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1 1. Introduction: When we are born; we are completely sterile of microbes.

Once outside the womb, we are bombarded by microbes and soon we have 10 times more microbes in our body than the number of cells that make up the human body. Here the terms unknown friends and enemies are used to indicate the good and bad bacteria live in our bodies. According to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) of Maryland, two to five pounds (1.0 to 2.26 kilograms) of live bacteria are living inside our bodies. Bacteria come in good and bad varieties, or more to the point, can be helpful or harmful. HHMI reports that the largest concentration of bacteria in the human body is found in the intestines. The relationship between the different strains of bacteria and the human body is a dynamic one, constantly adjusting to changing conditions. 2. We couldn’t live without bacteria: The human body is home to millions of beneficial bacteria.We house millions of bacteria on our skin and in our nose, mouth, and gut.Up to 500 species can be found as normal oral flora.There can easily be 25 species living in a single mouth.A milliliter of saliva can contain as many as 40 million (4 x 107) bacterial cells.108 bacterial cells present in the cecum (the initial part of the colon) per milliliter of content is normal and many of these species are different from those found in the mouth.Antibiotics can wipe out our body’s beneficial bacteria, causing unwanted health consequences. www.actionbioscience.org 3. Good bacteria in our bodies: Microorganisms, like certain bacteria and yeasts, living on the human skin or in the nose, mouth, throat, small and large intestine and vagina, are part of the normal human flora; they prevent overgrowth of harmful microorganisms. They are known as probiotic or “friendly” bacteria. Probiotic literally means ‘for life’. Researchers are discovering that these “friendly” bacteria help not only to stimulate digestive health, but may stimulate a healthy immune system.

2 3.1 Characteristics of a Probiotic: The characteristics required of lactobacilli to qualify it as probiotics are as follows- it must provide beneficial function, easy cultivation, non-pathogenicity, adhesion and population stability. Probiotic therapy is considered useful and has very few side effects in contrast with conventional pharmaceutical treatments. 3.2 Classification of Probiotic: They are classified into two major categories namely the Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Under these categories, there are also different kinds. a. Different Kinds of Lactobacillus Bacteria:1. Lactobasillus acidophilus.2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus 3.Lactobacillus bulgaricus 4. Lactobacillus salivarius 5. Lactobacillus plantarum 6. Lactobacillus casei 7. Lactobacillus sporogenes b. Kinds of Probiotic Bifidobacteria: 1. Bifidobacteria bifidum 2. Bifidobacteria longum

Good bacteria 3.3 The number of probiotic in human body: It is estimated that there are several trillion friendly bacteria comprising over four hundred species in the average human gastrointestinal tract. By body weight, each of us carries around approximately four pounds of intestinal microflora. 3.4 The funtion probiotic bacteria: . Probiotics help re-colonize the digestive tract and keep our bodies in good working order to fight the bad bacteria that we come in contact with on a regular basis. Bacteria play a very important role in the large intestine. In the womb, babies are essentially

3 sterile but by the age of 2 have acquired through their environment the complement of bacteria that will inhabit their gut throughout adulthood, also known as gut flora. The human gut houses a staggering 10 to 100 trillion microbes from 500 to 1,000 species— more than 10 times the number of cells that make up the human body. They can also contribute significantly to relief of health problems ranging from indigestion and diarrhea to colon and liver cancer. Lactobacillus acidophilus is involved in the production of B vitamins (niacin, folic acid, and pyridoxine) during the digestive process. These also reduce cholesterol levels and the growth of hostile yeasts such as Candida albicans. Improve the absorption of lactose in people who have been diagnosed as lactose intolerant. The human body does not make vitamin K by itself. Bacteria create this, and other essential vitamins, as by-products of the food and other digestive materials they ingest. They also help our bodies to break down drugs .

3.5 How do good bacteria in our body prevent bad bacteria: If good bacteria have colonised a space then there is a good chance that there will be no room for bad bacteria to establish themselves. They Aid in the digestive process and help to suppress bacteria that cause diseases and prevent as well as treat cases of diarrhea. Treat an overgrowth of “bad” organisms in the gastrointestinal tract .Reduce the recurrence of vaginal yeast infections, urinary tract infections and cystitis (inflammation of the bladder).Enhance the natural response of the immune system. 4. Antibiotics and Probiotics: We inadvertently kill off the good microbes in our body with antibiotics. Since antibiotics are necessary for killing the bad microbes that cause some diseases, they are important for helping to keep people healthy. However, the side effect to taking antibiotics is the elimination of the good microbes within our body along with the bad ones. 5. Bad bacteria that attack our bodies: Many times when people think of bacteria they associate them with disease. Commercials abound for cleaning wipes that sterilize (kill)

4 “99.5%” of bacteria and viruses on household surfaces. However, the reality is that only 10% of bacteria are “bad” or pathogenic.. Disease is caused by only a few of them. Bacteria which are involved to some of our most notorious including cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever. diseases known as pathogenic bacteria. For example, some harmful bacteria, like staphylococcus, live on human skin. It does not cause any harm though, unless there is a break in the skin and the bacteria enters the blood stream 5.1 The harmfuleffect of pathogenic bacteria depends on: Pathogenic means capable of causing disease. An actual harmful effect of a microbe to the body depends on:

microbial virulence - a relative ability of a microbe to cause a disease; for example, a certain, highly virulent subtype of influenza virus may cause a bird flu, which is deadly in a high percent, while “usual” influenza virus is not.

invasion through the body’s barriers; staph bacteria might not cause any harm to a person with an intact skin, but can cause a severe infection of a skin wound.

amount of microbes; eating few bites of food contaminated with staph bacteria may go unnoticed, while eating the whole portion of the same food may cause a severe food poisoning.

body’s defense (immune) system; patients with a weak immune system, like those receiving corticosteroids, often get oral thrush (candida infection of the mouth), while otherwise healthy people do not.

5.2 The harmful effects cause by harmful bacteria:

Certain bacteria act as pathogens and cause tetanus, typhoid fever, pneumonia, syphilis, cholera, food-borne illness and tuberculosis.

Streptococcus bacteria may cause small infections like strep throat and some serious diseases like pneumonia. Certain streptococci may be fatal.

Bacteria that usually live harmlessly in the body may cause infections when a person's resistance to disease is reduced in conditions such as AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).

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Not all stomach bacteria are beneficial, some of the stomach bacteria enter the body through the mouth, and they can survive in the acidic conditions in the stomach and can cause serious diseases and can be fatal.

Campylobacter is a group of bacteria that can create illnesses in humans and is a common cause of food poisoning.

Harmful bacteria in food cause botulism, which can cause paralysis or even death if even one millionth of the bacterium is ingested.

Yersinia pestis or bubonic plague, is a rod-shaped type of bacterium which is well known for its harmful nature. Bacteria-carrying fleas found on animals such as rats and mice transmit the bacteria that are believed to have caused the deaths of millions of people in human history.

5.3 How can we save ourselves from bacteria: With our immune system we defend ourselves against a bacterial infection. Antibiotics can help us win the battle. The term 'antibiotics' (literally 'against living things') is mainly used for substances that kill or prevent the growth of bacteria, as opposed to antiviral or antifungal substances. Antibiotics are not active against viral infections.In the last half of the 20th Century, deaths from infectious diseases greatly decreased, partly due to the discovery of antibiotics. Bacteria can be real killers, especially for patients who do not have sufficient immunity. Antibiotics are extremely important in medicine, but unfortunately bacteria can become resistant to them. In search of an alternative, scientists have seen the light: maybe UV light can kill bacteria in food and medical products. We could also learn from Nature to find new weapons for the combat of bacteria. For instance to use viruses that kill bacteria, these are called 'bacteriophages' and are the natural enemies of bacteria.

6 6.Conclution: Although unseen and often given a bad rap, most bacteria are not a detriment to human life but rather necessary for human life. It is no big surprise that we are relatively inert to bacteria. After all, mammals have evolved in the presence of bacteria, and have developed specialized strategies to keep bacteria under control.Our body can resist the bombardment of bacteria, it receives every day quite efficiently. Just as well that we can’t see them but with every breath of air, every bite we take, little bugs are unknowingly entering our body. Our bodies mechanism and friendly bacteria help to remove of pathogenic bacteria from our bodies. There are more to bacteria than just causing diseases. Breakthrough studies have shown that some bacteria does not give us sickness, but rather aid us in some ways in regulating our body system. Although there are a lot of disease-causing bacteria in our surroundings, there are also some good bacteria that linger in our planet. We tend to disregard the benefits that good bacteria can give our body.