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Pakistan: National Environmental Policy This policy covers all sectors and a wide range of means for promoting

conservation and environmental protection in water, air and waste management, forestry, and transport. The policy aims to promote protection of the environment, the honoring of international obligations, sustainable management of resources, and economic growth. It calls for the setting of standards and regulations for ambient and indoor air quality, vehicle emissions and manufacture, energy conservation, fuel specification and building codes. It aims to promote mass transit and non motorized transport as well as cleaner technologies, including natural gas (LPG), solar, hydroelectric, biogas and cogeneration with waste, and offering tax incentives for efficient products. It also calls for creating increased public demand for environmentally friendly products through education and mass awareness campaigns. Key Environmental Issues: An overview of the key environmental issues facing Pakistan is presented below: v Per capita water availability in Pakistan has been decreasing at an alarming rate. In 1951, the per capita availability

was 5300 cubic meter which has now decreased to 1105 cubic meter just touching water scarcity level of 1000 cubic meter. v Almost all fresh water resources are severely polluted due to discharge of untreated industrial and municipal wastes.

Pollution of coastal waters due to waste discharges and oil spills coupled with reduced freshwater flows is resulting in declining fish yields. v About 55 percent of population has access to a relatively safe drinking water source. Potable water quality, assessed

against WHO standards, fails to meet all the specified criteria, confirming evidence of extremely high pollutant loads. v v Approximately 35 percent of population has access to adequate sanitation facilities. Air pollution is on the rise, especially in urban areas. Recent surveys conducted by Pakistan Environmental

Protection Agency revealed presence of very high levels of suspended particulate matter (about 6 times higher than the World Health Organization’s guidelines). ‘Smog’ also seriously affects almost entire Punjab in winter. v v Noise pollution has become a serious issue in major urban centers. Of about 54,850 tons of solid waste generated daily in urban areas, less than 60 per cent is collected. No city in

Pakistan has proper waste collection and disposal system for municipal, hazardous or healthcare wastes. v Degradation and encroachment natural forests, rangelands and freshwater and marine ecosystems are resulting in

loss of biodiversity. At least four mammal species, including tiger, swamp deer, lion and Indian one-horned rhinoceros, are known to have become extinct from Pakistan while at least 10 ecosystems of particular value for the species richness and uniqueness of their floral and faunal communities are considered to be critically threatened. Desertification affects over 43 million hectares of land annually. v Pakistan is a highly energy in-efficient country. It uses approximately same amount of energy to generate 1 dollar of

GNP as the USA.

gov. prevailing poverty. Integration of environment into planning and implementation of policies and guiding Principles: The following guiding principles shall be applied to achieve the objectives of the Policy: v v v v v Principle of sustainable development. Creation of demand for a better environment. unplanned urban and industrial expansion. v Attain sustainable economic and social development with due regard to protecting the resource base and the environment of the country. v Ensure effective management of the country's environment through active participation of all stakeholders. Reference sources: Pakistan. Improving efficiency with which environmental resources are used. Substitution principle. v v v v v v Changing personal attitudes and behaviors. . Precautionary principle. Cradle to grave management.The above situation has arisen due to a number of factors including high population growth rate. insufficient emphasis on environmental protection in the government policies. Polluter pays principle. lack of public awareness and education and lack of institutional capacity and resources for effective environmental management Objectives: The objectives of the Policy are to: Secure a clean and healthy environment for the people of Pakistan. Principle of equitable access to environmental resources. Respect and care for the environment.

v Increased regional and international cooperation. Increased coordination and cooperation among federal and provincial governments. Accountability and transparency. private sector and academia. Extensive participation of communities. Sectoral Issues: Water Supply and Management Energy Efficiency and Renewables Agriculture and Livestock Forestry and Plantations Biodiversity and Protected Areas Air Quality and Noise Climate Change and Ozone Depletion Pollution and Waste Management Cross Sectoral Issues: Population and Environment Gender and Environment Health and Environment Trade and Environment Poverty and Environment Environment and Local Governance . stakeholders and the public.v v v v v Best available technology Decentralization and empowerment. NGOs.

Public awareness and education. Establish disaster management centers at the federal and provincial level Multilateral Environmental Agreements: The government shall continue to play a proactive role to ensure protection of regional and global environment and cooperate with the international community in promotion of sustainable development. and Public-private partnership Benchmarks and Targets: The benchmarks and targets based on which the policy shall be monitored are as follows: To v Increase safe water supply coverage from 55 percent in 2005 to 90 percent in 2015. as percentage of the total land area. Policy Implementation: The following key instruments shall be employed for implementation of the Policy: v v v v v v Integration of environment into development planning. Capacity development.) from the current level of 17 MW to at least 880 MW by 2010 and 17000 MW (10 percent of total national power generation) by 2015. the government shall: v v Develop a national disaster management strategy.000 in 2015 v Increase energy production from renewable forms of energy (wind. Economic and market based instruments.8 percent to 5. from the current level of 4. solar. Legislation and regulatory framework.650 in 2010 and 28. . bio-gas etc.Natural Disaster Management: To ensure disaster risk reduction and adequate preparedness for natural disasters. v Increase forest cover including state-owned and private forest and farmlands. v Increase per unit GDP (at constant factor cost) per unit of energy use as a proxy for energy efficiency from 27.7 percent in 2010 and 6 percent in 2015.300 to 27. v Increase sanitation facilities from 35 percent in 2005 to 70 percent in 2015.

by 2015. v Achieve. Ministry of Environment. the percentage of sulphur (by weight) in high speed diesel from 1 percent to 0. An "Environmental Policy Directorate" shall be established within the Ministry of Environment and serve as the Secretariat to the Committee. v Reduce. from current level of 11. v Establish. Furthermore. Provincial.v Increase land area protected for the conservation of wildlife. by 2010. v Reduce consumption/import of ozone depleting substances Monitoring Frameworks: A "National Environmental Policy Implementation Committee" will be established to ensure effective implementation of the Policy and oversee the progress in this regard. as percentage of total land area. 40 ambient air quality and 25 water quality stations.000 to at least 800. All relevant federal ministries as well as provincial governments shall also create special cells to coordinate implementation of the policy.5 percent. v Phase-out two stroke rickshaws from the country either by replacing them with four-stroke rickshaws or alternative modes of transport. District and Tehsil-level Implementation Committees shall be established in order to ensure coordinated implementation of the Policy level through effective participation of all stakeholders.3 percent to 11. shall report the status of implementation of the Policy to Pakistan Environmental Protection Council on regular basis. by 2015. The Committee.000. v Increase the number of petrol and diesel vehicles using CNG fuel from the current from 280. . The "National Environmental Policy Implementation Committee" will meet biannually. 10 percent reduction in the quantity of solid waste generated in the country. chaired by the Secretary. v Finalize and notify the standards for ambient air quality and noise by 2006.5 percent in 2010 and 12 percent in 2015.