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GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS ALONG THE SINDH COAST WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KARACHI COAST
Asif Inam, *Mohammad Moazzam Rabbani, *Khalid Mehmood, *Syed Mozzam Ali, * Syed Mohsin Tabrez, *Mohammad Danish,** Shamim Ahmed Sheikh
National Institute of Oceanography, ST. 47 Clifton Block 1, Karachi. firstname.lastname@example.org ** Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi
The coastal zone of Indus Delta is under stress from progressively reduced inputs of nutrients, sediments and freshwater because of reduced Indus River discharge. This situation has resulted in increased ground water salinity and sea water intrusion into the deltaic areas of Sindh. Karachi, situated on the Sindh coast of Pakistan, is one of the largest cities in the world in terms of both population as well as size. Sindh coast is exposed to natural hazards like cyclone, tsunami, and earthquake. The subsidence of the Indus Delta due to sediment starvation could possibly increase the over all impact of sea level rise. It has already been resulted in the sea water intrusion upstream of the delta. The regional tectonics, beach morphology and slope indicate that possibility of development of several meter high tsunami wave exist along the Pakistan coast. Continuous interplate movement at the triple junction in the northern Arabian Sea, presence of active onshore and offshore faults, subduction of the oceanic plate offshore Makran coast, and history of devastating earthquakes in the Rann of Kutch indicates that the coastal belt is susceptible to earthquake of moderate to high intensity. The data and information presented in the paper indicates that the coastal belt may experience severe damage by earthquake due to ground motion amplification and liquefaction. Key words Tectonic plates, triple junction, tsunami, Indus Delta, seismicity, liquefaction, ground motion amplification .
On a global scale, humans have become the major cause of a rapidly changing marine environment. This will have far-reaching implications for the future of this environment. Karachi, the largest city of Pakistan, is situated along the coastline in close proximity of Indus Delta. The NW-SE oriented coastline of Karachi, situated between the Cape Monze and the Phitti Creek along Bundal Island, is about 70 km long. On the west, it is bounded by the Hub River and on the east by the mangrove swamps and creeks of the Indus Delta. The coastal zone of Indus Delta is under stress from
progressively reduced inputs of nutrients, sediments and freshwater because of reduced Indus River discharge. This situation has resulted in increased ground water salinity and seawater intrusion into the deltaic areas of Sindh. Consequently, the Indus estuary areas in most part of Indus Delta have shrunk considerably (Amjad et al., 2004). Recent data showed that a cyclonic event in 1999 had a negative impact on the Left Bank Out fall Drain (LBOD), a man made drainage system on the left bank of Indus River. Breaches have occurred in the tidal link, resulting in major geomorphic and ecological changes due to sea water intrusion (Inam
. The Indus Delta receives the highest deep water wave energy of all deltas globally as it receives in a day as much wave energy as the Mississippi coast in a year (Wells & Coleman.. Associated changes in the prevailing physical processes in turn will have a negative influence on coastal resources.3°. The long fetches have resulted flooding in association with swells generated by the storms and monsoon depressions in the south of Pakistan coastline. is 1. To date almost all cyclones developed in the Indian Ocean or north Arabian Sea have moved towards northwest or northeast direction hitting the Arabian Peninsula or India-Pakistan coast. The once tide dominated Indus Delta is now rapidly changing to wave dominated delta mainly due to human induced sediment deprivation (Inam et al. at the rate of several m/year (Haq. experience in other deltas of the world indicate that subsidence rates here must have increased due to lack of sediment flux and the subsidence rate is probably between 2 and 4 mm/year. Since the rising rates of sea level at Karachi within the global range of 1. The proximity of Karachi to the Indus Delta exposes it (to the variable extent) to the processes and forces in action on the delta and creek system. 2005). in the next 50 years the sea level rise along the Pakistan Coast will be 50 mm (5 cm). this rate of rise in sea level would significantly change if the expected subsidence of land were added into it. 2004). the trend may be treated as eustatic sea level rise (Khan and Rabbani. The accelerated hydrodynamic changes have occurred probably due to deepening and widening of the approach channels of Port Bin Qasim resulting in destabilisation of sediments in older Indus Delta (Inam et al. However.530 square kilometers.2° and 0. All geological and geophysical data presented here was collected by NIO during its various research projects. If the present trend of sea level rise (SLR) at Karachi continues. It's coastline in the east is linked with creeks. and socioeconomy of the area (Inam et al.1° (Giosan et al.. The recorded sea level rise at Karachi and adjoining Indus Deltaic area. ecosystems. 2004). 1997). The shelf off the Indus Delta is very flat. industries. Indus Delta could experience a relative rise of sea level of up to 8 to 10 mm/year. .2 mm/year. Towards the west is Cape Monze. Cyclones and storm surges in the Arabian Sea usually develop in the inter-monsoon period in the southern part of Arabian Sea. The basic purpose is to develop awareness in the scientific community as well as to all concerned.. There are no direct measurements available on subsidence rates in the Indus Delta. 2004). 1999). 2004). MATERIAL AND METHOD Area of Study Karachi is the hub of major industrial/commercial activities and the most populous city of Pakistan. whereas the shelf gradient offshore the delta front was typically less than 0. The city expands over an area of approximately 3. 1996). 2007). based on the data for the past 100 years.1 mm/year and it is expected to be more than double during the next 50 to 100 years. Man made changes coupled with natural physical forcing in the Indus Delta and adjoining area will conspicuously change the geomorphic and hydrodynamic setting of the delta.. Ground investigation and the interpretation of satellite imageries indicate momentous erosion of coastal islands in the vicinity of Indus Delta (Inam et al. 2006). an area marked with projecting sea cliffs and rocky sandstone promontories . 1984). Between 100-m water depth and the shelf break (135 m). At this pace. Discussion about the mechanism of natural and man made hazard to Karachi is beyond the scope of this paper. infrastructures. it has a gradient of only 2-3 m/km (von Rad & Tahir. The Clifton beach is located at the south eastern shore line of Karachi Metropolis. resulting in 20-50 cm rise in sea level (ESCAP. The aim of this paper is to have a holistic assessment of geological and oceanographic setup that may have a potential to trigger a natural disaster. If one adds the projected rate of global component of sea-level rise of up to 6 mm/year in the next century. the inundation of the delta could be rapid. The delta front slope ranged between 0. that extend up to the Indus Delta covering the most extensive and ecologically sensitive area of Pakistan coast. Geological hazards along the Sindh Coast 38 et al..Inam et al..
Pakistan Journal of Oceanography. Subsequently NIO obtained the data through the Directorate General of Petroleum Concession. 0. The sub-bottom data was recorded in analogue form on a three channel Dowty 200/138 Thermal Graphic Recorder. and pan). The procedure adopted for pretreatment and dispersion of samples was in accordance with British Standard 1377 (British Standard Institution.5 mm. Due to shallow water depths and better . UK in 1998 by 2D seismic vessel S/V Western Wave. The data was interpreted for this study on SeisVision® for the determination and marking of faults in offshore sediments of the Arabian Sea off Karachi. Grain Size Analyses A total of 14 stations were selected during January December 2006 for the sediment sampling from the coastal area of Karachi (Fig 1). Seismic data analyses 2D multi-channel seismic data collected from the Karachi offshore area by Lasmo Oil. Sample retained on the 63 m (0. 2007 39 Fig. Subbottom Profiling GeoAcoustics (ORE) sub-bottom profiling system Model #132B was used to obtain bottom/subbottom information (NIO. Volume 3(1):37-52 . Government of Pakistan (DGPC) for research purpose. 0.125 mm. 0.063 mm) sieve to separate sand fraction from the total sample using distilled water. 1975).25 mm. 1. Locations of sampling stations along Karachi coast and adjoining area. 1995). Sidescan Sonar GeoAcoustics (ORE) Side Scan Sonar Model #1500 was used. Pretreated samples were sieved through a 63 m (0.063 mm) sieve was dried and sieved through a set of sieves (1. The filters were set at 2 kHz to 5 kHz with variable gain settings.0mm.
7 0. 2007). the side scan sonar records reveal a smooth and feature less sea bed along the Clifton beach.125 0. Bathy-500MF Survey Echo Sounder The Bathy-500MF survey single beam Echo Sounder was used for the data acquisition (NIO.25 0.. flat. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sample # Pacha Buleji Sandspit Low water Sandspit High water Hawks Bay Manora Entrance Ch. fine sand as indicated by the Side Scan Sonar record collected earlier by NIO scientists (Fig.12 0. In general. 2).e. 5).125 0. 3).13 0. a total swath of 150 m along the track (NIO.11 0. the Clifton beach is relatively gentle however.31 1. The faults in SW directions are relatively shallow and may apparently indicate that the area may be tectonically active. RESULTS The beach and near shore sediments along Karachi coast are very fine to coarse sandy in nature (Table 1). The beach gradient at Hawks Bay is relatively steeper as compare to the Clifton beach.20 0. 1996).21 0. Many active reverse faults observed due to stress development from SW to NE direction. The median grain size of Hawks Bay and adjoining Buleji and Pacha is classified as very fine sand (Table 1). Breakwater wall Clifton Beach Near NIO Clifton Beach near Bilawal Clifton Beach at Casino Clifton Beach at Sea View Golf Club Bundal High water Line Bundal Low water line D50 0. 5 & 6). the range setting was kept 75 m per channel i.13 0. 2D multi-channel seismic (MCS) lines acquired by the oil & gas industry from the area offshore Karachi are used for the mapping of faults (Fig. The Clifton beach and coastal/offshore area is composed of low gradient. The sediment samples obtained from the Hawks Bay area are moderately sorted and of different colour and composition mainly due to the absence of mica.35 0. The southern end of the 2D MCS line that runs perpendicular to the Karachi coast is important not only due to its proximity with Karachi but also to the junction area of the three tectonic plates (Fig. there is sudden change in the beach gradient off Korangi Creek as depicted by the 3. and homogenous Table 1. The beach and bottom material near Clifton is predominantly composed of micaceous very well sorted medium to fine sand (Table 1).63 0.Inam et al.5 kHz subbottom acoustic profiler (Fig. In this study. 4). Percentile Values of D50 in mm (on Probability Scale). Geological hazards along the Sindh Coast 40 image. The sea floor topography in the Hawks Bay area is irregular and rugged as depicted by the echogram painted by the single beam digital echosounder (Fig.12 Wentworth Size Class Very fine sand Very fine sand Very fine sand Fine sand Fine sand Medium Sand Very coarse sand Very fine sand Very Fine sand Medium sand Coarse sand Very fine sand Medium sand Very fine sand . On the other hand. S.
Fig. Volume 3(1):37-52 . 2007 41 Fig. Rugged seafloor off Hawks Bay area. Side scan sonar image of Clifton Beach indicates formation of sand bars. .Pakistan Journal of Oceanography. 3. 2.
Pakistan is heavily dependent on the groundwater for domestic. The land subsidence in the Indus Delta could also possibly affect coastal area of Karachi. Indian. agricultural. 3. The coastal geology along the Clifton beach is dominated by Quarternary beach sand deposit bordering to the Quarternary sand bar deposits.. DISCUSSION Based on the data and information collected by the National Institute of Oceanography from Karachi coast over the years.Inam et al. 1994. 2006). 2001). 2006). the strata of Oligocene-Miocene age are folded into an asymmetrical anticline plunging towards southwest (Raza. 4. 2007). 6) . Chung and Gao. West of Manora the coast is composed of Quarternary beach sand deposit bordering to the mangrove swamp deposit (Quraishi et al. The situation could become even worst due to uncontrolled ground water extraction in Karachi and adjoining costal areas of Sindh.000 cubic meters per capita in 1951 to about 1. Water availability on a per capita basis has been declining at an alarming rate. an effort is being made here to assess the risk to Karachi coastal area from the natural hazards. Uncontrolled extraction of groundwater and extended dry periods has also caused its depletion and drying up of some of the ground water sources. which is just above the internationally recognized scarcity rate. Chung. and Eurasian plates. 1993. 1995).5 kHz profile off Korangi Creek shows noticeable change in gradient. structurally.100 cubic metes currently. Miocene outcrops in the area are present in the form of isolated hills of low relief. very different from that at the time of rifting. The 2D MCS line that runs parallel to Karachi coast and Indus Delta also shows reverse faults indicating the area is being exposed to compressional forces (Fig. Karachi is located approximately 150 km east of the triple junction between the Arabian. 2004). It has been decreased from about 5. A study in Kirther shows that the water table has dropped by 3 meters per year on average (WWF. Historical records show that the Malir valley was once known for its richness in arable land and water resources. There were 30 12 .. The collision of Indian plate with Eurasian plate has initiated a compressional stress regime in a northwesterly direction. The area in the west and northwest of Karachi is limited by Kirther Fold Belt and the Pab Range. Geological hazards along the Sindh Coast 42 Fig. and the reactivation of these normal faults in a reverse sense is established (Khattri. and even industrial consumption. It is projected that water availability will be less than 700 cubic meters per capita by 2025 (Pak-SCEA. The western and north-trending arms of the triple junction sustain convergent and transcurrent rates of 28-33 mm/yr respectively (Apel et al.
2007 13 2D multi-channel seismic section almost perpendicular to Karachi coast. 5. 43 . Fig. Volume 3(1):37-52 . Several faults are noticeable in the figure (data courtesy DGPC). The vertical axes show two-way travel time (twt) in mili-seconds.Pakistan Journal of Oceanography.
The vertical axes show two-way travel time (twt) in mili-seconds. 6.. 44 . The section has several small and large faults in close proximity of Karachi (data courtesy DGPC).Inam et al. Geological hazards along the Sindh Coast 14 2D multichannel seismic section almost parallel to the Karachi coast seen in the inset. Fig.
Sonmiani Fault. The fall of the water table due to ground water extraction may lead to ground subsidence as it is being observed in many places around the world.. 1999). Bilham et al.. and the authorities are now trying to correct it by injecting water into the aquifers. and Allah Bund Fault in the list of faults. The water table in the Malir Valley has gone down from 60-70 ft (in the 1960s) to 300-700 ft (UN. 2007 also included Chaman Fault. 2005). 2005). The old city of Shanghai sank almost 2 meters in the period 1921-65 (Endersbee. and Rann of Kutch Fault. Shanghai started pumping groundwater for the city water supply in 1860. Volume 3(1):37-52 . 2000. 1998). Surjan. It is reported that Shanghai has suffered economic losses estimated at $35 billion in the past 40 years due to destructive flooding and tidal effects caused by subsidence. Such ground subsidence in densely populated cities has caused great economic losses. Loya et al. An extreme level of wave energy and little or no sediment contribution from the Indus River is transforming the Indus Delta into a true wave dominated delta and development of sandy beaches and sand dunes along the former deltaic coastline is underway. This fault has produced a major earthquake and destroyed Bhanbhor in the 13th century (Pararas-Carayannis. Hyderabad and Badin districts (Panwar. 1999.. Subsidence is continuing. Sindh's Irrigation and Power Department (IPD) has revealed that seawater intrusion has resulted in tidal infringement over 1. mainly caused by groundwater extraction (Endersbee. Pakistan Steel Mills. This is mainly due to the intense monsoonal winds. 1998. Hab and the Pab faults are thought to be active. 2001. The Allah Bund is a major fault that traverses Shahbundar. which produce high energy levels. Jhimpir. The seismicity around Karachi is generally moderate to low. 2006). 2000 described three major faults in the area as Pab Fault.ending near Cape Monze (Pararas-Carayannis... Lakhni. and Jakarta (Schmidt et al.. 1999). however. Hab Fault. 1997). 2007) and offshore (Fig. 2007 45 wells dug by the Karachi Municipal Board at Dumloti in Malir to supply potable water to Karachi. 1988). 2003).. Apparently. and continues to the eastern parts of Karachi . the area around Karachi is susceptible to earthquake of moderate to high intensity as several faults are present both onshore (Loya et al. 5 & 6). (1991) identified a possibly active surface scarp on the Korangi fault on the eastern outskirts of Karachi. Nakata et al. Another major earthquake in 1896 was responsible for extensive damage in Shahbundar (Pararas-Carayannis. 2006). with measured subsidence reaching more than 9 meters in some areas of the city. 2007). Calcutta (Choudhury et al. ground water extraction during 1960-1994 increased average relative sea-level rise by 17 mm yr-1 (Sabhasri and Suwarnarat. 2007).. 1996). Similar severe land subsidence has been experienced in the Old Huange and Changjiang deltas of China (Chen. Suzhou City.at places extending up to 80 km in the coastal areas of Thatta. The water temperature at Manghopir and Karsaz hot spring was reported to be 50°C and 39°C respectively (Todaka et al . No published or unpublished literature is available about the monitoring of ground subsidence in the coastal belt of Karachi. 1984). In the Bangkok area of the Chao Phraya Delta.2 million acres of land in the Indus Delta (Inam et al. Ornach-Nal Fault. Korangi Fault. which suffer from severe ground settlement (Chen et al. located at the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in southeastern Jiangsu Province. One of the hot water springs is situated near Manghopir and the other near Karsaz (Zaigham. 2005). Immediate measures need to be taken to determine the present ground level and that has to be monitored on a regular basis... Ground subsidence in the Indus Delta has already been resulted in the sea water intrusion upstream of the delta . the . The presence of two hot springs in Karachi that give out water laced with chemicals like sulphur strongly suggests the presence of active faults in Karachi.. although neither slip-rate estimates nor local earthquake recordings are available for either of them (Bilham et al. as well as presenting a hazard to buildings and people.. The subsidence observed in Mexico City is one of the most studied cases. Subsidence has also been reported in Bangkok (Ramnarong. Quraishi et al. Bilham et al. 2007). 2006). Inam et al. Chen and Stanley. 2006). The Indus Delta is subjected to the highest average wave energy of any major delta in the world (Wells and Coleman. is one of the few cities in China.Pakistan Journal of Oceanography. Nagar Parkar Fault.
2006). 2000. the city with the population of more than 17 million has to date not experienced any damaging earthquakes in the past 150 years.. abnormal or unequal settlement. Liquefaction in water saturated soils in the Indus Delta is not a new phenomenon as a severe earthquake. Liquefaction takes place when seismic shear waves pass through a saturated granular soil layer. Bilham et al. Geological hazards along the Sindh Coast 46 compressional movements along the active faults provide paths for the deep circulation of water and thus raising their temperature (Demirel. 2000 interpreted the minor earthquake (< 4 M) of 1998 in Karachi that was only felt in the coastal belt of Karachi and concluded that the reason for this was the presence of significant land fills and weak unconsolidated soil deposits in the area. 2007). Because of liquefaction. The geology of the coastal areas of Karachi as depicted in Table 1 indicates that the ground motion amplification and liquefaction factor may have a critical role in case of any earthquake with an epicenter closer to Karachi. where it intersects another system of faults associated with a major tectonic boundary (Jones & Johnson. to the east of Kutch. During longer shaking of loose saturated sand deposit. or complete loss of shear strength of soil (Loya et al. Kumar. Stein et al. Tsang et al. The ground may fail due to fissures. fine grain sands and silts behave as viscous fluids rather than solids. young. Earthquake-induced liquefaction can significantly affect the amount of structural damage incurred during a seismic event (Moffat. 2007). No reliable information about the impact of the earthquake of 1819 on Karachi is available but the earthquake of 2001. Water saturated soils compound the problem due to their susceptibility to liquefaction and corresponding loss of bearing strength (Moffat. water saturated soils. which is located near the Clifton beach. Loosely consolidated soils tend to amplify shaking and increase structural damage.. 2001. 2001. A loose saturated sand deposit when subjected to vibration (or cyclic loading) tends to compact and decrease in volume. 2006. Just 200 km southeast of Karachi. 2001. etc. If pore space water pressure increases to the point where the soil's shear strength can no longer support the weight of the overlying soil. Loya et al. 2002)... subduction zone and the number of known active faults (Bilham et al. 2007).. One of the major causes of destruction during an earthquake is the failure of the ground surface. the Rann of Kutch system has produced two massive earthquakes of 7. the hazard of major and destructive earthquakes can not be ruled out in Karachi due to its proximity to the junction of the three major plates. 2007). 1998. Tsang et al. then the soil will 16 . The ground motion amplification due to the unconsolidated sediments was believed to be the major cause of destruction during the Bhuj earthquake of 2001 (Humar et al..Inam et al. Scientists working in NIO laboratory. 2007). soft. The most intense damage was confined to areas where buildings and other structures were situated on top of loosely consolidated. with an epicenter about 371 km west in Bhuj. Kumar. 1998. jolted Karachi. Kumar.. 1998). 2004)..000 houses reportedly sunk into the ground (Oldham 1883). Rann of Kutch system concealed under the loose sediments of the Indus Delta appears to continue to the west.. et al. Liquefaction is a physical process that takes place during some earthquakes that may lead to ground failure. However. 2007). houses.. passing through the metropolitan area of Karachi and extending into the Arabian Sea. with important consequences for the city of Karachi as M>7 earthquake within 50 km of Karachi cannot be excluded (Bilham et al. occurred in 1668 in which 15. Humar et al. buildings.. roads. The ground movement or shaking can be locally amplified by unconsolidated sediments or artificial land fills that may result more damage as compare to the areas having compact and hard ground (Loya et al. 2001). felt a shock wave passed through the floor of their rooms. the ground loses its complete shearing strength and results in settlement and tilting of structures (Khan. and cause some of its pore spaces to collapse (USDI. distort its granular structure.7 Mw in 1819 and 2001 (Bilham et al. and decreases the soil's shear strength (Raaijmakers 2005). 2006.. watersaturated. The collapse of the granular structure increases pore space water pressure. Despite the fact that several faults are present both onshore and offshore Karachi.. 2007. 2000.. well sorted. Humar et al. It is likely that the Indus Delta and Kutch rift zones could host several ruptures contiguous with the 1819 event. 2007).
The situation described above may become more vulnerable by continued anthropogenic interference to the natural defence system which. Hussain. The presence of medium to fine sand and silt in the coastal belt (Table 1) and the saturation of subsurface soil with the saline water make the area along the Karachi coast highly susceptible not only to the ground motion amplification but also to liquefaction during the earthquake of moderate to high intensity (Loya et al. Bilham. The Hawks Bay site of the coast is expected to face less destruction as compare to the Clifton beach and adjoining areas. Volume 3(1):37-52 . the degree of their hazard assessment is different. 2006.Pakistan Journal of Oceanography..g. One of the two natural defence systems is the barrier islands between Korangi and Phitti Creeks. 2006. 2001. 2006. 2 & 4). An interesting observation was made during the construction of road along the Clifton beach. water saturated. However.. Bilham et al. The above discussion clearly indicates the hazards Karachi may have to face in future. 1998. well sorted fine sands are susceptible to liquefaction (USDI. 3). slope gradient. 2008).. Maqsi. presence of active faults. Rasheed et al. Raaijmakers 2005). Pararas-Carayannis. These tremors were due to the amplification of low intensity seismic waves produced by the Road Rollers while crushing stones to a desired level. Loose. 3 & 4. 2007). 2007). The beach morphology and slope along the Clifton indicate that possibility of development of several meter high tsunami wave exist along the Karachi coast (Fig. Without indulging in any debate on this issue. 5 & 6). 2000. to date. The beach slope in the Hawks Bay area is also indicative of providing momentum to the approaching water mass created by a tsunami. and history of devastating earthquakes in the Rann of Kutch indicate that the area around Karachi is susceptible to earthquake of moderate to high intensity. 2007. was able to protect Karachi's coastal area from direct impact of cyclones and storms. the review of the literature in this regard shows that the information provided is without any scientific evidence or proof. 2006. Jones & Johnson. Cyclones or tsunami may have different impact on different parts of the Karachi coast. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Professor Sarosh Lodi. In the absence of this line of natural defence. 5 & 6) or any seismic activity in and around the triple junction may generate tsunami. Mahar & Nayar. the rocky and rugged topography along the Hawks Bay may diminish the destructiveness of the waves (Fig. The history of tsunami affecting the Karachi coast has been discussed by various authors (e. 2007 47 flow like a liquid and cause extensive surface damage. The barrier island is facing sediment starvation due to upstream damming of the Indus River (Inam et al. Chairman Civil Engineering Department. The installations constructed on the unconsolidated/ uncompacted sediments need to be artificially reinforced where ever possible. The other natural system is provided by the beach sands along the coast. 2007). and shallow water topography of Karachi coast as discussed earlier and depicted in Fig. Qureshi. 1998. cyclones and possibly to tsunami. NED University. Karachi is gratefully acknowledged for his detailed discussions and technical input on the seismic . The presence of medium to fine sand and silt in the coastal belt and the saturation of subsurface soil with the saline water make the area along the Karachi coast highly susceptible not only to the ground motion amplification but also to liquefaction during the earthquake of moderate to high intensity. The earthquake was only felt in the coastal belt. It is here concluded that continuous inter-plate movement at the triple junction offshore Karachi. However. Though there is an agreement about the potential of tsunami hitting the Karachi coast. The residents along that road felt tremors in their apartments while the road rollers were in operation. Karachi would be exposed to storm surges.. The situation may be even worst as evident by an incident that happened just 300 meters from the Clifton beach as in September 2006 a 80 feet high water tank in DHA Karachi. the emphasis here would entirely be based on the offshore faults (Fig. vertically submerged 70 feet into the ground during a very low intensity earthquake.. Any vertical displacement along the surface/subsurface faults offshore Karachi (Fig. An investigation in this context revealed that liquefaction induced by local seismic activity resulted in the submergence of the tank structure (Mahmud & Sheikh.
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