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Supplier PPAP Training (Supplier)
Division PPAP Training Agenda
Place Your Divisions Agenda here!
3 Primary Training Sessions Available
Overview PPAP Training
Basic Overview of the Cooper PPAP Standard
Internal Staff Training
More In depth training & includes reviewer checklists & tips.
Supplier PPAP Training
Still more in depth with focus on key topics and participation exercises
.Benefits of PPAP Submissions PPAP provides for many benefits. Forces formal part conformance and approval Ensures formal quality planning Helps to maintain design integrity Identifies issues early for resolution Keeps suppliers honest Reduces warranty charges and prevents costs of poor quality Assists with managing supplier changes g g pp g Prevents use of unapproved and nonconforming parts Identifies suppliers that need more development Improves the overall quality of the product & customer satisfaction PPAP provides many benefits for all areas of the business business.
PPAP Training Objectives What is the Purpose of PPAP? When is PPAP Required? What are the Elements of the submission? How are the Levels of PPAP applied? Details on successful PPAP submission to Cooper Divisions. .
C Cooper’s PPAP requirements are t ’ i t targeted t t d towards di t material suppliers ( t d direct t i l li (external) l) .What is the PPAP standard? Production Part Approval Process Standard for submitting to the customer for part approval approval. AIAG 4th edition is most recent in March 2006 Developed by AIAG originally in 1993 for the Automotive Industry with input from the big three OEM s. OEM’s Outlines customer requirements that must be delivered and approved p q pp prior to p production of product.
To demonstrate that the manufacturing process has the potential to produce product that consistently meets all requirements during an actual production run at the quoted production rate rate. PPAP manages change and ensures product conformance! .What is the purpose of PPAP Submissions? PPAP’s purpose is: To provide the evidence that all customer engineering design record and specification requirements are properly understood by the manufacturing organization.
Significant Production Run PPAP data must be submitted from a “significant production run”. 300 pieces from production not prototype Production equipment and tooling Production employees Production rate All data reflects the actual production p p process to be used at start-up! p . which is identified by AIAG as 300 consecutive pieces sampled randomly (unless otherwise agreed upon by the customer and supplier).
equipment or inspection g g.When is PPAP “typically” required? If the process or the part changes it requires PPAP submission New part Revised part Supplier related changes Changes in tooling. q p p Change in the manufacturing process or method If you are unsure contact your Quality or Supplier Quality Representative. Representative New Parts: Typically will advise at time of business award (New Parts) Reference the Cooper PPAP Quick Reference Changes: Review at the time of a proposed change g p p g Reference the Supplier Change Request Form Any significant change to product or process! .
What are the actual requirements?
The Basics of PPAP
Submission requirements are called Elements Which element is required is determined by the submission Level
Don’t be intimidated by all of the acronyms
PPAP “Elements” (Requirements)
(AIAG) 4th Edition PPAP
1. Design Records 2. Engineering Ch 2 E i i Change D Documents t 3. Customer Engineering Approval, if required 4. Design Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (DFMEA) 5. Process Flow Diagram 6. Process Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (PFMEA) 7. 7 Control Plan 8. Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) 9. Dimensional Results 10. Material, Performance Results 11. Initial Process Study 12. Qualified Laboratory Documentation 13. Appearance Approval Report (AAR) 14. Sample Product 15. Master Sample 16. Checking Aids 17. Customer-Specific Requirements 18. 18 Part Submission Warrant (PSW)
2. Design Records 2 D i R d 3. Engineering Change Documents 4. Customer Engineering Approval 5 DFMEA 6. Process Flow Diagram 7. 7 PFMEA 8. Control Plan 9. Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) 10. Dimensional Results 11. Material, Performance Results 12. Initial Process Study y 13. Qualified Laboratory Documentation 14. Appearance Approval Report (AAR) 15. Sample Product 16. Master Sample 17. Checking Aids 18. Cooper-Specific Requirements 18 C S ifi R i t Tooling information Form Packaging Form Inspection Plan (ASC Only) Specification Deviation Supplier PPAP Worksheet
1. Part Submission Warrant (PSW)
Cooper will require most of these and Cooper specific documents .
Initial Process Study 13. 3 Engineering Change Documents 4. Material. Part Submission Warrant (PSW) 2. Checking Aids 18. Sample Product 16. Control Plan 9. . Customer-Specific Requirements Tooling information Form Packaging Form Inspection Plan (ASC Only) Specification Deviation Supplier PPAP Worksheet Partial Full As Requested Full On Site Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR Shall Submit Shall Retain Level 3 will be the default submission level. Performance Results 12. Qualified Laboratory Documentation 14. Master Sample 16 M t S l 17. Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) y y ( ) 10. Customer Engineering Approval 5 DFMEA 6. Dimensional Results 11. Appearance Approval Report (AAR) 15.PPAP Submission Levels Warrant Only Cooper Requirements 1. PFMEA 8. Design Records 3. Process Flow Diagram 7.
PFMEA 8. Material. Process Flow Diagram 7. Cooper-Specific Requirements Tooling information Form Packaging Form Inspection Plan (ASC Only) Specification Deviation Supplier PPAP Worksheet Element Links 2. Engineering Change Documents 4. Dimensional Results 11. PFMEA 8. 18 Cooper Specific Customer Requirements Submit Diligence is critical because elements relate and build on each other . Customer Engineering Approval 5 DFMEA 6. Sample Product 16. Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) 10. Qualified Laboratory Documentation 14. Performance Results 12. Part Submission Warrant (PSW) 2. Design Records 3. Control Plan 9. Master Sample 17. Appearance Approval Report (AAR) 15. 8 Control Plan 9. Design Records 5 DFMEA Critical Systems Requirements CTQs More Robust Design Robust Process Develop Process Control Confirm Measurement 7. MSA 12. Checking Aids 18. Initial Process Study 13. Initial Process Study Verify and improve capability 18.Importance of Due Diligence through PPAP Cooper Requirements 1.
Default Cooper Industries Submission Level Applied to: New parts on Cooper p g p pp p p programs. Applied to: "Non-critical"discretion (Cooper) to define the picture within the frame At the customer’s parts. Changes affecting form-fit-function. data submitted to the customer. serial production parts. material changes. . simple revision l t i l h i l i i level only changes or simple print updates not affecting f l l h i l i t d t t ff ti form-fitfit function. All product resourced to new suppliers. critical fasteners. Applied to: Critical Bulk products such as Plastic/Paint/Chemicals. Applied to: On site review as requested by each Cooper Division. This level can also be applied to low and medium risk parts within a product family. This level is reserved for special applications only. Level 5 Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data reviewed at the supplier's manufacturing location. Level 3 Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data submitted to customer. Level 4 Warrant and other requirements as defined by the customer. existing high risk parts undergoing a part number change. Also used for Self Certification Levels are defined by AIAG and the Customer AIAG has pre-determined and limited supporting Level 2 Warrant with product samples the general application. simple Customer has discretion to apply the specific application. reliability. Applied to: This level can only be applied with prior approval from the only designated divisional Cooper Quality PPAP representative. or performance.More on Level Application PPAP only and Appearance Approval Report Level 1 Warrant Standard is a Framework Standard as requested submitted to the customer. "non critical" raw/bulk material or catalog/ commodity parts for electrical applications and re-certification of existing parts previously approved by Cooper at levels 3. 4 or 5.
Supplier Checklist for PPAP Cooper has both a Supplier Checklist and a Internal Quick Reference .
When is notification of change required?
Suppliers are required to receive formal approval for changes.
Cooper has a formal document called the Supplier Change Request to be used by suppliers for ALL potential changes.
The SCR form allows for proper disposition of PPAP.
Must be approved by both Cooper purchasing and quality. Can also be used for supplier changes that are driven internally! Includes recommendations for the PPAP Level
Suppliers are required to notify Cooper of ANY intent to change!
When is notification of change required?
SCR defines the “type” of change that requires notifying Cooper
Completing the PPAP Submission
Each Cooper Division will determine how to apply “status” of a submission. Alternate Method: Send file(s) via email in PDF or Native Format. Submission must be received prior to the PPAP due date. date Recommendation: Review and Approval process will be managed by each Cooper division division. Preferred Method: Use a designated FTTP site for downloading. U of a paper or email submission must h Use f il b i i have prior approval b the authorized i l by h h i d SQ or Quality representative.Electronic Submission Requirements Cooper Industries requires that all PPAPs be submitted electronically. Cooper requires all submissions to be electronic .
Includes this training presentation.Cooper Industries PPAP Kit Cooper Industries has created a free “PPAP Kit” for suppliers Contains all of the forms required for submission Cooper can control the content of the requirement The forms can be given out without copyright concerns Some needs are not addressed on the AIAG forms. PPAP manual and the forms kit Two forms are mandatory for submission to Cooper Cooper PSW page Cooper Dimensional Data Page Supplier PPAP Forms PPAP KIT All other requirements can b met b using either: th i t be t by i ith The additional forms in the kit (Preferred Method) Forms consistent with AIAG guidelines PPAP Manual PPAP Training Presentation The Cooper PPAP Kit contains everything required for submission . Fully compliant with the AIAG 4th edition PPAP standard. g Includes instruction on the use of the forms through field comments.
Individual PPAP Elements The Requirements of a PPAP Submission .
Element 1 Part Submission Warrant Purpose: To document part approval p pp To provide key information To declare (warrant) that the parts meet specification All submissions must have a Cooper PSW Warrant Must be completely and accurately filled out Part numbers must be consistent with the Cooper PO S Suppliers are not authorized to send parts until warrant is signed by Cooper C Suppliers must not ship to a production PO without an approved warrant Can have email approval by a designated quality member The approved PSW officially warrants the parts ready for production .
Element 1 Part Submission Warrant .
rate and date of run The reviewer’s checklist is available for each element .E1 PSW Reviewer’s Checklist Must be completely filled out Must be signed by the supplier g y pp Part# must match the PO and SAP Submitted at the correct revision level Submitted at the correct submission level Specify the number of parts.
All submissions should have one copy of the formal print Bubble print that supports the dimensional report. Must have all notes and specifications circled and numbered. Any additional supporting information including Reference prints Sub-assembly prints Component prints with a different part number Applicable specifications pp p . Must be clear and legible.E2 Design Records and & Bubbled Part Prints Purpose: To document & provide a copy of the formal p p p py part print. All part prints must have clearly defined CTQ’s To provide any additional engineering records for reference.
E2 Bubble Print for Dimensional Report Supplier bullet numbers the print Print bubble number must correspond to the “Item” number on the Dimensional .
E2 Design Records and & Bubbled Part Prints Reviewer’s Checklist Must be a clean and legible “Bubble” print Must be correct Cooper Part # and Revision p Every requirement must have a separate bubble Dimensions Notes CTQ’s are identified Referenced specifications Verify that no other prints need to be submitted Sub-assemblies Component level detail .
ECN’s Specifications Feasibility studies Supplier Change Requests Emails Sub assembly drawings Life or reliability testing requirements This element is used when changes occur to the design documentation .E3 Approved Engineering Change Documentation Purpose: To provide any p p y pertinent change information for reference g This is a placeholder for all relevant information not covered in the p p p part print.
not pending. Answer: Then submit PPAP to REV B. Print change submissions must have current prints. Not REV A . not define them Emails cannot re-define a requirement in lieu of an upcoming print change. Mark up prints are not acceptable for PPAP. Example: I am submitting REV A even though a REV B print is coming because this email requested me to make the change. Supplier initiated changes must have approved Supplier Change Request (SCR) form in this section.E3 Approved Engineering Change Documentation Reviewer’s Checklist Cooper ECNs must be approved. Emails can only clarify requirements.
.E4 Customer Engineering Approvals Purpose: To demonstrate pre-approval by Cooper’s customers of a design p pp y p g Not currently required for Cooper PPAP Submissions.
E5 Design FMEA (DFMEA) DFMEA A DESIGN Failure Mode and Effects Analysis PFMEA PROCESS Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Click for AIAG Training Click for AIAG Manual AIAG FMEA .
DFMEA must follow AIAG FMEA guidelines Must use an AIAG compliant format (Cooper format preferred) Must incorporate all design CTQ characteristics. g Required only when the part is designed by the supplier.E5 Design FMEA (DFMEA) Purpose: To show evidence that potential failure modes and risk have been addressed at the design level. DFMEA can be proprietary and if there is a concern notify Quality. characteristics A single design FMEA can be applied to a family of parts. DFMEA highlights and reduces design risks .
E5 Design FMEA (DFMEA) EXAMPLE AIAG FMEA .
E5 Design FMEA (DFMEA) Template .
Document review by a team. Date should show release prior to print release.E5 Design FMEA (DFMEA) EXAMPLE Reviewer’s Checklist DFMEA is only required if designed by the supplier. Address all Critical to Quality (CTQ) characteristics Show evidence of an objective design evaluation. f t i / bl into id ti . Must take the technical/physical limits of the manufacturing/assembly process i t consideration. Severity. not a single engineer. Occurrence and Detection must be compliant with AIAG guidelines.
Process flows must include: The ti Th entire manufacturing process (receiving th f t i ( i i through shipping) h hi i ) All key steps in the process All offline activities (such as measurement. inspection and handling) Should identify areas containing nonconforming material Scrap.E6 Process Flow Diagrams Purpose: To document the entire manufacturing p g process for a p part To clarify the steps in manufacturing the part. defective and rework parts Process Flow can be provided in any format used within an organization Primary process steps must match both the Control plan and the PFMEA The process flow should clearly identify each step in the process .
E6 Process Flow Diagrams Examples .
E6 Process Flow Diagrams Reviewer’s Checklist Process Flow must identify each step in the process s Each Line item step in the flow numbered Match both PFMEA and Control Plan Should include abnormal handling processes Scrap Rework P Process Flow must include all phases of the process Fl i l d ll h f h Receiving of Raw Material Part Manufacturing Offline inspections and checks Shipping Assembly .
updated routinely & reviewed periodically .E7 Process FMEA (PFMEA) Purpose: To show evidence that failure mode and risk have been assessed at the Manufacturing Process level. Evidence that high RPNs are addressed with action! Should be performed internally. Should be performed for every part. g Can be on the AIAG format or internal format as long as it complies with the g p AIAG standard. Cooper has provided an excel format in the PPAP kit. piece of equipment or process involved in manufacturing.
E7 Process FMEA (PFMEA) Cooper PFMEA has “comments” that include important ranking information. .
E7 Process FMEA (PFMEA) Examples of PFMEA Mistakes Misapplication of Severity. Occurrence and Detection .
Occurrence and Detection .E7 Process FMEA (PFMEA) Examples of PFMEA Mistakes Misapplication of Severity.
E7 PFMEA Exercise In class exercise For PFMEA .
E7 Process FMEA (PFMEA Reviewer’s Checklist Address all Critical to Quality characteristics Verify there is a system for prioritizing risk of CTQ. failure such as top 25 or 33% of RPN numbers. Function Material concerns . Fit. Discourage suppliers from setting RPN thresholds Evidence of cross functional participation. Safety Form. Show evidence of an objective process evaluation. Make sure that action is being taken on higher RPN line sure & the critical failure modes are addressed Makeitems that allaction will actually have impact. carried over into the control plan. Occurrence and Detection must be compliant with sure guidelines and scored concerns are G MakeAIAG that high RPN process within reason. Arbitrary Scoring becomes biased Severity.
E& PFMEA Exercise In class exercise For PFMEA .
Redefining Severity. g g Allowing the PFMEA to turn into a design review. Misapplication of ranking scales. . Occurrence and Detection Over estimating the effectiveness of a “Recommended Action” g Applying thresholds. Not recognizing all p g g potential failures. Occurrence and Detection pp y. Failure to properly identify the customer.E7 Process FMEA (PFMEA) Examples of typical PFMEA Mistakes Misapplication of Severity. pp g Confusing Failure Modes with Effects or Failure Modes with Causes.
Control Plan should list all operations used in the process. Control Plans are critical for planning a robust process . process Control Plans must address and include all print CTQ’s. Can be on the Cooper supplied format or AIAG compliant. Suppliers should also include other details they know to be vital to the process.E8 Control Plan Purpose: A structured approach for the design. selection and implementation of control methods used in producing a part. All process must have a control plan that defines all methods used for process control and complies with customer-specified requirements.
Methods of production Identification of CTQ characteristics’ controls Secondary or outsourced operations Materials and their physical and chemical characteristics Types of process equipment at each operation Types of test equipment used to measure each characteristic S Specifications. control and reaction methods used ifi ti li t t t l d ti th d d Periodic conformance testing and product verification Control Plans address all key process steps . Its purpose is to communicate the supplier’s decisions during the entire manufacturing process from materials purchase through final packaging.C8 Control Plan .Goals A Control Plan defines the operations. methodologies. sampling strategy. processes. equipment. materials. and CTQs (as determined by Cooper and suppliers) integral to the manufacturing process. Specifically the control plan should address the following: Specifically.
E8 Cooper Control Plan .
What is your opinion of these Control Plans .
Directly represents the safety. or primary functional performance requirements by the end customer or business Requires verification of part conformance during first production. regulatory. Requires documented evidence of process control to maintain part conformance through the life of the product CTQ’s identify critical Cooper requirements .C8 Control Plans – What are CTQ’s? CTQ Characteristic: A critical PART requirement specified on a controlling document (typically an engineering drawing or specification) A critical PROCESS requirement identified by Customer or Supplier.
E8 Control Plan Click for AIAG Training g Click for AIAG Manual AIAG APQP (contains the Control Plan Methodology and concepts) .
E8 Cooper Control Plan Reviewer’s Checklist C t Controlrequires hi h t d all testing requirements i highest degree of scrutiny! f ti ! Controll Pl Good Plan Plans addresses Dimensional Must define a robust level of process control! Material Performance Address every Critical To Quality characteristic Address all product and process characteristics at Evaluation methods must ensure conformity. analysis of the process such as: Must address periodic performance testing SPC Inspection Periodicproofing Error Dimensional confirmation Sampling Plans. S ifi ti Specifications Tooling . every step throughout the process. Effective reaction plans that control the on an effective The “Control Method” should be based process. Performance testing Can and should reference other documentation Cannot be excessively dependent on visual inspection inspection.
Reduces the opportunity for passing a bad part & rejecting a good part .E9 Measurement System Analysis (MSA) Purpose: Measurement system analysis ( y y (MSA) is a mathematical method of ) determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to overall process variability. Importance: Ensures we are using the right measurement system for running production. There are two fundamental questions: Are we using the right gage? Are we using it correctly? Measurement variation can make our processes look worse then they really are with respect to capability.
g *Note: must have an action plan! . Minimum requirement for Cooper Suppliers are: Gage R&R study using Total Tolerance on each measurement tool tool. Cooper requires an analysis of the capability of ALL measurement tools identified in the Control Plan (in process and offline gages) Plan.E9 Measurement System Analysis (MSA) Detail on MSA is found in the AIAG manual (3rd Edition) which defines g guidelines for: Stability Bias Linearity Repeatability and Reproducibility. % R&R should be at 10% or less for CTQ’s Marginal gages (between 10% and 30%)* Gages with R&R at 30% or more cannot be used.
Ideal Process Target Inspector A 2 g 2 o Inspector B Inspector B . Referred to as Equipment Variation in a Gage R&R study. Reproducibility (Operator precision) The variation in the average of the measurements made by different operators using the same gage when measuring a characteristic on one part. Referred to as Operator Variation in a Gage R&R Study.E9 (MSA) Repeatability and Reproducibility Repeatability (Gage precision) The variation in measurements obtained with one gage when used several times by an operator while measuring the identical characteristic on the same part.
E9 (MSA) Gage R&R Study GRR is the combined estimate of measurement system Repeatability and Reproducibility Reproducibility. Typically we perform a 2 or 3 person study E h person randomly measures 10 marked parts per t i l Each d l k d t trial Each person can perform up to 3 trials Typically we look at three key indicators in the study EV or Equipment Variation AV or Appraiser Variation Overall % GRR (TV or Total Tolerance) .
E9 (MSA) Cooper Gage R&R Form .
E9 (MSA) Cooper Gage R&R Example .
the manufacturing processes should also GRRs IfGage R&R resultsgage. %EV andfunctional test Performs a %AV.01. . then ask questions % you question the must follow the approval Question must have corrective action > 30% the technique and part sampling Ask for additional studies Request Bias. the gage/inspection affects quality then GRR t d t that CTQ’s have a Gage R&R.001 Measures a CTQ Measures the part Must look at all of key process step study results Controls a the following GRR %GRR. less than 1 year Key gages & inspection p ocesses t at a e pa t o ey spect o processes that are part of Compare control plan gages against actualhave GRR. suppliers Stability Should encourageLinearity &to use Total Tolerance Make sure discrimination vs question on the need for a Consult quality if there is a tolerance makes sense. Rule: 1 level the answer is yes if the GRR.E9 (MSA) Reviewer’s Checklist IfAll gages and systems th t measure CTQ’ must GRR. GenerallyMORE than tolerance gage: Tolerance=. The gage should be . Make sure the study is recent .
E9 (MSA) Gage R&R Study Example In class exercise with Gage R&R .
The dimensional report must address all of the following: All dimensions All applicable notes that have variable dimensions (ex: tensile test) Any dimensions contained on reference prints. Cooper requires a full dimensional layout of the part on all PPAP submissions except level 1.E10 Dimensional Report Purpose: To show conformance to the customer part print on dimensions and all other noted requirements. Dimensional report must be submitted on Cooper’s report format. Tolerances that include bonus for Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GDT) The dimensional report is evidence of conformance to print .
E10 Dimensional Report .
make sure each requirement is callouts listed as a line item with tolerances: Example: 1. Hole diameter 2.True Position (MMC) Bonus! 3.E10 Dimensional Report Reviewer’s Checklist E Ensure “M th d” i on every measurement “Method” is t Identify all “methods” make sense for the dimension Make sure the dimensional report addresses all print requirements. Cylindricity Make sure you agree and question the dispositions. With GDT callouts. Make sure you understand what the CTQs are! .
(ex: NEMA. “Specifications” detailed on a print. Material Testing (ex: Material Composition Reports) Performance testing (ex: EOL and offline final test results) Life Test Results (ex: Summary of all life cycle testing performed on the part) Cooper requires results for all print requirements that require testing 1.E11 Material. Evidence of verification of Cooper’s test requirements . CSA or UL specifications) Cooper requires the following for all submissions: Material Confirmation in the form of lab data. Performance Test Results Broad category for the majority of all test results. “Notes” that specify a requirement (tensile strength) 2. P f Preferred is COA C tifi t of A l i di Certificate f Analysis Performance Testing (evidence of how the product performs).
E11 AIAG Forms for Material and Performance Cooper does not require any specific format for test results. Utilize in-house documents in house Utilize the AIAG forms Primary concern is that we get results that: y g Confirm the Material & Material Properties Demonstrate Performance Some Cooper part prints do not define testing requirements Consult with Engineering or Supplier Quality Verify that no known standard testing is required Make sure the need for a test plan has been evaluated .
E11 Examples of Material Test Results .
C11 Examples of Performance Test Results .
Performance Test Results Reviewer’s Checklist P f Performance should i h ld include confirming: d fi i Utilize this section to getl more information that could Any formal specification referenced become a significant quality issue at a later date. it should be a periodic check that is identified in the CP. Material results should be p compared Reference through a specification against a known g the part print and therefore. D not assume th t t result spec is correct. Any formal life testing Any specific functional test Most parts have some type of material requirement so make suppliers prove theyis not directly addressed via Sometimes performance have a system for checking.E11 Material. t d Referenced through Note test d Do t the lt i t Verify the correctrequirement (ex:ASTM xxxx) Implied through a specification Verify the composition breakdown The resource for performance and functionality is p y Verifying design engineering. standard. . Cooper composition is not JUST for PPAP. Always probe for the need to demonstrate performance if it is not on the print.
t t i t Required for all CTQ’s (Critical to Quality characteristics) If CTQ’s are not expressed. capability is still required! Require the supplier to recommend what is critical in their process Cooper Quality can review the print for key part characteristics Finalize through your Cooper Quality Representative. Process studies are typically measured with capability or performance Cp and Cpk are indices used to estimate potential process capability Pp and Ppk are indices used to measure actual process performance Capability studies are critical for verifying that processes are in control! .E12 Initial Process Study (Cpk/Ppk) Purpose: To determine if the production process is likely to produce product that ill th t will meet customer requirements.
E12 Initial Process Study (Cpk/Ppk) Subgroups is the preferred method of determining Cpk in most cases. Cooper has provided Forms for Capability Studies Cpk Form Ppk Form Cpk for moving ranges . Cpk by Moving Range t ti i l d t ti t t f i t C kb M i R can also be allowed.33 or higher as a default for all unspecified characteristics. Minimum is 25 subgroups Containing at least 100 readings Sampled consecutively from a “significant production run” If testing involves destructive tests of expensive parts.67 or higher on critical process characteristics 1. Capability is preferred as follows unless otherwise defined: 1.67 or higher on all print CTQs 1.
E12 Initial Process Study (Cpk/Ppk) – Forms in PPAP Kit CPK PPK Cpk moving range .
You are an existing supplier. manufacturing location.(include Cert’s of Analysis) Ppk indicates past performance. . Use Cpk when: Developing new parts. and have been found to have produced a number of nonconforming parts.E12 Initial Process Study – Cpk/Ppk indices Cpk predicts capability. i ifi tl h d Material suppliers have changed . but have already been manufacturing a part part. Materials. Use Ppk when: You are a new supplier to Cooper. processes. Revising specifications on a part. or equipment have significantly changed.
00 Cpk < 1.E12 Initial Process Study (Cp/Cpk) – Difference between indices Cp – are we capable of producing to specification. Not Centered .67 Cpk < 1. Not Centered Cp C < 1 00 1.00 Cpk < 0 LS L USL Not Capable. Centered Capable.67 Cp ≥ 1 67 1.00 LS L USL LS L USL Capable. Cpk – same as Cp but also measures how centered the process is! It is Important to look at both!! (Note same applies for Pp/Ppk) Cp ≥ 1 67 1. Centered LS L USL Not Capable.67 Cpk ≥ 1.00 Cp C < 1 00 1.
E12 Initial Process Study (Cpk/Ppk) – Good Process Process is capable! (Cp > 1. resembles “bell shaped curve” Disposition reflects “Accept” Centered Defects Defects LSL Lower Spec Limit USL Upper Spec Limit .67) t d” l t th t t (C k> 1 67) Distribution is normal.67) Process i “ P is “centered” close to the target (Cpk> 1.
Supplier will need to correct the process. Not Centered Defects Defects LSL Lower Spec Limit USL Upper Spec Limit .E12 Initial Process Study (Cpk/Ppk) – Bad Process Results are not centered Distribution is skewed or excessive with “tails” extending beyond specification limits y p Disposition reflects “Reject”.
Capability is required for all CTQ’s p y q Q Minimum Cpk.E12 Initial Process Study (Cpk/Ppk) Reviewer’s Checklist M k sure th results are acceptable. Ppk. p y Submissions with no capability are not acceptable! Every process has characteristics that are critical. is division specific Capability is often required on the process! Make sure there are no key “process” capabilities! PPAPs should not be approved (even Interim) if the capability on CTQ’s is less than 1. . process iis stable Make the lt t bl t bl and capable of producing a quality part.33. Challenge ourselves and suppliers to identify what is important and to approve they are capable.
References Process Control Systems Variation Process Control Process Capability Control Charting (Variables) Control Charting (Attributes) AIAG SPC Statistical Process Control .E12 Initial Process Study .
Labs needed to have “Scope” & “Documentation” with qualifications for: Measurements Specific testing If the Lab was “external” then they had to be identified! external The name of the Lab Reports had to be on company letterhead Date of the testing had to be identified g Standards used for testing had to be identified. ISO 9001 etc…) Verify that all testing is performed by accredited labs . Proof of accreditation (A2L. Element’s original intent: All data for the submission was produced by an accredited lab.E13 Qualified Lab Documentation Purpose: To demonstrate that the inspection and testing for PPAP has been p performed by a q y qualified lab.
If you are sending out for measurement and testing (EXTERNAL). Results must be on company letterhead and includes: The name of the Lab Date of testing Standards used for testing had to be identified.E13 Qualified Lab Documentation Recommendation for performing testing or measurement (INTERNAL). R Record/Scope th t id tifi th t ti t b d d/S that identifies the testing to be done and it must i l d d t include: List of your personnel’s competency and training to perform the testing List of all test equipment used in process and offline. y g g( ) Provide a copy of the lab company’s THIRD PARTY accreditation. List of methods and standards used to calibrate the equipment equipment. .
E13 Qualified Lab Documentation-Certification .
E13 Qualified Lab Documentation-Accreditation .
method.in process Accreditation: Minimum third party accreditation by: Either ISO 17025 or A2LA Note: Some Cooper Parts require UL Lab Scope: Make sure internal labs have a “System” defining what can be measured. Third t b that t for f material or dimensional should be accredited.E13 Qualified Lab Documentation Reviewer’s Checklist Thi d party llabs th t measure parts f performance. If any testing is p y g performed to measure or monitor p part quality they should have: Lab Scope – internal labs Evidence of Calibration. . training etc.
Appearance requirements should require limit samples to help distinguish acceptable versus unacceptable parts. Cooper requires AARs on a case by case basis .E14 Appearance Approval report Purpose: To verify appearance requirements as defined on the part print. Typically applies to: Class A surfaces Color definition Grain and texture requirements Surface appearance requirements All Appearance requirements should be defined on the part print.
E14 Appearance Approval report .
only accept this requirement if it is clearly defined on the print or in Cooper’s engineering documentation. Appearance Approval Report Specific testing to a known standard p g Defining limit samples Force actual sign off of the appearance approval. When receiving a submission. Color Texture Contrast Paint . th reviewer ifi ti i t f i t the i should use requirement for more ‘print” definition. This requirement should always be in reference to a designated specification.E14 Appearance Approval report Reviewer’s Checklist If no specification or print reference exists.
Minimum: Parts should be reviewed by both Quality and Engineering Ideally: Sample parts are used in a functional part qualification procedure Sample parts should be delivered WITH the PPAP submission.E15 Sample Parts Purpose: To provide actual samples that reflect the parts documented in the PPAP. Sample parts must reflect both the submission and actual production . Verify the MOLDED/STAMPED PART quantities required with each submission. Each Cooper Division should have a defined procedure for delivering & approving parts. submission 3 parts for every single cavity mold 1 part from each cavity on multi-cavity molds. Sample parts can be used to confirm cosmetic or functional part approval. Default quantity for all submissions is 3 parts unless requested otherwise.
Purchasing Representative. UL. etc Sample parts must be clearly tagged and identified . etc) where applicable Quantity of Sample (Indicate Partial Shipments) Procurement Contact.E15 Sample Parts Sample parts MUST be properly identified by: T Tagging each part in accordance with PPAP reference manual i h ti d ith f l Identifying the part as a PPAP Sample Part Include key information on the part label Date of Manufacture Cooper Part Number Revision Level Supplier Name Name of Product (Optional) Product Serial and Batch Number (Required if applicable) Supplier Part and Type (Optional) Approval markings (CL.
E15 Division Process for Submitting Sample Parts Sample parts .
The t ti i d t l d this i t in i Cooper does not require Master Part maintenance except when: A Level 5 PPAP is requested requested. Master samples aid in referencing revision differences . Typically a high risk part The critically of the product warranted on site review Therefore Master Part maintenance is a useful tool Cooper requires Master Part maintenance as follows: 1 Master part for every part number at the most recent revision level. Th automotive industry relaxed thi requirement i various ways. Concept is good but difficult to maintain and store parts.E16 Master Sample Purpose: The original intent was that a “Master” part must be maintained throughout a products production life for all revision levels. p Must be maintained for the life of the product.
E15 Sample Parts & E16 Master Sample Reviewer’s Checklist S Sample P t should b received with every PPAP l Parts h ld be i d ith submission and examined thoroughly. Reviewer needs to determine if any value added y analysis can be gained using the Sample Parts: Get additional dimensional data Feedback and questions from engineering Perform additional testing Functional analysis Fit Analysis Sample Parts must be properly tagged. . if not reject! If Master samples are requested make sure the supplier has a system for maintaining the parts parts.
Copy of a controlled print that documents the design of the checking aid If the aid confirms form or fit. Example: Gage R&R Checking aids must be verifiable to be successful! .E17 Checking Aids Purpose: To provide evidence that the checking aids used to verify product exist and have been properly validated. Certified Check Fixtures Un-certified check fixtures Templates Custom Gauges In-house developed test stands (ex: leak test) Cooper requires the following for all checking aids. p p y There are many different types of checking aids. then there should be a third party certification Evidence that the checking aid has been verified successful.
. Check Fixtures Templates Assembly fixtures that confirm fit Checking aids must have evidence of: Conformance to the provided print Repeatability GRR for CTQ features Encourage suppliers that utilize critical checking aids to get third party certification.E17 Checking Aids Reviewer’s Checklist If a fixture is used to check physicall print di fi t i dt h k h i i t dimensions i either in process or off line then it is a checking aid. Checking aids must be documented through a p and g g print submitted with PPAP.
Used differently by every customer for all types of requirements! Cooper Industries has 5 specific requirements defined for PPAP submissions.C18 Customer Specific Requirements Purpose: Provide a placeholder for all customer specific requirements that are not covered in the first 17 elements of PPAP PPAP. Cooper has specific customer requirements for every submission . Tooling Information Form Packaging Form g g Inspection Plan Specification Deviation Form Supplier PPAP Checklist Each Division may request additional documents on a case by case basis.
E18A Tooling Information Form Purpose: Document important information on all Cooper owned tools. Applies only to Cooper owned tools and is mandatory. Each division tracks their tooling differently and has different requirements for: g y q Identification and labeling Recording reference numbers. Tooling Information form documents critical information including: New or Modified Tooling Cost Information Dimensional I f Di i l Information ti Capacity Information Life Expectancy Location of the Tool Cooper requires tooling documentation on most submissions .
Tooling Information form documents critical information including: New or Modified Tooling Cost Information Dimensional I f Di i l Information ti Capacity Information Life Expectancy Location of the Tool . Applies only to Cooper owned tools and is mandatory.E18A Tooling Information Form Purpose: Document important information on all Cooper owned tools. g y q Each division tracks their tooling differently and has different requirements for: Identification and labeling Recording reference numbers.
E18B Packaging Form Purpose: Approve the packaging method and material for supplied product. dunnage and packing material f th t t t i d d ki t i l The final packaged product load delivered to Cooper with correct labeling. pp q provide p packaging to Cooper facilities that: g g p Suppliers are required to p Meet all facility related requirements Ensures the prevention of shipping and handling defects Addresses any Hazmat related concern Packaging Information Form must be completely filled out and documents: Weight and Dimensions of the finished part packaging Pi t Pictures of the part. Applies to all parts for all divisions. part container. Cooper requires verification of internal and external packaging .
E18B Packaging Form .
C18c Inspection Plan IQC Inspection plans are required only for ASC/CES submissions .
Specification Deviation will by default only allow for Interim Approval. Specification Deviations are not to be used for any purpose other than PPAP non-conformances and does not replace “temporary deviation requests” Used for documenting permission to use non-conforming product . Must recommend a specific deviation and requires an interim action plan plan.C18d Specification Deviation Form Purpose: To request deviation on any requirement that is non-conforming and requires review by Cooper to provide for approval of the PPAP submission submission. Used to document specific non-conformances that could require exception! Defines difference between actual and observed results.
Should be included with your submission with a minimum of E h requirement verified ( h k d ff) Each i t ifi d (checked-off) Should document any concerns or questions.C18e Supplier PPAP Checklist Purpose: To document and organize your PPAP submission. Can be used to assist with organizing internal assignments Assists with ensuring that every requirement is in the submission Verification check-off of each line item PPAP requirement. Verifies that you have confirmed each requirement for the level requested Alerts Cooper to any issues or concerns that you have with a requirement. Supplier Checklist documents what has been submitted and all concerns .
C18 Customer Specific Requirements Reviewer’s Checklist M t be present if required b L l Must b t i d by Level Must be completely filled out and include pictures! Must be signed if required. Should be confirmed during on-site reviews! .
Dimensional Results 11. Master Sample 17. Qualified Laboratory Documentation 14. Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) 10. Design Records 5 DFMEA Critical Systems Requirements CTQs More Robust Design Robust Process Develop Process Control Confirm Measurement 7. . Design Records 3. Process Flow Diagram 7.Conclusion on Training Presentation Cooper Requirements 1. 12 Cooper Specific Customer Requirements Submit PPAP is the process for ensuring total part conformance. Cooper-Specific Requirements Tooling information Form Packaging Form Inspection Plan (ASC Only) Specification Deviation Supplier PPAP Worksheet Element Links 2. 8 Control Plan 9. Initial Process Study Verify and improve capability 12. Sample Product 16. Engineering Change Documents 4. Performance Results 12. Part Submission Warrant (PSW) 2. PFMEA 8. MSA 12. Control Plan 9. PFMEA 8. Appearance Approval Report (AAR) 15. Material. Checking Aids 18. Customer Engineering Approval 5 DFMEA 6. Initial Process Study 13.
Rolling Out PPAP Discussion for Successful Implementation! .
When do the new requirements take effect! ! .
Rejected: When a submission has been reviewed and determined to be either nonconforming or does not reflect the latest revision.Formal PPAP Dispositions Approved: When a submission is completely through review and approved for use in mass production (Should be mass production release!) production. PPAPs can have unique division dispositions but these are universal! ! . Interim can only be granted 3 times Each Interim Approval cannot exceed 60 days. Interim Approval: Interim PPAP can be allowed on a limited basis as long as the following criteria is met. The part is saleable to the customer in its current state The part has a plan of action detailed on a specification deviation form Interim PPAPs must be controlled with the following conditions.
Division PPAP Review and Approval Process ! .
New product design for the business New Suppliers Significant changes in design Suppliers. . Change Management Submissions – Application based on “Type of Change” Develop a Process for reviewing and assessing all changes Supplier Related Changes ECN related Changes Tier PPAP requirements based on overall risk and value to the business In order to manage the risk we need to effectively manage resources Maximize the value PPAP can bring to Cooper Mi i i th i Minimize the impact of poorly d t f l developed and unapproved product l d d d d t Each division should develop a process and a plan to ensure value.Recommendations – Application Priority New Product Design Submissions – Full level 3 PPAP Submission New Technology.
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