Country Profile of Conventional and Renewable Energies: Republic of Cameroon

Last updated on 13/09/06

Prepared by Maria-Evangelia Kaninia Intern from August to …, 2006 For the Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division Energy Statistics Section United Nations, New York

Table of contents
1 2 Executive summary.................................................................................................... 3 Introduction and Overview ......................................................................................... 4 2.1 Brief Country Facts (source: [CIA]) ....................................................................... 4 2.1.1 Geographical data......................................................................................... 4 2.1.2 Population ..................................................................................................... 4 2.1.3 Political situation ........................................................................................... 4 2.1.4 Economical situation ..................................................................................... 4 2.2 Overview of the Energy Sector.............................................................................. 5 2.2.1 Production, trade and consumption of commercial energy .......................... 5 2.3 Overview of Renewable Energy .......................................................................... 12 2.3.1 Overview of available RE resources........................................................... 12 2.3.2 Legislative and institutional structure.......................................................... 12 2.3.3 RE targets and commitments ..................................................................... 12 3 Analysis of Renewable Energy Sector..................................................................... 13 3.1 Analysis of Different Types of Renewable Energy .............................................. 13 3.1.1 Hydro .......................................................................................................... 13 3.1.2 Solar............................................................................................................ 14 3.1.3 Wind............................................................................................................ 14 3.1.4 Biomass & Waste........................................................................................ 15 3.2 Summary and Conclusion ................................................................................... 16 3.2.1 RE development within the overall context of the domestic energy sector 16 3.2.2 Assessment of policies, institutions and technological capacities.............. 16 3.2.3 Summary and assessment of major constraints......................................... 16 4 References / Sources .............................................................................................. 16 4.1 Information sources ............................................................................................. 16

1 Executive summary
Cameroon is a West African country just north of the equator line with a population of 17 million. With a GDP of $2400 per capita (estimation for 2005), it ranks amidst the poorest countries of the world (beneath the average $2820 per capita of Sub-Saharan Africa (according to data retrieved from [EIU])), although it is politically stable. Energy-wise, oil reserves have been exploited since the seventies but are currently on a steady decline. The sole refinery of the country can not process the entire quantity of crude oil that is produced in the country, so that oil distillates are actually imported. Proved gas reserves are succeeding as a probable substitute of declining oil revenues. The electricity generation sector relies almost entirely on the hydromechanical potential of the country, but supplies mainly an industrial aluminum energy-intensive industry and only a meager part of the population. The latter turns traditionally to fuelwood to satisfy the residential energy needs. Renewable energy projects that are currently being planned concern the further exploitation of the hydro potential. Development of the electricity sector could alleviate the burden currently placed on the forests of Cameroon, which provide the fuelwood for the electricitydeprived population. Small-scale, distributed RE (for example solar) projects could also be developed. However, no official frame providing funding exists.

2 Introduction and Overview
2.1 Brief Country Facts (source: [CIA])
2.1.1 Geographical data
Surface area: 475,440 sq km, which amounts to approximately 85% of the surface of France. Terrain / topography: Diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north. The percentage of arable land amounts to 15%. It lies on the eastern border of oil-rich Nigeria. Climate: Diverse, ranging from tropical along the coastline to semiarid and hot in the north.

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2.1.2 Population
Total population: Approximately 17 million. The population curve is intensely skewed towards younger ages, since 40% belongs to the 0-14 group. Growth rate: 2.0%. Approximately 7% are Figure 1 Map of Cameroon affected by the HIV/AIDS (mentioned as a major prohibitive factor towards development). [CIA]

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2.1.3 Political situation
The Republic of Cameroon emerged as an independent country in 1961, through the merging of the former British Cameroon and part of the French Cameroon. In a continent ravaged by inter- or intra- state wars, Cameroon has enjoyed relative stability, which allowed the development of agriculture (which amounts to approximately 50% of the GDP), road and oil network and the petroleum industry. Although some improvement towards an actual democracy has been achieved, political power is controlled by an ethnically determined oligarchy.

2.1.4 Economical situation
Owing to its resources in minerals and petroleum as well as the favourable for the agriculture climatic conditions, Cameroon is well-endowed in primary commodities. However, the chronic diseases of many underdeveloped countries (such as the excessively large and inefficient civil service, high unemployment rate of about 30% and the unfavourable for enterprise initiatives climate) do plague Cameroon. Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF ([IMF]) and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and the banking system. Through these projects, Cameroon is encouraged to reduce its dependence on oil revenues, which will cease to be reliable unless current exploration yields significant results. (The reduced growth rate noticed lately is exactly due to reduced petroleum output). Characteristically, the World Bank Country Brief on Cameroon (see [WB]) specifies 1996 as the turning point for “correcting the years of economic mismanagement” and implementing “successful government reforms”. Owing to the reforms implemented by the government, real GDP growth was sustained around 4.7 percent during 1997–2000, and inflation remained at around 3.5 percent. Overall economic growth declined to about 3.8 percent per annum during 2001-05, due mainly to the rapid decline in oil production ([WB]), but is projected

2.1.4.1
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Vital statistics (2005 estimation, [CIA])
GDP (PPP): $40.83 billion GDP growth rate: 2.8% GDP (PPP) per capita: $2400 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% Main exports: Crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton, for which the principal buyer is the EU. Main imports: Machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food, for which Cameroon relies heavily on France (24.5%), neighboring Nigeria (11.3%), Belgium, China, United States, Thailand and Germany.

2.2 Overview of the Energy Sector
2.2.1 Production, trade and consumption of commercial1 energy
Cameroon’s oil production amounts to roughly 1% of the world supply (82,300 bbl/d[CIA]). Its oil reserves are estimated at 85 million bbl [CIA]. Foraging has proved that there also exist natural gas reserves amounting to 110 billion cubic meters [CIA]. These have not been exploited so far. Table 12 presents the simplified energy balance for the year 2002, based on data retrieved from [UNCDB].
ktoe production exp imp consumption -5520 109 1235 961 274 total liquid fuels 6445 solid fuels gas electricity 274

Table 1 Simplified energy balance table for Cameroon, 2002 [UNCDB]

2.2.1.1 Solids / Coal
Negligible.

2.2.1.2 Oil
The following table provides the detailed energy balance for oil and oil-derived commodities, as provided by [EIAa]:
OIL
000 bbl/d

production crude oil gasoline kerosene distillate residual other
1

refinery output 6.8 4.6 9.1 6.4 3.6

imports 63.0 0.7 0.4 0.7

exports 97.9 1.7 1.8 3.2 4.4

consumption 5.7 3.1 9.0 1.5 4.2

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The World Resources Institute [WRI] Earth Trends country profile suggests that the non-commercial energy sources (such as fuel wood, which is not included in the figures provided by other sources) is significant, amounting for another 5000 ktoe. 2 However, the portal [MBENDI] mentions that oil smuggled from the Niger delta can account for another 30% of the officially accounted for inland demand. This would substantially distort the energy balance tables.

total

67

30.4

64.9

108.9

23.5

Figure 2 Oil production timeline ([EIA])
source: [EIA]

Table 2 Oil sector supply table ([EIAa]) [EIA] mentions that the proven oil reserves amount to 400 million barrels3 (which would hypothetically suffice to cover the global oil demand for six days at present consumption levels). The reserves are mainly located offshore in the Rio del Rey Basin of the Niger Delta, offshore and onshore in the Douala/Kribi-Camp basins on the western coast, and onshore in the LogoneBirni basin in the northern part of the country. However, Cameroon’s oil output peaked in 1985 and has thereafter declined. As can be observed, during the last few years Chad has started producing considerable amounts of oil, which are related to Cameroon’s production in that all oil produced in Chad and destined to exports has to transit through Cameroon, via a recently assembled pipeline4 ending at Kribi terminal. Every barrel of oil transiting through this pipeline generates income for Cameroon; at a rate of $0.46/bbl. Cameroon Oil Transport Company (COTCO – consortium consisting of ExxonMobil, Chevron and Petronas) owns and operates the respective part of the pipeline5.

Notice the divergence between the estimated reserves as provided by [CIA] and [EIA]. The construction of the pipeline has raised controversy concerning the environmental side-effects. For an extensive report, see [EDEF]. 5 The pipeline project is extensively documented at [WBNKa].
4

3

There is an ongoing process of restructuring in Cameroon, aiming at encouraging investment in the petroleum sector and allowing for tax alleviations for activities such as exploration. Technically, the Ministry of Mines and Energy regulates the upstream oil sector; however, it is the National Hydrocarbons Company (SNH) (which is in a transition status towards privitisation but reports directly to the president) that directs all activities at the three major basins and represents the government’s interests. The legislation governing oil-related activities is summarized in [MBENDI]. Distribution of authority in SNH operates several of its activities in conjunction the oil sector. with western oil companies (among them Total of France operates two thirds of the oil production). Recently, in May 2005, Total was assigned an exploration block in the offshore Rio del Rey basin6. The outcome of the exploration activities was positive, as reported in [OILV], which shows further potential for the upstream oil sector. Concerning the ongoing exploration activities, the border dispute with Nigeria over the Bakassi peninsula ought to be mentioned. The peninsula, over which Cameroon now has sovereignty after a positive ruling of the International Court in 2002, is believed to contain significant reserves (see [UN]). As to the mid- and down-stream sector, Cameroon only operates one refinery (since 1981) in the port city of Limbe with a throughput capacity of 42,000 bbl/d. Therefore, Cameroon exports most of its crude production, while it meets its domestic needs in processed refinery products through imports from neighbouring countries, namely Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea. The retail market comprises players such as Total, ExxonMobil, ChevronTexaco and Shell. The petroleum products are distributed domestically by the Cameroon Petroleum Depot Company (SCDP).

2.2.1.3

Gas

The detailed energy balance provided by [EIAa] shows that so far no gas is marketed or otherwise profitably used. In 2003, 53 bcf were produced (gross production, associated with the oil pumping process). However, the entire quantity was vented or flared. Cameroon has however significant reserves to exploit. The 3.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) (or 110bcm, 62bcm of which concentrated in five major fields) (source: [CIA]; there is general consensus among major sources as far as this estimation is concerned) of proved reserves potentially available (equivalent to approximately 4% of the current yearly global natural gas demand ([BP])) have since 2004 become the object of talks between Syntroleum Corporation and Cameroon over a proposed joint venture with Euroil (for a detailed report on the latter deal, containing the terms of the agreement concerning the offshore MLHP-4 block, see [AOJ]). As is mentioned in [TIM], the five major gas fields could supply electricity to Cameroon for 400 years (assuming the operation of a 100MW at 50% load factor) at present day demand rates – which shall not be maintained if the current growth trend is sustainable.

2.2.1.4 Electricity
According to [EIA], as of January 2003 Cameroon relied mainly on hydroelectric power generating stations (90% of a total installed capacity of 900MW7) in order to satisfy the inland demand for electrical energy. The remaining capacity is provided by conventional thermal plants. Cameroon is facing a severe problem because of its sole reliance on hydromechanical resources, since in the dry season the aforementioned capacity falls to 450MW and electricity has to be The related press release can be found at the website for Total. [AESa] reports that the installed capacity is 850 MW divided among 3 plants. However, it is not specified whether the remaining 50MW could, for example, correspond to private industrial auto-producers units, which are not included in the total capacity of the public utility. In contrast [AESb] (which ought to be the most accurate source of information since it targets investors) reports that AES-Sonel is “the sole generating company” and that the capacity is 933 MW (77% hydro and 23% thermal).
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rationed. Figure 4 shows the increments in hydroelectric power capacity realized in the mid nineties and earlier in the current decade, while the installed thermal capacity remains constant. The same source (see [EIAc]) provides a figure of 3.5 billion KWh of generated electricity in 2003 (yielding an average utilization rate of 35%)8. To put figures into perspective, this amounts to 160kWh per capita, compared to a world average of approximately 2300kWh per capita ([WRI]). [EIA] mentions that in 2001, US-based AES Corporation purchased a majority stake (56%, see [AESa]) in the state-run Société Nationale d’Electricité (SONEL). AES-SONEL implemented a plan to invest $500 million to improve Cameroon’s electrical infrastructure. The completion of an 85-MW, oil-fired plant at Limbe, in August 2004, marked the first step in the electricity network improvements. AES-SONEL has additional plans to build hydroelectric plants, as well as Cameroon’s first natural gas-fired plant at Kribi. The Kribi facility is expected to be operational by 2007. In October 2003, AES-SONEL and the government adopted a new electricity tariff structure to reduce electricity costs for residential customers. An idea about the situation in the electricity utility shortly after the transition from the strictly state-owned SONEL to the partially privatised AES-SONEL can be acquired through the report [POSTb]. Furthermore, the privatisation results are being criticized in [PINa]. The main conclusion is that due to the weak institutions, competition and private ownership cannot be fully relied on, and that government involvement is unavoidable.

Electricity production in Cameroon 4.00 3.50 3.00 billion kWh 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 thermal hydro

19 88

19 84

19 82

19 90

19 96

19 94

20 00

20 02

19 92

19 80

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The loss percentage was approximately 25%, as reported by [AESb].

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Figure 3 Electricity production timeline

19 98

20 04

Figure 4 Installed capacity by type: 85 MW of thermal generation were added in 2004
bkWh

2002 3.26 0.11

2003 3.64 0.15

2004 3.92 0.19

total thermal conventional

hydroelectric 3.15 3.49 3.73 Table 2 Electricity generation by type ([EIA]) ARSEL is the electricity regulating agency under the aforementioned Ministry of Mines and Energy.

2.2.1.4.1

Consumption by sector
total final energy consumption by sector (ktoe)
19 1 1 067

[IEA] provides the following data on the consumption of final energy by sector:

industry
753

transport residential other sectors

4503

Figure 5 Total final energy consumption, source: [IEA], 2006

Final energy consumption by sector by fuel
ktoe
4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1 500 1 000 500 0 industry transport residential oil products biomass and waste (combined) electricity 60 887 1 20 753 0 0 1 82 4274 47 other sectors 0 0 19 1

oil products biomass and waste (combined) electricity

Figure 6 Final energy consumption by sector by type, source: [IEA], 2006 This set of data is differentiated from the data provided by the [UNCDB] in that it does include the fuelwood consumed in the residential sector. Statistical errors can justify the remaining divergences. By far the largest consumer of electricity is the aluminum smelting industry (and in particular the Alucam aluminum smelter, co-owned by the state and Alcan of Canada), requiring over 50% of the total load (information retrieved from [IRN]). The controversial (see 3.1.1.3) project to expand the hydro capacity by building a dam at Lom Pangar was planned with a view (primarily) to supply this energy-intensive industrial unit.

2.2.1.4.2

Household / commercial access to electricity

The percentage of population with access to electricity is estimated by [WRI] at 20% (or 3.4 million) as of 2000. Characteristically, a report retrieved from [GVEP] mentions that in rural areas 98% of the population relies exclusively on wood for cooking. In the capital this percentage is 25%. [EIA] mentions that since the acquisition of a majority stake of SONEL by AES (see 2.2.1.4) another half million people now have direct access to the grid. However, there is no unified grid, and the systems for the northern (Northern Interconnected Grid or NIG) and southern part of the country (Southern Interconnected Grid or SIG) are not linked. A report retrieved from [GVEP] A relatively recent presentation by the General Manager of AES-SONEL (see [AES]) describes the customer base of the company as follows: Five large (industrial) users, 1200 medium voltage users and 528,000 low voltage connections. These are supplied through over 1,800 km of high voltage and 12,000 km of medium voltage transmission lines, also owned and managed by AES-SONEL. The same report also describes the areas served by each of the two distinct transmission and distribution systems: The NIG supplies three Northern provinces with hydroelectricity generated at Lagdo and at thermal plants. The SIG supplies the capital Yaoundé and Douala. There are also 31 remote independent cells with separate small distributed networks. These are supplied by small thermal units, accounting in total for 24 MW. The electricity grid is sketched in Figure 8. Recently ([POSTa]), AES-SONEL announced reductions in its fees for installing electricity, as part of a reform to increase electricity accessibility and stop malpractices such as

direct stealing from the grid or indirect connection to the grid through the few individuals who up to now could actually afford the connection fees. Also, the African Development Bank (see [AFDB]) reports on a project of a total cost of €380 million “to improve electricity supply and network efficiency”, with start-up date in September 2006. The bank will supply partial funding and its support is an indicator of the priority that is being given to electricity access.

2.3 Overview of Renewable Energy
2.3.1 Overview of available RE resources
So far, the only RE resource that has been exploited is the hydromechanical energy accounting for 95% ([EIA]) of the electricity generated, or for 4% of the total inland primary resources. [WRI] provides a figure of 5094 ktoe (2001) for solid biomass (including fuelwood) consumption. However, this amount is undocumented and relates to non-commercial energy resources, since it mostly concerns residential use for the vast majority of the population that does not have access to the electricity grid. It can be reasonably assumed that the country has a substantial potential for solar energy exploitation, especially for small-scale distributed projects, owing to its large solar exposure. However, no published estimates have been found.

2.3.2 Legislative and institutional structure
The Ministry of Mines and Energy is responsible for energy-related projects. However its authority is by-passed in certain major matters; for example, the electricity provider (AES-SONEL) reports directly to the president. No domestic legislation aimed at advancing RE has been found.

2.3.3 RE targets and commitments
No declarations by the governmental agencies of Cameroon related to RE targets have been found. Cameroon has ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 (entry into force in 2005). Therefore, it is committed to the obligations resulting from the Protocol (and which indirectly assume implementation of RE projects).

3 Analysis of Renewable Energy Sector9
3.1 Analysis of Different Types of Renewable Energy
3.1.1 Hydro
3.1.1.1 Resource potential
hydropower:1999 ([WEC]) gross theoretical capability technical exploitable capability TWh/y 294 115

103 economically exploitable capability The technically exploitable hydro capability is the fourth largest in Africa ([WEC]). By retaining the last figure and supposing a conservative average efficiency factor of 30%, it results that 30 TWh/y of electricity could be produced from hydro energy (compare to 4.5TWh/y which is the current figure). In other words, less than 15% of the potential capability is now being exploited.

3.1.1.2

Achievements

[SHY] provides a detailed report of the already existing and operating hydro plants. The following table summarizes the characteristics of these projects: Capacity (MW) Notes Song Loulou 384 8 units Edea I,II,III 204 14 units (combined at all three sites) Lagdo 72 4 units Table 3 Hydro projects (operating) The existing hydro plants, according to the same source, need to be upgraded and refurbished in order to strengthen the national power system. For example, two of the Song Loulou units have already been through a renovation process, while the Edea units are still in the assessment stage.

3.1.1.3 Current projects / dynamics of development
No schemes are currently under construction, though it is mentioned ([WBNKb]) that new hydro plants are being planned. However, the sole generating company, AES-SONEL seems to favor the expansion through new thermal plants in order to reduce the risk associated with bad hydrology years (see [AESb], page 15). More specifically, [SHY] provides a list of sites that are being discussed, but with no dates for development yet provided: [CMGV] provides an update on these projects. Capacity (estimate in MW) Notes Lom river, potential to be Lom Pangar10 56 upgraded A general assessment of the RE sector in Africa can be found in [RENAFR]. [IRN] provides a detailed report on the environmental concerns related to the construction of this project.
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Bini a Warak 75 Nachtigal 267 Memve'Ele 202 Kader 15 Table 4 Planned hydro projects (planning stage) [SHY]

Vina-North river, north Sanaga river Ntem river

The total capacity of the above projects amounts to 615MW, or about 80% of the current capacity. Since Cameroon is self-reliant as far as its electricity supply is concerned and has the potential to become a net exporter, the possibility of an interconnection towards Chad is being examined by EDF of France and the AES-SONEL (mentioned in [SHY]). The interconnection would supply Chad with electrical energy produced at the Lagdo site (proximity to the border). In order to face the problem of seasonal availability of hydro power, a reservoir at the Lom Pangar site is being considered ([SHY]). The reservoir would stabilize the electricity availability from the dependant plants, namely Song Loulou and Edea. The INGA hydroelectric project ([EIAb]) is worth being mentioned. According to the plan, the vast hydro potential of the river Congo would become further exploited and shared within Africa via an extensive interconnection scheme. Should this plan be implemented, Cameroon’s own network would act as a link, ensuring steady and reliable supply in electricity.

3.1.1.4 Policies, programs and institutions to promote this type of RE
As mentioned, Cameroon could take advantage of the Kyoto-associated mechanisms (see [UNFCC]) (which were development with a view to satisfying developing countries’ needs) in order to finance hydro projects.

3.1.1.5 Major constraints
Cameroon’s heavy reliance on its hydro projects has resulted in a precarious situation for the electricity sector: namely, because the existing projects are mainly run-of-river (thus, energy is not stored), the power system is vulnerably to drought.

3.1.1.6 Summary
In short, Cameroon has the potential to fully cover its needs in electricity (and further, become a net exporter) by harnessing the hydromechanical energy, provided it diversifies the electricity supply so as to ensure alternative sources of supply during periods of drought.

3.1.2 Solar
Cameroon has obviously significant solar energy potential. However information on whether relative large-scale (in the sense of being initiated in the course of a broader effort) projects exist is not available. However, the site [IBCAM] provides instances of solar energy small-scale applications (such as solar cells for water pumping). Another example indicating a tendency towards smallscale solar energy applications is the report published on [AFREN]11, describing a training session held in Cameroun.

3.1.3 Wind
No information focused specifically on Cameroon has been found. However, [HEL] mentions that Cameroon is not included in the group of African countries with significant wind energy potential, especially since there are other sources available. Mentioned as an example of a company catering to an apparently growing market for small-scale technologies of this type, since most of these companies do not have accessible web sites.
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3.1.4 Biomass & Waste
3.1.4.1 Fuelwood
As is the rule in Africa (the most intensive user of fuelwood in per capita terms – almost exclusively for residential use), a significant amount of Cameroon’s primary energy is met through the use of fuelwood. [WRI], as was recorded above, provides an estimate of about 5000 ktoe regarding the energy value of fuelwood currently used. This amounts to 80% of the oil production recorded in 2003. The figures provided by [WEC] are as follows: total surface (th. sq. km) 465 forest coverage (th. sq. km) 239 54% production (million tonnes) 11.2 Table 5 Fuelwood data, 1999 [WEC] [GFW] has published [GFWa], an extensive report on the current state of affairs of the forests of Cameroon, where it is explicitly mentioned that “most of the wood harvested… is used to meet local energy needs”. The following chart, retrieved from the report mentioned above shows that fuelwood consumption is steadily increasing.

Figure 7 Fuelwood production (source: [GFWa])

3.1.4.1.1

Major constraints

No documentation has been found; however one issue of interest is the sustainable exploitation of the forests.

3.1.4.1.2

Summary

Fuelwood is already widely used to meet residential energy requirements, by a population that is deprived of access to a national grid. The normal course expected is that the use of fuelwood will increase as projects to make electricity accessible to a larger percentage of the population are realized.

3.1.4.2 Biomass other than wood
[WEC] provides the following figures concerning sugar cane production and the associated potentially exploitable bagasse (the remaining burnable material after the extraction of sugar cane juice): kTonnes Cane sugar production 52 Bagasse potential availability 170 A conservative calculation based on an assumption of 10MJ/kg of bagasse leads to a figure of about 40ktoe, which is not significant by itself. No indication that energy crops in general are being promoted has been found.

3.2 Summary and Conclusion
3.2.1 RE development within the overall context of the domestic energy sector
Cameroon already covers its needs in electricity by means of hydro energy. Potential for further development exists. In order to compare the dynamics of the RE sector, we have to mention that the overall demand for electricity depends by far on the percentage of the population that actually has access to electricity. So the projects relating to making electricity accessible and actually generating electricity are complementary and cannot be considered or assessed separately.

3.2.2 Assessment capacities

of

policies,

institutions

and

technological

No documentation on state policies has been found. However, intergovernmental organizations such as [NEPAD] take interest in implementation of RE projects. The Clean Development Mechanism (see [UNFCC]) is a potential framework for implementing RE projects.

3.2.3 Summary and assessment of major constraints
The only constraints concerning which sufficient documentation has been found are related to the major hydro plants currently in planning stage. These constraints are related to environmental concerns. Potential Achievements Current projects more plants in planning stage private, smallscale na na na na na Incentives / Institutions Major constraints Overall feasibility

Hydro

major

90% of current electrical capacity N N already used to meet residential energy needs na na na

na

environmental

Y

Solar Wind Biomass Waste Geothermal Oceanic

major N Y na na na

na na na na na na

cost na environmental – excessive logging na na na

Y na Y na / N na na

4 References / Sources
4.1 Information sources
[CIA] https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/cm.html, CIA World Factbook, accessed on 25/08/06 [MBENDI] http://www.mbendi.co.za/indy/oilg/af/ca/p0005.htm, portal to information on Africa, accessed on 25/08/06

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[UNSD] http://unstats.un.org/unsd/energy, 2003 Energy Statistics Yearbook, 2002 Energy Balance and Electricity Profiles [UNnews] www.un.org/News/, “Nigeria hands Cameroon formal control of Bakassi Peninsula under UN-sponsored deal”, published on 14/09/06, accessed on 13/09/06 [BP] www.bp.com, Statistical Review of World Energy 2006, accessed on 28/08/06 [EIU] http://www.eiu.com, Economist Intelligence Unit, accessed on 05/09/06 [UNCDB] http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cdb, UN Common Database, accessed on 25/08/06 [EIA] http://www.eia.doe.gov/, Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Briefs, accessed on 25/08/06 detailed o [EIAa] http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/world/country/cntry_CM.html, country energy balance by type of energy commodities (year 2003), accessed on 28/08/06 o [EIAb] http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/inga.html, detailed description of the INGA hydroelectric facility and interconnection plans, published in 11/2002, accessed on 30/08/06 o [EIAc] http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/electricitygeneration.html, accessed on 14/09/06 [WRI] http://wri.org/, World Resources Information, Earthtrends, accessed on 28/08/06 www.postnewsline.com, English-language newspaper of Cameroon: o [POSTa], article “AES SONEL Announces Reduction In Electricity Installation Rates”, published on 23/08/06, accessed on 28/08/06 o [POSTb], report “The Dark Complexion Of AES-SONEL”, published in 08/04, accessed on 28/08/06 [WBNKa] www.worldbank.org, Home> Countries> Africa> Regional Initiatives> ChadCameroon Pipeline, accessed on 28/08/06 [WBNKb] www.worldbank.org, Survey of Energy Resources, accessed on 28/08/06 [WB] http://worldbank.org, Home > Countries > Africa > Cameroon > Overview > Country Brief, updated in August 2006, accessed on 13/09/06 [WEC] http://www.worldenergy.org, Survey of Energy Resources, accessed on 28/08/06 [AOJ] http://www.africanoiljournal.com, report “Syntroleum and EurOil Bid to Develop Sanaga Sud Field”, published on 14/01/03, accessed on 28/08/06 [IMF] http://www.imf.org, International Monetary Fund, Country Info, accessed on 28/08/06 [TIM] http://www.times-publications.com/, report: “Can natural gas meet Cameroon's energy needs?”, accessed on 28/08/06 [SHY] http://www.small-hydro.com, International Small-Hydro Atlas, accessed on 28/08/06 [GFW] http://www.globalforestwatch.org, Global Forest Watch, accessed on 29/08/06 o [GFWa] “An overview of logging in Cameroon”, report published in 2000 [EDEF] http://www.environmentaldefense.org, Environmental Defense, accessed on 29/08/06 [IBCAM] http://www.ibcam.com, private company specialized in small-scale electricity tasks, such as solar pumps and energy accumulators, accessed on 29/08/06 [IRN] http://www.irn.org/programs/lompangar/, International Rivers Network, fact sheet on the Lom Panger dam, published in 05/2005, accessed on 29/08/06 [AFREN] http://www.africanenergy.com/en/News/Cameroun, distributor of solar and back-up power equipment for Africa, accessed on 29/08/06 [HEL] “Strategic Study of Wind Energy Deployment in Africa”, report published in March 2004 by Hélimax Énergie inc of Canada for the African Development Bank [AESa] http://www.aes.com, Our Business > Utilities, accessed on 13/09/06

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[AESb] AES Sonel Business Review, by Jean David Bile (General Manager), 22/03/2006, available online at http://www.aes.com, Investor Information, accessed on 13/09/06 [AFDB] http://www.afdb.org/, report “Cameroon: Bank Group Supports Investment in Power Sector”, published on 10/05/06, accessed on 28/08/06 [IEA] “Energy Balances of non-OECD countries 2003-2004”, 2006 edition [NEPAD] http://www.nepad.org/, New Partnership for Africa’s Development, site accessed on 30/08/06 [WEO] World Energy Outlook, April 2006, available online at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2006/01/index.htm, accessed on 13/09/06 [RENAFR] “Renewable Energy in Africa: Prospects and Limits: Renewable Energy Development”, by Karekezi and Kithyoma (AFREPREN) for The Workshop for African Energy Experts on Operationalizing the NEPAD Energy Initiative (2-4/06/03), available at http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/energy/op/nepadkarekezi [CMGV] http://www.globalvillagecam.org/, non-governmental environmental and development organization, site accessed on 30/08/06 [UNFCC] http://unfccc.int/, section “Kyoto mechanisms”, accessed on 30/08/06 [PINa] “Transparency in the Dark – An Assessment of the Cameroonian Electricity Sector Reform”, by Pineau, dated 12/08/06, accessible on 30/08/06 at http://web.uvic.ca/padm/faculty/pineau/pdfs/cameroonassessment.pdf [OILV] http://www.oilvoice.com/, “Total confirms…Dissoni Block”, Press Release, published on 02/06/06, accessed on 30/08/06 [GVEP] http://www.gvep.org/section/actionplans/africa/cameroon/, GLOBAL VILLAGE ENERGY PARTNERSHIP,

5 Annex

Figure 8 Electricity grid, source: [AESb]