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India History

Europeans in India
India was a British colony. The British left behind them in India a strong imprint of their philosophy and culture and even today it is evident that English which is a foreign language is the most important and respected language in India. But the British were not the only Europeans to arrive in India and have their imprint. Since ancient period even before the beginning of the Christian era there were relations between Europeans and Indians. The main Europeans to arrive in ancient India were Greeks. The Greeks are referred to in ancient Indian history as Yavanas. Even the most famous ancient Greek conqueror, Alexander the Great, arrived in India. But actually he arrived up to the present India-Pakistan border. But there were other Greeks who arrived in India and established kingdoms. Many of these Greek communities later on adopted Hinduism and integrated in the Indian caste system. Even today there are communities in Kashmir who claim to be of Greek origin. Not all Greeks arrived in India to conquer it. There were also Greek scientists who arrived in India for scientific research, especially in astronomy and mathematics. Later on other Europeans arrived in India because of commercial reasons. The Indian sub-continent was then world famous for its spices. But when the Muslim Ottoman Empire of Turkey ruled the Middle East, they caused lots of problems to European Christian merchants who tried to pass through their land. Therefore the Europeans tried to find other routes to reach India. And so accidentally Christopher Columbus found the continent of America. Columbus tried to get to India while sailing westwards from Europe. Columbus presumed that because the earth is round he would eventually get to India while sailing westwards, instead he found the continent of America whose existence was not known then to the Europeans. Columbus thought that he had arrived in India and called the natives Indians. From the 15th century the European representatives arrived in India, namely English, French, Dutch, Danish and Portuguese. Among these European powers the Portuguese arrived first in India in 1498 via sea after they had circled the whole of the African continent. These representatives arrived in India after they received from their country rulers charter to do business with India. These Europeans at first requested from the local rulers permission to trade in their entities. Later on they requested from the local rulers permission to build factories. After they built factories they requested to build forts around these factories to defend them from pirates and other dangers. Then they requested to recruit local Indians to serve as guards and soldiers in these forts and so on they slowly created their own armies. And so one of the European power's representative, the British East India Company, became the ruler of India.

The British control of India was a result of several factors. The Portuguese, who along with their business tried to enforce Roman Catholicism on the Indians were defeated by local rulers sometimes in collaboration with Protestant European powers. But still the Portuguese remained in India with small pockets. Their main center in India was Goa. The Dutch, who had holds in south India and the Danes, who had holds in east India, left India for their own reasons. The two main European powers that remained in India were British and French. These two powers tried different ways to control India and to defeat each other. Each of these European powers sometimes collaborated with local Indian rulers to defeat the other European power. Eventually the British became the rulers of India. But the French like the Portuguese remained in India with small pockets and both these powers remained in India even after the British left India in 1947. The British East India Company was actually a trading company and it received from the British crown charter to trade with the Indian sub-continent. They arrived in India for spice trade in 1600. Like other European powers that arrived in India, they at first requested from the local rulers permission to trade in their entities. The British East India Company was more sophisticated than other Europeans who arrived in India. This company offered different sophisticated agreements to the different Indian ruling families, which made them the actual managers of the Indian kingdoms. They sometimes used their army against local rulers and annexed their territories with the result that there was lot of embitterment among the Indians against the British. After the 'Indian Mutiny' of 1857, the British Crown took back the charter from the East India Company and ruled India directly through a Viceroy. The British gave India independence in 1947, but its last soldier left India eventually in 1950. The French also left India in 1950. The Portuguese were the last to leave India in 1961. Even though the European powers arrived in India for commercial reasons, they also started converting local Indians to Christianity. Of the five European powers the Portuguese were most enthusiastic to baptize Indians. The Portuguese inspired by the Pope’s order to baptize people around the world not only fought wars against the local Indian rulers, but also they tried to enforce their Roman Catholic prayers on Syrian Christians who were in India before the modern European powers arrived in India (see Christianity in India). After many wars the Portuguese were defeated by local rulers and they had only one big pocket of control in India, Goa. Goa was made the capital of Portuguese colonies in the eastern hemisphere. The Portuguese not only fought the Indian rulers, but they also fought against other European powers in India especially Dutch and English. Many Portuguese churches in Kerala were converted into English and Dutch churches after they were captured by these powers. The English missionaries started acting in India at a much later period. The British arrived in India in 1600 and they allowed the missionaries to enter their territory only from 1813. The British allowed different churches to establish missionaries in their territory. The missionaries didn’t only spread Christianity, but they also did humanitarian deeds giving the needy the basic necessities of life like food, clothes

and shelter. The missionaries also built schools in India and many of them exist even today and have Christian or European originated names. The British church missionaries succeeded less than the Portuguese in converting Indians to Christianity, but unlike the Portuguese who tried to enforce Christianity, these Protestant converts were voluntary. The Portuguese were also aware of the Indian custom according to which the wife followed her husband’s faith and therefore married their men to Indian women. Most of the Portuguese baptized Christians in India have Portuguese oriented surnames, like Fernandez, De Silva, De Costa and others. There is also an Anglo-Indian community in India, who are also descendants from European (English) fathers and Indian mothers, but these relations between English men and Indian women started because of romantic reasons. The Anglo-Indians are mostly Christians and have adopted English as their first language. According to the Indian Constitution, two seats in the Indian Parliament are reserved for the AngloIndian community members.

A Timeline of India in the 1800s

The British Raj Defined India Throughout the 1800s
The British East India Company arrived in India in the early 1600s, struggling and nearly begging for the right to trade and do business. By the late 1700s the thriving firm of British merchants, backed by its own army, was essentially ruling India. In the 1800s English power expanded in India, as it would until the mutinies of 1857-58. After those very violent spasms things would change, yet Britain was still in control. And India was very much an outpost of the mighty British Empire. 1600s: The British East India Company Arrives After several attempts to open trade with a powerful ruler of India failed in the earliest years of the 1600s, King James I of England sent a personal envoy, Sir Thomas Roe, to the court of the Mogul emperor Jahangir in 1614. The emperor was incredibly wealthy and lived in an opulent palace. And he was not interested in trade with Britain as he couldn't imagine the British had anything he wanted. Roe, recognizing that other approaches had been too subservient, was deliberately difficult to deal with at first. He correctly sensed that earlier envoys, by being too accommodating, had not gained the emperor's respect. Roe's stratagem worked, and the East India Company was able to establish operations in India. 1600s: The Mogul Empire at Its Peak
of Congress

The Mogul Empire had been established in India in the early 1500s, when a chieftain named Babur invaded India from Afghanistan. The Moguls (or Mughals) conquered most of northern India, and by the time the British arrived the Mogul Empire was immensely powerful. One of the most influential Mogul emperors was Jahangir's son Shah Jahan, who ruled from 1628 to 1658. He expanded the empire and accumulated enormous treasure, and made Islam the official religion. When his wife died he had the Taj Mahal built as a tomb for her. The Moguls took great pride in being patrons of the arts, and painting, literature, and architecture flourished under their rule. 1700s: Britain Assumes the Upper Hand The Mogul Empire was in a state of collapse by the 1720s. Other European powers were competing for control in India, and sought alliances with the shaky states that inherited the Mogul territories. The East India Company established its own army in India, which was composed of British troops as well as native soldiers called sepoys. The British interests in India, under the leadership of Robert Clive, gained military victories from the 1740s onward, and with the Battle of Plassey in 1757 were able to establish dominance.

and many more. 1858: Calm is Restored in British India Following the Indian Mutiny. 1857-58: The Indian Mutiny The Indian Mutiny erupted in May 1857. The British dispatched more troops to India and eventually succeeded in putting down the mutiny." the title for an official under the Moguls. British citizens began building an "Anglo-Indian" society within India. was a turning point in the history of Britain in India. but it was in popular usage many years before that. Historians have noted that the British government never actually intended to take control of India. the East India Company was abolished and the British crown assumed full rule of India. pajamas. By early 1857 things had reached a breaking point. dungaree. and exotic Indian scenes. called sepoys. The conflicts of 1857 and 1858 were brutal and bloody. appeared in books published in London in the 1820s. It was estimated that less than 8. often to be derided by those in British high society as "nabobs. jodhpurs. Incidentally. and lurid reports of massacres and atrocities circulated in newspapers and illustrated magazines in Britain. but there were a number of other underlying causes for the rebellion. but when British interests were threatened the government had to step in. . a number of other terms came into English usage during The Raj: bangle. thus making them unacceptable for both Hindu and Muslim soldiers. Resentment toward the British had been building for some time. and English customs were adapted to the climate of India. pundit. khaki.000 sepoys remained loyal to the British. circa 1850/now in public domain The British rule in India became known as "The Raj. the British military in India was also strengthened. 1800s: "The Raj" Enters the Language . The large city of Delhi was left in ruins. seersucker. Uprisings spread throughout British India." which was derived from the Sanskrit term raja meaning king. The traditional story is that Indian troops.000 of nearly 140. which was also called the Indian Mutiny. Tales of life in India fascinated the British public. The term did not have official meaning until after 1858. which included tolerance of religion and the recruitment of Indians into the civil service. Reforms were instituted. cushy. such as a drawing of an elephant fight.The East India Company gradually strengthened its hold. resorting to merciless tactics to restore order. British merchants could make a fortune in India and would then return home. even instituting a court system. And many sepoys who had surrendered were executed by British troops. While the reforms sought to avoid further rebellions through conciliation. when sepoys rose up against the British in Meerut and then massacred all the British they could find in Delhi. and new policies which allowed the British to annex some areas of India exacerbated tensions. or the Sepoy Mutiny. 1857: Resentment Toward the British Spills Over The Indian Rebellion of 1857. There is some truth to that. mutinied against their British commanders because newly issued rifle cartridges were greased with pig and cow fat.

a strong profit motive and Eurocentric confidence. the European powers strove to acquire Asian trading posts of their own.D. About. had no indigenous written language until the 9th century A. fine china and precious metals. throughout the remainder of the 19th century. The nationalist movement developed over decades. spices. Britain. The British Raj in India By Kallie Szczepanski. but over time.. and instituted some very unpopular policies. was emphasized in 1876 when Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli declared Queen Victoria to be "Empress of India. the acquisition of territory grew in importance. Among the nations looking for a piece of the action was Britain." British control of India would continue. (almost 3. reaping enormous profits on silk. . Europe's Scramble for Colonies in Asia: From the moment the Portuguese rounded the Cape of Good Hope on Africa's southern tip in 1488.6 million in 1850. to the civilization centers of the Indus Valley Culture at Harappa and The very idea of British India seems inexplicable. by 1850 A. How. Consider the fact that Indian written history stretches back almost 4. of course. and. and the affection the British crown felt for its colony. Its population was about 16. did Britain manage to control India from 1757 to 1947? The keys seem to have been superior weaponry. At first. In addition. It wasn't until Lord Curzon became Viceroy in 1898. The Viennese monopoly ended with the establishment of the sea-route. mostly peacefully. the European powers in Asia were solely interested in trade.The embodiment of the new British rule in India was the office of the Viceroy.000 years after India). then. 1876: Empress of India The importance of India. India had a population of some 200 million or more.D. that an Indian nationalist movement began to stir. on the other hand. India finally achieved its independence in 1947. the Viennese had controlled the European branch of the Silk Road. opening sea lanes to the Far East. For centuries.000 years.

Britain took about $5 million from the Bengali treasury. the Indians starved. Control of India Shifts to the India Office: . and his French East India Company allies. Following the Battle of Plassey.000-strong army of the young Nawab of Bengal.The Battle of Plassey (Palashi): Britain had been trading in India since about 1600. This battle pitted 3. but it did not begin to seize large sections of land until 1757. Rumors spread that the cartridges had been greased with pig and cow fat. it functioned as the military authority in growing sections of India. By 1770. unsure of public reaction. a new type of rifle cartridge was given to the soldiers of the British Indian Army. the rebels surrendered on June 20. They worried that Hindu and Muslim India would be "Christianized. Fighting began on the morning of June 23. Heavy rain spoiled the Nawab's cannon powder (the British covered theirs). when mainly Bengali Muslim troops marched to Delhi and pledged their support to the Mughal emperor. On May 10. 1757. 1857. to Britain's 22. While British soldiers and traders made their fortunes. At this time. India under the East India Company: The East India Company traded in cotton.000 soldiers of the British East India Company against the 5. which financed further expansion. Siraj ud Daulah. The Indian "Mutiny" of 1857: Many Indians were distressed by the rapid cultural changes imposed by the British. tea and opium. the revolt started. Between 1770 and 1773. After a year-long struggle. an abomination to both major Indian religions." Early in 1857. leading to his defeat. as well. The British considered them inherently corrupt and untrustworthy. The Nawab lost at least 500 troops. heavy Company taxation and other policies had left millions of Bengalis impoverished.1/3 of the population. Indians also were barred from high office in their own land. after the Battle of Plassey. Both sides moved slowly. 1858. silk. about 10 million people died of famine in Bengal .

Britain also encouraged the formation of the Muslim League of India in 1907. British India in World War I: During World War I. as well.000 Indian and Gurkha soldiers died. which had ruled India more or less for 300 years. Many Indians were eager for independence. In addition to troops. killing an estimated 1. The Emperor.3 million Indian soldiers and laborers were serving in the British Indian Army by the time of the Armistice. this meant educating them in British modes of thought. and other minority groups. In April. In 1905. this division was revoked after strong protests. British troops fired on the crowd.Following the Rebellion of 1857-58.500 men. once again. . It should be noted that the British Raj included only about 2/3 of modern India. and stamping out cultural practices such as sati. more than 5. British India in World War II: When World War II broke out.000 unarmed protestors gathered at Amritsar. 43. who reported back to the Secretary of State for India and the British Parliament. Britain declared war on German on India's behalf. they were led by a political new-comer called Mohandas Gandhi. Nepalese Gurkhas. Although most of India rallied to the British flag. However. India contributed hugely to the British war effort. Bengal and Punjab were restive. was convicted of sedition and exiled to Burma. To the British. in the Punjab. women and children. with the other portions under the control of local princes. Bahadur Shah. and the East India Company. pitting Hindu and Muslim Indians against one another. "Autocratic Paternalism": Queen Victoria promised that the British government would work to better its Indian subjects. The British also practiced "divide and rule" policies. The Indian Army was made up mostly of Sikhs. 1919. Control of India was given to a British Governor-General. More than 1. the British government abolished both the Mughal Dynasty. effectively controlling all of India. the colonial government divided Bengal into Hindu and Muslim sections. The official death toll was 379. Britain exerted a lot of pressure on these princes. the princely states donated substantial amounts of cash.

The Indian independence movement was very strong by this time. A series of ten courts-martial were held. The Act also created an umbrella federal government for the provinces and princely states. but were crushed by the British Army. The Struggle for Indian Independence. trying 45 prisoners on charges of treason. When the talks broke down. 87. but it was now just a question of when the British Raj would end. however. Gandhi and the INC did not trust the British envoy. and granted the vote to about 10% of India's male population.000 Indian soldiers had died in combat. Mass demonstrations burst out across the country. Some 30. Cripps may have made a secret agreement with the Muslim League. the INC launched the "Quit India" movement. and demanded immediate independence in return for their cooperation. the British arrested the INC's leadership. remained loyal. murder and torture. The earlier Government of India Act (1935) had provided for the establishment of provincial legislatures across the colony.5 million-man volunteer army. Britain sent the Cripps mission to offer future dominion status in return for help recruiting more soldiers. Sympathetic mutinies broke out in the Indian Army and Navy during the trial. In response. Gandhi and other members of the Indian National Congress (INC) demonstrated against British rule of India. however. India had an incredible 2. In 1942. though. Hindu/Muslim Riots and Partition .000 Indian POWs were recruited by the Germans and Japanese to fight against the Allies. North Africa. allowing Muslims to opt out of a future Indian state. but huge public protests forced the commutation of their sentences. In any case. Britain may not have realized it. These moves toward limited self-governance only made India impatient for true self-rule. and British rule was widely resented.By the end of the war. Italy. as well. calling for the immediate withdrawal of Britons from India. After the War The soldiers who had joined Japan and Germany in fighting the British were put on trial at Delhi's Red Fort early in 1946. Indian troops fought in Burma. Most. and the Aftermath: Calls for Self-rule Even as World War II raged. The men were convicted. in exchange for their freedom. The offer of independence had been made. and elsewhere.

Millions of refugees flooded across the border in each direction. Boundary issues. At midnight the next day India won its freedom from colonial rule. Even the imposition of an official boundary has not stopped conflict between them. India followed the next day. The British left Israel in May 1948.On August 17. while predominantly Muslim areas in the north became the nation of Pakistan. handing the question of division over to the UN." -Jawarhalal Nehru 14 August. especially India (Philips and Wainwright. Sectarian violence flared again as independence approached. have caused two wars and continuing strife between India and Pakistan. when an age ends. The British left India divided in two. The Partition of India "A moment comes. In June of 1947. when we step out from the old to the new. and when the soul of a nation. The partition of India and its freedom from colonial rule set a precedent for nations such as Israel. Pakistan became independent on August 14.000 and 500. 567). Gandhi had written an appeal "To Every Briton" to free their possessions in Asia and Africa. The two countries were founded on the basis of religion. saw the birth of the new Islamic Republic of Pakistan. representatives of the Hindus. with Pakistan as an Islamic state and India as a secular one. which demanded a separate homeland because of the irreconcilable differences between the Arabs and the Jews. Meanwhile. cash-strapped Britain announced its decision to withdraw from India by June of 1948. ending nearly 350 years of British presence in India. Un-enforced UN Resolutions to map out boundaries between Israel and Palestine has led to several Arab-Israeli wars and the conflict still continues. . finds utterance. 1947. Between 250. Hindu and Sikh areas stayed in India. Muslims and Sikhs agreed to divide India along sectarian lines. During the struggle for freedom. long suppressed. 1946. The trouble quickly spread across India. left unresolved by the British. which comes but rarely in history. Whether the partition of these countries was wise and whether it was done too soon is still under debate. 1947.000 people were killed in sectarian violence during the Partition. violent fighting broke out between Hindus and Muslims in Calcutta.

1919-Rowlatt Acts. non-cooperation movement. 1885-Indian National Congress founded by A. General Dyer opens fire on 20. fails as all parties boycott it. 1916-Lucknow Pact. A step to self-government in India within the Empire. These were peacetime extensions of wartime emergency measures.000 unarmed Indian civilians at a political demonstration against the Rowlatt Acts. or black acts passed over opposition by Indian members of the Supreme Legislative Council. Their passage causes further disaffection with the British and leads to protests. Congress and the League lose faith in the British. 1909-Revocation of Partition of Bengal. Gives the Muslims a majority in that state. against the British for a free India. set up to investigate the Indian political environment for future policy-making. Communal representation institutionalised for the first timeas reserved legislative seats are allocated for significant minorities. or Satyagraha. 1919-Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms (implemented in 1921). 1858-The India Act: power transferred to British Government. . 1929-Congress calls for full independence. 1857-The Indian Mutiny or The First War of Independence. 1905-First Partition of Bengal for administrative purposes. with greater provincialisation. Gandhi suspends non-cooperation movement and is imprisoned. The Congress and the League unite in demand for greater selfgovernment. 1906-All India Muslim League founded to promote Muslim political interests. Hume to unite all Indians and strengthen bonds with Britain. based on a dyarchic principle in provincial government as well as administrative responsibility. 1922-Twenty-one policemen are killed by Congress supporters at Chauri -Chaura. It is denied by the British.Timeline 1600-British East India Company is established. 1920-Gandhi launches a non-violent. Amritsar Massacre. 1928-Simon Commission. O. Creates anti-British and anti-Hindu sentiments among Muslims as they lose their majority in East Bengal.

a poet-politician. 1946-Muslim League participates in Interim Government that is set up according to the Cabinet Mission Plan. Unsuccessful Gandhi-Jinnah talks. to rid India of British rule.1930-Dr. They fail because of non-attendance by the Congress and because Gandhi. 1971-East Pakistan separates from West Pakistan and Bangladesh is born. 1935-Government of India Act: proposes a federal India of political provinces with elected local governments but British control over foreign policy and defence. Bengal and North-West Frontier Province and greater influence in the Punjab. claims he is the only representative of all of India. Congress is successful in gaining majority. Partition of India and Pakistan. Congress leaders arrested for obstructing war effort. 15 August. to conduct negotiations between all political parties and to set up a cabinet government. 1937-Elections. 1939-Congress ministries resign. 16 August. 1930-31-The Round Table conferences. . who does attend. Gandhi starts Civil Disobedience Movement against the Salt Laws by which the British had a monopoly over production and sale of salt. but Muslims see this as an acknowledgment that Jinnah represents all Indian Muslims. 1942-Cripps Mission o India. 1942-43-Muslim League gains more power: ministries formed in Sind. Congress is outlawed by the British and its leaders. 1945-The new Labour Government in Britain decides India is strategically indefensible and begins to prepare for Indian independence. 1940-Jinnah calls for establishment of Pakistan in an independent and partitioned India. 1947-Announcement of Lord Mountbatten's plan for partition of India. 1944-Gandhi released from prison. set up to consider Dominion status for India. 1932-Third Round Table Conference boycotted by Muslim League. 3 June. Gandhi re-starts civil disobedience. Congress adopts Quit India Resolution. which concedes to Gandhi's demands at the Round Table conferences and further isolates Muslim League from the Congress and the British. 1931-Irwin-Gandhi Pact. Direct Action Day riots convince British that Partition is inevitable. calls for a separate homeland for the Muslims at the Allahabad session of the Muslim League. Radcliffe Award of boundaries of the nations. Allama Iqbal.

There were several reasons for the birth of a separate Muslim homeland in the subcontinent. both of which were institutions from which leaders of the Muslim League and the ideology of Pakistan emerged. in 1943. while the Indian National Congress was calling for Britain to Quit India. especially those in the old centers of Mughal rule.A.O. In order to win them over to their side. College at Aligarh and supported the All-India Muslim Conference. The British had followed a divide-and-rule policy in India. the British helped establish the M. Tied to all the movements of Muslim revival was the opposition to assimilation and submergence in Hindu society. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was also the first to conceive of a separate Muslim homeland. While there were strong feelings of nationalism in India.A. They had based their knowledge of the peoples of India on the basic religious texts and the intrinsic differences they found in them instead of on the way they coexisted in the present. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. who were the former rulers of the subcontinent. the Muslim League. and all three parties-the British. However. College. the Congress and the Muslim League-were responsible. by the late 19th century there were also communal conflicts and movements in the country that were based on religious communities rather than class or regional ones. Some people felt that the very nature of Islam called for a communal Muslim society.Reasons for Partition By the end of the 19th century several nationalistic movements had started in India. . The British were also still fearful of the potential threat from the Muslims. taught the Muslims that education and cooperation with the British was vital for their survival in the society. This was a severe drawback for them as they found that the Hindus were now in better positions in government than they were and thus felt that the British favored Hindus. The social reformer and educator. they were placed on a separate electorate. who founded M. However. They refused to learn English and to associate with the British.O. Even in the census they categorised people according to religion and viewed and treated them as separate from each other. Indian nationalism had grown largely since British policies of education and the advances made by the British in India in the fields of transportation and communication. These memories might have made it exceptionally diffficult for Muslims to accept the imposition of colonial power and culture. Thus the idea of the separateness of Muslims in India was built into the electoral process of India. their complete insensitivity to and distance from the peoples of India and their customs created such disillusionment with them in their subjects that the end of British rule became necessary and inevitable. Added to this were the memories of power over the Indian subcontinent that the Muslims held on to. There was also an ideological divide between the Muslims and the Hindus of India. As soon as the League was formed. ruling India for over 300 years under the Mughal Empire. passed a resolution for them to Divide and Quit.

Impact and Aftermath of Partition "Leave India to God. The Congress banned any support for the British during the Second World War. 15 million refugees poured across the borders to regions completely foreign to them. as they formed strong ministries in the provinces that had large Muslim populations. then leave her to anarchy.Hindu revivalists also deepened the chasm betweent he two nations. their identity had been embedded in the regions where there ancestors were from. in the schools of India where Muslim children were forced to sing it. "ghost trains" full of severed breasts of women would arrive in each of the newly-born countries from across the borders." --Gandhi. with a government consisting of three tiers along basically the same lines as the borders of India and Pakistan at the time of Partition. Not only was the country divided. divisions which caused catastrophic riots and claimed the lives of Hindus. Many others were raped and looted. There had been some hope of an undivided India. However the Muslim League pledged its full support. They also wanted to change the official script form the Persian to the Hindu Devanagri script. were used as instruments of power by the Hindus and the Muslims. Women. At the same time. especially. Hindu revivalists rallied for a ban on the slaughter of cows. May 1942 The partition of India left both India and Pakistan devastated. which found favour form them from the British. The process of partition had claimed many lives in the riots. One such policy was the institution of the "Bande Matram. a cheap source of meat for the Muslims." a national anthem which expressed anti-Muslim sentiments. who also needed the help of the largely Muslim army. . The Muslim League gained power also due to the Congress. If that is too much. but so were the provinces of Punjab and Bengal. effectively making Hindi rather than Urdu the main candidate for the national language. Congress made several mistakes in their policies which further convinced the League that it was impossible to live in a undivided India after freedom from colonial rule because their interests would be completely suppressed. The Civil Disobedience Movement and the consequent withdrawal of the Congress party from politics also helped the league gain power. However. for though they were Hindu or Muslim. Congress' rejection of the interim government set up under this Cabinet Mission Plan in 1942 convinced the leaders of the Muslim League that compromise was impossible and partition was the only course to take. Muslims and Sikhs alike. the League actively campaigned to gain more support from the Muslims in India. especially under the guidance of dynamic leaders like Jinnah. They resented the Muslims for their former rule over India.

their capacities were subsequently extended in different phases. These were commissioned in 1967 & 1977 respectively. Balochistan.Many years after the partition. After the partition. The same issues of boundaries and divisions. finance. Jhelum & Chenab) to Pakistan. Another opinion says that India was never a single nation. The Punjab and Bengal were divided. The most stupendous of Pakistan's problems stemmed from the refugees influx. These migrants later identified themselves as mohajirs. commerce. India and Pakistan have been to war twice since the partition and they are still deadlocked over the issue of possession of Kashmir. .e. only the comparatively backward areas of Sindh. Another opinion is that elites of India got their independence in result of negotiations and the common people did not benefit from this process. such as Gandhi. a large number of Muslims migrated from various urban centers of India to live in the new nation of Pakistan. Today they remain mostly urban. Pakistan had to face the separation of Bangladesh in 1971. and now constitute about 8 percent of Pakistan's population. Mohajirs are Muslims who settled in Pakistan after the partition of British India in 1947. They lost many of their most dynamic leaders. the official language. Pakistan's survival seemed to hang in the balance. the two nations are still trying to heal the wounds left behind by this incision to once-whole body of India. history has been explained from ‘Two Nations’ perspective and ‘heroism’ has also appeared as a pivitol element. Mangla Dam on Jhelum river and Tarbela Dam on Indus river having the provision of power generation.Aftermath With West and East Pakistan separated by more than 1. the new frontier cut off Pakistani raw materials from the Indian factories. The Treaty assigned three Eastern rivers (Ravi. The works proposed under the Treaty included two multipurpose dams i. It was a transfer of powers to Indian elites. Economically. who started the struggle for independence. and the North-West Frontier came to Pakistan intact. They were better educated than most indigenous Pakistanis and assumed positions of leadership in business. the situation seemed almost hopeless. Unlike other cultural groups of Pakistan.000 miles of Indian territory and with the major portion of the wealth and resources of the British heritage passing to India. is their native tongue. It also provided construction of replacement works called Indus Basin Projects (IBP) to compensate for perpetual loss of Eastern rivers' water. hence it can be said that partition was the result of the awareness of Indians because of British education system. Jinnah and Allama Iqbal. Whereas in Pakistan. particularly in the Punjab. Beas and Sutlej) to India and three Western rivers (Indus. hence struggle can not be called a nationalist movement. They are the only people in Pakistan for whom Urdu. disrupting industry. Hindu and Muslim majorities and differences. and administration. Of all the well-organized provinces of British India. Traditionalists are of the opinion that it was due to the efforts of results of British educated Indians. and agriculture. particularly Karachi and Hyderabad. The Irrigation System which existed at the time of partition in 1947 was divided between the two countries without any regards to the irrigation boundaries which resulted in an international water dispute which was finally resolved by signing of the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 under the aegis of World Bank. However. soon after the partition. A large number of Mohajirs settled in the cities of Sind Province. Many are still in search of an identity and a history left behind beyond an impenetrable boundary. still persist in Kashmir Partition . The two countries started of with ruined economies and lands and without an established. and Kashmir became disputed territory. experienced system of government. they do not have a tribe-based cultural identity.

Chitral.CHAPTER II: THE HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF PAKISTANI CULTURE 1. 3. a new culture developed which was culminated in the shape of the Gandhara Culture. it had the stamp of religious impact: the Vedas. Iranian influence. The Indus valley culture was further enriched by Buddhism whose traces are still visible in brotherhood. teaching diplomacy. Swat. . Some of the important features of this culture have been mentioned in various contemporary studies. Bow and arrows were manufactured. We also learn that Taxila was a centre of learning with Kautilya and Panini as the major scholars. Upper Sindh. Gomal and Bolan regions. 2. Buddhism. GANDHARA CULTURE 4. Greek impact. The discoveries at Mehrgarh in Balochistan are significant in reinforcing the antiquity of our culture. During this period we observe Iranian influence on coinage and international trade. whose capital was Peshawar. mountain. Sakas and Parthians. animals and flora and fauna. The Gandhara culture originated from the interaction of the local people with the Aryan traditions. These people were engaged in cultivation of land and practiced belief systems with a clear perception of a supreme power who the source of all bounties for mankind. people trace their cultural identity from the origins of their culture evolving since the time of their recorded history. The origins of Pakistani culture are rooted in its rivers. hospitality and conventional wisdom of our people. The period of Gandhara culture was also enriched by the contribution of Mauriyas and Kanishka. Paganism and Zoroastrianism. The areas constituting Pakistan are one of the oldest seats of human civilization. In addition to these regional and ethnic influences. statecraft and linguistics. Peshawar. During the post-Buddhist period. Cyrus conquered the northern areas of Pakistan and later on Darius added Makran and Sindh valley to Iranian empire. deserts. New trade roots were discovered and goods were exchanged between Pakistan and other countries in the region. plains. Aryan religious concepts. In 558 BC. Since the Iranians were constantly at war with the Greeks. Normally. the culture of Mauriyas. So far as the political implications of the Greek imperial culture were concerned. Contemporary studies show early human settlements in Punjab. they were strongly resisted by the local people. It is the story of a nation and a territory that has existed in history for more than 5000 years with short intervals of political occupation by different dynasties. The Indus River and its tributaries provided food and protection of the people living in these areas. the impact of this strife was also felt in this area. Alexander the Great during his adventures received perhaps the strongest resistance in Punjab and Sindh. Herodotus mentions that cotton dress was most commonly used by the people of Punjab and Sindh.

Although Buddhism as a religion was pushed out of Indus Valley by the closed society of Brahmans.IMPACT OF ISLAM 5. it was Buddhist culture which 5 . its impact on our culture had been enormous. Therefore when Islam appeared in this region.

Baba Farid’s Dohre and Rahman Baba’s poetry all represent the local nodes. and bazaars. It must be pointed out that the areas that constitute Pakistan today were on the periphery of the Muslim empire in Delhi. Dress. tombs and gardens. Cultural transformation of this area had taken place much before the Muslim flag was hoisted on Delhi. Pakistani culture bears a deep imprint of the thought and the life style of Sufis who used local medium to convey the intellectual content of the message of the Prophet of Islam. This again testifies to the cultural values of this area. 9. The impact of Islam was felt on local religions and the emergence of Sikh religion and Bhakti movement could not have been possible without an interaction with Islam. The Mughals introduced new innovations in architecture especially mosques. It is a truism that each language brings its own culture. 6. but which made the population more mobile. By the end of the first half of the 19th century. Even those Sufis who had received their education and training in Iran and Central Asia adopted local practices in order to appeal to a wider public. music. The impact of Muslim culture was steady. The most predominant feature of Muslim culture was the development of cities. 7. natural environments and regional symbols revealing the truth of Islam. Some of the manifestations of this new development were made possible through the settlement of canal colonies. Shah Latif’s story of Marvi. The British also introduced a new language and a new educational and administrative system. we will see that it was in many ways emancipation from the different forms of oppression. railways and other forms of communication designed primarily with defence and commercial considerations in mind. It is indeed relevant to point out that the subsequent upheavals of Muslim empire in the rest of the subcontinent felt the impact of this territory both in terms of its strength and weakness. cuisine and painting achieved new dimensions. yet Islam established itself in Pakistan with more speed than around the Muslim seat of political power. which were more open and liberal than their counterparts in Central India. Starting with the Arabs in Balochistan and Sindh. it culminated through the Muslim impact from Central Asia. this area was occupied by the British who had come to the subcontinent 150 years ago. THE IMPACT OF COLONIAL CULTURE 8. the British created a new comprador class which represented their economic and commercial interest and a new feudal class which was assigned to controlling the local population. trading centres.embraced it willingly. The mosque occupied a unique place not only for religious purposes but also for commercial and social gatherings. It was not a simple case of Muslim political predominance but the presence of a culture which saw similarities between Islam and the indigenous social patterns. New flowers and plants were introduced. If we look at the contribution of different saints in bringing the new religion to the masses. 6 . In order to control the people of this region.

Forms of literary works underwent a change and the influence of European themes became visible. ROLE OF CULTURE IN THE PAKISTAN MOVEMENT 11. Perhaps the best appreciation of Pakistani culture was offered by Dr. the paramount issue always had cultural bearings on our political struggle for freedom. The idea of Pakistan presented by him was a concrete vision of the salient features of the Pakistani culture which were felt threatened because of the onslaught of Western colonialism as well as the politics of some extremist religious movements. cow slaughter. 14. Social stratification also underwent considerable change both in the urban as well as rural areas. 12. An objective analysis of the cultural overtones of the politics of the Indian National Congress would show that the congress leadership. was deeprooted in our cultural environment. In both cases Iqbal not only saw the higher culture of Islam shaping the destiny of these people but also its role in the future relationship between Pakistan and the Muslim countries of the Middle East and Central Asia. These impressions were further strengthened through the missionary schools and emergence of a new urban culture. had little place for the cultural values of the Muslims. It emphasized the achievement of a unique culture that was not only different from the other cultures in the region but also distinct from the culture of those immigrants who had settled here from different parts of the Middle East and the Central Asia. contrary to their claims of pluralism and secularism. even in those initial stages. Cricket. If we look at the subsequent developments in the movement towards Pakistan. 13. Whether it was the question of the Urdu-Hindi controversy. Therefore. The movement for independence. 10. Mohammed Iqbal who stressed the fundamentals of this culture in two ways: firstly. One of the most devastating impacts of the colonial period was the suppression of our cultural heritage. therefore. a new vigour to save our culture pushed the struggle for Pakistan to new horizons. Whenever we felt that our cultural values were being violated by the British or other movements. we witness that it was essentially the issue of our identity that paved the way for the political acceptance of the idea of Pakistan. culture played a very important role. when the contours of Pakistani nationalism were being shaped. or violation of the sanctity of mosques. There was thus a denial of those aspects of Indian culture which were shaped jointly by all belief systsms. which has now become a part of our culture. was a product of this period. . the Muslim leadership in South Asia undertook a struggle to focus on the cultural patterns and cultural uniqueness of the future Pakistan state. In order to counter these assaults against the historical forces and cultural heritage of Pakistani people.The introduction of the English language imported Western cultural paradigms in Pakistan. by highlighting the spirit of Muslim culture and secondly by emphasizing the culture of those areas which constitute today’s Pakistan.

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This knowledge is evolutionary in the sense that time is perceived to be an active agent of change. Iqbal emphasized that the spirit of Muslim culture was not so much as a breaking point from history but as initiating a process of intellectual revolution which developed into inductive reasoning. 17. Any culture that lags behind the intellectual framework of time is doomed to decay and ultimate extinction. Knowledge of the concrete is conceived as “the intellectual capture of and power over the concrete that makes it possible for the intellect of man to pass beyond the concrete”. Iqbal’s emphasis on the recognition and development of khudi (self) centres on the creativity of individuals and their collective transformation into a system of intellectual power which subjugates various phenomena of nature and to some extent controls the direction of history. He stated that the abolition of priesthood and hereditary kingship in Islam.” This idea was the foundation for Iqbal to study the cultural transformations taking place in other Muslim areas. Concluding his statement on the spirit of Muslim culture. Iqbal identifies knowledge of the concrete as the starting point of the method of observation and experiment in Islam. His political leadership was the result of that historical process in which culture and history played an important role and it is because of this process that he was . While defining the ingredients of Muslim culture. Explaining the various aspects of the spirit of Muslim culture. it is the highest form of cultural development that is visualized as the ultimate development of human consciousness. Muslim culture thus provides a dynamic concept of the universe.IQBAL’S CONCEPT OF CULTURE 15. nature and history. the constant appeal to reason and experience in the Qura’n and the emphasis that is laid on Nature and History formed the basis of this new intellectual framework. Iqbal asks Muslims “to appreciate the cultural value of the idea of the finality of Prophethood in Islam. Muslims were in an overwhelming majority in the areas of today’s Pakistan. With Pakistan’s independence. 16. It was both the territorial contiguity of Pakistani territory with the Middle East and Central Asia as well as its unique cultural identity that made the existence of independent Pakistan possible. In other words. Demographically.” It is indeed relevant to point out that when he spoke of a future Muslim independent state in South Asia. but also the capacity of Pakistani culture to absorb modern ideas of nationalism and statehood. QUAID-I-AZAM’S VIEWS ON PAKISTANI CULTURE 18. This idea of human unity is the hallmark of Iqbal as a social movement to make this idea a living factor. he laid a particular emphasis on the areas that constitute the territory of Pakistan today. The Quaid-i-Azam not only defended the intellectual heritage of Islam. He says. “the teaching of the Qura’n that life is a process of progressive creation necessitates that each generation guided but unhampered by the work of its predecessors should be prompted to solve its own problems. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah laid down the principles of the future cultural contours of Pakistan. This concept of development of the human self is based again on the triad of self-knowledge.

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but also in wider terms.” Perhaps no other statement could be as comprehensive as this in conceptualizing the essence of Pakistani culture. with the utmost tolerance and regard and respect for their faith and beliefs. he visualized a culture for Pakistan where identity of the citizens will not be judged through sectarian. Pakistan is not a theocracy or anything like it. During the swearing-in ceremony as the first Governor-General of Pakistan. customs. It dates back thirteen centuries ago when our Prophet not only by words but by deeds treated the Jews and Christians. “…make no mistake. when the Quaid was reminded by Mountbatten to follow the ideals of Akbar the Great. customs and traditions and those ways of thought. Aware of our spiritual and material progress. He stated “Not only are most of us Muslims but we have our own history. Highlighting the salient features of Pakistan’s cultural growth. In many ways. religious and ethnic appellations.” 21. we struggled for it.” In addition to the historical developments of Muslim culture. Brotherhood. “The tolerance and goodwill that the great Emperor Akbar showed to all non-Muslims is not of recent origin. outlook and instinct which go to make a sense of nationality.” This message contained the spirit of Pakistani culture which was supposed to be nurtured under the guidance of the principles of equality and freedom. we achieved it so that physically as well as spiritually we are free to conduct our affairs according to our traditions and genius. The emphasis is clearly laid on our history. equality and fraternity of man these are all the basic 9 . in addition to our identity as Muslims. the Quaid visualized the Charter of Madina (Mithaq-i-Madina) as the foundation stone of Muslim culture. not in the religious sense. 19. after he had conquered them. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the state. It is here that we see the contribution of our territory both in history and social formation in shaping the contours of our culture. of whatever creed. he categorically declared. traditions.successful in materializing Iqbal’s thought of independence for the people of Pakistan so that they could develop their distinct cultural heritage without any hindrance. Dwelling on the historical experience of Britain. The Quaid was not only conscious of our Islamic heritage.” 20. you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this state of Pakistan. thinking. but as members of an independent nation. He not only saw the disappearance of sectarianism amongst Muslims. but also emphasized the contribution of Pakistan’s cultural legacy and historical experience. where “Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims. he replied. the Quaid told the nation: “you are free: you are free to go to your temples. but also its cultural policies. outlook and insight. Lest this notion of Islamic heritage was misinterpreted. Islam demands from us the tolerance of other creeds and we welcome in closest association with us all those who. are themselves willing and ready to play their part as true and loyal citizens of Pakistan. but in the political sense as citizens of Pakistan. his speech of 11th August 1947 that was delivered before the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan forms the basis of not only the Pakistani state. he declared: “we demanded Pakistan.

that religion alone could not keep us together. These ideas indeed clearly lay down the principles of our cultural policy which seeks to rejuvenate optimism in the strength of our culture. The unfortunate impact of this new culture is still visible in our cities and towns. especially when it is not reflective of the people’s aspirations. racial and ethnic considerations. This facilitated the VCR/DVD/CD culture which was nourished by uncensored foreign films. obscenity and corruption. Pakistani people identify their religion with the Holy Prophet of Islam whose treatment of his followers as well as Christians and Jews provide the ultimate framework of establishing a cosmopolitan society where religious affiliations. theatre and film industry suffered. no system of government could keep Pakistan as a united entity but democracy. Pakistan was created because of democracy and it was the power of the people that had strengthened the hands of our leaders who foiled every attempt that was aimed at denying our independence. what we inherited was a conglomeration of regional culture which shared common grounds could act as a bond to integrate various regional cultures. Post-1971 Pakistan represented a turning point in our history which points at two lessons. and brotherhood. several of which depicted violence. Where the state was not able or willing to provide a conducive environment. 25. equality. The impact of some myopic post-independence policies on our cultural heritage was almost suicidal. and allusion to social and political status are not allowed to hinder the distribution of social justice. Democracy ensures participation of the people in policy formulation and provides true legitimacy to rulers and legislators. Many of the younger generation were drawn to these films. and civilization”. These dimensions of Islam form an integral part of our popular culture which has been strengthened by the messages of love and mutual respect by the saints of this land. and freedom where people feel free to practise their religion. our traditions and our outlook. arts. and has even penetrated some of our countryside. It shows that the state can only succeed in an environment of peace. culture. 23. In 1947. The tragedy of East Pakistan was essentially a product of this unfortunate legacy. Secondly.points of our religion. POST-INDEPENDENCE CULTURE 22. tolerance. 24. . Firstly.

country was divided into many sub-cultures who had their own languages and they did have emotional attachment with their own regional languages also. Punjab. our early leaders also tried not only to conceive. The people follow many different cultural traditions and speak many different languages and dialects. Scythian. but also to practically make the whole country a cultural unity. the present day Pakistan’s society is ethnically diverse. People of East Pakistan protested against the decision of making Urdu as national language and they raised the demand of making Bengali as a national language as this was the language of majority population of East and West Pakistan combined. Pakistan faced its first identity crisis when government adopted Urdu as national language. Due to such a nature of historical events. This was an attempt to eliminate the regional cultures of different provinces in order to promote the idea of a one single culture. Although Urdu was not just a regional language and was widely understood among the people of different provinces and so could better serve the purpose of inter-provincial communication but this language had not any deep roots in the East Pakistan. Our early leaders however were trying to identify the country as a uni-lingual one but this was not the on ground reality of course.e. Migrations of Muslims from India since 1947 and refugees from Afghanistan since the 1980s have significantly changed the demographics of certain areas of the country. Greek. N. mainly because of the identity crisis of Pakistan. Pakistani territory was divided into two wings i. Mongol. Arab. But this demand could not be acceptable to the people of any of the provinces of the West Pakistan because Bengali language had no roots at all in any of the provinces of West Pakistan. The underlying purpose however was political in nature whose aim was to bring West Pakistan at the level of political parity with the otherwise more populous East Pakistan. The people of Pakistan come from ethnic stocks such as Dravidian. Persian. the largest province of the country. which were separated by a distance of 1000 miles. Hun.P and Balochistan. They abolished the provinces of West Pakistan with the view to make it one cultural unit. As already has been mentioned that society of sub-continent has been a product of firstly the struggle between local Dravidians and Indo-Arians. finally became the official national language but without happy consent of the largest province of the country. East and West Pakistan. secondly the struggle between Indo-Arians and Persian as well as Greek invaders. Originally. Pakistanis trace their ethnic lineages to many different origins. fourthly the political dominance of Muslims which effectively lasted up till eighteenth century and lastly the British rule and its downfall. Political benefit was going in the favour of West Pakistan but still then people of .W. Urdu language. and Afghan. West Pakistan corresponds to present day Pakistan whereas East Pakistan became independent country of Bangladesh in 1971. which had its population greater than all the four provinces of West Pakistan combined.e.F. the society was divided into many sub groups. Obviously. East Pakistan was a single province. Indo-Aryan.Identity Crisis After Independence: Muslims as a whole really were quite different from Hindus but within Muslims. Sindh. West Pakistan consisted of four provinces i. largely because the country lies in an area that was invaded repeatedly during its long history. Secondly. At the time of independence.

moderate. It means that people of country had strong emotional ties with their regional sub-cultures but our leaders were not ready to accept this fact. This National Identity not only determines objectives and goals for the people and leadership of the country. Pakistan’s National Identity also has gone through many such changes. . whether we. Country has also got the experience of both civil democratic political set-ups as well as various Martial Law regimes. the main outstanding issues were those. as its various aspects always remain in the process of change and developments as a result of the changes that occur in the political and cultural environment of the whole world. those issues are again getting significance and so there is need to reidentify the current composition. are extremist people or are enlightened. it also determines the type of relationships with other sovereign countries of the world. balanced. National Identity of a country is not any rigid or fixed entity. On the international environment. in the form of unanimous constitution of 1973. Before the separation of East Pakistan. But we still are in need to identify which form of government best suits to the taste and needs of our society. image of Muslim societies is being negatively projected. and at the same time. we are in need to evaluate our true identity i. Secondly.different provinces of West Pakistan protested against this new scheme and insisted on the separate distinct identities of regional cultures of the provinces. By the Grace of Almighty God. so the consequent identity crisis at last resulted in the Separation of East Pakistan in 1971. Muslim societies are being labeled as ‘extremist societies’. Mass international media is projecting this wrong information that Muslim societies are the supporters of terrorist activities on the global scale. With the passage of time however. Loss of East Pakistan resulted in somewhat reduced burden of this type of issues and so rest of the Pakistan successfully resolved the matters relating to interrelationships of the remaining provinces. which mainly related to the interrelationships of different provinces. peace loving. now we are a nuclear power nation and so we should identify ourselves as more balanced and more responsible nation than before. as a nation. Under these current crisis. This thing created a grave unrest among the people of East Pakistan as the new scheme had put them on politically disadvantageous position.e. Pakistan is also one of the victims of this wrong media projection. How a country identifies its National Identity is important because it is actually the comprehension of a country about the composition and structure of its own society and culture. due to many factors. brave people. Since our leaders failed to apprehend the plural nature of the culture of country and since they did not identify the true national identity. structure and kind of country’s society.

But its most serious problem was simply that there were two Pakistan. with a parliamentary form of government. In September 1948. but in March 1956-8 ½ years after its founding – Pakistan finally produced a constitution. Sind West Punjab (including what’ s now the NWPF) and – pending a Kashmir settlement – so – called Azad (Free) Kashmir and the Northern Areas. Bengalis made up slightly more than half the population. West Pakistan’s Provinces were amalgamated into a single mega-province in symmetry with East Pakistan. barely a year into independence and in the midst of the war with India. Many Muslim religious leaders felt otherwise.History of Pakistan After Independence After Independence Jinnah became Pakistan’s first governor-general. The tone was set early and there was fierce eastern objections to Urdu as the official language. while Bengal and part of Sylhet district made up east Pakistan. separated by 1600 km of hostile India. West Pakistan consisted of Baluchistan. But President Iskander Mirza. His deputy and friend Liaquat Ali Khan became Prime Minister. The only real connection between the two halves was that they were Muslim. When Liaquat Ali was assassinated three years later in Rawalpindi. and the argument still rages today. a retired major general with no patience for the factionalism. becoming the Islamic republic of Pakistan. bickering and opportunism that was (and still is) typical of Pakistan . His death was body blow for the struggling country. little manufacturing capability and relatively little of the Raj’s old administrative-commercial infrastructure. Though the west was militarily dominant. The newly established country ended up with few natural resources. Pakistan headed towards chaos. A muddle of squabbling governors –general and Prime Ministers and severe economic slump followed. and their tea and jute supplied most of the country’s export earnings. which had no other politicians equal to Jinnah – known posthumously as Quaid-i-Azam (pronounced ‘kye-dee-AH-zum’) or Great Leader. A Mohajir. Jinnah died of tuberculosis. he believed like Jinnah that Pakistan should be a secular state.

General Muhammad Ayub Khan. He. Baltistan and the upper Shimshal Valley in the mid-1950s. occupied parts of Ladakh. Pakistan saw a new ally. the foothills and the army’s headquarters at Rawalpindi. When China and India clashed in 1962 over their border in Ladakh (still disputed today). many Pakistanis look back fondly on the early Ayub years. Martial law lasted over 3 ½ year. they told Mirza to resign and Ayub Khan assumed the presidency too. Despite limited political freedoms. China. in one from or another. Karachi had been the temporary capital but in 1959 it was decided to build a brand new one near the Grand Trunk Road. and three other ministers were lieutenant –generals . the world Bank gave enormous sums to build Mangla dam on the Jhelum River and Tarbela Dam. Ayub Khan Mirza’s Prime –minister was the army commander-in-chief. on the Indus.politics. As part of a water – rights settlement with India. nor with the growing autonomy movement in the east. Mirza promised it would be brief. chosen by a bizarre system of easily manipulated village-level elections. until he could ‘clean up the mess’ and write a new constitution. the world’s biggest earthen Dam. Economic growth was vigorous. China and Pakistan sorted out their own Karakoram border and proposed a ‘Friendship Highway’ over the mountains . abolished political parties and declared martial law – a state Pakistan has been in. From the USA Came military aid. was confirmed as president. a National Assembly and east and west provincial assemblies. for most of its life since then. Somehow the East Pakistanis never seemed to get their share of the pie. of course. following its invasion of Tibet in 1950. Construction began on the city of Islamabad in 1961. in October 1958 abrogated the constitution. In a 1964 thaw. In March 1962 Ayub presented a new constitution proving for a powerful president. Within hours of their swearing in.

as well as on their own side. sacking his foreign minister (a Sind landowner named Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto) and arresting Sheikh Mujibur Raman (Sheikh Mujib). The charismatic Z A Bhutto and his Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) won a majority of West Pakistan seats in the National Assembly. the so-called Karakoram Highway. After that Ayub became remote and dictatorial. A 1966 pact expanded this to a two-lane highway from Havelian to the border. giving it an overall majority. the old separate western Province were resurrected and general elections for a civilian government were scheduled for December. Yahya suspended the . leader of the Awami Party which advocated autonomy was made on Ayub’s life. and resigned. a 2 ½-week exercise in which Pakistan took a beating. After some futile attempts at compromise. Dir. a cyclone wreaked havoc in East Pakistan and West Pakistan’s shamefully indifferent response was the last straw for the Bengalis. general Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan. Hunza.(a story claims that Ayub declined a similar offer by Soviet Premier Bulganin to build a road through Ishkoman). Nagar and various Baltistan fiefdoms. but Sheikh Mujib’s Awami League won nearly all of East Pakistan’s seats. Yahya Khan & Civil War in March 1969 a ill Ayub handed responsibility over to his own commander-in-chief. in the same year Pakistan and India again went to war over Kashmir. In the meantime. The elections turned Pakistan on its head. Yahya imposed martial law again and named himself president. Even Bhutto refused to allow the easterners to from the government. Ayub was re-elected in 1965. Swat. with Pakistanis working north from the Indus and Chinese working south from the Khunjerab Pass. Among his early acts was to end the autonomy of the old princely states of the north – Chitral. Political activity was legally resumed in January 1970. Pakistan already had a Swat-to-Gilgit jeep road underway. In the end the work went on in Pakistan until 1980.

The Bengalis declared themselves the independent state of Bangladesh. health and educational reforms aimed at greater social equity. . Bhutto began allying himself with industrialists and zamindars (rural landowners). Despite his populist beginnings. In November. hostilities also broke out on the western border. flooded with more than nine million refugees. Pakistan withdrew from that organization.000 people died.assembly and East Pakistan went on general strike. He nationalized bank and industries and restructured the military. India. The resulting Baluch tribal uprising.) Pakistan recognized Bangladesh in 1974. In February 1973 Bhutto sacked the Baluchistan government. Bhutto undertook major judicial. and there was talk of land reform. Sheikh Mujib was arrested and civil war broke out. Bangladesh went its way in January 1972. and surrendered within weeks. where they agreed to ‘respect’ the so-called line of control –ie the 1971 cease-fire line. whom he suspected of wanting to secede. Bhutto met Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi at Simla (India) in June 1972. and hundreds of thousands died. which he assumed. India has since suggested that the wording of the Simla Agreement endorses the line of control as a genuine border. Again Pakistan took a drubbing. (in trying to justify its continued hold on Kashmir. and set up a powerful ‘palace guard’. was only put down with some the help of the air force. little different from the 1949 one – and to resolve future differences peacefully. declared war on Pakistan. When Bangladesh was admitted to the British Commonwealth in the same year. Army cruelty was met by an equally cruel resistance. A 1973 constitution revived the post of prime minister. Bhutto & Zia Faced with demoralization and imminent economic collapse. in which some 10. In March 1971 the army clamped down. and Z A Bhutto replaced Yahya Khan as president of a truncated Pakistan. agrarian. the Federal Security Service.

went into exile. With them came a flood of guns and drugs. on 5 July 1977 staged a bloodless coup and it was back to martial law. and Zia went from pariah to hero of the fee world. record-size crowds and calling for Zia’s resignation and free elections. Zia visited China. after which the USA began funneling huge amounts of military assistance to Pakistan. tried and convicted. banning political parties. and lifted martial law. but they were accused of fraud and people took to the streets in protest across the country. and almost four million refugees eventually crossed into the NWFP and Baluchistan. She surprised . Bhutto declared martial law in Karachi. Under domestic and International pressure Zia permitted a non-party national Assembly election in February 1985. Hyderabad and Lahore and had opposition leaders arrested. Bhutto’s widow Nusrat and his Western-educated daughter Benazir were elected to chair the PPP. general Muhammad Zia ulHaq. A programme of civil disobedience in 1983 failed to dislodge Zia. His big windfall was the December 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Afghan Mujahideen set up bases in Pakistan. The following December he legalized political parties under strict conditions .The (PPP) did very well in 1977 elections. In 1982. under the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy. the momentum was lost. and despite an international outcry he was hanged in April 1979. Bhutto was arrested on trumped-up murder charges. Thousands died in anti-government riots across Sind. introduction Islamic penal laws and moving the country toward strict rule. the Northern Areas were opened to tourism and the Khunjerab pass was opened to official traffic and trade (and to tourists in 1986). But when she and other were briefly jailed in August. Zia had promised elections within 90 days but ended up ruling by decree for 7 ½ years. With antigovernment violence on the rise his army chief of staff. including Bhutto. Benazir Bhutto Bhutto returned from England April1986 and traveled round the country drawing rapturous. the KKH was inaugurated. and many activists. Meanwhile the PPP and other parties began re-forming.

In December 1987. and prices soared. . the Soviets aiding Kabul and the USA arming the guerrillas with the help of Pakistan military gence. to Sindhi businessman Asif Lai Zardari. In an encouraging move. She declared war on the burgeoning heroin trade. things at that point moved strictly in accordance with the constitution. Surprisingly. Bhutto did’t help matters with her arrogant style. and received death threats for her trouble. The last Soviet troops left Afghanistan in February 1989 but the war continued by proxy. dissolved the assemblies and scheduled elections for 16 November. The biggest thorn in her side was Zia Protégé Mian Nawaz Sharif.some supporters by agreeing to an arranged marriage. the PPP did just well enough to from a coalition government. Her husband’s legal threats against at least 10 Pakistani newspapers antagonised the press. the cause of which has never been determined (or at any rate never made public). Bhutto’s opponents hammered away at her. Indian Prime minister Rajiv Gandhi visited Islamabad in July 1989. in an atmosphere of national euphoria. five of his generals and the US ambassador died in the crash of a military plane at Bahawalpur. In May 1988 Zia unexpectedly dismissed his hand –picked prime minister. The job was formidable for a 36-year-old with no political experience. Mohammad Khan Junejo. On a positive note. Acting president Ghulam ishaq Khan insisted the election would go ahead and the Supreme Court upheld a PPP petition for political parties to participate. In foreign policy Bhutto seemed to be a hostage of the army. PPP government coalitions in Sind and the NWFP collapsed. But on 17 August Zia. In 1 December 1988. a vote of no confidence was only narrowly averted in the national Assembly. In October 1989. Pakistan politics being more about power than principals. Provincial party politics scuttled social and economic programmes. but by the end of the year India n troops had burst into Kashmir to begin a programme of repression that turned things sour. then chief Minister of Punjab. Despite strenuous efforts by the military to discredit them. the first ever elected woman leader of a Muslim country. Pakistan in 1990 rejoined the Commonwealth. particularly with the military looking over her shoulder. Bhutto was sworn in as prime minister.

The government was rocked in 1991by a savings bank scandal in the wake of the BCCI collapse. In elections two months later.In 1989 and 1990. great Swaths of people at the bottom end simply gave up on finding work. and Sharif’s own family came out of it with dirty hands. Pashtuns and Mohajirs in Karachi and Hyderabad. Rural banditry and kidnapping became a growth industry in Sind. Bhutto (herself a Sindhi) demanded army help for the Sind government but the army essentially wanted martial law. Nawaz Sharif Fears of a return to martial law have not materialized but Nawaz Sharif is Having a rough ride. and the army is still clearly in the back ground. In 1990. Bhutto faced corruption charges (still unresolved). President Ishaq Khan finally bowed to pressure and on 6 August 1990 dismissed the 20month-old government. Sunni-Shea tension in the Northern Areas and a general rise in crime. the USA suspended US$564 million in economic and military aid over Pakistan’s alleged nuclear bomb programme. nepotism and abuse of power. The Bhutto name had been exorcised from Pakistani politics. aid workers and missionaries either left the country or moved around very carefully. and a brilliant chance to put Pakistan on its feet had been squandered. and her husband was arrested on charges of kidnapping and extortion. The 1990-91 Kuwait War brought an end to huge remittances by Pakistani workers in Kuwait. The aid cut-off and the war generated bitter anti-American feelings. In a series of special tribunals. routine looting and kidnappings in rural Sind and southern Punjab. Few were betting on Nawaz Sharif. Nawaz Sharif became Prime minister and his Islamic Democratic Alliance formed ruling coalitions in every province. hundreds died in mob violence and political terrorism among Sindhis. Worst of all lawlessness was spreading all over the country –violence in Karachi. a PPP-dominated alliance was crushed. and most foreign tourists . . While the zamindars and others with connections prospered. citing corruption. guns in the NWFP.

With the collapse of the USSR (later CIS)at the end of that year. In April 1992. Afghanistan’s Major cities fell to the Mujahideen. barrages and towns. some refugees have begun returning to their ravaged homeland. Since installation of a Mujahideen central government in Afghanistan. Afghan President Najibullah was ejected in a palace coup and. The Afghan conflict moved into endgame. one by one. To save threatened downstream dams. The resulting massive crop losses –especially of cotton and rice. Jhelum. Nearly all the bridges in Azad Jammu & Kashmir were washed away. Thousand of People are thought to Have died (including some 400 on an island below Mangla Dam who drowned when the dam’s floodgates were opened abruptly) and more than a million made homeless. Opposition leader Benazir Bhutto capitalized on popular anger with a campaign of rallies and mass march aimed at his resignation. . Ravi and Sutlej rivers. Nawaz Sharif (who in the midst of the disaster went off on a pilgrimage to Mecca) took a bettering for his government’s slow and inadequate relief efforts. growing as they converged.The USA and USSR agreed in 1991 to end aid to the Afghanistan government and guerrillas. many embankments were blasted open. two weeks of heavy monsoon rains unleashed Pakistan’s worst floods in a century. Flood waves surged down the Indus. With the Afghan government and guerrillas. In September 1992. She was briefly put under house arrest and banned from the capital area when she attempted to lead a march from Rawalpindi to Islamabad. Pakistan’s main export earners –dealt a heavy blow to the country’s economy. Mountain villages were buried under rock and mudslides. Pakistan began to lose its image as a valued strategic ally. overflowing their banks and submerging thousands of villages and towns. Chenab. flooding further cropland in the plains.

which supported provincial autonomy. who had little support in the new assembly. The Muslim League. with no formal commitment to either the United States or the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). who subsequently was elected president of the Muslim League. under which Pakistan was governed pending the adoption of a constitution. It endeavored to organize the bureaucracy and the armed forces. The coalition was dominated by the Awami League. Ghulam Muhammad dismissed Nazimuddin and replaced him with Muhammad Ali Bogra. a former civil servant in West Pakistan and a member of the Muslim League. In 1953. . gained representation. became prime minister. however. became head of state as governor-general. and frequent communal riots. At the same time. and political structures. Ghulam Muhammad became governor-general. Jinnah. After the constituent assembly attempted to curb the governor-general’s power. Before the government could surmount these difficulties. Pakistan aligned itself with the United States and accepted military and economic assistance. an East Pakistani who had succeeded Jinnah as governor-general. Khwaja Nazimuddin. In the 1954 provincial elections in East Pakistan. judicial. However. Jinnah died in September 1948. considered the founder of Pakistan and hailed as the Quaid-i-Azam (Great Leader). Pakistan’s early foreign policy was one of nonalignment. including those of the United Front coalition. the Muslim League was routed by the United Front coalition. Liaquat was assassinated in 1951. was no longer dominant as more parties. Bogra. although still the largest party. preventing the United Front from taking power in the provincial legislature. A new constituent assembly was indirectly elected in mid-1955 by the various provincial legislatures. was replaced by Chaudhri Muhammad Ali. The government faced many challenges in setting up new economic. Ghulam Muhammad imposed governor’s rule in the province. Truman in 1950. Undermining these efforts were provincial politicians who often defied the authority of the central government. and establish the distribution and balance of power in the provincial and central governments. resettle the Mohajirs (Muslim refugees from India). Ghulam Muhammad declared a state of emergency and dissolved the assembly. the two major adversaries in the Cold War. General Iskander Mirza became governor-general. Nazimuddin attempted to limit the powers of the governor-general through amendments to the Government of India Act of 1935. In foreign policy. Pakistan’s ambassador to the United States.History of Pakistan after Independence History of Pakistan after Independence Early Governments and the Constitution of 1956 The first government of Pakistan was headed by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and it chose the seaport of Karāchi as its capital. Liaquat established friendly relations with the United States when he visited President Harry S.

It also officially designated Pakistan an Islamic republic. known as the One Unit. dissolved the National Assembly. when he was unable to retain his majority in the National Assembly and was succeeded by Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy. Ayub also promulgated a progressive Islamic law. Prime Minister Ali remained in office only until September 1956. Ayub ordered the planning and construction of a new national capital. integrating the four West Pakistani provinces into one political and administrative unit. who was named chief martial-law administrator. His regime also initiated land reforms designed to reduce the political power of the landed aristocracy. a new party that was formed by dissident members of the Muslim League. headed by Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar of the Muslim League. The succeeding coalition government. political instability continued because no stable majority party emerged in the National Assembly. Twenty days later Ayub forced the president to resign and assumed the presidency himself. According to its provisions. Although his regime made some notable achievements. but the disparity between the two wings of Pakistan was not eliminated. Mirza was supported by General Muhammad Ayub Khan. Mirza’s title changed from governor-general to president. and canceled the scheduled general elections. It provided for a unicameral (single-chamber) National Assembly with 300 seats. which became effective in October 1955. evenly divided between East and West Pakistan. The chosen location of the new capital in the province of Punjab was close to the military headquarters of Rawalpindi which served as an interim capital. which was adopted on March 2. The assembly also produced Pakistan’s first constitution. Ayub’s regime increased developmental funds to East Pakistan more than threefold. Islamabad officially became the new capital in 1967. However. although construction continued into the 1970s. President Mirza. scheduled for January 1959. lasted only two months before it was replaced by a Republican Party cabinet under Noon. 1958. In 1959.The new constituent assembly enacted a bill. soon after taking office. He formed a coalition cabinet that included the Awami League and the Republican Party of the West Wing. He dismissed Noon’s government. proclaimed martial law on October 7. Perhaps the most pervasive of Ayub’s changes was his introduction of a new political . realizing he had no chance of being reelected president and openly dissatisfied with parliamentary democracy. 1956. The Ayub Years President Ayub ruled Pakistan almost absolutely for a little more than ten years. to replace Karachi. for the presidency in the country’s first general elections. leader of the Republican Party. the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance of 1961. This had a noticeable effect on the economy of the province. founder of the Awami League of East Pakistan. This change was designed to give West Pakistan parity with the more populous East Pakistan in the national legislature. imposing restrictions on polygamy and divorce and reinforcing the inheritance rights of women and minors. it did not eliminate the basic problems of Pakistani society. Unstable Parliamentary Democracy The new charter notwithstanding. President Mirza forced Suhrawardy to resign after he discovered that the prime minister was planning to support Firoz Khan Noon. commander in chief of the army.

public roads. The presidential election of January 1965. and bridges. on the village level. This relationship deteriorated in 1965. the two countries withdrew their forces to prewar positions and restored diplomatic. As a result. while in West Pakistan the province of Punjab emerged as . Instead of transferring power to the speaker of the National Assembly. and the flow of capital goods to Pakistan increased greatly. Ayub was skillful in maintaining cordial relations with the United States. and amid mounting public protests he declared martial law and resigned in March 1969. He also committed to the return of constitutional government and announced the country would hold its first general election on the basis of universal adult franchise in late 1970. It created a four-tiered system of mostly indirect representation in government. All the councils at the tehsil (sub district). After the legislative elections political parties were again legalized. consisted of union councils. resigned his position and founded the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) in opposition to the Ayub regime. known as the Basic Democracies. Members of the union councils were known as Basic Democrats and were the only members of any tier who were directly elected. such as maintenance of elementary schools. generated frustration among the people and resentment against President Ayub. who opposed Pakistan’s capitulation. however. when another war with India broke out over Kashmīr. Each tier was assigned certain responsibilities in local administration of agricultural and community development. from the local to the national level. allowing communication between local communities and the highly centralized national government. and division levels were indirectly elected. and trade relations. In July 1970 he abolished the One Unit. The Toshkent Agreement and the Kashmīr war. in 1959. Yahya dismissed almost 300 senior civil servants and identified 32 families that were said to control about half of Pakistan’s gross national product. stimulating substantial economic and military aid to Pakistan. resulted in a victory for Ayub. also determined by electoral college rather than direct vote. Exchange programs were initiated. Ayub created the Pakistan Muslim League (PML) as the official government party. The United States then suspended military and economic aid to both countries. he handed it over to the commander in chief of the army. although opposition parties were allowed to participate. By the terms of the so-called Toshkent Agreement of January 1966. The USSR intervened to mediate the conflict. inviting Ayub and Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri of India to meet in Toshkent (Tashkent). A new constitution promulgated by Ayub in 1962 ended the period of martial law.000 Basic Democrats from the union councils. Foreign Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The lowest tier. Yahya Regime In an attempt to make his martial-law regime more acceptable. The new. zilla (district). Yahya then assumed the presidency.system. who was the designated martial-law administrator. Ayub tried unsuccessfully to make amends. General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan. To curb their power Yahya issued an ordinance against monopolies and restrictive trade practices in 1970. thereby restoring the original four provinces in West Pakistan. Yahya determined that representation in the National Assembly would be based on population. as the constitution dictated. 156-member National Assembly was elected that year by an electoral college of 120. economic. East Pakistan emerged as the largest province of the country.

but to placate the generals he allocated about 6 percent of the gross national product to defense. India finally intervened on December 3. insisted on a federation under which East Pakistan would be virtually independent. The Awami League adopted an uncompromising stance. He removed the armed forces from the process of decision making. even the currencies would be different. and negotiations between the various sides became deadlocked. G Civil War The election campaign intensified divisions between East and West Pakistan. capturing 81 seats (predominantly in Punjab and Sind). Mujib’s program had great appeal for many East Pakistanis. The Awami League leaders took refuge in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and established a government in exile. domestically owned banks. He also instituted land reforms that benefited tenants and middle-class farmers. A challenge to Pakistan’s unity emerged in East Pakistan when Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (“Mujib”). not to return until 1989. but the effort soon failed. He envisaged a federal government that would deal with defense and foreign affairs only. Yahya opened negotiations with Mujib in Dhaka in mid-March. The Bhutto Government Under Bhutto’s leadership Pakistan began to rearrange its national life. as the Pakistani army attacked the poorly armed population. and the Pakistani army surrendered 13 days later. and in the December 1970 election called by Yahya. When the Commonwealth of Nations admitted Bangladesh later that year. This gave the Awami League an absolute majority in the National Assembly. East Pakistan was allocated 162 seats in the 300-seat National Assembly. although freely convertible. In July 1972 Bhutto negotiated the Simla Agreement. and the provinces of West Pakistan were allocated a total of 138. Mujib in return accused Yahya of collusion with Bhutto and established a virtually independent government in East Pakistan. Pakistan withdrew its membership. There were many casualties during the ensuing military operations in East Pakistan. Mujib became the first prime minister of Bangladesh in January 1972. 1971. Suspecting Mujib of secessionist politics. capturing 160 seats in the National Assembly. East Pakistan declared its independence as Bangladesh. which confirmed a line of control dividing Kashmīr and prompted the withdrawal of . a turn of events that was considered unacceptable by political interests in West Pakistan because of the divided political climate of the country. Bhutto nationalized the basic industries. and stories of West Pakistani atrocities abounded. Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) emerged as the largest party in West Pakistan. and schools and colleges. Yahya in March 1971 postponed indefinitely the convening of the National Assembly. who demanded that East Pakistan become independent as the nation of Bangladesh.the dominant province. insurance companies. India claimed that nearly 10 million Bengali refugees crossed its borders. the Bhutto government gave diplomatic recognition to Bangladesh in 1974. he won by a landslide in East Pakistan. however. Yahya resigned. leader of the Awami League. However. and on December 20 Bhutto was inaugurated as president and chief martial law administrator of a truncated Pakistan. Meanwhile Pakistan’s army went into action against Mujib’s civilian followers.

he instituted the Islamization of Pakistan’s legal and economic systems and social order.Indian troops from Pakistani territory.2 billion from the United States. The PPP was reorganized under the leadership of his daughter. Other ordinances established interest-free banking and provided maximum penalties for adultery. Losing in three of the four provinces. and the army chief of staff. staged a coup on July 5. nine opposition parties united in the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA) to run against Bhutto’s PPP. and imposed another martial-law regime. After much political debate. Zia Regime The PPP and PNA leadership proved incapable of resolving the deadlock. and consumption of alcohol. Although discontented. Zia formally assumed the presidency in 1978 and embarked on an Islamization program. The PNA boycotted the provincial elections a few days later and organized demonstrations throughout the country that lasted for six weeks. Through various ordinances between 1978 and 1985. In the general elections of 1977. 1973. This effectively restricted the political parties. religious leaders considered them to be un-Islamic. theft. Bhutto became prime minister. In early 1982 Zia appointed the 228 members of the new council. with a Senate as the upper house and a National Assembly as the lower house. (The United States approved a second aid package worth $4. the military grudgingly accepted the supremacy of the civilian leadership. and Fazal Elahi Chaudry replaced him as president. the legislature drafted the country’s third constitution. he became heavy-handed in his rule. 1979.” His reforms achieved some success but earned him the enmity of the entrepreneurial and capitalist class. the PNA alleged that Bhutto had rigged the vote.0 billion in 1986 but then suspended its disbursement in 1989 due to Pakistan’s nuclear-weapons program. Unable to deal constructively with the opposition. It changed the National Assembly into a twochamber legislature. defamation. In September 1981 Zia accepted a six-year economic and military aid package worth $3. he was hanged on April 4. from organizing resistance to the Zia regime through the election process. Afghan refugees began to pour into Pakistan. It designated the prime minister as the most powerful government official. which he called “Islamic socialism. After about a year. but it also set up a formal parliamentary system in which the executive was responsible to the legislature. The Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in December 1979 heightened Pakistan’s insecurity and changed the fortunes of General Zia’s military regime. the United States responded to the crisis. The order provided for the formation of a Federal Advisory Council (Majlis-e-Shoora) to take the place of the National Assembly. Zia issued a Provisional Constitutional Order that served as a substitute for the suspended 1973 constitution. General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq. Benazir Bhutto. In addition. 1981.) After a . which was promulgated on August 14. Bhutto was tried for authorizing the murder of a political opponent and found guilty. In 1979 a federal Sharia (Islamic law) court was established to exercise Islamic judicial review. Bhutto embarked on ambitious nationalization programs and land reforms. On March 24. 1977. which consisted of members elected from West Pakistan in 1970. In April 1972 Bhutto lifted martial law and convened the National Assembly. which already had been constrained by the banning of political activity.

Sharif and Khan subsequently became embroiled in a power struggle that paralyzed the Pakistani government. and a caretaker regime took power until elections could be held. and ethnic groups erupted frequently in Sind Province. A civil servant. A civilian cabinet took office in April. was appointed president. this time to dismiss Sharif and to dissolve parliament. In an agreement designed to end the stalemate. In February Bhutto organized a nationwide strike to . Sharif appealed to the Supreme Court of Pakistan. The new prime minister. Sharif’s nominee. particularly in Karāchi. and martial law ended in December. Sharif also promised to ease continuing tensions with India over Kashmīr. and elections were held in October of that year. however. Bhutto and the PPP lost the October elections after she was arrested for corruption and abuse of power. and Supreme Court Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah. Federal rule was imposed on the province in late 1998 due to increasing violence. Leghari.referendum in December 1984 endorsed Zia’s Islamization policies and the extension of his presidency until 1990. Nawaz Sharif. However. and in May 1988 he dissolved the government and ordered new elections. and the court reinstated Sharif as prime minister. religious. She was the first woman to head a modern Islamic state. and declared a state of emergency. was then elected president. Leghari resigned and Shah was removed. Diplomatic talks between the two countries broke down in January 1994 over the disputed Kashmīr region. Ghulam Ishaq Khan. Sharif and Khan resigned together in July 1993. In early 1993 Sharif was appointed the leader of the Pakistan Muslim League. Violence between rival political. Bhutto’s PPP won a plurality in the parliamentary elections. Three months later he was killed in an airplane crash possibly caused by sabotage. charging misconduct. Zia permitted elections for parliament in February 1985. In April 1993 Ishaq Khan once again used his presidential power. and she returned to lead the opposition. Fulfilling Sharif’s election promise to make Sharia (Islamic law) the supreme law of Pakistan. Shifting Civilian Governments Benazir Bhutto became prime minister after her PPP won the general elections in November 1988. the national legislature passed an amended Shariat Bill in 1991. Pakistan was beset by domestic unrest beginning in the mid-1990s. When the military threw its support behind Sharif. introduced a program of privatizing state enterprises and encouraging foreign investment. In August 1990 he dismissed Bhutto’s government. The charges against Bhutto were resolved. New elections in February 1997 brought Nawaz Sharif back to power in a clear victory for the Pakistan Muslim League. One of Sharif’s first actions as prime minister was to lead the National Assembly in passing a constitutional amendment stripping the president of the authority to dismiss parliament. head of the Islamic Democratic Alliance (a coalition of Islamic parties including the Pakistan Muslim League). Rafiq Tarar. In 1996 Bhutto’s government was dismissed by President Farooq Leghari amid allegations of corruption. Relations with India Relations between India and Pakistan became more tense beginning in the early 1990s. The action triggered a power struggle between Sharif. and Bhutto was again named prime minister. Zia was dissatisfied. and in May the court stated that Khan’s actions were unconstitutional.

imposed to protest Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program. when India conducted several nuclear tests. Many Pakistanis. formally suspended Pakistan’s membership because the coup . and the United States initiated negotiations between the two countries aimed at reducing tensions and circumventing an arms race in the region. despite some controversy. which has had nuclear weapons since the 1970s. He attempted to prevent Musharraf’s return to Pakistan from abroad by refusing to let his airplane land. Army forces also seized control of the government in a bloodless coup that lasted less than three hours.S. She also announced that Pakistan would continue with its nuclear weapons development program. Tensions escalated further in 1998. imposed economic sanctions against both India and Pakistan for exploding nuclear devices. However. however. The sanctions. Pakistan Under Musharraf Musharraf declared himself the chief executive of Pakistan. including the United States. raising concerns that a nuclear arms race could start between Pakistan and India. Fighting between Indian forces and the separatists raged until July. the Supreme Court of Pakistan set a deadline of October 2002 for holding national elections to restore civilian rule. his sentence was subsequently commuted and he was allowed to live in exile in Saudi Arabia.” Many foreign countries. In January 1996. and in April 2000 he was convicted of abuse of power and other charges and sentenced to life imprisonment. already chafing under Sharif’s increasingly autocratic rule and suffering from a sagging Pakistani economy after ten years of government excesses and corruption. when Sharif agreed to secure the withdrawal of the separatists and India suspended its military campaign. In October 1999 Sharif tried to dismiss General Musharraf from his position. In early 1999 Sharif and Indian prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee signed the Lahore Declaration. widely believed to be backed by Pakistan. detonating nuclear weapons for the first time in its history. the United States lifted economic and some military sanctions imposed against Pakistan since 1990. the leaders of Pakistan and India placed a moratorium on further nuclear testing. In early 1997 Sharif resumed talks with India over the Kashmīr region. in May 1999 Kashmīri separatists. negotiations quickly broke down when armed hostilities erupted again. seized Indian-controlled territory near Kargil in the disputed Kashmīr region. were lifted to allow U. Meanwhile. The Commonwealth of Nations. Furthermore. companies to fulfill contracts with Pakistan and to help foster diplomatic relations between the two countries. in April fears of a nuclear arms race revived when both countries tested medium-range missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads. Pakistan responded with its own tests. The Pakistani military accused Sharif of giving in too easily to pressure from India and for pinning the blame for the Kargil attack on army chief Pervez Musharraf. In the months following the explosions. The commercial airplane was forced to circle the Karāchi airport until army forces loyal to Musharraf took over the airport. and dissolved the legislature. Sharif was arrested. He appointed an eight-member National Security Council to function as the country’s supreme governing body. however. welcomed the coup. which articulated a commitment to work toward improved relations. suspended the constitution. The Pakistani government then declared a state of emergency. invoking constitutional provisions that operate when Pakistan’s security comes under “threat of external support for the militant Muslim rebels in Indian Kashmīr involved in sporadic fighting against the Indian army.

8 percent between FY 1971 and FY 1977 but rebounded to 6. improved governance. the GDP growth rate measured at a constant FY 1960 factor averaged 5. Energy sources were rudimentary. Disputes arose between the two nations and were not settled until the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960 was signed. However. It identified economic reform as the most urgent measure needed to restore the confidence of foreign and local investors. were underdeveloped. transportation. but it is not well documented in official reports or most academic studies. Musharraf’s military government adopted a reformist posture. This decline is mainly a result of the floods in September 1992. and a rate of 7." economic sector. Under British rule. This sector includes a thriving black . Pakistan was an agrarian economy in which a small number of powerful landowners with large holdings dominated the countryside. and other services. The headwaters of the Indus River and its main tributaries. Rates of growth averaged 3. From FY 1987 to FY 1991. and utilities) became the fastest growing sector of the economy.1 percent in the 1950s--when agriculture stagnated--but rose to 6. disrupting the complementary nature of their economies that had developed under British colonial rule.7 percent in FY 1993.8 percent between FY 1978 and FY 1986. Various services (including construction. Pakistan has an important "parallel.8 percent in the 1960s. however. were under Indian control. in the wake of the coup new international sanctions were imposed to oppose the military regime. growth averaged 5. and widening of the tax net.STRUCTURE OF THE ECONOMY Pakistan Pakistan attained nationhood under difficult circumstances. At the partition of British India in 1947 resulting in the creation of the independent nations of India and Pakistan. such as banking and government. Industry's share of GDP rose from 8 percent in FY 1950 to 21. As part of this strategy. Ports. A substantial industrial base was added as industry (including mining. Rapid growth substantially altered the structure of the economy. Despite formidable problems.600 kilometers of Indian territory separated the East Wing and West Wing of Pakistan until the former became independent Bangladesh in 1971. transportation and communications. Provisional data indicate that GDP grew only 2. which reduced agricultural output. After assuming power. with wood and animal dung furnishing the bulk of the energy consumed. Musharraf initiated an ambitious program based on accountability.6 percent in FY 1993. Agriculture's share (including forestry and fishing) declined from 53 percent of GDP in FY 1950 to 25 percent in FY 1993." or "alternative. trade. and other services) accounted for the rest of GDP. Donor agencies such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) were unwilling to provide new loans or reschedule Pakistan’s foreign debt. Pakistan . Scant rainfall in West Pakistan (present-day Pakistan) forced farmers to rely on the extensive irrigation system developed by the British.8 percent. manufacturing. Pakistan had almost no industry in 1947. the area that became Pakistan supplied agricultural products for processing to the territory that became the independent India. The majority of the population consisted of tenant farmers who cultivated small plots for a meager existence.8 percent was achieved in FY 1992. They fell to 3.2 percent. From FY 1951 to FY 1986. More than 1. In 1949 a dispute over exchange rates halted the flow of goods between Pakistan and India. Pakistan achieved rapid economic expansion.ousted a civilian government.

the judiciary. and illegal payments to politicians and government officials to ensure state contracts. and former President Ghulam Ishaq Khan accused the government of former Prime Minister Mian Nawaz Sharif and especially its privatization program of corruption when dismissing his government in April 1993. economic expansion was substantial. guide. generation of hydroelectric power. although the government used many direct and indirect measures to stimulate. and contractors and businessmen interviewed on television openly state that a significant percentage of their revenue is paid to government officers who allocate their contracts. although a high rate of growth was sought. . however. For more than two decades. the country was considered a model for other developing countries. and manufacture and operation of railroad. In 1994 allegations of corruption were routinely traded between Benazir's government and the opposition headed by Nawaz Sharif. a former minister of and wireless equipment--fields that were unattractive. Pakistan Pakistan . and some of which was funneled directly to Afghan resistance movements based in Pakistan. the new government lacked the personnel. In the 1960s. and growth of industrial output was striking. In the 1970s and 1980s. In each of these departments. telecommunication organizations. including the police. was accused of corruption after the fall of Benazir's first government in 1990. The rest of the economy was open to private-sector development. the passport office.ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN THE ECONOMY Pakistan Policy Developments since Independence Since 1947 Pakistani officials have sought a high rate of economic growth in an effort to lift the population out of poverty. Much of this money reportedly was diverted illegally and invested in arms and drug enterprises. Corruption rose in the 1980s. At partition in 1947. telegraph. Some scholars believe that the low salaries of civil servants. customs and excise offices. the revenue department. explain the magnitude of corruption. the husband of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. In the mid-1980s. and electricity and gas boards. a large illicit drug industry. and resources to play a large role in developing the economy. Rapid industrialization was viewed as a basic necessity and as a vehicle for economic growth. Industrialists consider bribery and other handouts a routine cost of production. compared with earnings from jobs of similar status in business and industry. greater attention was given to income distribution. institutions. the personnel involved range from low-level employees to top management. a more equitable distribution of income remained an important but elusive goal of government policy. corruption has an altogether real and pervasive effect on Pakistani society. In the early 1990s. and politicians often accuse their opponents of corrupt practices. telephone. Asif Ali Zardari. Exclusive public ownership was reserved only for military armaments. some of which went to the Pakistani government to pay the cost of supporting Afghan refugees fleeing after the 1979 Soviet invasion and to enhance Pakistani military capability. did not alleviate widespread poverty. Mahbubul Haq. to private investors. Rapid expansion of the economy. or retard private-sector activities. estimated that illegal payments to government officials were equivalent to about 60 percent of the total taxes collected by the government. partly as a result of the massive infusion of United States aid. General allegations of corruption are routinely made in the Pakistani press. at least in the early years of independence. Corruption is alleged to be prevalent in almost all official institutions. Political maneuvering aside.

cement. Although Haq exaggerated the extent of the concentration of wealth. and cotton ginning were nationalized. basic metals. and particularly industry. the muhajirs. and rationalize salary structures. reform the tax structure toward greater equity. at partition. The industries affected included iron and steel. The broad outline of government policy in the 1950s and early 1960s involved squeezing the peasants and workers to finance industrial development. grain milling. motor vehicle and tractor assembly and manufacture. they accounted for the major part of investment and ownership in manufacturing during the first two decades after independence. vegetable oil processing. Some public manufacturing plants were established by government holding companies.The disruptions caused by partition." He argued that the government needed to intervene in the economy to correct the natural tendency of free markets to concentrate wealth in the hands of those who already possessed substantial assets. Subsequently. These refugees brought modest capital. Eight of the nine major commercial banks were also controlled by these same industrial groups. This act greatly stimulated exports and indicated that the removal of price distortions could spur the economy. By the late 1960s. However. In May 1972. agriculture was left largely alone. By FY 1978 . Much of the economy. domestically owned life insurance companies. Government policies afforded liberal incentives to industrialization. In 1972 Bhutto's government nationalized thirty-two large manufacturing plants in eight major industries. heavy engineering. wealth. then chief economist of the Planning Commission. Except for large government investments in the Indus irrigation system. while public development of the infrastructure complemented private investment. and it was only when the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (father of Benazir) came to power in 1971 that there was a major shift in government policy. and firms engaged in oil distribution. particularly larger farms that had marketable surpluses. and output stagnated in the 1950s. Yet he downplayed economic analysis and planning and relied instead on ad hoc decisions that created many inconsistencies. Largely using their own resources. Concern over the concentration of wealth was dramatically articulated in a 1968 speech by Mahbubul Haq. Devaluation helped agriculture. Mechanization increased but had the adverse side effect of displacing farm laborers and tenants. domestic shipping companies. Bhutto promised a new development strategy more equitable than previous policies. and economic power-problems that had always plagued the country. which they initially used to start trading firms. many of whom migrated to cities seeking industrial jobs. the cessation of trade with India. the strict control of imports.down approach to development" had only concentrated wealth in the hands of "twenty-two industrial families. promote collective bargaining for labor. chemicals. But devaluation also completely altered the cost and price structure for industry and affected the level and composition of industrial investment and the terms of trade between the industrial and agricultural sectors. the government enacted piecemeal measures between 1968 and 1971 to set minimum wages. Many of these firms moved into industry in the 1950s as a response to government policies. especially Karachi. his speech struck a chord with public opinion. Manufacturing proved highly profitable. Haq claimed that Pakistan's economic growth had done little to improve the standard of living of the common person and that the "trickle. privately owned banks. and public utilities. petrochemicals. who were largely traders who migrated to Pakistan's cities. Studies by economists in the 1960s indicated that the forty big industrial groups owned around 42 percent of the nation's industrial assets and more than 50 percent of private domestic assets. there was growing popular dissatisfaction with economic conditions and considerable debate about the inequitable distribution of income. attracting increasing private investments and reinvestment of profits. he promulgated a major act that devalued the rupee by 57 percent and abolished the multiple-exchange-rate system. and the overvalued exchange rate necessitated the stimulation of private industry. was eventually dominated by a small group of people. The result was a drop of nearly 50 percent in private investment in large-scale manufacturing between FY 1970 and FY 1973. implementation was weak or nonexistent. In response.

airlines. Efficiency and profits in public-sector enterprises fell. Many of the other economic measures undertaken by the Bhutto government were largely ineffective because of the power of vested interests and the inefficiency of the civil administration. long-term projects that tied up the country's development resources for long periods. power generation. Self-assessment by farmers is checked by local groups if a farmer fails to file or makes a very low estimate. and plans were under way to begin denationalizing several utilities. Public-sector enterprises accounted for a significant portion of large-scale manufacturing. Private capital fled the country or went into small-scale manufacturing and real estate.such investments were little more than one-third (in constant prices) of those in FY 1970. and road construction were also in various stages of implementation.5 percent. a situation that became worse after 1974. usually 2. Proceeds of ushr go to zakat committees to help local needy people. In 1977 Zia asked a group of Islamic scholars to recommend measures for an Islamic economic system. allowing some deductions for the costs of production. abolishing the government's monopoly in the financial sector. Labor legislation set high minimum wages and fringe benefits. In addition to the nationalization of companies. The government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif (1990-93) introduced a program of privatization. and a highway tunnel in the mountainous north. Investment reforms eliminated government sanction requirements. A demarcation of exclusive public ownership was made that excluded the private sector from only a few activities. Private investment no longer requires government authorization. Bhutto also supported large. eased restrictions on repatriable direct and portfolio investment from abroad. telecommunications. plants were built by the government and additional public companies were created for various functions. a major highway on the west bank of the Indus River. Zakat is a traditional annual levy. to be paid in cash by the landowner or leaseholder. Yet government continued to play a large economic role in the 1980s. Top priority was given to denationalizing some 115 public industrial enterprises. The public sector expanded greatly under the Bhutto government. industrial output slowed considerably. port operations. and successive governments continued this policy throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s. such as the export of cotton and rice. In FY 1991. In June 1980. and measures were enacted to tax farm income. by March 1992 control of twenty industrial units and two banks had been sold to private investors. tenants were given greater security of tenure. shipping. As of early 1994. Despite resistance from officials and labor unions and criticism that the government was moving too quickly. it was estimated that these enterprises produced about 40 percent of industrial output. and economic reform aimed at reducing structural impediments to sound economic development. the Zakat and Ushr Ordinance was promulgated. on wealth to help the needy. except in sensitive industries. the government instituted constitutional measures to assure private investors that nationalization would occur only under limited and exceptional circumstances and with fair compensation. After 1977 the government of Mohammad Zia ul-Haq (1977-88) began a policy of greater reliance on private enterprise to achieve economic goals. Ushr is a 5 percent tax on the produce of land. Between 1970 and 1977. Able managers and technicians were scarce. surpassing private industrial investment in FY 1976. when many persons left to seek higher salaries in Middle East oil-producing states. which boosted payroll costs for both public and private firms. proposals to end state monopolies in insurance. Soon after Zia came to power. . enabled foreign firms to issue shares in enterprises in Pakistan. Islamization of the economy was another policy innovation of the Zia government. Public industrial investment rose. and authorized foreign banks to underwrite securities on the same basis as Pakistani banks. deregulation. but inadequately planned. and selling utilities to private interests. Ushr replaced the former land tax levied by the provinces. The largest projects were an integrated iron and steel plant. Ceilings on the size of landholdings were lowered.

particularly from the United States. The Fourth Five-Year Plan (1970-75) was abandoned as East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh. announced its intention to continue the policies of both deregulation and liberalization carried out by Nawaz Sharif and the tighter fiscal policies put in place by Qureshi. which in turn led to a loss of confidence in the government on the part of foreign aid donors. and assigning priorities--started in 1953 with the drafting of the First Five-Year Plan (1955-60). Under Bhutto. elected in October 1993. When the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came to power in 1971. however. it failed to address the problem of a growing budget deficit. In early 1994. stiffer enforcement of existing taxes. and they were largely ignored. but in 1958 the government renewed its commitment to planning by establishing the Planning Commission. The Sixth Five-Year Plan (1983-88) represented a significant shift toward the private sector. a former World Bank vice president. especially for women. and Pakistan became selfsufficient in all basic foodstuffs with the exception of edible oils. Development Planning Pakistan's economic development planning began in 1948. and low spending on health and education. partially depended on generous infusions of foreign aid. The government also said it intended to devote a greater proportion of the nation's resources to health and education. After the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War over Kashmir. the level of foreign assistance declined. new taxes. But the initial effort was unsystematic. low agricultural productivity. Pakistan's success. The Zia government accorded more importance to planning. asserted that the nation was near insolvency and would require a number of measures to impose fiscal discipline. Yet the plan failed to stimulate substantial private industrial investment and to raise significantly the expenditure on rural infrastructure development.Although the Nawaz Sharif government made considerable progress in liberalizing the economy. the government of Benazir Bhutto. as well as the sharp increase in international oil prices in 1979-80. and reductions in government spending. while the government acted in those sectors of the economy where private business was reluctant to operate. the balance of payments deficit was kept under control. It was designed to tackle some of the major problems of the economy: low investment and savings ratios. mainly because political instability led to a neglect of economic policy. this plan was not implemented. designed along the lines of its immediate predecessor. More formal planning--incorporating overall targets. some of the plan's goals were attained. Many of the controls on industry were liberalized or abolished. This mix of private enterprise and social responsibility was hailed as a model that other developing countries could follow. assessing resource availability. planning was virtually bypassed. As a result. however. only annual plans were prepared. Increased defense expenditures and a flood of refugees to Pakistan after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. In practice. produced only modest growth. The economy grew at the targeted average of 6. The government thus included sharp increases in utility prices. heavy reliance on imported energy. By 1950 a six-year plan had been drafted to guide government investment in developing the infrastructure. partly because of inadequate staffing. the Third Five-Year Plan (1965-70). The caretaker government of July-October 1993 led by Moeen Qureshi. drew resources away from planned investments. The Fifth Five-Year Plan (1978-83) was an attempt to stabilize the economy and improve the standard of living of the poorest segment of the population. More resources than had been intended also were diverted to defense. The Second Five-Year Plan (1960-65) surpassed its major goals when all sectors showed substantial growth. Nevertheless. The plan encouraged private entrepreneurs to participate in those activities in which a great deal of profit could be made.5 percent during the plan .

18 percent for transportation and communications. 9 percent for water. Total planned private investment was Rs292 billion. the key objectives of Pakistan 's Foreign Policy are to: (a) Develop friendly relations with all countries particularly the Muslim world.period and would have exceeded the target if it had not been for severe droughts in 1986 and 1987. The plan gave much greater emphasis than before to private investment in all sectors of the economy. 4 percent for health. the eighth plan had not yet been announced. there is also a change of emphasis and nuance. (c) Resolve the core issue of Jammu and Kashmir in accordance with the resolutions . mutual respect and benefit. However. 5 percent for industry and minerals. as they should be. and the private-to. This group. Based on these principles and considerations. Pakistan 's foreign policy is guided by its history. In keeping with its international obligations and in conformity with the United Nations Charter. submitted its report in late 1992. noninterference and peaceful settlement of disputes. Given the persistent challenges. mainly because the successive changes of government in 1993 forced ministers to focus on short-term issues. Pakistan Foreign Policy Of Pakistan Foreign Policy Of Pakistan The Foreign Policy of Pakistan strives for the promotion of peace and security at the regional and global levels. The Seventh Five-Year Plan (1988-93) provided for total public-sector spending of Rs350 billion. Of this total. 38 percent was designated for energy. While there are elements of continuity in the foreign policy. Instead. and 11 percent for other sectors.public ratio of investment was expected to rise from 42:58 in FY 1988 to 48:52 in FY 1993. 7 percent for education. presidents of chambers of commerce. It was also intended that public-sector corporations finance most of their own investment programs through profits and borrowing. 8 percent for physical infrastructure and housing. economic policy for FY 1994 was being guided by an annual plan. It is also responsive to regional and international imperatives. major powers and immediate neighbours. Pakistan consistently seeks friendship and cooperation in its foreign relations on the basis of sovereign equality. In August 1991. Pakistan has opted for a proactive foreign policy. the government established a working group on private investment for the Eighth Five-Year Plan (1993-98). in early 1994. (b) Safeguard vital security and geo-strategic interests of Pakistan . and senior civil servants. which included leading industrialists. geographical location and the aspiration of its people. It also aims at accelerating the country's socio-economic progress.

progressive. privatization. • Global Economic thinking Economic Co-operation. • Stability in Home Political System Removal of Corruption. Deregulation of economics. A shift from defense to economic benefits. free trade and New Global Economic Agenda • Pakistan’s Changing Foreign Policy. B. A. Democracy. causes of the change and future precepts. Industrialization and Specialization in accordance with ISO standards. and (f) Protect the interests of Pakistan 's expatriate community abroad Pakistan’s Foreign Policy Issues and Challenges. lowering of tariff walls. • Relations with Super Powers . Removing the fiscal indiscipline. moderate and democratic Islamic country.of the UN Security Council and wishes of the Kashmiri people. • Globalization and its effects Impact of Globalization on Common man (baffled and perplexed) Non transparency of the process. • External and Internal Borrowings. from all walks of life. Participation of people in National Politics. dynamic. (d) Promote the image of Pakistan as a strong. • Strengthening the Domestic Economic Infrastructure. Policies for setting grounds and encouraging Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).Political Issues and Challenges. (e) Augment economic and commercial interests abroad.Economic Issues and Challenges.

• Peace Keeping Peace keeping and anti-terrorism policies.Logistic Issues and Challenges. Navy) • Kashmir Issue.• Relations with Muslim World • Pakistan’s policy towards third world and nations struggling for independence.Pakistan and Human Rights . • Diplomacy. C. nuclear weapons and the requirement of new systems. • Nuclear program Development in Nuclear capability.India negotiations in this regard and future scenario. Air Force. ( Army. Nuclear proliferation aspect of international politics and Pakistan’s strategy in this regard. • Present status of Pakistan in International Politics. • Present Defense Status of Pakistan Artillery. Pak. communication systems. D.