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HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy

HBM 370 e-commerce Strategy
Second Semester 2010 Assignment Final Report

Teo Guan How
Elizabeth Nawie



HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy
Table of Contents
Contents 1.0 1.2 1.3 2.0 Introduction Literature Review Objective / Purpose More understanding about myGov 2.1 3.0 Concept Pages 3 4 4


e-Government and e-Readiness - A Review of Government Websites in Malaysia 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Objective Application Benefits / Advantages Issues-Problems / Challenges Strategies / Solutions Future

6 6 7 7 7 8


The purpose of Government websites in Malaysia 4.1 What are the types of e-government transactions?


5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0

What are the goals of myGov Portal? Progress and Performance of Government Website in Malaysia Main Projects under the e-Government Flagship Malaysia Government Website Ranking for the Worldwide 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 E-Government ranking for Malaysia E-Government ranking by Waseda University Waseda University Findings United Nations Findings Brown University Findings

9 10 11 13
13 13 14 14 15



16 17 18


HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy
9.4 9.5 9.6 10.0 MELAKA.GOV.MY KEDAH.GOV.MY Conclusion 18 19 19

Why Web Creditability? 10.1 Web Credibility Factors



What advantage does myGov portal create? 11.1 In what ways can my Government enhance digital democracy?



Citizen¶s benefits 12.1 Opportunities of myGov y y y y y y y 12.2 Cost Reduction and Efficiency Gains Quality of Service Delivery to Businesses and Customers Transparency, Anticorruption and Accountability Increase the Capacity of Government Network and Community Creation Improve the Quality of Decision Making Promote Use of ICT in Other Sectors of Society


Challenges for a Successful Implementation of E-Government Initiatives y y y y y y y y ICT Infrastructure Policy Issues Human Capital Development and Life Long Learning Change Management Partnership and Collaboration Strategy Leadership Role Conclusion and Implications


13.0 14.0

Does the citizen at the center of an IT-enabled governance breakthrough? Recommendation and Conclusion List of References




not many people have taken the task of utilizing this concept even though using this concept will simplify our daily lives. business partners and employees. E-government can also otherwise be known as e-gov. Almost everyone in this modern era has heard about the concept of E-Government. government and business enterprises (G2B) and inter. businesses and the citizens who shall work together for the greater benefit of the country and all Malaysians. 1. The myGovernment portal. e-government is the utilization of various forms of technology and devices to enhance the access to services and delivery of government services to benefit end users such as citizens. download government forms and contact government representatives. e-Government sets a new benchmark in the levels of cooperation between the Government. But. E-government initiatives in Malaysia are designed to create paperless public sector which will strengthen relationship with citizens through greater transparency and information flow. thus. It involves computerized and the automation of existing paper-based relationship (G2G). With e-government services. Essentially. The local. The concept of E-government aims to enhance the interaction between government and citizen (G2C). citizens are able to exploit Internet technology to improve convenience. improving the speed and quality of policy development. the Malaysia¶s government official portal has conducted online polls to gather 3 . The vision of e-Government focuses on an effective and efficient system that delivers services to the citizens in a way that the Government becomes more responsive to the changing needs of citizens. how many of us have actually taken advantage of this concept and applied it in our daily life? From what we have gathered. accessibility and quality of interactions with the government. E-government is a simplified form of the term electronic government. business processes can be automated and knowledge can be managed efficiently. Most people would rather waste their time to go for the offline alternative which is undoubtedly involve more hassles.0 Introduction Malaysian government initiates e-government to push the country into the information communication and technology (ICT) era with a vision to improve government internal operations. state and federal government has set up a centralized website where the public can search general information. coordination and enforcement. Within the government. In the context of serving the people better. digital government or online government.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy Statement of Topic The topic that we have undertaken is a "review of government websites in Malaysia".

HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy citizen¶s perceptions on the services of e-government. similar to that of many other governments in the world. businesses. and government agencies (Carter and Belanger 2004).2 Literature Review E-government is the use of information technology. Mal ysian Administrative a Modernization and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU) seek to enhance the use of information and communication technology (ICT) and have mandated that each government agency to create an IT strategy plan to help facilitate greater communication between the agency and the public. Many countries have embarked on e-government services as more advanced facilities to their citizen (West 2004). Malaysian e-government initiative. is designed to create a paperless public sector.3 i) ii) iii) iv) Objectives The purpose of government websites Assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of the public service delivery system Assessing the degree of success that had been achieved Assessing the host of the service offered by government towards. This report covers the awareness and perception of e-government initiatives among Malaysian citizens as a whole regardless of their knowledge on the concept of e-government. while strengthening relationships with the citizens and businesses through greater transparency and information flows. especially telecommunications. a better public delivery system 4 . 1. employees. to enable and improve the efficiency with which government services and information are provided to citizens. 1.

increasing citizen participation in government decision-making. 2. comfortable and personalised access to public elec tronic services. Citizens and businesses alike will be able to access all of Government's Internet services in a secure and integrated is that window. password and PIN to persons whose identity has been verified. which offers a higher degree of security through a unique electronic key. Future versions will include additional services from commercial partners as well as with dynamic or real-time information to make this your first port of call on the Internet. The second is based on a non-qualified Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Digital is a means to reach these objectives. The security mechanism underpinning the mygov. accessible and secure e-Government portal aims to improve further the quality of life of the Maltese citizens through the wider use of first-class. The mygov. 2) issues a username.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy 2. MyGov. To enhance our democracy. trustworthy Registration Authority (RA) that: 1) makes sure that one's unique identity is protected and only used by its legitimate owner. The first ± based on a username.0 More Understanding about myGov The mygov. 5 . The public should not need to understand the intricacies of the various responsibilities of the many departments and agencies of the Government. The portal will be continuously updated and enhanced. This is performed once with an independent. password and secure personal identification number (PIN) ± gives access to electronic services which require a limited level of security. We want to streamline public services to make an efficient and effective contribution to local competitivity and economic Concept mygov. MyGov. To improve the performance of our public services provided to citizens and businesses. The public should be able to approach one Internet window from where it is provided: a seamless end-to-end service whether that service involves one or several departments and agencies. The portal offers quick.1 myGov. A unique e-ID is issued to an individual together with the registration of that individual's identity with Government. also known as e-ID. is based on two levels of brings together under one secure and easy -to-use Internet portal all the e-Government is the one place from where all public services can be

Assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of the public service delivery system through the implementation e-Government in line with the commitment stressed by YAB Prime Minister to have an ³Efficient and Transparent Public Service Delivery´. is then allowed to apply to use an e-Government service. Assessing the degree of success that had been achieved of the strive for ³Excellence. A Citizen whose identity has been verified by the RA. ii.0 e-Government and e-Readiness . 6 .1 Objectives The overall Objective is to review Government Websites in Malaysia that were initiated and launched in line with the Government¶s push to implement e-Government and e-Readiness. linking more than 900 Government Agencies¶ websites at Federal. and to whom an identity credential (username/password/PIN or a PKI Digital Certificate) has been issued. etc«) and eligibility to subscribe to such services needs to be confirmed by the Service this is activated automatically and made available almost immediately. MyGovernment portal aspired to ensure information and services can be obtained from a single point of access. the website provides the gateway to information and services provided by the In those cases where a service is available to all. Glory and Distinction´ culture to have first-class infrastructure as well as first-class services.2 Applications Consolidated through Malaysia¶s MyGovernment portal (www. they are only available to Medical practitioners.A Review of Government Websites in Malaysia 3. we will send you a reply within two business days. iii. In these cases.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy 3) authorises the issue of a PKI Digital Certificate when this is requested by the Citizen. 3. Some services are not open to everybody (e.g. including: i. State and Local Level. 3. or only to persons with special needs. Some services require acceptance of the application by the Service Provider. The Service Provider is the Government Department which offers the service. Assessing the host of services offered by the Government towards a better public delivery system.

3. 3. Most important of all. the registration process should be simply and user-friendly. Enable personalization to improve accessibilities to information and services. the end user is still required to register to: i. be it in paying bills to making applications or even to purchase tickets from Keretapi Tanah Melayu Bhd (KTMB in Penisula Malaysia) or from Malaysia Airline System (including on-line checking in) in the most convenient and shortest time possible.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy The portal gives access to a host of government websites and provides information ranging from payments to complaints. Water services ± Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor (Syabas) bills. payment of Income Tax etc. Telekom Malaysia (TM) bill. on-line services 7 . 3. achieving tremendous impact on the daily people-to-government dealings. Popular services include payments for renewal of competent driving licences (CDL). search and services. Public can get connected to Government Departments/Agencies from the comfort of their homes. iii. settling of Tenaga Nasional (electricty in Peninsula Malaysia) bill.3 Benefits/Advantages Benefits and advantages included: i. ii. applications. payment of summonses to Police and Road Transport Department (JPJ). State and Local Authority Level should continue to contribute in terms of continual updating enhancing content development. Indah Water Konsortium (for sewerage services in Peninsula Malaysia). ii. the various Ministries (Federal and State Level) and their services have been made simpler through the portal.4 Issues-Problems/Challenges To perform transaction on-line. the supporting internet infrastructure must be efficient.5 Strategies/Solutions Ministries and Government Agencies in the Federal. Apply a personal account for end user to enable capabilities for messaging and documen t uploading for on-line transactions. Access to Government Departments. Public enjoys hassle-free dealings with the Government. Keep accounts of on-line service transactions. iii. In addition.

1 What are the types of e-government transactions? E-Government services focus on four main customers: citizens. E-Government aims to make interaction with citizens.0 The purpose of Government websites in Malaysia 4. government agencies and other governments more convenient. So. government employees. E-Community Centre.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy development and making down-loadable forms are available at their respective websites. inexpensive and effective. In other cases. W-Transaction Centre. Develop community services such as polling and submission of general enquiries Develop core portal module such as Portal Messaging Centre. MyHome. and government agencies. 3. government employees. friendly. what do you think of our government websites? Should they improve their quality of service? 8 . the government service is delivered through one government office. the business community. commitment and vision of Top Management of all Government Departments/Agencies right to the Chief Secretary to the Government is vital towards improving the service delivery system. The dives. businesses. 4. instead of many.6 Future The portal should further encompass:: i. ii. In some cases. In an e-government system. individuals are able to initiate a request for a particular government service and then receive that government service through the Internet or some computerized mechanism. Provide capability for submission of online supporting documents. transparent. a government transaction is completed without direct in-person contact with a government employee. iii.

government by itself will not put an end to corruption. reduce overhead from fewer offices and less paper management. More specifically. with agencies. making it more competitive and fair. and increase savings are benefits inherent in e-government. e-services. Eo procurement. At the same time.0 a) What are the goals of myGov Portal? Creating a better business environment. Once identified. b) Customers online. e-government facilitates the swift delivery of complete information.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy 5. not in line. Technology is a proven catalyst in increasing productivity and economic growth. d) Improving the productivity and efficiency of government agencies. The broad dissemination of information helps empower citizens and facilitate informed decision-making. However. its industry strengths and its global competitive advantage. for example. these should be incorporated in the country¶s e-government strategy. can open new markets to local businesses by opening up the government procurement process. Promoting transparency and accountability in government through the proliferation of ICT in management and operations also opens opportunities for citizens to be more actively involved in the policy and decision-making processes of government. By cutting out redundancies in procedures and emphasizing immediate and efficient delivery of services. improve capacity for planning management by government (using better tools and improving access to critical information.12 The use of ICT in government and the establishment of an e-government infrastructure help create a businessfriendly environment by streamlining the interaction and improving the interface between government and business. This goal is highly dependent on the country. As a major tool in building a tradition of transparency and good governance . e-government creates the conditions that attract investors/ investment. Increase government staff productivity. for example. e-government can advance the fight against corruption. in city planning through the 9 . especially in rural and underserved communities. c) Strengthening good governance and broadening public participation. The transparency of information will not only further democracy but also instill a sense of accountability among government leaders and compel effective governance. This refers to the effective delivery of public goods and services to citizens accompanied by quick response government with minimal direct intervention by a public official. increase productivity of the bureaucracy. It must be accompanied by other mechanisms to be fully effective. Reengineering processes and procedures to cut red tape. especially SMEs. facilitate delivery of services. the bureaucracy and public services aligned towards promoting these sect rs. e-government can help: I.

most of the improvements identified are as below:1) More agencies are listed under the myGov Portal and the number increased from year to year. Streamline the operations of government. 3) Number of inaccessible portals and websites has been reduced. the goal of e-government is to enhance the interaction between three main actors in society²government. II. e) Improving the quality of life for disadvantaged communities. tasks. and usually involve many steps.0 Progress and Performance of Government Website in Malaysia As the Malaysia government portals and website assessment progress for the third consecutive year. Most government processes have evolved over many years. due to the fact that the process is much easier and less corrupt. it is observed that there are improvement in development of government portals and websites in general. Streamlining government processes through ICT eliminates redundant procedures and helps to reduce red tape. and increase revenue as businesses and citizens actually apply for more licenses. staffing and costs tend to increase as government must offer multiple delivery platforms (both the traditional and e-government) during the initial transition. This means empowering them through their participation in the political process. 6. and activities. ICT makes it possible for government to reach marginalized groups/communities and improve their quality of life. As from the review that I have done. III. Ultimately. however. citizens and business²in order to stimulate political. In general.This is aligned with myGov portal objective as beaing the government gateway and one stop resource centre to the public. 3 agencies obtained 5 -star rating. the total 10 . In the short term. social and economic progress in the country.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy use of a GIS). 92 agencies attained 4-star compared to last few years which is less. 4) Gradual improvement on star rating as for the first time. 2) Less number of portals and websites under the government machinery list in myGov portal showed duplications. as well as delivering much-needed public goods and services. Meantime. Induce cost savings in the medium to the long term.

Hence reducing t e number of h Agencies with 1 and 2 stars. There are 7 pilot projects of the Electronic Government Flagship Application which are as follows: 11 . accessibility and quality of interactive with citizens and business. dated 2 March 2008 7) Improved assessment methodology over the years to gauge the different requirement especially user perpective. 5) More and more agencies are providing feedback forms online as one of the channels for the public to communicate with the government. As such. E-Government seeks to improve the convenience. The implementation of E Government was initiated by the introduction of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). The effectiveness and efficiency delivering services provided by government enable the government to become more responsive to the needs of the citizens. 6) More services being offered online by agencies.0 Main Projects under the e-Government Flagship Malaysia and various countries are implementing electronic government. allow grea ter public access to information. Type of application Online services Payments Downloadable forms During assessment 816 163 2007 March 2008 998 212 3140 *Source: New Straits Times. Communication and Technology(ICT) as an enabler. and eventually push for agencies to provide better online service delivery to citizens at large. and make government more accountable to citizens. a healthy competition among the Agencies would be created to improve their respective rankings.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy number of agencies obtaining the 5 and 4 stars ratings would grow organically over the years as the agencies are more familiar with the global best practices criteria. facilitate more accessible government services. E-Government is the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to promote more efficient and effective government. 7. It is also observed that more agencies are now offering website personalization and translation tools at their respective website. leveraging on information.

online transactions between the public. the government and large service providers via electronic means Electronic Labour Exchange (ELX) A one-stop-center for labor market information.better monitoring and coordination of its agencies and 102 Syariah courts. interact and share information Electronic Procurement Links the government and suppliers in an online environment. To enhance the Islamic Affairs Department¶s effectiveness. e-Syariah Introduces administrative reforms that upgrade the quality of services in Syariah courts.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy Projects Generic Office Environment (GOE) Characteristics Provides a new paradigm of working in a collaborative environment where government agencies communicate. Aimed at best value for money. and knowledge repository Human System (HRMIS) Resource Management Information Provides a single interface for government employees to perform HRD functions effectively and efficiently in an integrated environment. accessible to government agencies. Electronic Services (e-Services) Enables direct. the business sector and the citizens. managerial operational functions. Government agencies as buyers procure goods/services by browsing catalogs advertised by suppliers. timely and accurate payment Project Monitoring System (PMS) Provides a new mechanism for monitoring implementation incorporating of development and projects. 12 .

especially. information and interactive features to citizen. namely Chief Information Officers (CIO). output of each study enhances understanding of a country¶s e-service performance. Emphasis must given to databases and comments as Brown University highlighted that government must provide services. from being in Top 10 to being eliminated to Top 15. so that they can reach their full potential in term of accessibility and effectiveness. Similar to the United Nations.1 E-government ranking for Malaysia Scores produced by the three institutions carry different meanings.2 E-Government Ranking by Waseda University Malaysia took the 15th spot. Management Optimization and Interface Functions and Applications. advertisement. the surveys used different methodologies. databases and comments were identified as two areas that Malaysia lacked of. This fact notwithstanding. scores given by Waseda University did not oscillate much. placing Malaysia at rank 42 in 2004 dropping one point in 2005 and 2006 and moving it up 10 points in 2007. 2004-2007 Survey Year Brown University Waseda University United Nations 2004 2005 2006 2007 84 154 39 25 9 9 14 15 42 43 43 34 Source: Malaysia Government Portals and Website Malaysia excelled in most of the areas. 8. Malaysia was at rank 9 for two consecutive years dropping a few points in 2006 and 2007.0 Malaysia Government Website Ranking for the Worldwide 8. This can be explained by the significance of CIOs in our government that 13 . Rankings provided by the United Nations were generally constant. Malaysia improved in 3 sectors. Apart from different emphasis on study objectives. The Brown University survey placed Malaysia at rank 84 in 2004. Table 1. Ranking dropped to 154 in 200 5 moved up remarkably to 39 in 2006 and improved further in 2007.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy 8. Table 1: E-government Ranking for Malaysia. However. user fees. privacy policy and security privacy.

priority of e-Government planning and strategy. It applied components of subjective and normative res earch asking questions of what is. end-users. All three surveys place Malaysia among countries with equivalent HDI ranking as well as income level. various years) focused on the core of the administrative and financial reform. 8. link navigation system. broadband users. Finally. Specifically. personal computer users and security . The United Nations survey (United Nations various years) incorporated human capacity. e-tax system. 8. that is. infrastructure development and access to information and knowledge. included EA-ICT investment. the fifth area was. Japan and Korea continue to climb up the ranking with more electronic transactions and processes made available to the citizens. including young and old. legal framework. The study used six areas and 28 indicators. management optimization. The second area required interface functioning applications including online applications. administer. The study looked beyond the availability of online services. Human Resource Development (HRD) for CIO. Hence. 43 in 2005 and at 34 in 2007. e-voting system. chief information officer (CIO). its effectiveness. their survey aimed to provide a comparative assessment of 14 . e tender system. role and function of CIO. supporting body for CIO. system optimization. It was learnt that Asian countries were pushed upward by strong government role in promotion and adoption in ICT. and its indicators included introduction of CIO. and what should be? The broad objective of the United Nations e Government index is to offer insights into e-Government development strategies and themes among regions and across regions. France. US. integrated network system. and evaluation system. included updating frequency.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy is to organize. if Malaysia government portals/websites take greater notice on this sector. administrative and budgetary systems. among the South-Eastern Asian. homepage indicators. Thus. e-payment system and user-friendly interface. promotion activities. The fourth area. that is. The third area. public administrators. citizens. The first area was network preparedness. productivity. politicians. and public management reform by ICT. public disclosure. business and commerce. It looked at the methods of delivery and the capacity of a country to absorb content and services. and usefulness to the citizens.3 Waseda University Findings The Waseda University Institute of e-Government approach (Waseda. multi-language correspondence. systems. and promotion of e-Government. which included Internet users. programmers. there is a like hood that Malaysia will obtain a better ranking in the future. and observe the ICT programs. Malaysia was the second follow Singapore. mobile users. Singapore.4 United Nations Findings The United Nations placed Malaysia in rank 42 in 2004.

15 . i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Online services Publications Privacy Policy Security Policy Foreign Language Updates They were lacked of in databases and comments which Brown University highlighted that government should provide the services. easy to navigate and accessible to wide variety of users by standardizing templates with consistent navigation. 8.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy the willingness and ability of governments in the use of e-Government and ICTs as tools to deliver public services. sites were suggested to be well-designed. the survey aimed to be a benchmarking tool for monitoring countries¶ progress towards higher levels of e-Government service delivery. Secondly. organizing pages by user type. and having an online service menu and interactive technological assistance. having accessibility aids.5 Brown University Findings According to the survey which done by Brown University. creating ³most popular´ lists. Most of the criteria mentioned were already incorporated into MDec set of criteria. information and interactive features to citizen so that they can reach their full potential in term of accessibility and effectiveness. listing when pages are updated.

GOV. The site should present only what is truly necessary for primary display on the homepage. long text in the middle columns could reduce site credibility. the site information structure is a little bit too conventional. the site looks simple and fairly straightforward.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy 9. However. A credible site should be updated frequently. the visitor could easily know that perhaps the site manager does really bother to update the site. For example. 16 . Perfect choice of font¶s typeface and color makes the site easy to read. We propose that to improve site credibility. if the information has not been updated currently. The information about latest update has not been included on the homepage. It will be able to promote Sarawak. Nevertheless. the key to information design is a balance between breadth and depth of the site. However. It helps the visitor to recognize Sarawak hence. Small top banner image of Kuching City on the right of the banner adds the credibility to the site. We suggest that better photographs of beautiful Sarawak panorama be placed on the homepage. improving site reputation. which is well known to have numerous tourist attractions. in terms of design and appearance. the user is more attracted with non-textual element on the site. We recommend that bulky paragraphs should be rectified into several smaller paragraphs. the latest details about information update be included somewhere at the bottom corner of the page. The slightly less important information could be placed on the second level page and not on the first page.MY Overall. Generally. The state government crest is suitably located on the top-left portion of the page. Normally. size of the font used for the highlight of events columns is highly readable and clear. The information clarity is fairly good.0 STATE GOVERNMENTS¶ HOMEPAGE CREDIBILITY 9.1 SARAWAK.

the usage of a real photo of the Sultan is a good way to improve site credibility. 17 . We recommend that it is better to use static banner. It will look more real compared to the one being used before. It acts as a means of creating positive attitudes towards the products and credibility in brands.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy The site only has three links in small banner format at the right portion of the page.In addition. the blur image of Kota Darul Ehsan arch on the top of the site perhaps would be better if it was in full-colour version. However. The source of information is an important criteria for evaluating site credibility.GOV. it is better for the person who posts the announcement to use his/her position in the department rather than mentioning his/her name. for every announcement. 9. the usage of animated banner is slightly less credible.MY Images of people are widely used in advertising and branding. On this site.2 SELANGOR. For the announcement column.

3 JOHOR. It¶s also could improve citizen trust about the information provided. 9.4 MELAKA.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy 9. In this way.MY The welcome message from the Chief Minister in multimedia format (video) shows the Melaka Government¶s initiative to improve its site quality and credibility. The disclaimer statement provided is also significant for the content provider. the site would become more dynamic in nature.GOV. Light blue color theme contributes µpower¶ appearance to the site. The site displays historic cultural heritage site on the homepage. For the visitor.MY The Chief Minister¶s Diary column is a credible way to represent Johor Government¶s initiative to announce their state leader¶s activity. Other than that.GOV. the site should be able to randomly change the image or tourist attraction content using appropriate web scripting technology. 18 . the State Government¶s Administrative Building photograph used as the top image banner is a good way to improve site credibility. they can think that the site provider is really serious about their business. We recommend that to improve this functionality.

A highly credible site could attract worldwide audience. the state governments should exploit this opportunity to improve their site credibility. and nationality can be done. The professional look and sleek design of the site element such as button and images is another contributor towards site credibility. players involved in setting up the government websites have been struggling with how to come up with a highly credible site.0 Web Creditability We discuss several top credibility factors that can be deployed to improve the e-government web sites. However. the information on the site has to portray state achievements and promote any related developments. It is crucial for the webmasters to improve their sites to ensure that their sites appearance have strong credibility.MY Among all the five websites above. making the list look too cluttered.5 KEDAH. the visitor who browses an e-government site can easily access the credibility of the information presented through text writing style and its relevancy. in the hyperlinks section. the Kedah homepage is the most impressive in terms of credibility. 10. In the near future. It could lead to inward investment for their state. The site is also comprehensive and presentable. In conclusion. This factor is vital towards site credibility. 9. All the icons together with the menu have been carefully designed. We also have included some comments with regards to sites credibility. income. For example. age. the 19 . experience level. too many links were listed.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy 9.GOV. To do so. Prompted by demands for a more credible e-government site.6 Conclusion We have presented a review on five e-government homepages in Malaysia. Sometimes. analysis of differences in web credibility perceptions by gender. in certain cases.

y Small errors. since the user can differentiate the material that is credible from that which is not. 20 . Moreover. This paper addresses the web credibility issue for improving the way government disseminates their information online. y Technical Problems. The factors are as follows: y Real-world Presence. the web designers faced increasing demands to boost the credibility of the sites. there are several other issues that influence how information on the web can be used effectively. The information provider especially the webmaster for e-government website must be careful. even though seems general. It is good for e-government website to provide users with such information that are crucial. Distracting advertisements and banners also decreases its credibility.1 WEB CREDIBILITY FACTORS According to Fogg et al. reliability and technicality. The site must perform as users expect. It is important to assess and evaluate the factors related with e-government website. Usability of site in terms of navigation can enhance the site¶s perceived credibility y Advertisement. the user feels that a web site loses credibility when it has errors and technical problems. For this reason. This is to ensure that the information and materials presented on the site satisfy citizens¶ needs. Generally.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy sites that are controlled by the government may contain inaccurate and misleading information. Designers can enhance the credibility of a Web site by conveying an organization¶s real world presence such as the physical address and phone number to users.(2000) : Proposed five areas that affect the credibility of a Web site. Slow download time for instance affects site credibility. Other web credibility decisive factors are navigation. may affect the credibility of the site and one main related study on e-government website usability. the user has the desire to know the source of information found in a web page. y User Navigation. These factors. 10. Other than that. content. An organization must take care to eliminate even small errors to ensure credibility of their web site. Only place advertisement on web pages in ways that it does not distract readers.

government employees and agencies. e-government compels officials to be more transparent and accountable for their actions and decisions. as well as to improve not only the delivery of services but also the quality of these services. organization-wide strategy to constantly improve operations with the end in view of fulfilling citizen needs by transforming internal operations such as staffing. social strata. myGovernment Portal would mean the simplification of procedures and streamlining of the approval process. it would mean the facilitation of cross-agency coordination and collaboration to ensure appropriate and timely decision-making. 21 . y To citizens and businesses. Thus. businesses. communities. businesses. The key to e-government is the establishment of a long-term. and civil society are equipped with complete information so that they can make timely and appropriate life decisions. y To government employees and agencies. to participate in the policy development process. and acts as the one-stop source of Malaysian government information and services for the citizens. ICTs have opened numerous channels of participation not usually open or available to the broader public. Many instances around the world today have shown the potential of ICTs to change society through the participation of a wide variety of people from various social and cultural backgrounds.0 What advantages does myGov portal create? The myGovernment Portal (www. y Enhancing political participation. radio and telephones²the public can more easily access information and services.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy 11. to have their voices heard. and religious beliefs. to influence decision making. myGovernment Portal should result in the efficient and swift delivery of goods and services to citizens. Government carries the burden and responsibility of ensuring that citizens. y Through ICTs²broadly defined to include television. By providing the public with details of government activities and providing them with venues to actively participate in these In what ways can my Government enhance digital democracy? y Improving access to public information and services. 11. technology. processes and work flow management. ICTs have made it possible for citizens around the world to be included in the policy process.

government employees and agencies. it would mean the facilitation of cross-agency coordination and collaboration to ensure appropriate and timely decision-making. and Government-toGovernment (G2G). specifically the development of small and medium enterprises. and the like. technology. 12. health care. including dissemination of policies. Government-to-Employee (G2E). To citizens and businesses. but also with IT training and education. invisible and silent. and payment of taxes. as well as citizen assistance for such basic services as education. G2C includes information dissemination to the public. basic citizen services such as license renewals. Governments must pay special attention to providing women not only with access to information technology (IT). businesses. Government-to-Business (G2B). To government employees and agencies. The services offered through G2B transactions also assist in business development. e -government would mean the simplification of procedures and streamlining of the approval process. hospital information. processes and work flow management. Simplifying application procedures that would facilitate the approval process for SME requests would encourage business development. memos. ordering of birth/death/marriage certificates and filing of income taxes. rules and regulations. economically.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy y Engendering women empowerment. e-government should result in the efficient and swift delivery of goods and services to citizens. ICTs are particularly useful for giving voice to women in developing countries who traditionally are isolated. registering businesses. organization-wide strategy to constantly improve operations with the end in view of fulfilling citizen needs by transforming internal operations such as staffing. Business services offered include obtaining current business information. 22 .0 Citizen¶s benefit The key to e-government is the establishment of a long-term. Thus. politically and socially. It presents new opportunities for women to improve their lives. G2B transactions include various services exchanged between government and the business community. libraries. renewing licenses. downloading application forms. There are four types of e-government services which are Government-to-Citizen (G2C). obtaining permits.

thereby contributing to the elimination of mistakes from manual procedures. At the same time. Malhotra. G2G services are transactions between the central/national and local governments. The appropriate application of ICT may possibly reduce the number of inefficiencies in processes by allowing file and data sharing across government departments. buyers or sellers may specify prices or invite bids. 2001. and between department-level and attached agencies and bureaus. these benefits constitute a major aspect of myGov Portal initiatives. 23 . EProcurement makes the bidding process transparent and enables smaller businesses to bid for big government procurement projects. G2B services include e-procurement. 1996. Amit and Zott. and by speeding up transaction processing. G2G services take place at two levels: at the local or domestic level and at the international level. The system also helps government generate bigger savings. an online government supplier exchange for the purchase of goods and services by government. such as the provision of human resource training and development that improve the bureaucracy¶s day-to-day functions and dealings with citizens. 2001) agree that ICT has considerable potential to contribute to efficiency gains and cost reductions for private organizations.1 y OPPORTUNITIES OF myGov Cost Reduction and Efficiency Gains Researchers (Tapscott. 12. and can be used as an instrument of international relations and diplomacy. G2E services encompass G2C services as well as specialized services that cover only government employees. Depending on the approach. e -procurement Web sites allow qualified and registered users to look for buyers or sellers of goods and services. Putting services on-line substantially decreases the processing costs of many activities compared with the manual way of handling operations. G2G services are transactions between governments. as costs from middlemen are shaved off and purchasing agents¶ overhead is reduced. Furthermore. Typically. Efficiency is also attained by streamlining internal processes. reducing the required time for transactions.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy On a higher level. by enabling faster and more informed decision making.

line communities. businesses and other stakeholders should be able to see political and governmental information. 2001). content and accessibility. thereby reducing the bureaucracy. offers round the clock accessibility. The SPRM website communicates directly with the public through messages and speeches to bolster confidence in the institution. but now this information should be available on the web. The consequences are high costs and citizen and business dissatisfaction. and obviously enhances the quality of services. they can be valuable resources for transparency as citizens. informs the public about its efforts in fighting corruption. the procedures are long. In many cases myGov Portal offers opportunities for citizens to directly participate in decision-making. A business that wishes to obtain a license or a permit has to fill out a number of application forms. and makes public the names of officers from the elite administrative and revenue service against whom investigations have been ordered or penalties imposed for corruption. Anticorruption and Accountability myGov Portal helps to increase the transparency of decision-making processes. rules and policies. go to different offices and spend a lot of time for a simple service. increases the transparency too. An myGov Portal initiative. Example: Portal Rasmi SPRM started an initiative to create a website with the objective of reducing corruption and increasing transparency by sharing a large amount of information related to corruption with citizens. in terms of time. as well as economic and legislative aspects. If web sites are designed carefully and openly.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy y Quality of Service Delivery to Businesses and Customers In the traditional model of public service delivery. fast and convenient transactions. which puts government services online. on the other hand. 24 . Members of the public are highly encouraged (mainly by rewards) to make their complaints and to provide information against a public servant about taking of bribes in order for the commission to undertake the necessary anticorruption actions to eliminate bribery and to increase the tran sparency of rules. If a citizen wishes to be issued with a certificate or any other official document. he or she will have to travel to the central government office. has to visit a number of different offices and spend a considerable amount of time. The availability of a diversity of publications regarding the activities of the public administration. Previously it was often necessary to go directly to governmental offices to obtain information. y Transparency. procedures and service delivery (Bhatnagar. by allowing them to provide their own ideas and suggestions in forums and on. time consuming and lack transparency.

communications. the very nature and function of myGov Portal require a network approach to put together skills. 1998). the realization of electronic transactions triggers network creation among private companies. Knowledge based or expert systems help to create a more responsive and guideline based process. requires a partnership between government agencies/departments and universities or research institutions. Intranets allow different departments to share databases of common customers and to pool skills and capacities of their members for problem solving. These facilities in turn will pledge faster information flow and transfer. horizontal and vertical integration. technologies. employees and other governmental agencies. and in decision making processes. telecommunication and ISPs. which become both consumers of government services and providers of goods and services to the government. It is generally impossible to find all of them in one single governmental agency. which could require lower taxes to finance. Moreover. financial institutions. customers. government. and interrelationships and for easy information flow and transfer offers considerable opportunity to increase government capacity. It also assures benefits to the government itself through reduced costs and spending. faster and better decision making processes. multidisciplinary and dynamic learning process (Mansell and Wehn. and therefore the creation of a large and diversified network of relationships. information and knowledge that span the boundaries of different governmental agencies. quicker and cheaper provision of goods and services. The need for learning and training. y Network and Community Creation myGov Portal initiative requires a complex web of interrelationships among As argued before. Moreover. The provision of integrated services at one contact point requires the cooperation and collaboration of different departments and agencies. 25 . This approach assures benefits for businesses. for example. On the other hand. The successful use and diffusion of ICTs in the public sector involves a collective. and unplugged paper bottlenecks.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy y Increase the Capacity of Government The use of ICT for the reorganization of internal administration transactions. giving citizens and businesses the possibility to participate in forums. myGov Portal initiative enables community creation. businesses. contributing actively to different political and governmental discussions.

listening and understanding to their needs and requirements. For a government-to-business electronic transaction to occur. In fact. citizens and other stakeholders. In order for myGov Portal staff to interact. the capability of staff to process the large amount of information. one of the main benefits of myGov Portal initiative consists of the promotion of ICT use in other sectors. perspectives and solutions to meet the challenges of policy making under conditions of increased complexity (OECD. 2001). 26 . Considering citizens as governmental customers. In this way. y Promote Use of ICT in Other Sectors of the Society Continuous interaction and communication between government and its stakeholders contributes to the creation of awareness about the potential contribution of ICT to local community activities. citizens can contribute their own ideas. continuous interaction and communication between government and its citizens contribute further to the decision making process.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy y Improve the Quality of Decision Making Community creation. The OECD argues that the strengthening relationship between government and citizens could improve the quality of services by allowing government to tap wider sources of information. financial institutions have to create secure and reliable methods for electronic transactio The ns. is essential for a better decision making process. it is necessary to mandate the use of ICT tools and applications. less centralized model. By means of active participation in political and government discussions. the business itself needs to make use of electronic equipment. and share their knowledge and information. However improvements in the speed and quality of decision making depend greatly on the willingness of governments to be empowered with new information. 1998). The appropriate use of shared data and information by all governmental agencies and departments offers the possibility to make quick decisions thus to serve the community better. the prevailing cultural values as well as the motivation of governments to shift from a hierarchical public administration model to a flexible. development of new technological and management capacities required for myGov Portal functionality encourage the development in turn of new training courses and modules in schools and universities trying to supply the required skills and capabilities to the market. transact and communicate electronically with businesses. forums. On the other hand. not only in facilitating market-led initiatives but also in initiating the process of capability building and in coordinating the actions of a large number of interested stakeholders (Mansell and Wehn. myGov Portal plays a vital role. This will in turn lead to building trust in government and improving the relationships between the government and the governed.

architecture. Establishing protections and legal reforms will be needed to ensure. the more likely citizens will be inclined to accept and use myGov Portal services. that is. However. and they are not able to deploy the appropriate ICT infrastructure for myGov Portal deployment. The digital divide between richer countries and developing ones is large with high-income economies having 416 personal computers per 1. the higher the level of human development. satellite receivers. which protect and secure these kinds of activities or processes.2 CHALLENGES FOR A SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF EGOVERNMENT INITIATIVES ICT Infrastructure ICT infrastructure is recognised to be one of the main challenges for myGov Portal.000 people and low-income economies only 6 per 1. which has to be protected and recognized by a formalized law. computer crime. Different access methods. such as remote access by cellular phones. Many developing countries suffer from the digital divide. kiosks. a guiding set of principles.000 (World Bank. In many developing countries. e-business and myGov Portal laws are not yet available. the 27 .. among other things. 1996).HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy 12. y Policy Issues Processing of myGov Portal principles and functions requires a range of new rules. intellectual property rights and copyright issues. etc. E-readiness and ICT literacy are also necessary in order for people to be able to use and benefit from myGov Portal applications. Dealing with myGov Portal means signing a contract or a digital agreement. and freedom of information. is needed. an ICT infrastructure does not consist simply of telecommunications and computer equipment. freedom and desire to access information is critical to myGov Portal efficacy. models and standards. policies. data protection. laws and legislative changes to address electronic activities including electronic signatures. Having the education. The development of basic infrastructure to capture the advantages of new technologies and communications tools is essential for implementing myGov Portal. need to be taken into consideration by governments in order that all members of society can be served irrespective of their physical and financial capabilities. 2003). For a transition to electronic government. Internetworking is required to enable appropriate sharing of information and open up new channels for communication and delivery of new services (Tapscott. electronic archiving. Presumably.

Hierarchy is the most traditional of cultural values of a government bureaucracy. 1989). y Human Capital Development and Life Long Learning A major challenge of myGov Portal initiative is the lack of ICT skills in the public sector. which will guarantee secure transactions between organizations and individuals. Moreover. in many ways its defining feature. instead it revolutionizes and reinvents the government processes and functions. This is a particular problem in developing countries. Change management can be divided into two sub concepts: Change Management Approach and Management of Resistance t Change. are necessary. functions and customers. Employees fear changes in general and ICT applications in particular as they believe that ICT would replace them and so cause job losses. seminars. Being aware of an organization¶s culture is already a big step towards a higher capacity to change (Hassard and Sharifi. governments all over the world need to tackle the design and development of a public key infrastructure. new ways of processing and performing tasks are introduced. workshops in order to create the basic skills for myGov Portal handling. Employee resistance to change is still the biggest barrier to successful change. maintenance. In particular. designing and implementation of ICT infrastructure. Hence. 2001). The availability of appropriate skills is central for successful myGov Portal implementation.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy privacy. Addressing resistance successfully means ensuring the existence of 28 . y Change Management Change management issues must be addressed as new work practices. security and legal recognition of electronic interactions and electronic signatures. ICT is distinguished by its network character (Dutch ICT and Government Advisory Committee. where the chronic lack of qualified staff and inadequate human resources training has been a problem for years (UNPA&ASPA. myGov Portal requires hybrid human capacities: technological. Change management o approach refers to the change management procedures established within organizations. it is very difficult in a short time to turn off traditional methods of working and learn new ones. DeLisi (1990) identifies culture as the primary driver of strategic organizational change. To address human capital development issues. Technical skills for installation. knowledge management initiatives are required focusing on staff training. intranets and the sharing of information throughout organizations can challenge hierarchies and can only really benefit an organization that develops a more networked approach. myGov Portal correctly designed doesn¶t simply save costs and improve service quality. as well as skills for using and managing online processes. commercial and management. 2001).

in order to provide resources. y Partnership and Collaboration Collaboration and cooperation at local. For example. A µnew¶ development model is emerging that focuses on partnership among stakeholders in the knowledge based development program (Talero & Gaudette. This seems to be a very difficult task. skills and capabilities that the government lacks. articulate costs. y Strategy One of the main challenge s for myGov Portal project is the establishment of an appropriate and context tailored strategy. To ensure that the public and stakeholders will be partners in the myGov Portal effort. a holistic vision. learning and training courses for government staff and citizens. as well as between public and private organizations. requiring a focus on many aspects and processes. universities will provide the required staff. Collaboration between the private (assuming that there is a private sector) and public sectors is needed too. Borrowing a lesson from the private sector. Many public institutions limit their activities to a simple transfer of their information and services online without taking into consideration the re-engineering process needed to grasp the full benefits. long-term focus and objectives. power and hierarchical status. especially where there has been a history of dictatorship. Governments often exhibit considerable resistance to open and transparent systems as they try to preserve their authority. collaboration and cooperation are not simple to realize. political instability or large-scale corruption. Citizens distrust their governments. meanwhile. The government must have a clear strategy to overcome the barriers to change. regional and national levels. Part of the strategy is to engage in a rigorous assessment of the current situation. it is important to try to build trust in government. Every project or initiative needs to be rooted in a very careful. impacts and benefits of programme as well as continuously monitor and evaluate the project upgrading. analytical and dynamic strategy. 1996). the ICT private sector is able to support government with technical skills and infrastructure. and other governmental departments and agencies can contribute in data and information flow and knowledge sharing for problem solving of similar tasks or processes and so on. the reality on the ground and the inventory of projects. 29 .HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy incentives for employees to learn and change and the establishment of well structured plans that embrace employee participation throughout all stages of a change process. meeting the needs of citizens and improving the quality of life. are important elements in the myGov Portal development process. Nevertheless. myGov Portal must be customer-driven and service oriented.

investors and lobbyists. leadership is needed in order to explain the concept. during the project. and after the project. Leadership is one of the main driving forces of every new and innovative project or initiative. students. 1998). It offers the potential of reshaping the public sector activities and processes. It does not only facilitate market. Leadership is necessary before. which is able to understand the real costs and benefits of the project. Developing countries must pursue a more active role in the formulation of national policies and strategies to promote the information economy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS In the new economy. it is needed to pledge the required flexibility and adaptability of the initiative. constituents. 2001). myGov Portal is believed to play a fundamental role to this end. underpinned by revolutionary changes in science and technology. information and knowledge has become a key factor in economic competitiveness. Changing and hazy visions confuse expectations for reforms and leaders (OECD.led initiatives but it also plays a major role in initiating the process of capability building and in coordinating the actions of a large number of interested stakehol ers (Mansell and d Wehn. enhancing transparency. include and support other organizations and institutions. accompanied by high costs. increasing government capacity and providing a ³voice´ for those outside the government. to reap huge benefits in terms of economic and social growth/development. 30 .HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy This means that a vision of myGov Portal implies providing greater access to information as well as better. A leading player (organization. Top leadership involvement and clear lines of accountability for making management improvements are critical to overcoming organizations¶ natural resistance to change. more equal services and procedures for public and businesses. Even when myGov Portal projects seek to improve internal government processes. 2001). This means recognizing the diverse roles that citizens can play as partners. and building and maintaining the organization wide commitment to new ways of doing government (McClure. marshalling the resources needed to improve management. public organizations are generally resistant to the initiation of change. the model and create awareness. y Leadership Role The public sector presents unique challenges for leadership. the end goal should be making government serve citizens better. employees. influence. Before the project is initiated. is required. building relationships between citizens and the government. institution). leadership is needed to manage change and support the project. taxpayers. employers. Since myGov Portal is a complex process. to motivate. risks and challenges. during and after project implementation.

Prepare for long-term solutions to problems by ensuring the availability of appropriate training programs for future management of technological and business changes. legislative frameworks. kiosks. Based on the outcomes of this assessment. solutions and knowledge.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy Nevertheless.Start with an e-readiness assessment study which permits stakeholders to understand the current state of telecommunication networks infrastructure. in general. y Stimulate collaboration and coordination among government departments and agencies to increase efficiency and effectively in process handling. technological infrastructures and accessibility for all in a tailored and effective way. y Show sensitivity to local realities by assessing and evaluating different alternatives. y Raise awareness among public and private organizations . research institutions and universities. Some basic training needs necessary to be provided to community members. legal and regulatory framework. y E-readiness assessment . The case analysis reveals some important tips to consider for a successful design and implementation of myGov Portal initiatives. Accordingly. in order for them to be able to use new facilities for accessing electronic information and services. seminars. ways and solutions for digital government development including mobile telephones.Organize workshops. current level of human resources and skills as well as the main impediments within a country¶s borders. they have to be given incentives (not necessarily monetary) to prevent the brain drain of skilled people. y Invest in human development ± the success of e-initiatives depends largely on human skills and capabilities. major donors. But. despite the barriers and impediments they experienced. Staff need to be trained to handle new processes and activities. social and economic hindrances. Address challenges and opportunities in strong partnership with private organizations. and they need to feel part of the organization by engaging in the decision making process. education and training initiatives must be considered as priority actions. the reference cases provided here show that developing countries should and could take advantages of the ICT revolution. conferences with the objective of raising awareness about real opportunities and benefits that the ICT revolution can bring. institutional infrastructures. events. and multi- 31 . it is possible to produce strategies and action plans for building human resource capability. and support cross fertilization of ideas. the ability of developing countries to reap the full benefits of myGov Portal is limited and is largely hampered by the existence of many political.

This allows IT to be embedded into the mobile citizen. and e-government applications have often been static and immobile. Integrate myGov Portal with other development strategies and policies to ensure a broad base diffusion. It is m-governance. in industrialized and developing countries. or µGovernance-on-the-Go¶ (GonGo). for example twitter. E-government (myGov Portal) focused on government services has under-emphasized broader aspects of governance. Find viable solutions to ensure the effective participation of the community in the information economy. with clear vision and strategy to overcome the barriers and challenges for change. fluid and interactive ways for people to relate with each other and with institutions. Social networks will soon be able to support more revenue-based government transactions such as tax or business registration. build and maintain wide commitment and involvement at public and private levels. thanks to the breakthrough synergy of various technologies. make ICT development a national priority. In particular. with the focus on (mobile) governance rather than only on government. the private sector. media. particularly those where citizens and institutions outside of government play a key role. y Adopt a holistic and comprehensive approach. Recently a dynamic IT-revolution has been afoot.Establish knowledge management processes and tools to ensure storage. including civil society and NGOs. and also public institutions. for realizing the necessary improvements and always search for better and innovative value added services and solutions. consider what a citizen can 32 . y Prepare to manage knowledge and change . for further adaptation and development. placing the citizen center stage. easy retrieval of strategic information and knowledge for better and fast decision-making process. 13. ¶GonGo¶ is enabling open. The Government adopted e -government to use ICT to provide information and communication technologie in order for provision of public s services and in interacting with their constituencies. parliaments. The active role of top leaders is crucial especially at the earliest stages.0 Does the citizen at the center of an IT-enabled governance breakthrough? In modern era. relying on IT infrastructure which is out of reach for most locations and citizens in developing countries. People have not been at the center of e-government. usage.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy channel access to services. to raise awareness. the IT revolution has brought about innovation supporting the modernization of the public sector.

33 . thanks to the interaction between the cell-phone.0 tools that allow the involvement of citizens in the public sector. For instance.0 I. Of course. democracy. enquiries and complaints. Maintenance should be done during the off-peak hours to prevent any dissatisfactory among users when trying to access the portals/ websites. This must be in line with the client charter specified and posted on the websites. especially if they have not been able to be assessed for the past three years of assessment. II. VI. useful information and online services according to the target audience. whereby they can be deliberated in improving the customer experience when improving the customer experience when dealing with the government agencies. III.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy do as s/he goes about their day. This can be done by implementing web 2. A strong motivation to get citizens and other stakeholders to transact with the online government services to align the related. all agencies must keep up the updating process to ensure correctness of the listed URLS and existence of portals and websites duplications. hence the power of placing at the citizen¶s fingertips an affordable and accessible cell. a page on it can be created in Facebook for better promotion among the citizens. agencies need to incorporate latest technology. such as Twitter. These have already empowered millions of highly mobile citizens everywhere to improve governance. mobile. IV. SMS text messaging (or MMS for pictures and video) and micro-blogging. infrastructure investments also need to continue so to provide more internet and PC access to citizens. 14. mobility is essential. thus converging with handhelds and cell-phone. For instant. and embedded into the person. For instance. V. For the use of Government resources. if an agency is holding a campaign. Elimination of inaccessible portals and websites are necessary. But these need to become more accessible. Recommendation With the existing streamlining done to Government machinery of myGov. Act quickly. Any enquiries or messages sent by citizen must be responded within 3 working days in order to increase the efficiency of public sector. placing citizens and their mobile needs center stage so to help them further good governance. and peace and also in poor and remote corners of the world. Agencies must be able to provide avenues for the citizens to voice out their opinions. Government agencies must start segregating their online services according to the target audience and its nature-Internet and Intranet. feedback.

This first step to this is by striving for good online services and ensuring users are comfortable acquiring services via their portals/websites. Therefore. it is crucial to gauge citizens¶ experience so that Malaysia can be notable climber of the top E-government countries around the world. IX. Security and safely of users. are utilizing the two-way interactions. transparencies and efficiency and continuous promotion of these Government portals and websites are some of the factors that need to be considered by agencies. Thus. charters and their achievement thus far and number of transactions in the portals/websites. Transparencies are also necessary to earn the trust from citizen. VIII. agencies must take into account that when a user is browsing through their portals/websites.HBM 370 E-Commerce Strategy VII. it is important to include the policies. Conclusion As this year marked the fifth assessment of MGPWA. or maybe even no one. it must be hassle-free. it has come to a point that Malaysia Government portals and websites must priorities the participation of citizens. Citizens want to be assured that when they are dealing with Government online. agencies must fulfill the security requirement. userfriendliness. agencies must ensure users return to the portals and websites for more services. Offering online services are deterring when not many. despite just focusing on creating more services available online. 34 . the security risk is not there. Government portals and websites must take a big leap this year. User friendly and convenience play a crucial part. Although the technology and information in a portal/website are expanding rapidly. to gain their confidence that Government portals and websites are safe and secure. Thereby. Therefore.

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