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Topic: Non-vascular Plants

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Explain why the oldest fossils of plants like spores, tracheids and cuticles were preserved while other parts were not. (604) The oldest fossils of plants like spores, tracheid and cuticle were preserved while other parts were not because these are the derived traits that relate to terrestrial life that evolved within many of the plant species. The plants moved from aquatic life to terrestrial. For instance, the trait, cuticle, helps prevent excessive water loss from the above-ground plant organs.

2. Why did plants but not algae evolve (a) cuticle, (b) stomata, (c) lignin, (d) xylem, (e) roots? Plants evolved cuticle, stomata, lignin, xylem and roots and algae did not because algae was submerge in water therefore it did not need the following since it already surrounded by water. As for plants, these derived traits to help the plants adapt to the terrestrial environment. Each derived traits contribute to the following: CUTICLE: (604) Plants evolved cuticle and algae did not because plant has a greater risk of desiccation than algae. The cuticle help prevent excessive water loss. STOMATA: (609 +776) Plants evolved stomata and algae did not because stomata help with the CO₂ absorption during photosynthesis as well as O₂ as a by-product, which is not necessary for algae since it is submerge in water. LIGNIN: (612) Plant cells are lignified to give strength to the cell in which it helps the cell grow. ROOTS (612) Roots are necessary for plants because it absorb the water and nutrients from the soil. The water and nutrients are absorb from the soil and transported to the shoot system for plant growth.

3.

Looking at the evolutionary line leading from green algae to vascular plants, be able to state when the different characters evolved. (600) a. Rosette-shaped cellulose synthesizing complexes b. Peroxisomes enzymes c. Structure of flagellated sperm

the sperm from the antherium needs to swim through water in order to reach the egg in the archegonia.e.simplest sporophytes • Consist of foot. Refer to drawings 602 5. What is their adaptive value (i. . What features distinguish non-vascular plants from other members of Kingdom Plantae? (606) Gameophytes are the dominant stages of the life cycle in nonvascular plants. Sketch the simplest sporophytes in the plant kingdom. Therefore. Formation of a phragmoplast 4. Diagram the life cycles of the non-vascular plant divisions. 8. Diagram a diplohaplontic life cycle. The gameophytes are larger and longer-living than the sporophytes. Rhizoid are present in nonvascular plants. Lack roots and true leaves. which anchors the gameophytes by long. The sperm of the nonvascular plants must swim to the egg. Refer to drawing (607) 7. capsule (sporangium) o Foot-absorb nutrients from gameophyte o Seta-conduct the amterial to the sporangium o Capsule. tubular single cells or filaments of cells.d. seta. In addition.uses nutrients to produces spores 6. how do they promote success in the terrestrial environment)? Refer to drawing Liverwort. nonvascular plant have smallest sporophyte. Why are non-vascular plants most successful in moist habitats? (609) Nonvascular plants are most successful in moist habitats because the female and male gameophytes in most mosses are separate.

Name features that distinguish seedless vascular plants from non-vascular plants. Pterophytes d. Branching sporophytes. 2. What economic value comes from fossils of seedless vascular plants? (610) The economic values that comes from the fossils of seedless vascular plants is that it provided an insight into the plant evolution during the Devonian and Carboniferous period.• • • • • • Life Cycle: gameophyte dominant Gameotype: larger and longer living Sporophytes: smaller Rhizord Lack roots and true leaves Sperm have to swim to the egg 9. Strobili. Rhizomes-Pterophytes h.Pterophyte c. Roots.lycophytes f. Pterophytes e.Lycophytes.lycophytes. (611) o Life cycle: Sporophyte dominant o Transport: phloem and xylem o Well-developed roots and leaves 3.pterophytes g. (605) Multicellular embryos and apical meristem Topic: Seedless Plants 1. The fossils of seedless vascular plants also shows how their group outgrew their bryophytes counterparts. Leaves.pterophytes . Megaphylls. Joined stems.Lycophytes b. Name features that are shared by non-vascular plants and seedless vascular plants. Which divisions of seedless vascular plants have members with (a) microphylls? (b) megaphylls? (c) leaves? (d) roots? (e) strobili? (f) jointed stems? (g) rhizomes? (h) branching sporophytes? (612-614) a. Microphylls.

However.c.a. the plant started out with a dominant gameophyte life cycle.h • Megaphyll • Leaves • Roots • Joined stems • Rhizomes • Branching sporophytes Lycophytes. This lead the plants to tall growth. Describe the advantages offered by heterospory over homospory.f. Which life cycle evolved first? (619) VASCULAR PLANTS: Gameophyte sporophyte Examples Homosporous= Seedless Reduced independent (photosynthesis and freeliving) Dominant Pterophytes: Fern Hetersporous= Seed Reduced dependent on surroundings sporophyte tissue for nutrition Dominant Angiosperm Homosporous life cycle evolved first because most seedless plant are homosporous and seedless plant came before seed plant.b.Pterophytes. • Homosporous life cycle evolved first 2. (612) The adapative benefits that early plants received when they evolved lignin were the cell walls of the plants were strengthened.e • Microphylls • Leaves • Roots • Stobili 4. the evolutionary trend was gameophyte reduction and that is why we cannot see the gameophytes on a flower. In addition. it allowed vascular plant to gorw tall.d. as time progress. in which natural selection favored taller plants since it reduce the access of sunlight to those plants that were shorter. Diagram the difference between homosporous and heterosporous life cycles. Topic: Heterospory and Seed Plants 1.g. which are present in the earlier plants of nonvascular plant like moss and the sporophytes depended on the gameophytes for nutrition.c. which is the most widespread and diverse species. Describe adaptive benefits that early plants received when they evolved lignin. (620) The advantages offered by heterospory over the homospory are that the . In addition. an angiosperm species. Their stem became strong enough to hold up against gravity and they could transport water and mineral high above the ground.d.

The sperm of a heterosporus plant is nonmotible and can be carried long distance whereas the sperm of a homosporous plant is motible. In addition.pollen grain. which further the plant evolution because it was more suited to the enivronemnt than lycophytes. so it replaced the lycophytes during the carboniferious period. when the sperm fertilize the egg of a seed plant. • • • • • • Sperm can travel long distance with the pollen grain Sperm became nonmotible in the seed plant Ovule become seed the seed have a longer dormancy stage than spores. gymnosperm replaced lycophytes because it was able to adapt to the arid climate with their thick cuticle and small surface area of needleshaped leaves 4. Increasing dominance of sporophytes The advent of seed as a resistant Dispersible stage in life cycle 3. How did the evolution of heterospory contribute to further plant evolution? (621+628) The evolution of heterospory contribute to further plant evolution by the sperm to be carried long distance. in a hetersporous plant. • • Spore that contain sperms being carried long distance increase genetic variability During carboniferous period. in which is carrying the sperm-producing male gameophyte can travel long distance versus a sperm with flagella swimming to the archgonia in a fern plant. gymnosperm evolved thick cuticle and relatively small surface area of their needle-shaped leaves to adapt to the arid climates. the zygote grows into a sporophyte embryo. but it further plant evolution by promoting cross pollination. which increase the genetic variability. Then the ovule develop into a seed. Since it is a seed. The evolution of angiosperm is not fully understood. which made it the most diverse and widespread seed plants. it has a longer lifetime than a spore. Which Seedless Vascular Plants have members with heterospory? (614) Lycophytes • Spike mosses (selaginella) • Quillwort . In addition.

b. 2n) 5. and seed improve on the corresponding items in seedless plants with respect to survival on dry land? (624) . Which gymnosperm division (a) is the chief source of lumber? (b) was dominant in the age of dinosaurs? (c) has one living species? (d) is most related to flowering plants? (622) a. and identify the structures in the ovule that become the storage tissue and seed coat. What feature distinguishes gymnosperms from all other groups of plants? (621) Strobili. d. and pollen grain. c. Refer to page 624 4. (624) Endospermstorage tissues Intregument seed coat 7. Conifer (douglas fir) Cycad Ginkgo Gnetophytes (gnetum) 3. Refer to 624 (example n. Diagram the life cycle of pine. 2. exposed seeds on a modified leaves that form a cone. are features that distinguishes gymnosperms from all the other group of plants. State the ploidy of each structure named in the life cycle of pine. Describe pollination and fertilization in pine 6.Topic: Seedplants 1. Another name for gymnosperm and their distinguishable features are the “naked” seeds. Describe the development of the pine seed from the fertilized ovule. How do the ovule.

Origin and Flowering and Pollinator adaptations 1. (628) The differences between angiosperm and gymnosperm: • Angiosperm have two integument • Gymnosperm have one integument • Angiosperm.Pollen grain can disperse better which increase the genetic variability.two embryo 3. Refer to 627. be able to state when the different characters evolved. Given a diagram of a flower. identify all the structures. State the defining differences between gymnosperms and the angiosperms. Topics: Angiosperms. 2.one embryo and endosperm • Gymnosperm-double fertilization.802-803 4.802-803 5. Given a micrograph or diagram of an ovule or seed. Refer to 627. Refer to 627.802-803 . identify the structures and describe their ploidy. food supply for embryo 8. Looking at the evolutionary line leading from seedless vascular plants to angiosperms. Diagram the life cycle of a flowering plant.longer lifetime.double fertilization. Defend the view that seed plants are heterosporous. Ovule-protects the megasporocyte Seed.

• • Insect-pollination caused decrease in wind-pollination Wind-pollinated flowers o Lack color o Dense population . brazil Radiation of the angiosperm is adapting to different habitat. The flowers that are wind-pollinated are usually in dense population and lack bright colored parts like grasses and tree species in temperate forests and animal pollinated plants are usually have bright colored parts. Angiosperm originated at least 140 mya during the late Mesozoic era. The insect or animal transfers the pollen from one flower to the sex organ of another flower. Where and when did they first evolve? What evidence points to that time and places? (628.6. Describe the radiation of angiosperms. (628) 7. What might have caused a reversion to wind pollination? Show how their flowers differ from those of animal-pollinated plants and explain how the changes in their flowers contribute to reproductive success. (625) Smaller greener leaves Not depend on bugs And they bloom on the early before leaves And do not produce nectar Insect-pollination might have caused a reversion to wind pollination because it is more direct than wind pollination. notes) Early cretaceous in the middle morocco.

Reduced gameophytes allowed to promote cross pollination by allowing it to travel further.self-incompatibility in plants. Reduced gameophytes Increase # 10. What advantage might have been gained by reducing the gametophyte phase? (619 ?) Reduced gametophytes allow for more spore production since the sporophyte is dominant in the life cycle. and angiosperms. the functional stamen and carpel that mature at a different time 11.different individuals have either staminate flowers or carpellate flowers.the ability of a plant to reject its own pollen or a closely related species 3. which are in the cases of dioecious species. (813) 1. the structure arrangement that prevent an animal pollinator could not transfer pollen from an anther to a stigma of the same flower 4. (804) . 2. Show how traits of the plant match traits of the insect. Gameophyte Size (802) Seedless plant > gymnosperm > angiosperm (consisting of only a few cells) Refer to 619 9. Illustrate coevolution between insects and flowers by contrasting a primitive flower/insect pair (beetle and magnolia) with a highly evolved pair (bee and orchid). Describe 3 ways in which plants reduce the extent of self-fertilization. Illustrate the trend toward a reduced gametophyte by comparing seedless plants.8. gymnosperms.

Describe how reserve materials are stored in seeds.all direction-beetle (clumsy cause the anther to shake pollen falls down to the carpel OR beetle carry by foot) Topic: Fruits and Seeds. What is the difference between a seed and a fruit? (626) The difference between seed and fruit is a seed is a mature ovule and a fruit is a mature ovary. • • Seed= mature ovule Fruit= mature ovary 2.accessory tissue and ovary 3. it will be stored in the cotyledon. Name the flower parts that may enlarge to form the flesh of a fruit.ovary Simple fruits w/ accessory tissue. Therefore. 810) The receptacle of the flower part may become enlarged to form the flesh of a fruit. oils and starch to a varying degree. The seed stockpiles proteins.receptacle Simple fruits. Dispersal and Germination 1. (626. Accessorry fruits. (626. depending on the species. 4. What characteristics distinguish a green and a ripe fruit? Explain how the differences promote seed dispersal. a fruit protects a dormant seed and aid in dispersal. Fruit is the ovary that protect the seed. Orchid.Refer to notes on 11/4/2010 on pg 2.one direction-bee (hairy) Magnolia. (807) The reserve materials are stored in seed.bilateral. The nutrients are stored in the seed’s endosperm then later when the seed is more developed.radial. 810) .

(b) sites in the plant where they are made. Adapted to dispersal by water 3. (c) variety of responses that a hormone can cause. The differences between the two promoting seed dispersal is the green fruit seed dispersal functions like a parachute in the wind and a ripe fruit seed dispersal is carried by an animal. Name the hormone that initiate fruit ripening. Carry by animal 7. multiple fruit. What are the 6 plant hormones. ethylene 6. dispersal by wind. List three ways in which a dry fruit wall can promote seed survival an dispersal. Fruit and seed dispersal dispersal by water. Seeds can function as a parachute or a propeller 2. Characterize plant hormones with respect to (a) typical concentrations. or aggregate / accessory fruit. (626) 1. dispersal animal The characteristic that distinguish a green fruit is dry and a ripe fruit is fleshy. (810) Refer to lab manual and lab notes Topic: Plant Hormones 1. Given a diagram of a fruit. Auxin(IAA) • Typical concentration: High concentration for developing seed and fruit • Synthesis: Shoot apical meristem and young leaves • Function: o simulate stem elongation . state whether it is a simple fruit with or without accessory tissue. 5.A fruit usually ripens about same time that its seeds complete their development.

o o o o o promote lateral and adventitious root regulate development of fruits enhance apical dominance promote vascular differentiation retards leaf abscission Cytokinins • Typical concentration:unknown • Synthesis: primarily in the root o And transported to other sites • Function: o regulate cell division in the root and shoots o stimulate seed germination Gibberellins • typical concentration • synthesis: o meristem of apical buds o Roots o Young leaves o Developing seed • Functions: o Stimulate stem o Pollen development o Pollen tube growth o Fruit growth o Seed development Brassinosteriod • Synthesis: present in all plant tissue • Function o Promote cell expansion o Promote cell division o Promote root growth @ low concentration Abscisis Acid • Synthesis: major organs and living tissue • Function o Inhibits growth o Promotes stomatal closure during drought stress o Promotes seed dormancy o Inhibit early germination Ethylene Synthesis: produced by almost all plant .

abscission.ripening Auxin. State which hormones are involved in the growth of fruits and in the maturation (ripening) of fruits. gravitropism.Function: • Promotes ripening of many types of fruit • Leaf abscission • Promote root and root hair formation • 2. describe the initiating stimulus. Seed germination: giberellin Phototropism: Auxin Gravitropism: Auxin Abscission: ethylene Initiation of roots: auxin Promotion of axillary bud growth: cytokinin counter the action of auxin (830) 4.fruit growth 3. Which hormone is present in gametophytes where is it produced and what are the function giberellins . For each response listed below. phototropism. promotion of axillary bud growth. and the hormone involved: Seed germination.regulate the development of fruit Gibberellins. Ethylene. initiation of roots.