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Waste cooking oil as a Diesel Alternative

Cooking oil is used in every household and food industries; the waste cooking oil (WCO) is unsuitable for human consumption. WCO is usually readily available and thus is ideal to be used in small power diesel engines. WCO basically consists of a mixture of base oil used for cooking i.e. crude oil, coconut oil etc. and fat or carbon molecules present in the food cooked, which when ignited produce heat/energy. But the problems faced with WCO are high viscosity and high penetration of fuel spay. WCO has the potential to replace biodiesel as using relatively unmodified oils or fats eliminates the problems associated with toxic and caustic precursor chemicals and residual biodiesel alkalinity as the oil is used without altering its chemical properties. Test was performed to check the desired properties of the fuel and was compared against the conventional fuels. The fuel supports economy and is environmentally sustainable but also has a few downsides as is discussed here on.

paper discusses the use of waste vegetable oil as unmodified fuels in compression ignition engines and to what extent can this replace diesel for accomplishing the same result. It also discusses how significantly this can contribute in tackling the global problem if used at full extent. India¶s Energy scenario: India spends maximum of its foreign earnings on importing crude oil for meeting its growing energy demand. On the other hand, Global warming is the looming concern today. CO2 is the largest contributor to the phenomenon of global warming and petroleum products are the largest source of CO2 emission into the environment. CO2 cannot be stopped being emitted from burning of petroleum products, but it certainly can be reduced to a great extent by way of efficient utilization of these products or even better, by finding alternate fuels. Cooking oil: Edible vegetable oil is generally not used as fuel, but lower quality oil can be used for this purpose. But, used vegetable oil is now being processed and used as fuels. To ensure that the fuel injectors atomize the fuel in the correct pattern for efficient combustion, vegetable oil fuel must be heated to reduce its viscosity to that of diesel, either by electric coils or heat exchangers. Vegetable oil can also be used in many older diesel engines that do not use common rail or unit injection electronic diesel injection systems. Due to the design of the combustion chambers in indirect injection engines, these are the best engines for use with vegetable oil. Oils and fats can be hydrogenated to give a diesel substitute. The resulting

I. INTRODUCTION With the emerging concerns for global energy crisis, it has become important to look into alternate sources of energy, which are both economically and ecologically sustainable in nature. Because the problem is huge and there is no single solution to it, steps need to be taken in all directions, at all levels and by all sectors to combat this rising global problem. Waste cooking oil (WCO) can work as an effective environment friendly solution for saving money and reducing petroleum oil dependency. This

the lower the number of double bonds. high in cetane.product is a straight chain hydrocarbon. Cooking oil can be recycled. it is preferable to use saturated fats as fuels as they are more stable and less resistant to oxidation. low in aromatics and sulphur and does not contain oxygen. Generally peaking. such as coal. Initially the ratings and power generated by the engine were tested with diesel as the fuel at various loads just to determine the engine baseline operations. A single litre of oil can contaminate as much as 1 million litres of water. III. the engine .3 33-40 engine value had to be started Viscosity 4-5 4-6 on diesel (@20C) fuel and then was Viscosity 4-5 switched (@40C) over to 4-6 these fuels. EXPERIMENT An experiment was conducted on a diesel engine. However due to their higher melting points. or renewable sources. Hydrogenated oils can be blended with diesel in all proportions. Viscosity 4-5 4-6 Every (@70C) time the fuel Cetane 45 45-65 blend Number was changed the engine was made to run for a while to determine the steady state characteristics of the engine for that fuel blend. and serve as an environment friendly and economic substitute to diesel.84 0. Thus a country can benefit from adoption of bio-fuels. To prevent clogging of the fuel lines and other engine parts and to get accurate readings. II. difficulty may be encountered in starting the engine without pre-heating of the fat. and substituted with use of locally available sources. It can be used to produce biodiesel. From an engine use point of view. Hydrogenated oils have several advantages over bio-diesel. the higher the melting point of the triglyceride and the greater the stability of the triglyceride to polymerisation and spontaneous oxidation. To run the Properties Diesel Biodiesel engine on Density 0. The viscosity is sufficiently low to allow its use as a replacement fuel for diesel without too much difficulty. Also. While the total energy balance is debated. no storage stability problems and no susceptibility to microbial attack. This procedure was repeated now using blended fuel. relate mainly to the level of saturation in the carbon chain. MAIN EMBODIMENT An alternative to the use of biodiesel is the use of vegetable oil or animal fats as a fuel. the Calorific 38. Oil is lighter than water and tends to spread into thin and broad membranes which hinder the oxygenation of water. particularly under the elevated temperatures and pressures as found in an engine environment. whether of animal or vegetable origin. IV. oil can congeal on pipes provoking blockages.88 blended (kg/L) fuel or WCO. This means that a nation's dependence on oil is reduced. OBJECTIVE & SUMMARY OF THE CONCEPT One of the main drivers for using WCO as an alternate t diesel is energy security. The differences amongst fats and oils. including good performance at low temperatures. it is clear that the dependence on oil is reduced. Proper disposal of used cooking oil is an important waste-management concern. without a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. gas.

The engine is provide with the fuel lines that provide the engine with the diesel or the blended fuel. the ignition of the fuel was very difficult to obtain. ‡ The table given below further strengthens the use of WCO as a fuel as a replacement of diesel and bio-diesel. the viscosity and surface tension of the WCO was reduced by preheating it. this is decided by the user and the required fuel line is switched using the fuel switching circuit. . by using the readings obtained we calculate the engine power and the engine performance with different types of fuels and fuel blends. Diesel fuel is directly given while the WCO has to be preheated to reduce the viscosity and the surface tension of the fuel. otherwise poor atomization. also with WCO the problems faced were high viscosity and high penetration of fuel spay. as incomplete combustion and carbonization may result which would lead to engine degradation or as an alternative to solve these problems instead of using 100% WCO.The fuel blends used were as follows: ‡ 30% diesel and 70% WCO ‡ 20% diesel and 80% WCO ‡ 10% diesel and 90% WCO ‡ 100% WCO. ‡ The power output and tailpipe emissions using WCO are in most cases comparable with those when running on petroleum diesel fuel. When 100% WCO was used. ‡ These limitation were overcome. ‡ WCO is fast replacing biodiesel as using relatively unmodified oils or fats eliminates the problems associated with toxic and caustic precursor chemicals and residual bio-diesel alkalinity as the oil is used without altering its chemical properties. Engine is coupled with a dynamometer which measures the force or torque produced by the engine. the viscosity of plant and animal fats and oils varies from hard crystalline solids to light oils at room temperature.was made to run with diesel fuel after the end of every test just to flush out the engine. This fuel is usually heated with the waste heat energy produced by the engine. it was usually blended with diesel oil. typically by using waste heat from the engine or electricity. To blend the WCO fuel with diesel by volume or percentage it was measured using a burette.