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NORTH AMERICAN
SPECIFICATION
FOR THE DESIGN OF
COLD-FORMED
STEEL STRUCTURAL
MEMBERS


November 9, 2001 DRAFT EDITION





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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion

The material contained herein has been developed by a joint effort of the
American Iron and Steel Institute Committee on Specifications, the Canadian
Standards Association Technical Committee on Cold-Formed Steel Structural
Members (S136), and Camara Nacional de la Industria del Hierro y del Acero
(CANACERO) in Mexico. The organizations and the Committees have made a
diligent effort to present accurate, reliable, and useful information on cold-
formed steel design. The Committees acknowledge and are grateful for the
contributions of the numerous researchers, engineers, and others who have
contributed to the body of knowledge on the subject. Specific references are
included in the Commentary on the Specification.
With anticipated improvements in understanding of the behavior of cold-
formed steel and the continuing development of new technology, this material
may eventually become dated. It is anticipated that future editions of this
specification will update this material as new information becomes available, but
this cannot be guaranteed.
The materials set forth herein are for general information only. They are not
a substitute for competent professional advice. Application of this information to
a specific project should be reviewed by a registered professional engineer.
Indeed, in most jurisdictions, such review is required by law. Anyone making
use of the information set forth herein does so at their own risk and assumes any
and all resulting liability arising therefrom.







1st Printing – February 2002












Produced by American Iron and Steel Institute

Copyright American Iron and Steel Institute 2001
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
November 9, 2001 3

PREFACE

This is the premier edition of the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members and, as its name implies, is intended for use throughout Canada, Mexico and
the United States. This Specification supercedes the previous editions of the Specification for the
Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members published by American Iron and Steel Institute
and the S136-94 Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members published by the Canadian
Standards Association.
The Specification was developed by a joint effort of the American Iron and Steel Institute’s
Committee on Specifications, the Canadian Standard Association’s Technical Committee on
Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members (S136), and Camara Nacional de la Industria del Hierro
y del Acero (CANACERO) in Mexico. This was coordinated through the North American
Specifications Committee which contained three members each from the AISI Committee on
Specifications, CSA’s S136 Committee, and CANACERO.
Since the Specification is intended for use in Canada, Mexico and the United States, it was
necessary to develop a format that would facilitate the allowance of unique requirements in
each country. This resulted in a format that contained a basic document, Chapters A through G,
that is intended for use in all three countries, and three country specific appendices (A to C).
Appendix A is for use in the United States, Appendix B is for use in Canada and Appendix C is
for use in Mexico.
This Specification provides an integrated treatment of Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
and Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and Limit States Design (LSD). This is accomplished by
including the appropriate resistance factors (φ) for use with LRFD and LSD and the appropriate
factors of safety (Ω) for use with ASD It should be noted that Limit States Design (LSD) is
limited to Canada and Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) and Allowable Stress Design
(ASD) are limited to use in Mexico and the United States.
The basic document also contains some terminology that is defined differently between Canada
and the Unites States and Mexico. These differences are set out in the Glossary.
The Specification provides well defined procedures for the design of load carrying cold-formed
steel members in buildings, as well as other applications provided that proper allowances are
made for dynamic effects. The provisions reflect the results of continuing research to develop
new and improved information on the structural behavior of cold-formed steel members. The
success of these efforts is evident in the wide acceptance of the predecessor documents to these
Specifications.
The AISI and CSA consensus committees responsible for developing these provisions provide a
balanced forum with representatives from steel producers, fabricators, users, educators,
researchers, and building code regulators. They are composed of engineers with a wide range
of experience and high professional standing from throughout Canada, Mexico and the United
States. AISI, CANACERO and CSA acknowledge the continuing dedication by the members of
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Preface

4 November 9, 2001
the specifications committees and their subcommittees. The current membership of these
committees follows this Preface.
Because this is the first Edition of the North American Specification, no attempt will be made here
to list provisions that represent changes to the documents that it supercedes. Such changes are
numerous and are distributed throughout.
Users of the Specification are encouraged to offer comments and suggestion for improvement.
American Iron and Steel Institute
Canadian Standards Association
Camara Nacional de la Industria del Hierro y del Acero
October 2001
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
November 9, 2001 5
Nort h American Specificat ions Commit t ee
AISI AISI AISI AISI CSA CSA CSA CSA CANACERO CANACERO CANACERO CANACERO
R. L Brockenbrough R. M. Schuster,. Chairman M. Saldivar
H. H. Chen S. R. Fox, Secretary J. L. Hernandez
J. N. Nunnery T. W. Trestain J. G. Garza

AISI Commit t ee on Specif icat ions f or t he Design
of Cold–Formed St eel St ruct ural Members and it s Subcommit t ees
R. L. Brockenbrough, Chairman J. W. Larson, Vice Chairman H. H. Chen, Secretary R. Bjorhovde
R. E. Brown J. K. Crews D. A. Cuoco R. Daudet
E. R. diGirolamo D. S. Ellifritt S. J. Errera E. R. Estes, Jr.
J. M. Fisher S. R. Fox J. G. Garza M. Golovin
W. B. Hall G. J Hancock A. J. Harrold R. B Haws
J. L. Hernandez D. L. Johnson J. M. Klaiman R. A. LaBoube
C. J. Lanz R. L. Madsen J. Mattingly R. R. McCluer
W. R. Midgley J. A. Moses T. M. Murray J. N. Nunnery
T. B. Pekoz C. W. Pinkham V. E. Sagan M. Saldivar
B. W. Schafer R. M. Schuster P. A. Seaburg W. L. Shoemaker
T. Sputo M. A. Thimons T. W. Trestain W. W. Yu

Subcommi t t ee 3 - Connect i ons
A. J. Harrold, Chairman R. Bjorhovde R. Daudet E. R. diGirolamo
D. S. Ellifirtt E. R. Estes, Jr. M Golovin W. B. Hall
G. J. Hancock R. B. Haws D. L. Johnson W. E. Kile
J. S. Kreiner R. A. LaBoube J. Mattingly J. N. Nunnery
T. B. Pekoz C. W. Pinkham S. Rajan R. M. Schuster
W. L. Shoemaker T. Sputo S. J. Thomas W. W. Yu

Subcommi t t ee 4 – St ud Desi gn and Perf orat ed El ement s
V. E. Sagan, Chairman K. Bielat R. Daudet E. R. diGirolamo
E. R. Estes, Jr. P. S. Green W. T. Guiher R. A. LaBoube
R. L. Madsen J. P. Matsen W. R. Midgley T. H. Miller
T. B. Pekoz B. W. Schafer T. Sputo T. W. Trestain
S. H. Walker J. Wellinghoff R. Zadeh

Subcommi t t ee 6 – Test Procedures
S. R. Fox, Chairman R. E. Brown R. Daudet E. R. diGirolamo
D. S. Ellifritt S. J. Errera E. R. Estes, Jr. M. Golovin
W. B. Hall D. L. Johnson R. C. Kaehler W. E. Kile
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Preface

6 November 9, 2001
R. A. LaBoube W. R. Midgley T. M. Murray T. B. Pekoz
C. W. Pinkham S. Rajan R. M. Schuster S. J. Thomas
W. W. Yu

Subcommi t t ee 7 - Edi t ori al
C. W. Pinkham, Chairman D. A. Cuoco J. M. Fisher T. B. Pekoz
P. A. Seaburg

Subcommi t t ee 10 – El ement Behavi ors
D. L. Johnson, Chairman R. Daudet S. R. Fox R. S. Glauz
M. Golovin G. J. Hancock A. J. Harrold R. C. Kaehler
W. E. Kile M. R. Loseke J. Mattingly W. R. Midgley
T. H. Miller F. Morello T. M. Murray J. N. Nunnery
T. B. Pekoz C. W. Pinkham B. W. Schafer W. L. Shoemaker
K. S. Sivakumaran T. W. Trestain

Subcommi t t ee 21 – St rat egi c Pl anni ng and Research
J. W. Larson, Chairman S. J. Bianculli R. L. Brockenbrough J. K. Crews
J. M. Fisher S. R. Fox A. J. Harrold D. L. Johnson
R. A. LaBoube J. Mattingly J. N. Nunnery N. L. Peterson
V. E. Sagan R. M. Schuster P. A. Seaburg W. L. Shoemaker
M. A. Thimons

Subcommi t t ee 22 – Compressi on Members
J. K. Crews, Chairman R. Bjorhovde R. Daudet D. S. Ellifritt
S. J. Errera M. Golovin W. T. Guiher G. J. Hancock
A. J. Harrold D. L. Johnson M. R. Loseke T. H. Miller
J. N. Nunnery T. B. Pekoz B. W. Schafer R. M. Schuster
D. R. Sherman T. Sputo T. W. Trestain W. W. Yu

Subcommi t t ee 24 – Fl exural Members
J. N. Nunnery, Chairman R. E. Brown D. A. Cuoco R. Daudet
D. S. Ellfiritt S. J. Errera J. M. Fisher M. Golovin
G. J. Hancock A. J. Harrold R. B. Haws D. L. Johnson
W. E. Kile R. A. LaBoube M. R. Loseke R. L. Madsen
J. Mattingly T. H. Miller T. M. Murray T. B. Pekoz
S. Rajan B. W. Schafer R. M. Schuster P. A. Seaburg
W. L. Shoemaker T. Sputo T. W. Trestain T. Wolfe
W. W. Yu

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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
November 9, 2001 7
Subcommi t t ee 26 Desi gn Manual
P. A. Seaburg, Chairman R. E. Brown J. K. Crews D. A. Cuoco
E. R. diGirolamo E. R. Estes, Jr. R. S. Gluaz M. Golovin
R. B. Haws D. L. Johnson R. C. Kaehler R. A. LaBoube
J. W. Larson M. R. Loseke R. L. Madsen W. R. Midgley
T. M. Murray J. N. Nunnery B. W. Schafer R. M. Schuster
W. W. Yu

Subcommi t t ee 30 - Educat i on
R. A. LaBoube, Chairman R. Bjorhovde J. K. Crews E. R. diGirolamo
S. J. Errera S. R. Fox J. M. Klaiman J. W. Larson
J. Mattingly B. W. Schafer E. M. Schuster W. W. Yu

Subcommi t t ee 31 – General Provi si ons
J. M. Fisher, Chairman R. Bjorhpvde J. K. Crews D. A. Cuoco
R. Daudet E. R. Estes, Jr. M. Golovin W. B. Hall
A. J. Harrold D. L. Johnson J. M. Klaiman J. W. Larson
R. L. Madsen W. R. Midgley J. A. Moses C. W. Pinkham
R. M. Schuster S. J. Thomas W. W. Yu R. Zadeh

CSA Technical Commit t ee on Cold-Formed St eel St ruct ural Members
R. M Schuster, Chairman S. R. Fox, Secretary D. Bak A. Caouette
J. J. R. Cheng D. Delaney M. K. Madugula S. McCavour
D. Polyzois N. Schillaci K. S. Sivakumaran M. Sommerstein
T. W. Trestain T. Vickers L. Vavek R. Vincent
K. Taing

Associ at e Members
R. L. Brockenbrough M. Lottamoza C. R. Taraschuk L. Xu
C. Rogers

PERSONNEL
D. Bak Steelway Building Systems
S. J. Bianculli United States Steel Corporation
K. Bielat American Iron and Steel Institute
R. Bjorhovde The Bjorhovde Group
R. L. Brockenbrough R. L. Brockenbrough and Associates
R. E. Brown Wheeling Corrugating Company
A. Caouette Canadian Construction Materials Centre
H. H. Chen American Iron and Steel Institute
J. J. R. Cheng University of Alberta
J. K. Crews Unarco Material Handling
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Preface

8 November 9, 2001
D. A. Cuoco LZA Technology
R. Daudet Dietrich Design Group
D. Delaney Rheinzink Canada Ltd.
E. R. diGirolamo The Steel Network, Inc.
D. S. Ellifritt Consultant
S. J. Errera Consultant
E. R. Estes, Jr. Consultant
J. M. Fisher Computerized Structural Design, Inc.
S. R. Fox Canadian Sheet Steel Building Institute
S. Funderburk The Lincoln Electric Company
J. G. Garza Galvamet
R. S. Glauz The Marley Cooling Tower Company
M. Golovin Ceco Building Systems
P. S. Green University of Florida
W. T. Guiher Inflection Point, Inc.
W. B. Hall University of Illinois
G. J. Hancock The University of Sydney
A. J. Harrold Butler Manufacturing Company
R. B. Haws Magnatrax Corporation
J. L. Hernandez Industias Moterey, S.A. DE C.V.
D. L. Johnson Maus Engineering
R. C. Kaehler Computerized Structural Design, Inc.
W. E. Kile Structuneering Inc.
J. M. Klaiman ADTEK Engineers
J. S. Kreiner Tiden, Lobnitz, Cooper
R. A. LaBoube University of Missouri–Rolla
C. J. Lanz American Institute of Steel Construction
J W. Larson Bethlehem Steel Corporation
M. R. Loseke Loseke Properties, Inc.
M. Lottamoza Canadian Standards Association
R. L. Madsen Devco Engineering, Inc.
M. K. Madugula University of Windsor
J. P. Matsen Matsen Ford Design Associates, Inc.
J. Mattingly Nicholas J. Bouras, Inc.
S. McCavour McCavour Engineering Ltd.
R. R. McCluer Building Officials & Code Administrators, International
W. R. Midgley Midgley, Clauer and Associates
T. H. Miller Oregon State University
F. Morello M.I.C Industries, Inc.
J. A. Moses Unistrut Corporation
J. N. Nunnery Varco–Pruden Buildings
T. M. Murray Virginia Polytechnic Institute
T. B. Pekoz Cornell University
N. L. Perterson Steel Stud Manufacturers Association
C. W. Pinkham S. B. Barnes Associates
D. Polyzois University of Manitoba
S. Rajan Alpine Engineering Products, Inc.
N. Schillaci Dofasco Inc.
R. M. Schuster University of Waterloo
V. E. Sagan Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc.
M. Saldivar CANACERO
B. W. Schafer Johns Hopkins University
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
November 9, 2001 9
R. M Schuster University of Waterloo
P. A. Seaburg Southern Illinois University
D. R. Sherman Consultant
W. L. Shoemaker Metal Building Manufacturers Association
K. S. Sivakumaran McMaster University
T. Sputo Sputo Engineering
M. A. Thimons National Steel Corporation
S. J. Thomas Varco-Proden Buildings
T. W. Trestain T. W. J. Trestain Structural Engineering
S. H. Walker Steven H. Walker
J. Wellinghoff Clark Steel Framing
T. Wolf MBCI
W. W. Yu Consultant
R. Zadeh Unimast Incorporated



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Table of Cont ent s

10 November 9, 2001
TABLE OF CONTENTS
NORTH AMERICAN SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF
COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
PREFACE 3
SYMOBLES AND DEFINITIONS 16
A. GENERAL PROVISIONS 34
A1 Limits of Applicability and Terms 34
A1.1 Scope and Limits of Applicability 34
A1.2 Terms 35
A1.3 Units of Symbols and Terms 38
A2 Material 38
A2.1 Applicable Steels 38
A2.2 Other Steels 39
A2.3 Ductility 39
A2.4 Delivered Minimum Thickness 41
A3 Loads 41
A4 Allowable Strength Design 41
A4.1 Design Basis 41
A4.1.1 ASD Requirements 41
A4.1.2 Load Combinations for ASD 42
A5 Load and Resistance Factor Design 42
A5.1 Design Basis 42
A5.1.1 LRFD Requirements 42
A5.1.2 Load Factors and Load Combinations for LRFD 42
A6 Limit States Design 42
A6.1 Design Basis 42
A6.1.1 LSD Requirements 43
A6.1.2 Load Factors and Load Combinations for LSD 43
A7 Yield Point and Strength Increase from Cold Work of Forming 43
A7.1 Yield Point 43
A7.2 Strength Increase from Cold Work of Forming 43
A8 Serviceability 44
A9 Referenced Documents 44

B. ELEMENTS 47
B1 Dimensional Limits and Considerations 47
B1.1 Flange Flat-Width-to-Thickness Considerations 47
B1.2 Maximum Web Depth-to-Thickness Ratio 48
B2 Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements 49
B2.1 Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements 49
B2.2 Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements with Circular Holes 51
B2.3 Webs and other Stiffened Elements under Stress Gradient 51
B2.4 C-Section Webs with Holes under Stress Gradient 53
B3 Effective Widths of Unstiffened Elements 54
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B3.1 Uniformly Compressed Unstiffened Elements 54
B3.2 Unstiffened Elements and Edge Stiffeners with Stress Gradient 54
B4 Effective Widths of Elements with One Intermediate Stiffener or an Edge Stiffener 55
B4.1 Uniformly Compressed Elements with One Intermediate Stiffener 55
B4.2 Uniformly Compressed Elements with an Edge Stiffener 56
B5 Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements with Multiple Intermediate Stiffeners or Edge
Stiffened Elements with Intermediate Stiffeners 58
B5.1 Effective Widths of Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements with Multiple
Intermediate Stiffeners 58
B5.1.1 Specific Case: ‘n’ Identical Stiffeners, Equally Spaced 59
B5.1.2 General Case: Arbitrary Stiffener Size, Location and Number 59
B5.2 Edge Stiffened Elements with Intermediate Stiffeners 61

C. MEMBERS 62
C1 Properties of Sections 62
C2 Tension Members 62
C3 Flexural Members 62
C3.1 Strength [Resistance] for Bending Only 62
C3.1.1 Nominal Section Strength [Resistance] 62
C3.1.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength [Resistance] 64
C3.1.2.1 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength [Resistance] of Open
Cross Section Members 64
C3.1.2.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength [Resistance] of Closed
Box Members 66
C3.1.3 Beams Having One Flange Through-Fastened to Deck or Sheathing 67
C3.1.4 Beams Having One Flange Fastened to a Standing Seam Roof System 69
C3.1.5 Strength [Resistance] of Standing Seam Roof Panel Systems 69
C3.2 Strength [Resistance] for Shear Only 70
C3.2.1 Shear Strength [Resistance] of Webs without Holes 70
C3.2.2 Shear Strength [Resistance] of C-Section Webs with Holes 71
C3.3 Strength [Resistance] for Combined Bending and Shear 71
C3.3.1 ASD Method 71
C3.3.2 LRFD and LSD Methods 72
C3.4 Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] 73
C3.4.1 Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] of Webs without Holes 73
C3.4.2 Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] of C-Section Webs with Holes 76
C3.5 Combined Bending and Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] 77
C3.5.1 ASD Method 77
C3.5.2 LRFD and LSD Methods 79
C3.6 Stiffeners 81
C3.6.1 Transverse Stiffeners 81
C3.6.2 Shear Stiffeners 82
C3.6.3 Non-Conforming Stiffeners 83
C4 Concentrically Loaded Compression Members 83
C4.1 Sections Not Subject to Torsional or Torsional-Flexural Buckling 84
C4.2 Doubly- or Singly-Symmetric Sections Subject to Torsional or Torsional-Flexural
Buckling 84
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C4.3 Point-Symmetric Sections 85
C4.4 Nonsymmetric Sections 85
C4.5 Built-Up Members 85
C4.6 Compression Members Having One Flange Through-Fastened to Deck or
Sheathing 86
C5 Combined Axial Load and Bending 87
C5.1 Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending 87
C5.1.1 ASD Method 87
C5.1.2 LRFD and LSD Methods 88
C5.2 Combined Compressive Axial Load and Bending 89
C5.2.1 ASD Method 89
C5.2.2 LRFD and LSD Methods 91
C6 Closed Cylindrical Tubular Members 93
C6.1 Bending 93
C6.2 Compression 94
C6.3 Combined Bending and Compression 94

D. STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES 95
D1 Built-Up Sections 95
D1.1 I-Sections Composed of Two C-Sections 95
D1.2 Spacing of Connections in Compression Elements 96
D2 Mixed Systems 96
D3 Lateral Bracing 96
D3.1 Symmetrical Beams and Columns 96
D3.2 C-Section and Z-Section Beams 96
D3.2.1 Anchorage of Bracing for Roof Systems Under Gravity Load With Top
Flange Connected to Sheathing 97
D3.2.2 Neither Flange Connected to Sheathing 99
D4 Wall Studs and Wall Stud Assemblies 100
D4.1 Wall Studs in Compression 101
D4.2 Wall Studs in Bending 104
D4.3 Wall Studs with Combined Axial Load and Bending 104
D5 Floor, Roof or Wall Steel Diaphragm Construction 104

E. CONNECTIONS AND JOINTS 106
E1 General Provisions 106
E2 Welded Connections 106
E2.1 Groove Welds in Butt Joints 106
E2.2 Arc Spot Welds 107
E2.2.1 Shear 107
E2.2.2 Tension 110
E2.3 Arc Seam Welds 111
E2.4 Fillet Welds 112
E2.5 Flare Groove Welds 114
E2.6 Resistance Welds 116
E2.7 Shear Lag Effect in Welded Connections of Members Other Than Flat Sheets 117
E3 Bolted Connections 118
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E3.1 Shear, Spacing and Edge Distance 119
E3.2 Tension Member Shear Lag Effect in Bolted Connections 119
E3.3 Bearing 119
E3.3.1 Strength [Resistance] without Consideration of Bolt Hole Deformation 119
E3.3.2 Strength [Resistance] with Consideration of Bolt Hole Deformation 120
E3.4 Shear and Tension in Bolts 120
E4 Screw Connections 121
E4.1 Minimum Spacing 121
E4.2 Minimum Edge and End Distance 121
E4.3 Shear 122
E4.3.1 Connection Shear as Limited by Tilting and Bearing 122
E4.3.2 Connection Shear as Limited by End Distance 122
E4.3.3 Shear in Screws 122
E4.4 Tension 122
E4.4.1 Pull-Out 122
E4.4.2 Pull-Over 122
E4.4.3 Tension in Screws 123
E5 Rupture 123
E6 Connections to Other Materials 123
E6.1 Bearing 123
E6.2 Tension 123
E6.3 Shear 123

F. TESTS FOR SPECIAL CASES 124
F1 Tests for Determining Structural Performance 124
F1.1 Load and Resistance Factor Design and Limit States Design 124
F1.2 Allowable Strength Design 128
F2 Tests for Confirming Structural Performance 128
F3 Tests for Determining Mechanical Properties 128
F3.1 Full Section 128
F3.2 Flat Elements of Formed Sections 129
F3.3 Virgin Steel 129

G. DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS
FOR CYCLIC LOADING (FATIGUE) 130
G1 General 130
G2 Calculation of Maximum Stresses and Stress Ranges 131
G3 Design Stress Range 131
G4 Bolts and Threaded Parts 132
G5 Special Fabrication Requirements 133

PREFACE TO APPENDIX A A1
APPENDIX A: PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO THE UNITED STATES A2
A1.1a Scope and Limits of Applicability A2
A3 Loads A2
A3.1 Nominal Loads A2
A4.1.2 Load Combinations for ASD A2
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A5.1.2 Load Factors and Load Combinations for LRFD A2
A9a Referenced Documents A3
C2 Tension Members A3
C3.1.4 Beams Having One Flange Fastened to a Standing Seam Roof System A4
E2a Welded Connections A4
E3a Bolted Connections A5
E3.1 Shear, Spacing and Edge Distance A6
E3.2 Tension Member Shear Lag Effect in Bolted Connections A7
E3.4 Shear and Tension in Bolts A8
E4.3.2 Connection Shear as Limited by End Distance A10
E5 Rupture A14
E5.1 Shear Rupture A14
E5.2 Tension Rupture A14
E5.3 Block Shear Rupture A14


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SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
November 9, 2001 15
A Full unreduced cross-sectional area of the member C3.1.2.1, C4.2, C4.6, C5.2.1,
C5.2.2, C6.2, D4.1
A Area of directly connected elements or gross area E2.7
A
b
b
1
t + A
s
, for transverse stiffeners at interior support and C3.6.1
under concentrated load, and b
2
t + A
s
, for transverse
stiffeners at end support

A
b
Gross cross-sectional area of bolt E3.4
A
c
18t
2
+ A
s
, for transverse stiffeners at interior support C3.6.1
and under concentrated load, and 10t
2
+ A
s
, for
transverse stiffeners at end support

A
o
Reduced area due to local buckling C6.2
A
e
Effective area at the stress F
n
C3.6.1, C4, C4.2, C5.2.1,
C5.2.2, C6.2, D4, D4.1
A
e
Effective net area E2.7, E3.2
A
g
Gross area of the element including stiffeners B5.1
A
g
Gross area of the section C2, E2.7, E3.2

A
gt
Gross area subject to tension E5.3
A
gv
Gross area subject to shear E5.3
A
nt
Net area subject to tension E5.3
A
nv
Net area subject to shear E5.3

A
n
Net area of cross section C2, E3.2
A
s
Reduced cross sectional area of edge or intermediate B4, B4.1, B4.2
stiffener
A
s
Cross-sectional area of transverse stiffener C3.6.1
A
s
Gross area of stiffener B5.1
A′
s
Effective area of stiffener B4, B4.1, B4.2
A
st
Gross area of shear stiffener C3.6.2
A
t
Net tensile area G4
Aw Area of web area C3.2.1
A
wn
Net web area E5.1
a Shear panel length of unreinforced web element, or C3.2.1, C3.6.2
the distance between
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Symbols and Def init ions

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
16 November 9, 2001
transverse stiffeners of reinforced web elements,
a Intermediate fastener or spot weld spacing C4.5
a Fastener distance from outside web edge C4.6
a Length of bracing interval D3.2.2

B Stud Spacing D4
B
c
Term for determining the tensile yield point of corners A7.2
b Effective design width of compression element B2.1, B2.2, B3.1, B3.2,
B4.1, B4.2

b Flange width C4.6, D3.2.1
b length of web hole B2.4, C3.2.2, C3.4.2
b
d
Effective width for deflection calculation B2.1, B2.2, B3.1, B3.2, B4.1,
B4.2, B5.2
b
e
Effective with of elements, located at the centroid of the B5.1
element including stiffeners
b
e
Effective width B2.3
b
e
Effective width either determined by Section B4.2 or B5.2
Section B5.1 depending on the stiffness of the stiffeners
b
o
Dimension defined in Figure B4-1 B4, B4.1
b
o
Out-to-out width of the compression flange as defined in B2.3
Figure B2.3-2
b
o
Total flat width of stiffened element B5.1
b
o
Total flat width of the edge stiffened element B5.2
b
p
Largest sub-element flat width B5.1
b
1
, b
2
Effective widths B2.3, B2.4
b
1
, b
2
Effective widths of transverse stiffeners C3.6.1

C For flexural members, ratio of the total corner cross A7.2
-sectional area of the controlling flange to the full cross
-sectional area of the controlling flange

C
b
Bending coefficient dependent on moment gradient C3.1.2.1, C3.1.2.2
C
f
Constant G1, G3, G4
C
m
End moment coefficient in interaction formula C5.2.1, C5.2.2
C
ms
Coefficient for lateral bracing of Z-section D3.2.1
C
mx
End moment coefficient in interaction formula C5.2.1, C5.2.2
C
my
End moment coefficient in interaction formula C5.2.1, C5.2.2
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SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
November 9, 2001 17
C
o
Initial column imperfection D4.1
C
p
Correction Factor F1.1
C
s
Coefficient for lateral torsional buckling C3.1.2.1
C
TF
End moment coefficient in interaction formula C3.1.2.1
C
th
Coefficient for lateral bracing of Z-sections D3.2.1
C
tr
Coefficient for lateral bracing of Z-sections D3.2.1
C
v
Shear stiffener coefficient C3.6.2
C
w
Torsional warping constant of the cross-section C3.1.2.1, D4.1
C
y
Compression strain factor C3.1.1
C
1
Term used to compute shear strain in wall board D4.1
C Bearing factor E3.3.1
C Coefficient C3.4.1
C
h
Web slenderness coefficient C3.4.1
C
N
Bearing length coefficient C3.4.1
C
R
Inside bend radius coefficient C3.4.1

C
f
Constant from Table G1 G1, G3
C
φ
Calibration coefficient F1.1
C
1
, C
2,
Axial buckling coefficients C4.6
C
3


c Coefficient C3.2.2
c
f
Amount of curling displacement B1.1
c
i
Horizontal distance from the edge of the element to B5.1, B5.1.2
centerline of the stiffener

D Outside diameter of cylindrical tube C6, C6.1, C6.2
D Overall depth of lip B1.1, B4, B4.2
D Shear stiffener coefficient C3.6.2

D Dead load A3.1, A6.1.2

D
o
Initial column imperfection D4.1
d Depth of section B1.1, C3.1.2.1, C3.1.3,
C4.6, D3.2.1, D3.2.2,
D4, D4.1,

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Symbols and Def init ions

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
18 November 9, 2001
d Nominal screw diameter E4, E4.1, E4.2,
E4.3.1, E4.4.1

d Flat depth of lip defined in Figure B4-2 B4

d Width of arc seam weld E2.3
d Visible diameter of outer surface of arc spot weld E2.2.1, E2.2.2
d Diameter of bolt E3a,E3.2, E3.3.1, E3.3.2, E3.4

d
a
Average diameter of the arc spot weld at mid-thickness E2.2.1, E2.2.2
of t
d
a
Average width of seam weld E2.3
d
b
Nominal diameter (body or shank diameter) G4
d
e
Effective diameter of fused area E2.2, E2.2.1, E2.2.2
d
e
Effective width of arc seam weld at fused surfaces E2.3
d
h
Diameter of standard hole B2.2, E3a, E3.1, E3.2, E5.1
d
0
Depth of web hole B2.4, C3.2.2, C3.4.2
d
s
Reduced effective width of stiffener B4, B4.2
d′
s
Effective width of the stiffener calculated B4, B4.2
according to B3.1
d
wx
Screw head or washer diameter E4.4
d
w
Larger of the screw head or washer diameter E4, E4.4, E4.4.2

E Modulus of elasticity of steel, 29,500 ksi (203,000 MPa, A2.3.2, B1.1, B2.1, B4, B5.1,
or 2,070,000 kg/ cm
2
) C3.1.1, C3.1.2.1, C3.1.2.2,
C3.2.1, C3.5.1, C3.5.2, C3.6.1,
C3.6.2, C4.1, C4.6, C5.2.1,
C5.2.2, C6, C6.1, C6.2, D1.2,
D4.1, E2.2.1

E Live load due to earthquake A3.1, A6.1.2

E
o
Initial column imperfection; a measure of the initial D4.1
twist of the stud from the initial, ideal, unbuckled
location
E
1
Term used to compute shear strain in wallboard D4.1
E′ Inelastic modulus of elasticity D4.1
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed Specif icat ion

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
November 9, 2001 19
e The distance measured in the line of force from the E3.1, E3.1a
center of a standard hole to the nearest edge of an
adjacent hole or to the end of the connected part toward
which the force is directed
e Distance measured in the line of force from the center E4.3.2
of a standard hole to the nearest end of the connected
part.
e
min
Minimum allowable distance measured in the line of E2.2.1, E2.2.2
force from the centerline of a weld to the nearest edge
of an adjacent weld or to the end of the connected part
toward which the force is directed

e
y
Yield strain = F
y
/ E C3.1.1

F Fabrication factor F1.1
F Nominal tensile or shear strength E3.4

F
SR
Design stress range G3
F
TH
Threshold stress range G1, G3, G4
F
c
Critical buckling stress B2.1, C3.1.2.1, C6.1,
F
cr
Plate elastic buckling stress B2.1
F
e
Elastic buckling stress C3.1.2.1, C3.1.2.2, C4, C4.1,
C4.2, C4.3, C4.4, C6.2, D4.1

F
m
Mean value of the fabrication factor C3.1.5, F1.1
F
n
Nominal buckling stress B2.1, C4, C5.2.1, C5.2.2, C6.2,
D4, D4.1
F
n
Nominal strength of bolts E3.4
F
nt
Nominal tensile strength of bolts E3.4
F
nv
Nominal shear strength of bolts E3.4
F′
nt
Nominal tensile strength for bolts subject to combination E3.4
of shear and tension

F
sy
Yield point as specified in Sections A2.1 or A2.3.2 A1.2, A2.3.2, E2.2.1, E3.1

F
t
Nominal tensile stress in flat sheet E3.2

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Symbols and Def init ions

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
20 November 9, 2001
F
u
Tensile strength as specified in Sections A2.1 or A2.3.2 A2.3.2, C2, E2.2.1, E2.2.2, E2.3,
E2.4, E2.5, E2.7, E3.1, E3.2,
E3.3.1, E3.3.2, E4.3.2, E5.1, E5.3

F
uv
Tensile strength of virgin steel specified by A7.2
Section A2 or established in accordance with
Section F3.3

F
wy
Yield point for design of transverse stiffeners C3.6.1
F
xx
Tensile strength of the electrode classification E2.1, E2.2.1, E2.2.2, E2.3, E2.4,
E2.5
F
u1
Tensile strength of member in contact with the screw E4, E4.3.1, E4.4.2
head
F
u2
Tensile strength of member not in contact with the E4, E4.3.1, E4.4.1
screw head
F
v
Nominal shear stress E3.2.1
F
y
Yield point used for design, not to exceed the specified A1.2, A2.3.2, A7.1, A8.1, A7.2,
yield point or established in accordance with Section F3, B2.1, C2,
or as increased for cold work of forming in Section C3.1.1, C3.1.2.1, C3.1.2.2, C3.1.3,
A7.2 or as reduced for low ductility steels in Section C3.2.1, C3.1.4, C3.4.1, C3.5.1,
C3.5.2, C3.6.1, C3.6.2, C4, C4.2,
C5.1.1, C5.1.2, C5.2.1, C5.2.2,
C6, C6.1, C6.2, D1.2, D4.1, E2.1,
E2.2.2, E5.2, G1

F
ya
Average yield point of section A7.2
F
yc
Tensile yield point of corners A7.2
F
yf
Weighted average tensile yield point of the flat portions A7.2, F3.2
F
ys
Yield point of stiffener steel C3.6.1
F
yv
Tensile yield point of virgin steel specified by Section A7.2
A2 or established in accordance with Section F3.3

f Stress in the compression element computed on the B2.1, B2.2, B2.4, B3.1, B3.2,
basis of the effective design width B4, B4.1, B4.2, B5.2

f
av
Average computed stress in the full, unreduced flange B1.1
width

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SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
November 9, 2001 21
f
c
Stress at service load in the cover plate or sheet D1.2
f
d
Computed compressive stress in the element being B2.1, B2.2, B3.1, B4.1, B4.2
considered. Calculations are based on the effective B5.1.1, B5.1.2, B5.2
section at the load for which deflections are determined.

f
d1
, f
d2
Computed stresses f
1
and f
2
as shown in Figure B2.3-1. B2.3
Calculations are based on the effective section at the
load for which serviceability is determined

f
d3
Computed stress f
3
in edge stiffener, as shown in Figure B3.2
B4-2. Calculations are based on the effective section at
the load for which serviceability is determined

f
v
Computed shear stress on a bolt E3.4
f
1
, f
2
Web stresses defined by Figure B2.3-1 B2.3, B2.4
f
1
Uniform compressive stress acting on the flat element B5.1, B5.1.1, B5.1.2, B5.2
f
3
Edge stiffener stress defined by Figure B4-2 B3.2

G Shear modulus of steel, 11,300 ksi (78,000MPa or C3.1.2.1, C3.1.2.2, D4.1
795,000 kg/ cm
2
)
G′ Inelastic shear modulus D4.1
g Vertical distance between two rows of connections D1.1
nearest to the top and bottom flanges
g Transverse center-to-center spacing between fastener E3.2
gage lines

h Depth of flat portion of web measured along the plane B1.2, B2.4, C3.1.1, C3.2.1,
of web C3.2.2, C3.4.1, C3.4.2, C3.5.1,
C3.5.2, C3.6.2

h Width of elements adjoining stiffened element B5.1
h Lip height as defined in Figures E2.5D to E2.5G E2.5
h
o
Out-to-out width of the web as defined in Figure B2.3-2 B2.3
h
o
Depth of web hole B2.4
h
wc
Coped flat web depth E5.1

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Symbols and Def init ions

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
22 November 9, 2001
I
a
Adequate moment of inertia of stiffener so that each B1.1, B4, B4.1, B4.2
component element will behave as a stiffened element

I
s
Actual moment of inertia of the full stiffener about its B1.1, B4, B4.1,
own centroidal axis parallel to the element to be B4.2, C3.6.2
stiffened
I
smin
Minimum moment of inertia of shear stiffener(s) with C3.6.2
respect to an axis in the plane of web
I
sp
Moment of inertia of stiffener about centerline of flat B5.1, B5.1.1, B5.1.2
portion of element
I
x
, I
y
Moment of inertia of full section about principal axis C3.1.2.1, C3.1.2.2, C5.2.1,
C5.2.2, D3.2.2

I
xy
Product of inertia of full section about major and minor D3.2.2, D4.1
centroidal axes

I
yc
Moment of inertia of the compression portion of a C3.1.2.1
section about the centroidal axis of the entire section
parallel to the web, using the full unreduced section

i Index of stiffener B5.1, B5.1.2

J Saint-Venant torsion constant C3.1.2.1, C3.1.2.2, D4.1
j Section property for torsional-flexural buckling C3.1.2.1

K Effective length factor C4.1, C4.5, D4.1
K′ A constant D3.2.2
K
t
Effective length factor for torsion C3.1.2.1
K
x
Effective length factor for buckling about x-axis C3.1.2.1, C5.2.1, C5.2.2
K
y
Effective length factor for buckling about y-axis C3.1.2.1, C3.1.2.2, C5.2.1,
C5.2.2
k Plate buckling coefficient B2.1, B2.3, B3.1, B3.2, B4,
B4.1, B4.2, B5.1, B5.2

k
d
Plate buckling coefficient for distortional buckling B5.1, B5.1.1, B5.1.2
k
loc
Plate buckling coefficient for local sub-element buckling B5.1, B5.1.1, B5.1.2
k
v
Shear buckling coefficient C3.2.1, C3.6.2,
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed Specif icat ion

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
November 9, 2001 23
L Full span for simple beams, distance between inflection B1.1
points for continuous beams, twice the length of
cantilever beams

L Span length D3.2.1, D1.1

L Length of weld E2.1, E2.5
L Length of longitudinal welds E2.7
L Length of seam weld not including the circular ends E2.3
L Length of fillet weld E2.4
L Length of the connection E3.2
L Unbraced length of member C4.1, C4.5, C5.2.1, C5.2.2
D4.1

L Overall length D4.1

L Live load A3.1, A6.1.2, A6.1.2.2

L
br
Unsupported length between brace point or other B5.1, B5.1.1, B5.1.2
restraint which restricts distortional buckling of element
L
st
Length of transverse stiffener C3.6.1
L
t
Unbraced length of compression member for torsion C3.1.2.1
L
x
Unbraced length of compression member for bending C3.1.2.1, C5.2.1, C5.2.2
about x-axis
L
y
Unbraced length of compression member for bending C3.1.2.1, C3.1.2.2, C5.2.1,
about y-axis C5.2.2
L
u
Limit of unbraced length by which lateral-torsional C3.1.2.2
buckling will not be considered

M
max
, Absolute value of moments in an unbraced segment, C3.1.2.1
M
A
, M
B
, used for determining C
b

M
C


M
m
Mean value of the material factor C3.1.5, F1.1

M
n
Nominal flexural strength [resistance] B2.1, C3.1, C3.1.1, C3.1.2.1,
C3.1.2.2, C3.1.3, C3.1.4,
C3.3.1, C3.3.2, C6.1

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Symbols and Def init ions

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
24 November 9, 2001
M Required allowable flexural strength, ASD C3.3.1, C3.5.1

M
nx
,

Nominal flexural strengths [resistances] about the C5.1.1, C5.1.2, C5.2.1

M
ny
centroidal axes determined in accordance with C5.2.2, D4.3
Section C3

M
nxo,
Nominal flexural strengths [resistance] about the C3.3.1, C3.3.2, C3.5.1, C3.5.2,
M
nyo
centroidal axes determined in accordance with D4.2, D4.3
Section C3.1 excluding the provisions of Section C3.1.2

M
no
Nominal yield moment for nested Z-sections C3.5.1, C3.5.2
M
nxt,
Nominal flexural strengths [resistances] about the C5.1.1, C5.1.2
M
nyt
centroidal axes determined using the gross, unreduced
cross-section properties

M
f
Factored moment C3.3.2
M
fx
, Moments due to factored loads with respect to the C4, C5.1.2, C5.2.2
M
fy
centroidal axes

M
x
, Required allowable flexural strength with respect to C4, C5.1.1, C5.2.1
M
y
the centroidal axes, for ASD

M
u
Required flexural strength, for LRFD C3.3.2, C3.5.2
M
ux,
Required flexural strength with respect to C4, C5.1.2, C5.2.2
M
uy
centroidal axes, for LRFD

M
*
Required flexural strength [factored moment] C3.3.2, C3.5.2
M
*x
, Required flexural strengths [factored moments] C4, C5.1.2
M
*y


M
y
Moment causing a maximum strain e
y
B2.1, C3.1.2

M
1
Smaller end moment C3.1.2.1, C5.2.1, C5.2.2
M
2
Larger end moment C3.1.2.1, C5.2.1, C5.2.2

m Degrees of freedom F1.1
m Term for determining the tensile yield point of corners A7.2
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SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
November 9, 2001 25
m Distance from the shear center of one C-section to the D1.1, D3.2.2
mid-plane of its web

N Actual length of bearing C3.4.1, C3.4.2, C3.5.1, C3.5.2
N Number of stress range fluctuations in design life G3

n Coefficient B4.1, B4.2
n Number of stiffeners B5.1, B5.1.1, B5.1.2
n Number of holes E5.1
n Number of tests F1.1
n Number of anchors in the test assembly with same C3.1.5
tributary area (for anchor failure), or number of panels
with identical spans and loading to the failed span
(for non-anchor failure)
n Number of threads per inch G4
n
b
Number of bolt holes E3.2
n
p
Number of parallel purlin lines D3.2.1

P Required allowable strength for the concentrated load C3.5.1
Reaction in the presence of bending moment, for ASD
P Required allowable strength (nominal force) transmitted E2.2.1
By weld, for ASD
P Required allowable compressive axial strength, for ASD A2.3.1, C5.2.1
P Professional factor F1.1
P Pitch (mm per thread) G4

P
Ex
, Elastic buckling strengths [resistances] C5.2.1, C5.2.2

P
Ey


P
f
Axial force due to factored loads A2.3.1, C5.2.2
P
f
Concentrated load or reaction due to factored loads C3.5.2
P
f
Factored shear force transmitted by welding E2.2.1

P
L
Force to be resisted by intermediate beam brace D3.2.1, D3.2.2

P
m
Mean value of the tested-to-predicted load ratios F1.1

P
n
Nominal web crippling strength [resistance] of member C3.4.1, C3.5.1, C3.5.2
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SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
26 November 9, 2001
P
n
Nominal axial strength [resistance] of member A2.3.1, C4, C4.6, C5.2.1,
C5.2.2, C6.2, D4.1, D4.3
P
n
Nominal axial strength [resistance] of transverse stiffener C3.6.1

P
n
Nominal strength [resistance] of connection component E2.1, E2.2.1, E2.2.2, E2.3, E2.4,
E2.5, E2.6, E3.1, E3.2, E3.4
P
n
Nominal bearing strength [resistance] E3.3.1, E3.3.2
P
n
Nominal tensile strength of welded member E2.7

P
no
Nominal axial strength [resistance] of member C5.2.1, C5.2.2
determined in accordance with Section C4 with F
n
= F
y


P
not
Nominal pull-out strength [resistance] per screw E4, E4.4.1, E4.4.3
P
nov
Nominal pull-over strength [resistance] per screw E4, E4.4.2, E4.4.3
P
ns
Nominal shear strength [resistance] per screw E4, E4.2, E4.3.1, E4.3.2, E4.3.3
P
nt
Nominal tension strength [resistance] per screw E4, E4.4.3
P
s
Concentrated load or reaction D1.1
P
ss
Nominal shear strength [resistance] of screw as E4, E4,3,3
reported by manufacturer
P
ts
Nominal tension strength [resistance] of screws as E4, E4.4.3
reported by manufacturer or determined by
independent laboratory testing

P
u
Required axial strength [resistance], for LRFD A2.3.1, C5.2.2
P
u
Factored force (required strength) transmitted by weld, E2.2.1
For LRFD
P
u
Required strength for the concentrated load or reaction C3.5.2
in the presence of bending moment, for LRFD

P
*
Required strength for concentrated load or reaction C3.5.2
[concentrated load or reaction due to factored loads] in
the presence of bending moment.
P
*
Required compressive axial strength [factored C5.2.2
compressive force]

Q Design shear rigidity for sheathing D4.1
a
Q Q / A D4.1
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SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
November 9, 2001 27
t
Q ( Q d
2
)/ (4Ar
o
2
) D4.1
o
Q Sheathing parameter D4.1
Q
i
Load effect F1.1

q Design load in the plane of the web D1.1
q
s
Reduction factor C3.2.2

R Required allowable strength, for ASD A4.1.1
R Modification factor B5.1
R Reduction factor C3.1.3, C3.1.4
R Coefficient C6.2
R Inside bend radius A7.2, C3.4.1, C3.5.1, C3.5.2
R Radius of outside bend surface E2.5

R
I
I
s
/ I
a
B4.1, B4.2
R
a
Allowable design strength F1.2
R
b
Reduction factor A2.3.2
R
c
Reduction factor C3.4.2
R
f
Effect of factored loads A6.1.1
R
n
Nominal strength [resistance] A1.2, A4.1.1, A5.1.1, A6.1.1,
F2
R
n
Nominal blockshear rupture strength [resistance] E5.3
R
n
Average value of all test results F1.1, F1.2

R
u
Required strength, for LRFD A5.1.1
r Correction factor C3.1.3
r Least radius of gyration of full unreduced cross section C4.1, C4.2, C4.5
r
i
Minimum radius of gyration of full unreduced C4.5
cross section

r
o
Polar radius of gyration of cross section about the shear C3.1.2.1, C4.2, D4.1
center

r
x
, r
y
Radius of gyration of cross section about centroidal C3.1.2.1, D4.1
principal axis

S 1.28 E/ f B4, B4.1, B4.2, B5.2
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Symbols and Def init ions

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
28 November 9, 2001
S
c
Elastic section modulus of the effective section calculated B2.1, C3.1.2.1
at a stress

F
c
in the extreme compression fiber

S
e
Elastic section modulus of the effective section calculated C3.1.1, C3.1.3, C3.1.4
with extreme compression or tension fiber at F
y

S
f
Elastic section modulus of full, unreduced section for B2.1, C3.1.2.1, C3.1.2.2, C6.1
extreme compression fiber

S
ft
Section modulus of the full section for the extreme C5.1.1, C5.1.2
tension the fiber

S
n
In-plane diaphragm nominal shear strength [resistance] D5
s Fastener spacing D4.1
s Spacing in line of stress of welds, rivets, or bolts D1.2
connecting a compression coverplate or sheet to a
non-integral stiffener or other element
s Sheet width divided by the number of bolts holes in the E3.2
cross section being analyzed
s Weld spacing D1.1
s′ Longitudinal center-to-center spacing of any consecutive E3.2
holes
s′ Fastener spacing for which
o
Q is tabulated D4.1
s
max
Maximum permissible longitudinal spacing of welds or D1.1
other connectors joining two C-sections to form an
I-section

T Required allowable tensile axial strength, for ASD C5.1.1

T Load due to contraction or expansion caused by A3.1, A3.1, A6.1.2, A6.1.2.2
temperature changes

T
f
Tension due to factored loads C5.1.2
T
n
Nominal tensile strength [resistance] C2, C5.1.1, C5.1.2
T
s
Design strength [factored resistance] of connection in D1.1
tension
T
u
Required tensile axial strength, for LRFD C5.1.2
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SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
November 9, 2001 29
T
*
Required tensile axial strength [factored tension] with C5.1.2
respect to the centroid

t Base steel thickness of any element or section A1.2, A2.3.2, A2.4, A7.2, B1.1,
B1.2, B2.1, B2.2, B2.4, B4,
B4.1, B4.2, B5.1, B5.1.1, B5.1.2,
B5.2, C3.1.1, C3.2.1, C3.2.2,
C3.4.1, C3.4.2, C3.5.1, C3.5.2,
C3.6.1, C3.6.2, C4.6, C6, C6.1,
C6.2, D1.2, D3.2.1, D4.1,
E3.3.1, E3.3.2, E4.3.2, D4,

t Thickness of coped web E5.1
t Total thickness of the two welded sheets E2.2.1, E2.2.2, E2.3
t Thickness of thinnest connected part E2.4, E2.5, E2.6, E3.1, E3.2,
E3.3.2
t
1
, t
2
Based thicknesses connected with fillet weld E2.4
t
1
Thickness of member in contact with the screw head E4, E4.3.1, E4.4.2
t
2
Thickness of member not in contact with the screw head E4, E4.3.1,
t
c
Lesser of the depth of the penetration and t
2
E4, E4.4.1
t
e
Effective throat dimension for groove weld E2.1
t
i
Thickness of uncompressed glass fiber blanket insulation C3.1.3
t
s
Thickness of stiffener C3.6.1
t
w
Effective throat of weld E2.4, E2.5

U Reduction coefficient E2.7, E3.2

V Required allowable shear strength, for ASD C3.3.1
V
F
Coefficient of variation of the fabrication factor C3.1.5, F1.1
V
M
Coefficient of variation of the material factor C3.1.5, F1.1

V
f
Shear force due to factored loads, LSD C3.3.2
V
n
Nominal shear strength [resistance] C3.2.1, C3.3.1, C3.3.2, C3.6.2, E5.1

V
P
Coefficient of variation of the tested-to-predicted load C3.1.5, F1.1
ratios
V
Q
Coefficient of variation of the load effect C3.1.5, F1.1
V
u
Required shear strength, for LRFD C3.3.2
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Symbols and Def init ions

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
30 November 9, 2001
V
*
Required shear strength [factored shear] C3.3.2
W Design load supported by all purlin lines being D3.2.1
restrained

W Live load due to wind A3.1, A6.1.2, A6.1.2.2

w Flat width of element exclusive of radii A2.3.2, B1.1, B2.1, B2.2, B3.1, B4,
B4.1, B4.2, C3.1.1, C3.6.1, D1.2

w Flat width of the beam flange which contacts the C3.5.1, C3.5.2
bearing plate
w Flat width of the narrowest unstiffened compression D1.2
element tributary to the connections
w
f
Width of flange projection beyond the web or half the B1.1
distance between webs for box- or U-type sections

w
1
Leg on weld E2.4, E2.5
w
2
Leg on weld E2.4, E2.5

x Distance from concentrated load to brace D3.2.2
x Non-dimensional fastener location C4.6
x Nearest distance between web hole and edge of bearing C3.4.2
x
o
Distance from shear center to centroid along the C3.1.2.1, C4.2, D4.1
principal x-axis
x Distance from shear plane to centroid of the cross section E2.7, E3.2

Y Yield point of web steel divided by yield point of C3.6.2
stiffener steel

α Coefficient for purlin directions D3.2.1
α Modification factor for type of bearing connection E3.3.1
α Coefficient for conversion of units C4.6, E3.3.2, G3

α Load factor A1.2a
α
D
Dead load factor A6.1.2, A6.1.2.1
α
E
Load factor of live load due to earthquake A6.1.2, A6.1.2.1
α
L
Live load factor A6.1.2, A6.1.2.1
α
T
Load factor due to contraction or expansion caused by A6.1.2, A6.1.2.1
by temperature changes
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SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
November 9, 2001 31
α
W
Wind load factor A6.1.2, A.6.1.2.1

l/ α
x
, Magnification factors C5.2.1, C5.2.2
l/ α
y

β Coefficient B5.1.1, B5.1.2, C4.2, D4.1
β
o
Target reliability index C3.1.5, F1.1

δ, δ
i
, Coefficients B5.1.1, B5.1.2
γ, γ
i
,
ω, ω
i


γ Actual shear strain in the sheathing D4.1
γ Permissible shear strain of the sheathing D4.1
γ Importance factor A1.2a, A6.1.2, A6.1.2.3
γ
i
Load factor F1.1

θ Angle between web and bearing surface >45° but no C3.4.1
more than 90°

θ Angle between the vertical and the plane of the web of D3.2.1
the Z-section, degrees

θ Angle between an element and its edge stiffener B4, B4.2

λ, λ
c
Slenderness factors B2.1, B2.2, B5.1, C3.5.1,
C3.5.2, C4, C6.2
λ
1
, λ
2
Parameters used in determining compression strain C3.1.1
factor
µ Poisson’s ratio for steel = 0.30 B2.1, C3.2.1
ρ Reduction factor A7.2, B2.1, B5.1, F3.1

σ
CR
Theoretical elastic buckling stress D4.1
σ
ex

2
E)/ (K
x
L
x
/ r
x
)
2
C3.1.2.1, C4.2

2
E)/ (L/ r
x
)
2
D4.1
σ
exy

2
EI
xy
)/ (AL
2
) D4.1
)
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SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
32 November 9, 2001
σ
ey

2
E)/ (K
y
L
y
/ r
y
)
2
C3.1.2.1

2
E)/ (L/ r
y
)
2
D4.1

σ
tQ
σ
t
+Q
t
D4.1
σ
t
Torsional buckling stress C3.1.2.1, C4.2, C4.3, D4.1

φ Resistance factor A1.2, A5.1.1, A6.1.1, C3.1.5,
C3.5.2, , C4.6, E2.1, E2.2.1,
E2.2.2, E2.3, E2.4, E2.5, E2.6,
E2.7, E3.1, E3.2, E3.3.1, E3.3.2,
E3.4, E4, E4.3.2, E4.4, E4.4.3,
E5.1, F1.1, F1.2

φ
b
Resistance factor for bending strength C3.1.1, C3.1.2, C3.1.3, C3.1.4,
C3.3.2, C3.5.2, C5.1.2, C5.2.2,
C6.1, D4.2

φ
c
Resistance factor for concentrically loaded compression A2.3.1, C3.6.1, C4, C5.2.2,
member C6.2, D4.1
φ
d
Resistance factor for diaphragms D5
φ
t
Resistance factor for tension member C2, C5.1.2
φ
v
Resistance factor for shear strength C3.2.1, C3.3.2
φ
w
Resistance factor for web crippling strength C3.4.1, C3.5.2
ψ | f
2
/ f
1
| B2.3

ψ Load combination factor A6.1.2.3

Ω Factor of safety A1.2, A4.1.1, C3.1.5, C3.5.1,
C4.6, E2.1, E2.2.1, E2.2.2,
E2.3, E2.4, E2.5, E2.6, E2.7
E3.1, E3.2, E3.3.1, E3.3.2, E3.4,
E4, E4.3.2, E4.4, E4.4.3, E5.1,
F.1.2


b
Factor of safety for bending strength C3.1.1, C3.1.2, C3.1.3, C3.1.4,
C3.3.1, C3.5.1, C5.1.1, C5.2.1,
C6.1, D4.2

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SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Def i ni t i on Sect i on
November 9, 2001 33

c
Factor of safety for concentrically loaded compression A2.3.1, C4, C5.2.1, C6.2, D4.1
member


c
Factor of safety for bearing strength C3.6.1

d
Factor of safety for diaphragms D5

t
Factor of safety for tension member C2, C5.1.1

v
Factor of safety for shear strength C3.2.1, C3.3.1

w
Factor of safety for web crippling strength C3.4.1, C3.5.1

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Chapt er A, General Provisions
34 November 9, 2001
NORTH AMERICAN SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF
COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
A. GENERAL PROVISIONS
A1 Li mi t s of Appl i cabi l i t y and Terms
A1.1 Scope and Li mi t s of Appl i cabi l i t y
This Specification shall apply to the design of structural members cold-
formed to shape from carbon or low-alloy steel sheet, strip, plate or bar not
more than one in. (25.4 mm) in thickness and used for load-carrying purposes
in buildings. It shall be permitted to be used for structures other than
buildings provided appropriate allowances are made for dynamic effects.
This Specification includes Symbols and Definitions, Chapters A through
G, and Appendices A through C which shall apply as follows:
• Appendix A shall apply only in the United States,
• Appendix B shall apply only in Canada, and
• Appendix C shall apply only in Mexico
This Specification includes design provisions for Allowable Strength
Design (ASD), Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) and Limit States
Design (LSD). These design methods shall apply as follows:
• The use of ASD and LRFD shall be limited to the United States and
Mexico, and
• The use of LSD shall be limited to Canada
The nominal strength [nominal resistance]
!
and stiffness of cold-formed
steel elements, members, assemblies, connections, and details shall be
determined in accordance with the provisions in Chapters B through G of the
Specification and Appendices A through C. Where the composition or
configuration of such components is such that calculation of strength
[resistance] and/ or stiffness cannot be made in accordance with those
provisions, structural performance shall be established from either of the
following:
(a) Determine design strength [factored resistance] or stiffness by tests,
undertaken and evaluated in accordance with Chapter F.
(b) Determine design strength [factored resistance] or stiffness by
rational engineering analysis based on appropriate theory, related
testing if data is available, and engineering judgment. Specifically,
the design strength [factored resistance] shall be determined from
the calculated nominal strength [resistance] by applying the
following factors of safety or resistance factors:

Members
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω (ASD) φ (LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.00 0.80 0.75
Connections
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω (ASD) φ (LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.50 0.65 0.60
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed Specif icat ion
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Not e:
*Bracketed terms are equivalent terms that apply particularly to LSD.
A1.2 Terms
Where the following terms appear in this Specification they shall have
the meaning herein indicated:

General Terms
Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. Shapes manufactured by press-braking
blanks sheared from sheets, cut lengths of coils or plates, or by roll
forming cold- or hot-rolled coils or sheets; both forming operations being
performed at ambient room temperature, that is, without manifest
addition of heat such as would be required for hot forming.
Confirmatory Test. Test made, when desired, on members, connections, and
assemblies designed according to the provisions of Chapters A through G
of this Specification or its specific references, in order to compare actual
versus calculated performance.
Cross-Sectional Area:
Effective Area. Effective area, A
e
, calculated using the effective widths of
component elements in accordance with Chapter B. It can be a
gross area or a net area, as applicable, if the effective widths of all
component elements, determined in accordance with Chapter B, are
equal to the actual flat widths.
Full, Unreduced Area. Full, unreduced area, A, calculated without
reducing the widths of component element to their effective widths.
It can be an unreduced gross area or an unreduced net area, as
applicable.
Gross Area. Gross area, A
g
, without deductions for holes, openings, and
cutouts.
Net Area. Net area, A
n
, equal to gross area less the area of holes,
openings, and cutouts.
Distortional Buckling. Buckling mode in which the angle between elements of
the cross section does not stay constant.
Doubly Symmetric Section. A section symmetric about two orthogonal axes
through its centroid.
Effective Design Width. Flat width of an element reduced for design purposes,
also known simply as the effective width.
Flange of a Section in Bending. Flat width of flange including any intermediate
stiffeners plus adjoining corners.
Flat Width. Width of an element exclusive of corners measured along its
plane.
Flat-Width-to-Thickness Ratio (Flat Width Ratio). Flat width of an element
measured along its plane, divided by its thickness.
Girt. Horizontal structural member which supports wall panel and is
subjected to principally bending under applied loads.
Local Buckling. Buckling of elements only within a section, where the line
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Chapt er A, General Provisions
36 November 9, 2001
junctions between elements remain straight and angles between elements
do not change.
Master Coil. One continuous, weld-free coil as produced by a hot mill, cold
mill, metallic coating line or paint line and identifiable by unique coil
number. This coil may be cut into smaller coils or slit into narrower coils;
however, all of these smaller and/ or narrower finished coils could be said
to have come from the same master coil if they are traceable to the
original master coil number.
Multiple-Stiffened Element. Element stiffened between webs, or between a web
and a stiffened edge, by means of intermediate stiffeners parallel to the
direction of stress.
Performance Test. Test made on structural members, connections, and
assemblies whose performance cannot be determined by the provisions of
Chapters A through G of this Specification or its specific references.
Point-Symmetric Section. Section symmetrical about a point (centroid) such as
a Z-section having equal flanges.
Purlin. Horizontal structural member which supports roof deck and is
subjected to principally bending under applied loads.
Rational Engineering Analysis. Analysis based on theory that is appropriate for
the situation, any available test data that is relevant, and sound
engineering judgment.
Singly-Symmetric Section. Section symmetric about only one axis through its
centroid.
Specified Minimum Yield Point. Lower limit of yield point in a test specified to
qualify a lot of steel for use in a cold-formed steel structural member
designed at that yield point.
Stiffened or Partially Stiffened Compression Elements. Flat compression element
(i.e., a plane compression flange of a flexural member or a plane web or
flange of a compression member) of which both edges parallel to the
direction of stress are stiffened either by a web, flange, stiffening lip,
intermediate stiffener, or the like.
SS. ASTM designation for certain sheet steels intended for structural
applications.
Stress. Stress as used in this Specification means force per unit area.
Sub-Element of a Multiple Stiffened Element. Portion of a multiple stiffened
element between adjacent intermediate stiffeners, between web and
intermediate stiffener, or between edge and intermediate stiffener.
Tensile Strength: Maximum stress reached in a tension test.
Thickness. The thickness, t, of any element or section shall be the base steel
thickness, exclusive of coatings.
Torsional-Flexural Buckling. Buckling mode in which compression members
bend and twist simultaneously without change in cross sectional shape.
Unstiffened Compression Elements. Flat compression element stiffened at only
one edge parallel to the direction of stress.
Unsymmetric Section. Section not symmetric either about an axis or a point.
Virgin Steel. Steel as received from the steel producer or warehouse before
being cold worked as a result of fabricating operations.
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed Specif icat ion
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Virgin Steel Properties. Mechanical properties of virgin steel such as yield
point, tensile strength, and elongation.
Web. In a member subjected to flexure, the portion of the section that is joined
to two flanges, or that is joined to only one flange provided it crosses the
neutral axis.
Yield Point. Yield point, F
y
or F
sy
, as used in this Specification shall mean yield
point or yield strength.

ASD and LRFD Terms (USA and Mexi co):
ASD (Allowable Stress Design, herein referred as Allowable Strength Design). A
method of proportioning structural components (members, connectors,
connecting elements and assemblages) such that the allowable stress,
allowable force or allowable moment is not exceeded by the required
allowable strength of the component determined by the load effects of all
appropriate combinations of nominal loads.
Allowable Design Strength. Allowable strength, R
n
/ Ω, (force, moment, as
appropriate), provided by the structural component.
Design Strength. Factored resistance, φR
n
(force, moment, as appropriate),
provided by the structural component.
LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design). A method of proportioning
structural components (members, connectors, connecting elements and
assemblages) such that no applicable limit state is exceeded when the
structure is subjected to all appropriate combinations of factored loads.
Nominal loads. The magnitudes of the loads specified by the applicable code
not including load factors.
Nominal strength. The capacity of a structure or component to resist the effects
of loads, as determined in accordance with this Specification using
specified material strengths and dimensions.
Required Allowable Strength. Load effect (force, moment, as appropriate) acting
on the structural component determined by structural analysis from the
nominal loads for ASD (using all appropriate load combinations).
Required Strength. Load effect (force, moment, as appropriate) acting on the
structural component determined by structural analysis from the factored
loads for LRFD or nominal loads for ASD (using all appropriate load
combinations).
Resistance. See the definition of Nominal Strength.
Resistance Factor. A factor that accounts for unavoidable deviations of the
actual strength from the nominal value and the manner and
consequences of failure.

LSD Terms (Canada):
Limit States. Those conditions in which a structural member ceases to fulfill
the function for which it was designed. Those states concerning safety
are called the ultimate limit states. The ultimate limit state for strength is
the maximum load-carrying capacity. Limit states that restrict the
intended use of a member for reasons other than safety, such as deflection
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Chapt er A, General Provisions
38 November 9, 2001
and vibration, are called serviceability limit states.
Limit States Design (LSD). A method of proportioning structural components
(members, connectors, connecting elements and assemblages) such that
no applicable limit state is exceeded when the structure is subjected to all
appropriate load combinations.
Factored Load. Product of a specified load and appropriate load factor.
Factored Resistance. Product of nominal resistance and appropriate resistance
factor.
Nominal Resistance. The capacity of a structure or component to resist the
effects of loads, determined in accordance with this Specification using
specified material strengths and dimensions.
Resistance Factor. A factor that accounts for unavoidable deviations of the
actual strength from the nominal value and the manner and
consequences of failure.
Specified loads. The magnitudes of the loads specified by the applicable code
not including load factors.
A1.3 Uni t s of Symbol s and Terms
The Specification is written so that any compatible system of units may
be used except where explicitly stated otherwise in the text of these
provisions. The unit systems considered in those sections are U.S. customary
units (force in kilopounds and length in inches), SI units (force in Newtons
and length in millimeters) and MKS units (force in kilograms and length in
centimeters).
A2 Mat eri al
A2.1 Appl i cabl e St eel s
This Specification requires the use of steels intended for structural
applications as defined in general by the specifications of the American
Society for Testing and Materials listed below. Such steels are identified in
many ASTM specifications for sheet material as SS. Other steels for structural
applications that are applicable to specific countries as listed in Section A2.1a
of Appendix A, B or C shall also be permitted.
ASTM A36/ A36M, Carbon Structural Steel
ASTM A242/ A242M, High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel
ASTM A283/ A283M, Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel
Plates
ASTM A500, Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural
Tubing in Rounds and Shapes
ASTM A529/ A529M, High-Strength Carbon-Manganese Steel of Structural
Quality
ASTM A572/ A572M, High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium
Structural Steel
ASTM A588/ A588M, High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50 ksi
(345 MPa) Minimum Yield Point to 4 in. (100 mm) Thick
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ASTM A606, Steel, Sheet and Strip, High Strength, Low Alloy, Hot-Rolled and
Cold-Rolled, with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance
ASTM A653/ A653M (SS Grades 33 (230), 37 (255), 40 (275), and 50 (340) Class
1 and Class 3; HSLAS Types A and B, Grades 40 (275), 50 (340), 60 (410),
70 (480) and 80 (550)), Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron
Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by the Hot-Dip Process
ASTM A792/ A792M (Grades 33 (230), 37 (255), 40 (275), and 50 Class 1 (340
Class 1)), Steel Sheet, 55% Aluminum-Zinc Alloy-Coated by the Hot-Dip
Process
ASTM A847 Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless High Strength, Low Alloy
Structural Tubing with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance
ASTM A875/ A875M (SS Grades 33 (230), 37 (255), 40 (275), and 50 (340) Class
1 and Class 3; HSLAS Types A and B, Grades 50 (340), 60 (410), 70 (480),
and 80 (550)), Steel Sheet, Zinc-5% Aluminum Alloy-Coated by the Hot-
Dip Process
ASTM A1003/ A1003M, Steel Sheet, Carbon, Metallic- and Nonmetallic-
Coated for Cold-Formed Framing Members
ASTM A1008/ A1008M (SS Grades 25 (170), 30 (205), 33 (230) Types 1 and 2,
and 40 (275) Types 1 and 2; HSLAS Classes 1 and 2, Grades 45 (310), 50
(340), 55 (380), 60 (450), 65 (450), and 70 (480); HSLAS-F Grades 50 (340),
60 (410), 70 (480), and 80 (550)), Steel, Sheet, Cold-Rolled, Carbon,
Structural, High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy with
Improved Formability
ASTM A1011/ A1011M (SS Grades 30 (205), 33 (230), 36 (250) Types 1 and 2, 40
(275), 45 (310), 50 (340), and 55 (380); HSLAS Classes 1 and 2, Grades 45
(310), 50 (340), 55 (380), 60 (410), 65 (450), and 70 (480); HSLAS-F Grades
50 (340), 60 (410), 70 (480), and 80(550)), Steel, Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled,
Carbon, Structural, High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-
Alloy with Improved Formability
A2.2 Ot her St eel s
The listing in Section A2.1 does not exclude the use of steel up to and
including one in. (25.4 mm) in thickness ordered or produced to other than
the listed specifications provided such steel conforms to the chemical and
mechanical requirements of one of the listed specifications or other published
specification which establishes its properties and suitability, and provided it is
subjected by either the producer or the purchaser to analyses, tests and other
controls to the extent and in the manner prescribed by one of the listed
specifications and Section A2.3.
A2.3 Duct i l i t y
Steels not listed in Section A2.1 and used for structural members and
connections in accordance with Section A2.2 shall comply with one of the
following ductility requirements:
A2.3.1 The ratio of tensile strength to yield point shall not be less than
1.08, and the total elongation shall not be less than 10 percent for a two-
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Chapt er A, General Provisions
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inch gage (50 mm) length or 7 percent for an eight-inch (200 mm) gage
length standard specimen tested in accordance with ASTM A370. If these
requirements cannot be met, the following criteria shall be satisfied: (1)
local elongation in a 1/ 2 in. (12.7 mm) gage length across the fracture
shall not be less than 20%, (2) uniform elongation outside the fracture
shall not be less than 3%. When material ductility is determined on the
basis of the local and uniform elongation criteria, the use of such material
is restricted to the design of purlins and girts in accordance with Sections
C3.1.1(a), C3.1.2, C3.1.3, and C3.1.4. For purlins and girts subject to
combined axial load and bending moment (Section C5),
n
c
P
P Ω
shall not
exceed 0.15 for ASD,
n c
u
P
P
φ
shall not exceed 0.15 for LRFD and
n c
f
P
P
φ

shall not exceed 0.15 for LSD.

A2.3.2 Steels conforming to ASTM A653/ A653M SS Grade 80 (550),
A1008/ A1008M SS Grade 80 (550), A792/ A792M Grade 80 (550),
A875/ A875M SS Grade 80 (550) and other steels which do not meet the
provisions of Section A2.3.1 shall be permitted for multiple-web
configurations such as roofing, siding and floor decking provided that:
(1) the yield point, F
y
, used for determining nominal strength [resistance]
in Chapters B, C, and D is taken as 75 percent of the specified
minimum yield point or 60 ksi (414 MPa or 4220 kg/ cm
2
), whichever
is less, and
(2) the tensile strength, F
u
, used for determining nominal strength
[resistance] in Chapter E is taken as 75 percent of the specified
minimum tensile strength or 62 ksi (427 MPa or 4360 kg/ cm
2
),
whichever is less.
Alternatively, the suitability of such steels for any multi-web
configuration shall be demonstrated by load tests according to the
provisions of Section F1. Design strengths [factored resistances] based on
these tests shall not exceed the design strengths [factored resistances]
calculated according to Chapters B through G, using the specified
minimum yield point, F
y
, and the specified minimum tensile strength, F
u
.
Exception: For multiple-web configurations, a reduced yield point,
R
b
F
y
, shall be permitted for determining the nominal flexural strength
[moment resistance] in Section C3.1.1(a), for which the reduction factor,
R
b
, shall be determined as follows:
(a) Stiffened and Partially Stiffened Compression Flanges
For w/ t ≤ E/ F
y

R
b
= 1.0
For 0.067E/ F
y
< w/ t < 0.974E/ F
y

R
b
=1-0.26[wF
y
/ (tE) – 0.067]
0.4
(Eq. A2.3.2-1)
For 0.974E/ F
y
≤ w/ t ≤ 500
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R
b
= 0.75
(b) Unstiffened Compression Flanges
For w/ t ≤0.0173E/ F
y

R
b
= 1.0
For 0.0173E/ F
y
< w/ t ≤ 60
R
b
= ) tE / ( wF 6 . 0 079 . 1
y
− (Eq. A2.3.2-2)
where
E = Modulus of elasticity
F
y
= Yield point as specified in Section A7.1 ≤ 80 ksi (550 MPa, or 5620
kg/ cm
2
)
t = Thickness of section
w = Flat width of compression flange
The above Exception Clause does not apply to the use of steel deck for
composite slabs, for which the steel deck acts as the tensile reinforcement
of the slab.
A2.4 Del i vered Mi ni mum Thi ckness
The uncoated minimum steel thickness of the cold-formed product as
delivered to the job site shall not at any location be less than 95 percent of the
thickness, t, used in its design; however, lesser thicknesses shall be permitted
at bends, such as corners, due to cold-forming effects.
A3 Loads
Loads and load combinations shall be as stipulated by the applicable
country specific provisions, Section A3 of Appendix A, B, or C.

A4 Al l owabl e St rengt h Desi gn
A4.1 Desi gn Basi s
Design under this Section of the Specification shall be based on
Allowable Strength Design (ASD) principles. All provisions of this
Specification, except for those in Sections A5, A6 and in Chapters C and F
designated for LRFD and LSD, shall apply.

A4.1.1 ASD Requi rement s
A design satisfies the requirements of this Specification when the
allowable strength of each structural component equals or exceeds the
required allowable strength, determined on the basis of the nominal loads,
for all applicable load combinations.
The design shall be performed in accordance with Equation (A4.1.1-1):
R ≤ R
n
/ Ω (Eq. A4.1.1-1)
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Chapt er A, General Provisions
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where
R = Required allowable strength
R
n
= Nominal strength specified in Chapters B through G
Ω = Factor of safety specified in Chapters B through G
R
n
/ Ω =Allowable design strength

A4.1.2 Load Combi nat i ons f or ASD
Load combinations for ASD shall be as stipulated by Section A4.1.2 of
Appendix A or C.

A5 Load and Resi st ance Fact or Desi gn
A5.1 Desi gn Basi s
Design under this Section of the Specification shall be based on Load and
Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) principles. All provisions of this
Specification, except for those in Sections A4, A6 and in Chapters C and F
designated for ASD and LSD, shall apply.

A5.1.1 LRFD Requi rement s
A design satisfies the requirements of this Specification when the
design strength of each structural component equals or exceeds the
required strength determined on the basis of the nominal loads, multiplied
by the appropriate load factors, for all applicable load combinations.
The design shall be performed in accordance with Equation (A5.1.1-1):
R
u
≤ φR
n
(Eq. A5.1.1-1)
where
R
u
= Required strength
R
n
= Nominal strength specified in Chapters B through G
φ = Resistance factor specified in Chapters B through G
φR
n
= Design strength

A5.1.2 Load Fact ors and Load Combi nat i ons f or LRFD
Load factors and load combinations for LRFD shall be as stipulated
by Section A5.1.2 of Appendix A or C.

A6 Li mi t St at es Desi gn
A6.1 Desi gn Basi s
Design under this Section of the Specification shall be based on Limit
States Design (LSD) principles. All provisions of this Specification, except for
those in Sections A4, A5 and Chapters C and F designated for ASD and LRFD,
shall apply.

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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed Specif icat ion
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A6.1.1 LSD Requi rement s
Structural members and their connections shall be designed to have
resistance such that the factored resistance equals or exceeds the effect of
factored loads. The design shall be performed in accordance with Equation
(A6.1.1-1):
φR
n
≥ R
f
(Eq. A6.1.1-1)
where
R
f
= Effect of factored loads
R
n
= Nominal resistance specified in Chapters B through G
φ = Resistance factor specified in Chapters B through G
φR
n
= Factored resistance

A6.1.2 Load Fact ors and Load Combi nat i ons f or LSD
Load factors and load combinations for LSD shall be as stipulated
by Section A6.1.2 of Appendix B.

A7 Yi el d Poi nt and St rengt h Increase f rom Col d Work of Formi ng
A7.1 Yi el d Poi nt
The yield point used in design, F
y
, shall not exceed the specified
minimum yield point of steels as listed in Section A2.1 or A2.3.2, as
established in accordance with Chapter F, or as increased for cold work of
forming in Section A7.2.
A7.2 St rengt h Increase f rom Col d Work of Formi ng
Strength increase from cold work of forming shall be permitted by
substituting F
ya
for F
y
, where F
ya
is the average yield point of the full section.
Such increase shall be limited to Sections C2, C3.1 (excluding Section
C3.1.1(b)), C4, C5, C6 and D4. The limitations and methods for determining
F
ya
are as follows:
(a) For axially loaded compression members and flexural members whose
proportions are such that the quantity ρ for strength determination is
unity as calculated according to Section B2 for each of the component
elements of the section, the design yield stress, F
ya
, of the steel shall be
determined on the basis of one of the following methods:
(1) full section tensile tests [see paragraph (a) of Section F3.1]
(2) stub column tests [see paragraph (b) of Section F3.1]
(3) computed as follows:
F
ya
= CF
yc
+ (1 - C) F
yf
(Eq. A7.2-1)
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Chapt er A, General Provisions
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where
F
ya
= Average yield point of the steel in the full section of
compression members or full flange sections of flexural
members
C = For compression members, ratio of the total corner cross-
sectional area to the total cross-sectional area of the full
section; for flexural members, ratio of the total corner cross-
sectional area of the controlling flange to the full cross-
sectional area of the controlling flange
F
yf
= Weighted average tensile yield point of the flat portions
established in accordance with Section F3.2 or virgin steel
yield point if tests are not made
F
yc
= B
c
F
yv
/ (R/ t)
m
, tensile yield point of corners. This equation (Eq. A7.2-2)
is applicable only when F
uv
/ F
yv
≥ 1.2, R/ t ≤ 7, and the included
angle ≤ 120
o
B
c
= 3.69 (F
uv
/ F
yv
) - 0.819 (F
uv
/ F
yv
)
2
- 1.79 (Eq. A7.2-3)
m = 0.192 (F
uv
/ F
yv
) - 0.068 (Eq. A7.2-4)
R = Inside bend radius
F
yv
= Tensile yield point of virgin steel specified by Section A2 or
established in accordance with Section F3.3
F
uv
= Tensile strength of virgin steel specified by Section A2 or
established in accordance with Section F3.3
(b) For axially loaded tension members the yield point of the steel shall be
determined by either method (1) or method (3) prescribed in paragraph
(a) of this Section.
(c) The effect of any welding on mechanical properties of a member shall
be determined on the basis of tests of full section specimens containing
within the gage length, such welding as the manufacturer intends to
use. Any necessary allowance for such effect shall be made in the
structural use of the member.

A8 Servi ceabi l i t y
A structure shall be designed to perform its required functions during
its expected life. Serviceability limits shall be chosen based on the intended
function of the structure, and shall be evaluated using realistic loads and load
combinations.
A9 Ref erenced Document s
The following documents are referenced in this Specification. Refer to Section
A9a of Appendix A, B, or C for documents applicable to the corresponding
country.
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed Specif icat ion
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1. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME B46.1-85, “Surface
Texture, Surface Roughness, Waviness, and Lay”, American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, 1828 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036.
2. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor
Drive, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-2959:
ASTM A36/ A36M-00a, Carbon Structural Steel
ASTM A194/ A194M-00b, Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-
Pressure and High-Temperature Service
ASTM A242/ A242M-00a, High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel
ASTM A283/ A283M-00, Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon
Steel Plates
ASTM A307-00, Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60,000 PSI Tensile Strength
ASTM A325-00, Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/ 105 ksi
Minimum Tensile Strength
ASTM A325M-00, High Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints [Metric]
ASTM A354-00a, Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and
Other Externally Threaded Fasteners
ASTM A370-97a, Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical
Testing of Steel Products
ASTM A449-00, Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and Studs
ASTM A490-00, Heat-Treated Steel Structural Bolts, 150ksi Minimum
Tensile Strength
ASTM A490M-00, High Strength Steel Bolts, Classes 10.9 and 10.9.3, for
Structural Steel Joints [Metric]
ASTM A500-99, Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel
Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes
ASTM A529/ A529M-00, High-Strength Carbon-Manganese Steel of
Structural Quality
ASTM A563-00, Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts
ASTM A563M-00, Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts [Metric]
ASTM A572/ A572M-00a, High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-
Vanadium Structural Steel
ASTM A588/ A588M-00a, High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with
50 ksi [345 MPa] Minimum Yield Point to 4 in. [100 mm] Thick
ASTM A606-98, Steel, Sheet and Strip, High-Strength, Low-Alloy, Hot-
Rolled and Cold-Rolled, with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion
Resistance
ASTM A653/ A653M-00, Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or Zinc-
Iron Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by the Hot-Dip Process
ASTM A792/ A792M-99, Steel Sheet, 55% Aluminum-Zinc Alloy-Coated
by the Hot-Dip Process
ASTM A847-99a, Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless High Strength, Low
Alloy Structural Tubing with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion
Resistance
ASTM A875/ A875M-99 Steel Sheet, Zinc-5% Aluminum Alloy-Coated by
the hot-Dip Process
ASTM A1003/ A1003M-00, Steel Sheet, Carbon, Metallic- and
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Chapt er A, General Provisions
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Nonmetallic-Coated for Cold-Formed Framing Members
ASTM A1008/ A1008M-00 Steel, Sheet, Cold-Rolled, Carbon, Structural,
High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy with
Improved Formability
ASTM A1011/ A1011M-00 Steel, Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled, Carbon,
Structural, High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy
with Improved Formability
ASTM F436-00, Hardened Steel Washers
ASTM F436M-00, Hardened Steel Washers [Metric]
ASTM F844-00, Washers, Steel, Plain (Flat), Unhardened for General Use
ASTM F959-99a, Compressible Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators
for Use with Structural Fasteners
ASTM F959M-99a, Compressible Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators
for Use with Structural Fasteners [Metric]
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B. ELEMENTS
B1 Di mensi onal Li mi t s and Consi derat i ons
B1.1 Fl ange Fl at -Wi dt h-t o-Thi ckness Consi derat i ons
(a) Maximum Flat-Width-to-Thickness Ratios
Maximum allowable overall flat-width-to-thickness ratios, w/ t,
disregarding intermediate stiffeners and taking as t the actual thickness of
the element, shall be as follows:
(3) Stiffened compression element having one longitudinal edge
connected to a web or flange element, the other stiffened by:
Simple lip 60
Any other kind of stiffener
i) when I
s
< I
a
60
ii) when I
s
≥ I
a
90
(2) Stiffened compression element
with both longitudinal
edges connected to other
stiffened elements 500
(3) Unstiffened compression element 60

It shall be noted that unstiffened compression elements that have
w/ t ratios exceeding approximately 30 and stiffened compression
elements that have w/ t ratios exceeding approximately 250 are likely
to develop noticeable deformation at the full design strength, without
affecting the ability of the member to develop the required strength.
Stiffened elements having w/ t ratios larger than 500 can be used
with adequate design strength [factored resistance] to sustain the
required loads; however, substantial deformations of such elements
usually will invalidate the design equations of this Specification.
(b) Flange Curling
Where the flange of a flexural member is unusually wide and it is
desired to limit the maximum amount of curling or movement of the
flange toward the neutral axis, the following equation applies to
compression and tension flanges, either stiffened or unstiffened:
w
f
=
4
f av
) d / c 100 ( f / tdE 061 . 0 (Eq. B1.1-1)
where
w
f
= Width of flange projecting beyond the web;
or half of the distance between webs for box- or U-type beams
t = Flange thickness
d = Depth of beam
c
f
= Amount of curling displacement


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Chapt er B, Element s
48 November 9, 2001
f
av
= Average stress in the full, unreduced flange width. (Where
members are designed by the effective design width procedure,
the average stress equals the maximum stress multiplied by the
ratio of the effective design width to the actual width.)
(c) Shear Lag Effects - Short Spans Supporting Concentrated Loads
Where the beam has a span of less than 30w
f
(w
f
as defined below) and
it carries one concentrated load, or several loads spaced farther apart than
2w
f
, the effective design width of any flange, whether in tension or
compression, shall be limited to the following:
where
L = Full span for simple beams; or the distance between inflection
points for continuous beams; or twice the length for cantilever
beams.
w
f
= Width of flange projection beyond the web for I-beam and
similar sections; or half the distance between webs of box- or
U-type sections.

For flanges of I-beams and similar sections stiffened by lips at
the outer edges, w
f
shall be taken as the sum of the flange
projection beyond the web plus the depth of the lip.

B1.2 Maxi mum Web Dept h-t o-Thi ckness Rat i o
The ratio, h/ t, of the webs of flexural members shall not exceed the
following limitations:
(a) For unreinforced webs: (h/ t)
max
= 200
(b) For webs which are provided with transverse stiffeners satisfying
the requirements of Section C3.6.1:
(1) When using bearing stiffeners only, (h/ t)
max
= 260
Tabl e B1.1(c)
Short Span, Wi de Fl anges
Maxi mum Al l owabl e Rat i o of Ef f ect i ve Desi gn Wi dt h t o
Act ual Wi dt h
L/ w
f
Ratio L/ w
f
Ratio
30
25
20
18
16
1.00
0.96
0.91
0.89
0.86
14
12
10
8
6
0.82
0.78
0.73
0.67
0.55

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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
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(2) When using bearing stiffeners and intermediate stiffeners,
(h/ t)
max
= 300
In the above,
h = Depth of flat portion of web measured along the plane of web
t = Web thickness
Where a web consists of two or more sheets, the h/ t ratio shall
be computed for the individual sheets.
B2 Ef f ect i ve Wi dt hs of St i f f ened El ement s
B2.1 Uni f orml y Compressed St i f f ened El ement s
(a) Strength Determination
The effective width, b, shall be determined from the following equations:
b = w when λ ≤ 0.673 (Eq. B2.1-1)
b = ρw when λ > 0.673 (Eq. B2.1-2)
where
w = Flat width as shown in Figure B2.1-1
ρ = (1 - 0.22/ λ )/λ (Eq. B2.1-3)
λ is a slenderness factor determined as follows:
λ =
cr
F
f
(Eq. B2.1-4)
F
cr
=
2
2
2
w
t
) 1 ( 12
E
k

,
`

.
|
µ −
π
(Eq. B2.1-5)
where
t = Thickness of the uniformly compressed stiffened elements
µ = Poisson’s ratio of steel, and
f is as follows:
For flexural members:
(l) If Procedure I of Section C3.1.1 is used:
When the initial yielding is in compression in the element
considered, f = F
y
.
When the initial yielding is in tension, the compressive stress, f,
in the element considered shall be determined on the basis of the
effective section at M
y
(moment causing initial yield).
(2) If Procedure II of Section C3.1.1 is used, f is the stress in the
element considered at M
n
determined on the basis of the
effective section.
(3) If Section C3.1.2.1 is used, f is the stress F
c
as described in that
Section in determining S
c
.
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Chapt er B, Element s
50 November 9, 2001
For compression members, f is taken equal to F
n
as determined in
Section C4 or D4.1 as applicable.
E = Modulus of elasticity
k = Plate buckling coefficient
= 4 for stiffened elements supported by a web on each
longitudinal edge. Values for different types of elements are
given in the applicable sections.
(b) Serviceability Determination
The effective width, b
d
, used in determining serviceability shall be
calculated from the following equations:
b
d
= w when λ ≤ 0.673 (Eq. B2.1-6)
b
d
= ρw when λ > 0.673 (Eq. B2.1-7)
where
w = Flat width
ρ = Reduction factor determined by either of the following two procedures:
(1) Procedure I.
A low estimate of the effective width may be obtained from Eqs. B2.1-3
and B2.1-4 except that f
d
is substituted for f, where f
d
is the computed
compressive stress in the element being considered.
(2) Procedure II.
For stiffened elements supported by a web on each longitudinal
edge, an improved estimate of the effective width can be obtained by
calculating ρ as follows:
ρ = 1 when λ ≤ 0.673 (Eq. B2.1-8)
ρ = (1.358 - 0.461/ λ )/ λ when 0.673 < λ < λ
c
(Eq. B2.1-9)
ρ = (0.41 + 0.59
d y
f / F - 0.22/ λ)/ λ when λ ≥ λ
c
(Eq. B2.1-10)
ρ shall not exceed 1.0 for all cases.
where
λ
c
= 0.256 + 0.328 (w/ t) E / F
y
(Eq. B2.1-11)
and λ is as defined by Eq. B2.1-4, except that f
d
is substituted for f.

w
Actual Element
b/2
Effective Element, b, and Stress, f,
on Effective Elements
b/2
f

Figure B2.1 Figure B2.1 Figure B2.1 Figure B2.1 - -- -1 1 1 1 St if f ened St iff ened St iff ened St iff ened El ement s El ement s El ement s El ement s
)
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B2.2 Uni f orml y Compressed St i f f ened El ement s wi t h Ci rcul ar Hol es
(a) Strength Determination
The effective width, b, shall be determined as follows:
for 0.50 ≥
w
d
h
≥ 0, and
t
w
≤ 70 and
the distance between centers of holes ≥ 0.50w and ≥3d
h
,

b = w - d
h
when λ ≤ 0.673 (Eq. B2.2-1)

b =
λ
]
]
]


λ

w
) d 8 . 0 ( ) 22 . 0 (
1 w
h
when λ > 0.673 (Eq. B2.2-2)

b shall not exceed w - d
h
where
w = Flat width
d
h
=Diameter of holes
λ is as defined in Section B2.1.
(b) Serviceability Determination
The effective width, b
d
, used in determining serviceability shall be equal
to b calculated in accordance with Procedure I of Section B2.1(b), except
that f
d
is substituted for f, where f
d
is the computed compressive stress
in the element being considered.

B2.3 Webs and ot her St i f f ened El ement s under St ress Gradi ent
The following notation is used in this section:
b
1
= Effective width, dimension defined in Figure B2.3-1
b
2
= Effective width, dimension defined in Figure B2.3-1
b
e
= Effective width b determined in accordance with Section B2.1 with
f
1
substituted for f and with k determined as given in this section
b
o
= Out-to-out width of the compression flange as defined in Figure
B2.3-2
f
1
, f
2
= Stresses shown in Figure B2.3-1 calculated on the basis of effective
section. Where f
1
and f
2
are both compression, f
1
≥ f
2

h
o
= Out-to-out width of the web as defined in Figure B2.3-2
k = Plate buckling coefficient
ψ = | f
2
/ f
1
| (absolute value) (Eq. B2.3-1)
(a) Strength Determination
(i) For webs under stress gradient (f
1
in compression and f
2
in tension as
shown in Figure B2.3-1)
)
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k = 4 + 2(1 + ψ)
3
+ 2(1 + ψ) (Eq. B2.3-2)
For h
o
/ b
o
≤ 4
b
1
= b
e
/ (3 + ψ) (Eq. B2.3-3)
b
2
= b
e
/ 2 when ψ > 0.236 (Eq. B2.3-4)
b
2
= b
e
– b
1
when ψ ≤ 0.236 (Eq. B2.3-5)
In addition, b
1
+ b
2
shall not exceed the compression portion of the
web calculated on the basis of effective section.
For h
o
/ b
o
> 4
b
1
= b
e
/ (3 + ψ) (Eq. B2.3-6)
b
2
= b
e
/ (1 + ψ) – b
1
(Eq. B2.3-7)
(ii) For other stiffened elements under stress gradient (f
1
and f
2
in
w
b
f (Compression)
Actual Element
Effective Elements and Stress
on Effective Elements
1
b
2
2
f (Compression)
1
f (Tension)
2
f (Compression)
1
b
1
b
2
(a) Webs under Stress Gradient (b) Other Stiffened Elements under Stress Gradient

Figure B2.3 Figure B2.3 Figure B2.3 Figure B2.3 - -- -1 Webs and ot her St if f ened Element s under St ress Gradient 1 Webs and ot her St if f ened Element s under St ress Gradient 1 Webs and ot her St if f ened Element s under St ress Gradient 1 Webs and ot her St if f ened Element s under St ress Gradient
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compression as shown in Figure B2.3-1)
k = 4 + 2(1 - ψ)
3
+ 2(1 - ψ) (Eq. B2.3-8)
b
1
= b
e
/ (3 - ψ) (Eq. B2.3-9)
b
2
= b
e
– b
1
(Eq. B2.3-10)
(b) Serviceability Determination
The effective widths used in determining serviceability shall be
calculated in accordance with Section B2.3(a) except that f
d1
and f
d2
are
substituted for f
1
and f
2
, where f
d1
and f
d2
are the computed stresses f
1

and f
2
based on the effective section at the load for which serviceability is
determined.

B2.4 C-Sect i on Webs wi t h Hol es under St ress Gradi ent
These provisions shall be applicable within the following limits:
(1) d
0
/ h < 0.7
(2) h / t ≤ 200
(3) Holes centered at mid-depth of the web
(4) Clear distance between holes ≥ 18 in. (457 mm)
(5) Non-circular holes, corner radii ≥ 2t
(6) Non-circular holes, d
0
≤ 2.5 in. (64 mm) and b ≤ 4.5 in. (114 mm)
(7) Circular hole diameters ≤ 6 in. (152 mm)
(8) d
0
> 9/ 16 in. (14 mm)
(a) Strength Determination
When d
0
/ h < 0.38, the effective widths, b
1
and b
2
, shall be determined
by Section B2.3(a) by assuming no hole exists in the web.
When d
0
/ h ≥ 0.38, the effective width shall be determined by Section
B3.1(a) assuming the compression portion of the web consists of an
unstiffened element adjacent to the hole with f = f
1
as shown in Figure
B2.3-1.
b
o
h
o
b
o
h
o

Figure B2.3 Figure B2.3 Figure B2.3 Figure B2.3 - -- -2 Out 2 Out 2 Out 2 Out - -- -t o t o t o t o- -- -Out Dimensions of Webs an Out Dimensions of Webs an Out Dimensions of Webs an Out Dimensions of Webs and St if f ened El ement s under St ress Gradient d St if f ened El ement s under St ress Gradient d St if f ened El ement s under St ress Gradient d St if f ened El ement s under St ress Gradient
)
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Chapt er B, Element s
54 November 9, 2001
(b) Serviceability Determination
The effective widths shall be determined by Section B2.3(b) by
assuming no hole exists in the web.

where
d
0
= Depth of web hole
b = Length of web hole
b
1
, b
2
= Effective widths defined by Figure B2.3-1
h = Depth of flat portion of the web measured along the plane of
the web
Other variables are defined in B2.3.
B3 Ef f ect i ve Wi dt hs of Unst i f f ened El ement s
B3.1 Uni f orml y Compressed Unst i f f ened El ement s
(a) Strength Determination
The effective width, b, shall be determined in accordance with Section
B2.1(a), except that k shall be taken as 0.43 and w as defined in Figure
B3.1-1.
(b) Serviceability Determination
The effective width, b
d
, used in determining serviceability shall be
calculated in accordance with Procedure I of Section B2.1(b), except that
f
d
is substituted for f and k = 0.43.

B3.2 Unst i f f ened El ement s and Edge St i f f eners wi t h St ress Gradi ent
(a) Strength Determination
The effective width, b, shall be determined in accordance with Section
B2.1(a) with f = f
3
as in Figure B4-2 in the element and k = 0.43.
(b) Serviceability Determination
The effective width, b
d
, used in determining serviceability shall be
calculated in accordance with Procedure I of Section B2.1(b), except that
f
d3
is substituted for f and k = 0.43, where f
d3
=computed stress f
3
as
shown in Figure B4-2. Calculations are based on the effective section at
w
Actual Element
b
Effective Element and Stress
on Effective Elements
Stress f

Figure B3.1 Figure B3.1 Figure B3.1 Figure B3.1 - -- -1 Unst if f ened Element wit h Unif orm Compression 1 Unst if f ened Element wit h Unif orm Compression 1 Unst if f ened Element wit h Unif orm Compression 1 Unst if f ened Element wit h Unif orm Compression
)
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
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the load for which the serviceability is determined.
B4 Ef f ect i ve Wi dt hs of El ement s wi t h One Int ermedi at e St i f f ener or an Edge
St i f f ener
The following notation is used in this section.
S = f / E 28 . 1 (Eq. B4-1)
k = Buckling coefficient
b
o
= Dimension defined in Figure B4-1
d, w, D = Dimensions defined in Figure B4-2
d
s
= Reduced effective width of the stiffener as specified in this section.
d
s
, calculated according to Section B4.2, is to be used in computing
the overall effective section properties (see Figure B4-2)
d′
s
= Effective width of the stiffener calculated according to Section B3.1
(see Figure B4-2)
A
s
= Reduced area of the stiffener as specified in this section. A
s
is to
be used in computing the overall effective section properties. The
centroid of the stiffener is to be considered located at the centroid
of the full area of the stiffener.
I
a
= Adequate moment of inertia of the stiffener, so that each
component element will behave as a stiffened element.
I
s
, A′
s
= Moment of inertia of the full section of the stiffener about its own
centroidal axis parallel to the element to be stiffened, and the
effective area of the stiffener, respectively. For edge stiffeners, the
round corner between the stiffener and the element to be stiffened
shall not be considered as a part of the stiffener.

For the stiffener shown in Figure B4-2:
I
s
= (d
3
t sin
2
θ)/ 12 (Eq. B4-2)
A′
s
= d′
s
t (Eq. B4-3)

B4.1 Uni f orml y Compressed El ement s wi t h One Int ermedi at e St i f f ener
(a) Strength Determination
For b
o
/ t ≤ S
I
a
= 0 (no intermediate stiffener required)
b = w (Eq. B4.1-1)
A
s
= A′
s
(Eq. B4.1-2)
For b
o
/ t > S
A
s
= A′
s
(R
I
) (Eq. B4.1-3)
n =
3
1
S 12
t / b
583 . 0
o

]
]
]

− (Eq. B4.1-4)
k = 3(R
I
)
n
+ 1 (Eq. B4.1-5)
)
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Chapt er B, Element s
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R
I
= I
s
/ I
a
≤ 1 (Eq. B4.1-6)
where
i) For S < b
o
/ t < 3S
I
a
=
]
]
]

− 50
S
t / b
50 t
o 4
(Eq. B4.1-7)
ii) For b
o
/ t ≥ 3S
I
a
=
]
]
]

− 285
S
t / b
128 t
o 4
(Eq. B4.1-8)
The effective width, b, is calculated in accordance with Section B2.1(a).
(b) Serviceability Determination
The effective width, b
d
, used in determining serviceability shall be
calculated as in Section B4.1(a), except that f
d
is substituted for f.

B4.2 Uni f orml y Compressed El ement s wi t h an Edge St i f f ener
(a) Strength Determination
For w/ t ≤ 0.328S:
I
a
= 0 (no edge stiffener needed)
b = w (Eq. B4.2-1)
b
1
= b
2
= w/ 2 (see Fig. B4-2) (Eq. B4.2-2)
d
s
= d′
s
for simple lip stiffener (Eq. B4.2-3)
A
s
= A′
s
for other stiffener shapes (Eq. B4.2-4)
For w/ t > 0.328S
b
1
= b/ 2 (R
I
) (see Fig. B4-2) (Eq. B4.2-5)
b
2
= b – b
1
(see Fig. B4-2) (Eq. B4.2-6)
d
s
= d′
s
(R
I
) for simple lip stiffener (Eq. B4.2-7)
Stress f
Effective Elements and Stress
on Effective Elements
Stiffener Section
b/2 b/2 b/2 b/2
b
o
Actual Elements
w

Figure B4 Figure B4 Figure B4 Figure B4 - -- -1 Element s wit h One Int ermediat e St iffener 1 Element s wit h One Int ermediat e St iffener 1 Element s wit h One Int ermediat e St iffener 1 Element s wit h One Int ermediat e St iffener
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
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A
s
= A′
s
(R
I
) for other stiffener shapes (Eq. B4.2-8)
where
S = Term defined in Eq. B4-1.
(R
I
) =I
s
/ I
a
≤ 1 (Eq. B4.2-9)
I
a
=
]
]
]

+ ≤
]
]
]

− 5
S
t / w
115 t 327 . 0
S
t / w
t 399
4
3
4
(Eq. B4.2-10)
n =
3
1
S 4
t / w
582 . 0 ≥
]
]
]

− (Eq. B4.2-11)

The effective width, b, shall be calculated in accordance with Section
B2.1 with k as given in Table B4.2.

Tabl e B4.2 Det ermi nat i on of Pl at e Buckl i ng Coef f i ci ent k
Simple Lip Edge Stiffener (140° ≥ θ ≥ 40°)
D/ w ≤ 0.25 0.25 < D/ w ≤ 0.8
Other Edge Stiffener Shapes
4 43 . 0 ) R ( 57 . 3
n
I
≤ +
4 43 . 0 ) R )(
w
D 5
82 . 4 (
n
I
≤ + −
4 43 . 0 ) R ( 57 . 3
n
I
≤ +
w
θ
D
d
D, d = Actual stiffener dimensions
=
d
s
d'
s
Stress f for Compression Flange
Centroidal Axis
Stress f for Lip
d'
d
s
Effective width of stiffener
calculated according to
Section B3.1
= Reduced effective width of
stiffener
b
2
b
1
d
3
s

Figure B4 Figure B4 Figure B4 Figure B4 - -- -2 Element 2 Element 2 Element 2 Element s ss s wit h Si mple Li p Edge St if f ener wit h Si mple Li p Edge St if f ener wit h Si mple Li p Edge St if f ener wit h Si mple Li p Edge St if f ener
)
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Chapt er B, Element s
58 November 9, 2001
(b) Serviceability Determination
The effective width, b
d
, used in determining serviceability shall be
calculated as in Section B4.2(a), except that f
d
is substituted for f.

B5 Ef f ect i ve Wi dt hs of St i f f ened El ement s wi t h Mul t i pl e Int ermedi at e St i f f eners
or Edge St i f f ened El ement s wi t h Int ermedi at e St i f f eners
B5.1 Ef f ect i ve Wi dt hs of Uni f orml y Compressed St i f f ened El ement s wi t h
Mul t i pl e Int ermedi at e St i f f eners
The following notation is used in this section.
A
g
= Gross area of the element including stiffeners
A
s
= Gross area of a stiffener
b
e
= Effective width of the element, located at the centroid of the
element including stiffeners, see Figure B5.1-2.
b
p
= Largest sub-element flat width, see Figure B5.1-1.
b
o
= Total flat width of the stiffened element, see Figure B5.1-1.
c
i
= Horizontal distance from the edge of the element to centerline(s) of
the stiffener(s), see Figure B5.1-1.
f
1
= Uniform compressive stress acting on the flat element
h = Width of elements adjoining the stiffened element (e.g., the depth of
the web in a hat section with multiple intermediate stiffeners in the
compression flange is equal to h; if adjoining elements have
different widths, use the smallest one.)
I
sp
= Moment of inertia of a stiffener about the centerline of the flat
portion of the element, the radii which connect the stiffener to the
flat may be included.
k = Plate buckling coefficient of the element
k
d
= Plate buckling coefficient for distortional buckling.
k
1oc
= Plate buckling coefficient for local sub-element buckling.
L
br
= Unsupported length between brace point or other restraint which
restricts distortional buckling of the element.
R = Modification factor for the distortional plate buckling coefficient
n = Number of stiffeners in the element
t = Element thickness
i = Index for stiffener “i”

The effective width shall be determined as follows:

,
`

.
|
ρ ·
t
A
b
g
e
(Eq. B5.1-1)
1 · ρ when λ ≤ 0.673 (Eq. B5.1-2)
)
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
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λ λ − · ρ / ) / 22 . 0 1 ( when λ > 0.673 (Eq. B5.1-3)
cr
1
F
f
· λ (Eq. B5.1-4)
2
o
2
2
cr
b
t
) 1 ( 12
E
k F

,
`

.
|
µ −
π
· (Eq. B5.1-5)
The plate buckling coefficient, k, shall be determined from the
minimum of Rk
d
and k
loc
, as determined from section B5.1.1 or
B5.1.2, as appropriate.
k = the minimum of Rk
d
and k
loc
(Eq. B5.1-6)
2 R · when b
o
/ h < 1 (Eq. B5.1-6)

5
h b 11
R
2
1 o


· when b
o
/ h ≥ 1 (Eq. B5.1-8)

B5.1.1 Speci f i c Case: ‘ n’ Ident i cal St i f f eners, Equal l y Spaced
(a) Strength Determination
k
loc
=
2
) 1 n ( 4 + (Eq. B5.1.1-1)
k
d
=
)) 1 n ( 1 (
) n 1 ( ) 1 (
2
2 2
+ δ + β
+ γ + β +
(Eq. B5.1.1-2)
β =
4
1
)) 1 n ( 1 ( + γ + (Eq. B5.1.1-3)
If L
br
< βb
o
then L
br
/ b
o
shall be permitted to be substituted for β to
account for increased capacity due to bracing.
3
o
sp
t b
I 92 . 10
· γ (Eq. B5.1.1-4)
t b
A
o
s
· δ (Eq. B5.1.1-5)
(b) Serviceability Determination
The effective width, b
d
, used in determining serviceability shall be
calculated as in Section B5.1.1(a), except that f
d
shall be substituted for
f
1
, where f
d
is the computed compressive stress in the element being
considered based on the effective section at the load for which
serviceability is determined.

B5.1.2 General Case: Arbi t rary St i f f ener Si ze, Locat i on and Number
(a) Strength Determination
k
loc
= ( )
2
p o
b b 4 (Eq. B5.1.2-1)
)
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Chapt er B, Element s
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k
d
=

,
`

.
|
ω δ + β
ω γ + β +


·
·
n
1 i
i i
2
n
1 i
i i
2 2
2 1
2 ) 1 (
(Eq. B5.1.2-2)
β =
4
1
1 2
n
1 i
i i

,
`

.
|
+ ω γ

·
(Eq. B5.1.2-3)
If L
br
< βb
o
then L
br
/ b
o
shall be permitted to be substituted for β to
account for increased capacity due to bracing.
3
o
i sp
i
t b
) I ( 92 . 10
· γ (Eq. B5.1.2-4)
)
b
c
( sin
o
i 2
i
π · ω (Eq. B5.1.2-5)
t b
) A (
o
i s
i
· δ (Eq. B5.1.2-6)
(b) Serviceability Determination
The effective width, b
d
, used in determining serviceability shall be
calculated as in Section B5.1.2(a), except that f
d
shall be substituted for
f
1
, where f
d
is the computed compressive stress in the element being
considered based on the effective section at the load for which
serviceability is determined.
b
c
1
c
2
b
p
o

Figure B5.1 Figure B5.1 Figure B5.1 Figure B5.1 - -- -1 Plat e Widt hs and 1 Plat e Widt hs and 1 Plat e Widt hs and 1 Plat e Widt hs and St if f ener St if f ener St if f ener St if f ener Locat ion Locat ion Locat ion Locat ion

Centroid
t
Centroid
t
0.5b
e
0.5b
e

Figure B5.1 Figure B5.1 Figure B5.1 Figure B5.1 - -- -2 Ef f ect i ve Widt h De 2 Ef f ect i ve Widt h De 2 Ef f ect i ve Widt h De 2 Ef f ect i ve Widt h Det ermi nat ion t ermi nat ion t ermi nat ion t ermi nat ion
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B5.2 Edge St i f f ened El ement s wi t h Int ermedi at e St i f f eners
(a) Strength Determination
The effective width, b
e
, shall be determined as follows:
If b
o
/ t ≤ 0.328S, the element is fully effective and no local buckling
reductions are required.
If b
o
/ t > 0.328S, then the plate buckling coefficient, k, shall be
determined from the provisions of Section B4.2, but with b
o

replacing w in all expressions.
If k calculated from Section B4.2 is less than 4.0 (k < 4) then the
intermediate stiffener(s) shall be ignored and the provisions of
Section B4.2 should be followed for calculation of the effective
width.
If k calculated from Section B4.2 is equal to 4.0 (k = 4) then the
effective width of the edge stiffened element shall be calculated
from the provisions of Section B5.1, with the following
exception:
R calculated from equations B5.1-7 and B5.1-8 must be less than
or equal to 1.
where
b
o
= Total flat width of the edge stiffened element
Other variables are defined in Section B4 and B5.1.
(b) Serviceability Determination
The effective width, b
d
, used in determining serviceability shall be
calculated as in Section B5.2(a), except that f
d
shall be substituted for f and f
1
,
where f
d
is the computed compressive stress in the element being considered.


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62 November 5, 2001
C. MEMBERS
C1 Propert i es of Sect i ons
Properties of sections (cross-sectional area, moment of inertia, section
modulus, radius of gyration, etc.) shall be determined in accordance with
conventional methods of structural design. Properties shall be based on the full
cross section of the members (or net sections where the use of net section is
applicable) except where the use of a reduced cross section, or effective design
width, is required.

C2 Tensi on Members
The provisions of this section are given in Section C2 of the Appendices.

C3 Fl exural Members
C3.1 St rengt h [Resi st ance] f or Bendi ng Onl y
The nominal flexural strength [moment resistance], M
n
, shall be the
smallest of the values calculated according to Sections C3.1.1, C3.1.2, and
C3.1.3, as well as sections provided under C3.1 of Appendix A, B, or C where
applicable.
The provisions of this Section do not consider torsional effects, such as
those resulting from loads that do not pass through the shear center of the
cross section. See Section D3 for the design of lateral bracing required to
restrain lateral bending or twisting.

C3.1.1 Nomi nal Sect i on St rengt h [Resi st ance]
The nominal flexural strength [moment resistance], M
n
, shall be
calculated either on the basis of initiation of yielding in the effective section
(Procedure I) or on the basis of the inelastic reserve capacity (Procedure II)
as applicable.
For sections with stiffened or partially stiffened compression
flanges:
USA and Mexico Canada

b
(ASD) φ
b
(LRFD) φ
b
(LSD)
1.67 0.95 0.90
For sections with unstiffened compression flanges:
USA and Mexico Canada

b
(ASD) φ
b
(LRFD) φ
b
(LSD)
1.67 0.90 0.90
(a) Procedure I - Based on Initiation of Yielding
Effective yield moment based on section strength [resistance], M
n
,
shall be determined as follows:
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M
n
= S
e
F
y
(Eq. C3.1.1-1)
where
F
y
= Design yield stress as determined in Section A7.1
S
e
= Elastic section modulus of the effective section calculated
with the extreme compression or tension fiber at F
y
(b) Procedure II - Based on Inelastic Reserve Capacity
The inelastic flexural reserve capacity is permitted to be used when
the following conditions are met:
(1) The member is not subject to twisting or to lateral, torsional, or
torsional-flexural buckling.
(2) The effect of cold forming is not included in determining the yield
point F
y
.
(3) The ratio of the depth of the compressed portion of the web to its
thickness does not exceed λ
1
.
(4) The shear force does not exceed 0.35F
y
times the web area, ht, for
ASD, and 0.6F
y
ht for LRFD and LSD.
(5) The angle between any web and the vertical does not exceed 30
degrees.
The nominal flexural strength [moment resistance], M
n
, shall not
exceed either 1.25 S
e
F
y
determined according to Procedure I or that
causing a maximum compression strain of C
y
e
y
(no limit is placed on
the maximum tensile strain).
where
e
y
= Yield strain = F
y
/ E
E = Modulus of elasticity
C
y
= Compression strain factor determined as follows:
(a) Stiffened compression elements without intermediate
stiffeners
C
y
= 3 for w/ t ≤ λ
1
C
y
=
2 1
1 2
1
t
w
for
t / w
2 3 λ < < λ

,
`

.
|
λ − λ
λ −

C
y
= 1 for w/ t > λ
2
where

E / F
11 . 1
y
1
· λ (Eq. C3.1.1-2)

E / F
28 . 1
y
2
· λ (Eq. C3.1.1-3)
(b) Unstiffened compression elements
C
y
= 1
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Chapt er C, Members
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(c) Multiple-stiffened compression elements and compression
elements with edge stiffeners
C
y
= 1
When applicable, effective design widths shall be used in
calculating section properties. M
n
shall be calculated considering
equilibrium of stresses, assuming an ideally elastic-plastic stress-strain
curve which is the same in tension as in compression, assuming small
deformation and assuming that plane sections remain plane during
bending. Combined bending and web crippling shall be checked by
provisions of Section C3.5.

C3.1.2 Lat eral -Torsi onal Buckl i ng St rengt h [Resi st ance]
C3.1.2.1 Lat eral -Torsi onal Buckl i ng St rengt h [Resi st ance] of Open Cross
Sect i on Members
The provisions of this Section apply to I-, Z-, C- and other singly-
symmetric section flexural members (not including multiple-web deck,
U- and closed box-type members, and curved or arch members). The
provisions of this Section do not apply to laterally unbraced
compression flanges of otherwise laterally stable sections. Refer to
C3.1.3 for C- and Z-purlins in which the tension flange is attached to
sheathing.
For laterally unbraced segments of singly-, doubly-, and point-
symmetric sections subject to lateral-torsional buckling, the nominal
flexural strength [moment resistance], M
n
, shall be calculated as follows:
M
n

c c
F S · (Eq. C3.1.2.1-1)
USA and Mexico Canada

b
(ASD) φ
b
(LRFD) φ
b
(LSD)
1.67 0.90 0.90
where
S
c
= Elastic section modulus of effective section calculated at a stress F
c

relative to the extreme compression fiber
F
c
is determined as follows:
For F
e
≥ 2.78F
y
F
c
= F
y
(Eq. C3.1.2.1-2)
For 2.78F
y
> F
e
> 0.56F
y

F
c
=

,
`

.
|

e
y
y
F 36
F 10
1 F
9
10
(Eq. C3.1.2.1-3)
For F
e
≤ 0.56F
y

F
c
= F
e
(Eq. C3.1.2.1-4)
where
F
e
=Elastic critical lateral-torsional buckling stress calculated
according to (a) or (b) below:
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(a) For singly-, doubly-, and point-symmetric sections:
F
e
=
t ey
S
A
o
r
b
C
f
σ σ for bending about the symmetry axis. (Eq. C3.1.2.1-5)
For singly-symmetric sections, x-axis is the axis of symmetry oriented
such that the shear center has a negative x-coordinate.
For point-symmetric sections, use 0.5 F
e
. X-axis of Z-sections is the
centroidal axis perpendicular to the web.
Alternatively, F
e
can be calculated using the equation given in (b) for
doubly-symmetric I-sections, singly-symmetric C-sections, or point-
symmetric Z-sections.
For singly-symmetric sections bending about the centroidal axis
perpendicular to the axis of symmetry:
F
e
= ( )
]
]
]

σ σ
σ
ex t
2
o
2
s
f TF
ex s
/ r + j C + j
S C
A C
(Eq. C3.1.2.1-6)
C
s
= +1 for moment causing compression on the shear center
side of the centroid
C
s
= -1 for moment causing tension on the shear center side of
the centroid
σ
ex

=
( )
2
x x x
2
/ r L K
E π
(Eq. C3.1.2.1-7)
σ
ey
=
( )
2
y y y
2
/ r L K
E π
(Eq. C3.1.2.1-8)
σ
t
=
( ) ]
]
]
]

π
2
t t
w
2
2
o
L K
EC
+ GJ
Ar
1
(Eq. C3.1.2.1-9)
A =Full unreduced cross-sectional area
S
f
=Elastic section modulus of full unreduced section relative
to the extreme compression fiber
C
b
=
C B A max
max
3M + 4M + 3M + 2.5M
12.5M
(Eq. C3.1.2.1-10)
where:
M
max
=Absolute value of maximum moment in unbraced segment
M
A
=Absolute value of moment at quarter point of unbraced segment
M
B
=Absolute value of moment at centerline of unbraced segment
M
C
=Absolute value of moment at three-quarter point of unbraced segment
C
b
is permitted to be conservatively taken as unity for all cases. For cantilevers or
overhangs where the free end is unbraced, C
b
shall be taken as unity.
E =Modulus of elasticity
C
TF
= 0.6 - 0.4 (M
1
/ M
2
) (Eq. C3.1.2.1-11)
where
M
1
is the smaller and M
2
the larger bending moment at the ends of the
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Chapt er C, Members
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unbraced length in the plane of bending, and where M
1
/ M
2
, the ratio
of end moments, is positive when M
1
and M
2
have the same sign
(reverse curvature bending) and negative when they are of opposite
sign (single curvature bending). When the bending moment at any
point within an unbraced length is larger than that at both ends of this
length, C
TF
shall be taken as unity.
r
o
=Polar radius of gyration of the cross section about the
shear center
=
2
o
2
y
2
x
x + r + r (Eq. C3.1.2.1-12)
r
x
, r
y
=Radii of gyration of the cross section about the centroidal
principal axes
G =Shear modulus
K
x
, K
y
, K
t
=Effective length factors for bending about the x- and y-
axes, and for twisting
L
x
, L
y
, L
t
=Unbraced length of the member for bending about the x-
and y-axes, and for twisting
x
o
=Distance from the shear center to the centroid along the
principal x-axis, taken as negative
J =Saint-Venant torsion constant of the cross section
C
w
=Torsional warping constant of the cross section
j =
o
2
A
3
A
y
x - dA xy + dA x
2I
1
]
]
]

∫ ∫
(Eq. C3.1.2.1-13)
(b) For I-sections, singly-symmetric C-sections, or Z-sections bent about the
centroidal axis perpendicular to the web (x-axis), the following equations are
permitted to be used in lieu of (a) to calculate F
e
:
F
e
=
2
y y f
yc
2
b
) L (K S
EdI C π
(Eq. C3.1.2.1-14)
=
2
y y f
yc
2
b
) L (K 2S
EdI C π
for point-symmetric Z-sections (Eq. C3.1.2.1-15)
where
d =Depth of section
I
yc
=Moment of inertia of the compression portion of a section
about the centroidal axis of the entire section parallel to
the web, using the full unreduced section
Other terms are defined in (a).

C3.1.2.2 Lat eral -Torsi onal Buckl i ng St rengt h [Resi st ance] of Cl osed
Box Members
For closed box members, the nominal flexural strength [moment
resistance], M
n
, shall be determined as follows:
for doubly-symmetric I-sections
and singly-symmetric C-sections
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If the laterally unbraced length of the member is less than or equal to
L
u
, the nominal flexural strength [moment resistance] shall be
determined by using Section C3.1.1.
where
L
u
=
y
f y
b
EGJI
S F
0.36C π
(Eq. C3.1.2.2-1)
If the laterally unbraced length of a member is larger than L
u
, the
nominal flexural strength [moment resistance] shall be determined in
accordance with C3.1.2.1, where the critical lateral buckling stress, F
e
, is
calculated as follows:
F
e
=
y
EGJI
f
S L K
b
C
y y
π
(Eq. C3.1.2.2-2)
where
I
y
= Moment of inertia of full unreduced section about its centroidal axis
parallel to web
J = Torsional constant of box section
Other variables are defined in Section C3.1.2.1.

C3.1.3 Beams Havi ng One Fl ange Through-Fast ened t o Deck or Sheat hi ng
This section does not apply to a continuous beam for the region
between inflection points adjacent to a support, or to a cantilever beam.
The nominal flexural strength [moment resistance], M
n
, of a C- or
Z-section loaded in a plane parallel to the web, with the tension flange
attached to deck or sheathing and with the compression flange laterally
unbraced shall be calculated as follows:
M
n
= RS
e
F
y
(Eq. C3.1.3-1)
USA and Mexico Canada

b
(ASD) φ
b
(LRFD) φ
b
(LSD)
1.67 0.90 0.80
where R is obtained from Table C3.1.3-1 for simple span C- or Z-
sections, and
R = 0.60 for continuous span C-sections
= 0.70 for continuous span Z-sections
S
e
and F
y
are defined in Section C3.1.1.
The reduction factor, R, shall be limited to roof and wall systems
meeting the following conditions:
(1) Member depth less than 11.5 in. (292 mm)
(2) Member flanges shall have edge stiffeners
(3) 60 ≤ depth/ thickness ≤ 170
(4) 2.8 ≤ depth/ flange width ≤ 4.5
(5) 16 ≤ flat width/ thickness of flange ≤ 43
(6) For continuous span systems, the lap length at each interior support
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Chapt er C, Members
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in each direction (distance from center of support to end of lap) shall
not be less than 1.5d
(7) Member span length shall be no greater than 33 feet (10 m)
(8) For continuous span systems, the longest member span length shall
not be more than 20% greater than the shortest span length
(9) Both flanges shall be prevented from moving laterally at the
supports
(10)Roof or wall panels shall be steel sheets with 50 ksi (340 MPa or 3520
kg/ cm
2
) minimum yield strength, and a minimum of 0.018 in. (0.46
mm) base metal thickness, having a minimum rib depth of 1-1/ 4 in.
(32 mm), spaced a maximum of 12 in. (305 mm) on centers and
attached in a manner to effectively inhibit relative movement
between the panel and purlin flange
(11) Insulation shall be glass fiber blanket 0 to 6 in. (152 mm) thick
compressed between the member and panel in a manner consistent
with the fastener being used
(12) Fastener type: minimum No. 12 self-drilling or self-tapping sheet
metal screws or 3/ 16 in. (4.76 mm) rivets, having washers 1/ 2 in.
(12.7 mm) diameter
(13) Fasteners shall not be standoff type screws
(14) Fasteners shall be spaced not greater than 12 in. (305 mm) on centers
and placed near the center of the beam flange, and adjacent to the
panel high rib
(15) The design yield strength of the member shall not exceed 60 ksi (410
MPa or 4220 kg/ cm
2
)
If variables fall outside any of the above stated limits, the user must
perform full scale tests in accordance with Section F1 of the Specification, or
apply a rational analysis procedure. In any case, the user is permitted to
perform tests, in accordance with Section F1, as an alternate to the
procedure described in this section.

TABLE C3.1.3-1
Si mpl e Span C- or Z-Sect i on R Val ues
Dept h Range, in. (mm) Prof ile R
d ≤ 6.5 (165) C or Z 0.70
6.5 (165) < d ≤ 8.5 (216) C or Z 0.65
8.5 (216) < d ≤ 11.5 (292) Z 0.50
8.5 (216) < d ≤ 11.5 (292) C 0.40

For simple span members, R shall be reduced for the effects of
compressed insulation between the sheeting and the member. The
reduction shall be calculated by multiplying R from Table C3.1.3-1 by the
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following correction factor, r:
r = 1.00 - 0.01 t
i
when t
i
is in inches (Eq. C3.1.3-2)
r = 1.00 - 0.0004 t
i
when t
i
is in millimeters (Eq. C3.1.3-3)
t
i
= Thickness of uncompressed glass fiber blanket insulation

C3.1.4 Beams Havi ng One Fl ange Fast ened t o a St andi ng Seam Roof Syst em
The provisions of this section are given in Section C3.1.4 of the
Appendices.

C3.1.5 St rengt h [Resi st ance] of St andi ng Seam Roof Panel Syst ems
When results of tests on standing seam roof panel systems
conducted according to ASTM E1592-95 are to be evaluated, the “Standard
Procedures for Panel and Anchor Structural Tests” of Part VIII of the AISI
Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual shall be followed. Strength [Resistance]
under uplift loading shall be evaluated by this procedure.
When the number of physical test assemblies is 3 or more, factors of
safety and resistance factors shall be determined in accordance with the
procedures of Section F1.1(b) with the following definition for the
variables:
β
o
= Target reliability index
= 2.0 for panel flexural limits
= 2.5 for anchor limits
F
m
= Mean value of the fabrication factor
= 1.0
M
m
= Mean value of the material factor
= 1.1
V
M
= Coefficient of variation of the material factor
= 0.08 for anchor failure mode
= 0.10 for other failure modes
V
F
= Coefficient of variation of the fabrication factor
= 0.05
V
Q
= Coefficient of variation of the load effect
= 0.21
V
P
= Actual calculated coefficient of variation of the test results,
without limit
n = Number of anchors in the test assembly with same tributary area
(for anchor failure), or number of panels with identical spans
and loading to the failed span (for non-anchor failures)
When the number of physical test assemblies is less than 3, a factor
of safety, Ω, of 2.0 and a resistance factor, φ, of 0.8 (LRFD) and 0.70 (LSD)
shall be used.

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C3.2 St rengt h [Resi st ance] f or Shear Onl y
C3.2.1 Shear St rengt h [Resi st ance] of Webs wi t hout Hol es
The nominal shear strength [resistance], V
n
, shall be calculated as
follows:
V
n
= A
w
F
v
(Eq. C3.2.1-1)
(a) For h/ t ≤
y v
F / Ek
F
v
= 0.60F
y
(Eq. C3.2.1-2)
(b) For ≤ < t / h F / Ek
y v
1.51
y v
F / Ek
F
v
=
( ) t h
F Ek 60 . 0
y v
(Eq. C3.2.1-3)
(c) For h/ t > 1.51
y v
F / Ek
F
v
=
( )
2 2
v
2
t h ) 1 ( 12
Ek
µ −
π
= 0.904 Ek
v
/ (h/ t)
2
(Eq. C3.2.1-4)




where
A
w
= Area of web element = ht
E = Modulus of elasticity of steel
F
v
= Nominal shear stress
V
n
= Nominal shear strength [resistance]
t = Web thickness
h = Depth of flat portion of the web measured along plane of web
µ = Poisson’s ratio = 0.3
k
v
= Shear buckling coefficient determined as follows:
1. For unreinforced webs, k
v
= 5.34
2. For webs with transverse stiffeners satisfying the requirements
of Section C3.6
when a/ h ≤ 1.0

( )
2
v
h a
34 . 5
00 . 4 k + · (Eq. C3.2.1-5)
when a/ h > 1.0

( )
2
v
h a
00 . 4
34 . 5 k + · (Eq. C3.2.1-6)
where
a = Shear panel length of unreinforced web element
= Clear distance between transverse stiffeners of reinforced
web elements.
For a web consisting of two or more sheets, each sheet shall be
USA and Mexico Canada

v
(ASD) φ
v
(LRFD) φ
v
(LSD)
1.60 0.95 0.80
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considered as a separate element carrying its share of the shear force.

C3.2.2 Shear St rengt h [Resi st ance] of C-Sect i on Webs wi t h Hol es
These provisions shall be applicable within the following limits:
(1) d
0
/ h < 0.7
(2) h / t ≤ 200
(3) Holes centered at mid-depth of the web
(4) Clear distance between holes ≥ 18 in. (457 mm)
(5) Non-circular holes corner radii ≥ 2t
(6) Non-circular holes, d
0
≤ 2.5 in. (64 mm) and b ≤ 4.5 in. (114 mm)
(7) Circular hole diameters ≤ 6 in. (152 mm)
(8) d
0
> 9/ 16 in. (14 mm)
The nominal shear strength [resistance], V
n
, determined by Section
C3.2.1 shall be multiplied by q
s
:
When c/ t ≥54
q
s
= 1.0 (Eq. C3.2.2-1)
When 5 ≤ c/ t < 54
q
s
= c/ (54t) (Eq. C3.2.2-2)
where
c = h/ 2 - d
0
/ 2.83 for circular holes (Eq. C3.2.2-3)
= h/ 2 - d
0
/ 2 for non-circular holes (Eq. C3.2.2-4)
d
0
= Depth of web hole
b = Length of web hole
h = Depth of flat portion of the web measured along the plane of the web

C3.3 St rengt h [Resi st ance] f or Combi ned Bendi ng and Shear
C3.3.1 ASD Met hod
For beams subjected to combined bending and shear, the required
allowable flexural strength, M, and required allowable shear strength, V,
shall not exceed M
n
/ Ω
b
and V
n
/ Ω
v
, respectively.
For beams with unreinforced webs, the required allowable flexural
strength, M, and required allowable shear strength, V, shall also satisfy the
following interaction equation:
0 . 1
V
V
M
M
2
n
v
2
nxo
b

,
`

.
| Ω
+

,
`

.
| Ω
(Eq. C3.3.1-1)
For beams with transverse web stiffeners, when Ω
b
M/ M
nxo
> 0.5
and Ω
v
V/ V
n
> 0.7, M and V shall also satisfy the following interaction
equation:
3 . 1
V
V
M
M
6 . 0
n
v
nxo
b

,
`

.
| Ω
+

,
`

.
| Ω
(Eq. C3.3.1-2)
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where:

b
= Factor of safety for bending (See Section C3.1.1)

v
= Factor of safety for shear (See Section C3.2)
M
n
= Nominal flexural strength when bending alone is considered
M
nxo
= Nominal flexural strength about the centroidal x-axis determined
in accordance with Section C3.1.1
V
n
= Nominal shear strength when shear alone is considered

C3.3.2 LRFD and LSD Met hods
For beams subjected to combined bending and shear, the required
flexural strength [factored moment], M
*
, and the required shear strength
[factored shear], V
*
, shall not exceed φ
b
M
n
and φ
v
V
n
, respectively.
For beams with unreinforced webs, the required flexural strength
[factored moment], M
*
, and the required shear strength [factored shear],
V
*
, shall also satisfy the following interaction equation:
0 . 1
V
V
M
M
2
n v
*
2
nxo b
*

,
`

.
|
φ
+

,
`

.
|
φ
(Eq. C3.3.2-1)
For beams with transverse web stiffeners, when M
*
/ (φ
b
M
nxo
) > 0.5
and V
*
/ (φ
v
V
n
) > 0.7, M
*
and V
*
shall also satisfy the following interaction
equation:
3 . 1
V
V
M
M
6 . 0
n v
*
nxo b
*

,
`

.
|
φ
+

,
`

.
|
φ
(Eq. C3.3.2-2)
where:
φ
b
= Resistance factor for bending (See Section C3.1.1)
φ
v
= Resistance factor for shear (See Section C3.2)
M
n
= Nominal flexural strength [moment resistance] when bending alone is
considered
M
nxo
= Nominal flexural strength [moment resistance] about the centroidal x-axis
determined in accordance with Section C3.1.1
M
*
= Required flexural strength [factored moment]
M
*
= M
u
(LRFD)
M
*
= M
f
(LSD)
V
n
=Nominal shear strength [resistance] when shear alone is considered
V
*
= Required shear strength [factored shear]
V
*
= V
u
(LRFD)
V
*
= V
f
(LSD)

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C3.4 Web Cri ppl i ng St rengt h [Resi st ance]
C3.4.1 Web Cri ppl i ng St rengt h [Resi st ance] of Webs wi t hout Hol es
The nominal web crippling strength [resistance], P
n
, shall be
determined as follows:

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
− θ ·
t
h
C 1
t
N
C 1
t
R
C 1 sin F Ct P
h N R y
2
n
(Eq. C3.4.1-1)
where:
P
n
= Nominal web crippling strength [resistance]
C = Coefficient from Table C3.4.1-1, C3.4.1-2, C3.4.1-3, C3.4.1-4 or
C3.4.1-5
C
h
= Web slenderness coefficient from Table C3.4.1-1, C3.4.1-2,
C3.4.1-3, C3.4.1-4 or C3.4.1-5
C
N
= Bearing length coefficient from Table C3.4.1-1, C3.4.1-2,
C3.4.1-3, C3.4.1-4 or C3.4.1-5
C
R
= Inside bend radius coefficient from Table C3.4.1-1, C3.4.1-2,
C3.4.1-3, C3.4.1-4 or C3.4.1-5
h = Flat dimension of web measured in plane of web
N = Bearing length [¾ in. (19 mm) minimum]
R = Inside bend radius
t = Web thickness
θ = Angle between plane of web and plane of bearing surface, 45°
< θ ≤ 90°
Webs of members in bending for which h/ t is greater than 200 shall
be provided with adequate means of transmitting concentrated loads or
reactions directly into the web(s).
P
n
represents the nominal strength [resistance] for load or reaction
for one solid web connecting top and bottom flanges. For webs consisting
of two or more such sheets, P
n
, shall be calculated for each individual sheet
and the results added to obtain the nominal strength for the full section.
One-flange loading or reaction occurs when the clear distance
between the bearing edges of adjacent opposite concentrated loads or
reactions is greater than 1.5h.
Two-flange loading or reaction occurs when the clear distance
between the bearing edges of adjacent opposite concentrated loads or
reactions is equal to or less than 1.5h.
End loading or reaction occurs when the distance from the edge of
the bearing to the end of the member is equal to or less than 1.5h.
Interior loading or reaction occurs when the distance from the edge
of the bearing to the end of the member is greater than 1.5h, except that
otherwise noted herein.
The factors of safety and resistance factors are provided in the
Tables C3.4.1-1 to C3.4.1-5.
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TABLE C3.4.1-1
BUILT-UP SECTIONS
USA and
Mexico
Support and Flange
Conditions
Load Cases
C
C
R
C
N
C
h

ASD


w

LRFD

φ
w

Canada
LSD
φ
w

Limits
End 10 0.14 0.28 0.001 2.00 0.75 0.60 R/ t ≤ 5
Fastened to
Support
Stiffened or
Partially
Stiffened
flanges
One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction Interior 20 0.15 0.05 0.003 1.65 0.90 0.80 R/ t ≤ 5
End 10 0.14 0.28 0.001 2.00 0.75 0.60 R/ t ≤ 5
One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 20.5 0.17 0.11 0.001 1.75 0.85 0.75 R/ t ≤ 3
End 15.5 0.09 0.08 0.04 2.00 0.75 0.65
Stiffened or
Partially
Stiffened
Flanges Two-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 36 0.14 0.08 0.04 2.00 0.75 0.65
R/ t ≤ 3
End 10 0.14 0.28 0.001 2.00 0.75 0.60 R/ t ≤ 5
Unfastened
Unstiffened
Flanges
One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 20.5 0.17 0.11 0.001 1.75 0.85 0.75
R/ t ≤ 3
Notes:
This Table applies to I-beams made from two channels connected back to back. See
Section C3.4.1 of Commentary for explanation.
The above coefficients apply when h/ t ≤ 200, N/ t ≤ 210, N/ h ≤ 1.0 and θ = 90°.

TABLE C3.4.1-2
SINGLE WEB CHANNEL AND C-SECTIONS
USA and
Mexico
Support and Flange
Conditions
Load Cases C
C
R
C
N
C
h

ASD


w

LRFD

φ
w

Canada
LSD
φ
w

Limits
End 4 0.14 0.35 0.02 1.75 0.85 0.75 R/ t ≤ 9
One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 13 0.23 0.14 0.01 1.65 0.90 0.80 R/ t ≤ 5
End 7.5 0.08 0.12 0.048 1.75 0.85 0.75 R/ t ≤ 12
Fastened to
Support
Stiffened or
Partially
Stiffened
Flanges
Two-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 20 0.10 0.08 0.031 1.75 0.85 0.75 R/ t ≤ 12
End 4 0.14 0.35 0.02 1.85 0.80 0.70
One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 13 0.23 0.14 0.01 1.65 0.90 0.80
R/ t ≤ 5
End 13 0.32 0.05 0.04 1.65 0.90 0.80
Stiffened or
Partially
Stiffened
Flanges Two-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 24 0.52 0.15 0.001 1.90 0.80 0.65
R/ t ≤ 3
End 4 0.40 0.60 0.03 1.80 0.85 0.70 R/ t ≤ 2
One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 13 0.32 0.10 0.01 1.80 0.85 0.70 R/ t ≤ 1
End 2 0.11 0.37 0.01 2.00 0.75 0.65
Unfastened
Unstiffened
Flanges
Two-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 13 0.47 0.25 0.04 1.90 0.80 0.65
R/ t ≤ 1
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Note:
(1) The above coefficients apply when h/ t ≤ 200, N/ t ≤ 210, N/ h ≤ 2.0 and θ = 90°.
(2) For interior two-flange loading or reaction of members having flanges fastened to the
support, the distance from the edge of bearing to the end of the member shall be
extended at least 2.5h. Otherwise, values for the unfastened condition shall apply.

TABLE C3.4.1-3
SINGLE WEB Z-SECTIONS
USA and
Mexico
Support and Flange
Conditions
Load Cases C
C
R
C
N
C
h

ASD


w

LRFD

φ
w

Canada
LSD
φ
w

Limits
End 4 0.14 0.35 0.02 1.75 0.85 0.75
R/ t ≤ 9 One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interi
or
13 0.23 0.14 0.01 1.65 0.90 0.80 R/ t ≤ 5
End 9 0.05 0.16 0.052 1.75 0.85 0.75 R/ t ≤ 12
Fastened to
Support
Stiffened or
Partially
Stiffened
Flanges
Two-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 24 0.07 0.07 0.04 1.85 0.80 0.70 R/ t ≤ 12
End 5 0.09 0.02 0.001 1.80 0.85 0.75
One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 13 0.23 0.14 0.01 1.65 0.90 0.80
R/ t ≤ 5
End 13 0.32 0.05 0.04 1.65 0.90 0.80
Stiffened or
Partially
Stiffened
Flanges Two-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 24 0.52 0.15 0.001 1.90 0.80 0.65
R/ t ≤ 3
End 4 0.40 0.60 0.03
1.80
0.85 0.70 R/ t ≤ 2
One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 13 0.32 0.10 0.01 1.80 0.85 0.70 R/ t ≤ 1
End 2 0.11 0.37 0.01 2.00 0.75 0.65
Unfastened
Unstiffened
Flanges
Two-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 13 0.47 0.25 0.04 1.90 0.80 0.65
R/ t ≤ 1
Note:
(1) The above coefficients apply when h/ t ≤ 200, N/ t ≤ 210, N/ h ≤ 2.0 and θ = 90°.
(2) For interior two-flange loading or reaction of members having flanges fastened to the
support, the distance from the edge of bearing to the end of the member shall be
extended at least 2.5h. Otherwise, values for the unfastened condition shall apply.
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TABLE C3.4.1-4
SINGLE HAT SECTIONS
USA and
Mexico
Support
Conditions
Load Cases C
C
R
C
N
C
h

ASD


w

LRFD

φ
w

Canada
LSD
φ
w

Limits
End 4 0.25 0.68 0.04 2.00 0.75 0.65 R/ t ≤ 5
One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction Interior 17 0.13 0.13 0.04 1.90 0.80 0.70 R/ t ≤ 10
End 9 0.10 0.07 0.03 1.75 0.85 0.75
Fastened to
Support
Two-Flange
Loading or
Reaction Interior 10 0.14 0.22 0.02 1.80 0.85 0.75
R/ t ≤ 10
End 4 0.25 0.68 0.04 2.00 0.75 0.65 R/ t ≤ 4
Unfastened One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 17 0.13 0.13 0.04 1.70 0.90 0.75 R/ t ≤ 4
Note:
The above coefficients apply when h/ t ≤ 200, N/ t ≤ 200, N/ h ≤ 2 and θ = 90°.

TABLE C3.4.1-5
MULTI-WEB DECK SECTIONS
USA and
Mexico
Support
Conditions
Load Cases C
C
R
C
N
C
h

ASD


w

LRFD

φ
w

Canada
LSD
φ
w

Limits
End 3 0.08 0.70 0.055 2.25 0.65 0.55 R/ t ≤ 7
One-
Flange
Loading
or
Reaction
Interior 8 0.10 0.17 0.004 1.75 0.85 0.75 R/ t ≤ 10
End 9 0.12 0.14 0.040 1.80 0.85 0.70
Fastened to
Support
Two-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 10 0.11 0.21 0.020 1.75 0.85 0.75
R/ t ≤ 10
End 3 0.08 0.70 0.055 2.25 0.65 0.55
One-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 8 0.10 0.17 0.004 1.75 0.85 0.75
R/ t ≤ 7
End 6 0.16 0.15 0.050 1.65 0.90 0.80
Unfastened
Two-Flange
Loading or
Reaction
Interior 17 0.10 0.10 0.046 1.65 0.90 0.80
R/ t ≤ 5
Notes:
(1) The above coefficients apply when h/ t ≤ 200, N/ t ≤ 210, N/ h ≤ 3.
(2) 45° < θ ≤ 90°

C3.4.2 Web Cri ppl i ng St rengt h [Resi st ance] of C-Sect i on Webs wi t h Hol es
When a web hole is within the bearing length, a bearing stiffener
shall be used.
For beam webs with holes, the web crippling strength [resistance]
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
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shall be computed by using Section C3.4.1 multiplied by the reduction
factor, R
c
, given in this section.
These provisions shall be applicable within the following limits:
(1) d
0
/ h ≤ 0.7
(2) h / t ≤ 200
(3) Hole centered at mid-depth of the web
(4) Clear distance between holes ≥ 18 in. (457 mm)
(5) Distance between the end of the member and the edge of the hole ≥ d
(6) Non-circular holes, corner radii ≤ 2t
(7) Non-circular holes, d
0
≤ 2.5 in. (64 mm) and b ≤ 4.5 in. (114 mm)
(8) Circular hole diameters ≤ 6 in. (152 mm)
(9) d
0
> 9/ 16 in. (14 mm)
For end-one flange reaction (Equation C3.4.1-1 with Table C3.4.1-2)
when a web hole is not within the bearing length:
R
c
= 0 . 1 h x 083 . 0 h d 325 . 0 01 . 1
0
≤ + − (Eq. C3.4.2-1)
N ≥ 1 in. (25 mm)
For interior-one flange reaction (Equation C3.4.1-1 with Table
C3.4.1-2) when any portion of a web hole is not within the bearing length:
R
c
= 0 . 1 h x 053 . 0 h d 047 . 0 90 . 0
0
≤ + − (Eq. C3.4.2-2)

N ≥ 3 in. (76 mm)
where
b = Length of web hole
d = Depth of cross section
d
0
= Depth of web hole
h = Depth of flat portion of the web measured along the plane of
the web
x = Nearest distance between the web hole and the edge of
bearing
N = Bearing length

C3.5 Combi ned Bendi ng and Web Cri ppl i ng St rengt h [Resi st ance]
C3.5.1 ASD Met hod
Unreinforced flat webs of shapes subjected to a combination of bending
and concentrated load or reaction shall be designed to meet the following
requirements:
(a) For shapes having single unreinforced webs:
5 . 1
M
M
P
P
2 . 1
nxo
b
n
w

,
`

.
| Ω
+

,
`

.
| Ω
(Eq. C3.5.1-1)
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Exception: At the interior supports of continuous spans, the above
equation is not applicable to deck or beams with two or more single webs,
provided the compression edges of adjacent webs are laterally supported in
the negative moment region by continuous or intermittently connected flange
elements, rigid cladding, or lateral bracing, and the spacing between adjacent
webs does not exceed 10 in. (254 mm).
(b) For shapes having multiple unreinforced webs such as I-sections made of
two C-sections connected back-to-back, or similar sections which provide
a high degree of restraint against rotation of the web (such as I-sections
made by welding two angles to a C-section);
5 . 1
M
M
P
P
1 . 1
nxo
b
n
w

,
`

.
| Ω
+

,
`

.
| Ω
(Eq. C3.5.1-2)
Exception: In lieu of equation C3.5.1-2, when h/ t ≤ 2.33/ E / F
y
and λ ≤
0.673, it shall be permitted to determine the allowable concentrated load or
reaction by using
w
n
P

from Section C3.4.
In the above equations:

b
=Factor of safety for bending (See Section C3.1.1)

w
=Factor of safety for web crippling (See Section C3.4)
P = Required allowable strength for the concentrated load or reaction
in the presence of bending moment
P
n
= Nominal strength for concentrated load or reaction in the absence
of bending moment determined in accordance with Section C3.4
M = Required allowable flexural strength at, or immediately adjacent
to, the point of application of the concentrated load or reaction, P
M
nxo
=Nominal flexural strength about the centroidal x-axis determined
in accordance with Section C3.1.1
w = Flat width of the beam flange which contacts the bearing plate
t = Thickness of the web or flange
λ = Slenderness factor given by Section B2.1
(c) For the support point of two nested Z-shapes:

≤ +
65 . 1
P
P
85 . 0
M
M
n no
(Eq. C3.5.1-3)
In addition, the moment, M, and the concentrated load or reaction, P,
shall satisfy M ≤ M
no
/ Ω
b
, and P ≤ P
n
/ Ω
w
.
where
M = Required allowable flexural strength at the section under
consideration
M
no
= Nominal flexural strength for the nested Z-sections, i.e. sum of the
two sections evaluated individually, determined in accordance
with Section C3.1.1
P = Required allowable strength for the concentrated load or reaction
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
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in the presence of bending moment
P
n
= Nominal web crippling strength assuming single web interior
one-flange loading for the nested Z-sections, i.e., sum of the two
webs evaluated individually
Ω = Factor of safety for combined bending and web crippling
= 1.75
The above equation is valid for shapes that meet the following limits:
h/ t ≤ 150
N/ t ≤ 140
F
y
≤ 70 ksi (480 MPa or 4910 kg/ cm
2
)
R/ t ≤ 5.5
The following conditions shall also be satisfied:
(1) The ends of each section shall be connected to the other section by a
minimum of two 1/ 2 in. (12.7 mm) diameter A307 bolts through the
web.
(2) The combined section shall be connected to the support by a
minimum of two 1/ 2 in. (12.7 mm) diameter A307 bolts through the
flanges.
(3) The webs of the two sections shall be in contact.
(4) The ratio of the thicker to the thinner part shall not exceed 1.3.

C3.5.2 LRFD and LSD Met hods
Unreinforced flat webs of shapes subjected to a combination of bending
and concentrated load or reaction shall be designed to meet the following
requirements:
(a) For shapes having single unreinforced webs:
42 . 1
M
M
P
P
07 . 1
nxo b
*
n w
*

,
`

.
|
φ
+

,
`

.
|
φ
(Eq. C3.5.2-1)
Exception: At the interior supports of continuous spans, the above
equation is not applicable to deck or beams with two or more single webs,
provided the compression edges of adjacent webs are laterally supported in
the negative moment region by continuous or intermittently connected flange
elements, rigid cladding, or lateral bracing, and the spacing between adjacent
webs does not exceed 10 in. (254 mm).
(b) For shapes having multiple unreinforced webs such as I-sections made of
two C-sections connected back-to-back, or similar sections which provide
a high degree of restraint against rotation of the web (such as I-sections
made by welding two angles to a C-section);
32 . 1
M
M
P
P
82 . 0
nxo b
*
n w
*

,
`

.
|
φ
+

,
`

.
|
φ
(Eq. C3.5.2-2)
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Exception: In lieu of equation C3.5.2-2, when h/ t ≤ 2.33/ E / F
y
and λ ≤
0.673, it shall be permitted to determine the design strength for a concentrated
load or reaction by using φ
w
P
n
from Section C3.4.

In the above equations:
φ
b
= Resistance factor for bending (See Section C3.1.1)
φ
w
= Resistance factor for web crippling (See Section C3.4)
P
*
= Required strength for the concentrated load or reaction [factored
concentrated load or reaction] in the presence of bending
moment.
P
*
= P
u
(LRFD)
P
*
= P
f
(LSD)
P
n
= Nominal strength [resistance] for concentrated load or reaction
in the absence of bending moment determined in accordance
with Section C3.4
M
*
= Required flexural strength [factored moment] at, or immediately
adjacent to, the point of application of the concentrated load or
reaction P
*

M
*
= M
u
(LRFD)
M
*
= M
f
(LSD)

M
nxo
= Nominal flexural strength [moment resistance] about the
centroidal x-axis determined in accordance with Section C3.1.1
w = Flat width of the beam flange which contacts the bearing plate
t = Thickness of the web or flange
λ = Slenderness factor given by Section B2.1
(c) For two nested Z-shapes
φ ≤ + 65 . 1
P
P
85 . 0
M
M
n
*
no
*
(Eq. C3.5.2-3)
In addition, the moment, M
*
, and the concentrated load or reaction, P
*
,
shall satisfy M
*
≤ φ
b
M
no
, and P
*
≤ φ
w
P
n
.
where
M
*
= Required flexural strength [factored moment] at the section under
consideration.
M
*
= M
u
(LRFD)
M
*
= M
f
(LSD)
M
no
= Nominal flexural strength for the two nested Z-sections, i.e., sum
of the two sections evaluated individually, determined in
accordance with Section C3.1.1
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P
*
= Required strength for the concentrated load or reaction [factored
concentrated load or reaction] in the presence of bending moment.
P
*
= P
u
(LRFD)
P
*
= P
f
(LSD)
P
n
= Nominal web crippling strength [resistance] assuming single web
interior one-flange loading for the nested Z-sections, i.e., sum of
the two webs evaluated individually
φ = 0.90 (LRFD)
= 0.80 (LSD)
The above equation is valid for shapes that meet the following limits:
h/ t ≤ 150
N/ t ≤ 140
F
y
≤ 70 ksi (480 MPa or 4910 kg/ cm
2
)
R/ t ≤ 5.5
The following conditions shall also be satisfied:
(1) The ends of each section shall be connected to the other section by a
minimum of two 1/ 2 in. (12.7 mm) diameter A307 bolts through the
web.
(2) The combined section shall be connected to the support by a
minimum of two 1/ 2 in. (12.7 mm) diameter A307 bolts through the
flanges.
(3) The webs of the two sections shall be in contact.
(4) The ratio of the thicker to the thinner part shall not exceed 1.3.

C3.6 St i f f eners
C3.6.1 Transverse St i f f eners
Transverse stiffeners attached to beam webs at points of
concentrated loads or reactions, shall be designed as compression
members. Concentrated loads or reactions shall be applied directly into
the stiffeners, or each stiffener shall be fitted accurately to the flat portion
of the flange to provide direct load bearing into the end of the stiffener.
Means for shear transfer between the stiffener and the web shall be
provided according to Chapter E. For concentrated loads or reactions the
nominal strength [resistance] equals P
n
, where P
n
is the smaller value
given by (a) and (b) as follows:
(a) P
n
= F
wy
A
c
(Eq. C3.6.1-1)
(b) P
n
= Nominal axial strength [resistance] evaluated according to Section
C4(a), with A
e
replaced by A
b
USA and Mexico Canada

c
(ASD) φ
c
(LRFD) φ
c
(LSD)
2.00 0.85 0.80
where
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Chapt er C, Members
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A
c
= 18t
2
+ A
s
, for transverse stiffeners at interior support and under (Eq. C3.6.1-2)
concentrated load
A
c
= 10t
2
+ A
s
, for transverse stiffeners at end support (Eq. C3.6.1-3)
F
wy
= Lower value of F
y
for the beam web, or F
ys
for the stiffener section
A
b
= b
1
t + A
s
, for transverse stiffeners at interior support and under (Eq. C3.6.1-4)
concentrated load
A
b
= b
2
t + A
s
, for transverse stiffeners at end support (Eq. C3.6.1-5)
A
s
= Cross sectional area of transverse stiffeners
b
1
= 25t [0.0024(L
st
/ t) + 0.72] ≤ 25t (Eq. C3.6.1-6)
b
2
= 12t [0.0044(L
st
/ t) + 0.83] ≤ 12t (Eq. C3.6.1-7)
L
st
= Length of transverse stiffener
t = Base thickness of beam web
The w/ t
s
ratio for the stiffened and unstiffened elements of cold-
formed steel transverse stiffeners shall not exceed 1.28
ys
F / E and
0.42
ys
F / E , respectively, where F
ys
is the yield stress, and t
s
is the
thickness of the stiffener steel.

C3.6.2 Shear St i f f eners
Where shear stiffeners are required, the spacing shall be based on
the nominal shear strength [resistance],V
n
, permitted by Section C3.2, and
the ratio a/ h shall not exceed [260/ (h/ t)]
2
nor 3.0.
The actual moment of inertia, I
s
, of a pair of attached shear
stiffeners, or of a single shear stiffener, with reference to an axis in the
plane of the web, shall have a minimum value of
I
smin
=5ht
3
[h/ a - 0.7(a/ h)] ≥ (h/ 50)
4
(Eq. C3.6.2-1)
The gross area of shear stiffeners shall be not less than
YDht
) h / a ( 1 ) h / a (
) h / a (
h
a
2
C 1
A
2
2
v
st
]
]
]
]
]

+ +


· (Eq. C3.6.2-2)
where
C
v
=
2
y
v
) t / h ( F
Ek 53 . 1
when C
v
≤ 0.8 (Eq. C3.6.2-3)
C
v
=
y
v
F
Ek
t / h
11 . 1
when C
v
> 0.8 (Eq. C3.6.2-4)
k
v
=
( )
2
h / a
34 . 5
00 . 4 + when a/ h ≤ 1.0 (Eq. C3.6.2-5)
k
v
=
( )
2
h / a
00 . 4
34 . 5 + when a/ h > 1.0 (Eq. C3.6.2-6)
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a = Distance between transverse stiffeners
Y =
steel stiffener of point Yield
steel web of point Yield

D = 1.0 for stiffeners furnished in pairs
D = 1.8 for single-angle stiffeners
D = 2.4 for single-plate stiffeners
t and h are as defined in Section B1.2

C3.6.3 Non-Conf ormi ng St i f f eners
The design strength [factored resistance] of members with
transverse stiffeners that do not meet the requirements of Section C3.6.1 or
C3.6.2, such as stamped or rolled-in transverse stiffeners, shall be
determined by tests in accordance with Chapter F or rational engineering
analysis in accordance with A1.1(b).

C4 Concent ri cal l y Loaded Compressi on Members
This section applies to members in which the resultant of all loads acting on
the member is an axial load passing through the centroid of the effective section
calculated at the stress, F
n
, defined in this section.
(a) The nominal axial strength [compressive resistance], P
n
, shall be calculated as
follows:
P
n
= A
e
F
n
(Eq. C4-1)
USA and Mexico Canada

c
(ASD) φ
c
(LRFD) φ
c
(LSD)
1.80 0.85 0.80
where
A
e
= Effective area at the stress F
n
. For sections with circular holes, A
e

shall be determined according to Section B2.2(a), subject to the
limitations of that section. If the number of holes in the effective
length region times the hole diameter divided by the effective
length does not exceed 0.015, A
e
can be determined ignoring the
holes.
F
n
is determined as follows:
For λ
c
≤ 1.5
y n
F 658 . 0 F
2
c

,
`

.
|
·
λ
(Eq. C4-2)
For λ
c
> 1.5
y
2
c
n
F
877 . 0
F
]
]
]
]

λ
· (Eq. C4-3)
where
λ
c
=
e
y
F
F
(Eq. C4-4)
F
e
=

The least of the elastic flexural, torsional and torsional-flexural
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buckling stress determined according to Sections C4.1 through
C4.4.
(b) Concentrically loaded angle sections shall be designed for an additional
bending moment as specified in the definitions of M
x
, M
y
(ASD) or M
*x
, M
*y

(LRFD or LSD) in Section C5.2.

C4.1 Sect i ons Not Subj ect t o Torsi onal or Torsi onal -Fl exural Buckl i ng
For doubly-symmetric sections, closed cross sections and any other
sections which can be shown not to be subject to torsional or torsional-flexural
buckling, the elastic flexural buckling stress, F
e
, shall be determined as
follows:

2
2
e
) r / KL (
E
F
π
· (Eq. C4.1-1)
where
E = Modulus of elasticity
K = Effective length factor
L = Laterally unbraced length of member
r = Radius of gyration of the full, unreduced cross section about the axis of buckling
In frames where lateral stability is provided by diagonal bracing, shear
walls, attachment to an adjacent structure having adequate lateral stability, or
floor slabs or roof decks secured horizontally by walls or bracing systems
parallel to the plane of the frame, and in trusses, the effective length factor, K,
for compression members which do not depend upon their own bending
stiffness for lateral stability of the frame or truss, shall be taken as unity,
unless analysis shows that a smaller value may used. In a frame which
depends upon its own bending stiffness for lateral stability, the effective
length, KL, of the compression members shall be determined by a rational
method and shall not be less than the actual unbraced length.

C4.2 Doubl y- or Si ngl y-Symmet ri c Sect i ons Subj ect t o Torsi onal or Torsi onal -
Fl exural Buckl i ng
For singly-symmetric sections subject to torsional-flexural buckling, F
e

shall be taken as the smaller of F
e
calculated according to Section C4.1 and F
e

calculated as follows:

]
]
]

σ βσ − σ + σ − σ + σ
β
·
t ex
2
t ex t ex e
4 ) ( ) (
2
1
F (Eq. C4.2-1)
Alternatively, a conservative estimate of F
e
can be obtained using the
following equation:

ex t
ex t
e
F
σ + σ
σ σ
·

(Eq. C4.2-2)
where σ
t
and σ
ex
are as defined in Section C3.1.2.1:
β = 1 - (x
o
/ r
o
)
2
(Eq. C4.2-3)
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For singly-symmetric sections, the x-axis is assumed to be the axis of
symmetry.
For doubly-symmetric sections subject to torsional buckling, F
e
shall be
taken as the smaller of F
e
calculated according to Section C4.1 and F
e

t
,
where σ
t
is defined in Section C3.1.2.1.
For singly-symmetric unstiffened angle sections for which the effective
area (A
e
) at stress F
y
is equal to the full unreduced cross-sectional area (A),
then F
e
shall be computed using Eq C4.1-1 where r is the least radius of
gyration thus ignoring torsional-flexural buckling.

C4.3 Poi nt -Symmet ri c Sect i ons
For point-symmetric sections, F
e
shall be taken as the lesser of σ
t
as
defined in Section C3.1.2.1 and F
e
as calculated in Section C4.1 using the
minor principal axis of the section.

C4.4 Nonsymmet ri c Sect i ons
For shapes whose cross sections do not have any symmetry, either
about an axis or about a point, F
e
shall be determined by rational analysis.
Alternatively, compression members composed of such shapes may be tested
in accordance with Chapter F.

C4.5 Bui l t -Up Members
For compression members composed of two sections in contact, the
nominal axial strength [compressive resistance] shall be determined in
accordance with Section C4(a) subject to the following modification. If the
buckling mode involves relative deformations that produce shear forces in the
connectors between individual shapes, KL/ r is replaced by (KL/ r)
m

determined as follows:
2
i
2
o m
r
a
r
KL
r
KL

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
(Eq. C4.5-1)
where:
(KL/ r)
o
= Overall slenderness ratio of entire section about the built-up
member axis
a = Intermediate fastener or spot weld spacing
r
i
= Minimum radius of gyration of full unreduced cross-sectional
area of an individual shape in a built-up member
Other symbols are defined in C4.1.
In addition, the fastener strength [resistance] and spacing shall satisfy
the following:
(1) The intermediate fastener or spot weld spacing, a, shall be limited such
that a/ r
i
does not exceed one half the governing slenderness ratio of the
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built-up member.
(2) The ends of a built-up compression member shall be connected by a weld
having a length not less than the maximum width of the member or by
connectors spaced longitudinally not more than 4 diameters apart for a
distance equal to 1.5 times the maximum width of the member.
(3) Each discrete connector shall be capable of transmitting a longitudinal
shear force of 2.5% of the total force (unfactored force for ASD and
factored force for LRFD and LSD) in the built-up member.

C4.6 Compressi on Members Havi ng One Fl ange Through-Fast ened t o Deck or
Sheat hi ng
These provisions are applicable to C- or Z-sections concentrically loaded
along their longitudinal axis, with only one flange attached to deck or
sheathing with through fasteners.
The nominal axial strength [resistance] of simple span or continuous C-
or Z-sections shall be calculated as follows:
(a) For weak axis nominal strength [resistance]
P
n
= C
1
C
2
C
3
AE/ 29500 kips (Newtons) (Eq. C4.6-1)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
1.80 0.85 0.80
where:
C
1
= (0.79x + 0.54) (Eq. C4.6-2)
C
2
= (1.17αt + 0.93) (Eq. C4.6-3)
C
3
= α(2.5b - 1.63d) + 22.8 (Eq. C4.6-4)
For Z-sections:
x = The fastener distance from the outside web edge divided by the
flange width, as shown in Figure C4.6.
For C-sections:
x = the flange width minus the fastener distance from the outside web
edge divided by the flange width, as shown in Figure C4.6.
t = C- or Z-section thickness
b = C- or Z-section flange width
d = C- or Z-section depth
A = The full unreduced cross-sectional area of the C- or Z-section
E = Modulus of elasticity of steel
= 29,500 ksi for U.S. customary units
= 203,000 MPa for SI units
= 2,070,000 kg/ cm
2
for MKS units
α = Coefficient for conversion of units
= 1 when t, b, and d are in inches
= 0.0394 when t, b, and d are in mm
= 0.394 when t, b, and d are in cm

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Figure C4.6 Def init ion of x Figure C4.6 Def init ion of x Figure C4.6 Def init ion of x Figure C4.6 Def init ion of x
Eq. C4.6-1 shall be limited to roof and wall systems meeting the
following conditions:
(1) t not exceeding 0.125 in. (3.22 mm)
(2) 6 in. (152mm) ≤ d ≤ 12 in. (305 mm)
(3) Flanges are edge stiffened compression elements
(4) 70 ≤ d/ t ≤ 170
(5) 2.8 ≤ d/ b < 5
(6) 16 ≤ flange flat width / t < 50
(7) Both flanges are prevented from moving laterally at the supports
(8) Steel roof or steel wall panels with fasteners spaced 12 in. (305 mm)
on center or less and having a minimum rotational lateral stiffness of
0.0015 k/ in/ in (10,300N/ m/ m) (fastener at mid-flange width) as
determined by the AISI test procedure
!


(9) C- and Z-sections having a minimum yield point of 33 ksi (230 MPa ,
or 2320 kg/ cm
2
)
(10) Span length not exceeding 33 feet (10 m)
(b) For strong axis nominal strength [resistance], the equations contained in
Sections C4 and C4.1 of the Specification shall be used.

Not e:

!

Further information on the test procedure should be obtained from "Rotational-
Lateral Stiffness Test Method for Beam-to-Panel Assemblies", AISI Cold-Formed
Steel Design Manual, Part VIII.

C5 Combi ned Axi al Load and Bendi ng
C5.1 Combi ned Tensi l e Axi al Load and Bendi ng
C5.1.1 ASD Met hod
The required allowable strengths T, M
x
, and M
y
shall satisfy the
following interaction equations:
For Z-Section x =
b
a
(Eq. C4.6-7)


For C-Section x=
b
a b −
(Eq. C4.6-8)
a
b

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0 . 1
T
T
M
M
M
M
n
t
nyt
y b
nxt
x b


+

+

(Eq. C5.1.1-1)
and

0 . 1
T
T
M
M
M
M
n
t
ny
y b
nx
x b




+

(Eq. C5.1.1-2)
where
T = Required allowable tensile axial strength
M
x
, M
y
= Required allowable flexural strengths with respect to
the centroidal axes of the section
T
n
= Nominal tensile axial strength determined in
accordance with Section C2
M
nx
, M
ny
= Nominal flexural strengths about the centroidal axes
determined in accordance with Section C3
M
nxt
, M
nyt
= S
ft
F
y
S
ft
= Section modulus of the full section for the extreme
tension fiber about the appropriate axis

b
= 1.67 for bending strength (Section C3.1.1) or for laterally
unbraced beams (Section C3.1.2)

t
=

1.67

C5.1.2 LRFD and LSD Met hods
The required strengths [factored tension and moments] T
*
, M
*x
,
and M
*y
shall satisfy the following interaction equations:
1.0 ≤
Τ φ
Τ
+
Μ φ
Μ
+
Μ φ
n t
*
nyt b
y *
nxt b
x *
M
(Eq. C5.1.2-1)
1.0 ≤
Τ φ
Τ

Μ φ
Μ
+
Μ φ
n t
*
ny b
y *
nx b
x *
M
(Eq. C5.1.2-2)
where
T
*
= Required tensile axial strength [factored tension]
T
*
= T
u
(LRFD)
T
*
= T
f
(LSD)
M
*x
, M
*y
= Required flexural strengths [factored moments] with
respect to the centroidal axes.
M
*x
= M
ux
, M
*y
= M
uy
(LRFD)
M
*x
= M
fx
, M
*y
= M
fy
(LSD)
T
n
= Nominal axial strength determined in accordance with
Section C2
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M
nx
, M
ny
= Nominal flexural strengths about the centroidal axes
determined in accordance with Section C3.1
M
nxt
, M
nyt
= S
ft
F
y
S
ft
= Section modulus of the full section for the extreme
tension fiber about the appropriate axis
φ
b
= For bending strength [resistance] (Section C3.1.1), φ
b
=
0.90 or 0.95 (LRFD) and 0.90 (LSD). For laterally
unbraced beams (Section C3.1.2), φ
b
= 0.90 (LRFD and
LSD)
φ
t
= 0.95 (LRFD)
= 0.90 (LSD)

C5.2 Combi ned Compressi ve Axi al Load and Bendi ng
C5.2.1 ASD Met hod
The required allowable strengths P, M
x
, and M
y
shall satisfy the
following interaction equations. In addition, each individual ratio in Eqs.
C5.2.1-1 to C5.2.1-3 shall not exceed unity.
0 . 1
M
M C
M
M C
P
P
y ny
y my b
x nx
x mx b
n
c

α

+
α

+

(Eq. C5.2.1-1)
0 . 1
M
M
M
M
P
P
ny
y b
nx
x b
no
c


+

+

(Eq. C5.2.1-2)
When Ω
c
P/ P
n
≤ 0.15, the following equation may be used in lieu of the
above two equations:
0 . 1
M
M
M
M
P
P
ny
y b
nx
x b
n
c


+

+

(Eq. C5.2.1-3)
where
P = Required allowable compressive axial strength
M
x
, M
y
= Required allowable flexural strengths with respect to
the centroidal axes of the effective section determined
for the required compressive axial strength alone. For
singly-symmetric unstiffened angle sections with un-
reduced effective area, M
y
shall be permitted to be
taken as the required flexural strength only. For other
angle sections or singly-symmetric unstiffened angles
for which the effective area (A
e
) at stress F
y
is less than
the full unreduced cross-sectional area (A), M
y
shall be
taken either as the required flexural strength or the
required flexural strength plus PL/ 1000, whichever
results in a lower permissible value of P.
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P
n
= Nominal axial strength determined in accordance with
Section C4
P
no
= Nominal axial strength determined in accordance with
Section C4, with F
n
= F
y
M
nx
, M
ny
= Nominal flexural strengths about the centroidal axes
determined in accordance with Section C3.1
α
x
=
Ex
c
P
P
1

− (Eq. C5.2.1-4)
α
y
=
Ey
c
P
P
1

− (Eq. C5.2.1-5)
P
Ex
=
2
x x
x
2
) L K (
EI π
(Eq. C5.2.1-6)
P
Ey
=
2
y y
y
2
) L K (
EI π
(Eq. C5.2.1-7)

b
= 1.67 for bending strength (Section C3.1.1) or for laterally
unbraced beams (Section C3.1.2)

c
=

1.80
I
x
= Moment of inertia of the full, unreduced cross section
about the x-axis
I
y
= Moment of inertia of the full, unreduced cross section
about the y-axis
L
x
= Actual unbraced length for bending about the x-axis
L
y
= Actual unbraced length for bending about the y-axis
K
x
= Effective length factor for buckling about the x-axis
K
y
= Effective length factor for buckling about the y-axis
C
mx
, C
my
= Coefficients whose value shall be taken as follows:
1. For compression members in frames subject to joint
translation (sidesway)
C
m
= 0.85
2. For restrained compression members in frames braced
against joint translation and not subject to transverse
loading between their supports in the plane of bending
C
m
= 0.6 - 0.4 (M
1
/ M
2
) (Eq. C5.2.1-8)
where
M
1
/ M
2
is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment
at the ends of that portion of the member under
consideration which is unbraced in the plane of
bending. M
1
/ M
2
is positive when the member is bent
in reverse curvature and negative when it is bent in
single curvature
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3. For compression members in frames braced against
joint translation in the plane of loading and subject to
transverse loading between their supports, the value of
C
m
may be determined by rational analysis. However,
in lieu of such analysis, the following values may be
used:
(a) for members whose ends are restrained, C
m
= 0.85
(b) for members whose ends are unrestrained, C
m
= 1.0

C5.2.2 LRFD and LSD Met hods
The required strengths [factored compressive force and moments] P
*
,
M
*x
, and M
*y
shall satisfy the following interaction equations. In addition,
each individual ratio in Eqs. C5.2.2-1 to C5.2.2-3 shall not exceed unity.
1.0 ≤
α Μ φ
Μ
+
α Μ φ
Μ
+
φ
y ny b
y * my
x nx b
x * mx
n c
*
C
C
P
P
(Eq. C5.2.2-1)
1.0 ≤
Μ φ
Μ
+
Μ φ
Μ
+
φ
ny b
y *
nx b
x *
no c
*
P
P
(Eq. C5.2.2-2)
When P
*
/ φ
c
P
n
≤ 0.15, the following equation may be used in lieu of the
above two equations:
1.0 ≤
Μ φ
Μ
+
Μ φ
+
φ
ny b
y *
nx b
x *
n c
*
M
P
P
(Eq. C5.2.2-3)
where
P
*
= Required compressive axial strength [factored
compressive force]
P
*
= P
u
(LRFD)
P
*
= P
f
(LSD)
M
*x
, M
*y
= Required flexural strengths [factored moments] with
respect to the centroidal axes of the effective section
determined for the required compressive axial strength
alone. For singly-symmetric unstiffened angle sections
with un-reduced effective area, M
*y
shall be permitted
to be taken as the required flexural strength [factored
moment ] only. For other angle sections or singly-
symmetric unstiffened angles for which the effective
area (A
e
) at stress F
y
is less than the full unreduced
cross-sectional area (A), M
*y
, shall be taken either as the
required flexural strength [factored moment] or the
required flexural strength [factored moment] plus
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(P
*
)L/ 1000, whichever results in a lower permissible
value of P
*
.
M
*x
= M
ux
, M
*y
= M
uy
(LRFD)
M
*x
= M
fx
, M
*y
= M
fy
(LSD)
P
n
= Nominal axial strength determined in accordance with
Section C4
P
no
= Nominal axial strength determined in accordance with
Section C4, with F
n
= F
y
M
nx
, M
ny
= Nominal flexural strengths about the centroidal axes
determined in accordance with Section C3
α
x
=
Ex
u
P
P
1 − (Eq. C5.2.2-4)
α
y
=
Ey
u
P
P
1 − (Eq. C5.2.2-5)
P
Ex
=
2
x x
x
2
) L K (
EI π
(Eq. C5.2.2-6)
P
Ey
=
2
y y
y
2
) L K (
EI π
(Eq. C5.2.2-7)
φ
b
= For bending strength [resistance] (Section C3.1.1), φ
b
=
0.90 or 0.95 (LRFD) and 0.90 (LSD). For laterally
unbraced beams (Section C3.1.2), φ
b
= 0.90 (LRFD and
LSD)
φ
c
= 0.85 (LRFD)
= 0.80 (LSD)
I
x
= Moment of inertia of the full, unreduced cross section
about the x-axis
I
y
= Moment of inertia of the full, unreduced cross section
about the y-axis
L
x
= Actual unbraced length for bending about the x-axis
L
y
= Actual unbraced length for bending about the y-axis
K
x
= Effective length factor for buckling about the x-axis
K
y
= Effective length factor for buckling about the y-axis
C
mx
, C
my
= Coefficients whose value shall be taken as follows:
1. For compression members in frames subject to joint
translation (sidesway)
C
m
= 0.85
2. For restrained compression members in frames braced
against joint translation and not subject to transverse
loading between their supports in the plane of bending
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C
m
= 0.6 - 0.4 (M
1
/ M
2
) (Eq. C5.2.2-8)
where
M
1
/ M
2
is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment
at the ends of that portion of the member under
consideration which is unbraced in the plane of
bending. M
1
/ M
2
is positive when the member is bent
in reverse curvature and negative when it is bent in
single curvature.
3. For compression members in frames braced against
joint translation in the plane of loading and subject to
transverse loading between their supports, the value of
C
m
may be determined by rational analysis. However,
in lieu of such analysis, the following values may be
used:
(a) for members whose ends are restrained, C
m
= 0.85,
(b) for members whose ends are unrestrained, C
m
= 1.0.

C6 Cl osed Cyl i ndri cal Tubul ar Members
The requirements of this Section apply to closed cylindrical tubular
members having a ratio of outside diameter to wall thickness, D/ t, not greater
than 0.441 E/ F
y
.

C6.1 Bendi ng
For flexural members, the nominal flexural strength [moment resistance],
M
n
, shall be calculated as follows:
M
n
= F
c
S
f
(Eq. C6.1-1)
USA and Mexico Canada

b
(ASD) φ
b
(LRFD) φ
b
(LSD)
1.67 0.95 0.90
For D/ t ≤ 0.0714 E/ F
y
F
c
= 1.25 F
y
(Eq. C6.1-2)
For 0.0714 E/ F
y
< D/ t ≤ 0.318 E/ F
y
F
c
=
y
y
F
t / D
F / E
020 . 0 970 . 0
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ (Eq. C6.1-3)
For 0.318 E/ F
y
< D/ t ≤ 0.441 E/ F
y
F
c
= 0.328E/ (D/ t) (Eq. C6.1-4)
where
F
c
= Critical flexural stress
S
f
= Elastic section modulus of the full, unreduced cross section

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Chapt er C, Members
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C6.2 Compressi on
The requirements of this Section apply to members in which the
resultant of all loads and moments acting on the member is equivalent to a
single force in the direction of the member axis passing through the centroid
of the section.
The nominal axial strength [compressive resistance], P
n
, shall be
calculated as follows:
P
n
= F
n
A
e
(Eq. C6.2-1)
USA and Mexico Canada

c
(ASD) φ
c
(LRFD) φ
c
(LSD)
1.80 0.85 0.80
F
n
is determined as follows:
For λ
c
≤ 1.5
F
n
=
y
F 658 . 0
2
c

,
`

.
|
λ
(Eq. C6.2-2)
For λ
c
> 1.5
F
n
=
y
2
c
F
877 . 0
]
]
]
]

λ
(Eq. C6.2-3)
where
λ
c
=
e
y
F
F
(Eq. C6.2-4)
In the above equations:
F
e
= The elastic flexural buckling stress determined according to
Section C4.1
A
e
= ) A A ( R A
o o
− + (Eq. C6.2–5)
R = 0 . 1 F 2 F
e y
≤ (Eq. C6.2–6)
A
o
=
y y
F
E
441 . 0
t
D
for A A 667 . 0
) tE / ( ) DF (
037 . 0
≤ ≤
]
]
]
]

+ (Eq. C6.2-7)
A = Area of the unreduced cross section

C6.3 Combi ned Bendi ng and Compressi on
Combined bending and compression shall satisfy the provisions of
Section C5.

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D. STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES
D1 Bui l t -Up Sect i ons
D1.1 I-Sect i ons Composed of Two C-Sect i ons
(a) For compression members:
Refer to Section C4.5.
(b) For flexural members:
The maximum permissible longitudinal spacing of welds or other
connectors, s
max
, joining two C-sections to form an I-section shall be:
s
max
= L / 6 ≤
mq
gT 2
s
(Eq. D1.1-1)
where
L = Span of beam
T
s
= Design strength [factored resistance] of connection in tension
(Chapter E)
g = Vertical distance between the two rows of connections nearest to
the top and bottom flanges
q = Design load on the beam for spacing of connectors (Use nominal
loads for ASD, factored loads for LRFD and LSD. For methods of
determination, see below)
m = Distance from the shear center of one C-section to the mid-plane
of its web.
The load, q, is obtained by dividing the concentrated loads or reactions
by the length of bearing. For beams designed for a uniformly distributed
load, q shall be taken equal to three times the uniformly distributed load,
based on nominal loads for ASD, factored loads for LRFD and LSD. If the
length of bearing of a concentrated load or reaction is smaller than the weld
spacing, s, the required design strength [factored resistance] of the welds or
connections closest to the load or reaction is
T
s
= P
s
m/ 2g (Eq. D1.1-2)
where P
s
is a concentrated load or reaction based on nominal loads for
ASD, factored loads for LRFD and LSD.
The allowable maximum spacing of connections, s
max
, depends upon
the intensity of the load directly at the connection. Therefore, if uniform
spacing of connections is used over the whole length of the beam, it shall be
determined at the point of maximum local load intensity. In cases where this
procedure would result in uneconomically close spacing, either one of the
following methods may be adopted: (a) the connection spacing may be varied
along the beam according to the variation of the load intensity; or (b)
reinforcing cover plates may be welded to the flanges at points where
concentrated loads occur. The design shear strength of the connections
joining these plates to the flanges shall then be used for T
s
, and g shall be
taken as the depth of the beam.
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Chapt er D, St ruct ural Assemblies
96 November 5, 2001
D1.2 Spaci ng of Connect i ons i n Compressi on El ement s
The spacing, s, in the line of stress, of welds, rivets, or bolts connecting a
cover plate, sheet, or a non-integral stiffener in compression to another
element shall not exceed
(a) that which is required to transmit the shear between the connected parts
on the basis of the design strength [factored resistance] per connection
specified elsewhere herein; nor
(b) 1.16t
c
f / E , where t is the thickness of the cover plate or sheet, and f
c
is
the stress at service load in the cover plate or sheet; nor
(c) three times the flat width, w, of the narrowest unstiffened compression
element tributary to the connections, but need not be less than
1.11t
y
F / E if w/ t < 0.50
y
F / E , or 1.33t
y
F / E if w/ t ≥ 0.50
y
F / E ,
unless closer spacing is required by (a) or (b) above.
In the case of intermittent fillet welds parallel to the direction of stress,
the spacing shall be taken as the clear distance between welds, plus one-half
inch (12.7 mm). In all other cases, the spacing shall be taken as the center-to-
center distance between connections.
Exception: The requirements of this Section do not apply to cover
sheets which act only as sheathing material and are not considered as load-
carrying elements.

D2 Mi xed Syst ems
The design of members in mixed systems using cold-formed steel
components in conjunction with other materials shall conform to this Specification
and the applicable specification of the other material.

D3 Lat eral Braci ng
Braces shall be designed to restrain lateral bending or twisting of a loaded
beam or column, and to avoid local crippling at the points of attachment.

D3.1 Symmet ri cal Beams and Col umns
Braces and bracing systems, including connections, shall be designed
considering strength and stiffness requirements.

D3.2 C-Sect i on and Z-Sect i on Beams
The following provisions for bracing to restrain twisting of C-sections
and Z-sections used as beams loaded in the plane of the web, apply only
when (a) the top flange is connected to deck or sheathing material in such a
manner as to effectively restrain lateral deflection of the connected flange, or
(b) neither flange is so connected. When both flanges are so connected, no
further bracing is required. When the Specification does not provide an explicit
method for design, further information should be obtained from the
Commentary.

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D3.2.1 Anchorage of Braci ng f or Roof Syst ems Under Gravi t y Load Wi t h Top
Fl ange Connect ed t o Sheat hi ng
For C-sections and Z-sections designed according to Section C3.1.1,
and having deck or sheathing fastened to the top flanges (through fastened
or standing seam systems), provisions shall be made to restrain the flanges
so that the maximum top flange lateral displacements with respect to the
purlin reaction points do not exceed the span length divided by 360. If the
top flanges of all purlins face in the same direction, anchorage of the
restraint shall satisfy the requirements of Sections D3.2.1(a) and D3.2.1(b).
If the top flanges of adjacent lines of purlins face in opposite directions, a
restraint system shall be provided to resist the down-slope component of
the total gravity load.
Anchored braces need to be connected to only one line of purlins in
each purlin bay of each roof slope if provision is made to transmit forces
from other purlin lines through the roof deck and its fastening system.
Anchored braces shall be as close as possible to the flange which is
connected to the deck or sheathing. Anchored braces shall be provided for
each purlin bay.
For bracing arrangements other than those covered in Sections
D3.2.1(a) and D3.2.1(b), tests in accordance with Chapter F shall be
performed so that the type and/ or spacing of braces selected are such that
the test strength [resistance] of the purlin assembly is equal to or greater
than its nominal flexural strength [moment resistance], instead of that
required by Chapter F.
(a) C-Sections
For roof systems using C-sections for purlins with all compression
flanges facing in the same direction, a system possessing restraint force,
P
L
, in addition to resisting other loading, shall be provided:
P
L
= (0.05αcosθ - sinθ)W (Eq. D.3.2.1-1)
where
W = Total vertical load (nominal load for ASD, factored load for LRFD
and LSD) supported by all purlin lines being restrained. Where
more than one brace is used at a purlin line, the restraint force P
L

shall be divided equally between all braces.
α = +1 for purlin facing upward direction, and
-1 for purlin facing down slope direction.
θ = Angle between the vertical and the plane of the web of the C-
section, degrees.
A positive value for the force, P
L
, means that restraint is required to
prevent movement of the purlin flanges in the upward roof slope
direction, and a negative value means that restraint is required to prevent
movement of purlin flanges in the downward slope direction.
(b) Z-Sections
For roof systems having four to twenty Z-purlin lines with all top
flanges facing in the direction of the upward roof slope, and with
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Chapt er D, St ruct ural Assemblies
98 November 5, 2001
restraint braces at the purlin supports, midspan or one-third points,
each brace shall be designed to resist a force determined as follows:
(1) Single-Span System with Restraints at the Supports:
P
L
= W sin cos
t d n
b 220 . 0
5 . 0
60 . 0 90 . 0 72 . 0
p
50 . 1
]
]
]
]

θ − θ (Eq. D3.2.1-2)
(2) Single-Span System with Third-Point Restraints:
P
L
= W sin cos
t d n
b 474 . 0
5 . 0
33 . 0 89 . 0 57 . 0
p
22 . 1
]
]
]
]

θ − θ (Eq. D3.2.1-3)
(3) Single-Span System with Midspan Restraint:
P
L
= W sin cos
t d n
b 224 . 0
50 . 0 83 . 0 65 . 0
p
32 . 1
]
]
]
]

θ − θ (Eq. D3.2.1-4)
(4) Multiple-Span System with Restraints at the Supports:

P
L
= W sin cos
t d n
L b 053 . 0
C
94 . 0 07 . 1 95 . 0
p
13 . 0 88 . 1
tr
]
]
]
]

θ − θ (Eq. D.3.2.1-5)
With
C
tr
= 0.63 for braces at end supports of multiple-span systems
C
tr
= 0.87 for braces at the first interior supports
C
tr
= 0.81 for all other braces
(5) Multiple-Span System with Third-Point Restraints:
P
L
= W sin cos
t d n
L b 181 . 0
C
29 . 0 11 . 1 54 . 0
p
25 . 0 15 . 1
th
]
]
]
]

θ − θ (Eq. D3.2.1-6)
With
C
th
= 0.57 for outer braces in exterior spans
C
th
= 0.48 for all other braces
(6) Multiple-Span System with Midspan Restraints:
P
L
= W sin cos
dt n
L b 116 . 0
C
50 . 0 70 . 0
p
18 . 0 32 . 1
ms
]
]
]
]

θ − θ (Eq. D3.2.1-7)
with
C
ms
= 1.05 for braces in exterior spans
C
ms
= 0.90 for all other braces
where
b = Flange width
d = Depth of section
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
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t = Thickness
L = Span length
θ = Angle between the vertical and the plane of the web of the
Z-section, degrees
n
p
= Number of parallel purlin lines
W = Total vertical load supported by the purlin lines between
adjacent supports (Use nominal loads for ASD, factored
loads for LRFD and LSD)
The force, P
L
, is positive when restraint is required to prevent
movement of the purlin flanges in the upward roof slope direction.
For systems having less than four purlin lines, the brace force shall
be determined by taking 1.1 times the force found from Equations D3.2.1-2
through D3.2.1-7, with n
p
= 4. For systems having more than twenty
purlin lines, the brace force shall be determined from Equations D3.2.1-2
through D3.2.1-7, with n
p
= 20 and W based on the total number of purlins.

D3.2.2 Nei t her Fl ange Connect ed t o Sheat hi ng
Each intermediate brace, at the top and bottom flange, shall be
designed to resist a required lateral force, P
L
, determined as follows:
(a) For uniform loads, P
L
= 1.5K′ times the design load (nominal loads for
ASD, factored loads for LRFD and LSD) within a distance 0.5a each
side of the brace.
(b) For concentrated loads, P
L
= 1.0K′ times each design concentrated load
within a distance 0.3a each side of the brace, plus 1.4K′ (1-x/ a) times
each design concentrated load located farther than 0.3a but not farther
than 1.0a from the brace. The design concentrated load is the nominal
load for ASD or the factored load for LRFD and LSD.
In the above equations:
For C-sections:
K′ = m/ d (Eq. D3.2.2-1)
where
m = Distance from the shear center to the mid-plane of the web
d = Depth of C-section
Brace force P
L
, shall be applied to both flanges in opposite directions
in order to resist the twist caused by the load.
For Z-sections:
K′ = I
xy
/ (2I
x
)

(Eq. D3.2.2-2)
where
I
xy
= Product of inertia of the full section about centroidal axes parallel
and perpendicular to the web
I
x
= Moment of inertia of the full section about the centroidal axis
perpendicular to the web
Brace force, P
L
, shall be applied to both flanges in the same direction
in order to constrain bending of the section about the axis
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Chapt er D, St ruct ural Assemblies
100 November 5, 2001
perpendicular to its web.

For C-sections and Z-sections:
x = Distance from the concentrated load to the brace
a = Distance between center line of braces

When braces are provided, they shall be attached in such a manner
to effectively restrain the section against lateral deflection of both flanges at
the ends and at any intermediate brace points.
When all loads and reactions on a beam are transmitted through
members which frame into the section in such a manner as to effectively
restrain the section against torsional rotation and lateral displacement, no
additional braces shall be required except those required for strength
according to Section C3.1.2.
D4 Wal l St uds and Wal l St ud Assembl i es
Wall studs shall be designed either on the basis of an all steel system in
accordance with Chapter C or on the basis of sheathing in accordance with
Section D4.1 through D4.3. Both solid and perforated webs shall be permitted.
Both ends of the stud shall be connected to restrain rotation about the
longitudinal stud axis and horizontal displacement perpendicular to the stud
axis.
(a) All Steel Design
Wall stud assemblies using an all steel design shall be designed neglecting
the structural contribution of the attached sheathings and shall comply with the
requirements of Chapter C. For compression members with circular web
perforations, see Section B2.2, and for non-circular web perforations, the effective
area shall be determined as follows:
The effective area, A
e
at a stress F
n
, shall be determined in accordance with
Chapter B, assuming the web to consist of two unstiffened elements, one on each
side of the perforation, or the effective area, A
e
, shall be determined from stub-
column tests.
When A
e
is determined in accordance with Chapter B, the following
limitations related to the size and spacing of perforations and the depth of the
stud shall apply:
(1) The center-to-center spacing of web perforations shall not be less than 24
in. (610 mm).
(2) The maximum width of web perforations shall be the lesser of 0.5 times
the depth, d, of the section or 2-1/ 2 in. (63.5 mm).
(3) The length of web perforations shall not exceed 4-1/ 2 in. (114 mm).
(4) The section depth-to-thickness ratio, d/ t, shall not be less than 20.
(5) The distance between the end of the stud and the near edge of a
perforation shall not be less than 10 in. (254 mm).
(b) Sheathing Braced Design
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
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Wall stud assemblies using a sheathing braced design shall be designed in
accordance with Sections D4.1 through D4.3 and in addition shall comply with
the following requirements:
In the case of perforated webs, the effective area, A
e
, shall be determined as
in (a) above.
Sheathing shall be attached to both sides of the stud and connected to the
bottom and top horizontal members of the wall to provide lateral and torsional
support to the stud in the plane of the wall.
Sheathing shall conform to the limitations specified under Table D4.
Additional bracing shall be provided during construction, if required.

D4.1 Wal l St uds i n Compressi on
For studs having identical sheathing attached to both flanges, and
neglecting any rotational restraint provided by the sheathing, the nominal
axial strength [compressive resistance], P
n
, shall be calculated as follows:
P
n
= A
e
F
n
(Eq. D4.1-1)
USA and Mexico Canada

c
(ASD) φ
c
(LRFD) φ
c
(LSD)
1.80 0.85 0.80
where
A
e
= Effective area determined at F
n
F
n
= The lowest value determined by three conditions (a), (b), and (c)
given below. The equations provided in these three conditions are
applicable within the following limits:
Yield strength, F
y
≤ 50 ksi (340 MPa or 3520 kg/ cm
2
)
Section depth, d ≤ 6.0 in. (152 mm)
Section thickness, t ≤ 0.075 in. (1.91 mm)
Overall length, L ≤ 16 ft. (4.88 m)
Stud spacing, 12 in. (305 mm) minimum; 24 in. (610 mm)
maximum
Fastener spacing, 6 in. (152 mm) ≤ s ≤ 12 in. (305 mm)
(a) To prevent column buckling between fasteners in the plane of the wall, F
n

shall be calculated according to Section C4 with KL equal to two times the
distance between fasteners.
(b) To prevent flexural and/ or torsional overall column buckling, F
n
shall be
calculated in accordance with Section C4 with F
e
taken as the smaller of
the two σ
CR
values specified for the following section types, where σ
CR

is the theoretical elastic buckling stress under concentric loading.
(1) Singly-symmetric C-Sections
σ
CR
= σ
ey
+
a
Q (Eq. D4.1-2)
σ
CR
= ( ) ( )
]
]
]

σ βσ − σ + σ − σ + σ
β
tQ ex
2
tQ ex tQ ex
4
2
1
(Eq. D4.1-3)
(2) Z-Sections
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Chapt er D, St ruct ural Assemblies
102 November 5, 2001
σ
CR
= σ
t
+
t
Q

(Eq. D4.1-4)
σ
CR
=
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
σ − σ + σ σ − + σ + σ − + σ + σ )] Q ( 4 ) Q [( ) Q (
2
1
2
exy a ex ey ex
2
a ey ex a ey ex

(Eq. D4.1-5)
(3) I-Sections (doubly-symmetric)
σ
CR
= σ
ey
+
a
Q

(Eq. D4.1-6)
σ
CR
= σ
ex
(Eq. D4.1-7)
In the above equations:
σ
ex
=
( )
2
x
2
r / L
E π
(Eq. D4.1-8)
σ
exy
= (π
2
EI
xy
) / (AL
2
) (Eq. D4.1-9)
σ
ey
=
2
y
2
) r / L (
E π
(Eq. D4.1-10)
σ
t
=

]
]
]
]

π
+
2
w
2
2
o
L
EC
GJ
Ar
1
(Eq. D4.1-11)
σ
tQ
= σ
t
+
t
Q

(Eq. D4.1-12)
Q =
o
Q (2 - s/ s′) (Eq. D4.1-13)
where:
s = fastener spacing, in. (mm)
s′ = 12 in. (305 mm)

o
Q = See Table D4
a
Q = Q / A (Eq. D4.1-14)
A = Area of full unreduced cross section
L = Length of stud
t
Q = ) Ar 4 / ( ) d Q (
2
o
2
(Eq. D4.1-15)
d = Depth of section
I
xy
= Product of inertia
(c) To prevent shear failure of the sheathing, a value of F
n
shall be used in
the following equations so that the shear strain of the sheathing, γ, does
not exceed the permissible shear strain, γ . The shear strain, γ, shall be
determined as follows:
γ = (π / L) [C
1
+ (E
1
d/ 2)] (Eq. D4.1-16)
where
C
1
and E
1
are the absolute values of C
1
and E
1
specified below for each
section type:
(1) Singly-Symmetric C-sections
C
1
= (F
n
C
o
)/ (σ
ey
- F
n
+
a
Q ) (Eq. D4.1-17)
)
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
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E
1
=
2
o n n tQ
2
o n ex
o o o o n o o o
2
o n ex n
) x F ( ) F ( r ) F (
)] E x D ( x F ) D x E r )( F [( F
− − σ − σ
− − − − σ
(Eq. D4.1-18)
(2) Z-Sections
C
1
=
( )
( )( )
2
exy n ex a n ey
exy o n ex o n
F Q F
] D F C [ F
σ − − σ + − σ
σ − − σ
(Eq. D4.1-19)
E
1
= (F
n
E
o
) / (σ
tQ
- F
n
) (Eq. D4.1-20)
(3) I-Sections
C
1
= (F
n
C
o
)/ (σ
ey
- F
n
+
a
Q ) (Eq. D4.1-21)
E
1
= 0
where
x
o
= Distance from shear center to centroid along principal x-axis,
(absolute value)
C
o
, E
o
, and D
o
are initial column imperfections which shall be
assumed to be at least
C
o
= L/ 350 in a direction parallel to the wall (Eq. D4.1-22)
D
o
= L/ 700 in a direction perpendicular to the wall (Eq. D4.1-23)
E
o
= L/ (d × 10,000), rad., a measure of the initial twist of the
stud from the initial, ideal, unbuckled shape (Eq. D4.1-24)
If F
n
> 0.5 F
y
, then in the definitions for σ
ey
, σ
ex
, σ
exy
and σ
tQ
, the
parameters E and G shall be replaced by E′ and G′, respectively, as
defined below
E′ = 4EF
n
(F
y
- F
n
)/ F
y
2
(Eq. D4.1-25)
G′= G (E′/ E) (Eq. D4.1-26)
Sheathing parameters
o
Q and γ shall be permitted to be determined
from representative full-scale tests, conducted and evaluated as
described by published documented methods (see Commentary), or
from the small scale test values given in Table D4.

TABLE D4
Sheat hi ng Paramet ers
(1)


Sheathing
(2)

o
Q
kip kN kg
γ
length/ length
3/ 8 in. (9.5 mm) to 5/ 8 in. (15.9 mm) thick gypsum
Lignocellulosic board
Fiberboard (regular or impregnated)
Fiberboard (heavy impregnated)
24.0 107.0 10,900
12.0 53.4 5440
7.2 32.0 3270
14.4 64.1 6530
0.008
0.009
0.007
0.010
(1) The values given are subject to the following limitations:
All values are for sheathing on both sides of the wall assembly.
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Chapt er D, St ruct ural Assemblies
104 November 5, 2001
All fasteners are No. 6, type S-12, self-drilling drywall screws with pan or
bugle head, or equivalent.
(2) All sheathing is 1/ 2 in. (12.7 mm) thick except as noted.
For other types of sheathing,
o
Q and γ shall be permitted to be
determined conservatively from representative small-specimen tests as
described by published documented methods (see Commentary).

D4.2 Wal l St uds i n Bendi ng
For studs having identical sheathing attached to both flanges, and
neglecting any rotational restraint provided by the sheathing, the nominal
flexural strengths [moment resistances] are M
nxo
and M
nyo
where:
For sections with stiffened or partially stiffened compression flanges:
USA and Mexico Canada

b
(ASD) φ
b
(LRFD) φ
b
(LSD)
1.67 0.95 0.90
For sections with unstiffened compression flanges:
USA and Mexico Canada

b
(ASD) φ
b
(LRFD) φ
b
(LSD)
1.67 0.90 0.90
M
nxo
and M
nyo
= Nominal flexural strengths [moment resistances]
about the centroidal axes determined in accordance with Section
C3.1, excluding the provisions of Section C3.1.2 (lateral-torsional
buckling).

D4.3 Wal l St uds wi t h Combi ned Axi al Load and Bendi ng
The required axial strength [resistance] and flexural strength [moment
resistance] shall satisfy the interaction equations of Section C5 with the
following redefined terms:
P
n
= Nominal axial strength [resistance] determined according to Section
D4.1
M
nx
and M
ny
in Equations C5.2.1-1, C5.2.1-2 and C5.2.1-3 for ASD or
C5.2.2-1, C5.2.2-2 and C5.2.2-3 for LRFD or LSD shall be replaced by
nominal flexural strengths [moment resistances], M
nxo
and M
nyo
,
respectively.

D5 Fl oor, Roof or Wal l St eel Di aphragm Const ruct i on
The in-plane diaphragm nominal shear strength [resistance], S
n
shall be
established by calculation or test.

d
= As specified in Table D5 (ASD)
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
November 5, 2001 105
φ
d
= As specified in Table D5 (LRFD and LSD)
TABLE D5
Fact ors of Saf et y and Resi st ance Fact ors f or Di aphragms
USA and Mexico Canada

d
(ASD)
φ
d
(LRFD)
φ
d
(LSD)

Diaphragm Condition
2.65 0.60 0.50 for diaphragms for which the failure mode is that of
buckling, otherwise;
3.0 0.50 0.50 for diaphragms welded to the structure subjected to
earthquake loads, or subjected to load combinations
which include earthquake loads.
2.35 0.55 0.50 for diaphragms welded to the structure subjected to
wind loads, or subjected to load combinations which
include wind loads
2.5 0.60 0.50 for diaphragms mechanically connected to the
structure subjected to earthquake loads, or subjected to
load combinations which include earthquake loads.
2.0 0.65 0.50 for diaphragms mechanically connected to the
structure subjected to wind loads, or subjected to load
combinations which include wind loads.
2.45 0.65 0.50 for diaphragms connected to the structure by either
mechanical fastening or welding subjected to load
combinations not involving wind or earthquake loads.
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Chapt er E, Connect ions and Joint s
106 November 9, 2001
E. CONNECTIONS AND JOINTS
E1 General Provi si ons
Connections shall be designed to transmit the maximum design forces acting
on the connected members. Proper regard shall be given to eccentricity.

E2 Wel ded Connect i ons
The following design criteria govern welded connections used for cold-
formed steel structural members in which the thickness of the thinnest connected
part is 0.18 in. (4.57 mm) or less. For the design of welded connections in which
the thickness of the thinnest connected part is greater than 0.18 in. (4.57 mm),
refer to the specifications or standards stipulated in the corresponding Section
E2a of Appendix A, B or C.
Welds shall follow the requirements of the weld standards also stipulated in
Section E2a of Appendix A, B, or C.

E2.1 Groove Wel ds i n But t Joi nt s
The nominal strength [resistance], P
n
, of a groove weld in a butt joint,
welded from one or both sides, shall be determined as follows:
(a) Tension or compression normal to the effective area or parallel to the axis
of the weld
P
n
= Lt
e
F
y
(Eq. E2.1-1)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
1.70 0.90 0.80
(b) Shear on the effective area, the smaller of either Eq. E2.1-2 or E2.1-3
P
n
= Lt
e
0.6F
xx
(Eq. E2.1-2)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
1.90 0.80 0.70
P
n
= 3 / F Lt
y e
(Eq. E2.1-3)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
1.70 0.90 0.80
where
P
n
= Nominal strength [resistance] of a groove weld
F
xx
= Tensile strength of the electrode classification
F
y
= Specified minimum yield point of the lowest strength base steel
L = Length of weld
t
e
= Effective throat dimension for groove weld

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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion - November 9, 2001
November 9, 2001 107
E2.2 Arc Spot Wel ds
Arc spot welds permitted by this Specification are for welding sheet steel
to thicker supporting members in the flat position. Arc spot welds (puddle
welds) shall not be made on steel where the thinnest connected part is over
0.15 in. (3.81 mm) thick, nor through a combination of steel sheets having a
total thickness over 0.15 in. (3.81 mm).
Weld washers, Figures E2.2A and E2.2B, shall be used when the
thickness of the sheet is less than 0.028 in. (0.711 mm). Weld washers shall
have a thickness between 0.05 (1.27 mm) and 0.08 in. (2.03 mm) with a
minimum prepunched hole of 3/ 8 in. (9.53 mm) diameter.
Arc spot welds shall be specified by minimum effective diameter of
fused area, d
e
. Minimum allowable effective diameter is 3/ 8 in. (9.5 mm).

E2.2.1 Shear
The nominal shear strength [resistance], P
n
, of each arc spot weld
between sheet or sheets and supporting member shall be determined by
using the smaller of either
(a) P
n
=
xx
2
e
F 75 . 0
d
4
π
(Eq. E2.2.1-1)
Arc Spot Weld
Sheet
Weld Washer
Supporting Member

Figure E2.2A Typical Weld Washer Figure E2.2A Typical Weld Washer Figure E2.2A Typical Weld Washer Figure E2.2A Typical Weld Washer
Washer
Optional Lug
Plane of Maximum
Shear Transfer

Figure E2.2B Arc Figure E2.2B Arc Figure E2.2B Arc Figure E2.2B Arc Spot Weld Using Washer Spot Weld Using Washer Spot Weld Using Washer Spot Weld Using Washer
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Chapt er E, Connect ions and Joint s
108 November 9, 2001
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.55 0.60 0.50
(b) For (d
a
/ t) ≤ 0.815 ( )
u
F / E
P
n
= 2.20 t d
a
F
u
(Eq. E2.2.1-2)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.20 0.70 0.60
For 0.815 ( )
u
F / E < (d
a
/ t) < 1.397 ( )
u
F / E
P
n
=
u a
a
u
F td
t / d
F / E
59 . 5 1 280 . 0
]
]
]
]

+ (Eq. E2.2.1-3)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.80 0.55 0.45
For (d
a
/ t) ≥ 1.397 ( )
u
F / E
P
n
= 1.40 t d
a
F
u
(Eq. E2.2.1-4)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
3.05 0.50 0.40
where
P
n
= Nominal shear strength [resistance] of an arc spot weld
d = Visible diameter of outer surface of arc spot weld
d
a
= Average diameter of the arc spot weld at mid-thickness of t where
d
a
= (d - t) for a single sheet and multiple sheets not more than
four lapped sheets over a supporting member
d
e
= Effective diameter of fused area at plane of maximum shear
transfer
= 0.7d - 1.5t but ≤ 0.55d (Eq. E2.2.1-5)
t =Total combined base steel thickness (exclusive of coatings) of
sheets involved in shear transfer above the plane of maximum
shear transfer
F
xx
= Tensile strength of the electrode classification
F
u
= Tensile strength as specified in Section A2.1 or A2.2
Not e: See Figures E2.2C and E2.2D for diameter definitions.
The distance measured in the line of force from the centerline of a
weld to the nearest edge of an adjacent weld or to the end of the
connected part toward which the force is directed shall not be less than
the value of e
min
as given below:
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion - November 9, 2001
November 9, 2001 109
e
min
=
t F
P
u

For ASD (Eq. E2.2.1-6a)
e
min
=
t F
P
u
u
φ
For LRFD (Eq. E2.2.1-6b)
e
min
=
t F
P
u
f
φ
For LSD (Eq. E2.2.1-6c)
When F
u
/ F
sy
≥ 1.08
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.20 0.70 0.60
When F
u
/ F
sy
< 1.08
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.55 0.60 0.50
where
P = Required strength (nominal force) transmitted by the weld (ASD)
P
u
=Required strength (factored force) transmitted by the weld (LRFD)
P
f
= Shear force due to factored loads transmitted by the weld (LSD)
t = Total combined base steel thickness (exclusive of coatings) of
sheets involved in shear transfer above the plane of maximum
shear transfer
F
sy
=Yield point as specified in Sections A2.1 or A2.2
d = d - t
a
d = 0.7d - 1.5t ≤ 0.55d
e
d
d
d
a
e
t

Figure E2.2C Arc Spot Weld Figure E2.2C Arc Spot Weld Figure E2.2C Arc Spot Weld Figure E2.2C Arc Spot Weld – –– – Singl e Thickness of Sheet Singl e Thickness of Sheet Singl e Thickness of Sheet Singl e Thickness of Sheet
Plane of Maximum
Shear Transfer
d = d - t
a
d = 0.7d - 1.5t < 0.55d
e
d
d
a
t
t
t
1
2
d
e

Figure E2.2D Arc Spot Weld Figure E2.2D Arc Spot Weld Figure E2.2D Arc Spot Weld Figure E2.2D Arc Spot Weld – –– – Double Thickness of Sheet Double Thickness of Sheet Double Thickness of Sheet Double Thickness of Sheet
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Chapt er E, Connect ions and Joint s
110 November 9, 2001
Not e: See Figures E2.2E and E2.2F for edge distances of arc welds.
In addition, the distance from the centerline of any weld to the end or
boundary of the connected member shall not be less than 1.5d. In no
case shall the clear distance between welds and the end of member be
less than 1.0d.

E2.2.2 Tensi on
The uplift nominal tensile strength [resistance], P
n
, of each
concentrically loaded arc spot weld connecting sheets and supporting
member, shall be computed as the smaller of either:
P
n
=
xx
2
e
F
d
4
π
(Eq. E2.2.2-1)
or
P
n
= 0.8(F
u
/ F
y
)
2
td
a
F
u
(Eq. E2.2.2-2)
C
L min
E
d
g
e E
d
g
e
d
t
min
C
L
≥ e
≥ e

Figure E2.2E Edge Dist ance f or Arc Spot Welds Figure E2.2E Edge Dist ance f or Arc Spot Welds Figure E2.2E Edge Dist ance f or Arc Spot Welds Figure E2.2E Edge Dist ance f or Arc Spot Welds – –– – Single Sheet Single Sheet Single Sheet Single Sheet
C
L
min
E
d
g
e
E
d
g
e
d
t
≥ e
min
C
L
≥ e

Figur Figur Figur Figur e E2.2F Edge Dist ance f or Arc Spot Welds e E2.2F Edge Dist ance f or Arc Spot Welds e E2.2F Edge Dist ance f or Arc Spot Welds e E2.2F Edge Dist ance f or Arc Spot Welds – –– – Doubl e Sheet Doubl e Sheet Doubl e Sheet Doubl e Sheet
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion - November 9, 2001
November 9, 2001 111
For panel and deck applications:




For all other applications




The following limitations shall apply:
t d
a
F
u
≤ 3
e
min
≥ d
F
xx
≥ 60 ksi (410 MPa or 4220 kg/ cm
2
)
F
u
≤ 82 ksi (565 MPa or 5770 kg/ cm
2
) (of connecting sheets)
F
xx
> F
u
where all other parameters are as defined in Section E2.2.1

For eccentrically loaded arc spot welds subjected to an uplift
tension load, the nominal tensile strength [resistance] shall be taken as 50
percent of the above value.
For connections having multiple sheets, the strength [resistance]
shall be determined by using the sum of the sheet thicknesses as given by
Equation E2.2.2-2.
At the side lap connection within a deck system, the nominal tensile
strength [resistance] of the weld connection shall be 70 percent of the above
values.
If it can be shown by measurement that a given weld procedure
will consistently give a larger effective diameter, d
e
, or average diameter,
d
a
, as applicable, this larger diameter may be used providing the particular
welding procedure used for making those welds is followed.

E2.3 Arc Seam Wel ds
Arc seam welds (Figure E2.3A) covered by this Specification apply only
to the following joints:
(a) Sheet to thicker supporting member in the flat position.
(b) Sheet to sheet in the horizontal or flat position.
The nominal shear strength [resistance], P
n
, of arc seam welds shall be
determined by using the smaller of either:
(a) P
n
=
xx e
2
e
F 75 . 0 Ld
4
d
]
]
]
]

+
π
(Eq. E2.3-1)
(b) P
n
= ) d 96 . 0 L 25 . 0 ( tF 5 . 2
a u
+ (Eq. E2.3-2)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.50 0.60 0.50
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
3.00 0.50 0.40
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Chapt er E, Connect ions and Joint s
112 November 9, 2001
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.55 0.60 0.50
where
P
n
= Nominal shear strength [resistance] of an arc seam weld
d = Width of arc seam weld
L = Length of seam weld not including the circular ends
(For computation purposes, L shall not exceed 3d)
d
a
= Average width of seam weld
= (d - t) for a single and a double sheet (Eq. E2.3-3)
d
e
= Effective width of arc seam weld at fused surfaces
d
e
= 0.7d - 1.5t (Eq. E2.3-4)
and F
u
, F
xx
, and t are defined in Section E2.2.1. The minimum edge distance
shall be as determined for the arc spot weld, Section E2.2.1. See Figure E2.3B.

E2.4 Fi l l et Wel ds
Fillet welds covered by this Specification apply to the welding of joints in
any position, either
d Width
L
t
Figure E2.3A Arc Seam Welds Figure E2.3A Arc Seam Welds Figure E2.3A Arc Seam Welds Figure E2.3A Arc Seam Welds - -- - Sheet t o Support ing Member in Flat Posit ion Sheet t o Support ing Member in Flat Posit ion Sheet t o Support ing Member in Flat Posit ion Sheet t o Support ing Member in Flat Posit ion
≥ e
min
≥ e
min C
L
C
L
E
d
g
e
E
d
g
e
d

Figure E2.3B Edge Dist ances f or Arc Seam Welds Figure E2.3B Edge Dist ances f or Arc Seam Welds Figure E2.3B Edge Dist ances f or Arc Seam Welds Figure E2.3B Edge Dist ances f or Arc Seam Welds
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion - November 9, 2001
November 9, 2001 113
(a) Sheet to sheet, or
(b) Sheet to thicker steel member.
The nominal shear strength [resistance], P
n
, of a fillet weld shall be
determined as follows:
(a) For longitudinal loading:
For L/ t < 25 :
P
n
=
u
tLF
t
L 01 . 0
1

,
`

.
|
− (Eq. E2.4-1)



For L/ t ≥ 25:
P
n
= 0.75 tLF
u
(Eq. E2.4-2)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
3.05 0.50 0.40
(b) For transverse loading:
P
n
= tLF
u
(Eq. E2.4-3)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.35 0.65 0.60
where t=Least value of t
1
or t
2
, as shown in Figures E2.4A and E2.4B
In addition, for t > 0.10 in. (2.54 mm), the nominal strength [resistance]
determined above shall not exceed the following value of P
n
:
P
n
= 0.75 t
w
LF
xx
(Eq. E2.4-4)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.55 0.60 0.50
where
P
n
= Nominal strength [resistance] of a fillet weld
L = Length of fillet weld
t
w
= Effective throat = 0.707 w
1
or 0.707 w
2
, whichever is smaller. A larger
effective throat shall be permitted if measurement shows that the
welding procedure to be used consistently yields a larger value of t
w
.
w
1
and w
2
= leg on weld (see Figures E2.4A and E2.4B). w
1
≤ t
1
in lap
joints.
F
u
and F
xx
are defined in Section E2.2.1.
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.55 0.60 0.50
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Chapt er E, Connect ions and Joint s
114 November 9, 2001

E2.5 Fl are Groove Wel ds
Flare groove welds covered by this Specification apply to welding of
joints in any position, either:
(a) Sheet to sheet for flare-V groove welds, or
(b) Sheet to sheet for flare-bevel groove welds, or
(c) Sheet to thicker steel member for flare-bevel groove welds.
The nominal shear strength [resistance], P
n
, of a flare groove weld shall
be determined as follows:
(a) For flare-bevel groove welds, transverse loading (see Figure E2.5A):
P
n
= 0.833tLF
u
(Eq. E2.5-1)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.55 0.60 0.50

(b) For flare groove welds, longitudinal loading (see Figures E2.5B through
E2.5G):
(1) For t ≤ t
w
< 2t or if the lip height, h, is less than weld length, L:
P
n
= 0.75tLF
u
(Eq. E2.5-2)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.80 0.55 0.45
L
P
P
t

Figure E2.5A Flare Figure E2.5A Flare Figure E2.5A Flare Figure E2.5A Flare- -- -Bevel Groove Weld Bevel Groove Weld Bevel Groove Weld Bevel Groove Weld
t
t
1
2
w < t
w
2
1 1
t
w

w
1
w
2
t
2
t
1
t
w

Figure E2.4A Fill et Welds Figure E2.4A Fill et Welds Figure E2.4A Fill et Welds Figure E2.4A Fill et Welds – –– – Lap Joi nt Lap Joi nt Lap Joi nt Lap Joi nt Figure E2.4B Fi llet Welds Figure E2.4B Fi llet Welds Figure E2.4B Fi llet Welds Figure E2.4B Fi llet Welds – –– – T Joint T Joint T Joint T Joint
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion - November 9, 2001
November 9, 2001 115
(2) For t
w
≥ 2 t and the lip height, h, is equal to or greater than weld
length L:
P
n
= 1.50tLF
u
(Eq. E2.5-3)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.80 0.55 0.45
In addition, for t > 0.10 in. (2.54 mm), the nominal strength [resistance]
determined above shall not exceed the following value of P
n
:
P
n
= 0.75t
w
LF
xx
(Eq. E2.5-4)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.55 0.60 0.50
where
P
n
= Limiting nominal strength [resistance] of the weld
h = Height of lip
L = Length of the weld
t
w
= Effective throat of flare groove weld filled flush to surface (See
Figures E2.5D and E2.5E):
For flare bevel groove weld = 5/ 16R
For flare V-groove weld = 1/ 2R (3/ 8R when R > 1/ 2 in. (12.7mm))
t
L
P
P

Figure E2.5B Shear in Fl are Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5B Shear in Fl are Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5B Shear in Fl are Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5B Shear in Fl are Bevel Groove Weld
P
P
t
L

Figure E2.5C Shear i n Flare V Figure E2.5C Shear i n Flare V Figure E2.5C Shear i n Flare V Figure E2.5C Shear i n Flare V- -- -Groove Weld Groove Weld Groove Weld Groove Weld
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Chapt er E, Connect ions and Joint s
116 November 9, 2001
= Effective throat of flare groove weld not filled flush to surface =
0.707w
1
or 0.707w
2
, whichever is smaller. (See Figures E2.5F and
E2.5G.)
= A larger effective throat than those above shall be permitted if
measurement shows that the welding procedure to be used
consistently yields a larger value of t
w
.
R = Radius of outside bend surface.
w
1
and w
2
= Leg on weld (see Figures E2.5F and E2.5G).
F
u
and F
xx
are defined in Section E2.2.1.

E2.6 Resi st ance Wel ds
The nominal shear strength [resistance], P
n
, of spot welds shall be
determined as follows:
When t is in inches and P
n
is in kips:
For 0.01 in. ≤ t < 0.14 in.:
P
n
=
47 . 1
t 144 (Eq. E2.6-1)
w
1
h ≥ L
t
R
t
w
Double Shear
(Eq. E2.5-3)
for t ≥ 2t
w

w
1
h < L
t
R
t
w
Single Shear
(Eq. E2.5-2)
for t ≤ t < 2t
w

Figure E2.5D Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5D Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5D Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5D Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5E Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5E Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5E Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5E Flare Bevel Groove Weld
(Fil led f l ush t o surf ace, w (Fil led f l ush t o surf ace, w (Fil led f l ush t o surf ace, w (Fil led f l ush t o surf ace, w
1 11 1
= R) = R) = R) = R) (Fil led f l ush t o surf ace, w (Fil led f l ush t o surf ace, w (Fil led f l ush t o surf ace, w (Fil led f l ush t o surf ace, w
1 11 1
= R) = R) = R) = R)
w
2
w
1
h
t
R
t
w

w
2
w
1
h
t
R
t
w

Figure E2.5F Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5F Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5F Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5F Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5G Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5G Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5G Flare Bevel Groove Weld Figure E2.5G Flare Bevel Groove Weld
(Not f ill ed f lush t o surf ace, w (Not f ill ed f lush t o surf ace, w (Not f ill ed f lush t o surf ace, w (Not f ill ed f lush t o surf ace, w
1 11 1
> R) > R) > R) > R) (Not f ill ed f lush t o surf ace, w (Not f ill ed f lush t o surf ace, w (Not f ill ed f lush t o surf ace, w (Not f ill ed f lush t o surf ace, w
1 11 1
< R) < R) < R) < R)
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion - November 9, 2001
November 9, 2001 117
For 0.14 in. ≤ t ≤ 0.18 in.:
P
n
= 43.4t + 1.93 (Eq. E2.6-2)
When t is in millimeters and P
n
is in kN:
For 0.25 mm ≤ t < 3.56 mm:
P
n
=
47 . 1
t 51 . 5 (Eq. E2.6-3)
For 3.56 mm ≤ t ≤ 4.57 mm:
P
n
= 7.6t + 8.57 (Eq. E2.6-4)
When t is in centimeters and P
n
is in kg:
For 0.025 cm ≤ t < 0.356 cm:
P
n
=
47 . 1
t 16600 (Eq. E2.6-5)
For 0.356 cm ≤ t ≤ 0.457 cm:
P
n
= 7750t + 875 (Eq. E2.6-6)
where t = Thickness of thinnest outside sheet.
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.35 0.65 0.55

E2.7 Shear Lag Ef f ect i n Wel ded Connect i ons of Members Ot her Than Fl at
Sheet s
The nominal tensile strength [resistance] of a welded member shall be
determined in accordance with Section C2. For fracture and/ or yielding in
the effective net section of the connected part, the nominal tensile strength
[resistance], P
n
, shall be determined as follows:
P
n
= A
e
F
u
(Eq. E2.7-1)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.50 0.60 0.50
F
u
· Tensile strength of the connected part as specified in Section A2.1 or A2.3.2
A
e
= AU, effective net area with U defined as follows:
When the load is transmitted only by transverse welds:
A = Area of directly connected elements
U = 1.0
When the load is transmitted only by longitudinal welds or by
longitudinal welds in combination with transverse welds:
A = Gross area of member, A
g

U = 1.0 for members when the load is transmitted directly to all of
the cross sectional elements. Otherwise the reduction coefficient
U is determined as follows:
(a) For angle members:
U = 1.0 - 1.20 L x < 0.9 (Eq. E2.7-2)
but U shall not be less than 0.4.
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Chapt er E, Connect ions and Joint s
118 November 9, 2001
(b) For channel members
U = 1.0 - 0.36 L x < 0.9 (Eq. E2.7-3)
but U shall not be less than 0.5.
x = Distance from shear plane to centroid of the cross section
L = Length of longitudinal welds

E3 Bol t ed Connect i ons
The following design criteria and the requirements stipulated in Section E3a
of Appendix A, B, and C govern bolted connections used for cold-formed steel
structural members in which the thickness of the thinnest connected part is less
than 3/ 16 in. (4.76 mm). For bolted connections in which the thickness of the
thinnest connected part is equal to or greater than 3/ 16 in. (4.76 mm), refer to the
specifications and standards stipulated in Section E3a of Appendix A, B, or C.
Bolts, nuts, and washers shall generally conform to one of the following
specifications:
ASTM A194/ A194M, Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-Pressure
and High-Temperature Service
ASTM A307(Type A), Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60 000 PSI Tensile
Strength
ASTM A325, Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/ 105 ksi Minimum
Tensile Strength
ASTM A325M, High Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints [Metric]
ASTM A354 (Grade BD), Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs,
and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners (for diameter of bolt smaller
than
1
/
2
in.)
ASTM A449, Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and Studs (for diameter of
bolt smaller than
1
/
2
in.)
ASTM A490, Heat-Treated Steel Structural Bolts, 150 ksi Minimum Tensile
Strength
ASTM A490M, High Strength Steel bolts, Classes 10.9 and 10.9.3, for
Structural Steel Joints [Metric]
ASTM A563, Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts
ASTM A563M, Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts [Metric]
ASTM F436, Hardened Steel Washers
ASTM F436M, Hardened Steel Washers [Metric]
ASTM F844, Washers, Steel, Plain (Flat), Unhardened for General Use
ASTM F959, Compressible Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use
with Structural Fasteners
ASTM F959M, Compressible Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use
with Structural Fasteners [Metric]
When other than the above are used, drawings shall indicate clearly the type
and size of fasteners to be employed and the nominal strength [resistance]
assumed in design.
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion - November 9, 2001
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Bolts shall be installed and tightened to achieve satisfactory performance of
the connections.

E3.1 Shear, Spaci ng and Edge Di st ance
The provisions of this section are given in Section E3.1 of the
Appendices.

E3.2 Tensi on Member Shear Lag Ef f ect i n Bol t ed Connect i ons
The provisions of this section are given in Section E3.2 of the
Appendices.

E3.3 Beari ng
The design bearing strength [factored resistance] of bolted connections
shall be determined according to Sections E3.3.1 and E3.3.2. For conditions
not shown, the design bearing strength [factored resistance] of bolted
connections shall be determined by tests.

E3.3.1 St rengt h [Resi st ance] wi t hout Consi derat i on of Bol t Hol e
Def ormat i on
When deformation around the bolt holes is not a design
consideration, the nominal bearing strength [resistance], P
n
, of the
connected sheet for each loaded bolt shall be determined as follows:
P
n
= αCdtF
u
(Eq. E3.3.1-1)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.50 0.60 0.50
Where
C = Bearing factor, which shall be determined according to Table
E3.3.1-1.
d = Nominal bolt diameter
t = Uncoated sheet thickness
F
u
= Tensile strength of sheet as defined in Section A2.1 or A2.2
α = Modification factor for type of bearing connection, which shall be
determined according to Table E3.3.1-2.

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Chapt er E, Connect ions and Joint s
120 November 9, 2001
Tabl e E3.3.1-1:
Beari ng Fact or, C
Thickness of Connected
Part, t, in.
(mm)
Ratio of Fastener
Diameter to
Member Thickness,
d/ t


C

d/ t < 10 3.0
10 ≤ d/ t ≤ 22 4 - 0.1(d/ t)

0.024 ≤ t < 0.1875
(0.61 ≤ t < 4.76)
d/ t > 22 1.8

Tabl e E3.3.1-2
Modi f i cat i on Fact or, α αα α, f or Type of Beari ng Connect i on
Type of Bearing Connection α
Single Shear and Outside Sheets of Double
Shear Connection With Washers Under Both
Bolt Head and Nut

1.00
Single Shear and Outside Sheets of Double
Shear Connection Without Washers under
both Bolt Head and Nut, Or With only One
Washer

0.75
Inside Sheet of Double Shear Connection
With or Without Washers
1.33

E3.3.2 St rengt h [Resi st ance] wi t h Consi derat i on of Bol t Hol e Def ormat i on
When deformation around a bolt hole is a design consideration, the
nominal bearing strength [resistance], P
n
, shall also be limited by the
following values:
P
n
= (4.64αt + 1.53)dtF
u
(Eq. E3.3.2-1)
USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
2.22 0.65 0.55
where
α = Coefficient for conversion of units
= 1 for US customary units (with t in inches)
= 0.0394 for Metric units (with t in mm)
= 0.394 for MKS units (with t in cm)
The other symbols are defined in Section E3.3.1

E3.4 Shear and Tensi on i n Bol t s
The provisions under this section are provided in Section E3.4 of the
Appendices.
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion - November 9, 2001
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E4 Screw Connect i ons
All E4 requirements shall apply to screws with 0.08 in. (2.03 mm) ≤d ≤0.25
in. (6.35 mm). The screws shall be thread-forming or thread-cutting, with or
without a self-drilling point. Screws shall be installed and tightened in
accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
The nominal screw connection strengths [resistances] shall also be limited by
Section C2.
For diaphragm applications, Section D5 shall be used.
The following factor of safety or resistance factor shall be used for the sub-
sections of Chapter E4.




Alternatively, design values for a particular application shall be permitted to
be based on tests, with the factor of safety, Ω, and the resistance factor, φ,
determined according to Chapter F.
The following notation applies to this section:
d = Nominal screw diameter
d
w
=Larger of the screw head diameter or the washer diameter
P
ns
= Nominal shear strength [resistance] per screw
P
ss
= Nominal shear strength [resistance] of screw as reported by
manufacturer or determined by independent laboratory testing
P
nt
= Nominal tension strength [resistance] per screw
P
not
= Nominal pull-out strength [resistance] per screw
P
nov
= Nominal pull-over strength [resistance] per screw
P
ts
= Nominal tension strength [resistance] of screw as reported by
manufacturer or determined by independent laboratory testing
t
1
= Thickness of member in contact with the screw head
t
2
= Thickness of member not in contact with the screw head
t
c
=Lesser of the depth of the penetration and the thickness t
2

F
u1
= Tensile strength of member in contact with the screw head
F
u2
= Tensile strength of member not in contact with the screw head

E4.1 Mi ni mum Spaci ng
The distance between the centers of fasteners shall not be less than 3d.

E4.2 Mi ni mum Edge and End Di st ance
The distance from the center of a fastener to the edge of any part shall
not be less than 1.5d. If the end distance is parallel to the force on the fastener,
the nominal shear strength per screw, P
ns
, shall be limited by Section E4.3.2.

USA and Mexico Canada
Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD)
3.00 0.50 0.40
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Chapt er E, Connect ions and Joint s
122 November 9, 2001
E4.3 Shear
E4.3.1 Connect i on Shear as Li mi t ed by Ti l t i ng and Beari ng
The nominal shear strength [resistance] per screw, P
ns
, shall be
determined as follows:
For t
2
/ t
1
≤ 1.0, P
ns
shall be taken as the smallest of
P
ns
= 4.2 (t
2
3
d)
1/ 2
F
u2
(Eq. E4.3.1-1)
P
ns
= 2.7 t
1
d F
u1
(Eq. E4.3.1-2)
P
ns
= 2.7 t
2
d F
u2
(Eq. E4.3.1-3)
For t
2
/ t
1
≥ 2.5, P
ns
shall be taken as the smaller of
P
ns
= 2.7 t
1
d F
u1
(Eq. E4.3.1-4)
P
ns
= 2.7 t
2
d F
u2
(Eq. E4.3.1-5)
For 1.0 < t
2
/ t
1
< 2.5, P
ns
shall be determined by linear interpolation
between the above two cases.

E4.3.2 Connect i on Shear as Li mi t ed by End Di st ance
The provisions of this section are given in Section E4.3.2 of the
Appendices.

E4.3.3 Shear i n Screws
The nominal shear strength [resistance] of the screw shall be calculated
as follows:
P
ns
= 0.8P
ss
(Eq. E4.3.3-1)

E4.4 Tensi on
For screws which carry tension, the head of the screw or washer, if a
washer is provided, shall have a diameter d
w
not less than 5/ 16 in. (7.94 mm).
Washers shall be at least 0.050 in. (1.27 mm) thick.

E4.4.1 Pul l -Out
The nominal pull-out strength [resistance], P
not
, shall be calculated
as follows:
P
not
= 0.85 t
c
d F
u2
(Eq. E4.4.1-1)

E4.4.2 Pul l -Over
The nominal pull-over strength [resistance], P
nov
, shall be
calculated as follows:
P
nov
= 1.5 t
1
d
w
F
u1
(Eq. E4.4.2.1)
where d
w
shall be taken not larger than 1/ 2 in. (12.7 mm).

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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion - November 9, 2001
November 9, 2001 123
E4.4.3 Tensi on i n Screws
The nominal tension strength [resistance], P
nt
, per screw shall be
calculated as follows:
P
nt
= 0.8 P
ts
(Eq. E4.4.3-1)

E5 Rupt ure
The provisions provided under this section are given in Section E5 of the
Appendices.

E6 Connect i ons t o Ot her Mat eri al s
E6.1 Beari ng
Proper provisions shall be made to transfer bearing forces from steel
components covered by the Specification to adjacent structural components
made of other materials.

E6.2 Tensi on
The pull-over shear/ tension forces in the steel sheet around the head of
the fastener shall be considered as well as the pull-out force resulting from
axial loads and bending moments transmitted onto the fastener from various
adjacent structural components in the assembly.
The nominal tensile strength [resistance] of the fastener and the nominal
embedment strength [resistance] of the adjacent structural component shall be
determined by applicable product code approvals, or product specifications
and/ or product literature.

E6.3 Shear
Proper provisions shall be made to transfer shearing forces from steel
components covered by this Specification to adjacent structural components
made of other materials. The required shear and/ or bearing strength
[resistance] on the steel components shall not exceed that allowed by this
Specification. The design shear strength [resistance] on the fasteners and other
material shall not be exceeded. Embedment requirements are to be met.
Proper provision shall also be made for shearing forces in combination with
other forces.

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Chapt er F, Test s f or Special Cases
124 November 9, 2001
F. TESTS FOR SPECIAL CASES
(a) Tests shall be made by an independent testing laboratory or by a testing
laboratory of a manufacturer.
(b) The provisions of Chapter F do not apply to cold-formed steel diaphragms.
Refer to Section D5.
F1 Test s f or Det ermi ni ng St ruct ural Perf ormance
F1.1 Load and Resi st ance Fact or Desi gn and Li mi t St at es Desi gn
Any structural performance which is required to be established by tests shall
be evaluated in accordance with the following performance procedure:
(a) Evaluation of the test results shall be made on the basis of the average value
of test data resulting from tests of not fewer than three identical specimens,
provided the deviation of any individual test result from the average value
obtained from all tests does not exceed ±15 percent. If such deviation from
the average value exceeds 15 percent, more tests of the same kind shall be
made until the deviation of any individual test result from the average value
obtained from all tests does not exceed ±15 percent, or until at least three
additional tests have been made. No test result shall be eliminated unless a
rationale for its exclusion can be given. The average value of all tests made
shall then be regarded as the nominal strength [resistance], R
n
, for the series
of the tests. R
n
and the coefficient of variation V
P
of the test results shall be
determined by statistical analysis.
(b) The strength of the tested elements, assemblies, connections, or members
shall satisfy Eq. F1.1-1.
Σγ
i
Q
i
≤ φR
n
(Eq. F1.1-1)
where
Σγ
i
Q
i
= Required strength [effect of factored loads] based on the most
critical load combination determined in accordance with Section
A5.1.2. γ
i
and Q
i
are load factors and load effects, respectively.
R
n
= Average value of all test results
φ = Resistance factor
=
2
Q
2
P
P
2
F
2
M
o
V V C V V
m m m
P F M ( C
+ + + β
φ
-
)e
!
(Eq. F1.1-2)
C
φ
= Calibration coefficient
= 1.52 for United States and Mexico
= 1.42 for Canada
M
m
= Mean value of the material factor, M, listed in Table F1 for the
type of component involved
F
m
= Mean value of the fabrication factor, F, listed in Table F1 for the
type of component involved
P
m
= Mean value of the professional factor, P, for the tested component
= 1.0
β
o
= Target reliability index
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
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= 2.5 for structural members and 3.5 for connections for United States and Mexico
= 3.0 for structural members and 4.0 for connections for Canada
V
M
= Coefficient of variation of the material factor listed in Table F1 for
the type of component involved
V
F
= Coefficient of variation of the fabrication factor listed in Table F1
for the type of component involved
C
P
= Correction factor
= (1+1/ n)m/ (m-2) for n ≥ 4, and 5.7 for n = 3 (Eq. F1.1-3)
V
P
= Coefficient of variation of the test results, but not less than 6.5%
m = Degrees of freedom
= n-1
n = Number of tests
V
Q
= Coefficient of variation of the load effect
= 0.21
e = Natural logarithmic base
= 2.718...
Not e:

!
For beams having tension flange through-fastened to deck or sheathing and with
compression flange laterally unbraced, φ shall be determined with a coefficient, C
φ
,
of 1.6 in lieu of 1.52 for the United States and Mexico, β
o
= 1.5, and V
Q
= 0.43.

The listing in Table F1 does not exclude the use of other documented
statistical data if they are established from sufficient results on material
properties and fabrication.
For steels not listed in Section A2.1, the values of M
m
and V
M
shall be
determined by the statistical analysis for the materials used.
When distortions interfere with the proper functioning of the specimen in
actual use, the load effects based on the critical load combination at the
occurrence of the acceptable distortion shall also satisfy Eq. F1.1-1, except
that the resistance factor φ is taken as unity and that the load factor for dead
load is taken as 1.0.
(c) If the yield point of the steel from which the tested sections are formed is
larger than the specified value, the test results shall be adjusted down to the
specified minimum yield point of the steel which the manufacturer intends to
use. The test results shall not be adjusted upward if the yield point of the test
specimen is less than the minimum specified yield point. Similar
adjustments shall be made on the basis of tensile strength instead of yield
point where tensile strength is the critical factor.
Consideration must also be given to any variation or differences which may
exist between the design thickness and the thickness of the specimens used in the
tests.

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Chapt er F, Test s f or Special Cases
126 November 9, 2001

TABLE F1
St at i st i cal Dat a f or t he Det ermi nat i on of Resi st ance Fact or

Type of Component


M
m


V
M


F
m


V
F

Transverse Stiffeners
Shear Stiffeners
Tension Members
Flexural Members
Bending Strength
Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength
One Flange Through-Fastened to Deck or Sheathing
Shear Strength
Combined Bending and Shear
Web Crippling Strength
Combined Bending and Web Crippling
Concentrically Loaded Compression Members
Combined Axial Load and Bending
Cylindrical Tubular Members
Bending Strength
Axial Compression
Wall Studs and Wall Stud Assemblies
Wall Studs in Compression
Wall Studs in Bending
Wall Studs with Combined Axial load and Bending
Structural Members Not Listed Above
1.10
1.00
1.10

1.10
1.00
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.05

1.10
1.10

1.10
1.10
1.05
1.00
0.10
0.06
0.10

0.10
0.06
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10

0.10
0.10

0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
1.00
1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.05
0.05
0.05

0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

0.05
0.05

0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
November 9, 2001 127
TABLE F1 (Cont i nued)
St at i st i cal Dat a f or t he Det ermi nat i on of Resi st ance Fact or
Type of Component M
m
V
M
F
m
V
F

Welded Connections
Arc Spot Welds
Shear Strength of Welds
Plate Failure
Arc Seam Welds
Shear Strength of Welds
Plate Tearing
Fillet Welds
Shear Strength of Welds
Plate Failure
Flare Groove Welds
Shear Strength of Welds
Plate Failure
Resistance Welds
Bolted Connections
Minimum Spacing and Edge Distance
Tension Strength on Net Section
Bearing Strength
Screw Connections
Minimum Spacing and Edge Distance
Tension Strength on Net Section
Bearing Strength
Connections Not Listed Above


1.10
1.10

1.10
1.10

1.10
1.10

1.10
1.10
1.10

1.10
1.10
1.10

1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10


0.10
0.08

0.10
0.10

0.10
0.08

0.10
0.10
0.10

0.08
0.08
0.08

0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10


1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00


0.10
0.15

0.10
0.10

0.10
0.15

0.10
0.10
0.10

0.05
0.05
0.05

0.10
0.10
0.10
0.15
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Chapt er F, Test s f or Special Cases
128 November 9, 2001
F1.2 Al l owabl e St rengt h Desi gn
Where the composition or configuration of elements, assemblies,
connections or details of cold-formed steel structural members are such that
calculation of their strength cannot be made in accordance with the provisions
of this Specification, their structural performance shall be established from tests
and evaluated in accordance with Section F1.1, except as modified in this
section for allowable strength design.
The allowable design strength shall be calculated as:
R = R
n
/ Ω (Eq. F1.2-1)
where
R
n
= Average value of all test results
Ω = Factor of safety to be computed as follows:
Ω =
φ
6 . 1
(Eq. F1.2-2)
in which φ is evaluated in accordance with Section F1.1.
The required allowable strength shall be determined from nominal
loads and load combinations as described in A4.
F2 Test s f or Conf i rmi ng St ruct ural Perf ormance
For structural members, connections, and assemblies for which the nominal
strength [resistance] can be computed according to this Specification or its specific
references, confirmatory tests may be made to demonstrate the strength is not
less than the nominal resistance, R
n
, specified in this Specification or its specific
references for the type of behavior involved.
F3 Test s f or Det ermi ni ng Mechani cal Propert i es
F3.1 Ful l Sect i on
Tests for determination of mechanical properties of full sections to be
used in Section A7.2 shall be made as specified below:
(a) Tensile testing procedures shall agree with Standard Methods and
Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products, ASTM A370.
Compressive yield point determinations shall be made by means of
compression tests of short specimens of the section.
(b) The compressive yield stress shall be taken as the smaller value of either
the maximum compressive strength of the sections divided by the cross
section area or the stress defined by one of the following methods:
(1) For sharp yielding steel, the yield point shall be determined by the
autographic diagram method or by the total strain under load
method.
(2) For gradual yielding steel, the yield point shall be determined by
the strain under load method or by the 0.2 percent offset method.
When the total strain under load method is used, there shall be
evidence that the yield point so determined agrees within 5 percent
with the yield point which would be determined by the 0.2 percent
offset method
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel Specif icat ion
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(c) Where the principal effect of the loading to which the member will be
subjected in service will be to produce bending stresses, the yield point
shall be determined for the flanges only. In determining such yield
points, each specimen shall consist of one complete flange plus a portion
of the web of such flat width ratio that the value of ρ for the specimen is
unity.
(d) For acceptance and control purposes, one full section test shall be made
from each master coil.
(e) At the option of the manufacturer, either tension or compression tests
may be used for routine acceptance and control purposes, provided the
manufacturer demonstrates that such tests reliably indicate the yield
point of the section when subjected to the kind of stress under which the
member is to be used.

F3.2 Fl at El ement s of Formed Sect i ons
Tests for determining mechanical properties of flat elements of formed
sections and representative mechanical properties of virgin steel to be used in
Section A7.2 shall be made in accordance with the following provisions:
The yield point of flats, F
yf
, shall be established by means of a weighted
average of the yield points of standard tensile coupons taken longitudinally
from the flat portions of a representative cold-formed member. The weighted
average shall be the sum of the products of the average yield point for each
flat portion times its cross sectional area, divided by the total area of flats in
the cross section. The exact number of such coupons will depend on the
shape of the member, i.e., on the number of flats in the cross section. At least
one tensile coupon shall be taken from the middle of each flat. If the actual
virgin yield point exceeds the specified minimum yield point, the yield point
of the flats, F
yf
, shall be adjusted by multiplying the test values by the ratio of
the specified minimum yield point to the actual virgin yield point.

F3.3 Vi rgi n St eel
The following provisions apply to steel produced to other than the
ASTM Specifications listed in Section A2.1 when used in sections for which
the increased yield point of the steel after cold forming shall be computed
from the virgin steel properties according to Section A7.2. For acceptance and
control purposes, at least four tensile specimens shall be taken from each
master coil for the establishment of the representative values of the virgin
tensile yield point and tensile strength. Specimens shall be taken
longitudinally from the quarter points of the width near the outer end of the
coil.

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Chapt er G, Design of Cold-Formed St eel St ruct ural Members and Connect ions f or Cycli c Loading (Fat igue)
130 November 9, 2001
G. DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AND
CONNECTIONS FOR CYCLIC LOADING (FATIGUE)

This design procedure shall apply to cold-formed steel members and
connections subject to cyclic loading within the elastic range of stresses of
frequency and magnitude sufficient to initiate cracking and progressive failure
(fatigue).

G1 General
When cyclic loading is a design consideration, the provisions of this Chapter
apply to stresses calculated on the basis of unfactored loads. The maximum
permitted tensile stress due to unfactored loads is 0.6 F
y
.
Stress range is defined as the magnitude of the change in stress due to the
application or removal of the unfactored live load. In the case of a stress
reversal, the stress range shall be computed as the sum of the absolute values of
maximum repeated tensile and compressive stresses or the sum of the absolute
values of maximum shearing stresses of opposite direction at the point of
probable crack initiation.
The occurrence of full design wind or earthquake loads is too infrequent to
warrant consideration in fatigue design. Therefore, evaluation of fatigue
resistance is not required for wind load applications in buildings. If the live load
stress range is less than the threshold stress range, F
TH
, given in Table G1,
evaluation of fatigue resistance is also not required.
Tabl e G1: Fat i gue Desi gn Paramet ers f or Col d-Formed St eel St ruct ures


Description

Stress
Category

Constant
C
f


Threshold
F
TH
, ksi
(MPa)
[kg/ cm
2
]


Reference
Figure
As-received base metal and components with
as-rolled surfaces, including sheared edges
and cold-formed corners.

I

3.2x10
10

25
(172)
[1760]

G1
As-received base metal and weld metal in
members connected by continuous
longitudinal welds.

II

1.0x10
10

15
(103)
[1050]

G2
Welded attachments to a plate or a beam,
transverse fillet welds, and continuous
longitudinal fillet welds less than and equal to
2 inches. Bolt and screw connections and spot
welds.


III


3.2x10
9


16
(110)
[1120]


G3, G4
Longitudinal fillet welded attachments
greater than 2 inches parall
of the applied stress, and intermittent welds
parall l to the direction of the applied force.


IV


1.0x10
9


9
(62)
[633]


G4

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Evaluation of fatigue resistance is not required if the number of cycles of
application of live load is less than 20,000.
The cyclic load resistance determined by the provisions of this Chapter is
applicable to structures with suitable corrosion protection or subject only to non-
aggressive atmospheres.
The cyclic load resistance determined by the provisions of this Chapter is
applicable only to structures subject to temperatures not exceeding 300°F
(149°C).
The contract documents shall provide, either complete details including
weld sizes, or shall specify the planned cycle life and the maximum range of
moments, shears, and reactions for the connections.

G2 Cal cul at i on of Maxi mum St resses and St ress Ranges
Calculated stresses shall be based upon elastic analysis. Stresses shall not be
amplified by stress concentration factors for geometrical discontinuities.
For bolts and threaded rods subject to axial tension, the calculated stresses
shall include the effects of prying action, if applicable.
In the case of axial stress combined with bending, the maximum stresses, of
each kind, shall be those determined for concurrent arrangements of applied
load.
For members having symmetric cross sections, the fasteners and welds shall
be arranged symmetrically about the axis of the member, or the total stresses
including those due to eccentricity shall be included in the calculation of the
stress range.
For axially stressed angle members where the center of gravity of the
connecting welds lies between the line of the center of gravity of the angle cross
section and the center of the connected leg, the effects of eccentricity shall be
ignored. If the center of gravity of the connecting welds lies outside this zone,
the total stresses, including those due to joint eccentricity, shall be included in
the calculation of stress range.

G3 Desi gn St ress Range
The range of stress at service loads shall not exceed the design stress range
computed using Equation G3-1.
For all stress categories,
F
SR
= (αC
f
/ N)
0.333
≥ F
TH

(Eq. G3-1)
where:
F
SR
= Design stress range
C
f
= Constant from Table G1
N = Number of stress range fluctuations in design life
= Number of stress range fluctuations per day x 365 x years of
design life
F
TH
= Threshold fatigue stress range, maximum stress range for
indefinite design life from Table G1
α = Coefficient for conversion of units
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Chapt er G, Design of Cold-Formed St eel St ruct ural Members and Connect ions f or Cycli c Loading (Fat igue)
132 November 9, 2001
= 1 for US customary units
= 327 for SI units
= 352,000 for MKS units

G4 Bol t s and Threaded Part s
For mechanically fastened connections loaded in shear, the maximum range
of stress in the connected material at service loads shall not exceed the design
stress range computed using Equation G3-1. The factor C
f
shall be taken as
22x10
8
. The threshold stress, F
TH
, shall be taken as 7 ksi (48 MPa or 492
kg/ cm
2
).
For not-fully-tightened high-strength bolts, common bolts, and threaded
anchor rods with cut, ground or rolled threads, the maximum range of tensile
stress on the net tensile area from applied axial load and moment plus load due
to prying action shall not exceed the design stress range computed using
Equation G3-1. The factor C
f
shall be taken as 3.9x10
8
. The threshold stress,
F
TH
, shall be taken as 7 ksi (48 MPa or 492 kg/ cm
2
). The net tensile area is given
by Equation G4-1.
A
t
= (π/ 4) [d
b
- (0.9743/ n)]
2
(Eq. G4-1)
For Metric or MKS Units:
A
t
= (π/ 4) [d
b
- (0.9382P)]
2
(Eq. G4-1a)
Weld


Welded I Beam, Cat egory II
Figure G2 Typical Det ai l f or Cat egory II Figure G2 Typical Det ai l f or Cat egory II Figure G2 Typical Det ai l f or Cat egory II Figure G2 Typical Det ai l f or Cat egory II
Cold-Formed Corner
Shear Edges


Cold-Formed St eel Channels, Cat egory I
Figure G1 Typical Det ai l f or Figure G1 Typical Det ai l f or Figure G1 Typical Det ai l f or Figure G1 Typical Det ai l f or Cat egory I Cat egory I Cat egory I Cat egory I
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where:
A
t
= Net tensile area
d
b
= Nominal diameter (body or shank diameter)
n = Number of threads per inch
P = Pitch (mm per thread for Metric Units and cm per thread for MKS
Units)

G5 Speci al Fabri cat i on Requi rement s
Backing bars in welded connections that are parallel to the stress field are
permitted to remain in place, and if used, shall be continuous.
Backing bars that are perpendicular to the stress field, if used, shall be
removed and the joint back gouged and welded.
Flame cut edges subject to cyclic stress ranges shall have a surface roughness
not to exceed 1,000 µin. (25 µm), where the reference standard is ASME B46.1.
Re-entrant corners at cuts, copes and weld access holes shall form a radius of
not less than 3/ 8 in. (10 mm), by pre-drilling or sub-punching and reaming a
hole, or by thermal cutting to form the radius of the cut. If the radius portion is
formed by thermal cutting, the cut surface shall be ground to a bright metal
contour to provide a radiused transition, free of notches, with a surface
roughness not to exceed 1,000 µin. (25 µm), where the reference standard is
ASME B46.1 or other equivalent standards shall be referenced.
For transverse butt joints in regions of high tensile stress, weld tabs shall be
used to provide for cascading the weld termination outside the finished joint.
End dams shall not be used. Weld tabs shall be removed and the end of the weld
finished flush with the edge of the member. Exception: Weld tabs are not
required for sheet material if the welding procedures used result in smooth, flush
edges.


Typical Plate
L
L
(a) Transverse Welds, Category III (b) Longitudinal Welds
For Category III , L< 2 in. (50.8 mm)
For Category IV, 2 in. (50.8 mm)< L < 4 in. (101.6 mm)

Figure G3 Typical At t achment s f or Cat egori es III and IV Figure G3 Typical At t achment s f or Cat egori es III and IV Figure G3 Typical At t achment s f or Cat egori es III and IV Figure G3 Typical At t achment s f or Cat egori es III and IV
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Chapt er G, Design of Cold-Formed St eel St ruct ural Members and Connect ions f or Cycli c Loading (Fat igue)
134 November 9, 2001


(c) Arc Spot or Plug Weld (c) Screws

Figure G4 Typical At t achment s f or Cat egory III Figure G4 Typical At t achment s f or Cat egory III Figure G4 Typical At t achment s f or Cat egory III Figure G4 Typical At t achment s f or Cat egory III
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Draf t Nort h American Cold-Formed St eel St ruct ural Members
November 9, 2001 A1
PREFACE TO APPENDIX A
Appendix A provides specification provisions that are only applicable to the
United States. Included are items of a broad nature such as provisions for the
design method to be used, ASD or LRFD, and provisions to use ASCE 7 for loads
and load combinations where there is not an applicable building code. Reference
documents that are not used by all three countries are listed here as well.

Also included in Appendix A are technical items where full agreement
between the three countries was not reached. Such items included certain
provisions pertaining to the design of
• beams (C and Z sections) for standing seam roofs,
• welded connections,
• bolted connections, and
• tension members.
Efforts will be made to minimize these differences in future editions of the
Specification.
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Appendi x A, Provisions Applicable t o t he Unit ed St at es
A2 November 2, 2001
APPENDIX A: PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO THE UNITED STATES
This Appendix provides design provisions or supplements to Chapters A
through F that are only applicable to the United States. A section number ending
with a letter indicates that the provisions herein supplement the corresponding
section in Chapters A through F of the Specification. A section number not ending
with a letter indicates that the section gives the entire design provision.


A1.1a Scope and Li mi t s of Appl i cabi l i t y
Designs shall be made according to the provisions for Load and
Resistance Factor Design, or to the provisions for Allowable Stress Design.
Where allowed, both methods are equally acceptable although they may or
may not produce identical designs. However, the two methods shall not be
mixed in designing the various cold-formed steel components of a structure.

A3 Loads
A3.1 Nomi nal Loads
The nominal loads shall be as stipulated by the applicable building code
under which the structure is designed or as dictated by the conditions
involved. In the absence of a building code, the nominal loads shall be those
stipulated in the American Society of Civil Engineers Standard, Minimum
Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7.

A4.1.2 Load Combi nat i ons f or ASD
The structure and its components shall be designed so that
allowable design strengths equal or exceed the effects of the nominal loads
and load combinations as stipulated by the applicable building code under
which the structure is designed or, in the absence of an applicable building
code, as stipulated in the American Society of Civil Engineers Standard,
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7.
The combined effects of two or more loads, excluding dead load,
shall be permitted to be multiplied by 0.75. The combined load used in
design shall not be less than the sum of the effects of dead load and any
single load that produces the largest effect. The above 0.75 load reduction
shall not be used where similar load reductions are permitted by the
applicable building code or ASCE 7.
Exception: When evaluating diaphragms using the provisions of
Section D5, no decrease in forces is permitted for load combinations
including wind or earthquake loads.

A5.1.2 Load Fact ors and Load Combi nat i ons f or LRFD
The structure and its components shall be designed so that design
strengths equal or exceed the effects of the factored nominal loads and load
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combinations stipulated by the applicable building code under which the
structure is designed or, in the absence of an applicable building code, as
stipulated in the American Society of Civil Engineers Standard, Minimum
Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7.

A9a Ref erenced Document s
The following documents are referenced in Appendix A:
1. American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 7-98, “Minimum Design
Loads in Buildings and Other Structures,” American Society of Civil
Engineers (ASCE), 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston VA, 20191
2. American Institute of Steel Construction, “Specification for Structural
Steel Buildings, Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design,” American
Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100,
Chicago, Illinois 60601-2001, June 1, 1989
3. American Institute of Steel Construction, “Load and Resistance Factor
Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”, American Institute of
Steel Construction (AISC), One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100, Chicago,
Illinois 60601-2001, December 27, 1999
4. American Welding Society, AWS D1.3-98, “Structural Welding Code -
Sheet Steel,” American Welding Society (AWS), 550 N.W. LeJeune Road,
Miami, Florida 33135
5. American Welding Society, AWS C1.1-66, “Recommended Practices for
Resistance Welding,” American Welding Society (AWS), 550 N.W.
LeJeune Road, Miami, Florida 33135
6. American Welding Society, AWS C1.3-70 (Reaffirmed 1987),
“Recommended Practices for Resistance Welding Coated Low Carbon
Steels,” American Welding Society (AWS), 550 N.W. LeJeune Road,
Miami, Florida 33135

C2 Tensi on Members
For axially loaded tension members, the nominal tensile strength
[resistance], T
n
, shall be the smallest value obtained according to the limit states
of (a) yielding in the gross section, (b) fracture in the net section away from
connections, and (c) fracture in the effective net section at the connection:
(a) For yielding:

T
n
= A
g
F
y
(Eq. C2-1)

t = 1.67 (ASD)

φ
t
= 0.90 (LRFD)
(b) For fracture away from the connection:
T
n
=A
n
F
u
(Eq. C2-2)

t = 2.00 (ASD)

φ
t
= 0.75 (LRFD)
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Appendi x A, Provisions Applicable t o t he Unit ed St at es
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where
T
n
= Nominal strength [resistance] of member when loaded in tension
A
g
= Gross area of cross section
A
n
= Net area of the cross section
F
y
= Design yield stress as determined in Section A7.1
F
u
= Tensile strength as specified in Section A2.1 or A2.3.2
(c) For fracture at the connection:
The nominal tensile strength [resistance] shall also be limited by Sections
E2.7, E3, and E5 for tension members using welded connections, bolted
connections, and screw connections.

C3.1.4 Beams Havi ng One Fl ange Fast ened t o a St andi ng Seam Roof Syst em
The nominal flexural strength, M
n
, of a C- or Z-section, loaded in a
plane parallel to the web with the top flange supporting a standing seam
roof system shall be determined using discrete point bracing and the
provisions of Section C3.1.2.1 or shall be calculated as follows:
M
n
= RS
e
F
y
(Eq. C3.1.4-1)

b
= 1.67 (ASD)
φ
b
= 0.90 (LRFD)
where
R = Reduction factor determined by the "Base Test Method for Purlins
Supporting a Standing Seam Roof System" of Part VIII of the AISI
Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual.
S
e
and F
y
are defined in Section C3.1.1.

E2a Wel ded Connect i ons
For welded connections in which the thickness of the thinnest connected
part is greater than 0.18 in. (4.57 mm), refer to the AISC “Specification for
Structural Steel Buildings, Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design”, or the
“Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”.
Except as modified herein, arc welds on steel where at least one of the
connected parts is 0.18 in. (4.57 mm) or less in thickness shall be made in
accordance with the AWS D1.3 and its Commentary. Welders and welding
procedures shall be qualified as specified in AWS D1.3. These provisions are
intended to cover the welding positions as shown in Table E2a.
Resistance welds shall be made in conformance with the procedures given in
AWS C1.1 or AWS C1.3.
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E3a Bol t ed Connect i ons
In addition to the design criteria given in Section E3 of the Specification, the
following design requirements shall also be followed for bolted connections used
for cold-formed steel structural members in which the thickness of the thinnest
connected part is less than 3/ 16 in. (4.76 mm). For bolted connections in which
the thickness of the thinnest connected part is equal to or greater than 3/ 16 in.
(4.76 mm), refer to AISC “Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, Allowable
Stress Design and Plastic Design”, or the “Load and Resistance Factor Design
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”.
The holes for bolts shall not exceed the sizes specified in Table E3a, except
that larger holes may be used in column base details or structural systems
connected to concrete walls.
Standard holes shall be used in bolted connections, except that oversized
and slotted holes may be used as approved by the designer. The length of
TABLE E2a
Wel di ng Posi t i ons Covered
Welding Position


Connection
Square
Groove
Butt
Weld

Arc Spot
Weld
Arc
Seam
Weld
Fillet
Weld,
Lap or T
Flare-
Bevel
Groove
Flare-V
Groove
Weld

Sheet to
Sheet
F
H
V
OH
÷
÷
÷
÷
F
H
÷
÷
F
H
V
OH
F
H
V
OH
F
H
V
OH

Sheet to
Supporting
Member
÷
÷
÷
÷
F
÷
÷
÷
F
÷
÷
÷
F
H
V
OH
F
H
V
OH
÷
÷
÷
÷
(F = Flat, H = horizontal, V = vertical, OH = overhead)
TABLE E3a
Maxi mum Si ze of Bol t Hol es, i nches
Nominal
Bolt
Diameter, d
in.
Standard
Hole Diameter,
d
h

in.
Oversized
Hole Diameter,
d
h

in.
Short-Slotted
Hole
Dimensions
in.
Long-Slotted
Hole
Dimensions
in.
<
1
/
2


1
/
2

d +
1
/
32

d +
1
/
16

d +
1
/
16

d +
1
/
8

(d +
1
/
32
) by (d +
1
/
4
)
(d +
1
/
16
) by (d +
1
/
4
)
(d +
1
/
32
) by (2
1
/
2
d)
(d +
1
/
16
) by (2
1
/
2
d)

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Appendi x A, Provisions Applicable t o t he Unit ed St at es
A6 November 2, 2001
slotted holes shall be normal to the direction of the shear load. Washers or
backup plates shall be installed over oversized or slotted holes in an outer ply
unless suitable performance is demonstrated by tests in accordance with Chapter
F.

E3.1 Shear, Spaci ng and Edge Di st ance
The nominal shear strength [resistance], P
n
, of the connected part as
affected by spacing and edge distance in the direction of applied force shall be
calculated as follows:
P
n
= teF
u
(Eq. E3.1-1)
(a) When F
u
/ F
sy
≥ 1.08:
Ω =2.00 (ASD)
φ =0.70 (LRFD)
(b) When F
u
/ F
sy
< 1.08:
Ω =2.22 (ASD)
φ =0.60 (LRFD)
where
P
n
= Nominal strength [resistance] per bolt
e = The distance measured in the line of force from the center of a
standard hole to the nearest edge of an adjacent hole or to the end of
the connected part
t = Thickness of thinnest connected part
F
u
= Tensile strength of the connected part as specified in Section A2.1 or
A2.2
F
sy
= Yield point of the connected part as specified in Section A2.1 or A2.2
In addition, the minimum distance between centers of bolt holes shall
provide sufficient clearance for bolt heads, nuts, washers and the wrench. The
minimum distance between centers of bolt holes shall provide sufficient
clearance for bolt heads, nuts, washers and the wrench but shall not be less
than 3 times the nominal bolt diameter, d. Also, the distance from the center
of any standard hole to the end or other boundary of the connecting member
TABLE E3a
Maxi mum Si ze of Bol t Hol es, mi l l i met ers
Nominal
Bolt
Diameter, d
mm
Standard
Hole Diameter,
d
h

mm
Oversized Hole
Diameter, d
h

mm
Short-Slotted
Hole
Dimensions
mm
Long-Slotted
Hole
Dimensions
mm
< 12.7
≥ 12.7
d + 0.8
d + 1.6
d + 1.6
d + 3.2
(d + 0.8) by (d + 6.4)
(d + 1.6) by (d + 6.4)
(d + 0.8) by (2
1
/
2
d)
(d + 1.6) by (2
1
/
2
d)

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shall not be less than 1
1
/
2
d.
For oversized and slotted holes, the distance between edges of two
adjacent holes and the distance measured from the edge of the hole to the end
or other boundary of the connecting member in the line of stress shall not be
less than the value of e-(d
h
/ 2), in which e is the required distance computed
from the applicable equation given above, and d
h
is the diameter of a
standard hole defined in Table E3a. In no case shall the clear distance
between edges of two adjacent holes be less than 2d and the distance between
the edge of the hole and the end of the member be less than d.

E3.2 Tensi on Member Shear Lag Ef f ect i n Bol t ed Connect i ons
The nominal tensile strength [resistance] of a bolted member shall be
determined in accordance with Section C2. For fracture in the effective net
section of the connected part, the nominal tensile strength [resistance], P
n
,
shall be determined as follows:
(1) For flat sheet connections not having staggered hole patterns:
P
n
= A
n
F
t
(Eq. E3.2-1)
(a) When washers are provided under both the bolt head and the nut:
For a single bolt, or a single row of bolts perpendicular to the force
F
t
= (0.1 + 3d/ s) F
u
≤ F
u
(Eq. E3.2-2)
For multiple bolts in the line parallel to the force
F
t
= F
u
(Eq. E3.2-3)
For double shear:
Ω =2.00 (ASD)
φ =0.65 (LRFD)
For single shear:
Ω =2.22 (ASD)
φ =0.55 (LRFD)
(b) When either washers are not provided under the bolt head and the nut,
or only one washer is provided under either the bolt head or the nut:
F
t
= (2.5d/ s) F
u
≤ F
u
(Eq. E3.2-4)
For multiple bolts in the line parallel to the force
F
t
= F
u
(Eq. E3.2-5)
Ω =2.22 (ASD)
φ =0.65 (LRFD)
where
A
n
= Net area of the connected part
s = Sheet width divided by the number of bolt holes in the cross section
being analyzed (when evaluating F
t
)
F
u
= Tensile strength of the connected part as specified in Section A2.1 or
A2.2
d = Nominal bolt diameter
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(2) For flat sheet connections having staggered hole patterns:
P
n
= A
n
F
t
(Eq. E3.2-6)
Ω =2.22 (ASD)
φ =0.65 (LRFD)
where
F
t
is determined in accordance with Eqs. E3.2-2 to E3.2-5.
A
n
=0.90 [A
g
- n
b
d
h
t + (∑s′
2
/ 4g)t] (Eq. E3.2-7)
A
g
=Gross area of member
s′ =Longitudinal center-to-center spacing of any two consecutive holes
g =Transverse center-to-center spacing between fastener gage lines
n
b
=Number of bolt holes in the cross section being analyzed
d
h
=Diameter of a standard hole
t is defined in Section E3.1.
(3) For other than flat sheet:
P
n
= A
e
F
u
(Eq. E3.2-8)
Ω =2.22 (ASD)
φ =0.65 (LRFD)
where
F
u
= Tensile strength of the connected part as specified in Section A2.1 or
A2.3.2
A
e
= A
n
U, effective net area with U defined as follows:
U = 1.0 for members when the load is transmitted directly to all of the
cross-sectional elements. Otherwise, the reduction coefficient U is
determined as follows:
(a) For angle members having two or more bolts in the line of force
U = 1.0 - 1.20 L x < 0.9 (Eq. E3.2-9)
but U shall not be less than 0.4.
(b) For Channel members having two or more bolts in the line of force
U = 1.0 - 0.36 L x < 0.9 (Eq. E3.2-10)
but U shall not be less than 0.5.
x = Distance from shear plane to centroid of the cross section
L = Length of the connection

E3.4 Shear and Tensi on i n Bol t s
The nominal bolt strength [resistance], P
n
, resulting from shear, tension
or a combination of shear and tension shall be calculated as follows:
P
n
= A
b
F
n
(Eq. E3.4-1)
where
A
b
= Gross cross-sectional area of bolt
When bolts are subject to shear or tension:
F
n
is given by F
nv
or F
nt
in Table E3.4-1.
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Ω and φ are given in Table E3.4-1.

The pullover strength [resistance] of the connected sheet at the bolt
head, nut or washer shall be considered where bolt tension is involved, see
Section E6.2.
When bolts are subject to a combination of shear and tension:
For ASD
F
n
is given by F′
nt
in Table E3.4-2 or E3.4-4 (metric units) or E3.4-6 (MKS
units)
Ω is given in Table E3.4-2 or E3.4-4 (metric units) or E3.4-6 (MKS units)
For LRFD
F
n
is given by F′
nt
in Table E3.4-3 or E3.4-5 (metric units) or E3.4-7 (MKS
units)
φ is given in Table E3.4-3 or E3.4-5 (metric units) or E3.4-7 (MKS units)
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TABLE E3.4-1
Nomi nal Tensi l e and Shear St rengt h [Resi st ance] f or Bol t s
Tensile Strength [Resistance]
Shear Strength [Resistance]
*




(ASD)


φ
(LRFD)
Nominal Stress
F
nt
, ksi
(MPa)
[kg/ cm
2
]



(ASD)


φ
(LRFD)
Nominal Stress
F
nv
, ksi
(MPa)
[kg/ cm
2
]
A307 Bolts, Grade A
1/ 4 in. (6.4 mm) ≤ d
<1/ 2 in. (12.7 mm)

2.25
40.5
(279)
[2850]
24.0
(165)
[1690]
A307 Bolts, Grade A
d ≥ 1/ 2 in.
2.25 45.0
(310)
[3160]
27.0
(186)
[1900]
A325 bolts, when threads are
not excluded from shear
planes
90.0
(621)
[6330]
54.0
(372)
[3800]
A325 bolts, when threads are
excluded from shear planes
90.0
(621)
[6330]
72.0
(496)
[5060]
A354 Grade BD Bolts
1/ 4 in. (6.4 mm) ≤ d < 1/ 2 in.
(12.7 mm), when threads are
not excluded from shear
planes
101.0
(696)
[7100]
59.0
(407)
[4150]
A354 Grade BD Bolts
1/ 4 in. (6.4 mm) ≤ d < 1/ 2 in.
(1.7 mm), when threads are
excluded from shear planes
101.0
(696)
[7100]
90.0
(621)
[6330]
A449 Bolts
1/ 4 in. (6.4 mm) ≤ d < 1/ 2 in.
(12.7 mm), when threads are
not excluded from shear
planes
81.0
(558)
[5700]
47.0
(324)
[3300]
A449 Bolts
1/ 4 in. (6.4 mm) ≤ d < 1/ 2 in.
(12.7 mm), when threads are
excluded from shear planes
81.0
(558)
[5700]
72.0
(496)
[5060]
A490 Bolts, when threads are
not excluded from shear
planes
112.5
(776)
[7910]
67.5
(465)
[4750]
A490 Bolts, when threads are
excluded from shear planes

2.0

0.75
112.5
(776)
[7910]

2.4

0.65
90.0
(621)
[6330]
* Applies to bolts in holes as limited by Table E3a. Washers or back-up plates shall be installed over long-slotted holes and the
capacity of connections using long-slotted holes shall be determined by load tests in accordance with Chapter F.

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TABLE E3.4-2 (ASD)
Nomi nal Tensi on St ress, F′
nt
(ksi ), f or Bol t s
Subj ect ed t o t he Combi nat i on of Shear and Tensi on

Description of Bolts
Threads Not
Excluded from
Shear Planes
Threads Excluded
from
Shear Planes

Factor of Safety,

A325 Bolts
A354 Grade BD Bolts
A449 Bolts
A490 Bolts
110 - 3.6f
v
≤ 90
122 - 3.6f
v
≤ 101
100 - 3.6f
v
≤ 81
136 - 3.6f
v
≤ 112.5
110 - 2.8f
v
≤ 90
122 - 2.8f
v
≤ 101
100 - 2.8f
v
≤ 81
136 - 2.8f
v
≤ 112.5

2.0

A307 Bolts, Grade A
When 1/ 4 in. ≤ d < 1/ 2 in.
When d ≥ 1/ 2 in.

52 - 4f
v
≤ 40.5
58.5 - 4f
v
≤ 45



2.25
The shear stress, f
v
, shall also satisfy Table E3.4-1.
TABLE E3.4-3 (LRFD)
Nomi nal Tensi on St ress, F′
nt
(ksi ), f or Bol t s
Subj ect ed t o t he Combi nat i on of Shear and Tensi on

Description of Bolts
Threads Not
Excluded from
Shear Planes
Threads Excluded
from
Shear Planes

Resistance Factor,
φ
A325 Bolts
A354 Grade BD Bolts
A449 Bolts
A490 Bolts
113 - 2.4f
v
≤ 90
127 - 2.4f
v
≤ 101
101 - 2.4f
v
≤ 81
141 - 2.4f
v
≤ 112.5
113 - 1.9f
v
≤ 90
127 - 1.9f
v
≤ 101
101 - 1.9f
v
≤ 81
141 - 1.9f
v
≤ 112.5

0.75



A307 Bolts, Grade A
When 1/ 4 in. ≤ d < 1/ 2 in.
When d ≥ 1/ 2 in.

47 – 2.4f
v
≤ 40.5
52 – 2.4f
v
≤ 45


0.75
The shear stress, f
v
, shall also satisfy Table E3.4-1.
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A12 November 2, 2001
TABLE E3.4-5 (LRFD)
Nomi nal Tensi on St ress, F′
nt
(MPa), f or Bol t s
Subj ect ed t o t he Combi nat i on of Shear and Tensi on

Description of Bolts
Threads Not
Excluded from
Shear Planes
Threads Excluded
from
Shear Planes

Resistance Factor,
φ
A325 Bolts
A354 Grade BD Bolts
A449 Bolts
A490 Bolts
779 – 2.4f
v
≤ 621
876 - 2.4f
v
≤ 696
696 - 2.4f
v
≤ 558
972 - 2.4f
v
≤ 776
779 – 1.9f
v
≤ 621
876 - 1.9f
v
≤ 696
696 - 1.9f
v
≤ 558
972 - 1.9f
v
≤ 776

0.75



A307 Bolts, Grade A
When 6.4 mm ≤ d < 12.7 mm
When d ≥ 12.7 mm

324 – 2.4f
v
≤ 279
359 – 2.4f
v
≤ 310


0.75

The shear stress, f
v
, shall also satisfy Table E3.4-1.
TABLE E3.4-4 (ASD)
Nomi nal Tensi on St ress, F′
nt
(MPa), f or Bol t s
Subj ect ed t o t he Combi nat i on of Shear and Tensi on

Description of Bolts
Threads Not
Excluded from
Shear Planes
Threads Excluded
from
Shear Planes

Factor of Safety,
φ
A325 Bolts
A354 Grade BD Bolts
A449 Bolts
A490 Bolts
758 – 3.6f
v
≤ 621
841 – 3.6f
v
≤ 696
690 – 3.6f
v
≤ 558
938 – 3.6f
v
≤ 776
758 – 2.8f
v
≤ 621
841 – 2.8f
v
≤ 696
690 – 2.8f
v
≤ 558
938 – 2.8f
v
≤ 776

2.0

A307 Bolts, Grade A
When 6.4 mm ≤ d < 12.7 mm
When d ≥ 12.7 mm

359 - 4f
v
≤ 279
403 - 4f
v
≤ 310


2.25
The shear stress, f
v
, shall also satisfy Table E3.4-1.
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TABLE E3.4-7 (LRFD)
Nomi nal Tensi on St ress, F′
nt
(kg/ cm
2
), f or Bol t s
Subj ect ed t o t he Combi nat i on of Shear and Tensi on
Description of Bolts Threads Not
Excluded from Shear
Planes
Threads Excluded
from
Shear Planes

Resistance
Factor, φ
A325 Bolts
A354 Grade BD Bolts
A449 Bolts
A490 Bolts
7950 – 2.4f
v
≤ 6330
8930 – 2.4f
v
≤ 7100
7100 – 2.4f
v
≤ 5700
9910 – 2.4f
v
≤ 7910
7950 – 1.9f
v
≤ 6330
8930 – 1.9f
v
≤ 7100
7100 – 1.9f
v
≤ 5700
9910 – 1.9f
v
≤ 7910

0.75
A307 Bolts, Grade A
When 0.64 cm ≤ d < 1.27 cm
When d ≥ 1.27 cm

3300 – 2.4f
v
≤ 2850
3660 – 2.4f
v
≤ 3160


0.75
The shear stress, f
v
, shall also satisfy Table E3.4-1.

TABLE E3.4-6 (ASD)
Nomi nal Tensi on St ress, F′
nt
(kg/ cm
2
), f or Bol t s
Subj ect ed t o t he Combi nat i on of Shear and Tensi on
Description of Bolts Threads Not
Excluded from
Shear Planes
Threads Excluded
from Shear Planes

Factor of Safety,
φ
A325 Bolts
A354 Grade BD Bolts
A449 Bolts
A490 Bolts
7730 – 3.6f
v
≤ 6330
8580 – 3.6f
v
≤ 7100
7030 – 3.6f
v
≤ 5700
9560 – 3.6f
v
≤ 7910
7730 – 2.8f
v
≤ 6330
8580 – 2.8f
v
≤ 7100
7030 – 2.8f
v
≤ 5700
9560 – 2.8f
v
≤ 7910

2.0

A307 Bolts, Grade A
When 0.64 cm ≤ d < 1.27 cm
When d ≥ 1.27 cm

3660 - 4f
v
≤ 2850
4110 - 4f
v
≤ 3160




2.25
The shear stress, f
v
, shall also satisfy Table E3.4-1.
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A14 November 2, 2001
E4.3.2 Connect i on Shear as Li mi t ed by End Di st ance
The nominal shear strength [resistance] per screw, P
ns
shall not
exceed that calculated as follows when the distance to an end of the
connected part is parallel to the line of the applied force.
P
ns
= teF
u
(Eq. E4.3.2-1)
Ω = 3.00 (ASD)
φ = 0.50 (LRFD)
where
t = Thickness of the part in which the end distance is measured
e = The distance measured in the line of force from the center of a
standard hole to the nearest end of the connected part.
F
u
= Tensile strength of the part in which the end distance is measured.

E5 Rupt ure
E5.1 Shear Rupt ure
At beam-end connections, where one or more flanges are coped and
failure might occur along a plane through the fasteners, the nominal shear
strength [resistance], V
n
, shall be calculated as follows:
V
n
= 0.6 F
u
A
wn
(Eq. E5.1-1)
Ω = 2.00 (ASD)
φ =0.75 (LRFD)
where
A
wn
= (h
wc
- nd
h
)t (Eq. E5.1-2)
h
wc
= Coped flat web depth
n = Number of holes in the critical plane
d
h
= Hole diameter
F
u
=

Tensile strength of the connected part as specified in Section A2.1 or A2.2
t = Thickness of coped web

E5.2 Tensi on Rupt ure
The nominal tensile rupture strength [resistance] along a path in the
affected elements of connected members shall be determined by Section E2.7
or E3.2 for welded or bolted connections, respectively.

E5.3 Bl ock Shear Rupt ure
The nominal block shear rupture strength [resistance], R
n
, shall be
determined as follows:
(a) When F
u
A
nt
≥ 0.6F
u
A
nv

R
n
= 0.6F
y
A
gv
+ F
u
A
nt
(Eq. E5.3-1)
(b) When F
u
A
nt
< 0.6F
u
A
nv

R
n
= 0.6F
u
A
nv
+ F
y
A
gt
(Eq. E5.3-2)
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For bolted connections:
Ω = 2.22 (ASD)
φ =0.65 (LRFD)
For welded connections:
Ω = 2.50 (ASD)
φ =0.60 (LRFD)
where
A
gv
= Gross area subject to shear
A
gt
= Gross area subject to tension
A
nv
= Net area subject to shear
A
nt
= Net area subject to tension

Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

With anticipated improvements in understanding of the behavior of coldformed steel and the continuing development of new technology, this material may eventually become dated. It is anticipated that future editions of this specification will update this material as new information becomes available, but this cannot be guaranteed.

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The materials set forth herein are for general information only. They are not a substitute for competent professional advice. Application of this information to a specific project should be reviewed by a registered professional engineer. Indeed, in most jurisdictions, such review is required by law. Anyone making use of the information set forth herein does so at their own risk and assumes any and all resulting liability arising therefrom.

HY LH

The material contained herein has been developed by a joint effort of the American Iron and Steel Institute Committee on Specifications, the Canadian Standards Association Technical Committee on Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members (S136), and Camara Nacional de la Industria del Hierro y del Acero (CANACERO) in Mexico. The organizations and the Committees have made a diligent effort to present accurate, reliable, and useful information on coldformed steel design. The Committees acknowledge and are grateful for the contributions of the numerous researchers, engineers, and others who have contributed to the body of knowledge on the subject. Specific references are included in the Commentary on the Specification.

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Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

PREFACE
This is the premier edition of the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members and, as its name implies, is intended for use throughout Canada, Mexico and the United States. This Specification supercedes the previous editions of the Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members published by American Iron and Steel Institute and the S136-94 Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members published by the Canadian Standards Association. The Specification was developed by a joint effort of the American Iron and Steel Institute’s Committee on Specifications, the Canadian Standard Association’s Technical Committee on Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members (S136), and Camara Nacional de la Industria del Hierro y del Acero (CANACERO) in Mexico. This was coordinated through the North American Specifications Committee which contained three members each from the AISI Committee on Specifications, CSA’s S136 Committee, and CANACERO. Since the Specification is intended for use in Canada, Mexico and the United States, it was necessary to develop a format that would facilitate the allowance of unique requirements in each country. This resulted in a format that contained a basic document, Chapters A through G, that is intended for use in all three countries, and three country specific appendices (A to C). Appendix A is for use in the United States, Appendix B is for use in Canada and Appendix C is for use in Mexico. This Specification provides an integrated treatment of Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) and Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and Limit States Design (LSD). This is accomplished by including the appropriate resistance factors (φ) for use with LRFD and LSD and the appropriate factors of safety (Ω) for use with ASD It should be noted that Limit States Design (LSD) is limited to Canada and Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) and Allowable Stress Design (ASD) are limited to use in Mexico and the United States. The basic document also contains some terminology that is defined differently between Canada and the Unites States and Mexico. These differences are set out in the Glossary. The Specification provides well defined procedures for the design of load carrying cold-formed steel members in buildings, as well as other applications provided that proper allowances are made for dynamic effects. The provisions reflect the results of continuing research to develop new and improved information on the structural behavior of cold-formed steel members. The success of these efforts is evident in the wide acceptance of the predecessor documents to these Specifications. The AISI and CSA consensus committees responsible for developing these provisions provide a balanced forum with representatives from steel producers, fabricators, users, educators, researchers, and building code regulators. They are composed of engineers with a wide range of experience and high professional standing from throughout Canada, Mexico and the United States. AISI, CANACERO and CSA acknowledge the continuing dedication by the members of

November 9, 2001

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Preface the specifications committees and their subcommittees. no attempt will be made here to list provisions that represent changes to the documents that it supercedes. Users of the Specification are encouraged to offer comments and suggestion for improvement. HY LH American Iron and Steel Institute Canadian Standards Association Camara Nacional de la Industria del Hierro y del Acero October 2001 4 )R U 3X November 9. 2001 EOL F5 Z . committees follows this Preface. The current membership of these Because this is the first Edition of the North American Specification. Such changes are numerous and are distributed throughout.

T. J. M. Green J. Johnson 3X Subcommittee 4 – Stud Design and Perforated Elements V. Golovin W. N. Bielat P. L. Brown S. Nunnery M. Zadeh E. M. Pinkham K. Saldivar J. Matsen B. G. J. S. R. Schuster. Schafer J. Errera J. E. Yu E. Midgley R. Secretary T. Kaehler AISI Committee on Specifications for the Design of Cold–Formed Steel Structural Members and its Subcommittees R. Ellifritt S. Estes. L. Guiher W. Schafer T. R. R. H. Shoemaker W. J. Garza M. Trestain Subcommittee 6 – Test Procedures S. Haws E. C.. Murray V. Johnson R. A. Secretary D. W. R. LaBoube T. M. Sputo C. Hancock J. Chairman E. Errera D. J. L. L. M. B. R. Sagan. Madsen J. E. Hall W. Chen J. Kile 5 . G. Ellifritt W. Estes. LaBoube T. H. M. Johnson J. Chairman D. W. Lanz W. W. W. Harrold. Hernandez C. S. Pinkham R. B. R. Sputo C. Wellinghoff R. Schuster W. E. A. Saldivar W. Daudet M Golovin D. Yu E. Nunnery CSA R. Madsen T. Golovin R. B. S. Hall )R U November 9. Thomas R. diGirolamo W. B. Jr. W. Hernandez R. Pekoz S. H. McCluer J. Pekoz B. Sagan P. A. Pekoz W. Ellifirtt G. B.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification North American Specifications Committee AISI R. W. Bjorhovde R. J Hancock D. A. A. LaBoube R. Cuoco S. Rajan T. 2001 HY LH H. Vice Chairman R. B. L. L Brockenbrough H. R. Harrold J. Miller T. A. E. Klaiman J. J. Larson. Sputo Subcommittee 3 . M. R. Garza A. Mattingly S. Chen. Seaburg T. Mattingly T. Thimons EOL R. S. B. R. Moses F5 S. Midgley T. Estes.Connections A. W. R. R. Chairman J. B Haws R. Jr. W. N. R. Z J. Kreiner T. L. R. L. Jr. diGirolamo M. Hall J. Fox. Chairman S. H. E. Kile J. Fox. W. L. Daudet E. Daudet E. Schuster M. N. Brockenbrough. Jr. E. Estes. J. R. Nunnery R. R. Trestain CANACERO M. S. L. R. Shoemaker J. P. L. diGirolamo J. Trestain R. R. A. Fox G. Chairman D. diGirolamo R. Daudet W. W. Crews D. J. Fisher W. Bjorhovde R. K. Brown E. Walker R.

W. Sputo R. S. H. R. LaBoube T. Pinkham W. S. M. Pinkham T.Editorial C. B. Rajan G. Miller R. Larson. Mattingly )R U W. Madsen T. Nunnery W. Schafer T. Loseke T. L. 2001 . Pekoz D. Hancock J. R. W. B. M. A. Johnson N. Kile T. K. L. Trestain Subcommittee 21 – Strategic Planning and Research J. W. Chairman J. Crews. R. W. Loseke B. J. Mattingly F5 R. Harrold J. M. W. Johnson. Daudet G. A. R. Hancock T. Ellfiritt W. J. Seaburg R. Miller B. Errera A. Schuster W. J. Harrold R. Yu 6 HY LH S. Trestain D. Golovin T. Bjorhovde M. M. Fox A. Harrold J. M. L. Pinkham. LaBoube V. E. J. M. A. Fisher Subcommittee 10 – Element Behaviors D. J. C.Preface R. S. K. Rajan T. A. T. J. M. W. A. Daudet M. H. W. N. Thimons S. W. B. L. L. Crews D. LaBoube C. Chairman D. W. J. Shoemaker J. J. Nunnery P. Shoemaker D. H. L. Midgley R. L. A. Midgley S. Sputo 3X Subcommittee 24 – Flexural Members J. Mattingly T. Chairman P. A. Trestain Z T. Schafer R. Cuoco J. M. Hancock M. B. W. Sherman EOL R. Kile S. B. Nunnery. Golovin W. Brockenbrough A. Johnson R. Pekoz K. Sagan M. R. Brown S. W. Pekoz S. S. E. Harrold J. Morello C. B. A. J. Golovin D. R. Guiher M. Seaburg W. M. Schuster T. Johnson T. N. Schafer T. Schuster T. L. Thomas D. Sivakumaran R. A. Yu R. Errera A. E. Chairman S. Glauz W. E. J. J. W. Wolfe November 9. Peterson W. Bianculli S. Murray B. L. Miller T. Fisher R. Ellifritt G. Yu Subcommittee 7 . R. Nunnery D. Schuster Subcommittee 22 – Compression Members J. Loseke F. R. Shoemaker W. Fisher R. Murray R. Pekoz P. Fox J. L. Kaehler J. W. Seaburg T. Chairman M. N. N. M. Haws M. Murray R. Pekoz R. Cuoco J. Daudet W.

Education R. Thomas F5 D. Cheng D. Fox B. Taing Associate Members C. L. Brockenbrough and Associates Wheeling Corrugating Company Canadian Construction Materials Centre American Iron and Steel Institute University of Alberta Unarco Material Handling November 9. Bjorhovde S. Crews J. L. diGirolamo R. R. R. K. R. Schafer D. diGirolamo J. Sommerstein R. Kaehler R. Hall C. Cuoco J. Schuster Subcommittee 31 – General Provisions J. Brown A. E. W. Fox. S. R. Brown E. A. B. D. L. Brockenbrough R. Lottamoza CSA Technical Committee on Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members A. S. Yu D. Madugula K. Cuoco M. W. Midgley R. Delaney N. R. M. Nunnery J. L. M Schuster. Crews M. Klaiman E. Chairman R. Jr. Rogers EOL S. R. Schuster J. M. H. R. A. W. Harrold R. W. Crews Steelway Building Systems United States Steel Corporation American Iron and Steel Institute The Bjorhovde Group R. W. J. W. Vavek W. Vincent M. Haws J. Bielat R. LaBoube. Trestain K. Midgley R. Schillaci T. Larson W. M. A. Chairman J. N. LaBoube W. D. 2001 HY LH J. Madsen R. Bak S. Moses J. K. Madsen B. Chen J. W. W. Schafer R. Yu Subcommittee 30 . Mattingly R. Klaiman W. Schuster R. C. J. Larson T. Chairman E. Polyzois T. Brockenbrough 3X )R U PERSONNEL D. Cheng J. Bianculli K. Crews R. Pinkham R. Secretary D. Zadeh 7 . R. K. Yu C. W. A.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification Subcommittee 26 Design Manual P. Xu E. R. Chairman S. Seaburg. M. Gluaz R. K. B. R. Loseke J. E. Fisher. Golovin R. Larson W. J. M. McCavour M. Sivakumaran R. Estes. Murray W. M. Taraschuk Z L. Jr. Johnson S. J. L. J. J. A. Vickers M. Caouette H. L. Golovin J. L. Estes. Daudet A. R. K. Errera J. Bjorhpvde E. Bjorhovde R. A. W. Bak L. Caouette S. Johnson M. M. R.

Unistrut Corporation Varco–Pruden Buildings Virginia Polytechnic Institute Cornell University Steel Stud Manufacturers Association S. McCavour Engineering Ltd. 2001 . Haws J. Fox S. Larson M. diGirolamo D. H. The Steel Network. R. Pekoz N. R. Barnes Associates University of Manitoba Alpine Engineering Products. Canadian Sheet Steel Building Institute The Lincoln Electric Company Galvamet The Marley Cooling Tower Company Ceco Building Systems University of Florida Inflection Point. Ellifritt S. Cooper University of Missouri–Rolla American Institute of Steel Construction Bethlehem Steel Corporation Loseke Properties. Guiher W. Hancock A. Pinkham D. Cuoco R. Delaney E. B. Matsen J. Midgley T. S. Inc.C Industries. Loseke M. International Midgley. R. R. R. Inc. S. J. S. Sagan M. Madugula J. Green W. M. Canadian Standards Association Devco Engineering. L. Jr. Murray T. Structuneering Inc. Inc. Hernandez D. University of Windsor Matsen Ford Design Associates. Harrold R. Clauer and Associates Oregon State University M. Errera E. Mattingly S. LaBoube C. Kreiner R. Maus Engineering Computerized Structural Design.Preface D. CANACERO Johns Hopkins University 8 )R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH Z November 9. R. E. Nunnery T. Schuster V. Nicholas J. Schillaci R. Daudet D. M. Miller F. DE C. T. Consultant Consultant Consultant Computerized Structural Design.A. Funderburk J. L. M. Building Officials & Code Administrators. Rajan N. Fisher S. P. Golovin P. A. B. Madsen M. Hall G. J. G. Lottamoza R. A. Saldivar B. J. Kaehler W. Schafer LZA Technology Dietrich Design Group Rheinzink Canada Ltd. Inc. McCavour R. Perterson C. Klaiman J. J. W. K. Inc. S.I.V. J. C. Inc. S. Inc. Estes. Inc. Inc. Polyzois S. ADTEK Engineers Tiden. Lobnitz. A. B. E. L. Lanz J W. University of Illinois The University of Sydney Butler Manufacturing Company Magnatrax Corporation Industias Moterey. Bouras. Inc. University of Waterloo Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc. Glauz M. Johnson R. M. Garza R. Dofasco Inc. W. Kile J. Moses J. Morello J. N. L. B. McCluer W.

2001 )R U 3X EOL 9 F5 HY LH R. S. Walker J. Seaburg D. Trestain Structural Engineering Steven H. W. Shoemaker K. J. A. Thomas T. Wellinghoff T. Yu R. Wolf W. R.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification November 9. L. Thimons S. Sherman W. Walker Clark Steel Framing MBCI Consultant Unimast Incorporated Z . W. Sivakumaran T. M Schuster P. A. Trestain S. Sputo M. W. H. J. Zadeh University of Waterloo Southern Illinois University Consultant Metal Building Manufacturers Association McMaster University Sputo Engineering National Steel Corporation Varco-Proden Buildings T.

1 ASD Requirements A4.1 Scope and Limits of Applicability A1.2 Other Steels A2.1.1 Applicable Steels A2.1 LRFD Requirements A5.1.2 Load Combinations for ASD A5 Load and Resistance Factor Design A5.3 Ductility A2.3 Webs and other Stiffened Elements under Stress Gradient B2.2 Maximum Web Depth-to-Thickness Ratio B2 Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements B2.1.1 Yield Point A7. GENERAL PROVISIONS A1 Limits of Applicability and Terms A1.Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS NORTH AMERICAN SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS PREFACE SYMOBLES AND DEFINITIONS A.1.2 Load Factors and Load Combinations for LRFD A6 Limit States Design A6.1 Flange Flat-Width-to-Thickness Considerations B1. ELEMENTS B1 Dimensional Limits and Considerations B1.1 Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements B2.4 C-Section Webs with Holes under Stress Gradient B3 Effective Widths of Unstiffened Elements 10 )R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH Z November 9.2 Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements with Circular Holes B2.1.1.4 Delivered Minimum Thickness A3 Loads A4 Allowable Strength Design A4.3 Units of Symbols and Terms A2 Material A2.2 Terms A1.2 Strength Increase from Cold Work of Forming A8 Serviceability A9 Referenced Documents 3 16 34 34 34 35 38 38 38 39 39 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 44 44 47 47 47 48 49 49 51 51 53 54 B.1 Design Basis A5.1 LSD Requirements A6.2 Load Factors and Load Combinations for LSD A7 Yield Point and Strength Increase from Cold Work of Forming A7.1 Design Basis A4.1 Design Basis A6. 2001 .

1 ASD Method C3.4.6.1 Uniformly Compressed Elements with One Intermediate Stiffener B4.3.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification C.2 Doubly. 2001 )R U 3X EOL F5 Z 11 .3 Strength [Resistance] for Combined Bending and Shear C3.3 Non-Conforming Stiffeners C4 Concentrically Loaded Compression Members C4.4.2.1 Uniformly Compressed Unstiffened Elements B3.1.2 Uniformly Compressed Elements with an Edge Stiffener B5 Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements with Multiple Intermediate Stiffeners or Edge Stiffened Elements with Intermediate Stiffeners B5.2.1 Nominal Section Strength [Resistance] C3.5 Combined Bending and Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] C3.1 Specific Case: ‘n’ Identical Stiffeners.1.1.1 Sections Not Subject to Torsional or Torsional-Flexural Buckling C4.1 Transverse Stiffeners C3.5 Strength [Resistance] of Standing Seam Roof Panel Systems C3.1 Effective Widths of Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements with Multiple Intermediate Stiffeners B5. Location and Number B5.6. Equally Spaced B5.1.3 Beams Having One Flange Through-Fastened to Deck or Sheathing C3.6.2.3.2 LRFD and LSD Methods C3.5.1 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength [Resistance] of Open Cross Section Members C3.1.2 General Case: Arbitrary Stiffener Size. MEMBERS C1 Properties of Sections C2 Tension Members C3 Flexural Members C3.1.1.1.2.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength [Resistance] of Closed Box Members C3.2 Edge Stiffened Elements with Intermediate Stiffeners 54 54 55 55 56 58 58 59 59 61 62 62 62 62 62 62 64 64 66 67 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 73 73 76 77 77 79 81 81 82 83 83 84 84 November 9.4 Beams Having One Flange Fastened to a Standing Seam Roof System C3.2 Shear Strength [Resistance] of C-Section Webs with Holes C3.2 LRFD and LSD Methods C3.2 Shear Stiffeners C3.2 Unstiffened Elements and Edge Stiffeners with Stress Gradient B4 Effective Widths of Elements with One Intermediate Stiffener or an Edge Stiffener B4.5.2 Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] of C-Section Webs with Holes C3.1 Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] of Webs without Holes C3.2 Strength [Resistance] for Shear Only C3.1 ASD Method C3.1 Shear Strength [Resistance] of Webs without Holes C3.4 Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] C3.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength [Resistance] C3.6 Stiffeners C3.1.or Singly-Symmetric Sections Subject to Torsional or Torsional-Flexural Buckling HY LH B3.1 Strength [Resistance] for Bending Only C3.

3 Arc Seam Welds E2.2 Wall Studs in Bending D4.Table of Contents E.1.2.2.2. 2001 .5 Flare Groove Welds E2.1 Shear E2.1 Wall Studs in Compression D4.7 Shear Lag Effect in Welded Connections of Members Other Than Flat Sheets E3 Bolted Connections 3X D.1 Groove Welds in Butt Joints E2. Roof or Wall Steel Diaphragm Construction HY LH Point-Symmetric Sections Nonsymmetric Sections Built-Up Members Compression Members Having One Flange Through-Fastened to Deck or Sheathing C5 Combined Axial Load and Bending C5.2 Compression C6.1 Anchorage of Bracing for Roof Systems Under Gravity Load With Top Flange Connected to Sheathing D3.3 Combined Bending and Compression C4.1 Bending C6. CONNECTIONS AND JOINTS E1 General Provisions E2 Welded Connections E2.2 LRFD and LSD Methods C6 Closed Cylindrical Tubular Members C6.3 Wall Studs with Combined Axial Load and Bending D5 Floor.2 C-Section and Z-Section Beams D3.2.2 Neither Flange Connected to Sheathing D4 Wall Studs and Wall Stud Assemblies D4.2 Arc Spot Welds E2.5 C4.4 C4.1 ASD Method C5.4 Fillet Welds E2.2.2.1 Symmetrical Beams and Columns D3.6 85 85 85 86 87 87 87 88 89 89 91 93 93 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 96 96 97 99 100 101 104 104 104 106 106 106 106 107 107 110 111 112 114 116 117 118 12 )R U EOL F5 Z November 9.6 Resistance Welds E2.1 I-Sections Composed of Two C-Sections D1.3 C4.2 Tension E2.2 LRFD and LSD Methods C5.2 Combined Compressive Axial Load and Bending C5.1.2 Spacing of Connections in Compression Elements D2 Mixed Systems D3 Lateral Bracing D3. STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES D1 Built-Up Sections D1.1 ASD Method C5.1 Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending C5.

4.4 Shear and Tension in Bolts E4 Screw Connections E4.1 Full Section F3.1 Shear.3 Bearing E3.4 Tension E4.1 Bearing E6.1a Scope and Limits of Applicability A3 Loads A3.1.4.1 Connection Shear as Limited by Tilting and Bearing E4.2 Strength [Resistance] with Consideration of Bolt Hole Deformation E3. DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS FOR CYCLIC LOADING (FATIGUE) G1 General G2 Calculation of Maximum Stresses and Stress Ranges G3 Design Stress Range G4 Bolts and Threaded Parts G5 Special Fabrication Requirements 3X F.3.1 Minimum Spacing E4. Spacing and Edge Distance E3.3 Shear in Screws E4.2 Load Combinations for ASD )R U G.4.3 Shear 119 119 119 119 120 120 121 121 121 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 123 123 123 123 123 123 124 124 124 128 128 128 128 129 129 EOL HY LH Z 130 130 131 131 132 133 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 November 9. TESTS FOR SPECIAL CASES F1 Tests for Determining Structural Performance F1.1 Strength [Resistance] without Consideration of Bolt Hole Deformation E3.2 Minimum Edge and End Distance E4.3.2 Pull-Over E4.3 Shear E4.3 Virgin Steel F5 E3.3.2 Tension E6.3. 2001 13 .2 Flat Elements of Formed Sections F3.2 Tension Member Shear Lag Effect in Bolted Connections E3.3.3 Tension in Screws E5 Rupture E6 Connections to Other Materials E6.1 Nominal Loads A4.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification PREFACE TO APPENDIX A APPENDIX A: PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO THE UNITED STATES A1.2 Allowable Strength Design F2 Tests for Confirming Structural Performance F3 Tests for Determining Mechanical Properties F3.1 Pull-Out E4.2 Connection Shear as Limited by End Distance E4.1 Load and Resistance Factor Design and Limit States Design F1.

2 Connection Shear as Limited by End Distance E5 Rupture E5.Table of Contents 14 )R U 3X EOL November 9.2 Tension Rupture E5.3.1.2 Load Factors and Load Combinations for LRFD A9a Referenced Documents C2 Tension Members C3.1.2 Tension Member Shear Lag Effect in Bolted Connections E3. 2001 F5 HY LH A5.4 Shear and Tension in Bolts E4.3 Block Shear Rupture A2 A3 A3 A4 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A10 A14 A14 A14 A14 Z .1 Shear Rupture E5. Spacing and Edge Distance E3.4 Beams Having One Flange Fastened to a Standing Seam Roof System E2a Welded Connections E3a Bolted Connections E3.1 Shear.

3 E5.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol A A Ab Definition Full unreduced cross-sectional area of the member Section stiffeners at end support Ab Ac Gross cross-sectional area of bolt 18t2 + As.2. for transverse stiffeners at interior support and C3.1 C2. C4. C4. 2001 HY LH E3.6. E3.1. B4.1.2.1.2 C3. C5. and 10t2 + As.2. for transverse Z C3.6. C5. C5.6.1 Area of directly connected elements or gross area E2. C6. B4.3 C2.1.2.1. B4. E3.1 C3.1 B5. C3.2.2 15 under concentrated load.1 E2.6.2.6.2 B4.2. C5.7.2.1.2. or the distance between November 9.2 C3.3 E5.7. B4. D4. C4. D4.1 .4 C3.2. E3. C6. for transverse stiffeners at end support Ao Ae Ae Ag Ag Agt Agv Ant Anv An As As As A′s Ast At Reduced area due to local buckling Effective area at the stress Fn F5 Net area of cross section Reduced cross sectional area of edge or intermediate stiffener Cross-sectional area of transverse stiffener Gross area of stiffener 3X Gross area subject to tension Gross area subject to shear Net area subject to tension Net area subject to shear EOL Effective net area Gross area of the element including stiffeners Gross area of the section )R U Area of web area Net web area Effective area of stiffener Gross area of shear stiffener Net tensile area Aw Awn a Shear panel length of unreinforced web element.6. for transverse stiffeners at interior support and under concentrated load.1.6.1 B4.2.2 E5.1 C6.2.2. E2. and b2t + As.3 E5. D4.2 G4 C3.2 C3.2 B5.1.1 E5.7 b1t + As. C4.

1.1 depending on the stiffness of the stiffeners Dimension defined in Figure B4-1 B4.2. b2 b1 . located at the centroid of the B5.2.2.2.2. C5. B3. B3. C3.1.2 Effective with of elements.1. B2.1. C3.1.2 B2.3.2. ratio of the total corner cross -sectional area of the controlling flange to the full cross -sectional area of the controlling flange Bending coefficient dependent on moment gradient Constant End moment coefficient in interaction formula Coefficient for lateral bracing of Z-section End moment coefficient in interaction formula End moment coefficient in interaction formula 3X Figure B2.2.2 C5.2 . B4.2 Z B2.2 November 9. C3.1 A7.2 Cb Cf Cm Cms Cmx Cmy 16 )R U For flexural members.2. C5.6 D3. b2 C B4. D3.1.2.3 B5.2.2 C4. B5. B4.1. G3.2.4. G4 C5.5 C4.4 C3.2. B2. B4. C3.6.2 or B2.2 G1.3-2 Total flat width of stiffened element Total flat width of the edge stiffened element Largest sub-element flat width Effective widths Effective widths of transverse stiffeners EOL Section B5. B4.2.2.1.2.1.1 Out-to-out width of the compression flange as defined in B2.2 B5.1 B2. Intermediate fastener or spot weld spacing Fastener distance from outside web edge Length of bracing interval Stud Spacing Term for determining the tensile yield point of corners Effective design width of compression element Section B Bc b be be be bo bo bo bo bp b1 .1 element including stiffeners Effective width Effective width either determined by Section B4. C5.1 C5.1.4.1.2.2 F5 b b bd Flange width length of web hole Effective width for deflection calculation HY LH D4 A7.3 B5. 2001 a a a C4.6.1 B2.2.2 D3.1 B5. B2.1.2. B3. B3.Symbols and Definitions SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol Definition transverse stiffeners of reinforced web elements.

1 C3.4.2 C3.1. D4.2. D3.1 C3. B4.2 D4.2. C6. 17 Z .6.2.2.1.2.4.1. Axial buckling coefficients F5 Initial column imperfection November 9.1 C3.1 D4. C3.6.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol Co Cp Cs CTF Cth Ctr Cv Cw Cy C1 C C Ch CN CR Definition Initial column imperfection Correction Factor Coefficient for lateral torsional buckling End moment coefficient in interaction formula Coefficient for lateral bracing of Z-sections Coefficient for lateral bracing of Z-sections Shear stiffener coefficient Torsional warping constant of the cross-section Compression strain factor Term used to compute shear strain in wall board Bearing factor Coefficient Web slenderness coefficient Bearing length coefficient Inside bend radius coefficient Section D4.1 B5. C6.2.1.1.1. G3 F1.1. D3. B5.3.1.1.2. B4.6.2 B1. A6. C4. 2001 HY LH G1.1 C3.2.1. C2.2 B1. C3.1. D4.1.1 C3.1 C4.2.1 C3 c cf ci centerline of the stiffener D D D D Do d )R U Dead load Depth of section Outside diameter of cylindrical tube Overall depth of lip Shear stiffener coefficient 3X Coefficient Amount of curling displacement Horizontal distance from the edge of the element to EOL Cf Constant from Table G1 Cφ Calibration coefficient C1.1.2 C6. D4.1.1 D3.6 C3.1 B1.1 C3.1.2 A3.1 E3.4.2 C3.3.1 D3.1 C3.1.4.1 C3.1.1 F1.2.

2. C3.3 G4 E2.2. C6.2 B4.4.5. E4.1 D4.2. E4.1.1. unbuckled location Term used to compute shear strain in wallboard Inelastic modulus of elasticity 18 HY LH E2.1.2. C3. D1.1.3. B4. 29.1. ideal.1.1. E3a.6. C3.1. 2001 . E3.1. C3. E4.3.1.4 E4. E2.2.5.2.2 B4.1. C3.1.2.1.1.2. C5.000 MPa.1. C3.2.1.1 B2. E4.2.4. C3.2.2 E4. C3.1 Z E2.2.2.1.2. D4.1.2.2.4 E2.2.000 kg/cm2) 3X E Eo )R U Live load due to earthquake Initial column imperfection.3 B2. E3. B4. B1.3.4. E2.1.2.6. C3. B4. C6. E3. A6. B2.2.2. E2. E3. C3. E2. a measure of the initial E1 E′ twist of the stud from the initial.6.2. E4.Symbols and Definitions SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol d Definition Nominal screw diameter Section E4.2 E3a.1.2.1.1.2 D4. C4. B5. C4.E3.2.1.2 E2.1 Screw head or washer diameter Larger of the screw head or washer diameter Modulus of elasticity of steel.4.2 A2.1 B4 d d d d da da db de de dh d0 ds d′s dwx dw E Flat depth of lip defined in Figure B4-2 Width of arc seam weld Visible diameter of outer surface of arc spot weld Diameter of bolt Average diameter of the arc spot weld at mid-thickness of t Average width of seam weld Nominal diameter (body or shank diameter) Effective diameter of fused area Effective width of arc seam weld at fused surfaces Diameter of standard hole Depth of web hole Reduced effective width of stiffener Effective width of the stiffener calculated EOL F5 according to B3. C5.2. E5. C6.3 E2. E4. E2.2.1.3. or 2.2.070.4.500 ksi (203.2.1 November 9. E3.2 A3.1 D4.

D4. F1.4 E3.2 Nominal tensile stress in flat sheet November 9.1.2 19 e The distance measured in the line of force from the E3.2. E2.5. B2.1. C4. E2. Minimum allowable distance measured in the line of E2.4 G3 G1.1.1 F1. D4.2.1 E3. 2001 HY LH C3. C3. C5. C4.1.1.1. C4.2.2.1 E3. E3.1 E3.3.2.2 Z .2.2. C4.4 E3. C6.1.2.2. G4 B2.4 Yield point as specified in Sections A2.1 or A2.2.1.1. G3.1a center of a standard hole to the nearest edge of an adjacent hole or to the end of the connected part toward which the force is directed Distance measured in the line of force from the center E4. A2.2.1.4.2 of a standard hole to the nearest end of the connected part.1.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol e Definition Section emin force from the centerline of a weld to the nearest edge of an adjacent weld or to the end of the connected part toward which the force is directed ey F F FSR FTH Fc Fcr Fe Yield strain = Fy/E Fabrication factor Nominal tensile or shear strength Design stress range Threshold stress range Critical buckling stress Plate elastic buckling stress Elastic buckling stress F5 EOL Fm Fn Fn Fnt Fnv F′nt Mean value of the fabrication factor Nominal buckling stress Nominal strength of bolts Nominal tensile strength of bolts Nominal shear strength of bolts of shear and tension 3X Fsy Ft )R U Nominal tensile strength for bolts subject to combination E3.1.1. C6.1. C3. C5.2.4 A1.3.2.1 B2.3.2.3. C4. C6.1 C3. C4. D4.1.2.1 C3. E3.

Section A2 or established in accordance with Section F3.3 3X yield point or established in accordance with Section F3.3. E2. B3.4.2. C3.1.5.1. A2. F3. E4. D1. D4.2. E2.1.1. B4.2. E4.4.1.1.2 E4. C3. B2. C6.2. or as increased for cold work of forming in Section C3.1.1.5 E4.3. E4.3.1.2.6. E5.4. E2. B4.3.3.1 A1. A8.6.1. C5.2.3. C4. E3.2 Section A2.1 Fuv Tensile strength of virgin steel specified by Z A7.2. E3.2.2. unreduced flange fav 20 HY LH A7. B5.2 November 9. E2.1. E2. E5.6.4.2 A7. B2.2 C3. B2. C3.1. C3.3.1. C3. E3. C5.1. C5.5.2.3.1 or A2. C3.2.2. E2. E5. C5.2.1.2.2.1.1.1. E2. E2. A7.1 E2.2 or as reduced for low ductility steels in Section C3. E4. C2.1.2. C6.2.2. G1 EOL Stress in the compression element computed on the basis of the effective design width Average computed stress in the full. C2.1 A7. E2.2.2 E2.3 C3. E3.1.2. C3.2 A7.6. C4.2.3.7.1.1.2.1.3.2 B1. E2.1.1.1. E2.2.4.5.1.1.2.2.1. B3. C3. E4.2.4.2.1. B2.3 Fwy Fxx Fu1 Fu2 Fv Fy Yield point for design of transverse stiffeners Tensile strength of the electrode classification Tensile strength of member in contact with the screw head Tensile strength of member not in contact with the F5 screw head Nominal shear stress Yield point used for design.Symbols and Definitions SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol Fu Definition Tensile strength as specified in Sections A2.2.1.2.2. C3. A7. E3.2. not to exceed the specified f )R U width Fya Fyc Fyf Fys Fyv Average yield point of section Tensile yield point of corners Weighted average tensile yield point of the flat portions Yield point of stiffener steel Tensile yield point of virgin steel specified by Section A2 or established in accordance with Section F3. 2001 .1 E2.3. A7.2.1. B4.4. C6.2.2.

4 B2.3-1 Uniform compressive stress acting on the flat element Edge stiffener stress defined by Figure B4-2 Shear modulus of steel. B5.1.5.2. B5.1.1.2 B1.2. fd1. C3. B2. D4. fd2 Computed stresses f1 and f2 as shown in Figure B2. 2001 )R U Width of elements adjoining stiffened element B5.1.2.2. C3.2.1. C3.2 C3.2.2.1. C3. C3.5D to E2.3 E3.1.1. C3.4.5 Out-to-out width of the web as defined in Figure B2.1.2 B4-2.3 Depth of web hole B2. C3.1 D4. B5.2 considered. 11. B3.000MPa or 795.1. f2 f1 f3 G G′ g g Computed shear stress on a bolt Web stresses defined by Figure B2. B4.1. B2.1.2 21 Z .1. B5.2 B3.1.1 D1.3. Calculations are based on the effective section at the load for which serviceability is determined fv f1.4 B5.2.1.1. as shown in Figure B3.2 section at the load for which deflections are determined.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol fc fd Definition Stress at service load in the cover plate or sheet Computed compressive stress in the element being Section D1.1 HY LH B2.3-2 B2.2. B4.2.4.5G E2. B5.5.4.1.4 Coped flat web depth E5.1 Lip height as defined in Figures E2. C3.6. B2.2 B2.2. Calculations are based on the effective B5. Calculations are based on the effective section at the load for which serviceability is determined fd3 Computed stress f3 in edge stiffener.1 E3.000 kg/cm2) Inelastic shear modulus Vertical distance between two rows of connections nearest to the top and bottom flanges Transverse center-to-center spacing between fastener gage lines F5 EOL 3X h Depth of flat portion of web measured along the plane of web h h ho ho hwc November 9.1.300 ksi (78.2.3-1. C3.

2 November 9.5. B5. Iy portion of element Moment of inertia of full section about principal axis Ixy Product of inertia of full section about major and minor centroidal axes F5 Iyc Moment of inertia of the compression portion of a i J j K K′ Kt Kx Ky k Index of stiffener EOL section about the centroidal axis of the entire section parallel to the web.2. C5. D4. B5.2.2. B5.2.2 C3.1. C5.2. C4.2 B2.2. B4.2. C3. B4.1 C3. using the full unreduced section )R U Plate buckling coefficient Effective length factor A constant Effective length factor for torsion Effective length factor for buckling about x-axis Effective length factor for buckling about y-axis 3X Saint-Venant torsion constant Section property for torsional-flexural buckling kd kloc kv Plate buckling coefficient for distortional buckling B5. B4. B4.1.1.2 Z B1.2.1.1.1.1.1 D3.6.2.1.2.3. B4.2.1.1. D4. C3. C3. C5. B3.1. C5. B4.1. B4.2 Plate buckling coefficient for local sub-element buckling B5.1.1.1.1.1. B5.2.2. B5.1.2.2 C3. C3. B2.1.1.1.1.1. C3. B5.1 C4. B3.1. C3. B4.1. D3.1. D4.1.2.6.1.1 C3.2 D3.2.2 C3.1.2.1. 2001 .2.1.Symbols and Definitions SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol Ia Definition Adequate moment of inertia of stiffener so that each component element will behave as a stiffened element Is Actual moment of inertia of the full stiffener about its own centroidal axis parallel to the element to be stiffened Minimum moment of inertia of shear stiffener(s) with respect to an axis in the plane of web Moment of inertia of stiffener about centerline of flat Section B1.1.2.1.1.2 Ismin Isp Ix.2.1 B5.1.1.2.1.2.2 C3.6. 22 HY LH B4.2.1. B5. B5.2. B5.1.2. B5.2 C5.2.2.2.2 Shear buckling coefficient C3.1. C5.1 C3.1.2.

2. C4. B5.1 Unbraced length of compression member for bending C3.1. D1.3.1.2 D4.2.1 Unbraced length of compression member for torsion C3.2.2 B2. C5.1.1.1.2 C4.1. 2001 HY LH D4.1 C3. C3. C5.2.1.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol L Definition Full span for simple beams.2. C6.2.1.1.2.2.5. C5.5. C3.1. MB.1.1.1 23 .1.1 L L L L L L Length of weld Length of longitudinal welds Length of seam weld not including the circular ends Length of fillet weld Length of the connection Unbraced length of member L L Lbr Lst Lt Lx Ly Lu Overall length Live load F5 Unsupported length between brace point or other restraint which restricts distortional buckling of element Length of transverse stiffener C3.1 E2.2 C3.2.4 E3.2 B5.1. C5. twice the length of cantilever beams Span length Section B1.2.1.5 E2.1. C3.2.2. A6. C3.2.1. Absolute value of moments in an unbraced segment.1.1. A6.1.3.2 about y-axis Limit of unbraced length by which lateral-torsional buckling will not be considered MC Mm Mn )R U Mmax.3.2. C3.7 E2.1. C5.2.2.1.3 E2.1 C3.1.2. distance between inflection points for continuous beams.1 A3.2.1.2.1 L Z D3. C5.4. C3.1.1.1.1.2 C3.1. MA. C3.1.2.1.6. E2. F1.1. C3. B5. used for determining Cb 3X about x-axis Unbraced length of compression member for bending EOL Mean value of the material factor Nominal flexural strength [resistance] November 9. C3.

2.2.1. C3.1. D4.1. ASD Nominal flexural strengths [resistances] about the centroidal axes determined in accordance with Section C3 Mnxo. C5.1.5.2. C5.1.2 F1.2.2.2. C3.2 C5.1.3.2 C4.1.1.2.5.5.2 C3.1. C5.1.5.1. Mnyt Nominal yield moment for nested Z-sections Nominal flexural strengths [resistances] about the cross-section properties Mf Mfx.2 C4. C5.1. Mfy Mx.1.2 C4. C5.1.2.2.2 C4.1.Symbols and Definitions SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol M Mnx. D4. Mnyo Section C3.3. unreduced Required allowable flexural strength with respect to the centroidal axes.2 C5.1.5. for LRFD Required flexural strength [factored moment] 3X Required flexural strength.2.5.3 C3.1. C3. C3.2.1 excluding the provisions of Section C3.2 November 9.1. C3. Mny Definition Required allowable flexural strength.2 B2. C5.5. C5.1. Muy M * centroidal axes determined using the gross.1.3. for LRFD Required flexural strength with respect to My M1 M2 m m )R U Smaller end moment Larger end moment M*x.3.2 Z C3. C5.2.1 Nominal flexural strengths [resistance] about the centroidal axes determined in accordance with Section C3. C3.1. My Mu Mux.2. C5.3 C3.1. for ASD EOL Factored moment Moments due to factored loads with respect to the centroidal axes F5 centroidal axes.2 C3.2.2.1 A7. 2001 .3.1. C5.1 C5.2. M*y Required flexural strengths [factored moments] Moment causing a maximum strain ey Degrees of freedom Term for determining the tensile yield point of corners 24 HY LH D4.2.2.1.1 C3. C5.3. C3. C5. C3. C5. C3.2 Mno Mnxt. C5.2.2.

1 F1. B4.5.2. C5. D3.1 G4 C5.2.1 A2.1.1. C5.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol m Definition Distance from the shear center of one C-section to the mid-plane of its web Actual length of bearing Number of stress range fluctuations in design life Section D1.5.5 C3. PEy Pf Pf Pf PL Pm Pn F5 Coefficient Number of stiffeners Number of holes Number of tests Number of anchors in the test assembly with same tributary area (for anchor failure). for ASD Required allowable strength (nominal force) transmitted By weld.1 D3.1.2 A2.1.1 E2.2. or number of panels with identical spans and loading to the failed span (for non-anchor failure) Number of threads per inch Number of bolt holes Number of parallel purlin lines Elastic buckling strengths [resistances] 3X Required allowable strength for the concentrated load Reaction in the presence of bending moment.1 C3.1.1 N N Z B4.1. B5.2 C3.1. 2001 HY LH G4 E3.2.4.5.2.4. for ASD Professional factor Pitch (mm per thread) EOL )R U Axial force due to factored loads Concentrated load or reaction due to factored loads Factored shear force transmitted by welding Force to be resisted by intermediate beam brace Mean value of the tested-to-predicted load ratios Nominal web crippling strength [resistance] of member C3.2 B5.1.2 G3 25 .2 November 9. D3.2 E2.1. B5.3.2.5.4.2. C5.1.2.2 F1.1. C3.2 E5. C3.1.5.1 C3.2. C3.5.3.1.1.1. for ASD Required allowable compressive axial strength.2 n n n n n n nb np P P P P P PEx. C3.2.1 F1.2.2 D3. C3.

3 D1.1.2.5.2 E4. 2001 .3. E2.1 E4. E4. E4.4. E4.3 E4.4.1. E4.4 E3. E4. E2.4.4. D4.3.6.4.2.1. E2. E2.3 E4.3.3. for LRFD 3X P )R U compressive force] Q /A * Required strength for concentrated load or reaction P * [concentrated load or reaction due to factored loads] in the presence of bending moment. C4.5.1.2.2.Symbols and Definitions SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol Pn Pn Pn Pn Pn Pno Definition Nominal axial strength [resistance] of member Section A2.3 A2.2. For LRFD Required strength for the concentrated load or reaction in the presence of bending moment.4.1 Nominal bearing strength [resistance] Nominal tensile strength of welded member Nominal axial strength [resistance] of member determined in accordance with Section C4 with Fn = Fy Nominal pull-out strength [resistance] per screw Nominal pull-over strength [resistance] per screw Nominal shear strength [resistance] per screw Nominal tension strength [resistance] per screw Concentrated load or reaction Nominal shear strength [resistance] of screw as Pts reported by manufacturer Nominal tension strength [resistance] of screws as reported by manufacturer or determined by independent laboratory testing EOL Pnot Pnov Pns Pnt Ps Pss F5 Pu Pu Pu Required axial strength [resistance]. E3.3 November 9. C6.2. E2.3.3.2. E4.2 C5.2.3. E2.2 C3.2.5.1 D4. C5.1 Nominal strength [resistance] of connection component E2.2 E2. Required compressive axial strength [factored Q Qa 26 Design shear rigidity for sheathing HY LH C5.3. for LRFD Factored force (required strength) transmitted by weld.1. E4. C5. C4.7 Z E4.2 D4.1. E3.3 E4.2.3 Nominal axial strength [resistance] of transverse stiffener C3. E4.2 E2.1. E4.1.2.4. E3.2.2. E4. C5. E4.2.1.6.3.2.1. D4.6.2. E3. C5.1.1 C3.

1 Z D4. A6.2 27 .2 C3.1 C3.1.2 A6.1 Qi q qs R R R R R R RI Ra Rb Rc Rf Rn Rn Rn Ru r r ri F5 EOL Required strength.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol Qt Qo Definition ( Q d2)/(4Aro2) Sheathing parameter Load effect Design load in the plane of the web Reduction factor Required allowable strength. ry )R U center principal axis 1.3.1.1 Radius of gyration of cross section about centroidal S November 9.1 A1.5 C4.5. 2001 HY LH D1.2.1.2 A7.1 F1.1 A4.28 E/f cross section Polar radius of gyration of cross section about the shear C3.1.1 C3.4.2.1.1. C4. C3.1.2 A2.1. B4. C3. for ASD Modification factor Reduction factor Coefficient Inside bend radius Radius of outside bend surface Is/Ia Allowable design strength Reduction factor Reduction factor Effect of factored loads Nominal strength [resistance] Section D4.2 E2.3.1. A5.2 F2 E5. A4. C4.1. B4.2 F1. B4.4.1 C3.5 B4.1 B5.2.1.1.1.3 C4.1.5 B4.1. C3.1.2. F1. B5.2.1. D4.2.2.4 C6.2. C3.2 A5.1.1. for LRFD 3X Nominal blockshear rupture strength [resistance] Average value of all test results Correction factor Least radius of gyration of full unreduced cross section Minimum radius of gyration of full unreduced ro rx.1. D4.3 F1.5. C3.1. C4.1.

1 E3.1.3.2 s s s′ s′ smax F5 EOL other connectors joining two C-sections to form an I-section T T Required allowable tensile axial strength. C3. for LRFD 3X 28 HY LH C5.1. C3.2. A6.2 D4. C3. A6.1.1.2 Tf Tn Ts Tu )R U Load due to contraction or expansion caused by temperature changes Tension due to factored loads Nominal tensile strength [resistance] Design strength [factored resistance] of connection in tension Required tensile axial strength.1.2 C2.1 A3.1 D1. A3.1.2 Se Elastic section modulus of the effective section calculated C3. C5.1 at a stress Fc in the extreme compression fiber November 9.1. C5.2 D1.1. C3. C5.1.1 C5.1.1 Elastic section modulus of the effective section calculated B2.1.1.2.1. 2001 .Symbols and Definitions SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol Sc Definition Section Sf Elastic section modulus of full.1.4 with extreme compression or tension fiber at Fy B2.1.1.1.1.2.2.1. C3.2.1. C6.2 E3.2 D1.1.1.1 D1. unreduced section for extreme compression fiber Sft Section modulus of the full section for the extreme tension the fiber Sn s s In-plane diaphragm nominal shear strength [resistance] D5 Fastener spacing Spacing in line of stress of welds. rivets.2. for ASD C5.1. or bolts connecting a compression coverplate or sheet to a non-integral stiffener or other element Sheet width divided by the number of bolts holes in the cross section being analyzed Weld spacing Longitudinal center-to-center spacing of any consecutive holes Fastener spacing for which Q o is tabulated Maximum permissible longitudinal spacing of welds or D4.1 Z C5.

1 C3.3. 2001 HY LH E2.1.1. C3. E3. C3.3 Thickness of stiffener C3.2.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol T * Definition Required tensile axial strength [factored tension] with respect to the centroid Section C5.1. LSD Nominal shear strength [resistance] Coefficient of variation of the tested-to-predicted load ratios Coefficient of variation of the load effect Required shear strength.1.2 Based thicknesses connected with fillet weld E2.6.1. C3.4. D4.1. t2 t1 t2 tc F5 t t t Thickness of coped web Total thickness of the two welded sheets Thickness of thinnest connected part E5.1.5. C3.3.6.6. D4. E3.1.6. C6.2.3.3.2 C3. B5.5.1. B5.2 t Base steel thickness of any element or section Z A1. C6. B4.1. C3. E4.1. A2.2.4.2. E3.2.2.3.1 29 . B5.4.1.2.5 Reduction coefficient 3X )R U Required allowable shear strength.1.4.1 C3.3.1 C3.1.3. D3. E3. D1.1.3 E2.4. B2.4. E2.5. B2. F1.2 te ti ts tw U V VF VM Vf Vn VP VQ Vu Effective throat dimension for groove weld EOL t1. E4.2. A2. for ASD Coefficient of variation of the fabrication factor Coefficient of variation of the material factor Shear force due to factored loads.1. Lesser of the depth of the penetration and t2 E4.2.2.3. F1.5. A7.1.2. C3.2.1 C3.4.1.6.2. F1.1 C3.4.2.1 Thickness of uncompressed glass fiber blanket insulation C3. E2. C3.2.1.2.2 C3. C3.2.1 E2.1. E2.2.4 Thickness of member in contact with the screw head E4.5. E5. E3.1 Effective throat of weld E2. C3.2 Thickness of member not in contact with the screw head E4.2. C3. C6.3. for LRFD November 9.1. E4.2.2.1. E4.3. C3.2. F1.1. E2. B5.7.5.1.1. C4.6. B4. B2. E2.5.2.1. B1. E4.3. B4.2.2.1.1.3.1 E2. C3. E3. C3. B1.1.2.

2.1.2.1 A6.1.Symbols and Definitions SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol V * Definition Required shear strength [factored shear] Design load supported by all purlin lines being restrained Live load due to wind Flat width of element exclusive of radii Section C3.1. A6.6.1.1.5 E2.4.3.2.2.2 D1.3.1.2. 2001 .1 D3.6. G3 A1.2.1.2 D3. A6. A6.4.1.2 A2.1 C4. C3.2.1.2.2.2a A6.1 A6. B2.1.4.3. E2.2.2 Yield point of web steel divided by yield point of stiffener steel C3. A6. E3. E2.7. B4.5.2.3. B4.1.1.2.2. D4.2 Y α αD αL αE )R U Load factor Dead load factor Live load factor by temperature changes α α α Coefficient for purlin directions Modification factor for type of bearing connection Coefficient for conversion of units 3X Load factor of live load due to earthquake Load factor due to contraction or expansion caused by αT 30 HY LH C3.1 E2.5 Z D3.or U-type sections w1 w2 x x x xo x Leg on weld Leg on weld Distance from concentrated load to brace Non-dimensional fastener location Nearest distance between web hole and edge of bearing Distance from shear center to centroid along the EOL principal x-axis Distance from shear plane to centroid of the cross section E2.1.1. E3.2.2.1. B4.1.1. C3.1 A3.1. B3.1.1.2. D1.2 B1. A6.6 C3. C4.2 W W w w w wf F5 Flat width of the beam flange which contacts the bearing plate Flat width of the narrowest unstiffened compression element tributary to the connections Width of flange projection beyond the web or half the distance between webs for box. C3.1.6.2.2 C4. A6.2. B2.5.2.1 November 9.2 C3.1 A6. B1.1 E3.

1. C3. C4.1.30 Reduction factor Theoretical elastic buckling stress )R U (π2E)/(KxLx/rx)2 (π2E)/(L/rx)2 (π2EIxy)/(AL2) σCR σex σexy November 9. B2.1 Z C5.1.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS Symbol αW l/αx. degrees Angle between an element and its edge stiffener Slenderness factors EOL Angle between web and bearing surface >45° but no more than 90° θ λ.2.1.1 Actual shear strain in the sheathing Permissible shear strain of the sheathing Importance factor Load factor F5 θ Angle between the vertical and the plane of the web of the Z-section.2.1 A7.5.2 C3. D4.1. C5.1 D4.2.1.5.2.1. F1. C3.2.1.2.1.1. l/αy β βo δ. C6.1 D3. B5.1.2a. ω.1. Coefficient Target reliability index Coefficients Wind load factor Magnification factors Definition Section A6.1.2 D4. δi. B5.2 C3.1.4. C4.2. B5.2 D4. B5.1.1 31 .1 B2. B2.1 B4. C3.2.1.1. ωi γ γ γ γi θ γ. F3. B4.3 F1. 2001 HY LH B5. λ2 µ ρ 3X Parameters used in determining compression strain factor Poisson’s ratio for steel = 0.2. λc λ1.1 B2.5.2 B5.1 C3.1 C3.6. A6.2.1 D4. A.2.2.1.1 D4.1.2. C4.1.1 A1. A6.2.1. γi.

Symbols and Definitions

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol σey Definition (π2E)/(KyLy/ry)2 (π2E)/(L/ry)2 σtQ σt σt +Qt Torsional buckling stress Resistance factor Section C3.1.2.1

φ

φb

Resistance factor for bending strength

F5

φt

φd

member Resistance factor for diaphragms

EOL

φc

Resistance factor for concentrically loaded compression

Resistance factor for tension member Resistance factor for shear strength |f2/f1|

ψ

3X

φw

φv

Resistance factor for web crippling strength

ψ Ω

Load combination factor Factor of safety

Ωb

)R U

Factor of safety for bending strength

32

HY LH
C6.2, D4.1 D5 C2, C5.1.2 C3.2.1, C3.3.2 C3.4.1, C3.5.2 B2.3 A6.1.2.3

Z
D4.1 D4.1 C3.1.2.1, C4.2, C4.3, D4.1 A1.2, A5.1.1, A6.1.1, C3.1.5, C3.5.2, , C4.6, E2.1, E2.2.1, E2.2.2, E2.3, E2.4, E2.5, E2.6, E2.7, E3.1, E3.2, E3.3.1, E3.3.2, E3.4, E4, E4.3.2, E4.4, E4.4.3, E5.1, F1.1, F1.2 C3.1.1, C3.1.2, C3.1.3, C3.1.4, C3.3.2, C3.5.2, C5.1.2, C5.2.2, C6.1, D4.2 A2.3.1, C3.6.1, C4, C5.2.2, A1.2, A4.1.1, C3.1.5, C3.5.1, C4.6, E2.1, E2.2.1, E2.2.2, E2.3, E2.4, E2.5, E2.6, E2.7 E3.1, E3.2, E3.3.1, E3.3.2, E3.4, E4, E4.3.2, E4.4, E4.4.3, E5.1, F.1.2 C3.1.1, C3.1.2, C3.1.3, C3.1.4, C3.3.1, C3.5.1, C5.1.1, C5.2.1, C6.1, D4.2
November 9, 2001

Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
Symbol Ωc Definition Factor of safety for concentrically loaded compression member Ωc Ωt Factor of safety for bearing strength Factor of safety for diaphragms Factor of safety for tension member Factor of safety for shear strength Section A2.3.1, C4, C5.2.1, C6.2, D4.1

Ωd

Ωv

Ωw

Factor of safety for web crippling strength

November 9, 2001

)R U

3X

EOL
33

F5

HY LH
D5 C2, C5.1.1 C3.2.1, C3.3.1 C3.4.1, C3.5.1

Z
C3.6.1

Chapter A, General Provisions

NORTH AMERICAN SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
A. GENERAL PROVISIONS
A1 Limits of Applicability and Terms A1.1 Scope and Limits of Applicability

)R U
Members USA and Mexico Ω (ASD) φ (LRFD) 2.00 0.80

This Specification shall apply to the design of structural members coldformed to shape from carbon or low-alloy steel sheet, strip, plate or bar not more than one in. (25.4 mm) in thickness and used for load-carrying purposes in buildings. It shall be permitted to be used for structures other than buildings provided appropriate allowances are made for dynamic effects. This Specification includes Symbols and Definitions, Chapters A through G, and Appendices A through C which shall apply as follows: • Appendix A shall apply only in the United States, • Appendix B shall apply only in Canada, and • Appendix C shall apply only in Mexico This Specification includes design provisions for Allowable Strength Design (ASD), Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) and Limit States Design (LSD). These design methods shall apply as follows: • The use of ASD and LRFD shall be limited to the United States and Mexico, and • The use of LSD shall be limited to Canada The nominal strength [nominal resistance]! and stiffness of cold-formed steel elements, members, assemblies, connections, and details shall be determined in accordance with the provisions in Chapters B through G of the Specification and Appendices A through C. Where the composition or configuration of such components is such that calculation of strength [resistance] and/or stiffness cannot be made in accordance with those provisions, structural performance shall be established from either of the following: (a) Determine design strength [factored resistance] or stiffness by tests, undertaken and evaluated in accordance with Chapter F. (b) Determine design strength [factored resistance] or stiffness by rational engineering analysis based on appropriate theory, related testing if data is available, and engineering judgment. Specifically, the design strength [factored resistance] shall be determined from the calculated nominal strength [resistance] by applying the following factors of safety or resistance factors:

3X
Canada φ(LSD) 0.75

34

EOL

F5

Connections USA and Mexico Canada Ω (ASD) φ (LRFD) φ(LSD) 2.50 0.65 0.60

HY LH
November 9, 2001

Z

Width of an element exclusive of corners measured along its plane. unreduced area. Distortional Buckling. openings. 2001 )R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH 35 Z Where the following terms appear in this Specification they shall have the meaning herein indicated: . Shapes manufactured by press-braking blanks sheared from sheets. both forming operations being performed at ambient room temperature. also known simply as the effective width. in order to compare actual versus calculated performance. Gross Area. as applicable.or hot-rolled coils or sheets. Unreduced Area. as applicable. if the effective widths of all component elements. Effective Design Width. Test made. connections. calculated using the effective widths of component elements in accordance with Chapter B. Gross area. Net area. cut lengths of coils or plates. Ag. when desired. It can be an unreduced gross area or an unreduced net area. are equal to the actual flat widths. without deductions for holes. Doubly Symmetric Section. A1. Net Area. and assemblies designed according to the provisions of Chapters A through G of this Specification or its specific references. It can be a gross area or a net area. Local Buckling. Buckling of elements only within a section. Buckling mode in which the angle between elements of the cross section does not stay constant. openings. calculated without reducing the widths of component element to their effective widths. and cutouts. where the line November 9. Flat width of an element reduced for design purposes. Flange of a Section in Bending. Flat width of an element measured along its plane. Confirmatory Test. Full. divided by its thickness. without manifest addition of heat such as would be required for hot forming. determined in accordance with Chapter B.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification Note: *Bracketed terms are equivalent terms that apply particularly to LSD. Cross-Sectional Area: Effective Area. Flat-Width-to-Thickness Ratio (Flat Width Ratio). Flat width of flange including any intermediate stiffeners plus adjoining corners. An. or by roll forming cold. Flat Width. A section symmetric about two orthogonal axes through its centroid. Effective area. and cutouts.2 Terms General Terms Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. equal to gross area less the area of holes. Ae. Girt. A. on members. Horizontal structural member which supports wall panel and is subjected to principally bending under applied loads. Full. that is.

Section symmetric about only one axis through its centroid. t. by means of intermediate stiffeners parallel to the direction of stress. Unsymmetric Section. SS. Section symmetrical about a point (centroid) such as a Z-section having equal flanges. Flat compression element stiffened at only one edge parallel to the direction of stress. flange. One continuous. Element stiffened between webs. between web and intermediate stiffener. The thickness. Analysis based on theory that is appropriate for the situation. or between edge and intermediate stiffener. Lower limit of yield point in a test specified to qualify a lot of steel for use in a cold-formed steel structural member designed at that yield point. connections. weld-free coil as produced by a hot mill. ASTM designation for certain sheet steels intended for structural applications. 2001 Z .e. any available test data that is relevant. Virgin Steel. Multiple-Stiffened Element. Master Coil. or between a web and a stiffened edge. metallic coating line or paint line and identifiable by unique coil number. Performance Test. This coil may be cut into smaller coils or slit into narrower coils. Tensile Strength: Maximum stress reached in a tension test. or the like. Torsional-Flexural Buckling. cold mill.. of any element or section shall be the base steel thickness. exclusive of coatings. Purlin. Test made on structural members. Specified Minimum Yield Point. Singly-Symmetric Section. Stress. Buckling mode in which compression members bend and twist simultaneously without change in cross sectional shape. Rational Engineering Analysis. Stiffened or Partially Stiffened Compression Elements. Portion of a multiple stiffened element between adjacent intermediate stiffeners. Section not symmetric either about an axis or a point. all of these smaller and/or narrower finished coils could be said to have come from the same master coil if they are traceable to the original master coil number. Steel as received from the steel producer or warehouse before being cold worked as a result of fabricating operations. 36 )R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH November 9. intermediate stiffener. Thickness. General Provisions junctions between elements remain straight and angles between elements do not change. Point-Symmetric Section. a plane compression flange of a flexural member or a plane web or flange of a compression member) of which both edges parallel to the direction of stress are stiffened either by a web. Flat compression element (i. Horizontal structural member which supports roof deck and is subjected to principally bending under applied loads. Unstiffened Compression Elements. Stress as used in this Specification means force per unit area. and assemblies whose performance cannot be determined by the provisions of Chapters A through G of this Specification or its specific references.Chapter A. Sub-Element of a Multiple Stiffened Element. however. and sound engineering judgment. stiffening lip.

such as deflection November 9. moment. as appropriate). moment. . Resistance. Limit states that restrict the intended use of a member for reasons other than safety. Nominal loads. connectors. In a member subjected to flexure. Mechanical properties of virgin steel such as yield point. A factor that accounts for unavoidable deviations of the actual strength from the nominal value and the manner and consequences of failure. provided by the structural component. tensile strength. and elongation. Resistance Factor. Rn/Ω. The ultimate limit state for strength is the maximum load-carrying capacity. (force. 3X EOL F5 HY LH Z Virgin Steel Properties. the portion of the section that is joined to two flanges. Required Allowable Strength. A method of proportioning structural components (members. as appropriate). Allowable strength. 2001 37 )R U ASD (Allowable Stress Design. Nominal strength. connecting elements and assemblages) such that no applicable limit state is exceeded when the structure is subjected to all appropriate combinations of factored loads. φRn (force. The magnitudes of the loads specified by the applicable code not including load factors. The capacity of a structure or component to resist the effects of loads. moment. herein referred as Allowable Strength Design). Those states concerning safety are called the ultimate limit states. Design Strength. A method of proportioning structural components (members. See the definition of Nominal Strength. Web. LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design). Factored resistance. as determined in accordance with this Specification using specified material strengths and dimensions. as appropriate) acting on the structural component determined by structural analysis from the factored loads for LRFD or nominal loads for ASD (using all appropriate load combinations). as appropriate) acting on the structural component determined by structural analysis from the nominal loads for ASD (using all appropriate load combinations). Load effect (force. connectors.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification ASD and LRFD Terms (USA and Mexico): LSD Terms (Canada): Limit States. Allowable Design Strength. Those conditions in which a structural member ceases to fulfill the function for which it was designed. or that is joined to only one flange provided it crosses the neutral axis. Yield point. moment. Required Strength. provided by the structural component. as used in this Specification shall mean yield point or yield strength. Load effect (force. allowable force or allowable moment is not exceeded by the required allowable strength of the component determined by the load effects of all appropriate combinations of nominal loads. Yield Point. Fy or Fsy. connecting elements and assemblages) such that the allowable stress.

connectors.1 Applicable Steels This Specification requires the use of steels intended for structural applications as defined in general by the specifications of the American Society for Testing and Materials listed below. High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel ASTM A283/A283M. Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes ASTM A529/A529M. customary units (force in kilopounds and length in inches). Product of a specified load and appropriate load factor. General Provisions A1. Specified loads. Other steels for structural applications that are applicable to specific countries as listed in Section A2. High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50 ksi (345 MPa) Minimum Yield Point to 4 in. SI units (force in Newtons and length in millimeters) and MKS units (force in kilograms and length in centimeters). A2 Material A2. Such steels are identified in many ASTM specifications for sheet material as SS. Factored Load. ASTM A36/A36M. High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural Steel ASTM A588/A588M. 2001 and vibration. Z . connecting elements and assemblages) such that no applicable limit state is exceeded when the structure is subjected to all appropriate load combinations. are called serviceability limit states. The unit systems considered in those sections are U. Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates ASTM A500. Nominal Resistance.Chapter A. The magnitudes of the loads specified by the applicable code not including load factors. Limit States Design (LSD).S. B or C shall also be permitted. (100 mm) Thick 38 )R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH November 9.1a of Appendix A. determined in accordance with this Specification using specified material strengths and dimensions. Resistance Factor. The capacity of a structure or component to resist the effects of loads.3 Units of Symbols and Terms The Specification is written so that any compatible system of units may be used except where explicitly stated otherwise in the text of these provisions. A factor that accounts for unavoidable deviations of the actual strength from the nominal value and the manner and consequences of failure. Factored Resistance. Carbon Structural Steel ASTM A242/A242M. A method of proportioning structural components (members. Product of nominal resistance and appropriate resistance factor. High-Strength Carbon-Manganese Steel of Structural Quality ASTM A572/A572M.

Sheet and Strip. HSLAS-F Grades 50 (340). and 70 (480). Hot-Rolled. and 50 (340) Class 1 and Class 3. 50 (340).3 Ductility Steels not listed in Section A2. Low Alloy. Grades 45 (310). Carbon. Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled. (25. 60 (410). and provided it is subjected by either the producer or the purchaser to analyses. 70 (480) and 80 (550)). and 50 Class 1 (340 Class 1)). 50 (340). HSLAS Types A and B. 33 (230) Types 1 and 2. and 50 (340) Class 1 and Class 3.and NonmetallicCoated for Cold-Formed Framing Members ASTM A1008/A1008M (SS Grades 25 (170). HSLAS-F Grades 50 (340). Steel Sheet. 55% Aluminum-Zinc Alloy-Coated by the Hot-Dip Process ASTM A847 Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless High Strength.3. 60 (450). Structural. 40 (275). Carbon. 65 (450). 33 (230). 70 (480). Structural. 65 (450). 50 (340). Sheet. 40 (275). Steel. 2001 )R U The listing in Section A2. 40 (275). Steel Sheet. 70 (480). Grades 40 (275). and 80(550)). 45 (310).08. 60 (410). 37 (255). 30 (205). Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by the Hot-Dip Process ASTM A792/A792M (Grades 33 (230). Sheet and Strip. 60 (410). 55 (380). 70 (480). High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength LowAlloy with Improved Formability F5 HY LH 39 Z . 60 (410). Steel. 3X EOL ASTM A606. Zinc-5% Aluminum Alloy-Coated by the HotDip Process ASTM A1003/A1003M. Steel Sheet.1 does not exclude the use of steel up to and including one in. Low Alloy Structural Tubing with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance ASTM A875/A875M (SS Grades 33 (230).Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification A2. and 40 (275) Types 1 and 2. Grades 50 (340). HSLAS Classes 1 and 2. and 55 (380).2 shall comply with one of the following ductility requirements: A2. 37 (255). 36 (250) Types 1 and 2. 55 (380). 37 (255). High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy with Improved Formability ASTM A1011/A1011M (SS Grades 30 (205).4 mm) in thickness ordered or produced to other than the listed specifications provided such steel conforms to the chemical and mechanical requirements of one of the listed specifications or other published specification which establishes its properties and suitability. 40 (275). High Strength. tests and other controls to the extent and in the manner prescribed by one of the listed specifications and Section A2. HSLAS Classes 1 and 2. HSLAS Types A and B. Carbon. Cold-Rolled. and 80 (550)). and the total elongation shall not be less than 10 percent for a two- November 9. Metallic.2 Other Steels A2. Steel. Steel Sheet.1 and used for structural members and connections in accordance with Section A2. and 80 (550)). Grades 45 (310). 50 (340). and 70 (480). 60 (410).1 The ratio of tensile strength to yield point shall not be less than 1. with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance ASTM A653/A653M (SS Grades 33 (230).3.

used for determining nominal strength [resistance] in Chapter E is taken as 75 percent of the specified minimum tensile strength or 62 ksi (427 MPa or 4360 kg/cm2). Fu. shall not Pn Pu Pf exceed 0. For purlins and girts subject to Ω cP combined axial load and bending moment (Section C5).4 )R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH (Eq. Exception: For multiple-web configurations.067E/Fy < w/t < 0.1 shall be permitted for multiple-web configurations such as roofing. the following criteria shall be satisfied: (1) local elongation in a 1/2 in. 2001 inch gage (50 mm) length or 7 percent for an eight-inch (200 mm) gage length standard specimen tested in accordance with ASTM A370. and (2) the tensile strength. General Provisions A2. shall be determined as follows: (a) Stiffened and Partially Stiffened Compression Flanges For w/t ≤ E/Fy Rb = 1.974E/Fy ≤ w/t ≤ 500 Rb =1-0. RbFy.0 For 0. using the specified minimum yield point.974E/Fy For 0.26[wFy/(tE) – 0.1(a). A792/A792M Grade 80 (550).15 for LRFD and φ c Pn φ c Pn shall not exceed 0. Alternatively.15 for LSD.1(a). A2.067]0. A1008/A1008M SS Grade 80 (550). Rb. siding and floor decking provided that: (1) the yield point.2-1) November 9. whichever is less. 40 Z . Fu. used for determining nominal strength [resistance] in Chapters B.7 mm) gage length across the fracture shall not be less than 20%. A875/A875M SS Grade 80 (550) and other steels which do not meet the provisions of Section A2.15 for ASD.1.2. C3. shall not exceed 0. for which the reduction factor.3.1. Fy.2 Steels conforming to ASTM A653/A653M SS Grade 80 (550). C. the suitability of such steels for any multi-web configuration shall be demonstrated by load tests according to the provisions of Section F1. and C3.1. shall be permitted for determining the nominal flexural strength [moment resistance] in Section C3. whichever is less.3. a reduced yield point. and D is taken as 75 percent of the specified minimum yield point or 60 ksi (414 MPa or 4220 kg/cm2).4. the use of such material is restricted to the design of purlins and girts in accordance with Sections C3. (12. If these requirements cannot be met. Design strengths [factored resistances] based on these tests shall not exceed the design strengths [factored resistances] calculated according to Chapters B through G. C3. and the specified minimum tensile strength.1.3.Chapter A.3. When material ductility is determined on the basis of the local and uniform elongation criteria.1. Fy. (2) uniform elongation outside the fracture shall not be less than 3%.

for all applicable load combinations. A2.2-2) . for which the steel deck acts as the tensile reinforcement of the slab. or C.1 Design Basis November 9.1 ≤ 80 ksi (550 MPa. except for those in Sections A5.1. lesser thicknesses shall be permitted at bends. A6 and in Chapters C and F designated for LRFD and LSD. B.75 (b) Unstiffened Compression Flanges For w/t ≤0. t. such as corners.0 Rb = 1.1-1): R ≤ Rn /Ω (Eq. A4.6 wFy /( tE ) kg/cm2) t = Thickness of section w = Flat width of compression flange The above Exception Clause does not apply to the use of steel deck for composite slabs. due to cold-forming effects. 2001 )R U Design under this Section of the Specification shall be based on Allowable Strength Design (ASD) principles.1-1) 3X EOL A3 Loads F5 A2. Section A3 of Appendix A.3. however. The design shall be performed in accordance with Equation (A4. The uncoated minimum steel thickness of the cold-formed product as delivered to the job site shall not at any location be less than 95 percent of the thickness. shall apply. A4 Allowable Strength Design A4.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification Rb = 0.1. Loads and load combinations shall be as stipulated by the applicable country specific provisions. A4.1 ASD Requirements A design satisfies the requirements of this Specification when the allowable strength of each structural component equals or exceeds the required allowable strength.0173E/Fy Rb = 1. used in its design.1.0173E/Fy < w/t ≤ 60 (Eq. All provisions of this Specification. or 5620 Z For 0.079 − 0. determined on the basis of the nominal loads.4 Delivered Minimum Thickness HY LH 41 where E = Modulus of elasticity Fy = Yield point as specified in Section A7.

1 Design Basis Design under this Section of the Specification shall be based on Limit States Design (LSD) principles. All provisions of this Specification. The design shall be performed in accordance with Equation (A5.1 LRFD Requirements φ = Resistance factor specified in Chapters B through G φRn = Design strength A5.1. A6 Limit States Design A6.1 Design Basis A5. A5.1. shall apply.1.1.1.1-1) where Ru = Required strength Rn = Nominal strength specified in Chapters B through G EOL F5 Design under this Section of the Specification shall be based on Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) principles.1-1): Ru ≤ φRn (Eq.Chapter A.1. General Provisions where R Rn = Required allowable strength = Nominal strength specified in Chapters B through G Ω = Factor of safety specified in Chapters B through G Rn/Ω =Allowable design strength A4. All provisions of this Specification. A6 and in Chapters C and F designated for ASD and LSD. HY LH November 9. Z . for all applicable load combinations. except for those in Sections A4.1. shall apply. multiplied by the appropriate load factors. except for those in Sections A4. 2001 Load combinations for ASD shall be as stipulated by Section A4.2 Load Factors and Load Combinations for LRFD Load factors and load combinations for LRFD shall be as stipulated by Section A5.2 Load Combinations for ASD A5 Load and Resistance Factor Design A5. A5 and Chapters C and F designated for ASD and LRFD.2 of Appendix A or C. 42 )R U 3X A design satisfies the requirements of this Specification when the design strength of each structural component equals or exceeds the required strength determined on the basis of the nominal loads.2 of Appendix A or C.

A6.1. as established in accordance with Chapter F.2 of Appendix B.1-1) where Rf = Effect of factored loads Rn = Nominal resistance specified in Chapters B through G φ = Resistance factor specified in Chapters B through G φRn= Factored resistance A6.1 Yield Point A7. Fy.C) Fyf (Eq. C4.1] (2) stub column tests [see paragraph (b) of Section F3.1. Such increase shall be limited to Sections C2. of the steel shall be determined on the basis of one of the following methods: (1) full section tensile tests [see paragraph (a) of Section F3. shall not exceed the specified minimum yield point of steels as listed in Section A2. A7.1 (excluding Section C3. The limitations and methods for determining Fya are as follows: (a) For axially loaded compression members and flexural members whose proportions are such that the quantity ρ for strength determination is unity as calculated according to Section B2 for each of the component elements of the section. F5 A7 Yield Point and Strength Increase from Cold Work of Forming HY LH Z 43 . C3.1-1): φR n ≥ Rf (Eq. the design yield stress.2. Fya. or as increased for cold work of forming in Section A7.1.2 Strength Increase from Cold Work of Forming November 9.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification A6.1(b)). The design shall be performed in accordance with Equation (A6.1 LSD Requirements Structural members and their connections shall be designed to have resistance such that the factored resistance equals or exceeds the effect of factored loads. C6 and D4.1.1] (3) computed as follows: Fya = CFyc + (1 .2-1) 3X EOL The yield point used in design.2 Load Factors and Load Combinations for LSD Load factors and load combinations for LSD shall be as stipulated by Section A6. where Fya is the average yield point of the full section.1.1. 2001 )R U Strength increase from cold work of forming shall be permitted by substituting Fya for Fy.3.2. C5. A7.1 or A2.

192 (Fuv/Fyv) . A8 Serviceability A9 Referenced Documents The following documents are referenced in this Specification. Serviceability limits shall be chosen based on the intended function of the structure. and the included angle ≤ 120o 3.3 (b) For axially loaded tension members the yield point of the steel shall be determined by either method (1) or method (3) prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Section. such welding as the manufacturer intends to use.2-2) is applicable only when Fuv/Fyv ≥ 1. for flexural members. R/t ≤ 7.068 (Eq. 44 )R U A structure shall be designed to perform its required functions during its expected life.2 or virgin steel yield point if tests are not made Fyc = BcFyv/(R/t)m.1.2. (c) The effect of any welding on mechanical properties of a member shall be determined on the basis of tests of full section specimens containing within the gage length.3 Fuv= Tensile strength of virgin steel specified by Section A2 or established in accordance with Section F3.819 (Fuv/Fyv)2 . ratio of the total corner crosssectional area to the total cross-sectional area of the full section. General Provisions Fyf = Weighted average tensile yield point of the flat portions established in accordance with Section F3. A7. 3X EOL F5 Bc = m = R = Fyv = HY LH where Fya = Average yield point of the steel in the full section of compression members or full flange sections of flexural members C = For compression members. tensile yield point of corners.0. B. This equation (Eq. ratio of the total corner crosssectional area of the controlling flange to the full crosssectional area of the controlling flange Z November 9. Refer to Section A9a of Appendix A.Chapter A. Any necessary allowance for such effect shall be made in the structural use of the member. A7.79 (Eq. and shall be evaluated using realistic loads and load combinations.2-3) 0. or C for documents applicable to the corresponding country. A7.0.69 (Fuv/Fyv) . 2001 .2-4) Inside bend radius Tensile yield point of virgin steel specified by Section A2 or established in accordance with Section F3.

2. Metallic. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. “Surface Texture. Carbon. 1828 L Street. 60. Zinc-5% Aluminum Alloy-Coated by the hot-Dip Process ASTM A1003/A1003M-00. Steel. High Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints [Metric] ASTM A354-00a. Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for HighPressure and High-Temperature Service ASTM A242/A242M-00a. HotRolled and Cold-Rolled. and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners ASTM A370-97a. with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance ASTM A653/A653M-00. Washington. Pennsylvania 19428-2959: ASTM A36/A36M-00a. and Lay”. High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel ASTM A283/A283M-00. High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50 ksi [345 MPa] Minimum Yield Point to 4 in. Steel Sheet. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Steel. Low Alloy Structural Tubing with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance ASTM A875/A875M-99 Steel Sheet.3. NW. High Strength Steel Bolts. Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes ASTM A529/A529M-00. Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless High Strength.9 and 10. West Conshohocken.000 PSI Tensile Strength ASTM A325-00. Low-Alloy. 55% Aluminum-Zinc Alloy-Coated by the Hot-Dip Process ASTM A847-99a. [100 mm] Thick ASTM A606-98. Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates ASTM A307-00. Classes 10. Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and Studs ASTM A490-00. Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or ZincIron Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by the Hot-Dip Process ASTM A792/A792M-99. 150ksi Minimum Tensile Strength ASTM A490M-00. 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength ASTM A325M-00. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Structural Bolts. Heat-Treated Steel Structural Bolts. Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products ASTM A449-00. Heat Treated. 2001 )R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH 45 Z . High-Strength Low-Alloy ColumbiumVanadium Structural Steel ASTM A588/A588M-00a.9.Draft North American Cold-Formed Specification 1. Carbon Structural Steel ASTM A194/A194M-00b. Surface Roughness. for Structural Steel Joints [Metric] ASTM A500-99. Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs.and November 9.1-85. High-Strength. DC 20036. Steel Sheet. Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts [Metric] ASTM A572/A572M-00a. Waviness. Studs. High-Strength Carbon-Manganese Steel of Structural Quality ASTM A563-00. Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts. Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts ASTM A563M-00. Steel Sheet. ASME B46. Sheet and Strip.

Hardened Steel Washers ASTM F436M-00. Plain (Flat). Washers. 2001 EOL F5 HY LH Nonmetallic-Coated for Cold-Formed Framing Members ASTM A1008/A1008M-00 Steel. Compressible Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use with Structural Fasteners ASTM F959M-99a. Steel. High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy with Improved Formability ASTM F436-00. Sheet and Strip. Cold-Rolled. Unhardened for General Use ASTM F959-99a. Carbon. Hardened Steel Washers [Metric] ASTM F844-00. General Provisions 46 )R U 3X November 9. Carbon. Hot-Rolled. Structural.Chapter A. High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy with Improved Formability ASTM A1011/A1011M-00 Steel. Compressible Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use with Structural Fasteners [Metric] Z . Structural. Sheet.

Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

B. ELEMENTS
B1 Dimensional Limits and Considerations B1.1 Flange Flat-Width-to-Thickness Considerations

(3) Stiffened compression element having one longitudinal edge connected to a web or flange element, the other stiffened by: Simple lip Any other kind of stiffener i) when Is < Ia ii) when Is ≥ Ia (2) Stiffened compression element with both longitudinal edges connected to other stiffened elements 60

(3) Unstiffened compression element

(b) Flange Curling

November 9, 2001

)R U

Where the flange of a flexural member is unusually wide and it is desired to limit the maximum amount of curling or movement of the flange toward the neutral axis, the following equation applies to compression and tension flanges, either stiffened or unstiffened: wf = 0.061tdE / fav 4 (100c f / d ) (Eq. B1.1-1) where wf = Width of flange projecting beyond the web; or half of the distance between webs for box- or U-type beams t = Flange thickness d = Depth of beam cf = Amount of curling displacement
47

3X

It shall be noted that unstiffened compression elements that have w/t ratios exceeding approximately 30 and stiffened compression elements that have w/t ratios exceeding approximately 250 are likely to develop noticeable deformation at the full design strength, without affecting the ability of the member to develop the required strength. Stiffened elements having w/t ratios larger than 500 can be used with adequate design strength [factored resistance] to sustain the required loads; however, substantial deformations of such elements usually will invalidate the design equations of this Specification.

EOL

F5
500 60

HY LH
60 90

Maximum allowable overall flat-width-to-thickness ratios, w/t, disregarding intermediate stiffeners and taking as t the actual thickness of the element, shall be as follows:

Z

(a) Maximum Flat-Width-to-Thickness Ratios

Chapter B, Elements

fav = Average stress in the full, unreduced flange width. (Where members are designed by the effective design width procedure, the average stress equals the maximum stress multiplied by the ratio of the effective design width to the actual width.) (c) Shear Lag Effects - Short Spans Supporting Concentrated Loads it carries one concentrated load, or several loads spaced farther apart than 2wf, the effective design width of any flange, whether in tension or compression, shall be limited to the following: Table B1.1(c) Short Span, Wide Flanges Maximum Allowable Ratio of Effective Design Width to Actual Width L/wf 30 25 20 18 16 Ratio 1.00 0.96 0.91 0.89 0.86 L/wf 14 12 10 8 6 Ratio 0.82 0.78 0.73 0.67 0.55

similar sections; or half the distance between webs of box- or U-type sections. For flanges of I-beams and similar sections stiffened by lips at the outer edges, wf shall be taken as the sum of the flange projection beyond the web plus the depth of the lip. B1.2 Maximum Web Depth-to-Thickness Ratio The ratio, h/t, of the webs of flexural members shall not exceed the following limitations: (a) For unreinforced webs: (h/t)max = 200 (b) For webs which are provided with transverse stiffeners satisfying the requirements of Section C3.6.1: (1) When using bearing stiffeners only, (h/t)max = 260

48

)R U

3X

where L = Full span for simple beams; or the distance between inflection points for continuous beams; or twice the length for cantilever beams. wf= Width of flange projection beyond the web for I-beam and

EOL

F5
November 9, 2001

HY LH

Z

Where the beam has a span of less than 30wf (wf as defined below) and

Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

(2) When using bearing stiffeners and intermediate stiffeners, (h/t)max = 300 In the above,

B2 Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements

B2.1 Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements (a) Strength Determination

F5

The effective width, b, shall be determined from the following equations: b = w when λ ≤ 0.673 b = ρw when λ > 0.673 where w = Flat width as shown in Figure B2.1-1 ρ = (1 - 0.22/λ )/λ λ is a slenderness factor determined as follows: f λ = Fcr Fcr = k

HY LH

EOL

2  t    12(1 − µ 2 )  w 

π2 E

(l) If Procedure I of Section C3.1.1 is used: When the initial yielding is in compression in the element considered, f = Fy.

November 9, 2001

)R U

When the initial yielding is in tension, the compressive stress, f, in the element considered shall be determined on the basis of the effective section at My (moment causing initial yield).

(2) If Procedure II of Section C3.1.1 is used, f is the stress in the element considered at Mn determined on the basis of the effective section. (3) If Section C3.1.2.1 is used, f is the stress Fc as described in that Section in determining Sc.

3X

where t = Thickness of the uniformly compressed stiffened elements µ = Poisson’s ratio of steel, and f is as follows: For flexural members:

Z
(Eq. B2.1-1) (Eq. B2.1-2) (Eq. B2.1-3) (Eq. B2.1-4) (Eq. B2.1-5)
49

h = Depth of flat portion of web measured along the plane of web t = Web thickness Where a web consists of two or more sheets, the h/t ratio shall be computed for the individual sheets.

f is taken equal to Fn as determined in Section C4 or D4. where λc= 0.673 < λ < λc ρ = (0.1-8) (Eq. w Actual Element (b) Serviceability Determination The effective width. b. Elements Z b/2 For compression members. E = Modulus of elasticity k = Plate buckling coefficient = 4 for stiffened elements supported by a web on each longitudinal edge.256 + 0. B2. used in determining calculated from the following equations: bd= w when λ ≤ 0.1-6) compressive stress in the element being considered.41 + 0. B2. where fd is the computed ρ = 1 when λ ≤ 0. f.1-4 except that fd is substituted for f. on Effective Elements serviceability shall be (Eq.673 ρ = (1.358 .1-10) ρ shall not exceed 1.1-4.673 F5 B2. B2. bd.673 (Eq.328 (w/t) Fy / E (Eq.0. B2. Values for different types of elements are given in the applicable sections.0 for all cases. A low estimate of the effective width may be obtained from Eqs. B2. B2.461/λ )/λ when 0. 50 November 9. B2.0.1Figure B2. except that fd is substituted for f.1 as applicable.1-7) where w = Flat width ρ = Reduction factor determined by either of the following two procedures: (1) Procedure I.1-1 Stiffened Elements HY LH b/2 f Effective Element. (2) Procedure II. B2. For stiffened elements supported by a web on each longitudinal edge.Chapter B.1-3 and B2. and Stress.22/λ)/λ when λ ≥ λc EOL (Eq.59 Fy / fd . an improved estimate of the effective width can be obtained by calculating ρ as follows: )R U 3X bd= ρw when λ > 0.1-11) and λ is as defined by Eq. 2001 .1-9) (Eq.

where fd is the computed compressive stress in the element being considered.1 with f1 substituted for f and with k determined as given in this section bo = Out-to-out width of the compression flange as defined in Figure )R U B2. and ≤ 70 and w t the distance between centers of holes ≥ 0. shall be determined as follows: d w for 0.3-1) (a) Strength Determination (i) For webs under stress gradient (f1 in compression and f2 in tension as shown in Figure B2. b.3-1 calculated on the basis of effective section.dh where w = Flat width dh =Diameter of holes when λ > 0. Where f1 and f2 are both compression. used in determining serviceability shall be equal to b calculated in accordance with Procedure I of Section B2.2 Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements with Circular Holes (a) Strength Determination The effective width. B2. F5 Z (Eq.3-1) November 9. f1 ≥ f2 = Out-to-out width of the web as defined in Figure B2. dimension defined in Figure B2. (b) Serviceability Determination B2.2-1) (Eq.22 ) (0.1. B2. 2001 3X EOL The effective width.3-2 f1.3 Webs and other Stiffened Elements under Stress Gradient The following notation is used in this section: b1 = Effective width. b = w . dimension defined in Figure B2.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification B2.8d h )   w 1 − − λ w    b = λ b shall not exceed w . f2 = Stresses shown in Figure B2.50 ≥ h ≥ 0.2-2) 51 . B2.50w and ≥3dh.3-1 = Effective width.3-1 b2 be = Effective width b determined in accordance with Section B2. bd. except that fd is substituted for f.673 (0.dh when λ ≤ 0.1(b).3-2 ho k ψ = Plate buckling coefficient = |f2/f1| (absolute value) (Eq.673 HY LH λ is as defined in Section B2.

3-2) (Eq. B2. 2001 . B2.3-1 Webs and other Stiffened Elements under Stress Gradient k = 4 + 2(1 + ψ)3 + 2(1 + ψ) For ho/bo ≤ 4 EOL Effective Elements and Stress on Effective Elements (b) Other Stiffened Elements under Stress Gradient HY LH f1 (Compression) b1 )R U b2 = be – b1 when ψ ≤ 0.3-4) November 9. B2.Chapter B. Elements w Actual Element F5 b1 b2 f2 (Compression) b2 f1 (Compression) f2 (Tension) 3X (a) Webs under Stress Gradient B2. B2.3-6) b2 = be/(1 + ψ) – b1 (Eq. B2.3-7) (ii) For other stiffened elements under stress gradient (f1 and f2 in web calculated on the basis of effective section. B2.3-3) (Eq.236 (Eq.3Figure B2.3-5) In addition. For ho/bo > 4 52 Z (Eq. b1 + b2 shall not exceed the compression portion of the b1 = be/(3 + ψ) b2 = be/2 when ψ > 0.236 b1 = be/(3 + ψ) (Eq.

Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

compression as shown in Figure B2.3-1) k = 4 + 2(1 - ψ)3 + 2(1 - ψ) b1 = be/(3 - ψ) b2 = be – b1 (b) Serviceability Determination The effective widths used in determining serviceability shall be calculated in accordance with Section B2.3(a) except that fd1 and fd2 are substituted for f1 and f2, where fd1 and fd2 are the computed stresses f1 and f2 based on the effective section at the load for which serviceability is determined.
bo

(Eq. B2.3-8) (Eq. B2.3-9) (Eq. B2.3-10)

B2.4 C-Section Webs with Holes under Stress Gradient These provisions shall be applicable within the following limits: (1) d0 / h < 0.7

(2) h / t ≤ 200 (3) Holes centered at mid-depth of the web (4) Clear distance between holes ≥ 18 in. (457 mm) (5) Non-circular holes, corner radii ≥ 2t (6) Non-circular holes, d0 ≤ 2.5 in. (64 mm) and b ≤ 4.5 in. (114 mm)

November 9, 2001

)R U
(a) Strength Determination

(7) Circular hole diameters ≤ 6 in. (152 mm) (8) d0 > 9/16 in. (14 mm)

When d0/h < 0.38, the effective widths, b1 and b2, shall be determined by Section B2.3(a) by assuming no hole exists in the web. When d0/h ≥ 0.38, the effective width shall be determined by Section B3.1(a) assuming the compression portion of the web consists of an unstiffened element adjacent to the hole with f = f1 as shown in Figure B2.3-1.

3X

EOL

B2.3- Out-toFigure B2.3-2 Out-to-Out Dimensions of Webs and Stiffened Elements under Stress Gradient and

F5

ho

ho

HY LH
bo
53

Z

Chapter B, Elements

(b) Serviceability Determination The effective widths shall be determined by Section B2.3(b) by assuming no hole exists in the web. where d0 b b1 , b2 h

B3 Effective Widths of Unstiffened Elements

B3.1 Uniformly Compressed Unstiffened Elements (a) Strength Determination

w

3X

EOL
Stress f

The effective width, bd, used in determining serviceability shall be calculated in accordance with Procedure I of Section B2.1(b), except that fd is substituted for f and k = 0.43.

Actual Element

B3.1Figure B3.1-1 Unstiffened Element with Uniform Compression

(a) Strength Determination

(b) Serviceability Determination

54

)R U

B3.2 Unstiffened Elements and Edge Stiffeners with Stress Gradient

The effective width, b, shall be determined in accordance with Section B2.1(a) with f = f3 as in Figure B4-2 in the element and k = 0.43.

The effective width, bd, used in determining serviceability shall be calculated in accordance with Procedure I of Section B2.1(b), except that fd3 is substituted for f and k = 0.43, where fd3=computed stress f3 as shown in Figure B4-2. Calculations are based on the effective section at

F5
b

The effective width, b, shall be determined in accordance with Section B2.1(a), except that k shall be taken as 0.43 and w as defined in Figure B3.1-1. (b) Serviceability Determination

HY LH
Effective Element and Stress on Effective Elements

Depth of web hole Length of web hole Effective widths defined by Figure B2.3-1 Depth of flat portion of the web measured along the plane of the web Other variables are defined in B2.3.

= = = =

Z
November 9, 2001

Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

the load for which the serviceability is determined. B4 Effective Widths of Elements with One Intermediate Stiffener or an Edge Stiffener The following notation is used in this section. (Eq. B4-1) S = 1.28 E / f k = Buckling coefficient bo = Dimension defined in Figure B4-1 d, w, D = Dimensions defined in Figure B4-2 ds = Reduced effective width of the stiffener as specified in this section. ds, calculated according to Section B4.2, is to be used in computing the overall effective section properties (see Figure B4-2) = Effective width of the stiffener calculated according to Section B3.1 (see Figure B4-2) = Reduced area of the stiffener as specified in this section. As is to be used in computing the overall effective section properties. The centroid of the stiffener is to be considered located at the centroid of the full area of the stiffener. = Adequate moment of inertia of the stiffener, so that each component element will behave as a stiffened element. = Moment of inertia of the full section of the stiffener about its own centroidal axis parallel to the element to be stiffened, and the effective area of the stiffener, respectively. For edge stiffeners, the round corner between the stiffener and the element to be stiffened shall not be considered as a part of the stiffener. For the stiffener shown in Figure B4-2: Is = (d3t sin2θ)/12

d′s As

Ia Is, A′s

EOL

F5

HY LH

3X
A′s = d′st

B4.1 Uniformly Compressed Elements with One Intermediate Stiffener (a) Strength Determination For bo/t ≤ S Ia = 0 (no intermediate stiffener required) b = w As = A′s For bo/t > S (Eq. B4.1-1) (Eq. B4.1-2) (Eq. B4.1-3)

)R U

As = A′s(RI) b /t  1  n = 0.583 − o  ≥ 12 S  3  k = 3(RI)n + 1

November 9, 2001

Z

(Eq. B4-2) (Eq. B4-3)

(Eq. B4.1-4) (Eq. B4.1-5)

55

HY LH b/2 b/2 b/2 b /t   − 285 Ia = t 4 128 o S   The effective width.328S (see Fig. except that fd is substituted for f. B4-2) (Eq. 2001 . B4. B4. B4-2) b1 = b/2 (RI) b2 = b – b1 (see Fig. bd.2-5) (Eq.1-6) (Eq. B4.1-7) The effective width. b.Chapter B. is calculated in accordance with Section B2. Elements RI = Is/Ia ≤ 1 where i) For S < bo/t < 3S  b /t  − 50  Ia = t 4 50 o S   ii) For bo/t ≥ 3S (Eq. B4.2-3) (Eq.1(a). (b) Serviceability Determination w F5 EOL Stiffener Section bo Z (Eq.2 Uniformly Compressed Elements with an Edge Stiffener (a) Strength Determination For w/t ≤ 0.1(a).1-8) Stress f b/2 Actual Elements Effective Elements and Stress on Effective Elements B4. B4-2) for simple lip stiffener 3X B4Figure B4-1 Elements with One Intermediate Stiffener November 9.328S: Ia = 0 (no edge stiffener needed) b =w b1 = b2 = w/2 (see Fig. B4. B4. B4.2-6) (Eq. B4. B4.2-2) (Eq. used in determining serviceability shall be calculated as in Section B4.2-7) 56 )R U ds = d′s (RI) ds = d′s for simple lip stiffener As = A′s for other stiffener shapes For w/t > 0.2-1) (Eq. B4.2-4) (Eq.

Elements Figure B4-2 Elements with Simple Lip Edge Stiffener 57 d's = Effective width of stiffener calculated according to Section B3. B4. shall be calculated in accordance with Section B2.8 5D 3.2-11) .25 0.582 − ≥ 4S  3   3 (Eq.2.2-9) The effective width. d = Actual stiffener dimensions 3X )R U Stress f for Compression Flange b2 b1 d's d ds EOL Stress f3 for Lip B4. B4. 2001 F5 D d Table B4.82 − )(R I ) n + 0.25 < D/w ≤ 0.43 ≤ 4 ( 4. (RI) =Is/Ia≤ 1 Ia n w /t w /t    = 399 t 4  − 0.43 ≤ 4 3.2 Determination of Plate Buckling Coefficient k Simple Lip Edge Stiffener (140° ≥ θ ≥ 40°) Other Edge Stiffener Shapes D/w ≤ 0. B4-1. B4.43 ≤ 4 w HY LH Z (Eq.1 with k as given in Table B4. b.1 ds = Reduced effective width of stiffener Centroidal Axis November 9.57(R I ) n + 0. B4. w θ D.2-8) where S = Term defined in Eq.2-10) (Eq.57(R I ) n + 0.327  ≤ t 4 115 + 5 S  S    w /t  1  = 0.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification As = A′s (RI) for other stiffener shapes (Eq.

the radii which connect the stiffener to the flat may be included.1-2) November 9. = Largest sub-element flat width. used in determining serviceability shall be calculated as in Section B4. the stiffener(s).1 Effective Widths of Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements with Multiple Intermediate Stiffeners The following notation is used in this section. = Unsupported length between brace point or other restraint which restricts distortional buckling of the element. 2001 58 Z . see Figure B5. located at the centroid of the element including stiffeners.) = Moment of inertia of a stiffener about the centerline of the flat F5 HY LH (Eq.1-1.. bd. EOL = Width of elements adjoining the stiffened element (e. B5.673 3X portion of the element. except that fd is substituted for f. = Plate buckling coefficient of the element = Plate buckling coefficient for distortional buckling.1-2. = Uniform compressive stress acting on the flat element = Horizontal distance from the edge of the element to centerline(s) of Isp k kd Lbr R n t i k1oc = Plate buckling coefficient for local sub-element buckling. B5 Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements with Multiple Intermediate Stiffeners or Edge Stiffened Elements with Intermediate Stiffeners B5. the depth of the web in a hat section with multiple intermediate stiffeners in the compression flange is equal to h. Ag = Gross area of the element including stiffeners As be bp bo ci f1 h = Gross area of a stiffener = Effective width of the element.Chapter B.2(a).1-1. use the smallest one. B5.1-1. see Figure B5. Elements (b) Serviceability Determination The effective width. = Modification factor for the distortional plate buckling coefficient = Number of stiffeners in the element = Element thickness = Index for stiffener “i” )R U The effective width shall be determined as follows:  Ag   b e = ρ  t    ρ=1 when λ ≤ 0.g. if adjoining elements have different widths.1-1) (Eq. see Figure B5. see Figure B5. = Total flat width of the stiffened element.

1. B5.22 / λ ) / λ when λ > 0. B5.1. k. Location and Number (a) Strength Determination kloc = 4 b o b p 2 (Eq.1.1. B5.1. EOL )R U B5. B5.1-1) (Eq.92I sp γ= bo t 3 A δ= s bot (b) Serviceability Determination The effective width.1. as determined from section B5. B5. B5. 10.1-3) If Lbr < βbo then Lbr/bo shall be permitted to be substituted for β to 3X ( ) account for increased capacity due to bracing.1-5)   12(1 − µ 2 )  b o  The plate buckling coefficient. where fd is the computed compressive stress in the element being considered based on the effective section at the load for which serviceability is determined.1.2 General Case: Arbitrary Stiffener Size. B5.1-4) (Eq.1-6) (Eq.1-5) 59 .1. B5. shall be determined from the minimum of Rkd and kloc. B5.1 Specific Case: ‘n’ Identical Stiffeners.1. bd. B5. B5.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification ρ = ( 1 − 0. k = the minimum of Rkd and kloc R=2 11 − b o h 1 ≥ R= 2 5 HY LH  t    (Eq.2.1(a).1-8) π2 E 2 when bo/h < 1 when bo/h ≥ 1 B5.1-3) (Eq.1 or Fcr = k (Eq.673 (Eq.1-4) λ= B5.2-1) November 9. 2001 Z f1 Fcr (Eq.1.1-2) (Eq. Equally Spaced (a) Strength Determination kloc= 4( n + 1)2 kd = ( 1 + β 2 ) 2 + γ( 1 + n ) β 2 (1 + δ( n + 1)) 1 F5 β = (1 + γ( n + 1)) 4 (Eq. except that fd shall be substituted for f1. used in determining serviceability shall be calculated as in Section B5. as appropriate. B5.1-6) (Eq.1.

2-5) (Eq.1. used in determining serviceability shall be calculated as in Section B5.1-2 Effective Width Determination B5. except that fd shall be substituted for f1.1. bd.1. Figure B5. B5. B5.2-2) (b) Serviceability Determination )R U Centroid 3X c1 c2 t Centroid 0.5be 60 B5. 10.Chapter B.1Determination F5 t 0.2-3) β =  2 ∑ γ i ωi + 1     i =1  If Lbr < βbo then Lbr/bo shall be permitted to be substituted for β to (Eq.2-6) Z November 9. 2001 . Elements (1 + β 2 ) 2 + 2 ∑ γ i ωi kd = β2  1 + 2     ∑ δ i ωi   i =1  n 1 n i =1 (Eq.5be account for increased capacity due to bracing.1.92(I sp ) i γi = bot 3 c ωi = sin 2 ( π i ) bo (A s ) i δi = bot HY LH  n  4 (Eq.1Figure B5.1-1 Plate Widths and Stiffener Location EOL bo bp The effective width. B5.1.2-4) (Eq. B5. where fd is the computed compressive stress in the element being considered based on the effective section at the load for which serviceability is determined. B5.1.2(a).

If k calculated from Section B4.328S. If bo/t > 0.1.2.1. (b) Serviceability Determination November 9. shall be determined as follows: If bo/t ≤ 0.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification B5. 2001 )R U 3X The effective width. with the following exception: HY LH 61 Z . where bo = Total flat width of the edge stiffened element Other variables are defined in Section B4 and B5.1-7 and B5.2 Edge Stiffened Elements with Intermediate Stiffeners (a) Strength Determination The effective width. R calculated from equations B5. then the plate buckling coefficient. where fd is the computed compressive stress in the element being considered. EOL F5 If k calculated from Section B4.2 should be followed for calculation of the effective width. used in determining serviceability shall be calculated as in Section B5.2 is less than 4. except that fd shall be substituted for f and f1. k.328S. but with bo replacing w in all expressions.2(a).0 (k < 4) then the intermediate stiffener(s) shall be ignored and the provisions of Section B4.2 is equal to 4. shall be determined from the provisions of Section B4.0 (k = 4) then the effective width of the edge stiffened element shall be calculated from the provisions of Section B5. the element is fully effective and no local buckling reductions are required. be. bd.1-8 must be less than or equal to 1.

2. See Section D3 for the design of lateral bracing required to restrain lateral bending or twisting. C3 Flexural Members C3.95 0.1. Properties shall be based on the full cross section of the members (or net sections where the use of net section is applicable) except where the use of a reduced cross section. Members C. F5 HY LH November 5.90 (a) Procedure I . C3.1 of Appendix A. such as those resulting from loads that do not pass through the shear center of the cross section.90 0.67 62 The nominal flexural strength [moment resistance]. etc. B.1. moment of inertia. radius of gyration.Based on Initiation of Yielding Effective yield moment based on section strength [resistance]. 2001 Z .1. shall be calculated either on the basis of initiation of yielding in the effective section (Procedure I) or on the basis of the inelastic reserve capacity (Procedure II) as applicable. or C where applicable.Chapter C.1 Nominal Section Strength [Resistance] )R U 1.90 For sections with unstiffened compression flanges: USA and Mexico Canada Ωb(ASD) φb(LRFD) φb(LSD) 0. as well as sections provided under C3. C2 Tension Members The provisions of this section are given in Section C2 of the Appendices. For sections with stiffened or partially stiffened compression flanges: USA and Mexico Canada Ωb(ASD) φb(LRFD) φb(LSD) 1. Mn.1 Strength [Resistance] for Bending Only C3. section modulus. Mn. and C3. shall be determined as follows: 3X EOL The nominal flexural strength [moment resistance]. Mn.) shall be determined in accordance with conventional methods of structural design. is required. MEMBERS C1 Properties of Sections Properties of sections (cross-sectional area. shall be the smallest of the values calculated according to Sections C3.3. The provisions of this Section do not consider torsional effects.67 0.1.1. or effective design width.

1.35Fy times the web area. torsional. and 0. 2001 Z .1-2) (Eq. (2) The effect of cold forming is not included in determining the yield point Fy. ey = Yield strain = Fy/E )R U where λ1 = 1.1. or torsional-flexural buckling.1-3) (b) Unstiffened compression elements Cy = 1 EOL (5) The angle between any web and the vertical does not exceed 30 degrees.Based on Inelastic Reserve Capacity (3) The ratio of the depth of the compressed portion of the web to its thickness does not exceed λ1. HY LH 63 The inelastic flexural reserve capacity is permitted to be used when the following conditions are met: (1) The member is not subject to twisting or to lateral.1-1) (b) Procedure II .28 Fy / E E = Modulus of elasticity Cy = Compression strain factor determined as follows: (a) Stiffened compression elements without intermediate stiffeners Cy = 3 for w/t ≤ λ1  w /t − λ1  w Cy = 3 − 2  λ − λ  for λ 1 < t < λ 2  1   2 Cy = 1 for w/t > λ2 (Eq. for ASD. Mn. C3. ht. November 5.1.25 SeFy determined according to Procedure I or that causing a maximum compression strain of Cyey (no limit is placed on the maximum tensile strain).11 Fy / E 3X λ2 = 1. C3.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification Mn = where Fy = Se = SeFy Design yield stress as determined in Section A7. shall not exceed either 1.1 Elastic section modulus of the effective section calculated with the extreme compression or tension fiber at Fy (Eq. The nominal flexural strength [moment resistance]. where F5 (4) The shear force does not exceed 0.6Fyht for LRFD and LSD. C3.

Refer to C3. assuming an ideally elastic-plastic stress-strain curve which is the same in tension as in compression.and closed box-type members.67 0. C3.78Fy > Fe > 0.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength [Resistance] C3.2. C3.78Fy Fc = Fy For 2.1-1) F5 buckling HY LH stress calculated For Fe ≤ 0.1.2.1 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength [Resistance] of Open Cross Section Members USA and Mexico Ωb(ASD) φb(LRFD) )R U For Fe ≥ 2. For laterally unbraced segments of singly-. Z-.1.3 for C. Combined bending and web crippling shall be checked by provisions of Section C3.56Fy Fc = 10Fy 10  Fy  1 −  9 36Fe      3X 1.and other singlysymmetric section flexural members (not including multiple-web deck.1. effective design widths shall be used in calculating section properties.2. Members (c) Multiple-stiffened compression elements and compression elements with edge stiffeners Cy = 1 When applicable. shall be calculated as follows: Mn = S c Fc (Eq.90 0. Mn. C3. and curved or arch members). U.2.1.90 where Sc = Elastic section modulus of effective section calculated at a stress Fc relative to the extreme compression fiber Fc is determined as follows: (Eq.1-4) November 5. The provisions of this Section do not apply to laterally unbraced compression flanges of otherwise laterally stable sections.and Z-purlins in which the tension flange is attached to sheathing. C3.5.1-2) EOL Canada φb(LSD) The provisions of this Section apply to I-. C3. the nominal flexural strength [moment resistance].1. and pointsymmetric sections subject to lateral-torsional buckling.Chapter C. doubly-. C.56Fy Fc = Fe where Fe =Elastic critical lateral-torsional according to (a) or (b) below: 64 Z (Eq. 2001 . Mn shall be calculated considering equilibrium of stresses.2.1. assuming small deformation and assuming that plane sections remain plane during bending.1-3) (Eq.1.

2. Fe can be calculated using the equation given in (b) for doubly-symmetric I-sections. C3.1-10) 2.1-5) Sf For singly-symmetric sections. or pointsymmetric Z-sections.2.2.2. doubly-.1.6 .5M max + 3M A + 4M B + 3M C = EOL (K y L y /ry )2 π2E Z (Eq. C3. E =Modulus of elasticity (Eq.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification (a) For singly-.2. X-axis of Z-sections is the centroidal axis perpendicular to the web.4 (M1/M2) where M1 is the smaller and M2 the larger bending moment at the ends of the )R U 3X π 2 EC w  1  (Eq.1-9) GJ +  2 (K t L t )2  Aro    =Full unreduced cross-sectional area =Elastic section modulus of full unreduced section relative to the extreme compression fiber 12.1. For singly-symmetric sections bending about the centroidal axis perpendicular to the axis of symmetry: C Aσ ex   2 2 Fe = s (Eq.1-8) November 5.1.1. C3.1-7) (Eq.1. and point-symmetric sections: σ ey σ t for bending about the symmetry axis. For point-symmetric sections.0.1. 2001 65 . C3. Cb shall be taken as unity. C3. C3. use 0.5 Fe. C3.1-6)  j + C s j + ro (σ t /σ ex ) C TF S f   Cs = +1 for moment causing compression on the shear center side of the centroid = -1 for moment causing tension on the shear center side of Cs the centroid Fe = σex σey σt A Sf Cb C b ro A = = (K x L x /rx )2 π2 E F5 HY LH where: =Absolute value of maximum moment in unbraced segment Mmax MA =Absolute value of moment at quarter point of unbraced segment MB =Absolute value of moment at centerline of unbraced segment =Absolute value of moment at three-quarter point of unbraced segment MC Cb is permitted to be conservatively taken as unity for all cases.5M max = (Eq.1-11) CTF = 0. singly-symmetric C-sections.1. For cantilevers or overhangs where the free end is unbraced. (Eq. x-axis is the axis of symmetry oriented such that the shear center has a negative x-coordinate. Alternatively.2.2.

or Z-sections bent about the centroidal axis perpendicular to the web (x-axis). singly-symmetric C-sections. Kt =Effective length factors for bending about the x. 2001 unbraced length in the plane of bending.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength [Resistance] of Closed Box Members For closed box members.1-14) (Eq.1. =Polar radius of gyration of the cross section about the ro shear center . When the bending moment at any point within an unbraced length is larger than that at both ends of this length.1. is positive when M1 and M2 have the same sign (reverse curvature bending) and negative when they are of opposite sign (single curvature bending).2. Mn. C3. shall be determined as follows: Z (Eq.1. Members HY LH 2 2 2 = rx + ry + x o j = (b) For I-sections. the ratio of end moments. and for twisting =Distance from the shear center to the centroid along the xo principal x-axis. the following equations are permitted to be used in lieu of (a) to calculate Fe: 3X S f (K y L y ) 2 = C b π 2 EdI yc 2S f (K y L y ) 2 Fe = C b π 2 EdI yc EOL 1  x 3dA + xy 2 dA . Ky.1-13) (Eq.1-12) (Eq. taken as negative J =Saint-Venant torsion constant of the cross section Cw =Torsional warping constant of the cross section rx. using the full unreduced section Other terms are defined in (a).2.1.1-15) November 5. C3. CTF shall be taken as unity. C3.2. C3. Lt =Unbraced length of the member for bending about the xand y-axes. and for twisting Lx.1. Ly. and where M1/M2. the nominal flexural strength [moment resistance].and yaxes. C3.2.Chapter C.x o  A  A  2I y  ∫ F5 ∫ =Radii of gyration of the cross section about the centroidal principal axes G =Shear modulus Kx. ry for doubly-symmetric I-sections and singly-symmetric C-sections for point-symmetric Z-sections 66 )R U where d Iyc =Depth of section =Moment of inertia of the compression portion of a section about the centroidal axis of the entire section parallel to the web.2.

3-1 for simple span C.67 0.3 Beams Having One Flange Through-Fastened to Deck or Sheathing This section does not apply to a continuous beam for the region between inflection points adjacent to a support.70 for continuous span Z-sections Se and Fy are defined in Section C3.1. shall be limited to roof and wall systems meeting the following conditions: (1) Member depth less than 11.3-1) )R U 1.2. (292 mm) (2) Member flanges shall have edge stiffeners (3) 60 ≤ depth/thickness ≤ 170 (4) 2.8 ≤ depth/flange width ≤ 4.36C b π Lu = EGJI y (Eq. where the critical lateral buckling stress.1.1.1.5 (5) 16 ≤ flat width/thickness of flange ≤ 43 (6) For continuous span systems.1.2-2) EGJI y Fe = K yL y S f where Iy = Moment of inertia of full unreduced section about its centroidal axis Z If the laterally unbraced length of the member is less than or equal to Lu.1.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification C3. Fe. with the tension flange attached to deck or sheathing and with the compression flange laterally unbraced shall be calculated as follows: Mn = RSeFy (Eq. the nominal flexural strength [moment resistance] shall be determined by using Section C3.1.1.1.90 0.1.1.1. C3. of a C. 2001 3X USA and Mexico Ωb(ASD) φb(LRFD) EOL Canada φb(LSD) F5 parallel to web J = Torsional constant of box section Other variables are defined in Section C3. Mn. C3.2. The nominal flexural strength [moment resistance].60 for continuous span C-sections = 0. HY LH If the laterally unbraced length of a member is larger than Lu.2.5 in.2.80 where R is obtained from Table C3. the lap length at each interior support 67 November 5. or to a cantilever beam.or Z-section loaded in a plane parallel to the web.1. R. The reduction factor.or Zsections. C3. the nominal flexural strength [moment resistance] shall be determined in accordance with C3.2-1) Fy S f . where 0. is calculated as follows: C bπ (Eq. and R = 0.

(4. 12 self-drilling or self-tapping sheet metal screws or 3/16 in.65 0. (0. (305 mm) on centers and attached in a manner to effectively inhibit relative movement between the panel and purlin flange (11) Insulation shall be glass fiber blanket 0 to 6 in. the user is permitted to perform tests.7 mm) diameter (13) Fasteners shall not be standoff type screws (14) Fasteners shall be spaced not greater than 12 in. and a minimum of 0. (mm) Profile 3X d ≤ 6. spaced a maximum of 12 in. the user must perform full scale tests in accordance with Section F1 of the Specification. in.70 0. having a minimum rib depth of 1-1/4 in.76 mm) rivets. (152 mm) thick compressed between the member and panel in a manner consistent with the fastener being used (12) Fastener type: minimum No. (305 mm) on centers and placed near the center of the beam flange.5d (7) Member span length shall be no greater than 33 feet (10 m) (8) For continuous span systems.5 (165) < d ≤ 8. 2001 Z .5 (216) 8. EOL Z C F5 C or Z C or Z )R U 68 6. R shall be reduced for the effects of compressed insulation between the sheeting and the member. In any case.40 November 5.or Z-Section R Values Depth Range.018 in. in accordance with Section F1.5 (216) < d ≤ 11. and adjacent to the panel high rib (15) The design yield strength of the member shall not exceed 60 ksi (410 MPa or 4220 kg/cm2) If variables fall outside any of the above stated limits.3-1 Simple Span C.3-1 by the HY LH R 0. (32 mm). as an alternate to the procedure described in this section.1.5 (292) 8.50 0.5 (216) < d ≤ 11.1. The reduction shall be calculated by multiplying R from Table C3. the longest member span length shall not be more than 20% greater than the shortest span length (9) Both flanges shall be prevented from moving laterally at the supports (10)Roof or wall panels shall be steel sheets with 50 ksi (340 MPa or 3520 kg/cm2) minimum yield strength.46 mm) base metal thickness.5 (165) in each direction (distance from center of support to end of lap) shall not be less than 1. Members TABLE C3. having washers 1/2 in. or apply a rational analysis procedure.Chapter C.5 (292) For simple span members. (12.

4 of the Appendices. of 2.5 for anchor limits Fm = Mean value of the fabrication factor = 1. the “Standard Procedures for Panel and Anchor Structural Tests” of Part VIII of the AISI Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual shall be followed. C3.0 and a resistance factor.70 (LSD) shall be used.0004 ti when ti is in millimeters ti = Thickness of uncompressed glass fiber blanket insulation (Eq.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification following correction factor.00 .1(b) with the following definition for the variables: βo = Target reliability index = 2.00 . r: r = 1.8 (LRFD) and 0.05 VQ = Coefficient of variation of the load effect = 0.5 Strength [Resistance] of Standing Seam Roof Panel Systems When results of tests on standing seam roof panel systems conducted according to ASTM E1592-95 are to be evaluated. factors of safety and resistance factors shall be determined in accordance with the procedures of Section F1. C3.1 VM = Coefficient of variation of the material factor = 0. or number of panels with identical spans and loading to the failed span (for non-anchor failures) When the number of physical test assemblies is less than 3.0 Mm = Mean value of the material factor = 1.0.3-2) (Eq. Ω.10 for other failure modes VF = Coefficient of variation of the fabrication factor = 0. When the number of physical test assemblies is 3 or more. without limit n = Number of anchors in the test assembly with same tributary area (for anchor failure). C3.1.0.01 ti when ti is in inches r = 1. a factor of safety.08 for anchor failure mode = 0.0 for panel flexural limits = 2.1. φ.4 Beams Having One Flange Fastened to a Standing Seam Roof System . Strength [Resistance] under uplift loading shall be evaluated by this procedure.1. of 0.1.21 VP = Actual calculated coefficient of variation of the test results.3-3) The provisions of this section are given in Section C3. 2001 Z C3.1. )R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH 69 November 5.

C3.1-2) (Eq. Members C3. kv = 5.00 k v = 5.0 5.2. For a web consisting of two or more sheets.34 2.1 Shear Strength [Resistance] of Webs without Holes The nominal shear strength [resistance].3 kv = Shear buckling coefficient determined as follows: 1. shall be calculated as follows: (Eq.0 4.95 Canada φv(LSD) 0.00 + (Eq. C3.1-3) (Eq. For unreinforced webs. C3.1-6) (a h )2 where a = Shear panel length of unreinforced web element = Clear distance between transverse stiffeners of reinforced web elements. C3.60 0.1-4) .1-1) Vn = AwFv (a) For h/t ≤ Ek v / Fy Fv = 0. For webs with transverse stiffeners satisfying the requirements of Section C3.60 Ek v Fy HY LH (h t ) (c) For h/t > 1.2.2. C3.34 + (Eq. C3.2.2. Vn.60Fy (b) For Ek v / Fy < h / t ≤ 1.6 when a/h ≤ 1. 2001 Z (Eq.2.904 Ekv/(h/t)2 USA and Mexico Ωv(ASD) φv(LRFD) 1.Chapter C.2 Strength [Resistance] for Shear Only C3.2. each sheet shall be 70 )R U 3X EOL E = Modulus of elasticity of steel Fv = Nominal shear stress Vn = Nominal shear strength [resistance] F5 November 5.51 Ek v / Fy Fv = 0.51 Ek v / Fy Fv = 12(1 − µ 2 )(h t )2 π 2 Ek v = 0.34 k v = 4.1-5) (a h )2 when a/h > 1.80 where Aw = Area of web element = ht t = Web thickness h = Depth of flat portion of the web measured along plane of web µ = Poisson’s ratio = 0.

2-1) (Eq. C3.0 (Eq. M and V shall also satisfy the following interaction equation:  Ω M  Ω V (Eq. For beams with unreinforced webs.5 and ΩvV/Vn > 0.3. and required allowable shear strength. V. (114 mm) F5 When c/t ≥ 54 qs = 1. (64 mm) and b ≤ 4. C3.1 shall be multiplied by qs: HY LH C3.0 When 5 ≤ c/t < 54 qs = c/(54t) (7) Circular hole diameters ≤ 6 in. C3.2.6 b  +  v  ≤ 1. shall also satisfy the following interaction equation:  ΩbM  Ω V   +  v  ≤ 1.d0/2. C3.1-1)  V  M   n   nxo  For beams with transverse web stiffeners. C3.3  M    nxo   Vn  2 2 3X C3.2-3) c = h/2 .d0/2 for non-circular holes (Eq.3. (152 mm) (8) d0 > 9/16 in. C3.3.2 Shear Strength [Resistance] of C-Section Webs with Holes These provisions shall be applicable within the following limits: (1) d0 / h < 0.2. M. V.2-2) 71 November 5. respectively.1-2) 0. M. d0 ≤ 2.2. the required allowable flexural strength.2.1 ASD Method EOL where for circular holes (Eq. (14 mm) The nominal shear strength [resistance].3 Strength [Resistance] for Combined Bending and Shear )R U For beams subjected to combined bending and shear.7 (2) h / t ≤ 200 (3) Holes centered at mid-depth of the web (4) Clear distance between holes ≥ 18 in.7.2.5 in.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification considered as a separate element carrying its share of the shear force. and required allowable shear strength.83 = h/2 .2.5 in. shall not exceed Mn/Ωb and Vn/Ωv. 2001 . C3. the required allowable flexural strength. Vn. (457 mm) (5) Non-circular holes corner radii ≥ 2t (6) Non-circular holes.2-4) d0 = Depth of web hole b = Length of web hole h = Depth of flat portion of the web measured along the plane of the web Z (Eq. determined by Section C3. when ΩbM/Mnxo > 0.

5 * and V /(φvVn) > 0. Members where: Ωb = Factor of safety for bending (See Section C3. C3. M .1.Chapter C. shall also satisfy the following interaction equation: * HY LH (Eq. C3.3.3 0.2) Mn = Nominal flexural strength when bending alone is considered Mnxo= Nominal flexural strength about the centroidal x-axis determined in accordance with Section C3. shall not exceed φbMn and φvVn.1) φb EOL F5 V . 2001 C3.3.1. and the required shear strength [factored shear].1 Vn = Nominal shear strength when shear alone is considered . M and V shall also satisfy the following interaction * * * φv = Resistance factor for shear (See Section C3.2) Mn = Nominal flexural strength [moment resistance] when bending alone is considered Mnxo= Nominal flexural strength [moment resistance] about the centroidal x-axis determined in accordance with Section C3. the required flexural strength [factored moment]. when M /(φbMnxo) > 0. M . respectively.1. the required flexural strength [factored moment]. * * * For beams with unreinforced webs.3. and the required shear strength [factored shear].2 LRFD and LSD Methods Z Ωv = Factor of safety for shear (See Section C3.7.1) For beams subjected to combined bending and shear.2-1)  φ V  ≤ 1.2-2) November 5. V .1 = Required flexural strength [factored moment] M * 72 )R U M = Mu (LRFD) * * M = Mf (LSD) Vn V * =Nominal shear strength [resistance] when shear alone is considered = Required shear strength [factored shear] V = Vu (LRFD) * V = Vf (LSD) * 3X equation:  M *   V*  +  ≤ 1.6      φ b M nxo   φ v Vn  where: = Resistance factor for bending (See Section C3. 2 2  M*   V*    + (Eq.1.0  φ M   v n  b nxo  For beams with transverse web stiffeners.

1-5.5h. C3.4.4.4 Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] C3. C3. C3.4.5h.4.1-4 or C3.4.4.4.4. C3.4.4.4. shall be determined as follows:  R  N  h   1 + C N  1 − C h Pn = Ct 2 Fy sin θ 1 − C R (Eq.4. Pn represents the nominal strength [resistance] for load or reaction for one solid web connecting top and bottom flanges.1-5 h = Flat dimension of web measured in plane of web N = Bearing length [¾ in.1-1. C3.1-4 or C3. θ )R U 3X EOL C = Coefficient from Table C3. For webs consisting of two or more such sheets. except that otherwise noted herein. shall be calculated for each individual sheet and the results added to obtain the nominal strength for the full section. One-flange loading or reaction occurs when the clear distance between the bearing edges of adjacent opposite concentrated loads or reactions is greater than 1.1-2.4.1-3. The factors of safety and resistance factors are provided in the Tables C3. Interior loading or reaction occurs when the distance from the edge of the bearing to the end of the member is greater than 1.5h.1-5 CR = Inside bend radius coefficient from Table C3.1-1.1-1.1-3. C3. Pn.4.4.4. 45° < θ ≤ 90° Webs of members in bending for which h/t is greater than 200 shall be provided with adequate means of transmitting concentrated loads or reactions directly into the web(s). C3.1 Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] of Webs without Holes The nominal web crippling strength [resistance]. C3.1-4 or C3.1-1)  t  t  t      where: Pn = Nominal web crippling strength [resistance] = Angle between plane of web and plane of bearing surface.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification C3.5h.4.1-3. C3.1-2.4.1-1. (19 mm) minimum] R = Inside bend radius t = Web thickness F5 HY LH 73 November 5.1-2.4.4. C3. Two-flange loading or reaction occurs when the clear distance between the bearing edges of adjacent opposite concentrated loads or reactions is equal to or less than 1.1-2.1-4 or C3. End loading or reaction occurs when the distance from the edge of the bearing to the end of the member is equal to or less than 1.1-5 Ch = Web slenderness coefficient from Table C3. C3.1-5 CN= Bearing length coefficient from Table C3. C3. C3. 2001 Z . Pn.4.1-1 to C3.4.4.4.1-3.

65 0.75 0.001 2.65 0.1 of Commentary for explanation.00 0.Chapter C.4.10 0.4.003 1.04 1.75 0.32 0.5 36 10 20.90 0.10 0.12 0.60 0.25 One-Flange Loading or Reaction Two-Flange Loading or Reaction Unstiffened One-Flange Flanges Loading or Reaction HY LH 0.35 0.11 0.85 0.04 2.14 0.01 0.5 15.75 0.80 0.65 0.28 0.75 1.15 0.14 0.11 0.17 0.01 0.001 2.14 0.14 Interior End 13 0.90 0.60 0.14 0.001 1.23 0.001 1.00 0.031 1.05 0.65 0.85 0.75 0.75 0.85 0.60 0.47 7.75 Two-Flange Loading or Reaction )R U Unfastened Stiffened or Partially Stiffened Flanges One-Flange Loading or Reaction Two-Flange Loading or Reaction Unstiffened One-Flange Loading or Flanges Reaction Two-Flange Loading or Reaction 0.00 0.65 74 November 5.75 0.14 0.85 1.40 0.04 2.65 1.08 0.03 0.01 0.048 1.001 2. Members TABLE C3.00 0.4.65 0.17 0.80 0.28 0.80 0.65 Notes: This Table applies to I-beams made from two channels connected back to back.14 0.75 0.5 20 4 Interior End Interior End Interior End Interior End Interior 13 13 24 4 13 2 13 F5 CN 0.02 0.15 0.90 0.11 0.23 0.52 0.5 0.00 1.80 0.35 0.80 1.75 0.05 0. N/h ≤ 1. 2001 .75 0.001 1.85 0.90 0.02 0.75 0. The above coefficients apply when h/t ≤ 200.85 0.08 0.80 0.04 1.80 R/t ≤ 3 R/t ≤ 2 R/t ≤ 1 R/t ≤ 1 0.60 Limits R/t ≤ 5 R/t ≤ 5 R/t ≤ 5 R/t ≤ 3 R/t ≤ 3 R/t ≤ 5 R/t ≤ 3 One-Flange Loading or Reaction 10 20 10 20.90 0.14 0.65 0.75 0.85 Ch 0.85 0. See Section C3.70 0.1-1 BUILT-UP SECTIONS Support and Flange Conditions Fastened to Stiffened or Support Partially Stiffened flanges Unfastened Stiffened or Partially Stiffened Flanges Load Cases End Interior End Interior End Interior End Interior C CR CN Ch USA and Canada Mexico LSD ASD LRFD φw Ωw φw 0.08 0.1-2 SINGLE WEB CHANNEL AND C-SECTIONS EOL C CR End 4 0.32 0.70 0.37 0. TABLE C3.75 0.00 0.28 0.09 0.90 Support and Flange Conditions Fastened to Stiffened or Support Partially Stiffened Flanges Load Cases One-Flange Loading or Reaction Z 0.01 1.80 0.0 and θ = 90°.08 0.75 0.70 0. N/t ≤ 210.80 2.75 USA and Canada Mexico LSD ASD LRFD φw Ωw φw Limits 3X R/t ≤ 9 R/t ≤ 5 R/t ≤ 12 R/t ≤ 12 R/t ≤ 5 0.

70 0.32 24 4 0.90 0.32 0.70 0.85 0.04 1.75 0.35 0.65 0.5h.25 Support and Flange Conditions Z 0. N/h ≤ 2.00 1. N/t ≤ 210.07 Interior End F5 0.90 0. (2) For interior two-flange loading or reaction of members having flanges fastened to the support.80 0.4.75 0.80 0.05 0.85 0.14 0.001 1.75 0.0 and θ = 90°. the distance from the edge of bearing to the end of the member shall be extended at least 2.75 0.70 0.85 0.75 0.01 1.65 0.07 0.65 1.37 0.52 0. Otherwise.75 0.80 0.65 0.04 0.90 0.80 0.65 0.85 0.40 13 2 0.23 HY LH CN Ch 0.15 0.01 1.80 0.14 0. the distance from the edge of bearing to the end of the member shall be extended at least 2.02 1. Load Cases C CR Fastened to Stiffened or One-Flange Support Partially Loading or Stiffened Reaction Flanges Two-Flange Loading or Reaction Unfastened Stiffened or Partially Stiffened Flanges One-Flange Loading or Reaction Two-Flange Loading or Reaction Unstiffened One-Flange Loading or Flanges Reaction Two-Flange Loading or Reaction End Interi or End Interior End 4 13 9 24 5 0.14 0.1-3 SINGLE WEB Z-SECTIONS USA and Canada Mexico LSD Limits ASD LRFD φw Ωw φw R/t ≤ 9 R/t ≤ 5 R/t ≤ 12 R/t ≤ 12 R/t ≤ 5 0.90 0.09 13 0. (2) For interior two-flange loading or reaction of members having flanges fastened to the support. 2001 75 .04 1.16 0. Otherwise.90 0.80 0.23 13 0.01 0.0 and θ = 90°. )R U 3X EOL Interior End Interior November 5.60 0.001 1.02 0.5h.052 1.03 0.80 2.85 0. values for the unfastened condition shall apply.80 0.47 Interior End R/t ≤ 3 R/t ≤ 2 R/t ≤ 1 R/t ≤ 1 Note: (1) The above coefficients apply when h/t ≤ 200.85 0. values for the unfastened condition shall apply.80 1. N/h ≤ 2.65 TABLE C3.11 13 0.10 0.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification Note: (1) The above coefficients apply when h/t ≤ 200.05 0. N/t ≤ 210.01 0.

10 0. a bearing stiffener shall be used.70 0.85 Reaction Two-Flange End 6 0.046 1.90 0.14 0. N/t ≤ 200.25 0.75 0.55 0. N/h ≤ 2 and θ = 90°.22 HY LH 0.04 2.21 0.75 0. the web crippling strength [resistance] Z 0.13 0.75 Canada LSD φw R/t ≤ 5 R/t ≤ 10 R/t ≤ 10 R/t ≤ 4 R/t ≤ 4 Limits R/t ≤ 7 R/t ≤ 10 R/t ≤ 10 R/t ≤ 7 R/t ≤ 5 November 5.85 0.65 Limits Two-Flange Loading or Reaction End Interior 9 10 0.75 0.70 0.00 0.65 Loading or Interior 8 0.17 0.70 0.10 0.11 0.4.55 0.17 EOL 3 8 End Interior 76 )R U Two-Flange End 9 0. N/h ≤ 3.4.4.020 1. (2) 45° < θ ≤ 90° 3X C3.80 0.65 0.055 0.13 0.10 0.80 0.1-4 SINGLE HAT SECTIONS Support Conditions Load Cases C CR CN Ch USA and Mexico ASD LRFD Ωw φw 2.13 0. TABLE C3.13 0.03 1.75 0.10 0.65 0.75 0.25 0.65 0.68 0.16 0.85 Reaction Unfastened One-Flange End 3 0. Members TABLE C3.75 0.75 Loading or Interior 17 0.08 0.2 Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] of C-Section Webs with Holes When a web hole is within the bearing length.80 0.75 0.75 0.02 1.00 1.14 0.68 0.80 0.90 Reaction Notes: (1) The above coefficients apply when h/t ≤ 200.10 0.050 1. For beam webs with holes.08 0.85 0.004 Fastened to One-Flange Support Loading or Reaction End Interior 4 17 0.25 0.85 Loading or Interior 10 0.70 0.80 0.65 0.75 Canada LSD φw 0.055 2.07 0.75 0.04 Unfastened One-Flange End 4 0.Chapter C.004 1.040 1.25 1.85 Ch USA and Mexico ASD LRFD Ωw φw 2. 2001 .12 0.15 0.1-5 MULTI-WEB DECK SECTIONS Support Conditions Fastened to Support Load Cases OneFlange Loading or Reaction C CR CN F5 0.90 Reaction Note: The above coefficients apply when h/t ≤ 200.90 Loading or Interior 17 0.04 0.04 1.70 0. N/t ≤ 210.

(152 mm) (9) d0 > 9/16 in. C3.4. (457 mm) (6) Non-circular holes.90 − 0.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification shall be computed by using Section C3. corner radii ≤ 2t (7) Non-circular holes.4.5 in.5   (Eq. Rc.5.1-1 with Table C3.053 x h ≤ 1. (114 mm) N ≥ 1 in. (76 mm) where b = Length of web hole d = Depth of cross section d0 = Depth of web hole h C3.5 in. (14 mm) For end-one flange reaction (Equation C3.1-2) when a web hole is not within the bearing length: (Eq.2 w  +  b  P  M  n   nxo   ≤ 1.083 x h ≤ 1.01 − 0. (25 mm) For interior-one flange reaction (Equation C3. given in this section.2-2) N ≥ 3 in.4. 2001 . C3.5 Combined Bending and Web Crippling Strength [Resistance] Unreinforced flat webs of shapes subjected to a combination of bending and concentrated load or reaction shall be designed to meet the following requirements: (a) For shapes having single unreinforced webs: Ω P  Ω M 1. These provisions shall be applicable within the following limits: (1) d0 / h ≤ 0.1-2) when any portion of a web hole is not within the bearing length: Rc = 0. d0 ≤ 2.0 HY LH (5) Distance between the end of the member and the edge of the hole ≥ d Z 77 (2) h / t ≤ 200 (3) Hole centered at mid-depth of the web November 5. C3.2-1) Rc = 1.4.7 (4) Clear distance between holes ≥ 18 in.1-1) )R U C3.1 multiplied by the reduction factor.0 (Eq.4.1-1 with Table C3.5.4.4.325d 0 h + 0.047 d 0 h + 0. (64 mm) and b ≤ 4.1 ASD Method 3X = Depth of flat portion of the web measured along the plane of the web x = Nearest distance between the web hole and the edge of bearing N = Bearing length EOL F5 (8) Circular hole diameters ≤ 6 in.

1-2) November 5.85 ≤ (Eq. Z (Eq. Members Ω P  Ω M 1. provided the compression edges of adjacent webs are laterally supported in the negative moment region by continuous or intermittently connected flange elements. C3. it shall be permitted to determine the allowable concentrated load or P reaction by using n from Section C3. or immediately adjacent to. sum of the two sections evaluated individually. i. and P ≤ Pn/Ωw. and the spacing between adjacent webs does not exceed 10 in.e.1 P = Required allowable strength for the concentrated load or reaction 78 )R U 3X Ωw =Factor of safety for web crippling (See Section C3.4.5   Exception: In lieu of equation C3.1 w = Flat width of the beam flange which contacts the bearing plate t = Thickness of the web or flange λ = Slenderness factor given by Section B2.1-3) M no Pn Ω In addition. rigid cladding. 2001 Exception: At the interior supports of continuous spans.5.673.1-2.1. shall satisfy M ≤ Mno/Ωb. P Mnxo=Nominal flexural strength about the centroidal x-axis determined in accordance with Section C3. the point of application of the concentrated load or reaction. Ωw In the above equations: Ωb =Factor of safety for bending (See Section C3. or similar sections which provide a high degree of restraint against rotation of the web (such as I-sections made by welding two angles to a C-section).1 EOL F5 HY LH (b) For shapes having multiple unreinforced webs such as I-sections made of two C-sections connected back-to-back.Chapter C.1.1. determined in accordance with Section C3.65 + 0. the moment. or lateral bracing.33/ Fy / E and λ ≤ 0.5. C3.4) P = Required allowable strength for the concentrated load or reaction in the presence of bending moment Pn = Nominal strength for concentrated load or reaction in the absence of bending moment determined in accordance with Section C3.1) (c) For the support point of two nested Z-shapes: M P 1. . (254 mm).1 w  +  b  P  M  n   nxo   ≤ 1.4 M = Required allowable flexural strength at. M. P. when h/t ≤ 2.5. and the concentrated load or reaction. the above equation is not applicable to deck or beams with two or more single webs. where M = Required allowable flexural strength at the section under consideration Mno= Nominal flexural strength for the nested Z-sections.

5. HY LH 79 in the presence of bending moment Pn = Nominal web crippling strength assuming single web interior one-flange loading for the nested Z-sections.e.42   Unreinforced flat webs of shapes subjected to a combination of bending and concentrated load or reaction shall be designed to meet the following requirements: (a) For shapes having single unreinforced webs: (Eq. or lateral bracing. i.3. (12..  P  * 0.2-1) F5 R/t ≤ 5. or similar sections which provide a high degree of restraint against rotation of the web (such as I-sections made by welding two angles to a C-section). (4) The ratio of the thicker to the thinner part shall not exceed 1.07 φ w Pn     M   * +φ M   b nxo   EOL    ≤ 1.7 mm) diameter A307 bolts through the flanges.2-2) 3X  P  * 1. (3) The webs of the two sections shall be in contact.75 The above equation is valid for shapes that meet the following limits: h/t ≤ 150 N/t ≤ 140 Fy ≤ 70 ksi (480 MPa or 4910 kg/cm2) November 5.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification C3. and the spacing between adjacent webs does not exceed 10 in.5.82  φ w Pn    M   * +φ M   b nxo      ≤ 1. (b) For shapes having multiple unreinforced webs such as I-sections made of two C-sections connected back-to-back. provided the compression edges of adjacent webs are laterally supported in the negative moment region by continuous or intermittently connected flange elements. C3. (12.32   (Eq. rigid cladding.5 The following conditions shall also be satisfied: (1) The ends of each section shall be connected to the other section by a minimum of two 1/2 in.5. (254 mm). 2001 Z . C3. the above equation is not applicable to deck or beams with two or more single webs. sum of the two webs evaluated individually Ω = Factor of safety for combined bending and web crippling = 1.2 LRFD and LSD Methods )R U Exception: At the interior supports of continuous spans.7 mm) diameter A307 bolts through the web. (2) The combined section shall be connected to the support by a minimum of two 1/2 in.

e. and the concentrated load or reaction.65φ M no Pn 3X * * * EOL Mnxo= Nominal flexural strength [moment resistance] about the centroidal x-axis determined in accordance with Section C3.5.1. i. the moment.Chapter C. and P ≤ φwPn. when h/t ≤ 2. * * where M = Required flexural strength [factored moment] at the section under * consideration. or immediately In addition. M .4.1.1 HY LH (Eq.4 = Required flexural strength [factored moment] at. 2001 φw P * = Resistance factor for web crippling (See Section C3. P = Pu (LRFD) * Pn * adjacent to.2-3) * November 5.85 * ≤ 1.1.1) φb .1 w = Flat width of the beam flange which contacts the bearing plate t = Thickness of the web or flange λ = Slenderness factor given by Section B2.5.4) = Required strength for the concentrated load or reaction [factored Z In the above equations: = Resistance factor for bending (See Section C3.33/ Fy / E and λ ≤ 0. C3. sum of the two sections evaluated individually. M = Mu (LRFD) M = Mf (LSD) Mno= Nominal flexural strength for the two nested Z-sections. P . 80 )R U shall satisfy M ≤ φbMno.673. concentrated load or reaction] in the presence of bending moment.1 F5 M P = Pf (LSD) * = Nominal strength [resistance] for concentrated load or reaction in the absence of bending moment determined in accordance with Section C3.. Members Exception: In lieu of equation C3. the point of application of the concentrated load or reaction P * M = Mu (LRFD) * * M = Mf (LSD) (c) For two nested Z-shapes M* P + 0.2-2. determined in accordance with Section C3. it shall be permitted to determine the design strength for a concentrated load or reaction by using φwPn from Section C3.

1-1) (a) Pn = FwyAc (b) Pn = Nominal axial strength [resistance] evaluated according to Section C4(a). (2) The combined section shall be connected to the support by a minimum of two 1/2 in. Means for shear transfer between the stiffener and the web shall be provided according to Chapter E.7 mm) diameter A307 bolts through the flanges. sum of the two webs evaluated individually φ = 0. Concentrated loads or reactions shall be applied directly into the stiffeners. i.e.85 2.5 The following conditions shall also be satisfied: (1) The ends of each section shall be connected to the other section by a minimum of two 1/2 in. C3. P = Pu (LRFD) * C3. F5 HY LH 81 P = Pf (LSD) * Pn = Nominal web crippling strength [resistance] assuming single web interior one-flange loading for the nested Z-sections.6 Stiffeners C3. (12. shall be designed as compression members.1 Transverse Stiffeners )R U USA and Mexico Ωc(ASD) φc(LRFD) 0. (3) The webs of the two sections shall be in contact.7 mm) diameter A307 bolts through the web.3. or each stiffener shall be fitted accurately to the flat portion of the flange to provide direct load bearing into the end of the stiffener..6.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification P * = Required strength for the concentrated load or reaction [factored concentrated load or reaction] in the presence of bending moment.80 3X EOL R/t ≤ 5. 2001 Z . (12.6. where Pn is the smaller value given by (a) and (b) as follows: (Eq. (4) The ratio of the thicker to the thinner part shall not exceed 1.90 (LRFD) = 0. with Ae replaced by Ab Canada φc(LSD) 0.80 (LSD) The above equation is valid for shapes that meet the following limits: h/t ≤ 150 N/t ≤ 140 Fy ≤ 70 ksi (480 MPa or 4910 kg/cm2) November 5.00 where Transverse stiffeners attached to beam webs at points of concentrated loads or reactions. For concentrated loads or reactions the nominal strength [resistance] equals Pn.

shall have a minimum value of Ismin =5ht3[h/a .1-3) Ac = 10t2 + As.1-7) Lst = Length of transverse stiffener t = Base thickness of beam web The w/ts ratio for the stiffened and unstiffened elements of coldformed steel transverse stiffeners shall not exceed 1.Vn. where Fys is the yield stress. C3.2-2) (Eq.7(a/h)] ≥ (h/50)4 The gross area of shear stiffeners shall be not less than   (a / h ) 2 1−Cv a  YDht − A st = 2  h (a / h ) + 1 + (a / h ) 2      where 1.6.1-2) b2 = 12t [0.6.2.00 + (a / h )2 kv = 5. C3. and ts is the thickness of the stiffener steel.6. for transverse stiffeners at interior support and under concentrated load (Eq.42 E / Fys .6. of a pair of attached shear stiffeners. Is.8 Fy ( h / t ) 2 EOL Where shear stiffeners are required. C3.0024(Lst/t) + 0.1-4) Ab = b1t + As.0.6. and F5 3X Ek v when Cv > 0.1-6) (Eq. C3. C3.6.8 Fy 5.6.2-4) (Eq.2 Shear Stiffeners b1 = 25t [0. C3. C3.2-3) (Eq.Chapter C. or Fys for the stiffener section (Eq. C3.1-5) Ab = b2t + As. C3.53Ek v Cv = when Cv ≤ 0.6. for transverse stiffeners at interior support and under (Eq.0.6. C3.11 h /t kv = 4.34 when a/h ≤ 1. for transverse stiffeners at end support As = Cross sectional area of transverse stiffeners the ratio a/h shall not exceed [260/(h/t)]2 nor 3.83] ≤ 12t (Eq.00 when a/h > 1.6. permitted by Section C3.28 E / Fys and 0.34 + (a / h )2 82 Z (Eq. for transverse stiffeners at end support Fwy = Lower value of Fy for the beam web. respectively.0 4. Members Ac = 18t2 + As. 2001 .2-6) November 5.6.2-5) (Eq.0044(Lst/t) + 0. The actual moment of inertia.6.6. with reference to an axis in the plane of the web. C3. the spacing shall be based on the nominal shear strength [resistance]. C3. or of a single shear stiffener. C3.0 )R U Cv = 1.2-1) (Eq.72] ≤ 25t HY LH concentrated load (Eq.

defined in this section.1 or C3. torsional and torsional-flexural November 5.1(b).0 for stiffeners furnished in pairs D = 1. Ae can be determined ignoring the holes. C4-1) Pn = AeFn 1.4 for single-plate stiffeners t and h are as defined in Section B1. C4 Concentrically Loaded Compression Members This section applies to members in which the resultant of all loads acting on the member is an axial load passing through the centroid of the effective section calculated at the stress.85 Ae = Effective area at the stress Fn. shall be calculated as follows: (Eq. C4-2) (Eq.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification The design strength [factored resistance] of members with transverse stiffeners that do not meet the requirements of Section C3. such as stamped or rolled-in transverse stiffeners.6. For sections with circular holes.877   Fy Fn =   λ2   c  USA and Mexico Ωc(ASD) φc(LRFD) Canada φc(LSD) F5 HY LH (Eq.2. (a) The nominal axial strength [compressive resistance].6. C4-3) (Eq. C4-4) 83 C3.015. If the number of holes in the effective length region times the hole diameter divided by the effective length does not exceed 0. Fn is determined as follows: )R U For λc ≤ 1.6. shall be determined by tests in accordance with Chapter F or rational engineering analysis in accordance with A1.5 3X Fy Fe EOL 0. Pn.80 where 0.80 2   Fn =  0. Fn.2 . 2001 Z a = Distance between transverse stiffeners Yield point of web steel Y = Yield point of stiffener steel D = 1. subject to the limitations of that section.2(a).8 for single-angle stiffeners D = 2.5 where = λc Fe = The least of the elastic flexural.658 λ c Fy    0. Ae shall be determined according to Section B2.3 Non-Conforming Stiffeners For λc > 1.

KL. the effective length factor. C4.or Singly-Symmetric Sections Subject to Torsional or TorsionalFlexural Buckling For singly-symmetric sections subject to torsional-flexural buckling. for compression members which do not depend upon their own bending stiffness for lateral stability of the frame or truss.Chapter C.2-2) Fe = σ t + σ ex where σt and σex are as defined in Section C3.2. of the compression members shall be determined by a rational method and shall not be less than the actual unbraced length. unless analysis shows that a smaller value may used. C4. the effective length. C4. a conservative estimate of Fe can be obtained using the following equation: σ t σ ex (Eq.1. or floor slabs or roof decks secured horizontally by walls or bracing systems parallel to the plane of the frame. C4. 2001 . Members buckling stress determined according to Sections C4. M*y (LRFD or LSD) in Section C5. shear walls.1 and Fe calculated as follows: 1   2 Fe = (Eq.2-3) 84 )R U 3X where E = Modulus of elasticity K = Effective length factor L = Laterally unbraced length of member r = Radius of gyration of the full. the elastic flexural buckling stress. C4.4. EOL F5 Z (Eq. In a frame which depends upon its own bending stiffness for lateral stability. My (ASD) or M*x.1-1) November 5. shall be taken as unity. shall be determined as follows: C4. Fe shall be taken as the smaller of Fe calculated according to Section C4.1: β = 1 .2.1 Sections Not Subject to Torsional or Torsional-Flexural Buckling Fe = π2 E (KL / r ) 2 HY LH For doubly-symmetric sections. (b) Concentrically loaded angle sections shall be designed for an additional bending moment as specified in the definitions of Mx. Fe.1 through C4. and in trusses. unreduced cross section about the axis of buckling In frames where lateral stability is provided by diagonal bracing.2 Doubly.2-1) (σ ex + σ t ) − (σ ex + σ t ) − 4βσ ex σ t  2β   Alternatively.(xo/ro)2 (Eq. K. closed cross sections and any other sections which can be shown not to be subject to torsional or torsional-flexural buckling. attachment to an adjacent structure having adequate lateral stability.

2. shall be limited such that a/ri does not exceed one half the governing slenderness ratio of the )R U a ri 2   a  KL   KL  =  (Eq. the fastener strength [resistance] and spacing shall satisfy the following: (1) The intermediate fastener or spot weld spacing. the x-axis is assumed to be the axis of symmetry. C4. Fe shall be determined by rational analysis. where σt is defined in Section C3. 2001 Z . Fe shall be taken as the lesser of σt as defined in Section C3.1. Alternatively. For doubly-symmetric sections subject to torsional buckling.4 Nonsymmetric Sections For shapes whose cross sections do not have any symmetry. compression members composed of such shapes may be tested in accordance with Chapter F.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification For singly-symmetric sections.1 and Fe as calculated in Section C4. For singly-symmetric unstiffened angle sections for which the effective area (Ae) at stress Fy is equal to the full unreduced cross-sectional area (A). If the buckling mode involves relative deformations that produce shear forces in the connectors between individual shapes.5 Built-Up Members area of an individual shape in a built-up member Other symbols are defined in C4. either about an axis or about a point. a. C4. then Fe shall be computed using Eq C4.1.2.1 using the minor principal axis of the section.5-1)    +  r m r  o  ri      where: (KL/r)o = Overall slenderness ratio of entire section about the built-up member axis = Intermediate fastener or spot weld spacing = Minimum radius of gyration of full unreduced cross-sectional 3X 2 For compression members composed of two sections in contact.1. KL/r is replaced by (KL/r)m determined as follows: EOL F5 HY LH 85 November 5.1 and Fe=σt.1-1 where r is the least radius of gyration thus ignoring torsional-flexural buckling. Fe shall be taken as the smaller of Fe calculated according to Section C4.1. the nominal axial strength [compressive resistance] shall be determined in accordance with Section C4(a) subject to the following modification. C4. In addition.3 Point-Symmetric Sections For point-symmetric sections. C4.

8 For Z-sections: x = The fastener distance from the outside web edge divided by the flange width.5% of the total force (unfactored force for ASD and factored force for LRFD and LSD) in the built-up member.79x + 0. b.000 MPa for SI units = 2.Chapter C. C4.or Z-section thickness b = C. For C-sections: x = the flange width minus the fastener distance from the outside web edge divided by the flange width. Members USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 1. The nominal axial strength [resistance] of simple span or continuous Cor Z-sections shall be calculated as follows: (a) For weak axis nominal strength [resistance] Pn = C1C2C3AE/29500 kips (Newtons) (Eq.5 times the maximum width of the member.17αt + 0. .63d) + 22. (2) The ends of a built-up compression member shall be connected by a weld having a length not less than the maximum width of the member or by connectors spaced longitudinally not more than 4 diameters apart for a distance equal to 1. and d are in cm EOL 86 )R U 3X Z (Eq.6.070.54) C2 = (1.6 Compression Members Having One Flange Through-Fastened to Deck or Sheathing C3 = α(2.6-3) (Eq.394 when t. b.6-1) HY LH C4.85 where: C1 = (0. 2001 built-up member.500 ksi for U. t = C.1. C4.80 0.000 kg/cm2 for MKS units α = Coefficient for conversion of units =1 when t. customary units = 203.or Z-section flange width d = C. (3) Each discrete connector shall be capable of transmitting a longitudinal shear force of 2. as shown in Figure C4. with only one flange attached to deck or sheathing with through fasteners.6-2) (Eq. and d are in inches = 0. C4.80 F5 These provisions are applicable to C. C4.0394 when t.6-4) November 5.or Z-section depth A = The full unreduced cross-sectional area of the C. b. as shown in Figure C4.or Z-section E = Modulus of elasticity of steel = 29.93) Canada φ(LSD) 0. and d are in mm = 0.5b .6.S.or Z-sections concentrically loaded along their longitudinal axis.

1.125 in. Mx. (305 mm) on center or less and having a minimum rotational lateral stiffness of 0. (152mm) ≤ d ≤ 12 in. 2001 )R U C5 Combined Axial Load and Bending The required allowable strengths T. (3.6-1 shall be limited to roof and wall systems meeting the following conditions: (1) t not exceeding 0. Part VIII.1 of the Specification shall be used.6 Definition of x For C-Section x= Z . the equations contained in Sections C4 and C4.and Z-sections having a minimum yield point of 33 ksi (230 MPa .8 ≤ d/b < 5 (6) 16 ≤ flange flat width / t < 50 (7) Both flanges are prevented from moving laterally at the supports (8) Steel roof or steel wall panels with fasteners spaced 12 in.0015 k/in/in (10. (305 mm) (3) Flanges are edge stiffened compression elements (4) 70 ≤ d/t ≤ 170 (5) 2.6-7) (Eq. C4.22 mm) (2) 6 in. C4. AISI Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual. C5.6-8) 87 Note: ! Further information on the test procedure should be obtained from "RotationalLateral Stiffness Test Method for Beam-to-Panel Assemblies". and My shall satisfy the following interaction equations: 3X EOL Figure C4.1 ASD Method November 5.300N/m/m) (fastener at mid-flange width) as determined by the AISI test procedure! (9) C. HY LH (Eq.1 Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending C5. or 2320 kg/cm2) (10) Span length not exceeding 33 feet (10 m) (b) For strong axis nominal strength [resistance].Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification b a For Z-Section x = F5 a b b−a b Eq. C4.

M*y = Muy (LRFD) M*x = Mfx.1.1. C5. M*y = Required flexural strengths [factored moments] with respect to the centroidal axes.2 LRFD and LSD Methods F5 determined in accordance with Section C3 Mnxt.1.1.1-1) accordance with Section C2 = Nominal flexural strengths about the centroidal axes Ωb Ωt tension fiber about the appropriate axis = 1. C5.0 M nx M ny Tn where T = Required allowable tensile axial strength Mx. * and M*y shall satisfy the following interaction equations: 3X = Required tensile axial strength [factored tension] T = Tu (LRFD) * T = Tf (LSD) * Μ*y M*x Τ + + * ≤ 1. Mny the centroidal axes of the section = Nominal tensile axial strength determined in (Eq.1. M*x. C5.1) or for laterally unbraced beams (Section C3.0 φ b Μ nx φ b Μ ny φ t Τn EOL C5. C5.1.1. M*y = Mfy (LSD) = Nominal axial strength determined in accordance with Section C2 Tn Z (Eq.0 M nxt M nyt Tn and Ω bM x Ω bM y Ω t T + − ≤ 1.67 for bending strength (Section C3.Chapter C.1-2) .0 φ b Μ nxt φ b Μ nyt φ t Τn Μ*y M*x Τ + − * ≤ 1.2-1) (Eq.67 The required strengths [factored tension and moments] T . 2001 where T * 88 )R U M*x . M*x = Mux. Members Ω bM x Ω bM y Ωt T + + ≤ 1. My = Required allowable flexural strengths with respect to Tn Mnx.2) = 1. Mnyt = SftFy = Section modulus of the full section for the extreme Sft HY LH (Eq.2-2) November 5.

1 ASD Method where P Mx.90 (LSD).2).0 Pno M nx M ny F5 The required allowable strengths P.90 or 0. C5. Z (Eq. In addition. My )R U 3X When ΩcP/Pn ≤ 0.90 (LRFD and taken either as the required flexural strength or the required flexural strength plus PL/1000.2.2. For laterally unbraced beams (Section C3.0 Pn M nx M ny = Required allowable compressive axial strength = Required allowable flexural strengths with respect to the centroidal axes of the effective section determined for the required compressive axial strength alone.95 (LRFD) = 0.1. My shall be permitted to be taken as the required flexural strength only.2. My shall be EOL Ω cP Ω bM x ΩbM y + + ≤ 1. whichever results in a lower permissible value of P.2.1-1) Pn M nx α x M ny α y (Eq. C5.1). C5. and My shall satisfy the following interaction equations.90 (LSD) C5. φb = 0.1-2) HY LH 0. each individual ratio in Eqs.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification Mnx.1-3 shall not exceed unity.2.2. For singly-symmetric unstiffened angle sections with unreduced effective area.1-3) 89 φb tension fiber about the appropriate axis = For bending strength [resistance] (Section C3. 2001 .2 Combined Compressive Axial Load and Bending C5.1-1 to C5.95 (LRFD) and 0. Mny = Nominal flexural strengths about the centroidal axes determined in accordance with Section C3.1 Mnxt. Mnyt = SftFy = Section modulus of the full section for the extreme Sft φt LSD) = 0.0 (Eq. C5. the following equation may be used in lieu of the above two equations: Ω cP ΩbM x ΩbM y + + ≤ 1. Ω c P Ω b C mx M x Ω b C my M y + + ≤ 1. Mx.15. φb = November 5. For other angle sections or singly-symmetric unstiffened angles for which the effective area (Ae) at stress Fy is less than the full unreduced cross-sectional area (A).1.

C5.2) = 1.2. C5.1.0. M1/M2 is positive when the member is bent in reverse curvature and negative when it is bent in single curvature ΩcP PEx Ω P αy = 1 − c PEy PEx = PEy = Ωb Ωc Ix Iy (K x L x ) 2 π 2 EI y (K y L y ) 2 π 2 EI x = 1.1.85 2. C5.80 = Moment of inertia of the full.2.1-4) (Eq.1-7) November 5. Cmy 1.Chapter C.2.2. C5.6 . For restrained compression members in frames braced against joint translation and not subject to transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending Cm = 0.1-6) (Eq. unreduced cross section = = = = = 90 )R U 3X Lx Ly Kx Ky Cmx.1) or for laterally unbraced beams (Section C3.1 HY LH about the y-axis Actual unbraced length for bending about the x-axis Actual unbraced length for bending about the y-axis Effective length factor for buckling about the x-axis Effective length factor for buckling about the y-axis Coefficients whose value shall be taken as follows: where M1/M2 is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of that portion of the member under consideration which is unbraced in the plane of bending. unreduced cross section about the x-axis = Moment of inertia of the full. with Fn = Fy = Nominal flexural strengths about the centroidal axes determined in accordance with Section C3. 2001 .2. For compression members in frames subject to joint translation (sidesway) Cm = 0.1-5) (Eq. C5.1-8) EOL F5 Z (Eq.67 for bending strength (Section C3.4 (M1/M2) (Eq. Members Pn Pno Mnx. Mny αx = 1 − = Nominal axial strength determined in accordance with Section C4 = Nominal axial strength determined in accordance with Section C4.

0 November 5. C5.2-3) 91 in lieu of such analysis.15.0 φ b Μ nx α x φ b Μ ny α y Μ*y Μ*x + ≤ 1.85 (b) for members whose ends are unrestrained. φ c Pn P* P* + C my Μ * y C mx Μ * x + ≤ 1.2-3 shall not exceed unity. M*y. the value of Cm may be determined by rational analysis.2. Cm = 0. However. shall be taken either as the required flexural strength [factored moment] or the required flexural strength [factored moment] plus Z (Eq. Cm = 1.2 LRFD and LSD Methods The required strengths [factored compressive force and moments] P .Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification 3.2.0 φ b Μ nx φ b Μ ny = Required compressive axial strength [factored M*x. For other angle sections or singlysymmetric unstiffened angles for which the effective area (Ae) at stress Fy is less than the full unreduced cross-sectional area (A). M*y )R U 3X compressive force] P = Pu (LRFD) P = Pf (LSD) = Required flexural strengths [factored moments] with respect to the centroidal axes of the effective section determined for the required compressive axial strength alone.2. 2001 .2.2-1) (Eq. C5. For singly-symmetric unstiffened angle sections with un-reduced effective area.2-2) (Eq. the following values may be used: (a) for members whose ends are restrained.2-1 to C5. C5. C5. M*y shall be permitted to be taken as the required flexural strength [factored moment ] only. In addition. For compression members in frames braced against joint translation in the plane of loading and subject to transverse loading between their supports. and M*y shall satisfy the following interaction equations.2. each individual ratio in Eqs. C5.0 φ b Μ nx φ b Μ ny HY LH φ c Pno + * F5 When P /φcPn ≤ 0. the following equation may be used in lieu of the above two equations: φ c Pn where P * + EOL * * P* Μ*y M*x + ≤ 1.2. * M*x.

Cmy 3X = = = = = = 0. * Pno Mnx.85 2.2. Mny Pu PEx P αy = 1 − u PEy determined in accordance with Section C3 αx = 1 − HY LH Section C4 = Nominal axial strength determined in accordance with Section C4. 2001 Pn M*x = Mux. Members (P )L/1000.2-5) (Eq. C5.2. φb = 0. C5.1. M*y = Mfy (LSD) = Nominal axial strength determined in accordance with .90 (LRFD and Z (Eq.2-6) (Eq.90 or 0. For laterally unbraced beams (Section C3. unreduced cross section about the y-axis Actual unbraced length for bending about the x-axis Actual unbraced length for bending about the y-axis Effective length factor for buckling about the x-axis Effective length factor for buckling about the y-axis Coefficients whose value shall be taken as follows: 1.1).2.2-7) November 5.95 (LRFD) and 0. M*y = Muy (LRFD) M*x = Mfx. For restrained compression members in frames braced against joint translation and not subject to transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending EOL = For bending strength [resistance] (Section C3. C5.2-4) (Eq.Chapter C. whichever results in a lower permissible * value of P . For compression members in frames subject to joint translation (sidesway) Cm = 0. C5.1.80 (LSD) = Moment of inertia of the full.2.2).90 (LSD). φb = 0. with Fn = Fy = Nominal flexural strengths about the centroidal axes (K x L x ) 2 π 2 EI y (K y L y ) 2 F5 PEx = PEy = φb π 2 EI x φc Ix Iy LSD) = 0. unreduced cross section about the x-axis = Moment of inertia of the full.85 (LRFD) 92 )R U Lx Ly Kx Ky Cmx.

6 .2-8) in lieu of such analysis.1-3) (Eq. D/t.318 E/Fy < D/t ≤ 0. the value of Cm may be determined by rational analysis. not greater than 0.970 + 0.95 For D/t ≤ 0.328E/(D/t) where Fc = Critical flexural stress Sf = Elastic section modulus of the full.0. M1/M2 is positive when the member is bent (Eq. Cm = 1.441 E/Fy. C5. the following values may be used: (a) for members whose ends are restrained.441 E/Fy Fc = 0.1-1) Mn = Fc Sf 1.1-4) 93 in reverse curvature and negative when it is bent in single curvature. (b) for members whose ends are unrestrained.0714 E/Fy )R U Fc = 1.0. the nominal flexural strength [moment resistance]. C6.   E / Fy   F Fc = 0.85. 3. Cm = 0. However.25 Fy For 0. For compression members in frames braced against joint translation in the plane of loading and subject to transverse loading between their supports.1 Bending F5 HY LH (Eq.1-2) (Eq.020  D / t  y     For 0.67 0. C6.4 (M1/M2) where M1/M2 is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of that portion of the member under consideration which is unbraced in the plane of bending.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification Cm = 0. C6. unreduced cross section November 5.0714 E/Fy < D/t ≤ 0. C6. 2001 Z .2. For flexural members.318 E/Fy 3X 0. C6 Closed Cylindrical Tubular Members The requirements of this Section apply to closed cylindrical tubular members having a ratio of outside diameter to wall thickness.90 USA and Mexico Ωb(ASD) φb(LRFD) EOL Canada φb(LSD) C6. shall be calculated as follows: (Eq. Mn.

5 In the above equations:  0.5 0.80 Fn is determined as follows: 2   Fn =  0. C6.2-3) (Eq. C6. C6. Pn.667 A ≤ A for ≤ 0.3 Combined Bending and Compression Combined bending and compression shall satisfy the provisions of Section C5.2 Compression The requirements of this Section apply to members in which the resultant of all loads and moments acting on the member is equivalent to a single force in the direction of the member axis passing through the centroid of the section.2-2) (Eq. 2001 .Chapter C.877   Fy Fn =   λ2   c  where λc = Fy Fe F5 For λc > 1. C6. shall be calculated as follows: (Eq. C6.2-4) (Eq.2-1) Pn = FnAe 1. 3X Fe = The elastic flexural buckling stress determined according to Section C4.80 For λc ≤ 1. C6.2–5) (Eq.658 λ c Fy   HY LH USA and Mexico Ωc(ASD) φc(LRFD) Canada φc(LSD)  0.2-7) November 5. C6.2–6) (Eq. Members C6.037  D E + 0.85 0.441 Ao =  t Fy  (DFy ) /( tE)    A = Area of the unreduced cross section C6. The nominal axial strength [compressive resistance].0 EOL 94 )R U Z (Eq.1 Ae = A o + R ( A − A o ) R = Fy 2 Fe ≤ 1.

)R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH The maximum permissible longitudinal spacing of welds or other connectors. smax. STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES D1 Built-Up Sections D1. Therefore. the required design strength [factored resistance] of the welds or connections closest to the load or reaction is Ts = Psm/2g (Eq. is obtained by dividing the concentrated loads or reactions by the length of bearing. factored loads for LRFD and LSD. D1. D1. if uniform spacing of connections is used over the whole length of the beam.1-2) where Ps is a concentrated load or reaction based on nominal loads for ASD. For methods of determination. q. either one of the following methods may be adopted: (a) the connection spacing may be varied along the beam according to the variation of the load intensity. (b) For flexural members: (a) For compression members: where L = Span of beam Ts = Design strength [factored resistance] of connection in tension (Chapter E) g = Vertical distance between the two rows of connections nearest to the top and bottom flanges q = Design load on the beam for spacing of connectors (Use nominal loads for ASD. factored loads for LRFD and LSD. based on nominal loads for ASD. joining two C-sections to form an I-section shall be: 2gTs smax = L / 6 ≤ (Eq.1 I-Sections Composed of Two C-Sections Refer to Section C4. s.5. In cases where this procedure would result in uneconomically close spacing.1-1) mq Z November 5. q shall be taken equal to three times the uniformly distributed load. The design shear strength of the connections joining these plates to the flanges shall then be used for Ts. see below) m = Distance from the shear center of one C-section to the mid-plane of its web. and g shall be taken as the depth of the beam. For beams designed for a uniformly distributed load. smax. it shall be determined at the point of maximum local load intensity. 2001 95 . factored loads for LRFD and LSD. or (b) reinforcing cover plates may be welded to the flanges at points where concentrated loads occur.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification D. The load. The allowable maximum spacing of connections. If the length of bearing of a concentrated load or reaction is smaller than the weld spacing. depends upon the intensity of the load directly at the connection.

further information should be obtained from the Commentary.2 C-Section and Z-Section Beams The following provisions for bracing to restrain twisting of C-sections and Z-sections used as beams loaded in the plane of the web. or (b) neither flange is so connected. nor (c) three times the flat width. or a non-integral stiffener in compression to another element shall not exceed (a) that which is required to transmit the shear between the connected parts on the basis of the design strength [factored resistance] per connection specified elsewhere herein. 96 )R U 3X Braces shall be designed to restrain lateral bending or twisting of a loaded beam or column. When both flanges are so connected. plus one-half inch (12.11t E / Fy if w/t < 0. nor (b) 1.1 Symmetrical Beams and Columns Braces and bracing systems. In all other cases. no further bracing is required. In the case of intermittent fillet welds parallel to the direction of stress. EOL The design of members in mixed systems using cold-formed steel components in conjunction with other materials shall conform to this Specification and the applicable specification of the other material.Chapter D. or bolts connecting a cover plate. w. HY LH November 5. of welds. or 1. Structural Assemblies D1. including connections.2 Spacing of Connections in Compression Elements The spacing. and to avoid local crippling at the points of attachment. s.50 E / Fy . the spacing shall be taken as the clear distance between welds.33t E / Fy if w/t ≥ 0. D3. shall be designed considering strength and stiffness requirements. sheet. and fc is the stress at service load in the cover plate or sheet.50 E / Fy .16t E / fc . When the Specification does not provide an explicit method for design. but need not be less than 1. the spacing shall be taken as the center-tocenter distance between connections. F5 unless closer spacing is required by (a) or (b) above. rivets. of the narrowest unstiffened compression element tributary to the connections.7 mm). in the line of stress. D2 Mixed Systems D3 Lateral Bracing D3. 2001 Z . where t is the thickness of the cover plate or sheet. Exception: The requirements of this Section do not apply to cover sheets which act only as sheathing material and are not considered as loadcarrying elements. apply only when (a) the top flange is connected to deck or sheathing material in such a manner as to effectively restrain lateral deflection of the connected flange.

(a) C-Sections For roof systems using C-sections for purlins with all compression flanges facing in the same direction.1. the restraint force PL shall be divided equally between all braces.1-1) where W = Total vertical load (nominal load for ASD.2.1(a) and D3. A positive value for the force. a restraint system shall be provided to resist the down-slope component of the total gravity load.sinθ)W (Eq. For bracing arrangements other than those covered in Sections D3. factored load for LRFD and LSD) supported by all purlin lines being restrained.1(b). PL. degrees. tests in accordance with Chapter F shall be performed so that the type and/or spacing of braces selected are such that the test strength [resistance] of the purlin assembly is equal to or greater than its nominal flexural strength [moment resistance].3. Anchored braces shall be as close as possible to the flange which is connected to the deck or sheathing.2. Anchored braces shall be provided for each purlin bay. and -1 for purlin facing down slope direction. 2001 )R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH 97 Z .1(b).1(a) and D3.1 Anchorage of Bracing for Roof Systems Under Gravity Load With Top Flange Connected to Sheathing For C-sections and Z-sections designed according to Section C3. Anchored braces need to be connected to only one line of purlins in each purlin bay of each roof slope if provision is made to transmit forces from other purlin lines through the roof deck and its fastening system. α = +1 for purlin facing upward direction.1. If the top flanges of adjacent lines of purlins face in opposite directions. (b) Z-Sections For roof systems having four to twenty Z-purlin lines with all top flanges facing in the direction of the upward roof slope.05αcosθ .Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification D3.2. anchorage of the restraint shall satisfy the requirements of Sections D3. θ = Angle between the vertical and the plane of the web of the Csection. provisions shall be made to restrain the flanges so that the maximum top flange lateral displacements with respect to the purlin reaction points do not exceed the span length divided by 360. D. and having deck or sheathing fastened to the top flanges (through fastened or standing seam systems). shall be provided: PL = (0. and a negative value means that restraint is required to prevent movement of purlin flanges in the downward slope direction. means that restraint is required to prevent movement of the purlin flanges in the upward roof slope direction. in addition to resisting other loading.2. If the top flanges of all purlins face in the same direction.2. instead of that required by Chapter F. a system possessing restraint force.2. and with November 5. PL. Where more than one brace is used at a purlin line.

33   p  (3) Single-Span System with Midspan Restraint: (Eq. Structural Assemblies restraint braces at the purlin supports.1-2)   0. D3.3. D3.2.50  PL = 0. 2001 . each brace shall be designed to resist a force determined as follows: (1) Single-Span System with Restraints at the Supports:   0.32 PL =  cos θ − sin θ W   n 0.116 b 1.5 cos θ − sin θ W  n 0.90 t 0.94  p   With Ctr = 0.1-6) (Eq.87 for braces at the first interior supports Ctr = 0.2.11 t 0.2.474 b 1.13 (Eq. D3. midspan or one-third points.32 L0.5 cos θ − sin θ W  n 0.72 d 0.70 dt 0.Chapter D.60   p  (2) Single-Span System with Third-Point Restraints:   0.1-7) November 5.95 d 1.57 for outer braces in exterior spans Cth = 0.1-5) PL = C tr  cos θ − sin θ W  n 0.29   p  With Cth = 0.48 for all other braces EOL   0. D.05 for braces in exterior spans Cms = 0.220b 1.2.83 t 0.22 PL = 0.50   p  with Cms = 1.65 d 0.07 t 0.50   p (4) Multiple-Span System with Restraints at the Supports: (5) Multiple-Span System with Third-Point Restraints: (6) Multiple-Span System with Midspan Restraints: )R U   0.181b 1.15 L0.81 for all other braces F5 98 HY LH Z (Eq.18 PL = C ms  cos θ − sin θ W  n 0.88 L0.2.25 cos θ − sin θ W PL = C th   n 0. D3.1-4) (Eq.57 d 0.90 for all other braces where b d = Flange width = Depth of section 3X   0.1-3) (Eq.053b 1.224 b 1.2.89 t 0. D3.54 d 1.63 for braces at end supports of multiple-span systems Ctr = 0.

The design concentrated load is the nominal load for ASD or the factored load for LRFD and LSD. For Z-sections: (Eq.1-2 through D3. PL. D3.1 times the force found from Equations D3. For systems having less than four purlin lines. shall be designed to resist a required lateral force.2. shall be applied to both flanges in opposite directions in order to resist the twist caused by the load.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification D3.0a from the brace.2. factored loads for LRFD and LSD) The force. 2001 Z .0K′ times each design concentrated load within a distance 0.2. PL = 1.1-7. the brace force shall be determined from Equations D3.2-2) K′ = Ixy/(2Ix) where Ixy = Product of inertia of the full section about centroidal axes parallel and perpendicular to the web Ix = Moment of inertia of the full section about the centroidal axis perpendicular to the web Brace force. PL. is positive when restraint is required to prevent movement of the purlin flanges in the upward roof slope direction. determined as follows: (a) For uniform loads. PL = 1.1-2 through D3.2 Neither Flange Connected to Sheathing Each intermediate brace.2. plus 1.5K′ times the design load (nominal loads for ASD. In the above equations: For C-sections: K′ = m/d (Eq.3a but not farther than 1. with np = 4.5a each side of the brace.2.3a each side of the brace. For systems having more than twenty purlin lines.2. with np = 20 and W based on the total number of purlins. the brace force shall be determined by taking 1. factored loads for LRFD and LSD) within a distance 0.2-1) where m = Distance from the shear center to the mid-plane of the web d = Depth of C-section Brace force PL. at the top and bottom flange.1-7. shall be applied to both flanges in the same direction in order to constrain bending of the section about the axis )R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH 99 = Thickness = Span length = Angle between the vertical and the plane of the web of the Z-section. D3.2. degrees np = Number of parallel purlin lines W = Total vertical load supported by the purlin lines between adjacent supports (Use nominal loads for ASD. t L θ November 5.4K′ (1-x/a) times each design concentrated load located farther than 0. PL. (b) For concentrated loads.

Both solid and perforated webs shall be permitted. (254 mm). the following limitations related to the size and spacing of perforations and the depth of the stud shall apply: (1) The center-to-center spacing of web perforations shall not be less than 24 in. shall be determined from stubcolumn tests.5 times the depth. Ae at a stress Fn.3. of the section or 2-1/2 in. no additional braces shall be required except those required for strength according to Section C3.2. and for non-circular web perforations.2. 2001 Z . Ae.1 through D4. (b) Sheathing Braced Design 100 )R U 3X EOL F5 Wall studs shall be designed either on the basis of an all steel system in accordance with Chapter C or on the basis of sheathing in accordance with Section D4. For C-sections and Z-sections: x = Distance from the concentrated load to the brace a = Distance between center line of braces When braces are provided. HY LH November 5. see Section B2. one on each side of the perforation. assuming the web to consist of two unstiffened elements. or the effective area. (5) The distance between the end of the stud and the near edge of a perforation shall not be less than 10 in. D4 Wall Studs and Wall Stud Assemblies (a) All Steel Design Wall stud assemblies using an all steel design shall be designed neglecting the structural contribution of the attached sheathings and shall comply with the requirements of Chapter C. When Ae is determined in accordance with Chapter B. d/t. (4) The section depth-to-thickness ratio. (610 mm). shall not be less than 20. Structural Assemblies perpendicular to its web.5 mm). Both ends of the stud shall be connected to restrain rotation about the longitudinal stud axis and horizontal displacement perpendicular to the stud axis. (3) The length of web perforations shall not exceed 4-1/2 in. For compression members with circular web perforations. shall be determined in accordance with Chapter B. the effective area shall be determined as follows: The effective area. (63. (2) The maximum width of web perforations shall be the lesser of 0.1. d. (114 mm). When all loads and reactions on a beam are transmitted through members which frame into the section in such a manner as to effectively restrain the section against torsional rotation and lateral displacement. they shall be attached in such a manner to effectively restrain the section against lateral deflection of both flanges at the ends and at any intermediate brace points.Chapter D.

1-2) σCR = σ ey + Q a 1  σCR = σ ex + σ tQ − σ ex + σ tQ 2 − 4βσ ex σ tQ  (Eq.91 mm) Overall length.075 in.3 and in addition shall comply with the following requirements: In the case of perforated webs.1 Wall Studs in Compression For studs having identical sheathing attached to both flanges. (305 mm) minimum. 6 in. 24 in.88 m) Stud spacing. Fy ≤ 50 ksi (340 MPa or 3520 kg/cm2) F5 USA and Mexico Ωc(ASD) φc(LRFD) Canada φc(LSD) HY LH Wall stud assemblies using a sheathing braced design shall be designed in accordance with Sections D4. The equations provided in these three conditions are applicable within the following limits: Yield strength. (1) Singly-symmetric C-Sections (Eq. (4. (152 mm) Section thickness.80 where Ae = Effective area determined at Fn Fn = The lowest value determined by three conditions (a). t ≤ 0.85 0.1-1) 1. D4. Pn. 2001 . Sheathing shall conform to the limitations specified under Table D4. D4. the effective area. (610 mm) maximum Fastener spacing. L ≤ 16 ft.1-3)    2β  3X EOL ) ( ) given below. 12 in. shall be calculated as follows: Pn = AeFn (Eq. if required. (152 mm) ≤ s ≤ 12 in. Z 101 November 5. and (c) )R U ( (2) Z-Sections Section depth. Fn shall be calculated according to Section C4 with KL equal to two times the distance between fasteners. Additional bracing shall be provided during construction. (b) To prevent flexural and/or torsional overall column buckling.0 in. Fn shall be calculated in accordance with Section C4 with Fe taken as the smaller of the two σCR values specified for the following section types. where σCR is the theoretical elastic buckling stress under concentric loading. D4. and neglecting any rotational restraint provided by the sheathing.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification D4. (305 mm) (a) To prevent column buckling between fasteners in the plane of the wall. (1.1 through D4. Sheathing shall be attached to both sides of the stud and connected to the bottom and top horizontal members of the wall to provide lateral and torsional support to the stud in the plane of the wall. Ae. d ≤ 6. shall be determined as in (a) above.80 0. the nominal axial strength [compressive resistance]. (b).

1-13) (Eq.1-6) (Eq. γ. D4.Chapter D.s/s′) Q a = Q /A EOL where: s = fastener spacing. D4. D4. γ .1-5) σCR = σex σex = (L / rx )2 π2 E (L / ry ) 2 1 π2 E HY LH In the above equations: σexy= (π2EIxy) / (AL2) σey = σt = F5  π 2 EC w  GJ +  Aro 2  L2    σtQ = σt + Q t Q = Q o (2 . D4. (mm) s′ = 12 in.1-7) (Eq. a value of Fn shall be used in the following equations so that the shear strain of the sheathing.1-8) (Eq. Structural Assemblies σCR = σ t + Q t (Eq. D4. shall be determined as follows: (Eq.1-16) γ = (π /L) [C1 + (E1 d/2)] where C1 and E1 are the absolute values of C1 and E1 specified below for each section type: (Eq.1-17) 102 )R U (1) Singly-Symmetric C-sections C1 = (Fn Co)/ (σey .1-12) (Eq. D4. in. D4.1-11) (Eq. D4. D4. does not exceed the permissible shear strain. The shear strain. D4.1-4) 1  2 σCR = ( σ ex + σ ey + Q a ) − [(σ ex + σ ey + Q a ) 2 − 4(σ ex σ ey + σ ex Q a − σ exy )]   2  (Eq.Fn + Q a ) Z (3) I-Sections (doubly-symmetric) σCR = σey + Q a (Eq. D4. 2001 .1-10) (Eq. D4. D4. (305 mm) Q o = See Table D4 A L 2 Q t = (Qd 2 ) /( 4Aro ) 3X = Area of full unreduced cross section = Length of stud d = Depth of section Ixy = Product of inertia (c) To prevent shear failure of the sheathing.1-14) (Eq. D4.1-9) (Eq. γ.1-15) November 5.

rad.5 Fy.1-22) (Eq. unbuckled shape (Eq. D4.1-25) E′ = 4EFn (Fy . D4. Co.010 EOL Eo = L/(d × 10. TABLE D4 Sheathing Parameters(1) kN kg γ length/length 0.9 mm) thick gypsum Lignocellulosic board Fiberboard (regular or impregnated) Fiberboard (heavy impregnated) 107. a measure of the initial twist of the stud from the initial.1-23) November 5. D4.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification E1 = 2 Fn [(σ ex − Fn )(ro E o − x o D o ) − Fn x o (D o − x o E o )] 2 (σ ex − Fn )ro (σ tQ − Fn ) − (Fn x o ) 2 (Eq.0 7. then in the definitions for σey. the parameters E and G shall be replaced by E′ and G′.1-19) (Eq. Z (2) Z-Sections Fn [C o (σ ex − Fn ) − D o σ exy ] C1 = 2 σ ey − Fn + Q a (σ ex − Fn ) − σ exy ( ) (Eq.000).1 6530 (1) The values given are subject to the following limitations: All values are for sheathing on both sides of the wall assembly..009 0.5 mm) to 5/8 in. 2001 103 .0 3270 64. D4. or from the small scale test values given in Table D4.008 0. Eo.4 )R U 3X Sheathing(2) G′=G (E′/E) (Eq. σexy and σtQ.Fn)/Fy2 3/8 in.1-26) Sheathing parameters Q o and γ shall be permitted to be determined from representative full-scale tests.007 0. and Do are initial column imperfections which shall be Co = L/350 in a direction parallel to the wall Do = L/700 in a direction perpendicular to the wall F5 kip 24.1-18) E1 = (Fn Eo) / (σtQ .1-21) (Eq. D4.900 53.Fn + Q a ) E1 = 0 where (absolute value) assumed to be at least HY LH Qo xo = Distance from shear center to centroid along principal x-axis. D4. σex.1-20) (Eq.Fn) (3) I-Sections C1 = (Fn Co)/ (σey . respectively. D4.4 5440 32.2 14.0 10. (15. conducted and evaluated as described by published documented methods (see Commentary). ideal. D4. as defined below (Eq. D4.1-24) If Fn > 0. (9.0 12.

6.2-1.90 For sections with unstiffened compression flanges: USA and Mexico Canada Ωb(ASD) φb(LRFD) φb(LSD) HY LH November 5. F5 1.2-3 for LRFD or LSD shall be replaced by nominal flexural strengths [moment resistances]. or equivalent.67 0.2 (lateral-torsional buckling).95 0. For other types of sheathing.1-1. . excluding the provisions of Section C3. Roof or Wall Steel Diaphragm Construction The in-plane diaphragm nominal shear strength [resistance]. 2001 For studs having identical sheathing attached to both flanges. (2) All sheathing is 1/2 in.2. Structural Assemblies D4. Sn shall be established by calculation or test. type S-12.2 Wall Studs in Bending D4.2. Q o and γ shall be permitted to be determined conservatively from representative small-specimen tests as described by published documented methods (see Commentary).3 Wall Studs with Combined Axial Load and Bending The required axial strength [resistance] and flexural strength [moment resistance] shall satisfy the interaction equations of Section C5 with the following redefined terms: Pn = Nominal axial strength [resistance] determined according to Section D4.1. C5. Ωd = As specified in Table D5 (ASD) 104 )R U respectively.1-2 and C5.2. (12. 3X EOL 1.7 mm) thick except as noted.2.67 0. D5 Floor.2. C5.90 0.2-2 and C5. Mnxo and Mnyo. self-drilling drywall screws with pan or bugle head.Chapter D. the nominal flexural strengths [moment resistances] are Mnxo and Mnyo where: For sections with stiffened or partially stiffened compression flanges: USA and Mexico Canada Ωb(ASD) φb(LRFD) φb(LSD) Z All fasteners are No.2.1 Mnx and Mny in Equations C5.1-3 for ASD or C5.90 Mnxo and Mnyo = Nominal flexural strengths [moment resistances] about the centroidal axes determined in accordance with Section C3.1. and neglecting any rotational restraint provided by the sheathing.

)R U 3X EOL F5 HY LH Z November 5. 2001 105 .50 for diaphragms welded to the structure subjected to wind loads.60 0.50 for diaphragms for which the failure mode is that of buckling. 3.0 0. 2. or subjected to load combinations which include earthquake loads. or subjected to load combinations which include wind loads.50 for diaphragms welded to the structure subjected to earthquake loads.50 for diaphragms mechanically connected to the structure subjected to wind loads. 2.5 0.50 for diaphragms connected to the structure by either mechanical fastening or welding subjected to load combinations not involving wind or earthquake loads.55 0.65 0.50 0.60 0. 2.35 0.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification φd = As specified in Table D5 (LRFD and LSD) TABLE D5 Factors of Safety and Resistance Factors for Diaphragms USA and Mexico Canada Diaphragm Condition Ωd φd φd (ASD) (LRFD) (LSD) 2. otherwise.45 0. or subjected to load combinations which include earthquake loads.65 0.0 0. or subjected to load combinations which include wind loads 2.65 0.50 for diaphragms mechanically connected to the structure subjected to earthquake loads.

90 0.80 Pn = Lt e Fy / 3 USA and Mexico Canada Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD) 1. B.1-3 Pn = Lte 0.6Fxx EOL Canada φ(LSD) 0. For the design of welded connections in which the thickness of the thinnest connected part is greater than 0.18 in.Chapter E.1-2 or E2. refer to the specifications or standards stipulated in the corresponding Section E2a of Appendix A. CONNECTIONS AND JOINTS E1 General Provisions Connections shall be designed to transmit the maximum design forces acting on the connected members.70 0.1-1) USA and Mexico Canada Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD) 1. or C.90 0. USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 1. Welds shall follow the requirements of the weld standards also stipulated in Section E2a of Appendix A. Pn. the smaller of either Eq.18 in. (4. of a groove weld in a butt joint. E2.90 0.1-3) November 9.57 mm). Connections and Joints E.80 (b) Shear on the effective area. E2. shall be determined as follows: (a) Tension or compression normal to the effective area or parallel to the axis of the weld Pn = LteFy (Eq.1-2) (Eq. (4.70 0. E2.1 Groove Welds in Butt Joints HY LH (Eq. Proper regard shall be given to eccentricity.80 where Pn = Nominal strength [resistance] of a groove weld Fxx = Tensile strength of the electrode classification Fy = Specified minimum yield point of the lowest strength base steel L = Length of weld te = Effective throat dimension for groove weld 106 )R U 3X Z . welded from one or both sides. B or C. E2.57 mm) or less. 2001 The following design criteria govern welded connections used for coldformed steel structural members in which the thickness of the thinnest connected part is 0.70 F5 E2. E2 Welded Connections The nominal strength [resistance].

15 in. E2.05 (1.2B Arc Spot Weld Using Washer The nominal shear strength [resistance]. de. Figures E2.1-1) HY LH Sheet Supporting Member Plane of Maximum Shear Transfer Z 107 .1 Shear (a) Pn = 2 πd e 0.028 in. Minimum allowable effective diameter is 3/8 in.15 in.5 mm). shall be used when the thickness of the sheet is less than 0. Weld washers shall have a thickness between 0.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification .711 mm).75Fxx 4 November 9. of each arc spot weld between sheet or sheets and supporting member shall be determined by using the smaller of either (Eq. 2001 E2.03 mm) with a minimum prepunched hole of 3/8 in.2A and E2. Arc Spot Weld Weld Washer Figure E2.2. Arc spot welds shall be specified by minimum effective diameter of fused area. (3.81 mm) thick. (9. (0. 2001 EOL F5 Figure E2. (3.2B.53 mm) diameter.08 in. (2.2A Typical Weld Washer Optional Lug Washer 3X )R U E2.2 Arc Spot Welds Arc spot welds permitted by this Specification are for welding sheet steel to thicker supporting members in the flat position. (9.November 9. Pn.2. Weld washers.81 mm).27 mm) and 0. nor through a combination of steel sheets having a total thickness over 0. Arc spot welds (puddle welds) shall not be made on steel where the thinnest connected part is over 0.

1-5) t =Total combined base steel thickness (exclusive of coatings) of sheets involved in shear transfer above the plane of maximum shear transfer Fxx = Tensile strength of the electrode classification Fu = Tensile strength as specified in Section A2.1-2) Canada φ(LSD) 0.1-4) November 9.70 For 0. E2.2.2.1.2 See Figures E2.45 USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2.Chapter E.t) for a single sheet and multiple sheets not more than four lapped sheets over a supporting member de = Effective diameter of fused area at plane of maximum shear transfer = 0. E2.397 Pn = 1.50 Note: 108 )R U where Pn = Nominal shear strength [resistance] of an arc spot weld d = Visible diameter of outer surface of arc spot weld da = Average diameter of the arc spot weld at mid-thickness of t where da = (d .80 0.2.2.280 1 + 5. The distance measured in the line of force from the centerline of a weld to the nearest edge of an adjacent weld or to the end of the connected part toward which the force is directed shall not be less than the value of emin as given below: 3X EOL F5 Canada φ(LSD) 0. 2001 .1-3) (Eq.815 Pn = 2.2D for diameter definitions.55 0.20 t da Fu (E / Fu ) Canada φ(LSD) 0.5t but ≤ 0.55 For (da/t) ≥ 1.397  E / Fu Pn = 0.40 t da Fu HY LH (E / Fu ) (E / Fu ) (E / Fu ) USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 3.05 0.2C and E2.40 Z (Eq. Connections and Joints USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2. E2.50 (Eq.20 0.815 < (da/t) < 1.59 da /t   USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2.60 (b) For (da/t) ≤ 0.1 or A2.55d (Eq.7d .60   td a Fu   Canada φ(LSD) 0. E2.

E2.20 0.1.1 or A2. 2001 d t d e = 0.70 When Fu/Fsy < 1.2C Arc Spot Weld – Single Thickness of Sheet d t1 t t2 d e = 0.t Figure E2. 2001 )R U = Required strength (nominal force) transmitted by the weld (ASD) =Required strength (factored force) transmitted by the weld (LRFD) = Shear force due to factored loads transmitted by the weld (LSD) = Total combined base steel thickness (exclusive of coatings) of sheets involved in shear transfer above the plane of maximum shear transfer Fsy =Yield point as specified in Sections A2.2D Arc Spot Weld – Double Thickness of Sheet USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2.1.5t < 0.November 9.2.08 emin = For ASD F5 de da HY LH EOL For LRFD For LSD Z Plane of Maximum Shear Transfer (Eq.55d d a= d .55d d a= d .60 where P Pu Pf t November 9.55 0.5t ≤ 0.50 PΩ Fu t P emin = u φFu t P emin = f φFu t When Fu/Fsy ≥ 1.2.t de da Figure E2.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification .1-6b) (Eq.1-6c) 109 .2.60 Canada φ(LSD) 0.08 USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2.1-6a) (Eq.7d .7d . E2.2 3X Canada φ(LSD) 0. E2.

E2. EOL F5 e Edg e HY LH C L or Pn = 0.2E and E2. Connections and Joints C L ≥ e min d ≥ e min C L Ed t ge Ed ge Figure E2.2.2 Tension )R U The uplift nominal tensile strength [resistance].2.8(Fu/Fy)2tdaFu 110 Z (Eq.2-1) (Eq.5d. shall be computed as the smaller of either: Pn = 2 πd e Fxx 4 3X See Figures E2.2E Edge Distance for Arc Spot Welds – Single Sheet ≥e ≥ e min d min C L Edg t Figure Figure E2. In addition. of each concentrically loaded arc spot weld connecting sheets and supporting member. Pn.2-2) November 9.Chapter E.2F Edge Distance for Arc Spot Welds – Double Sheet Note: E2.2.0d. the distance from the centerline of any weld to the end or boundary of the connected member shall not be less than 1. 2001 . E2.2F for edge distances of arc welds. In no case shall the clear distance between welds and the end of member be less than 1.

75Fxx  4    (b) Pn = 2.96d a ) (Eq. the nominal tensile strength [resistance] of the weld connection shall be 70 percent of the above values. E2. de. If it can be shown by measurement that a given weld procedure will consistently give a larger effective diameter. da.60 For all other applications USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 3.2.00 0.3A) covered by this Specification apply only to the following joints: (a) Sheet to thicker supporting member in the flat position.50 Canada φ(LSD) 0. E2.1 HY LH 111 Z .3 Arc Seam Welds )R U Arc seam welds (Figure E2.3-2) November 9. EOL F5 Fu ≤ 82 ksi (565 MPa or 5770 kg/cm2) (of connecting sheets) Fxx > Fu where all other parameters are as defined in Section E2.40 Canada φ(LSD) 0.25L + 0. (b) Sheet to sheet in the horizontal or flat position. the nominal tensile strength [resistance] shall be taken as 50 percent of the above value.3-1) (Eq. of arc seam welds shall be determined by using the smaller of either:  πd 2  (a) Pn =  e + Ld e 0.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification . At the side lap connection within a deck system.November 9. For connections having multiple sheets. the strength [resistance] shall be determined by using the sum of the sheet thicknesses as given by Equation E2. 2001 3X For eccentrically loaded arc spot welds subjected to an uplift tension load. Pn. as applicable.5tFu (0. The nominal shear strength [resistance].2. or average diameter.50 0.50 The following limitations shall apply: t da Fu ≤ 3 emin Fxx ≥ d ≥ 60 ksi (410 MPa or 4220 kg/cm2) E2.2-2. 2001 For panel and deck applications: USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2. this larger diameter may be used providing the particular welding procedure used for making those welds is followed.

50 where Pn = Nominal shear strength [resistance] of an arc seam weld = Width of arc seam weld = Length of seam weld not including the circular ends (For computation purposes. and t are defined in Section E2.2. L shall not exceed 3d) da = Average width of seam weld = (d .Chapter E.3B Edge Distances for Arc Seam Welds Fillet welds covered by this Specification apply to the welding of joints in any position. Section E2.3-3) de = Effective width of arc seam weld at fused surfaces (Eq.3A Arc Seam Welds .4 Fillet Welds 112 Figure E2. Connections and Joints USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2. E2. See Figure E2.55 0.3B. Fxx.60 Canada φ(LSD) 0. 2001 .5t and Fu. The minimum edge distance shall be as determined for the arc spot weld.3-4) de = 0.1.2. F5 t EOL e Ed ge Figure E2.1.1.t) for a single and a double sheet (Eq. either HY LH L d Width ≥ e min d Z C L d L November 9. E2.7d .Sheet to Supporting Member in Flat Position 3X ≥ e min Edg C L )R U E2.

Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification .4A and E2. 2001 )R U effective throat shall be permitted if measurement shows that the welding procedure to be used consistently yields a larger value of tw.4B).4B In addition.November 9.05 0.35 0.4-1) (Eq.55 0.60 Z (Eq. Pn.65 0. E2. w1 ≤ t1 in lap joints.4-4) 113 .4A and E2.50 F5 EOL Canada φ(LSD) 0. E2.50 (b) For transverse loading: Pn = tLFu Canada φ(LSD) 0. of a fillet weld shall be determined as follows: (a) For longitudinal loading: For L/t < 25 : 0. or (b) Sheet to thicker steel member.40 HY LH Canada φ(LSD) 0.707 w1 or 0. 2001 (a) Sheet to sheet.54 mm). w1 and w2 = leg on weld (see Figures E2. the nominal strength [resistance] determined above shall not exceed the following value of Pn: Pn = 0.4-3) (Eq.01L   Pn =  1 − tLFu t   USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2. A larger November 9.60 where t=Least value of t1 or t2. E2.1.2. for t > 0.75 tLFu USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 3. 3X USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2. E2.4-2) (Eq. as shown in Figures E2. Fu and Fxx are defined in Section E2.75 twLFxx where Pn = Nominal strength [resistance] of a fillet weld L = Length of fillet weld tw = Effective throat = 0.10 in. (2. The nominal shear strength [resistance].707 w2. whichever is smaller.55 0.60 For L/t ≥ 25: Pn = 0.50 USA and Mexico Canada Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD) 2.

5A Flare-Bevel Groove Weld F5 L t P Flare groove welds covered by this Specification apply to welding of joints in any position.4B Fillet Welds – T Joint E2.833tLFu 3X FlareFigure E2.5A): HY LH (Eq. h. Pn.5B through E2.5 Flare Groove Welds P EOL Pn= 0. Connections and Joints w tw t1 t2 2 w tw 2 t 1 w1< t 1 t 2 w1 Figure E2. E2. E2.5-1) (Eq.50 (b) For flare groove welds.5-2) November 9. 2001 USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2.Chapter E. L: Pn = 0. transverse loading (see Figure E2. is less than weld length.45 114 )R U Z .75tLFu USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2. longitudinal loading (see Figures E2.55 0. of a flare groove weld shall be determined as follows: (a) For flare-bevel groove welds.60 Canada φ(LSD) 0. or (c) Sheet to thicker steel member for flare-bevel groove welds.5G): (1) For t ≤ tw < 2t or if the lip height. or (b) Sheet to sheet for flare-bevel groove welds. either: (a) Sheet to sheet for flare-V groove welds. The nominal shear strength [resistance].55 Canada φ(LSD) 0.4A Fillet Welds – Lap Joint Figure E2.80 0.

Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification .5-4) Z (Eq.7mm)) November 9.5-3) 115 L .54 mm).75twLFxx (Eq. 2001 P t Figure E2.80 0.5B Shear in Flare Bevel Groove Weld P F5 VFigure E2.45 In addition.10 in. h.55 0. 2001 )R U USA and Mexico Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) 2. E2.50tLFu HY LH P L t P where Pn = Limiting nominal strength [resistance] of the weld h = Height of lip L = Length of the weld tw = Effective throat of flare groove weld filled flush to surface (See Figures E2.November 9. E2.55 0. is equal to or greater than weld length L: Pn = 1.5E): For flare bevel groove weld = 5/16R For flare V-groove weld = 1/2R (3/8R when R > 1/2 in. (2. for t > 0.60 3X USA and Mexico Canada Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD) 2.5C Shear in Flare V-Groove Weld EOL Canada φ(LSD) 0.5D and E2.50 (2) For tw ≥ 2 t and the lip height. the nominal strength [resistance] determined above shall not exceed the following value of Pn: Pn = 0. (12.

Fu and Fxx are defined in Section E2.5G).5F Flare Bevel Groove Weld (Not filled flush to surface.5E Flare Bevel Groove Weld (Filled flush to surface.5F and E2. E2. R = Radius of outside bend surface. w1 > R) E2. of spot welds shall be determined as follows: When t is in inches and Pn is in kips: (Eq. 2001 .707w1 or 0. Pn.6 Resistance Welds The nominal shear strength [resistance]. ≤ t < 0. w1 and w2 = Leg on weld (see Figures E2.14 in.01 in. t h≥L F5 h<L w1 tw Double Shear (Eq.707w2.5G Flare Bevel Groove Weld (Not filled flush to surface.1.5F and E2. w1 = R) 3X tw w2 h w1 )R U For 0.6-1) 116 HY LH t R Figure E2. E2.Chapter E.5G.5D Flare Bevel Groove Weld (Filled flush to surface.5-2) for t ≤ t w < 2t w2 R November 9. E2.: Pn = 144t 1.) = A larger effective throat than those above shall be permitted if measurement shows that the welding procedure to be used consistently yields a larger value of tw. w1 = R) t tw Figure E2.47 Figure E2. w1 < R) Z Single Shear (Eq.5-3) for t w ≥ 2t R w1 tw t EOL h R w1 Figure E2. (See Figures E2. whichever is smaller. Connections and Joints = Effective throat of flare groove weld not filled flush to surface = 0.2.

shall be determined as follows: Pn = AeFu (Eq.4t + 1. E2.0 When the load is transmitted only by longitudinal welds or by longitudinal welds in combination with transverse welds: A = Gross area of member.6t + 8.6-2) For 0.56 mm ≤ t ≤ 4.55 Z (Eq. E2. E2.47 HY LH For 3.93 When t is in millimeters and Pn is in kN: For 0.56 mm: Pn = 5.November 9.51t 1.025 cm ≤ t < 0.0 . USA and Mexico Canada Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD) 2.18 in.57 When t is in centimeters and Pn is in kg: E2.457 cm: Pn = 7750t + 875 where t = Thickness of thinnest outside sheet. Ag U = 1.65 0. 2001 )R U 3X USA and Mexico Canada Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD) 2.7-1) Ae = AU.4.25 mm ≤ t < 3.6-6) 117 .356 cm: Pn = 16600t 1.1 or A2.35 0. E2.7 Shear Lag Effect in Welded Connections of Members Other Than Flat Sheets The nominal tensile strength [resistance] of a welded member shall be determined in accordance with Section C2.14 in.60 0.2 EOL F5 For 0. For fracture and/or yielding in the effective net section of the connected part.50 Fu = Tensile strength of the connected part as specified in Section A2. ≤ t ≤ 0.50 0. effective net area with U defined as follows: When the load is transmitted only by transverse welds: A = Area of directly connected elements U = 1.47 (Eq.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification .6-3) (Eq.3.6-4) (Eq.0 for members when the load is transmitted directly to all of the cross sectional elements.9 but U shall not be less than 0.20 x L < 0. November 9. 2001 For 0. E2. E2.1. E2. Pn.: Pn = 43. Otherwise the reduction coefficient U is determined as follows: (a) For angle members: (Eq.356 cm ≤ t ≤ 0. the nominal tensile strength [resistance].57 mm: Pn = 7.7-2) U = 1.6-5) (Eq.

and C govern bolted connections used for cold-formed steel structural members in which the thickness of the thinnest connected part is less than 3/16 in. Classes 10. Compressible Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use with Structural Fasteners ASTM F959M. and washers shall generally conform to one of the following specifications: Z . For bolted connections in which the thickness of the thinnest connected part is equal to or greater than 3/16 in. Washers. Connections and Joints (b) For channel members U = 1.9 and 10. Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts ASTM A563M.7-3) E3 Bolted Connections When other than the above are used. High Strength Steel bolts. Compressible Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use with Structural Fasteners [Metric] 3X EOL F5 HY LH November 9.9. B. B.5. or C.3. 2001 The following design criteria and the requirements stipulated in Section E3a of Appendix A.36 x L < 0. 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength ASTM A325M. 150 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength ASTM A490M. refer to the specifications and standards stipulated in Section E3a of Appendix A.Chapter E. E2.76 mm). 118 )R U ASTM A194/A194M.0. (4. drawings shall indicate clearly the type and size of fasteners to be employed and the nominal strength [resistance] assumed in design.0 . Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs. (4. Heat-Treated Steel Structural Bolts. Studs. 60 000 PSI Tensile Strength ASTM A325. Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-Pressure and High-Temperature Service ASTM A307(Type A). Unhardened for General Use ASTM F959. Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts. and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners (for diameter of bolt smaller than 1/2 in. Bolts. for Structural Steel Joints [Metric] ASTM A563. x = Distance from shear plane to centroid of the cross section L = Length of longitudinal welds (Eq.) ASTM A490. Hardened Steel Washers [Metric] ASTM F844. Hardened Steel Washers ASTM F436M. High Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints [Metric] ASTM A354 (Grade BD). nuts. Structural Bolts.) ASTM A449.9 but U shall not be less than 0. Heat Treated.76 mm). Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and Studs (for diameter of bolt smaller than 1/2 in. Plain (Flat). Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts [Metric] ASTM F436. Steel. Steel.

50 Where C = Bearing factor. 2001 )R U = Modification factor for type of bearing connection.60 0. the design bearing strength [factored resistance] of bolted connections shall be determined by tests.1 Strength [Resistance] without Consideration of Bolt Hole Deformation When deformation around the bolt holes is not a design consideration.November 9. .3.2 Tension Member Shear Lag Effect in Bolted Connections E3.50 0. which shall be determined according to Table E3. the nominal bearing strength [resistance]. For conditions not shown.1-1) Pn = αCdtFu USA and Mexico Canada Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD) 2. of the connected sheet for each loaded bolt shall be determined as follows: (Eq.1 and E3.3. Z The provisions of this section are given in Section E3.2.2 of the Appendices.3. E3. E3.3.1-2. Spacing and Edge Distance E3.3 Bearing E3. 3X EOL F5 The design bearing strength [factored resistance] of bolted connections shall be determined according to Sections E3.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification .1-1.1 of the Appendices.2 α November 9. Pn.3.3.1 or A2.1 Shear. 2001 Bolts shall be installed and tightened to achieve satisfactory performance of the connections. HY LH 119 The provisions of this section are given in Section E3. which shall be determined according to Table E3. d = Nominal bolt diameter t = Uncoated sheet thickness Fu = Tensile strength of sheet as defined in Section A2.

3. the nominal bearing strength [resistance].65 0. in.64αt + 1. Pn. C Thickness of Connected Part.Chapter E.3. 120 November 9.61 ≤ t < 4. α.024 ≤ t < 0.8 1.1 E3.2 Strength [Resistance] with Consideration of Bolt Hole Deformation Pn = (4.1(d/t) .00 0. Connections and Joints Table E3.0394 for Metric units (with t in mm) = 0.75 1.1-2 Modification Factor.76) Table E3.1875 (0.22 0.53)dtFu 3X When deformation around a bolt hole is a design consideration. E3.0 4 .3.3.4 of the Appendices. Or With only One Washer Inside Sheet of Double Shear Connection With or Without Washers F5 E3.55 where α = Coefficient for conversion of units =1 for US customary units (with t in inches) = 0.3. for Type of Bearing Connection Type of Bearing Connection α Single Shear and Outside Sheets of Double Shear Connection With Washers Under Both Bolt Head and Nut Single Shear and Outside Sheets of Double Shear Connection Without Washers under both Bolt Head and Nut.33 Z 3. t.2-1) USA and Mexico Canada Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD) 2. d/t d/t < 10 10 ≤ d/t ≤ 22 d/t > 22 C 0.4 Shear and Tension in Bolts The provisions under this section are provided in Section E3.394 for MKS units (with t in cm) The other symbols are defined in Section E3. (mm) Ratio of Fastener Diameter to Member Thickness. shall also be limited by the following values: (Eq. 2001 )R U EOL HY LH 1.0.1-1: Bearing Factor.

The nominal screw connection strengths [resistances] shall also be limited by Section C2.40 Z .5d. shall be limited by Section E4. (2. the nominal shear strength per screw.November 9.2. Screws shall be installed and tightened in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.35 mm).1 Minimum Spacing E4.08 in. (6. φ. 2001 )R U The distance between the centers of fasteners shall not be less than 3d. The screws shall be thread-forming or thread-cutting. with or without a self-drilling point.00 0. If the end distance is parallel to the force on the fastener. The following factor of safety or resistance factor shall be used for the subsections of Chapter E4. Ω.25 in. determined according to Chapter F. The following notation applies to this section: d = Nominal screw diameter dw =Larger of the screw head diameter or the washer diameter Pns = Nominal shear strength [resistance] per screw Pss = Nominal shear strength [resistance] of screw as reported by HY LH 121 All E4 requirements shall apply to screws with 0.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification .3. Pns. For diaphragm applications. USA and Mexico Canada Ω(ASD) φ(LRFD) φ(LSD) 3.03 mm) ≤d ≤0.2 Minimum Edge and End Distance The distance from the center of a fastener to the edge of any part shall not be less than 1. November 9. 3X EOL Pnt Pnot Pnov Pts manufacturer or determined by independent laboratory testing = Nominal tension strength [resistance] per screw = Nominal pull-out strength [resistance] per screw = Nominal pull-over strength [resistance] per screw = Nominal tension strength [resistance] of screw as reported by F5 Alternatively.50 0. Section D5 shall be used. and the resistance factor. 2001 E4 Screw Connections t1 t2 tc Fu1 Fu2 manufacturer or determined by independent laboratory testing = Thickness of member in contact with the screw head = Thickness of member not in contact with the screw head =Lesser of the depth of the penetration and the thickness t2 = Tensile strength of member in contact with the screw head = Tensile strength of member not in contact with the screw head E4. with the factor of safety. design values for a particular application shall be permitted to be based on tests.

85 tc d Fu2 E4. shall have a diameter dw not less than 5/16 in.3.1-3) November 9.7 mm). E4. Pns shall be determined by linear interpolation between the above two cases.1-1) (Eq. 2001 .4 Tension E4. E4.0.7 t1 d Fu1 (Eq.3.3. E4. the head of the screw or washer. The provisions of this section are given in Section E4. E4.1-1) Pnot = 0. E4.3.5.94 mm). shall be calculated as follows: (Eq. Connections and Joints E4.4.3 Shear in Screws E4. Washers shall be at least 0. E4.3.3 Shear E4.5. Pnov. Pnot.2 of the Appendices.2 Pull-Over The nominal pull-over strength [resistance].1-4) Pns = 2. Pns shall be taken as the smaller of Pns = 2.2 Connection Shear as Limited by End Distance HY LH Z (Eq.1) Pnov = 1.3. (1.3.1 Pull-Out 122 )R U The nominal pull-out strength [resistance].3-1) F5 E4. Pns shall be taken as the smallest of Pns = 4.1-5) For 1.3.7 t1 d Fu1 Pns = 2. (12. shall be calculated as follows: (Eq.8Pss (Eq. (7.0 < t2/t1 < 2. E4. if a washer is provided.4.7 t2 d Fu2 For t2/t1 ≥ 2. E4.3.5 t1 dw Fu1 where dw shall be taken not larger than 1/2 in.3.4.27 mm) thick.1-2) (Eq.1 Connection Shear as Limited by Tilting and Bearing The nominal shear strength [resistance] per screw.2 (t23d)1/2Fu2 Pns = 2. shall be determined as follows: For t2/t1 ≤ 1.4. E4. 3X For screws which carry tension.Chapter E.050 in.7 t2 d Fu2 (Eq.2. Pns. EOL The nominal shear strength [resistance] of the screw shall be calculated as follows: Pns = 0.

2 Tension HY LH 123 The provisions provided under this section are given in Section E5 of the Appendices.8 Pts E5 Rupture E6 Connections to Other Materials E6. or product specifications and/or product literature.4.November 9. 2001 E4. E6. E4. Proper provision shall also be made for shearing forces in combination with other forces.1 Bearing Proper provisions shall be made to transfer bearing forces from steel components covered by the Specification to adjacent structural components made of other materials. Embedment requirements are to be met.3-1) Pnt = 0. The nominal tensile strength [resistance] of the fastener and the nominal embedment strength [resistance] of the adjacent structural component shall be determined by applicable product code approvals.3 Tension in Screws The nominal tension strength [resistance]. The required shear and/or bearing strength [resistance] on the steel components shall not exceed that allowed by this Specification. Z . F5 E6.4.3 Shear November 9. 2001 )R U Proper provisions shall be made to transfer shearing forces from steel components covered by this Specification to adjacent structural components made of other materials. Pnt. per screw shall be calculated as follows: (Eq. 3X EOL The pull-over shear/tension forces in the steel sheet around the head of the fastener shall be considered as well as the pull-out force resulting from axial loads and bending moments transmitted onto the fastener from various adjacent structural components in the assembly. The design shear strength [resistance] on the fasteners and other material shall not be exceeded.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification .

β o VM + VF + C P VP + VQ )R U F5 ! HY LH F1. or members shall satisfy Eq.52 for United States and Mexico = 1. connections.2. listed in Table F1 for the type of component involved = Mean value of the professional factor.1 Load and Resistance Factor Design and Limit States Design Z . M. No test result shall be eliminated unless a rationale for its exclusion can be given. F1. 2001 2 2 2 2 . more tests of the same kind shall be made until the deviation of any individual test result from the average value obtained from all tests does not exceed ±15 percent. ΣγiQi ≤ φRn (Eq. provided the deviation of any individual test result from the average value obtained from all tests does not exceed ±15 percent. (b) The provisions of Chapter F do not apply to cold-formed steel diaphragms. F1.1-1. F1. γi and Qi are load factors and load effects. Rn. for the series of the tests. TESTS FOR SPECIAL CASES (a) Tests shall be made by an independent testing laboratory or by a testing laboratory of a manufacturer.1. The average value of all tests made shall then be regarded as the nominal strength [resistance]. for the tested component = 1. Tests for Special Cases F. Rn = Average value of all test results EOL Cφ Mm Fm Pm βo 124 = C φ (M m Fm Pm )e (Eq. assemblies. respectively.Chapter F. If such deviation from the average value exceeds 15 percent. listed in Table F1 for the type of component involved = Mean value of the fabrication factor. Rn and the coefficient of variation VP of the test results shall be determined by statistical analysis.1-1) where ΣγiQi = Required strength [effect of factored loads] based on the most critical load combination determined in accordance with Section A5. Refer to Section D5. (b) The strength of the tested elements.1-2) = Calibration coefficient = 1. or until at least three additional tests have been made. P.42 for Canada = Mean value of the material factor. F.0 = Target reliability index November 9. F1 Tests for Determining Structural Performance φ = Resistance factor 3X Any structural performance which is required to be established by tests shall be evaluated in accordance with the following performance procedure: (a) Evaluation of the test results shall be made on the basis of the average value of test data resulting from tests of not fewer than three identical specimens.

November 9. the test results shall be adjusted down to the specified minimum yield point of the steel which the manufacturer intends to use.0. βo = 1. 3X EOL F5 HY LH 125 = = = = = = = = = (1+1/n)m/(m-2) for n ≥ 4. F1. and VQ = 0.5 for connections for United States and Mexico = 3. Similar adjustments shall be made on the basis of tensile strength instead of yield point where tensile strength is the critical factor. When distortions interfere with the proper functioning of the specimen in actual use.5.52 for the United States and Mexico.0 for structural members and 4.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification VM VF CP VP m n VQ e Note: ! of 1. φ shall be determined with a coefficient.5% Degrees of freedom n-1 Number of tests Coefficient of variation of the load effect 0. For beams having tension flange through-fastened to deck or sheathing and with compression flange laterally unbraced.5 for structural members and 3.1-3) . F1..43. the values of Mm and VM shall be determined by the statistical analysis for the materials used. and 5. The test results shall not be adjusted upward if the yield point of the test specimen is less than the minimum specified yield point.6 in lieu of 1.1. Consideration must also be given to any variation or differences which may exist between the design thickness and the thickness of the specimens used in the tests.0 for connections for Canada = Coefficient of variation of the material factor listed in Table F1 for the type of component involved = Coefficient of variation of the fabrication factor listed in Table F1 for the type of component involved = Correction factor (Eq. (c) If the yield point of the steel from which the tested sections are formed is larger than the specified value. but not less than 6. the load effects based on the critical load combination at the occurrence of the acceptable distortion shall also satisfy Eq.. except that the resistance factor φ is taken as unity and that the load factor for dead load is taken as 1.718. Cφ.7 for n = 3 Coefficient of variation of the test results.21 Natural logarithmic base 2. For steels not listed in Section A2. 2001 )R U The listing in Table F1 does not exclude the use of other documented statistical data if they are established from sufficient results on material properties and fabrication.1-1. Z = 2.

00 0.05 0.Chapter F.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.10 1.00 0.05 0.05 HY LH 1.06 0.00 0.10 1.10 0.10 0.05 0. 2001 .05 Wall Studs with Combined Axial load and Bending Structural Members Not Listed Above 126 November 9.00 1.05 0.10 VM 0.10 1.00 1.00 1.06 0.00 1.10 0.10 1.10 1.00 1.10 1.10 0.05 0.00 1.10 0.05 0.05 Shear Strength Combined Bending and Shear Web Crippling Strength Combined Bending and Web Crippling Concentrically Loaded Compression Members Cylindrical Tubular Members Bending Strength 3X Combined Axial Load and Bending EOL F5 One Flange Through-Fastened to Deck or Sheathing 1.05 0.10 0.10 1.05 0.00 1.00 1.10 0.05 1.00 VF 0.10 0.00 1.10 0.10 Z 1.05 0.00 1.10 Fm 1.00 1.10 0.05 1.00 1.10 0.00 1.10 1.05 0.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 0.05 Axial Compression Wall Studs in Compression Wall Studs in Bending )R U Wall Studs and Wall Stud Assemblies 1.00 1.00 1.00 1. Tests for Special Cases TABLE F1 Statistical Data for the Determination of Resistance Factor Type of Component Transverse Stiffeners Shear Stiffeners Tension Members Flexural Members Bending Strength Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength Mm 1.10 0.10 0.00 0.

00 1.05 0.10 F5 1.10 0.00 1.10 1.10 Minimum Spacing and Edge Distance Tension Strength on Net Section Bearing Strength Screw Connections 3X 0.10 0.10 1.10 0.10 0.10 1.10 0.10 1.10 Mm VM Fm VF Z 0.10 1.10 1.15 0.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification TABLE F1 (Continued) Statistical Data for the Determination of Resistance Factor Type of Component Welded Connections Arc Spot Welds Shear Strength of Welds Plate Failure Arc Seam Welds Shear Strength of Welds Plate Tearing Fillet Welds Shear Strength of Welds Plate Failure Flare Groove Welds Shear Strength of Welds Plate Failure Resistance Welds Bolted Connections 1.10 0.10 0.00 1.10 0.10 0.00 1.15 November 9.00 1.00 1.10 1.10 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.05 0.05 Minimum Spacing and Edge Distance Tension Strength on Net Section Bearing Strength Connections Not Listed Above )R U 0.10 1.10 0.10 0.08 0.08 1.10 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.10 0.00 0.08 1.10 1.10 1.10 0. 2001 127 .08 1.10 1.00 1.10 1.10 1.00 0.10 0.15 EOL 0.00 1.00 HY LH 1.10 0.00 0.10 1.00 0.10 1.

Rn. the yield point shall be determined by the autographic diagram method or by the total strain under load method. assemblies. and assemblies for which the nominal strength [resistance] can be computed according to this Specification or its specific references. specified in this Specification or its specific references for the type of behavior involved. connections.2-2) November 9. there shall be evidence that the yield point so determined agrees within 5 percent with the yield point which would be determined by the 0.2 percent offset method. (b) The compressive yield stress shall be taken as the smaller value of either the maximum compressive strength of the sections divided by the cross section area or the stress defined by one of the following methods: (1) For sharp yielding steel. 2001 .2 percent offset method 128 )R U 3X F3. except as modified in this section for allowable strength design. (2) For gradual yielding steel.1 Full Section EOL For structural members. The allowable design strength shall be calculated as: R = Rn/Ω (Eq.1. When the total strain under load method is used. confirmatory tests may be made to demonstrate the strength is not less than the nominal resistance. Compressive yield point determinations shall be made by means of compression tests of short specimens of the section. F5 in which φ is evaluated in accordance with Section F1.2 Allowable Strength Design Where the composition or configuration of elements. Tests for Special Cases F1.1.2 shall be made as specified below: (a) Tensile testing procedures shall agree with Standard Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products. The required allowable strength shall be determined from nominal loads and load combinations as described in A4.6 Ω = φ HY LH F2 Tests for Confirming Structural Performance F3 Tests for Determining Mechanical Properties Tests for determination of mechanical properties of full sections to be used in Section A7. their structural performance shall be established from tests and evaluated in accordance with Section F1. connections or details of cold-formed steel structural members are such that calculation of their strength cannot be made in accordance with the provisions of this Specification.2-1) where Rn = Average value of all test results Ω = Factor of safety to be computed as follows: 1.Chapter F. F1. F1. ASTM A370. the yield point shall be determined by the strain under load method or by the 0. Z (Eq.

shall be established by means of a weighted average of the yield points of standard tensile coupons taken longitudinally from the flat portions of a representative cold-formed member.2. the yield point shall be determined for the flanges only. (d) For acceptance and control purposes. In determining such yield points. one full section test shall be made from each master coil. The weighted average shall be the sum of the products of the average yield point for each flat portion times its cross sectional area. at least four tensile specimens shall be taken from each master coil for the establishment of the representative values of the virgin tensile yield point and tensile strength. divided by the total area of flats in the cross section. If the actual virgin yield point exceeds the specified minimum yield point. shall be adjusted by multiplying the test values by the ratio of the specified minimum yield point to the actual virgin yield point. (e) At the option of the manufacturer. EOL F5 HY LH 129 (c) Where the principal effect of the loading to which the member will be subjected in service will be to produce bending stresses. Fyf.. For acceptance and control purposes.e. either tension or compression tests may be used for routine acceptance and control purposes. 3X Tests for determining mechanical properties of flat elements of formed sections and representative mechanical properties of virgin steel to be used in Section A7. Specimens shall be taken longitudinally from the quarter points of the width near the outer end of the coil. each specimen shall consist of one complete flange plus a portion of the web of such flat width ratio that the value of ρ for the specimen is unity. provided the manufacturer demonstrates that such tests reliably indicate the yield point of the section when subjected to the kind of stress under which the member is to be used.2 Flat Elements of Formed Sections F3. At least one tensile coupon shall be taken from the middle of each flat.1 when used in sections for which the increased yield point of the steel after cold forming shall be computed from the virgin steel properties according to Section A7. on the number of flats in the cross section. i. The exact number of such coupons will depend on the shape of the member. 2001 )R U The following provisions apply to steel produced to other than the ASTM Specifications listed in Section A2. Z .Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification F3. the yield point of the flats.2 shall be made in accordance with the following provisions: The yield point of flats.3 Virgin Steel November 9. Fyf.

evaluation of fatigue resistance is not required for wind load applications in buildings. including sheared edges and cold-formed corners. If the live load stress range is less than the threshold stress range. transverse fillet welds. Welded attachments to a plate or a beam. FTH.6 Fy.2x1010 1. G4 9 (62) [633] G4 November 9. and continuous longitudinal fillet welds less than and equal to 2 inches. The maximum permitted tensile stress due to unfactored loads is 0. In the case of a stress reversal.0x109 )R U 130 HY LH G1 G2 G3. 2001 Z . The occurrence of full design wind or earthquake loads is too infrequent to warrant consideration in fatigue design. As-received base metal and weld metal in members connected by continuous longitudinal welds. Bolt and screw connections and spot welds. the provisions of this Chapter apply to stresses calculated on the basis of unfactored loads. Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members and Connections for Cyclic Loading (Fatigue) G.Chapter G. Therefore. 3X EOL I II III IV When cyclic loading is a design consideration. evaluation of fatigue resistance is also not required.0x1010 3. and intermittent welds parall l to the direction of the applied force. F5 3. G1 General Table G1: Fatigue Design Parameters for Cold-Formed Steel Structures Description Stress Category Constant Cf Threshold FTH. ksi (MPa) 2 [kg/cm ] 25 (172) [1760] 15 (103) [1050] 16 (110) [1120] Reference Figure As-received base metal and components with as-rolled surfaces.2x109 1. given in Table G1. DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS FOR CYCLIC LOADING (FATIGUE) This design procedure shall apply to cold-formed steel members and connections subject to cyclic loading within the elastic range of stresses of frequency and magnitude sufficient to initiate cracking and progressive failure (fatigue). the stress range shall be computed as the sum of the absolute values of maximum repeated tensile and compressive stresses or the sum of the absolute values of maximum shearing stresses of opposite direction at the point of probable crack initiation. Stress range is defined as the magnitude of the change in stress due to the application or removal of the unfactored live load. Longitudinal fillet welded attachments greater than 2 inches parall of the applied stress.

000. the calculated stresses shall include the effects of prying action. the maximum stresses. if applicable. and reactions for the connections. of each kind. or the total stresses including those due to eccentricity shall be included in the calculation of the stress range. G3-1) where: FSR = Design stress range Cf = Constant from Table G1 N = Number of stress range fluctuations in design life = Number of stress range fluctuations per day x 365 x years of design life = Threshold fatigue stress range. For members having symmetric cross sections. shall be included in the calculation of stress range. or shall specify the planned cycle life and the maximum range of moments. either complete details including weld sizes. Z . In the case of axial stress combined with bending. For axially stressed angle members where the center of gravity of the connecting welds lies between the line of the center of gravity of the angle cross section and the center of the connected leg. the total stresses. The contract documents shall provide. For bolts and threaded rods subject to axial tension. FSR = (αCf/N)0. For all stress categories.333 ≥ FTH (Eq. the effects of eccentricity shall be ignored. 2001 )R U 3X Calculated stresses shall be based upon elastic analysis. shears. The cyclic load resistance determined by the provisions of this Chapter is applicable only to structures subject to temperatures not exceeding 300°F (149°C). EOL F5 HY LH 131 Evaluation of fatigue resistance is not required if the number of cycles of application of live load is less than 20. including those due to joint eccentricity. shall be those determined for concurrent arrangements of applied load. Stresses shall not be amplified by stress concentration factors for geometrical discontinuities. If the center of gravity of the connecting welds lies outside this zone. The cyclic load resistance determined by the provisions of this Chapter is applicable to structures with suitable corrosion protection or subject only to nonaggressive atmospheres. the fasteners and welds shall be arranged symmetrically about the axis of the member.Draft of North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification G2 Calculation of Maximum Stresses and Stress Ranges G3 Design Stress Range The range of stress at service loads shall not exceed the design stress range computed using Equation G3-1. maximum stress range for FTH indefinite design life from Table G1 α = Coefficient for conversion of units November 9.

The threshold stress. ground or rolled threads. the maximum range of tensile stress on the net tensile area from applied axial load and moment plus load due to prying action shall not exceed the design stress range computed using Equation G3-1. G4-1a) At = (π/4) [db . common bolts.9743/n)]2 For Metric or MKS Units: (Eq. Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members and Connections for Cyclic Loading (Fatigue) = 1 for US customary units = 327 for SI units = 352.(0. The factor Cf shall be taken as 3. Category I Figure G1 Typical Detail for Category I FTH. Category II November 9. 2001 F5 HY LH Shear Edges 22x108.(0. 3X Figure G2 Typical Detail for Category II EOL Weld Welded I Beam. G4-1) At = (π/4) [db . Cold-Formed Corner Cold-Formed Steel Channels. (Eq.9x108.9382P)]2 132 )R U For not-fully-tightened high-strength bolts. The net tensile area is given by Equation G4-1.Chapter G. FTH. shall be taken as 7 ksi (48 MPa or 492 Z For mechanically fastened connections loaded in shear. the maximum range of stress in the connected material at service loads shall not exceed the design stress range computed using Equation G3-1. shall be taken as 7 ksi (48 MPa or 492 kg/cm2). The threshold stress.000 for MKS units G4 Bolts and Threaded Parts kg/cm2). and threaded anchor rods with cut. The factor Cf shall be taken as .

copes and weld access holes shall form a radius of not less than 3/8 in. or by thermal cutting to form the radius of the cut. weld tabs shall be used to provide for cascading the weld termination outside the finished joint. (101. L< 2 in. flush edges. November 9. Weld tabs shall be removed and the end of the weld finished flush with the edge of the member. (25 µm).8 mm)< L < 4 in. by pre-drilling or sub-punching and reaming a hole. shall be removed and the joint back gouged and welded. free of notches. where the reference standard is ASME B46.000 µin.1. if used.6 mm) HY LH 133 Z . Category III For transverse butt joints in regions of high tensile stress. (50.Draft of North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification where: At = Net tensile area db = Nominal diameter (body or shank diameter) n P = Number of threads per inch = Pitch (mm per thread for Metric Units and cm per thread for MKS Units) G5 Special Fabrication Requirements Typical Plate 3X EOL L L (a) Transverse Welds. shall be continuous. with a surface roughness not to exceed 1.000 µin. Flame cut edges subject to cyclic stress ranges shall have a surface roughness not to exceed 1. 2 in. Backing bars that are perpendicular to the stress field. Exception: Weld tabs are not required for sheet material if the welding procedures used result in smooth.8 mm) For Category IV. the cut surface shall be ground to a bright metal contour to provide a radiused transition. and if used. (25 µm). (10 mm). (50. where the reference standard is ASME B46. 2001 )R U Figure G3 Typical Attachments for Categories III and IV F5 Backing bars in welded connections that are parallel to the stress field are permitted to remain in place. (b) Longitudinal Welds For Category III . End dams shall not be used. Re-entrant corners at cuts.1 or other equivalent standards shall be referenced. If the radius portion is formed by thermal cutting.

Chapter G. Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members and Connections for Cyclic Loading (Fatigue) (c) Arc Spot or Plug Weld Figure G4 Typical Attachments for Category III 134 )R U 3X November 9. 2001 EOL F5 HY LH (c) Screws Z .

Included are items of a broad nature such as provisions for the design method to be used. November 9. • bolted connections.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members PREFACE TO APPENDIX A Appendix A provides specification provisions that are only applicable to the United States. Such items included certain provisions pertaining to the design of • beams (C and Z sections) for standing seam roofs. ASD or LRFD. Efforts will be made to minimize these differences in future editions of the Specification. 2001 )R U 3X EOL A1 F5 HY LH Also included in Appendix A are technical items where full agreement between the three countries was not reached. • welded connections. and provisions to use ASCE 7 for loads and load combinations where there is not an applicable building code. Reference documents that are not used by all three countries are listed here as well. Z . and • tension members.

A section number ending with a letter indicates that the provisions herein supplement the corresponding section in Chapters A through F of the Specification. 2001 3X EOL The nominal loads shall be as stipulated by the applicable building code under which the structure is designed or as dictated by the conditions involved. excluding dead load.1. However. A3. A section number not ending with a letter indicates that the section gives the entire design provision.Appendix A.75 load reduction shall not be used where similar load reductions are permitted by the applicable building code or ASCE 7.1.1a Scope and Limits of Applicability Designs shall be made according to the provisions for Load and Resistance Factor Design. The combined load used in design shall not be less than the sum of the effects of dead load and any single load that produces the largest effect. A1. F5 A3 Loads HY LH Z . Exception: When evaluating diaphragms using the provisions of Section D5. The above 0. as stipulated in the American Society of Civil Engineers Standard. the two methods shall not be mixed in designing the various cold-formed steel components of a structure. shall be permitted to be multiplied by 0. or to the provisions for Allowable Stress Design.75. in the absence of an applicable building code. ASCE 7. In the absence of a building code. Where allowed.1 Nominal Loads A4. The combined effects of two or more loads. Provisions Applicable to the United States APPENDIX A: PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO THE UNITED STATES This Appendix provides design provisions or supplements to Chapters A through F that are only applicable to the United States.2 Load Factors and Load Combinations for LRFD The structure and its components shall be designed so that design strengths equal or exceed the effects of the factored nominal loads and load November 2. both methods are equally acceptable although they may or may not produce identical designs. the nominal loads shall be those stipulated in the American Society of Civil Engineers Standard. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. A5. ASCE 7.2 Load Combinations for ASD A2 )R U The structure and its components shall be designed so that allowable design strengths equal or exceed the effects of the nominal loads and load combinations as stipulated by the applicable building code under which the structure is designed or. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. no decrease in forces is permitted for load combinations including wind or earthquake loads.

shall be the smallest value obtained according to the limit states of (a) yielding in the gross section.67 (ASD) φt = 0. One East Wacker Drive. Suite 3100. “Recommended Practices for Resistance Welding. 20191 2. AWS C1. LeJeune Road.75 (LRFD) )R U For axially loaded tension members. Tn. 550 N. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Illinois 60601-2001. American Welding Society. Suite 3100. December 27.00 (ASD) φt = 0.W. Florida 33135 F5 HY LH (Eq. American Institute of Steel Construction. AWS D1. Florida 33135 5. Miami. June 1. American Society of Civil Engineers. Chicago. “Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. LeJeune Road. American Welding Society. “Recommended Practices for Resistance Welding Coated Low Carbon Steels.W.” American Welding Society (AWS). in the absence of an applicable building code.1-66.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members combinations stipulated by the applicable building code under which the structure is designed or.W.” American Welding Society (AWS). ASCE 7. AWS C1. 2001 Z A9a Referenced Documents . Illinois 60601-2001. 1801 Alexander Bell Drive. the nominal tensile strength [resistance]. Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design. LeJeune Road. 1999 4. C2-2) A3 November 9. “Minimum Design Loads in Buildings and Other Structures. C2-1) 3X EOL The following documents are referenced in Appendix A: 1. as stipulated in the American Society of Civil Engineers Standard. Miami.3-98.90 (LRFD) (b) For fracture away from the connection: Tn =AnFu Ωt = 2. American Welding Society. Chicago.” American Welding Society (AWS). American Institute of Steel Construction. ASCE 7-98.3-70 (Reaffirmed 1987). and (c) fracture in the effective net section at the connection: (a) For yielding: Tn = AgFy (Eq. Miami. 550 N. “Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”. (b) fracture in the net section away from connections. Florida 33135 6. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). “Structural Welding Code Sheet Steel.” American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). 550 N.” American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). One East Wacker Drive. 1989 3. C2 Tension Members Ωt = 1. Reston VA.

90 (LRFD) where R = Reduction factor determined by the "Base Test Method for Purlins Supporting a Standing Seam Roof System" of Part VIII of the AISI Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual. Except as modified herein. of a C. (4.1. Welders and welding procedures shall be qualified as specified in AWS D1. These provisions are intended to cover the welding positions as shown in Table E2a.67 (ASD) A4 )R U For welded connections in which the thickness of the thinnest connected part is greater than 0.18 in.1. or the “Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”. and screw connections. and E5 for tension members using welded connections.3.1 or AWS C1. 3X EOL F5 HY LH where Tn = Nominal strength [resistance] of member when loaded in tension Ag= Gross area of cross section An= Net area of the cross section Fy = Design yield stress as determined in Section A7. refer to the AISC “Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.4-1) Mn = RSeFy φb = 0.Appendix A.3. Se and Fy are defined in Section C3. Mn.1.1.4 Beams Having One Flange Fastened to a Standing Seam Roof System The nominal flexural strength. E3. 2001 . Z November 2.57 mm).2 (c) For fracture at the connection: The nominal tensile strength [resistance] shall also be limited by Sections E2.1 or A2. Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design”. (4. C3. E2a Welded Connections Ωb = 1.57 mm) or less in thickness shall be made in accordance with the AWS D1. arc welds on steel where at least one of the connected parts is 0. Provisions Applicable to the United States C3. loaded in a plane parallel to the web with the top flange supporting a standing seam roof system shall be determined using discrete point bracing and the provisions of Section C3.1.1 Fu = Tensile strength as specified in Section A2.2. bolted connections. Resistance welds shall be made in conformance with the procedures given in AWS C1.1 or shall be calculated as follows: (Eq.or Z-section.3 and its Commentary.3.7.18 in.

(4. Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design”. (d + 1/32) by (21/2 d) (d + 1/16) by (21/2 d) November 9. refer to AISC “Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. Seam Arc Spot Lap or T Weld Weld FlareBevel Groove Flare-V Groove Weld .76 mm). For bolted connections in which the thickness of the thinnest connected part is equal to or greater than 3/16 in. in. (4. except that larger holes may be used in column base details or structural systems connected to concrete walls. H = horizontal. inches Short-Slotted Hole Dimensions in. d dh dh in. OH = overhead) HY LH F H V OH F H V OH     A5 Sheet to Sheet F H V OH     F H   F H V OH Z F H V OH F H V OH Connection Square Groove Butt Weld TABLE E2a Welding Positions Covered Welding Position Fillet Arc Weld. 2001 EOL F5 (F = Flat. Bolt Diameter. Standard holes shall be used in bolted connections. in. The holes for bolts shall not exceed the sizes specified in Table E3a. (d + 1/32) by (d + 1/4) (d + 1/16) by (d + 1/4) Long-Slotted Hole Dimensions in. Hole Diameter. except that oversized and slotted holes may be used as approved by the designer. or the “Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”. The length of TABLE E3a Maximum Size of Bolt Holes.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members Sheet to Supporting Member     F    F    E3a Bolted Connections Standard Nominal Oversized Hole Diameter. < 1/2 ≥ 1/2 d + 1/32 d + 1/16 d + 1/16 d + 1/8 )R U 3X In addition to the design criteria given in Section E3 of the Specification. V = vertical. the following design requirements shall also be followed for bolted connections used for cold-formed steel structural members in which the thickness of the thinnest connected part is less than 3/16 in.76 mm).

Diameter. millimeters Standard Nominal Oversized Hole Hole Diameter.8) by (d + 6. Washers or backup plates shall be installed over oversized or slotted holes in an outer ply unless suitable performance is demonstrated by tests in accordance with Chapter F.4) Long-Slotted Hole Dimensions mm slotted holes shall be normal to the direction of the shear load.70 (LRFD) (b) When Fu/Fsy < 1.1 or A2.6 d + 3.1 Shear. d.22 (ASD) φ =0.1-1) where Pn = Nominal strength [resistance] per bolt = The distance measured in the line of force from the center of a standard hole to the nearest edge of an adjacent hole or to the end of the connected part t = Thickness of thinnest connected part Fu = Tensile strength of the connected part as specified in Section A2. nuts. Spacing and Edge Distance The nominal shear strength [resistance].6) by (21/2 d) . Provisions Applicable to the United States TABLE E3a Maximum Size of Bolt Holes.6) by (d + 6. E3.08: (a) When Fu/Fsy ≥ 1. Also.2 e In addition.00 (ASD) φ =0. d dh mm mm mm < 12.08: F5 HY LH Z (d + 0.Appendix A.4) (d + 1.2 Fsy = Yield point of the connected part as specified in Section A2.2 Short-Slotted Hole Dimensions mm (d + 0. Pn.8 d + 1. 2001 Ω =2. E3.8) by (21/2 d) (d + 1. washers and the wrench. the minimum distance between centers of bolt holes shall provide sufficient clearance for bolt heads.1 or A2. of the connected part as affected by spacing and edge distance in the direction of applied force shall be calculated as follows: Pn = teFu (Eq.6 d + 1.7 d + 0.7 ≥ 12. nuts. the distance from the center of any standard hole to the end or other boundary of the connecting member A6 )R U 3X Ω =2. washers and the wrench but shall not be less than 3 times the nominal bolt diameter.60 (LRFD) EOL November 2. dh Bolt Diameter. The minimum distance between centers of bolt holes shall provide sufficient clearance for bolt heads.

1 or 3X EOL F5 The nominal tensile strength [resistance] of a bolted member shall be determined in accordance with Section C2.2-1) (a) When washers are provided under both the bolt head and the nut: For a single bolt.65 (LRFD) where An = Net area of the connected part For double shear: Ω =2.2-4) For multiple bolts in the line parallel to the force (Eq.55 (LRFD) (b) When either washers are not provided under the bolt head and the nut.2-2) For multiple bolts in the line parallel to the force (Eq.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members E3. 2001 )R U s d A2. E3. or a single row of bolts perpendicular to the force Ft = (0. E3. For oversized and slotted holes. the distance between edges of two adjacent holes and the distance measured from the edge of the hole to the end or other boundary of the connecting member in the line of stress shall not be less than the value of e-(dh/2).5d/s) Fu ≤ Fu (Eq.22 (ASD) φ =0.00 (ASD) φ =0.2-5) Ft = Fu = Sheet width divided by the number of bolt holes in the cross section being analyzed (when evaluating Ft) Fu = Tensile strength of the connected part as specified in Section A2. Z A7 . shall be determined as follows: (1) For flat sheet connections not having staggered hole patterns: Pn = AnFt (Eq. in which e is the required distance computed from the applicable equation given above. and dh is the diameter of a standard hole defined in Table E3a.65 (LRFD) For single shear: Ω =2.2 Tension Member Shear Lag Effect in Bolted Connections November 9. For fracture in the effective net section of the connected part. or only one washer is provided under either the bolt head or the nut: Ft = (2. E3.2 = Nominal bolt diameter Ω =2. Pn. E3.2-3) Ft = Fu HY LH shall not be less than 11/2 d. E3. In no case shall the clear distance between edges of two adjacent holes be less than 2d and the distance between the edge of the hole and the end of the member be less than d.22 (ASD) φ =0.1 + 3d/s) Fu ≤ Fu (Eq. the nominal tensile strength [resistance].

65 (LRFD) where Fu = Tensile strength of the connected part as specified in Section A2.2-2 to E3.0 for members when the load is transmitted directly to all of the cross-sectional elements. resulting from shear.Appendix A.4.nbdht + (∑s′2/4g)t] Ag =Gross area of member s′ g nb dh =Longitudinal center-to-center spacing of any two consecutive holes =Transverse center-to-center spacing between fastener gage lines =Number of bolt holes in the cross section being analyzed =Diameter of a standard hole t is defined in Section E3.90 [Ag .4-1. (b) For Channel members having two or more bolts in the line of force (Eq.0 . 2001 . effective net area with U defined as follows: U = 1.65 (LRFD) where Ft is determined in accordance with Eqs.36 x L < 0.0 .2-8) November 2. E3.2-7) (Eq.4 Shear and Tension in Bolts The nominal bolt strength [resistance].1.20 x L < 0. E3.3.22 (ASD) φ =0. E3.9 EOL U = 1. E3. x = Distance from shear plane to centroid of the cross section L = Length of the connection E3. E3. Pn. Otherwise.0. tension or a combination of shear and tension shall be calculated as follows: (Eq.2-9) U = 1. E3.4-1) Pn = Ab Fn where Ab = Gross cross-sectional area of bolt When bolts are subject to shear or tension: Fn is given by Fnv or Fnt in Table E3.22 (ASD) φ =0.2 Ae = AnU.2-10) but U shall not be less than 0.2-5.1 or Z Ω =2. Provisions Applicable to the United States An =0.1.2-6) (Eq. (2) For flat sheet connections having staggered hole patterns: Pn = AnFt (Eq.9 3X but U shall not be less than 0.5. (3) For other than flat sheet: Pn = AeFu HY LH A2. A8 )R U F5 Ω =2. E3. the reduction coefficient U is determined as follows: (a) For angle members having two or more bolts in the line of force (Eq.

2001 )R U 3X EOL A9 F5 HY LH Z . see Section E6.4-3 or E3. The pullover strength [resistance] of the connected sheet at the bolt head.4-5 (metric units) or E3.4-5 (metric units) or E3. nut or washer shall be considered where bolt tension is involved.4-2 or E3.4-1.4-4 (metric units) or E3.4-6 (MKS units) For LRFD Fn is given by F′nt in Table E3.4-7 (MKS units) φ is given in Table E3.4-3 or E3.2.4-6 (MKS units) Ω is given in Table E3.4-2 or E3.4-4 (metric units) or E3.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members Ω and φ are given in Table E3. When bolts are subject to a combination of shear and tension: For ASD Fn is given by F′nt in Table E3.4-7 (MKS units) November 9.

5 (279) [2850] 45.Appendix A. A10 November 2. (6. when threads are excluded from shear planes 2.0 (324) [3300] 3X )R U 72. Grade A d ≥ 1/2 in.0 (558) [5700] 81. (6.0 EOL F5 101. when threads are not excluded from shear planes A354 Grade BD Bolts 1/4 in. (12.4-1 Nominal Tensile and Shear Strength [Resistance] for Bolts Tensile Strength [Resistance] Nominal Stress Fnt.0 (621) [6330] * Applies to bolts in holes as limited by Table E3a.4 mm) ≤ d < 1/2 in.65 Ω (ASD) φ (LRFD) Ω (ASD) φ (LRFD) 90. (1. when threads are not excluded from shear planes A490 Bolts.5 (776) [7910] 112. when threads are not excluded from shear planes A449 Bolts 1/4 in.0 (310) [3160] 90. 2001 . Grade A 1/4 in. Washers or back-up plates shall be installed over long-slotted holes and the capacity of connections using long-slotted holes shall be determined by load tests in accordance with Chapter F. Provisions Applicable to the United States TABLE E3.0 (621) [6330] 101.7 mm).25 2.0 (372) [3800] 72. when threads are excluded from shear planes A449 Bolts 1/4 in.0 (558) [5700] 112.0 (496) [5060] 59.4 mm) ≤ d < 1/2 in.0 (621) [6330] 47.4 mm) ≤ d < 1/2 in. A325 bolts.7 mm).7 mm). (6. (12.5 (776) [7910] HY LH A307 Bolts. when threads are not excluded from shear planes A325 bolts. (12.5 (465) [4750] 90.4 0.0 (407) [4150] A307 Bolts.25 0.7 mm).0 (696) [7100] Shear Strength [Resistance]* Nominal Stress Fnv. (12. (6. ksi (MPa) [kg/cm2] 24.75 Z 2.0 (186) [1900] 54. when threads are excluded from shear planes A490 Bolts.7 mm) 2.0 (696) [7100] 81.4 mm) ≤ d < 1/2 in. ksi (MPa) [kg/cm2] 40.0 (165) [1690] 27.4 mm) ≤ d <1/2 in.0 (496) [5060] 67.0 (621) [6330] 90. when threads are excluded from shear planes A354 Grade BD Bolts 1/4 in. (6.

8fv ≤ 101 141 .1.6fv ≤ 101 110 .4fv ≤ 40. for Bolts Subjected to the Combination of Shear and Tension Threads Excluded Threads Not Factor of Safety. fv. from Description of Bolts Excluded from Shear Planes Shear Planes φ A354 Grade BD Bolts 0.9fv ≤ 112.2.5 101 . F′nt (ksi).1.4-2 (ASD) Nominal Tension Stress.4fv ≤ 112. for Bolts Subjected to the Combination of Shear and Tension Threads Excluded Threads Not Resistance Factor.25 0.4fv ≤ 45 52 .5 .5 100 . fv.1.8fv ≤ 90 58.8fv ≤ 81 122 .2.9fv ≤ 90 A325 Bolts A354 Grade BD Bolts A449 Bolts A490 Bolts A307 Bolts. When d ≥ 1/2 in.4fv ≤ 45 TABLE E3.2. November 9.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members HY LH 136 .2.6fv ≤ 90 110 .6fv ≤ 81 122 .2.5 The shear stress.0 2.3.6fv ≤ 112.4-1.5 52 – 2. shall also satisfy Table E3.9fv ≤ 81 127 .4-3 (LRFD) Nominal Tension Stress.5 100 . Grade A When 1/4 in.3. 3X 101 . When d ≥ 1/2 in. Grade A When 1/4 in. 2001 )R U Z 2.4fv ≤ 40.4fv ≤ 81 127 .75 TABLE E3. from Description of Bolts Excluded from Shear Planes Shear Planes Ω A11 .8fv ≤ 112.3. F5 47 – 2.2.2. F′nt (ksi).4fv ≤ 90 141 .5 The shear stress. ≤ d < 1/2 in.3. ≤ d < 1/2 in.2.9fv ≤ 101 113 .1.4-1. shall also satisfy Table E3.75 A307 Bolts.4fv ≤ 101 A325 Bolts A449 Bolts A490 Bolts EOL 113 . 136 .

2.1.2.7 mm )R U When 6.7 mm The shear stress.9fv ≤ 776 0.6fv ≤ 558 A307 Bolts.8fv ≤ 696 Z 2.4fv ≤ 310 324 – 2.6fv ≤ 621 758 – 2.1.75 0.4fv ≤ 279 HY LH 938 – 2.9fv ≤ 558 972 .4fv ≤ 621 696 .25 November 2. shall also satisfy Table E3. fv. shall also satisfy Table E3.4-1. fv.4fv ≤ 279 The shear stress.8fv ≤ 558 TABLE E3.2.4fv ≤ 558 876 .4-5 (LRFD) Nominal Tension Stress.75 A307 Bolts.4fv ≤ 776 TABLE E3.4 mm ≤ d < 12.4fv ≤ 696 972 .4fv ≤ 310 359 . Shear Planes Shear Planes φ A325 Bolts 758 – 3. 2001 . from Description of Bolts Excluded from Shear Planes Shear Planes φ A354 Grade BD Bolts 779 – 1. A12 F5 359 – 2.4-4 (ASD) Nominal Tension Stress.4 mm ≤ d < 12.9fv ≤ 696 696 .6fv ≤ 776 690 – 3.8fv ≤ 621 2.9fv ≤ 621 876 . Grade A When d ≥ 12.7 mm When d ≥ 12.0 A354 Grade BD Bolts 841 – 3. F′nt (MPa).4-1.7 mm 403 . for Bolts Subjected to the Combination of Shear and Tension Threads Not Threads Excluded Description of Bolts Excluded from from Factor of Safety.6fv ≤ 696 841 – 2. Grade A When 6.8fv ≤ 776 690 – 2. F′nt (MPa). Provisions Applicable to the United States A449 Bolts A490 Bolts 938 – 3. for Bolts Subjected to the Combination of Shear and Tension Threads Excluded Threads Not Resistance Factor.1.Appendix A. 3X A325 Bolts A449 Bolts A490 Bolts EOL 779 – 2.

9fv ≤ 5700 8930 – 1. A325 Bolts A449 Bolts A490 Bolts 3X TABLE E3. fv.8fv ≤ 6330 7730 – 3.Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members A354 Grade BD Bolts A449 Bolts A490 Bolts A307 Bolts.4fv ≤ 5700 8930 – 2.8fv ≤ 5700 8580 – 2. φ 2.4fv ≤ 2850 A354 Grade BD Bolts )R U A307 Bolts.6fv ≤ 5700 8580 – 3.4-1.6fv ≤ 7910 7030 – 3.4fv ≤ 2850 HY LH 9560 – 2. shall also satisfy Table E3.64 cm ≤ d < 1. F′nt (kg/cm2).4fv ≤ 6330 F5 3660 – 2.9fv ≤ 7100 7950 – 1. November 9.4fv ≤ 3160 3300 – 2. φ 0.64 cm ≤ d < 1. for Bolts Subjected to the Combination of Shear and Tension Threads Excluded Description of Bolts Threads Not from Excluded from Shear Shear Planes Planes EOL 9910 – 2.9fv ≤ 6330 TABLE E3.4fv ≤ 7910 7100 – 2.27 cm 4110 .25 Resistance Factor. shall also satisfy Table E3.75 0.4-1. Grade A When d ≥ 1.0 2.4fv ≤ 7100 7950 – 2.27 cm When d ≥ 1.9fv ≤ 7910 7100 – 1.27 cm When 0.8fv ≤ 7910 7030 – 2.27 cm The shear stress. for Bolts Subjected to the Combination of Shear and Tension Threads Excluded Description of Bolts Threads Not from Shear Planes Excluded from Shear Planes A325 Bolts 7730 – 2.4fv ≤ 3160 3660 . 2001 Z Factor of Safety.4-7 (LRFD) Nominal Tension Stress.6fv ≤ 6330 The shear stress. F′nt (kg/cm2).8fv ≤ 7100 9910 – 1. fv.75 A13 .4-6 (ASD) Nominal Tension Stress.6fv ≤ 7100 When 0. Grade A 9560 – 3.

6 FuAwn (Eq. 2001 . E5.3. 3X n = Number of holes in the critical plane dh = Hole diameter Fu = Tensile strength of the connected part as specified in Section A2. E4.2 Z (Eq.7 or E3.ndh)t hwc = Coped flat web depth F5 At beam-end connections.1-2) November 2.1 Shear Rupture EOL Ω = 2. Fu = Tensile strength of the part in which the end distance is measured. t = Thickness of coped web E5. the nominal shear strength [resistance].3 Block Shear Rupture The nominal block shear rupture strength [resistance]. E5. respectively.75 (LRFD) where Awn= (hwc .50 (ASD) (LRFD) E5 Rupture E5. Rn.6FuAnv + FyAgt (Eq.2 Connection Shear as Limited by End Distance The nominal shear strength [resistance] per screw. Provisions Applicable to the United States E4.3-1) (b) When FuAnt < 0.6FuAnv Rn = 0. shall be determined as follows: (a) When FuAnt ≥ 0.2-1) = 3. where one or more flanges are coped and failure might occur along a plane through the fasteners. shall be calculated as follows: Vn = 0.1-1) HY LH Ω φ where t e = Thickness of the part in which the end distance is measured = The distance measured in the line of force from the center of a standard hole to the nearest end of the connected part. Pns shall not exceed that calculated as follows when the distance to an end of the connected part is parallel to the line of the applied force.3-2) A14 )R U The nominal tensile rupture strength [resistance] along a path in the affected elements of connected members shall be determined by Section E2.3.2 Tension Rupture E5. E5.Appendix A.6FyAgv + FuAnt (Eq.2 for welded or bolted connections. Vn.6FuAnv Rn = 0.1 or A2. E5. Pns = teFu (Eq.00 (ASD) φ =0.00 = 0.

Draft North American Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members November 9.65 (LRFD) For welded connections: Ω = 2.50 (ASD) φ =0. 2001 )R U 3X EOL A15 F5 HY LH For bolted connections: Ω = 2.60 (LRFD) where Agv = Gross area subject to shear Agt = Gross area subject to tension Anv = Net area subject to shear Ant = Net area subject to tension Z .22 (ASD) φ =0.