, Acquisition,  Replacement Costs : depend on the estimated life of the
Construction Costs system and the length of the study period
 Fuel Costs  Residual Values : is its remaining value at the end of the
study period, or at the time it is replaced during the study
 Operation, Maintenance, and Repair Costs period. Residual values can be based on value in place, resale
 Replacement Costs value, salvage value, or scrap value, net of any selling,
conversion, or disposal costs
 Residual Values—Resale or Salvage Values or
Disposal Costs
 Finance Charges—Loan Interest Payments, Tax
 Non-Monetary Benefits or Costs

 component performance (detail design,


workmanship, building use, client attitude to
maintenance, exposure, weather climate and so
on that effect to the building condition)
 building life (the assumption on the economic
life span of the building)
 inflation
 technological change and fashion
 taxation

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 Alternatif A : ALTERNATIF A
◦ Capital Cost $ 100.000 Cash Flow Year (s) Discount Factor Present Value
◦ Predicted annual maintenance $ 2000
100.000 1 1 100.000
 Alternatif B : 2.000 1 - 60 11,48 22.096
◦ Capital Cost $ 120.000 (x 60 years)
◦ Predicted annual maintenance $ 500 220.000 122.096

Result (after 60 years operation) : ALTERNATIF B


 Total Outlay of A $ 220.000 Cash Flow Year (s) Discount Factor Present Value
 Total Outlay of B $ 150.000
120.000 1 1 120.000
500 1 - 60 11,48 5.524
(x 60 years)
Is that so simple ?
150.000 125.524

 1. Payback Method
x n The length of time taken for the returns from an
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YPatau ( P / A, i, n)   investment to equal the intial outlay. Where the proceeds
x 0 (1  i )
x are the same each year the payback period is obtained
by dividing the initial outlay by the annual proceeds

If roof insulation will cost $100 and the annual saving on


1 fuel is estimated as $20 the payback period is 5 years.
1 This can be compared with the payback periods for
(1  i) n other type of insulation; e.g. cavity-wall filling or double
YPatau ( P / A, i, n)  glazing to determine which type offers the best value
i

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 Metode ini mengukur seberapa cepat investasi bisa


kembali. Bila periode payback ini lebih pendek daripada
yang diisyaratkan, maka proyek dikatakan Also known the present worth method and involves
menguntungkan, sedang kalau lebih lama maka proyek discounting all future cash flows to a common base
ditolak. year. The formulas given earlier in this chapter for
 Metode ini mengukur seberapa cepat suatu investasi bisa PV of $1 and PV of $1 per annum may be used for
kembali, maka dasar yang dipergunakan adalah aliran this purpose although it is probably easier to look
kas, bukan lab. Untuk itu kita hitung aliran kas proyek
tersebut. up the factors in the standard tables. It should be
 Problem utama dari metode ini adalah sulitnya noted that the analysis is particulary sensitive to the
menentukan payback maksimum. Dalam prakteknya yang rate of interest used and, therefore, this must be
dipergunakan adalah payback umumnya dari perusahaan- choosen with care.
perusahaan sejenis. For e.g. the total PV of repainting a building every 5
 Kelemahan metode payback years over an anticipated life of 39 years (last repainting
1.Diabaikan nilai waktu uang in year 25) will vary as follows for different rate of
2.Diabaikan aliran kas setelah periode payback interest. For the purpose of this example the repainting
 Payback period (PBP) adalah jangka waktu tertentu yang cost has been estimated to be $200 and no allowance
menunjukkan terjadinya arus permintaan (Cash in Flow) made for inflation.
secara kumulatif sama dengan jumlah investasi dalam
bentuk Present Value

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 NPV adalah kriteria invetasi yang banyak n


digunakan dalam mengukur apakah suatu NPV   NBi (1  i) n
atau
proyek feasible atau tidak. Perhitungan l 1

NPV merupakan net benefit yang telah n


NBi
didiscount dengan menggunakan social NPV   atau
(1  i) n
opportunity cost of Capital (SOCC)
l 1

sebagai Discount Factor. Secara singkat


n n
NPV   Bi  Ci   NBi
Formula untuk Net Present Value adalah l 1 l 1
sebagai berikut :
Dimana NB = Net Benefit = Benefit – Cost
C = Biaya Invetasi + Biaya Operasi
B = Benefit yang telah didiscount
I = discount factor
n = Tahun (waktu)

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Apabila hasil perhitungan Net Present


Value lebih besar dari nol dikatakan
usaha/proyek tersebut feasible (go) untuk
dilaksanakan. Hasil perhitungan Net  Lowest LCC (for determining cost-
Present Value sama dengan nol ini berarti effectiveness)
proyek tersebut berada dalam keadaan  NS > 0 (for determining cost-effectiveness)
Break Even Point (BEP) dimana TR = TC  SIR > 1 (for ranking projects)
dalam bentuk Present Value  AIRR > discount rate (for ranking projects)
 SPB, DPB < than study period (for screening
projects)

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 NS = Net Savings: operational savings less difference


in capital investment costs Sebuah mesin yang telah beroperasi selama 3 tahun dengan
 SIR = Savings-to-Investment Ratio: ratio of teknologi lama dan mempunyai biaya operasional lebih
operational savings to difference in capital investment tinggi dibandingkan mesin baru.
costs  Alternatif A :
 AIRR = Adjusted Internal Rate of Return: annual yield
from an alternative over the study period, taking into Memperbaiki mesin lama dengan biaya $ 100.000 dan
account reinvestment of interim returns at the biaya operasional $ 2.000 pertahun. Mesin ini masih bisa
discount rate beroperasi 6 tahun lagi.
 SPB = Simple Payback: time required for the  Alternatif B :
cumulative savings from an alternative to recover its
initial investment cost and other accrued costs, Membeli mesin baru seharga $ 150.000 dengan biaya
without taking into account the time value of money operasional $ 500 pertahun. Mesin baru ini memiliki usia
 DPB = Discounted Payback: time required for the ekonomis selama 10 tahun.
cumulative savings from an alternative to recover its
initial investment cost and other accrued costs, taking
into account the time value of money  ALTERNATIF MANA YANG DIPILIH ???

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ALTERNATIF A ALTERNATIF B

Net Discounting Presentday Net Discounting Presentday Kesimpulan :


TAHUN Cost Factor @9% Cost TAHUN Cost Factor @9% Cost
0 100.000 1,0000 100.000 0 150.000 1,0000 150.000
1
2
2.000
2.000
0,9174
0,8417
1.835
1.683
1
2
500
500
0,9174
0,8417
459
421
• Alternatif A :
3 2.000 0,7722 1.544 3 500 0,7722 386
4 2.000 0,7084 1.417 4 500 0,7084 354 Pengeluaran $ 24.292 pertahun selama 6
5
6
2.000
2.000
0,6499
0,5963
1.300
1.193
5
6
500
500
0,6499
0,5963
325
298
tahun memiliki nilai kini sebesar $ 108.972
7
8
7
8
500
500
0,5470
0,5019
274
251 • Alternatif B :
9 9 500 0,4604 230
10 10 500 0,4224 211 Pengeluaran $ 23.873 pertahun selama 10
TOTAL 112.000 4,4859 108.972 TOTAL 155.000 6,4177 153.209
tahun memiliki nilai kini sebesar $ 153.209
Metode Equivalent Annual Cost Metode Equivalent Annual Cost

Proposal A Proposal A
Equivalent Annual Cost =Net Present Value Equivalent Annual Cost = Net Present Value
Present value of $1 per annum Present value of $1 per annum
= 108.972 = 153.209
4,485919 6,417658
= 24.292 = 23.873

TERIMA KASIH