India History

Europeans in India
India was a British colony. The British left behind them in India a strong imprint of their philosophy and culture and even today it is evident that English which is a foreign language is the most important and respected language in India. But the British were not the only Europeans to arrive in India and have their imprint. Since ancient period even before the beginning of the Christian era there were relations between Europeans and Indians. The main Europeans to arrive in ancient India were Greeks. The Greeks are referred to in ancient Indian history as Yavanas. Even the most famous ancient Greek conqueror, Alexander the Great, arrived in India. But actually he arrived up to the present India-Pakistan border. But there were other Greeks who arrived in India and established kingdoms. Many of these Greek communities later on adopted Hinduism and integrated in the Indian caste system. Even today there are communities in Kashmir who claim to be of Greek origin. Not all Greeks arrived in India to conquer it. There were also Greek scientists who arrived in India for scientific research, especially in astronomy and mathematics. Later on other Europeans arrived in India because of commercial reasons. The Indian sub-continent was then world famous for its spices. But when the Muslim Ottoman Empire of Turkey ruled the Middle East, they caused lots of problems to European Christian merchants who tried to pass through their land. Therefore the Europeans tried to find other routes to reach India. And so accidentally Christopher Columbus found the continent of America. Columbus tried to get to India while sailing westwards from Europe. Columbus presumed that because the earth is round he would eventually get to India while sailing westwards, instead he found the continent of America whose existence was not known then to the Europeans. Columbus thought that he had arrived in India and called the natives Indians. From the 15th century the European representatives arrived in India, namely English, French, Dutch, Danish and Portuguese. Among these European powers the Portuguese arrived first in India in 1498 via sea after they had circled the whole of the African continent. These representatives arrived in India after they received from their country rulers charter to do business with India. These Europeans at first requested from the local rulers permission to trade in their entities. Later on they requested from the local rulers permission to build factories. After they built factories they requested to build forts around these factories to defend them from pirates and other dangers. Then they requested to recruit local Indians to serve as guards and soldiers in these forts and so on they slowly created their own armies. And so one of the European power's representative, the British East India Company, became the ruler of India.

The British control of India was a result of several factors. The Portuguese, who along with their business tried to enforce Roman Catholicism on the Indians were defeated by local rulers sometimes in collaboration with Protestant European powers. But still the Portuguese remained in India with small pockets. Their main center in India was Goa. The Dutch, who had holds in south India and the Danes, who had holds in east India, left India for their own reasons. The two main European powers that remained in India were British and French. These two powers tried different ways to control India and to defeat each other. Each of these European powers sometimes collaborated with local Indian rulers to defeat the other European power. Eventually the British became the rulers of India. But the French like the Portuguese remained in India with small pockets and both these powers remained in India even after the British left India in 1947. The British East India Company was actually a trading company and it received from the British crown charter to trade with the Indian sub-continent. They arrived in India for spice trade in 1600. Like other European powers that arrived in India, they at first requested from the local rulers permission to trade in their entities. The British East India Company was more sophisticated than other Europeans who arrived in India. This company offered different sophisticated agreements to the different Indian ruling families, which made them the actual managers of the Indian kingdoms. They sometimes used their army against local rulers and annexed their territories with the result that there was lot of embitterment among the Indians against the British. After the 'Indian Mutiny' of 1857, the British Crown took back the charter from the East India Company and ruled India directly through a Viceroy. The British gave India independence in 1947, but its last soldier left India eventually in 1950. The French also left India in 1950. The Portuguese were the last to leave India in 1961. Even though the European powers arrived in India for commercial reasons, they also started converting local Indians to Christianity. Of the five European powers the Portuguese were most enthusiastic to baptize Indians. The Portuguese inspired by the Pope’s order to baptize people around the world not only fought wars against the local Indian rulers, but also they tried to enforce their Roman Catholic prayers on Syrian Christians who were in India before the modern European powers arrived in India (see Christianity in India). After many wars the Portuguese were defeated by local rulers and they had only one big pocket of control in India, Goa. Goa was made the capital of Portuguese colonies in the eastern hemisphere. The Portuguese not only fought the Indian rulers, but they also fought against other European powers in India especially Dutch and English. Many Portuguese churches in Kerala were converted into English and Dutch churches after they were captured by these powers. The English missionaries started acting in India at a much later period. The British arrived in India in 1600 and they allowed the missionaries to enter their territory only from 1813. The British allowed different churches to establish missionaries in their territory. The missionaries didn’t only spread Christianity, but they also did humanitarian deeds giving the needy the basic necessities of life like food, clothes

and shelter. The missionaries also built schools in India and many of them exist even today and have Christian or European originated names. The British church missionaries succeeded less than the Portuguese in converting Indians to Christianity, but unlike the Portuguese who tried to enforce Christianity, these Protestant converts were voluntary. The Portuguese were also aware of the Indian custom according to which the wife followed her husband’s faith and therefore married their men to Indian women. Most of the Portuguese baptized Christians in India have Portuguese oriented surnames, like Fernandez, De Silva, De Costa and others. There is also an Anglo-Indian community in India, who are also descendants from European (English) fathers and Indian mothers, but these relations between English men and Indian women started because of romantic reasons. The Anglo-Indians are mostly Christians and have adopted English as their first language. According to the Indian Constitution, two seats in the Indian Parliament are reserved for the AngloIndian community members.

A Timeline of India in the 1800s

The British Raj Defined India Throughout the 1800s
The British East India Company arrived in India in the early 1600s, struggling and nearly begging for the right to trade and do business. By the late 1700s the thriving firm of British merchants, backed by its own army, was essentially ruling India. In the 1800s English power expanded in India, as it would until the mutinies of 1857-58. After those very violent spasms things would change, yet Britain was still in control. And India was very much an outpost of the mighty British Empire. 1600s: The British East India Company Arrives After several attempts to open trade with a powerful ruler of India failed in the earliest years of the 1600s, King James I of England sent a personal envoy, Sir Thomas Roe, to the court of the Mogul emperor Jahangir in 1614. The emperor was incredibly wealthy and lived in an opulent palace. And he was not interested in trade with Britain as he couldn't imagine the British had anything he wanted. Roe, recognizing that other approaches had been too subservient, was deliberately difficult to deal with at first. He correctly sensed that earlier envoys, by being too accommodating, had not gained the emperor's respect. Roe's stratagem worked, and the East India Company was able to establish operations in India. 1600s: The Mogul Empire at Its Peak
of Congress

The Mogul Empire had been established in India in the early 1500s, when a chieftain named Babur invaded India from Afghanistan. The Moguls (or Mughals) conquered most of northern India, and by the time the British arrived the Mogul Empire was immensely powerful. One of the most influential Mogul emperors was Jahangir's son Shah Jahan, who ruled from 1628 to 1658. He expanded the empire and accumulated enormous treasure, and made Islam the official religion. When his wife died he had the Taj Mahal built as a tomb for her. The Moguls took great pride in being patrons of the arts, and painting, literature, and architecture flourished under their rule. 1700s: Britain Assumes the Upper Hand The Mogul Empire was in a state of collapse by the 1720s. Other European powers were competing for control in India, and sought alliances with the shaky states that inherited the Mogul territories. The East India Company established its own army in India, which was composed of British troops as well as native soldiers called sepoys. The British interests in India, under the leadership of Robert Clive, gained military victories from the 1740s onward, and with the Battle of Plassey in 1757 were able to establish dominance.

and new policies which allowed the British to annex some areas of India exacerbated tensions. called sepoys. and English customs were adapted to the climate of India. pundit. but there were a number of other underlying causes for the rebellion. 1800s: "The Raj" Enters the Language . which included tolerance of religion and the recruitment of Indians into the civil service. mutinied against their British commanders because newly issued rifle cartridges were greased with pig and cow fat. a number of other terms came into English usage during The Raj: bangle. khaki. when sepoys rose up against the British in Meerut and then massacred all the British they could find in Delhi. and exotic Indian scenes. and lurid reports of massacres and atrocities circulated in newspapers and illustrated magazines in Britain. British citizens began building an "Anglo-Indian" society within India. The traditional story is that Indian troops. The conflicts of 1857 and 1858 were brutal and bloody. jodhpurs. cushy.000 sepoys remained loyal to the British." which was derived from the Sanskrit term raja meaning king. 1857-58: The Indian Mutiny The Indian Mutiny erupted in May 1857. even instituting a court system. the British military in India was also strengthened. appeared in books published in London in the 1820s. The British dispatched more troops to India and eventually succeeded in putting down the mutiny. but when British interests were threatened the government had to step in. The term did not have official meaning until after 1858.000 of nearly 140. 1857: Resentment Toward the British Spills Over The Indian Rebellion of 1857. By early 1857 things had reached a breaking point. or the Sepoy Mutiny. and many more. thus making them unacceptable for both Hindu and Muslim soldiers." the title for an official under the Moguls. . was a turning point in the history of Britain in India. pajamas. resorting to merciless tactics to restore order. Resentment toward the British had been building for some time. Historians have noted that the British government never actually intended to take control of India. often to be derided by those in British high society as "nabobs. There is some truth to that. And many sepoys who had surrendered were executed by British troops. such as a drawing of an elephant fight. Reforms were instituted. but it was in popular usage many years before that. the East India Company was abolished and the British crown assumed full rule of India. While the reforms sought to avoid further rebellions through conciliation. circa 1850/now in public domain The British rule in India became known as "The Raj. Incidentally. It was estimated that less than 8. dungaree. 1858: Calm is Restored in British India Following the Indian Mutiny. Tales of life in India fascinated the British public. Uprisings spread throughout British India. seersucker. British merchants could make a fortune in India and would then return home.The East India Company gradually strengthened its hold. which was also called the Indian Mutiny. The large city of Delhi was left in ruins.

mostly peacefully.6 million in 1850. had no indigenous written language until the 9th century A. India finally achieved its independence in 1947. In The very idea of British India seems inexplicable.D. At first. and instituted some very unpopular policies. (almost 3. 1876: Empress of India The importance of India. by 1850 A. did Britain manage to control India from 1757 to 1947? The keys seem to have been superior weaponry. to the civilization centers of the Indus Valley Culture at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. reaping enormous profits on silk. The British Raj in India By Kallie Szczepanski. the European powers strove to acquire Asian trading posts of their own. then. The nationalist movement developed over decades. and the affection the British crown felt for its colony. Europe's Scramble for Colonies in Asia: From the moment the Portuguese rounded the Cape of Good Hope on Africa's southern tip in 1488. Consider the fact that Indian written history stretches back almost 4.000 years. . How. the acquisition of territory grew in importance. of course. Among the nations looking for a piece of the action was Britain. on the other hand. India had a population of some 200 million or more.D. Britain. It wasn't until Lord Curzon became Viceroy in 1898. For centuries. spices. fine china and precious metals. About. that an Indian nationalist movement began to stir.The embodiment of the new British rule in India was the office of the Viceroy. Its population was about 16.. the European powers in Asia were solely interested in trade. but over time. opening sea lanes to the Far East. The Viennese monopoly ended with the establishment of the sea-route.000 years after India). was emphasized in 1876 when Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli declared Queen Victoria to be "Empress of India. and. a strong profit motive and Eurocentric confidence. the Viennese had controlled the European branch of the Silk Road. throughout the remainder of the 19th century." British control of India would continue.

it functioned as the military authority in growing sections of India. the Indians starved. The Indian "Mutiny" of 1857: Many Indians were distressed by the rapid cultural changes imposed by the British. the rebels surrendered on June 20. after the Battle of Plassey. While British soldiers and traders made their fortunes. This battle pitted 3. India under the East India Company: The East India Company traded in cotton. unsure of public reaction. silk. The Nawab lost at least 500 troops. Heavy rain spoiled the Nawab's cannon powder (the British covered theirs). to Britain's 22. Indians also were barred from high office in their own land. Following the Battle of Plassey. Fighting began on the morning of June 23.000-strong army of the young Nawab of Bengal. which financed further expansion. as well. and his French East India Company allies. They worried that Hindu and Muslim India would be "Christianized. Rumors spread that the cartridges had been greased with pig and cow fat. At this time. an abomination to both major Indian religions. a new type of rifle cartridge was given to the soldiers of the British Indian Army. Siraj ud Daulah. 1757. 1858. The British considered them inherently corrupt and untrustworthy.000 soldiers of the British East India Company against the 5.The Battle of Plassey (Palashi): Britain had been trading in India since about 1600. Between 1770 and 1773. After a year-long struggle. By 1770. Britain took about $5 million from the Bengali treasury. but it did not begin to seize large sections of land until 1757. Control of India Shifts to the India Office: . 1857. tea and opium. when mainly Bengali Muslim troops marched to Delhi and pledged their support to the Mughal emperor. the revolt started. On May 10. about 10 million people died of famine in Bengal ." Early in 1857. heavy Company taxation and other policies had left millions of Bengalis impoverished.1/3 of the population. leading to his defeat. Both sides moved slowly.

in the Punjab. effectively controlling all of India. . Britain declared war on German on India's behalf. the princely states donated substantial amounts of cash.Following the Rebellion of 1857-58. In April. However. Britain exerted a lot of pressure on these princes.500 men. was convicted of sedition and exiled to Burma. Nepalese Gurkhas. and stamping out cultural practices such as sati. this division was revoked after strong protests. The Emperor. this meant educating them in British modes of thought. who reported back to the Secretary of State for India and the British Parliament. Bahadur Shah. The official death toll was 379. In addition to troops. and other minority groups. Many Indians were eager for independence. and the East India Company. To the British. Britain also encouraged the formation of the Muslim League of India in 1907. once again. "Autocratic Paternalism": Queen Victoria promised that the British government would work to better its Indian subjects. 43. Although most of India rallied to the British flag. 1919. British India in World War II: When World War II broke out. The British also practiced "divide and rule" policies. as well.000 unarmed protestors gathered at Amritsar. Bengal and Punjab were restive. In 1905. they were led by a political new-comer called Mohandas Gandhi. It should be noted that the British Raj included only about 2/3 of modern India. the colonial government divided Bengal into Hindu and Muslim sections. killing an estimated 1. women and children.3 million Indian soldiers and laborers were serving in the British Indian Army by the time of the Armistice.000 Indian and Gurkha soldiers died. More than 1. British India in World War I: During World War I. pitting Hindu and Muslim Indians against one another. the British government abolished both the Mughal Dynasty. more than 5. The Indian Army was made up mostly of Sikhs. British troops fired on the crowd. with the other portions under the control of local princes. India contributed hugely to the British war effort. Control of India was given to a British Governor-General. which had ruled India more or less for 300 years.

but huge public protests forced the commutation of their sentences. Some 30.000 Indian POWs were recruited by the Germans and Japanese to fight against the Allies. murder and torture. In response. in exchange for their freedom. India had an incredible 2. allowing Muslims to opt out of a future Indian state. Britain sent the Cripps mission to offer future dominion status in return for help recruiting more soldiers.000 Indian soldiers had died in combat. the British arrested the INC's leadership. In any case. Indian troops fought in Burma. The Struggle for Indian Independence. A series of ten courts-martial were held. 87. Sympathetic mutinies broke out in the Indian Army and Navy during the trial. trying 45 prisoners on charges of treason. Most. and demanded immediate independence in return for their cooperation. and British rule was widely resented.By the end of the war. though. In 1942. Hindu/Muslim Riots and Partition . The earlier Government of India Act (1935) had provided for the establishment of provincial legislatures across the colony. After the War The soldiers who had joined Japan and Germany in fighting the British were put on trial at Delhi's Red Fort early in 1946. as well. the INC launched the "Quit India" movement. but it was now just a question of when the British Raj would end. The men were convicted. but were crushed by the British Army. however. Gandhi and other members of the Indian National Congress (INC) demonstrated against British rule of India. Britain may not have realized it.5 million-man volunteer army. Italy. Mass demonstrations burst out across the country. Gandhi and the INC did not trust the British envoy. and elsewhere. calling for the immediate withdrawal of Britons from India. however. and the Aftermath: Calls for Self-rule Even as World War II raged. and granted the vote to about 10% of India's male population. These moves toward limited self-governance only made India impatient for true self-rule. Cripps may have made a secret agreement with the Muslim League. The offer of independence had been made. When the talks broke down. North Africa. The Act also created an umbrella federal government for the provinces and princely states. remained loyal. The Indian independence movement was very strong by this time.

The partition of India and its freedom from colonial rule set a precedent for nations such as Israel. left unresolved by the British. saw the birth of the new Islamic Republic of Pakistan. 1946.000 and 500. ending nearly 350 years of British presence in India. Even the imposition of an official boundary has not stopped conflict between them. During the struggle for freedom. when we step out from the old to the new. . long suppressed." -Jawarhalal Nehru 14 August. Meanwhile. At midnight the next day India won its freedom from colonial rule. Gandhi had written an appeal "To Every Briton" to free their possessions in Asia and Africa. Pakistan became independent on August 14. especially India (Philips and Wainwright. handing the question of division over to the UN. have caused two wars and continuing strife between India and Pakistan.On August 17. while predominantly Muslim areas in the north became the nation of Pakistan. and when the soul of a nation. with Pakistan as an Islamic state and India as a secular one. Between 250. 1947. The Partition of India "A moment comes. Boundary issues. representatives of the Hindus. when an age ends. violent fighting broke out between Hindus and Muslims in Calcutta. The two countries were founded on the basis of religion. In June of 1947. cash-strapped Britain announced its decision to withdraw from India by June of 1948. Whether the partition of these countries was wise and whether it was done too soon is still under debate. which demanded a separate homeland because of the irreconcilable differences between the Arabs and the Jews. The British left Israel in May 1948. The trouble quickly spread across India. which comes but rarely in history. Millions of refugees flooded across the border in each direction. India followed the next day. Un-enforced UN Resolutions to map out boundaries between Israel and Palestine has led to several Arab-Israeli wars and the conflict still continues. 1947. Sectarian violence flared again as independence approached. Muslims and Sikhs agreed to divide India along sectarian lines. finds utterance. 567). The British left India divided in two.000 people were killed in sectarian violence during the Partition. Hindu and Sikh areas stayed in India.

Their passage causes further disaffection with the British and leads to protests.Timeline 1600-British East India Company is established. non-cooperation movement. 1919-Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms (implemented in 1921). These were peacetime extensions of wartime emergency measures. It is denied by the British. 1916-Lucknow Pact. The Congress and the League unite in demand for greater selfgovernment. 1858-The India Act: power transferred to British Government. . 1905-First Partition of Bengal for administrative purposes. General Dyer opens fire on 20. Gandhi suspends non-cooperation movement and is imprisoned. 1929-Congress calls for full independence. with greater provincialisation. Gives the Muslims a majority in that state. 1922-Twenty-one policemen are killed by Congress supporters at Chauri -Chaura. Amritsar Massacre. Communal representation institutionalised for the first timeas reserved legislative seats are allocated for significant minorities. 1857-The Indian Mutiny or The First War of Independence. fails as all parties boycott it. Creates anti-British and anti-Hindu sentiments among Muslims as they lose their majority in East Bengal. 1909-Revocation of Partition of Bengal. 1928-Simon Commission. against the British for a free India. set up to investigate the Indian political environment for future policy-making. Hume to unite all Indians and strengthen bonds with Britain. or black acts passed over opposition by Indian members of the Supreme Legislative Council. 1920-Gandhi launches a non-violent. O. Congress and the League lose faith in the British. or Satyagraha. 1919-Rowlatt Acts.000 unarmed Indian civilians at a political demonstration against the Rowlatt Acts. A step to self-government in India within the Empire. based on a dyarchic principle in provincial government as well as administrative responsibility. 1906-All India Muslim League founded to promote Muslim political interests. 1885-Indian National Congress founded by A.

1935-Government of India Act: proposes a federal India of political provinces with elected local governments but British control over foreign policy and defence. to conduct negotiations between all political parties and to set up a cabinet government. who does attend. 1942-Cripps Mission o India. 1940-Jinnah calls for establishment of Pakistan in an independent and partitioned India. Radcliffe Award of boundaries of the nations. 1945-The new Labour Government in Britain decides India is strategically indefensible and begins to prepare for Indian independence.1930-Dr. 3 June. Congress is successful in gaining majority. 1946-Muslim League participates in Interim Government that is set up according to the Cabinet Mission Plan. 1942-43-Muslim League gains more power: ministries formed in Sind. claims he is the only representative of all of India. Bengal and North-West Frontier Province and greater influence in the Punjab. Allama Iqbal. a poet-politician. calls for a separate homeland for the Muslims at the Allahabad session of the Muslim League. which concedes to Gandhi's demands at the Round Table conferences and further isolates Muslim League from the Congress and the British. Gandhi re-starts civil disobedience. Congress leaders arrested for obstructing war effort. Congress adopts Quit India Resolution. 1932-Third Round Table Conference boycotted by Muslim League. 1939-Congress ministries resign. but Muslims see this as an acknowledgment that Jinnah represents all Indian Muslims. 15 August. 1931-Irwin-Gandhi Pact. set up to consider Dominion status for India. 16 August. 1937-Elections. Congress is outlawed by the British and its leaders. to rid India of British rule. Gandhi starts Civil Disobedience Movement against the Salt Laws by which the British had a monopoly over production and sale of salt. Partition of India and Pakistan. 1944-Gandhi released from prison. 1930-31-The Round Table conferences. Unsuccessful Gandhi-Jinnah talks. They fail because of non-attendance by the Congress and because Gandhi. 1971-East Pakistan separates from West Pakistan and Bangladesh is born. 1947-Announcement of Lord Mountbatten's plan for partition of India. . Direct Action Day riots convince British that Partition is inevitable.

the Muslim League. who were the former rulers of the subcontinent. passed a resolution for them to Divide and Quit. However. The British had followed a divide-and-rule policy in India. They had based their knowledge of the peoples of India on the basic religious texts and the intrinsic differences they found in them instead of on the way they coexisted in the present. Some people felt that the very nature of Islam called for a communal Muslim society. taught the Muslims that education and cooperation with the British was vital for their survival in the society. They refused to learn English and to associate with the British. College. College at Aligarh and supported the All-India Muslim Conference. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. both of which were institutions from which leaders of the Muslim League and the ideology of Pakistan emerged. There were several reasons for the birth of a separate Muslim homeland in the subcontinent. while the Indian National Congress was calling for Britain to Quit India.A. The British were also still fearful of the potential threat from the Muslims. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was also the first to conceive of a separate Muslim homeland.O. These memories might have made it exceptionally diffficult for Muslims to accept the imposition of colonial power and culture. who founded M. their complete insensitivity to and distance from the peoples of India and their customs created such disillusionment with them in their subjects that the end of British rule became necessary and inevitable. In order to win them over to their side. However. the Congress and the Muslim League-were responsible. As soon as the League was formed.O. they were placed on a separate electorate.Reasons for Partition By the end of the 19th century several nationalistic movements had started in India. in 1943. ruling India for over 300 years under the Mughal Empire. There was also an ideological divide between the Muslims and the Hindus of India. Indian nationalism had grown largely since British policies of education and the advances made by the British in India in the fields of transportation and communication. the British helped establish the M. by the late 19th century there were also communal conflicts and movements in the country that were based on religious communities rather than class or regional ones. This was a severe drawback for them as they found that the Hindus were now in better positions in government than they were and thus felt that the British favored Hindus. The social reformer and educator. Thus the idea of the separateness of Muslims in India was built into the electoral process of India. Even in the census they categorised people according to religion and viewed and treated them as separate from each other.A. especially those in the old centers of Mughal rule. Added to this were the memories of power over the Indian subcontinent that the Muslims held on to. Tied to all the movements of Muslim revival was the opposition to assimilation and submergence in Hindu society. While there were strong feelings of nationalism in India. . and all three parties-the British.

. for though they were Hindu or Muslim. a cheap source of meat for the Muslims. Not only was the country divided. The process of partition had claimed many lives in the riots. The Congress banned any support for the British during the Second World War. There had been some hope of an undivided India. The Muslim League gained power also due to the Congress. However. as they formed strong ministries in the provinces that had large Muslim populations. who also needed the help of the largely Muslim army. divisions which caused catastrophic riots and claimed the lives of Hindus. Impact and Aftermath of Partition "Leave India to God. especially under the guidance of dynamic leaders like Jinnah. They also wanted to change the official script form the Persian to the Hindu Devanagri script. were used as instruments of power by the Hindus and the Muslims. However the Muslim League pledged its full support.Hindu revivalists also deepened the chasm betweent he two nations. in the schools of India where Muslim children were forced to sing it. their identity had been embedded in the regions where there ancestors were from. Congress made several mistakes in their policies which further convinced the League that it was impossible to live in a undivided India after freedom from colonial rule because their interests would be completely suppressed. but so were the provinces of Punjab and Bengal. especially. If that is too much. which found favour form them from the British. At the same time. They resented the Muslims for their former rule over India. Many others were raped and looted. Muslims and Sikhs alike." a national anthem which expressed anti-Muslim sentiments." --Gandhi. Hindu revivalists rallied for a ban on the slaughter of cows. with a government consisting of three tiers along basically the same lines as the borders of India and Pakistan at the time of Partition. Congress' rejection of the interim government set up under this Cabinet Mission Plan in 1942 convinced the leaders of the Muslim League that compromise was impossible and partition was the only course to take. Women. "ghost trains" full of severed breasts of women would arrive in each of the newly-born countries from across the borders. the League actively campaigned to gain more support from the Muslims in India. The Civil Disobedience Movement and the consequent withdrawal of the Congress party from politics also helped the league gain power. May 1942 The partition of India left both India and Pakistan devastated. One such policy was the institution of the "Bande Matram. then leave her to anarchy. effectively making Hindi rather than Urdu the main candidate for the national language. 15 million refugees poured across the borders to regions completely foreign to them.

Pakistan's survival seemed to hang in the balance. They are the only people in Pakistan for whom Urdu. and Kashmir became disputed territory. particularly in the Punjab. Mohajirs are Muslims who settled in Pakistan after the partition of British India in 1947. India and Pakistan have been to war twice since the partition and they are still deadlocked over the issue of possession of Kashmir. such as Gandhi. Another opinion says that India was never a single nation. These were commissioned in 1967 & 1977 respectively. Beas and Sutlej) to India and three Western rivers (Indus. still persist in Kashmir Partition . and administration. they do not have a tribe-based cultural identity. only the comparatively backward areas of Sindh. It was a transfer of powers to Indian elites. A large number of Mohajirs settled in the cities of Sind Province. Another opinion is that elites of India got their independence in result of negotiations and the common people did not benefit from this process. finance. However. history has been explained from ‘Two Nations’ perspective and ‘heroism’ has also appeared as a pivitol element. Today they remain mostly urban. commerce. It also provided construction of replacement works called Indus Basin Projects (IBP) to compensate for perpetual loss of Eastern rivers' water. After the partition.000 miles of Indian territory and with the major portion of the wealth and resources of the British heritage passing to India. the two nations are still trying to heal the wounds left behind by this incision to once-whole body of India. Balochistan.Aftermath With West and East Pakistan separated by more than 1. the situation seemed almost hopeless. Many are still in search of an identity and a history left behind beyond an impenetrable boundary. The same issues of boundaries and divisions. the official language. Of all the well-organized provinces of British India. They lost many of their most dynamic leaders. their capacities were subsequently extended in different phases. The Punjab and Bengal were divided. . Economically. the new frontier cut off Pakistani raw materials from the Indian factories. who started the struggle for independence. experienced system of government. They were better educated than most indigenous Pakistanis and assumed positions of leadership in business. a large number of Muslims migrated from various urban centers of India to live in the new nation of Pakistan.e. and now constitute about 8 percent of Pakistan's population. The Irrigation System which existed at the time of partition in 1947 was divided between the two countries without any regards to the irrigation boundaries which resulted in an international water dispute which was finally resolved by signing of the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 under the aegis of World Bank. Hindu and Muslim majorities and differences. Jhelum & Chenab) to Pakistan. disrupting industry. particularly Karachi and Hyderabad. The most stupendous of Pakistan's problems stemmed from the refugees influx. The two countries started of with ruined economies and lands and without an established. The Treaty assigned three Eastern rivers (Ravi. soon after the partition.Many years after the partition. hence it can be said that partition was the result of the awareness of Indians because of British education system. Mangla Dam on Jhelum river and Tarbela Dam on Indus river having the provision of power generation. and agriculture. These migrants later identified themselves as mohajirs. The works proposed under the Treaty included two multipurpose dams i. Whereas in Pakistan. and the North-West Frontier came to Pakistan intact. Pakistan had to face the separation of Bangladesh in 1971. is their native tongue. Jinnah and Allama Iqbal. Traditionalists are of the opinion that it was due to the efforts of results of British educated Indians. hence struggle can not be called a nationalist movement. Unlike other cultural groups of Pakistan.

people trace their cultural identity from the origins of their culture evolving since the time of their recorded history. the impact of this strife was also felt in this area. Greek impact. Since the Iranians were constantly at war with the Greeks. hospitality and conventional wisdom of our people. a new culture developed which was culminated in the shape of the Gandhara Culture. teaching diplomacy. So far as the political implications of the Greek imperial culture were concerned. Peshawar. Bow and arrows were manufactured. Some of the important features of this culture have been mentioned in various contemporary studies. The Indus valley culture was further enriched by Buddhism whose traces are still visible in brotherhood. Chitral. 2. Paganism and Zoroastrianism. whose capital was Peshawar. Normally. Alexander the Great during his adventures received perhaps the strongest resistance in Punjab and Sindh. GANDHARA CULTURE 4. Contemporary studies show early human settlements in Punjab. During the post-Buddhist period. Aryan religious concepts. We also learn that Taxila was a centre of learning with Kautilya and Panini as the major scholars. statecraft and linguistics. The discoveries at Mehrgarh in Balochistan are significant in reinforcing the antiquity of our culture. The period of Gandhara culture was also enriched by the contribution of Mauriyas and Kanishka. The Indus River and its tributaries provided food and protection of the people living in these areas. Herodotus mentions that cotton dress was most commonly used by the people of Punjab and Sindh. Sakas and Parthians. 3. Buddhism. The areas constituting Pakistan are one of the oldest seats of human civilization. Upper Sindh.CHAPTER II: THE HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF PAKISTANI CULTURE 1. the culture of Mauriyas. Cyrus conquered the northern areas of Pakistan and later on Darius added Makran and Sindh valley to Iranian empire. In addition to these regional and ethnic influences. The Gandhara culture originated from the interaction of the local people with the Aryan traditions. mountain. Iranian influence. Gomal and Bolan regions. . plains. In 558 BC. During this period we observe Iranian influence on coinage and international trade. they were strongly resisted by the local people. New trade roots were discovered and goods were exchanged between Pakistan and other countries in the region. deserts. It is the story of a nation and a territory that has existed in history for more than 5000 years with short intervals of political occupation by different dynasties. These people were engaged in cultivation of land and practiced belief systems with a clear perception of a supreme power who the source of all bounties for mankind. animals and flora and fauna. Swat. The origins of Pakistani culture are rooted in its rivers. it had the stamp of religious impact: the Vedas.

Although Buddhism as a religion was pushed out of Indus Valley by the closed society of Brahmans. it was Buddhist culture which 5 .IMPACT OF ISLAM 5. its impact on our culture had been enormous. Therefore when Islam appeared in this region.

Starting with the Arabs in Balochistan and Sindh. railways and other forms of communication designed primarily with defence and commercial considerations in mind. The Mughals introduced new innovations in architecture especially mosques. music. It is a truism that each language brings its own culture. Cultural transformation of this area had taken place much before the Muslim flag was hoisted on Delhi. Pakistani culture bears a deep imprint of the thought and the life style of Sufis who used local medium to convey the intellectual content of the message of the Prophet of Islam. and bazaars.embraced it willingly. we will see that it was in many ways emancipation from the different forms of oppression. The British also introduced a new language and a new educational and administrative system. It is indeed relevant to point out that the subsequent upheavals of Muslim empire in the rest of the subcontinent felt the impact of this territory both in terms of its strength and weakness. this area was occupied by the British who had come to the subcontinent 150 years ago. Some of the manifestations of this new development were made possible through the settlement of canal colonies. the British created a new comprador class which represented their economic and commercial interest and a new feudal class which was assigned to controlling the local population. which were more open and liberal than their counterparts in Central India. 7. Dress. trading centres. The impact of Muslim culture was steady. but which made the population more mobile. This again testifies to the cultural values of this area. 9. yet Islam established itself in Pakistan with more speed than around the Muslim seat of political power. It was not a simple case of Muslim political predominance but the presence of a culture which saw similarities between Islam and the indigenous social patterns. THE IMPACT OF COLONIAL CULTURE 8. By the end of the first half of the 19th century. The impact of Islam was felt on local religions and the emergence of Sikh religion and Bhakti movement could not have been possible without an interaction with Islam. In order to control the people of this region. If we look at the contribution of different saints in bringing the new religion to the masses. 6. The mosque occupied a unique place not only for religious purposes but also for commercial and social gatherings. The most predominant feature of Muslim culture was the development of cities. New flowers and plants were introduced. Baba Farid’s Dohre and Rahman Baba’s poetry all represent the local nodes. natural environments and regional symbols revealing the truth of Islam. it culminated through the Muslim impact from Central Asia. Even those Sufis who had received their education and training in Iran and Central Asia adopted local practices in order to appeal to a wider public. It must be pointed out that the areas that constitute Pakistan today were on the periphery of the Muslim empire in Delhi. Shah Latif’s story of Marvi. 6 . tombs and gardens. cuisine and painting achieved new dimensions.

even in those initial stages. therefore. An objective analysis of the cultural overtones of the politics of the Indian National Congress would show that the congress leadership. If we look at the subsequent developments in the movement towards Pakistan. was a product of this period. Forms of literary works underwent a change and the influence of European themes became visible. These impressions were further strengthened through the missionary schools and emergence of a new urban culture. Mohammed Iqbal who stressed the fundamentals of this culture in two ways: firstly. Whether it was the question of the Urdu-Hindi controversy. culture played a very important role. we witness that it was essentially the issue of our identity that paved the way for the political acceptance of the idea of Pakistan. Therefore. . the paramount issue always had cultural bearings on our political struggle for freedom. 14. 12. Whenever we felt that our cultural values were being violated by the British or other movements. One of the most devastating impacts of the colonial period was the suppression of our cultural heritage. or violation of the sanctity of mosques. when the contours of Pakistani nationalism were being shaped. contrary to their claims of pluralism and secularism. by highlighting the spirit of Muslim culture and secondly by emphasizing the culture of those areas which constitute today’s Pakistan. In both cases Iqbal not only saw the higher culture of Islam shaping the destiny of these people but also its role in the future relationship between Pakistan and the Muslim countries of the Middle East and Central Asia.The introduction of the English language imported Western cultural paradigms in Pakistan. The idea of Pakistan presented by him was a concrete vision of the salient features of the Pakistani culture which were felt threatened because of the onslaught of Western colonialism as well as the politics of some extremist religious movements. 10. cow slaughter. ROLE OF CULTURE IN THE PAKISTAN MOVEMENT 11. There was thus a denial of those aspects of Indian culture which were shaped jointly by all belief systsms. 13. a new vigour to save our culture pushed the struggle for Pakistan to new horizons. The movement for independence. which has now become a part of our culture. the Muslim leadership in South Asia undertook a struggle to focus on the cultural patterns and cultural uniqueness of the future Pakistan state. was deeprooted in our cultural environment. Social stratification also underwent considerable change both in the urban as well as rural areas. Perhaps the best appreciation of Pakistani culture was offered by Dr. Cricket. It emphasized the achievement of a unique culture that was not only different from the other cultures in the region but also distinct from the culture of those immigrants who had settled here from different parts of the Middle East and the Central Asia. In order to counter these assaults against the historical forces and cultural heritage of Pakistani people. had little place for the cultural values of the Muslims.

7 .

Explaining the various aspects of the spirit of Muslim culture. Muslim culture thus provides a dynamic concept of the universe. 17. This concept of development of the human self is based again on the triad of self-knowledge. Iqbal identifies knowledge of the concrete as the starting point of the method of observation and experiment in Islam. His political leadership was the result of that historical process in which culture and history played an important role and it is because of this process that he was .” This idea was the foundation for Iqbal to study the cultural transformations taking place in other Muslim areas. Any culture that lags behind the intellectual framework of time is doomed to decay and ultimate extinction. Iqbal emphasized that the spirit of Muslim culture was not so much as a breaking point from history but as initiating a process of intellectual revolution which developed into inductive reasoning. This idea of human unity is the hallmark of Iqbal as a social movement to make this idea a living factor.IQBAL’S CONCEPT OF CULTURE 15. Iqbal’s emphasis on the recognition and development of khudi (self) centres on the creativity of individuals and their collective transformation into a system of intellectual power which subjugates various phenomena of nature and to some extent controls the direction of history. It was both the territorial contiguity of Pakistani territory with the Middle East and Central Asia as well as its unique cultural identity that made the existence of independent Pakistan possible. The Quaid-i-Azam not only defended the intellectual heritage of Islam. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah laid down the principles of the future cultural contours of Pakistan. he laid a particular emphasis on the areas that constitute the territory of Pakistan today. nature and history.” It is indeed relevant to point out that when he spoke of a future Muslim independent state in South Asia. With Pakistan’s independence. While defining the ingredients of Muslim culture. “the teaching of the Qura’n that life is a process of progressive creation necessitates that each generation guided but unhampered by the work of its predecessors should be prompted to solve its own problems. QUAID-I-AZAM’S VIEWS ON PAKISTANI CULTURE 18. the constant appeal to reason and experience in the Qura’n and the emphasis that is laid on Nature and History formed the basis of this new intellectual framework. Knowledge of the concrete is conceived as “the intellectual capture of and power over the concrete that makes it possible for the intellect of man to pass beyond the concrete”. Muslims were in an overwhelming majority in the areas of today’s Pakistan. it is the highest form of cultural development that is visualized as the ultimate development of human consciousness. This knowledge is evolutionary in the sense that time is perceived to be an active agent of change. In other words. He stated that the abolition of priesthood and hereditary kingship in Islam. Demographically. 16. Iqbal asks Muslims “to appreciate the cultural value of the idea of the finality of Prophethood in Islam. He says. but also the capacity of Pakistani culture to absorb modern ideas of nationalism and statehood. Concluding his statement on the spirit of Muslim culture.

8 .

Lest this notion of Islamic heritage was misinterpreted. thinking. Islam demands from us the tolerance of other creeds and we welcome in closest association with us all those who. you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this state of Pakistan. when the Quaid was reminded by Mountbatten to follow the ideals of Akbar the Great. Aware of our spiritual and material progress.” Perhaps no other statement could be as comprehensive as this in conceptualizing the essence of Pakistani culture. 19. the Quaid told the nation: “you are free: you are free to go to your temples. During the swearing-in ceremony as the first Governor-General of Pakistan. equality and fraternity of man these are all the basic 9 . traditions. where “Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims.” In addition to the historical developments of Muslim culture. The Quaid was not only conscious of our Islamic heritage. “The tolerance and goodwill that the great Emperor Akbar showed to all non-Muslims is not of recent origin. customs. but as members of an independent nation. his speech of 11th August 1947 that was delivered before the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan forms the basis of not only the Pakistani state. but in the political sense as citizens of Pakistan. not in the religious sense. Dwelling on the historical experience of Britain. he visualized a culture for Pakistan where identity of the citizens will not be judged through sectarian. He stated “Not only are most of us Muslims but we have our own history. “…make no mistake. we achieved it so that physically as well as spiritually we are free to conduct our affairs according to our traditions and genius. of whatever creed.” This message contained the spirit of Pakistani culture which was supposed to be nurtured under the guidance of the principles of equality and freedom.successful in materializing Iqbal’s thought of independence for the people of Pakistan so that they could develop their distinct cultural heritage without any hindrance. outlook and insight. It dates back thirteen centuries ago when our Prophet not only by words but by deeds treated the Jews and Christians. he declared: “we demanded Pakistan. He not only saw the disappearance of sectarianism amongst Muslims. but also in wider terms.” 20. he categorically declared. religious and ethnic appellations. but also its cultural policies. Brotherhood. he replied. are themselves willing and ready to play their part as true and loyal citizens of Pakistan. after he had conquered them. customs and traditions and those ways of thought. Highlighting the salient features of Pakistan’s cultural growth. we struggled for it. outlook and instinct which go to make a sense of nationality. Pakistan is not a theocracy or anything like it. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the state. The emphasis is clearly laid on our history. but also emphasized the contribution of Pakistan’s cultural legacy and historical experience. the Quaid visualized the Charter of Madina (Mithaq-i-Madina) as the foundation stone of Muslim culture. It is here that we see the contribution of our territory both in history and social formation in shaping the contours of our culture. In many ways.” 21. with the utmost tolerance and regard and respect for their faith and beliefs. in addition to our identity as Muslims.

tolerance. several of which depicted violence. that religion alone could not keep us together. no system of government could keep Pakistan as a united entity but democracy. and allusion to social and political status are not allowed to hinder the distribution of social justice. The tragedy of East Pakistan was essentially a product of this unfortunate legacy. racial and ethnic considerations. Pakistani people identify their religion with the Holy Prophet of Islam whose treatment of his followers as well as Christians and Jews provide the ultimate framework of establishing a cosmopolitan society where religious affiliations. Post-1971 Pakistan represented a turning point in our history which points at two lessons. arts. These dimensions of Islam form an integral part of our popular culture which has been strengthened by the messages of love and mutual respect by the saints of this land. These ideas indeed clearly lay down the principles of our cultural policy which seeks to rejuvenate optimism in the strength of our culture. what we inherited was a conglomeration of regional culture which shared common grounds could act as a bond to integrate various regional cultures. Pakistan was created because of democracy and it was the power of the people that had strengthened the hands of our leaders who foiled every attempt that was aimed at denying our independence. The impact of some myopic post-independence policies on our cultural heritage was almost suicidal. and brotherhood. It shows that the state can only succeed in an environment of peace. and civilization”. .points of our religion. and has even penetrated some of our countryside. Many of the younger generation were drawn to these films. In 1947. culture. Secondly. 23. obscenity and corruption. our traditions and our outlook. Where the state was not able or willing to provide a conducive environment. This facilitated the VCR/DVD/CD culture which was nourished by uncensored foreign films. especially when it is not reflective of the people’s aspirations. The unfortunate impact of this new culture is still visible in our cities and towns. 24. theatre and film industry suffered. Democracy ensures participation of the people in policy formulation and provides true legitimacy to rulers and legislators. equality. POST-INDEPENDENCE CULTURE 22. 25. and freedom where people feel free to practise their religion. Firstly.

which had its population greater than all the four provinces of West Pakistan combined.e. West Pakistan consisted of four provinces i. Hun.W.e. People of East Pakistan protested against the decision of making Urdu as national language and they raised the demand of making Bengali as a national language as this was the language of majority population of East and West Pakistan combined. Scythian. The people of Pakistan come from ethnic stocks such as Dravidian.Identity Crisis After Independence: Muslims as a whole really were quite different from Hindus but within Muslims. But this demand could not be acceptable to the people of any of the provinces of the West Pakistan because Bengali language had no roots at all in any of the provinces of West Pakistan. They abolished the provinces of West Pakistan with the view to make it one cultural unit. fourthly the political dominance of Muslims which effectively lasted up till eighteenth century and lastly the British rule and its downfall. the society was divided into many sub groups. At the time of independence. Political benefit was going in the favour of West Pakistan but still then people of . Persian. the present day Pakistan’s society is ethnically diverse. Mongol. but also to practically make the whole country a cultural unity. East and West Pakistan. largely because the country lies in an area that was invaded repeatedly during its long history. The people follow many different cultural traditions and speak many different languages and dialects. our early leaders also tried not only to conceive. Pakistan faced its first identity crisis when government adopted Urdu as national language. Greek. As already has been mentioned that society of sub-continent has been a product of firstly the struggle between local Dravidians and Indo-Arians. Pakistani territory was divided into two wings i. Sindh. N. Due to such a nature of historical events. secondly the struggle between Indo-Arians and Persian as well as Greek invaders. which were separated by a distance of 1000 miles.P and Balochistan. Punjab. and Afghan. The underlying purpose however was political in nature whose aim was to bring West Pakistan at the level of political parity with the otherwise more populous East Pakistan. Pakistanis trace their ethnic lineages to many different origins. Although Urdu was not just a regional language and was widely understood among the people of different provinces and so could better serve the purpose of inter-provincial communication but this language had not any deep roots in the East Pakistan. Arab. Urdu language. East Pakistan was a single province. Indo-Aryan. West Pakistan corresponds to present day Pakistan whereas East Pakistan became independent country of Bangladesh in 1971. Obviously. Originally. the largest province of the country. Secondly. This was an attempt to eliminate the regional cultures of different provinces in order to promote the idea of a one single culture. Our early leaders however were trying to identify the country as a uni-lingual one but this was not the on ground reality of course. country was divided into many sub-cultures who had their own languages and they did have emotional attachment with their own regional languages also. finally became the official national language but without happy consent of the largest province of the country. Migrations of Muslims from India since 1947 and refugees from Afghanistan since the 1980s have significantly changed the demographics of certain areas of the country. mainly because of the identity crisis of Pakistan.F.

It means that people of country had strong emotional ties with their regional sub-cultures but our leaders were not ready to accept this fact. balanced. Secondly. Under these current crisis. Loss of East Pakistan resulted in somewhat reduced burden of this type of issues and so rest of the Pakistan successfully resolved the matters relating to interrelationships of the remaining provinces. On the international environment. This National Identity not only determines objectives and goals for the people and leadership of the country. so the consequent identity crisis at last resulted in the Separation of East Pakistan in 1971. it also determines the type of relationships with other sovereign countries of the world. Muslim societies are being labeled as ‘extremist societies’. . Before the separation of East Pakistan. moderate. By the Grace of Almighty God. brave people. those issues are again getting significance and so there is need to reidentify the current composition. How a country identifies its National Identity is important because it is actually the comprehension of a country about the composition and structure of its own society and culture. Mass international media is projecting this wrong information that Muslim societies are the supporters of terrorist activities on the global scale. now we are a nuclear power nation and so we should identify ourselves as more balanced and more responsible nation than before. With the passage of time however. Pakistan is also one of the victims of this wrong media projection. image of Muslim societies is being negatively projected. This thing created a grave unrest among the people of East Pakistan as the new scheme had put them on politically disadvantageous position. Since our leaders failed to apprehend the plural nature of the culture of country and since they did not identify the true national identity. are extremist people or are enlightened. we are in need to evaluate our true identity i. the main outstanding issues were those. Pakistan’s National Identity also has gone through many such changes. as a nation. But we still are in need to identify which form of government best suits to the taste and needs of our society. as its various aspects always remain in the process of change and developments as a result of the changes that occur in the political and cultural environment of the whole world. whether we. peace loving. Country has also got the experience of both civil democratic political set-ups as well as various Martial Law regimes.different provinces of West Pakistan protested against this new scheme and insisted on the separate distinct identities of regional cultures of the provinces. structure and kind of country’s society. due to many factors.e. and at the same time. National Identity of a country is not any rigid or fixed entity. which mainly related to the interrelationships of different provinces. in the form of unanimous constitution of 1973.

which had no other politicians equal to Jinnah – known posthumously as Quaid-i-Azam (pronounced ‘kye-dee-AH-zum’) or Great Leader. but in March 1956-8 ½ years after its founding – Pakistan finally produced a constitution. The tone was set early and there was fierce eastern objections to Urdu as the official language. The only real connection between the two halves was that they were Muslim. West Pakistan’s Provinces were amalgamated into a single mega-province in symmetry with East Pakistan. Bengalis made up slightly more than half the population. Sind West Punjab (including what’ s now the NWPF) and – pending a Kashmir settlement – so – called Azad (Free) Kashmir and the Northern Areas. becoming the Islamic republic of Pakistan. and their tea and jute supplied most of the country’s export earnings. His death was body blow for the struggling country. The newly established country ended up with few natural resources. In September 1948. A muddle of squabbling governors –general and Prime Ministers and severe economic slump followed. barely a year into independence and in the midst of the war with India. Jinnah died of tuberculosis. A Mohajir. little manufacturing capability and relatively little of the Raj’s old administrative-commercial infrastructure. he believed like Jinnah that Pakistan should be a secular state.History of Pakistan After Independence After Independence Jinnah became Pakistan’s first governor-general. and the argument still rages today. bickering and opportunism that was (and still is) typical of Pakistan . separated by 1600 km of hostile India. with a parliamentary form of government. But its most serious problem was simply that there were two Pakistan. Though the west was militarily dominant. a retired major general with no patience for the factionalism. West Pakistan consisted of Baluchistan. Pakistan headed towards chaos. When Liaquat Ali was assassinated three years later in Rawalpindi. His deputy and friend Liaquat Ali Khan became Prime Minister. Many Muslim religious leaders felt otherwise. But President Iskander Mirza. while Bengal and part of Sylhet district made up east Pakistan.

Somehow the East Pakistanis never seemed to get their share of the pie. following its invasion of Tibet in 1950. was confirmed as president. many Pakistanis look back fondly on the early Ayub years. As part of a water – rights settlement with India. occupied parts of Ladakh. Ayub Khan Mirza’s Prime –minister was the army commander-in-chief. From the USA Came military aid. the world Bank gave enormous sums to build Mangla dam on the Jhelum River and Tarbela Dam.politics. abolished political parties and declared martial law – a state Pakistan has been in. Mirza promised it would be brief. General Muhammad Ayub Khan. the foothills and the army’s headquarters at Rawalpindi. Pakistan saw a new ally. Construction began on the city of Islamabad in 1961. China and Pakistan sorted out their own Karakoram border and proposed a ‘Friendship Highway’ over the mountains . in October 1958 abrogated the constitution. nor with the growing autonomy movement in the east. Martial law lasted over 3 ½ year. China. for most of its life since then. Economic growth was vigorous. Baltistan and the upper Shimshal Valley in the mid-1950s. they told Mirza to resign and Ayub Khan assumed the presidency too. In March 1962 Ayub presented a new constitution proving for a powerful president. chosen by a bizarre system of easily manipulated village-level elections. in one from or another. a National Assembly and east and west provincial assemblies. When China and India clashed in 1962 over their border in Ladakh (still disputed today). Within hours of their swearing in. until he could ‘clean up the mess’ and write a new constitution. Despite limited political freedoms. on the Indus. the world’s biggest earthen Dam. He. In a 1964 thaw. Karachi had been the temporary capital but in 1959 it was decided to build a brand new one near the Grand Trunk Road. and three other ministers were lieutenant –generals . of course.

Pakistan already had a Swat-to-Gilgit jeep road underway. but Sheikh Mujib’s Awami League won nearly all of East Pakistan’s seats. Yahya Khan & Civil War in March 1969 a ill Ayub handed responsibility over to his own commander-in-chief.(a story claims that Ayub declined a similar offer by Soviet Premier Bulganin to build a road through Ishkoman). leader of the Awami Party which advocated autonomy was made on Ayub’s life. Among his early acts was to end the autonomy of the old princely states of the north – Chitral. general Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan. a 2 ½-week exercise in which Pakistan took a beating. In the meantime. Swat. the so-called Karakoram Highway. A 1966 pact expanded this to a two-lane highway from Havelian to the border. Yahya suspended the . Yahya imposed martial law again and named himself president. Even Bhutto refused to allow the easterners to from the government. After that Ayub became remote and dictatorial. Dir. with Pakistanis working north from the Indus and Chinese working south from the Khunjerab Pass. The elections turned Pakistan on its head. giving it an overall majority. a cyclone wreaked havoc in East Pakistan and West Pakistan’s shamefully indifferent response was the last straw for the Bengalis. Nagar and various Baltistan fiefdoms. In the end the work went on in Pakistan until 1980. After some futile attempts at compromise. Hunza. Political activity was legally resumed in January 1970. in the same year Pakistan and India again went to war over Kashmir. sacking his foreign minister (a Sind landowner named Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto) and arresting Sheikh Mujibur Raman (Sheikh Mujib). as well as on their own side. Ayub was re-elected in 1965. The charismatic Z A Bhutto and his Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) won a majority of West Pakistan seats in the National Assembly. and resigned. the old separate western Province were resurrected and general elections for a civilian government were scheduled for December.

agrarian. In February 1973 Bhutto sacked the Baluchistan government. and Z A Bhutto replaced Yahya Khan as president of a truncated Pakistan. and hundreds of thousands died. India has since suggested that the wording of the Simla Agreement endorses the line of control as a genuine border.) Pakistan recognized Bangladesh in 1974. Bhutto began allying himself with industrialists and zamindars (rural landowners).000 people died. He nationalized bank and industries and restructured the military. Again Pakistan took a drubbing. Bangladesh went its way in January 1972. Sheikh Mujib was arrested and civil war broke out. in which some 10. which he assumed. and there was talk of land reform. . Bhutto met Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi at Simla (India) in June 1972. flooded with more than nine million refugees.assembly and East Pakistan went on general strike. A 1973 constitution revived the post of prime minister. and surrendered within weeks. was only put down with some the help of the air force. In March 1971 the army clamped down. India. and set up a powerful ‘palace guard’. health and educational reforms aimed at greater social equity. Pakistan withdrew from that organization. Bhutto & Zia Faced with demoralization and imminent economic collapse. little different from the 1949 one – and to resolve future differences peacefully. hostilities also broke out on the western border. where they agreed to ‘respect’ the so-called line of control –ie the 1971 cease-fire line. Army cruelty was met by an equally cruel resistance. Bhutto undertook major judicial. Despite his populist beginnings. When Bangladesh was admitted to the British Commonwealth in the same year. In November. The resulting Baluch tribal uprising. declared war on Pakistan. the Federal Security Service. The Bengalis declared themselves the independent state of Bangladesh. (in trying to justify its continued hold on Kashmir. whom he suspected of wanting to secede.

In 1982. Thousands died in anti-government riots across Sind. the Northern Areas were opened to tourism and the Khunjerab pass was opened to official traffic and trade (and to tourists in 1986). banning political parties. Meanwhile the PPP and other parties began re-forming. and many activists. and Zia went from pariah to hero of the fee world. on 5 July 1977 staged a bloodless coup and it was back to martial law. Bhutto was arrested on trumped-up murder charges. Zia visited China. With them came a flood of guns and drugs. record-size crowds and calling for Zia’s resignation and free elections. She surprised . With antigovernment violence on the rise his army chief of staff. introduction Islamic penal laws and moving the country toward strict rule.The (PPP) did very well in 1977 elections. Bhutto’s widow Nusrat and his Western-educated daughter Benazir were elected to chair the PPP. the momentum was lost. and despite an international outcry he was hanged in April 1979. and almost four million refugees eventually crossed into the NWFP and Baluchistan. Under domestic and International pressure Zia permitted a non-party national Assembly election in February 1985. the KKH was inaugurated. His big windfall was the December 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. tried and convicted. But when she and other were briefly jailed in August. The following December he legalized political parties under strict conditions . and lifted martial law. under the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy. Afghan Mujahideen set up bases in Pakistan. Zia had promised elections within 90 days but ended up ruling by decree for 7 ½ years. Bhutto declared martial law in Karachi. Hyderabad and Lahore and had opposition leaders arrested. general Muhammad Zia ulHaq. A programme of civil disobedience in 1983 failed to dislodge Zia. went into exile. but they were accused of fraud and people took to the streets in protest across the country. including Bhutto. Benazir Bhutto Bhutto returned from England April1986 and traveled round the country drawing rapturous. after which the USA began funneling huge amounts of military assistance to Pakistan.

Indian Prime minister Rajiv Gandhi visited Islamabad in July 1989.some supporters by agreeing to an arranged marriage. In foreign policy Bhutto seemed to be a hostage of the army. . Acting president Ghulam ishaq Khan insisted the election would go ahead and the Supreme Court upheld a PPP petition for political parties to participate. and prices soared. the cause of which has never been determined (or at any rate never made public). particularly with the military looking over her shoulder. then chief Minister of Punjab. Despite strenuous efforts by the military to discredit them. Surprisingly. In October 1989. The last Soviet troops left Afghanistan in February 1989 but the war continued by proxy. On a positive note. Pakistan in 1990 rejoined the Commonwealth. But on 17 August Zia. but by the end of the year India n troops had burst into Kashmir to begin a programme of repression that turned things sour. In December 1987. the Soviets aiding Kabul and the USA arming the guerrillas with the help of Pakistan military gence. She declared war on the burgeoning heroin trade. Bhutto did’t help matters with her arrogant style. Bhutto was sworn in as prime minister. five of his generals and the US ambassador died in the crash of a military plane at Bahawalpur. In an encouraging move. Provincial party politics scuttled social and economic programmes. a vote of no confidence was only narrowly averted in the national Assembly. Pakistan politics being more about power than principals. in an atmosphere of national euphoria. Bhutto’s opponents hammered away at her. In May 1988 Zia unexpectedly dismissed his hand –picked prime minister. the first ever elected woman leader of a Muslim country. dissolved the assemblies and scheduled elections for 16 November. Mohammad Khan Junejo. Her husband’s legal threats against at least 10 Pakistani newspapers antagonised the press. In 1 December 1988. things at that point moved strictly in accordance with the constitution. The biggest thorn in her side was Zia Protégé Mian Nawaz Sharif. PPP government coalitions in Sind and the NWFP collapsed. the PPP did just well enough to from a coalition government. and received death threats for her trouble. The job was formidable for a 36-year-old with no political experience. to Sindhi businessman Asif Lai Zardari.

routine looting and kidnappings in rural Sind and southern Punjab. . In elections two months later. Few were betting on Nawaz Sharif. aid workers and missionaries either left the country or moved around very carefully. President Ishaq Khan finally bowed to pressure and on 6 August 1990 dismissed the 20month-old government. The government was rocked in 1991by a savings bank scandal in the wake of the BCCI collapse. and her husband was arrested on charges of kidnapping and extortion. Worst of all lawlessness was spreading all over the country –violence in Karachi. The 1990-91 Kuwait War brought an end to huge remittances by Pakistani workers in Kuwait. Sunni-Shea tension in the Northern Areas and a general rise in crime. and most foreign tourists .In 1989 and 1990. The Bhutto name had been exorcised from Pakistani politics. The aid cut-off and the war generated bitter anti-American feelings. nepotism and abuse of power. Nawaz Sharif became Prime minister and his Islamic Democratic Alliance formed ruling coalitions in every province. In 1990. Pashtuns and Mohajirs in Karachi and Hyderabad. Rural banditry and kidnapping became a growth industry in Sind. the USA suspended US$564 million in economic and military aid over Pakistan’s alleged nuclear bomb programme. and Sharif’s own family came out of it with dirty hands. a PPP-dominated alliance was crushed. While the zamindars and others with connections prospered. Nawaz Sharif Fears of a return to martial law have not materialized but Nawaz Sharif is Having a rough ride. and the army is still clearly in the back ground. Bhutto (herself a Sindhi) demanded army help for the Sind government but the army essentially wanted martial law. and a brilliant chance to put Pakistan on its feet had been squandered. great Swaths of people at the bottom end simply gave up on finding work. citing corruption. guns in the NWFP. Bhutto faced corruption charges (still unresolved). In a series of special tribunals. hundreds died in mob violence and political terrorism among Sindhis.

some refugees have begun returning to their ravaged homeland. With the collapse of the USSR (later CIS)at the end of that year. overflowing their banks and submerging thousands of villages and towns. With the Afghan government and guerrillas. Afghan President Najibullah was ejected in a palace coup and.The USA and USSR agreed in 1991 to end aid to the Afghanistan government and guerrillas. one by one. Pakistan’s main export earners –dealt a heavy blow to the country’s economy. The Afghan conflict moved into endgame. To save threatened downstream dams. flooding further cropland in the plains. Since installation of a Mujahideen central government in Afghanistan. Nawaz Sharif (who in the midst of the disaster went off on a pilgrimage to Mecca) took a bettering for his government’s slow and inadequate relief efforts. Ravi and Sutlej rivers. growing as they converged. Pakistan began to lose its image as a valued strategic ally. The resulting massive crop losses –especially of cotton and rice. Chenab. Thousand of People are thought to Have died (including some 400 on an island below Mangla Dam who drowned when the dam’s floodgates were opened abruptly) and more than a million made homeless. Nearly all the bridges in Azad Jammu & Kashmir were washed away. many embankments were blasted open. She was briefly put under house arrest and banned from the capital area when she attempted to lead a march from Rawalpindi to Islamabad. barrages and towns. In September 1992. Jhelum. Mountain villages were buried under rock and mudslides. Afghanistan’s Major cities fell to the Mujahideen. Opposition leader Benazir Bhutto capitalized on popular anger with a campaign of rallies and mass march aimed at his resignation. two weeks of heavy monsoon rains unleashed Pakistan’s worst floods in a century. . In April 1992. Flood waves surged down the Indus.

gained representation. The government faced many challenges in setting up new economic. Pakistan aligned itself with the United States and accepted military and economic assistance. was replaced by Chaudhri Muhammad Ali. At the same time. Liaquat established friendly relations with the United States when he visited President Harry S. Ghulam Muhammad dismissed Nazimuddin and replaced him with Muhammad Ali Bogra. with no formal commitment to either the United States or the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Bogra. Liaquat was assassinated in 1951. In foreign policy. and establish the distribution and balance of power in the provincial and central governments. Nazimuddin attempted to limit the powers of the governor-general through amendments to the Government of India Act of 1935. preventing the United Front from taking power in the provincial legislature. including those of the United Front coalition. judicial. resettle the Mohajirs (Muslim refugees from India). Ghulam Muhammad became governor-general. The coalition was dominated by the Awami League. became prime minister. which supported provincial autonomy. Ghulam Muhammad declared a state of emergency and dissolved the assembly. In the 1954 provincial elections in East Pakistan. However. although still the largest party. a former civil servant in West Pakistan and a member of the Muslim League. considered the founder of Pakistan and hailed as the Quaid-i-Azam (Great Leader). A new constituent assembly was indirectly elected in mid-1955 by the various provincial legislatures. The Muslim League. In 1953. Pakistan’s ambassador to the United States. under which Pakistan was governed pending the adoption of a constitution. . who had little support in the new assembly. was no longer dominant as more parties. became head of state as governor-general. After the constituent assembly attempted to curb the governor-general’s power. Undermining these efforts were provincial politicians who often defied the authority of the central government. Jinnah died in September 1948. Jinnah. General Iskander Mirza became governor-general. and frequent communal riots. Before the government could surmount these difficulties. an East Pakistani who had succeeded Jinnah as governor-general. and political structures. Khwaja Nazimuddin. Pakistan’s early foreign policy was one of nonalignment. Truman in 1950. It endeavored to organize the bureaucracy and the armed forces. who subsequently was elected president of the Muslim League. however.History of Pakistan after Independence History of Pakistan after Independence Early Governments and the Constitution of 1956 The first government of Pakistan was headed by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and it chose the seaport of Karāchi as its capital. the Muslim League was routed by the United Front coalition. the two major adversaries in the Cold War. Ghulam Muhammad imposed governor’s rule in the province.

President Mirza. the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance of 1961. Islamabad officially became the new capital in 1967.The new constituent assembly enacted a bill. who was named chief martial-law administrator. Twenty days later Ayub forced the president to resign and assumed the presidency himself. known as the One Unit. proclaimed martial law on October 7. a new party that was formed by dissident members of the Muslim League. Although his regime made some notable achievements. realizing he had no chance of being reelected president and openly dissatisfied with parliamentary democracy. The Ayub Years President Ayub ruled Pakistan almost absolutely for a little more than ten years. dissolved the National Assembly. imposing restrictions on polygamy and divorce and reinforcing the inheritance rights of women and minors. although construction continued into the 1970s. It provided for a unicameral (single-chamber) National Assembly with 300 seats. Mirza’s title changed from governor-general to president. it did not eliminate the basic problems of Pakistani society. Prime Minister Ali remained in office only until September 1956. headed by Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar of the Muslim League. evenly divided between East and West Pakistan. for the presidency in the country’s first general elections. Mirza was supported by General Muhammad Ayub Khan. 1956. Unstable Parliamentary Democracy The new charter notwithstanding. 1958. According to its provisions. Perhaps the most pervasive of Ayub’s changes was his introduction of a new political . This change was designed to give West Pakistan parity with the more populous East Pakistan in the national legislature. This had a noticeable effect on the economy of the province. founder of the Awami League of East Pakistan. political instability continued because no stable majority party emerged in the National Assembly. The chosen location of the new capital in the province of Punjab was close to the military headquarters of Rawalpindi which served as an interim capital. but the disparity between the two wings of Pakistan was not eliminated. leader of the Republican Party. He dismissed Noon’s government. In 1959. lasted only two months before it was replaced by a Republican Party cabinet under Noon. scheduled for January 1959. His regime also initiated land reforms designed to reduce the political power of the landed aristocracy. President Mirza forced Suhrawardy to resign after he discovered that the prime minister was planning to support Firoz Khan Noon. The assembly also produced Pakistan’s first constitution. Ayub’s regime increased developmental funds to East Pakistan more than threefold. and canceled the scheduled general elections. when he was unable to retain his majority in the National Assembly and was succeeded by Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy. Ayub ordered the planning and construction of a new national capital. which became effective in October 1955. Ayub also promulgated a progressive Islamic law. The succeeding coalition government. He formed a coalition cabinet that included the Awami League and the Republican Party of the West Wing. commander in chief of the army. which was adopted on March 2. soon after taking office. to replace Karachi. integrating the four West Pakistani provinces into one political and administrative unit. It also officially designated Pakistan an Islamic republic. However.

and amid mounting public protests he declared martial law and resigned in March 1969. as the constitution dictated. By the terms of the so-called Toshkent Agreement of January 1966. although opposition parties were allowed to participate.000 Basic Democrats from the union councils. when another war with India broke out over Kashmīr. while in West Pakistan the province of Punjab emerged as . The Toshkent Agreement and the Kashmīr war. zilla (district). thereby restoring the original four provinces in West Pakistan. he handed it over to the commander in chief of the army. It created a four-tiered system of mostly indirect representation in government. East Pakistan emerged as the largest province of the country. After the legislative elections political parties were again legalized. and trade relations. Foreign Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. inviting Ayub and Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri of India to meet in Toshkent (Tashkent). and the flow of capital goods to Pakistan increased greatly. however. Instead of transferring power to the speaker of the National Assembly. The United States then suspended military and economic aid to both countries. the two countries withdrew their forces to prewar positions and restored diplomatic. and division levels were indirectly elected. resigned his position and founded the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) in opposition to the Ayub regime. also determined by electoral college rather than direct vote. public roads. and bridges. Each tier was assigned certain responsibilities in local administration of agricultural and community development. Yahya then assumed the presidency. The new. 156-member National Assembly was elected that year by an electoral college of 120. The presidential election of January 1965. Yahya determined that representation in the National Assembly would be based on population. consisted of union councils. General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan. known as the Basic Democracies. who opposed Pakistan’s capitulation. To curb their power Yahya issued an ordinance against monopolies and restrictive trade practices in 1970.system. As a result. who was the designated martial-law administrator. In July 1970 he abolished the One Unit. He also committed to the return of constitutional government and announced the country would hold its first general election on the basis of universal adult franchise in late 1970. Ayub tried unsuccessfully to make amends. Exchange programs were initiated. such as maintenance of elementary schools. on the village level. All the councils at the tehsil (sub district). resulted in a victory for Ayub. Yahya Regime In an attempt to make his martial-law regime more acceptable. This relationship deteriorated in 1965. economic. The lowest tier. allowing communication between local communities and the highly centralized national government. Ayub was skillful in maintaining cordial relations with the United States. The USSR intervened to mediate the conflict. Members of the union councils were known as Basic Democrats and were the only members of any tier who were directly elected. from the local to the national level. generated frustration among the people and resentment against President Ayub. Ayub created the Pakistan Muslim League (PML) as the official government party. A new constitution promulgated by Ayub in 1962 ended the period of martial law. in 1959. stimulating substantial economic and military aid to Pakistan. Yahya dismissed almost 300 senior civil servants and identified 32 families that were said to control about half of Pakistan’s gross national product.

capturing 81 seats (predominantly in Punjab and Sind). East Pakistan declared its independence as Bangladesh. leader of the Awami League.the dominant province. and the Pakistani army surrendered 13 days later. and the provinces of West Pakistan were allocated a total of 138. insisted on a federation under which East Pakistan would be virtually independent. domestically owned banks. The Bhutto Government Under Bhutto’s leadership Pakistan began to rearrange its national life. Yahya opened negotiations with Mujib in Dhaka in mid-March. Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) emerged as the largest party in West Pakistan. He removed the armed forces from the process of decision making. He also instituted land reforms that benefited tenants and middle-class farmers. There were many casualties during the ensuing military operations in East Pakistan. insurance companies. as the Pakistani army attacked the poorly armed population. who demanded that East Pakistan become independent as the nation of Bangladesh. Bhutto nationalized the basic industries. capturing 160 seats in the National Assembly. This gave the Awami League an absolute majority in the National Assembly. Mujib in return accused Yahya of collusion with Bhutto and established a virtually independent government in East Pakistan. and on December 20 Bhutto was inaugurated as president and chief martial law administrator of a truncated Pakistan. he won by a landslide in East Pakistan. A challenge to Pakistan’s unity emerged in East Pakistan when Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (“Mujib”). The Awami League adopted an uncompromising stance. and stories of West Pakistani atrocities abounded. Suspecting Mujib of secessionist politics. however. Mujib’s program had great appeal for many East Pakistanis. East Pakistan was allocated 162 seats in the 300-seat National Assembly. G Civil War The election campaign intensified divisions between East and West Pakistan. not to return until 1989. Pakistan withdrew its membership. which confirmed a line of control dividing Kashmīr and prompted the withdrawal of . India finally intervened on December 3. although freely convertible. but the effort soon failed. Yahya resigned. However. The Awami League leaders took refuge in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and established a government in exile. Mujib became the first prime minister of Bangladesh in January 1972. a turn of events that was considered unacceptable by political interests in West Pakistan because of the divided political climate of the country. India claimed that nearly 10 million Bengali refugees crossed its borders. even the currencies would be different. but to placate the generals he allocated about 6 percent of the gross national product to defense. In July 1972 Bhutto negotiated the Simla Agreement. the Bhutto government gave diplomatic recognition to Bangladesh in 1974. and negotiations between the various sides became deadlocked. When the Commonwealth of Nations admitted Bangladesh later that year. and in the December 1970 election called by Yahya. Yahya in March 1971 postponed indefinitely the convening of the National Assembly. and schools and colleges. 1971. He envisaged a federal government that would deal with defense and foreign affairs only. Meanwhile Pakistan’s army went into action against Mujib’s civilian followers.

staged a coup on July 5. In April 1972 Bhutto lifted martial law and convened the National Assembly. and imposed another martial-law regime. which already had been constrained by the banning of political activity. Benazir Bhutto. the military grudgingly accepted the supremacy of the civilian leadership. Zia issued a Provisional Constitutional Order that served as a substitute for the suspended 1973 constitution. Through various ordinances between 1978 and 1985. theft. and consumption of alcohol. (The United States approved a second aid package worth $4. Although discontented. the legislature drafted the country’s third constitution. Afghan refugees began to pour into Pakistan. The Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in December 1979 heightened Pakistan’s insecurity and changed the fortunes of General Zia’s military regime. It designated the prime minister as the most powerful government official. In 1979 a federal Sharia (Islamic law) court was established to exercise Islamic judicial review. Losing in three of the four provinces. The PNA boycotted the provincial elections a few days later and organized demonstrations throughout the country that lasted for six weeks. he became heavy-handed in his rule. 1973. 1979. In early 1982 Zia appointed the 228 members of the new council. he was hanged on April 4. Other ordinances established interest-free banking and provided maximum penalties for adultery.2 billion from the United States. It changed the National Assembly into a twochamber legislature.) After a . he instituted the Islamization of Pakistan’s legal and economic systems and social order. Unable to deal constructively with the opposition.0 billion in 1986 but then suspended its disbursement in 1989 due to Pakistan’s nuclear-weapons program. and the army chief of staff.” His reforms achieved some success but earned him the enmity of the entrepreneurial and capitalist class. General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq. 1977. which consisted of members elected from West Pakistan in 1970. religious leaders considered them to be un-Islamic. On March 24. and Fazal Elahi Chaudry replaced him as president. Bhutto became prime minister. which he called “Islamic socialism. Bhutto was tried for authorizing the murder of a political opponent and found guilty. but it also set up a formal parliamentary system in which the executive was responsible to the legislature. with a Senate as the upper house and a National Assembly as the lower house. In addition. nine opposition parties united in the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA) to run against Bhutto’s PPP. This effectively restricted the political parties. the United States responded to the crisis. which was promulgated on August 14. In September 1981 Zia accepted a six-year economic and military aid package worth $3. from organizing resistance to the Zia regime through the election process. The PPP was reorganized under the leadership of his daughter. defamation. Zia Regime The PPP and PNA leadership proved incapable of resolving the deadlock. In the general elections of 1977. After much political debate. 1981. The order provided for the formation of a Federal Advisory Council (Majlis-e-Shoora) to take the place of the National Assembly.Indian troops from Pakistani territory. the PNA alleged that Bhutto had rigged the vote. Zia formally assumed the presidency in 1978 and embarked on an Islamization program. Bhutto embarked on ambitious nationalization programs and land reforms. After about a year.

Sharif and Khan resigned together in July 1993. Leghari. Bhutto and the PPP lost the October elections after she was arrested for corruption and abuse of power. Diplomatic talks between the two countries broke down in January 1994 over the disputed Kashmīr region. New elections in February 1997 brought Nawaz Sharif back to power in a clear victory for the Pakistan Muslim League. introduced a program of privatizing state enterprises and encouraging foreign investment. Violence between rival political. head of the Islamic Democratic Alliance (a coalition of Islamic parties including the Pakistan Muslim League). In April 1993 Ishaq Khan once again used his presidential power. Leghari resigned and Shah was removed. In 1996 Bhutto’s government was dismissed by President Farooq Leghari amid allegations of corruption. She was the first woman to head a modern Islamic state. The new prime minister. and a caretaker regime took power until elections could be held. and martial law ended in December. Relations with India Relations between India and Pakistan became more tense beginning in the early 1990s. Federal rule was imposed on the province in late 1998 due to increasing violence. however. When the military threw its support behind Sharif. religious. One of Sharif’s first actions as prime minister was to lead the National Assembly in passing a constitutional amendment stripping the president of the authority to dismiss parliament. However. The charges against Bhutto were resolved. Rafiq Tarar. Ghulam Ishaq Khan. the national legislature passed an amended Shariat Bill in 1991. Fulfilling Sharif’s election promise to make Sharia (Islamic law) the supreme law of Pakistan. In February Bhutto organized a nationwide strike to . and in May the court stated that Khan’s actions were unconstitutional. Nawaz Sharif. A civil servant.referendum in December 1984 endorsed Zia’s Islamization policies and the extension of his presidency until 1990. this time to dismiss Sharif and to dissolve parliament. Zia was dissatisfied. Sharif’s nominee. and ethnic groups erupted frequently in Sind Province. Sharif also promised to ease continuing tensions with India over Kashmīr. and Supreme Court Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah. and she returned to lead the opposition. and Bhutto was again named prime minister. was then elected president. Sharif and Khan subsequently became embroiled in a power struggle that paralyzed the Pakistani government. and in May 1988 he dissolved the government and ordered new elections. A civilian cabinet took office in April. Shifting Civilian Governments Benazir Bhutto became prime minister after her PPP won the general elections in November 1988. was appointed president. charging misconduct. Pakistan was beset by domestic unrest beginning in the mid-1990s. Bhutto’s PPP won a plurality in the parliamentary elections. The action triggered a power struggle between Sharif. and declared a state of emergency. particularly in Karāchi. In August 1990 he dismissed Bhutto’s government. In an agreement designed to end the stalemate. and the court reinstated Sharif as prime minister. Sharif appealed to the Supreme Court of Pakistan. and elections were held in October of that year. Three months later he was killed in an airplane crash possibly caused by sabotage. In early 1993 Sharif was appointed the leader of the Pakistan Muslim League. Zia permitted elections for parliament in February 1985.

the leaders of Pakistan and India placed a moratorium on further nuclear testing. and dissolved the legislature. The Commonwealth of Nations.” Many foreign countries. and the United States initiated negotiations between the two countries aimed at reducing tensions and circumventing an arms race in the region. were lifted to allow U. his sentence was subsequently commuted and he was allowed to live in exile in Saudi Arabia. welcomed the coup. The Pakistani government then declared a state of emergency. Furthermore. when India conducted several nuclear tests. the United States lifted economic and some military sanctions imposed against Pakistan since 1990. Pakistan responded with its own tests. widely believed to be backed by Pakistan. invoking constitutional provisions that operate when Pakistan’s security comes under “threat of external aggression. and in April 2000 he was convicted of abuse of power and other charges and sentenced to life imprisonment. imposed to protest Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program. In early 1999 Sharif and Indian prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee signed the Lahore Declaration. in May 1999 Kashmīri separatists. raising concerns that a nuclear arms race could start between Pakistan and India. He appointed an eight-member National Security Council to function as the country’s supreme governing body. already chafing under Sharif’s increasingly autocratic rule and suffering from a sagging Pakistani economy after ten years of government excesses and corruption. In January 1996. suspended the constitution. which articulated a commitment to work toward improved relations. seized Indian-controlled territory near Kargil in the disputed Kashmīr region. detonating nuclear weapons for the first time in its history. in April fears of a nuclear arms race revived when both countries tested medium-range missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads. negotiations quickly broke down when armed hostilities erupted again. including the United States. However. companies to fulfill contracts with Pakistan and to help foster diplomatic relations between the two countries. imposed economic sanctions against both India and Pakistan for exploding nuclear devices. Army forces also seized control of the government in a bloodless coup that lasted less than three hours.S. The Pakistani military accused Sharif of giving in too easily to pressure from India and for pinning the blame for the Kargil attack on army chief Pervez Musharraf. despite some controversy. In October 1999 Sharif tried to dismiss General Musharraf from his position. the Supreme Court of Pakistan set a deadline of October 2002 for holding national elections to restore civilian rule. The commercial airplane was forced to circle the Karāchi airport until army forces loyal to Musharraf took over the airport. when Sharif agreed to secure the withdrawal of the separatists and India suspended its military campaign. which has had nuclear weapons since the 1970s. Sharif was arrested. Tensions escalated further in 1998. Pakistan Under Musharraf Musharraf declared himself the chief executive of Pakistan. formally suspended Pakistan’s membership because the coup . The sanctions. however. however. He attempted to prevent Musharraf’s return to Pakistan from abroad by refusing to let his airplane land. She also announced that Pakistan would continue with its nuclear weapons development program. Fighting between Indian forces and the separatists raged until support for the militant Muslim rebels in Indian Kashmīr involved in sporadic fighting against the Indian army. Many Pakistanis. Meanwhile. In the months following the explosions. In early 1997 Sharif resumed talks with India over the Kashmīr region.

This sector includes a thriving black . Agriculture's share (including forestry and fishing) declined from 53 percent of GDP in FY 1950 to 25 percent in FY 1993. Energy sources were rudimentary. After assuming power. Donor agencies such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) were unwilling to provide new loans or reschedule Pakistan’s foreign debt. disrupting the complementary nature of their economies that had developed under British colonial rule. with wood and animal dung furnishing the bulk of the energy consumed. Pakistan has an important "parallel. Industry's share of GDP rose from 8 percent in FY 1950 to 21. in the wake of the coup new international sanctions were imposed to oppose the military regime. which reduced agricultural output. were under Indian control. The headwaters of the Indus River and its main tributaries. and widening of the tax net. However.7 percent in FY 1993.600 kilometers of Indian territory separated the East Wing and West Wing of Pakistan until the former became independent Bangladesh in 1971.8 percent in the 1960s.6 percent in FY 1993. transportation. the GDP growth rate measured at a constant FY 1960 factor averaged 5. The majority of the population consisted of tenant farmers who cultivated small plots for a meager existence. Under British rule. Various services (including construction. Rates of growth averaged 3. such as banking and government. Musharraf’s military government adopted a reformist posture. More than 1.8 percent between FY 1978 and FY 1986. and a rate of 7. At the partition of British India in 1947 resulting in the creation of the independent nations of India and Pakistan. Pakistan achieved rapid economic expansion. the area that became Pakistan supplied agricultural products for processing to the territory that became the independent India. and other services. As part of this strategy. Pakistan was an agrarian economy in which a small number of powerful landowners with large holdings dominated the countryside. growth averaged 5. Provisional data indicate that GDP grew only 2. In 1949 a dispute over exchange rates halted the flow of goods between Pakistan and India. transportation and communications. Disputes arose between the two nations and were not settled until the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960 was signed." or "alternative. were underdeveloped. It identified economic reform as the most urgent measure needed to restore the confidence of foreign and local investors.2 percent. Pakistan had almost no industry in 1947. This decline is mainly a result of the floods in September 1992. improved governance." economic sector.8 percent. and other services) accounted for the rest of GDP. Musharraf initiated an ambitious program based on accountability.8 percent between FY 1971 and FY 1977 but rebounded to 6. From FY 1987 to FY 1991. A substantial industrial base was added as industry (including mining. Scant rainfall in West Pakistan (present-day Pakistan) forced farmers to rely on the extensive irrigation system developed by the British.1 percent in the 1950s--when agriculture stagnated--but rose to 6. Ports. Rapid growth substantially altered the structure of the economy. From FY 1951 to FY 1986.STRUCTURE OF THE ECONOMY Pakistan Pakistan attained nationhood under difficult circumstances. however. They fell to 3. trade.ousted a civilian government.8 percent was achieved in FY 1992. Despite formidable problems. Pakistan . but it is not well documented in official reports or most academic studies. and utilities) became the fastest growing sector of the economy. manufacturing.

In each of these departments. a former minister of finance. In the 1960s. however. and resources to play a large role in developing the economy. At partition in 1947. Much of this money reportedly was diverted illegally and invested in arms and drug enterprises. estimated that illegal payments to government officials were equivalent to about 60 percent of the total taxes collected by the government.ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN THE ECONOMY Pakistan Policy Developments since Independence Since 1947 Pakistani officials have sought a high rate of economic growth in an effort to lift the population out of poverty. generation of hydroelectric power. was accused of corruption after the fall of Benazir's first government in 1990. In the mid-1980s. and some of which was funneled directly to Afghan resistance movements based in Pakistan. the judiciary. and manufacture and operation of railroad. telecommunication organizations. telegraph. Rapid expansion of the economy. In the early 1990s. For more than two decades. and wireless equipment--fields that were unattractive. Political maneuvering aside. Asif Ali Zardari. compared with earnings from jobs of similar status in business and industry. a large illicit drug industry. the new government lacked the personnel. including the police. or retard private-sector activities. explain the magnitude of corruption. Some scholars believe that the low salaries of civil servants. a more equitable distribution of income remained an important but elusive goal of government policy. In the 1970s and 1980s. at least in the early years of independence. Corruption is alleged to be prevalent in almost all official institutions. did not alleviate widespread poverty. greater attention was given to income distribution. The rest of the economy was open to private-sector development. Rapid industrialization was viewed as a basic necessity and as a vehicle for economic growth. and former President Ghulam Ishaq Khan accused the government of former Prime Minister Mian Nawaz Sharif and especially its privatization program of corruption when dismissing his government in April 1993. and growth of industrial output was striking. and illegal payments to politicians and government officials to ensure state contracts. institutions. Corruption rose in the 1980s. guide. General allegations of corruption are routinely made in the Pakistani press. although a high rate of growth was sought. partly as a result of the massive infusion of United States aid. the personnel involved range from low-level employees to top management. economic expansion was substantial. customs and excise offices. and electricity and gas Industrialists consider bribery and other handouts a routine cost of production. the husband of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. Exclusive public ownership was reserved only for military armaments. although the government used many direct and indirect measures to stimulate. to private investors. some of which went to the Pakistani government to pay the cost of supporting Afghan refugees fleeing after the 1979 Soviet invasion and to enhance Pakistani military capability. the revenue department. corruption has an altogether real and pervasive effect on Pakistani society. the passport office. telephone. and contractors and businessmen interviewed on television openly state that a significant percentage of their revenue is paid to government officers who allocate their contracts. Mahbubul Haq. . Pakistan Pakistan . the country was considered a model for other developing countries. In 1994 allegations of corruption were routinely traded between Benazir's government and the opposition headed by Nawaz Sharif. and politicians often accuse their opponents of corrupt practices.

Bhutto promised a new development strategy more equitable than previous policies. and economic power-problems that had always plagued the country. basic metals. By FY 1978 . the government enacted piecemeal measures between 1968 and 1971 to set minimum wages. they accounted for the major part of investment and ownership in manufacturing during the first two decades after independence. The industries affected included iron and steel. vegetable oil processing. privately owned banks. chemicals. at partition.The disruptions caused by partition. and the overvalued exchange rate necessitated the stimulation of private industry. which they initially used to start trading firms. Devaluation helped agriculture. especially Karachi. Largely using their own resources. there was growing popular dissatisfaction with economic conditions and considerable debate about the inequitable distribution of income. and cotton ginning were nationalized. domestic shipping companies. then chief economist of the Planning Commission. and it was only when the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (father of Benazir) came to power in 1971 that there was a major shift in government policy. Although Haq exaggerated the extent of the concentration of wealth. In May 1972. many of whom migrated to cities seeking industrial jobs. attracting increasing private investments and reinvestment of profits. Haq claimed that Pakistan's economic growth had done little to improve the standard of living of the common person and that the "trickle. while public development of the infrastructure complemented private investment. wealth. But devaluation also completely altered the cost and price structure for industry and affected the level and composition of industrial investment and the terms of trade between the industrial and agricultural sectors. particularly larger farms that had marketable surpluses. In 1972 Bhutto's government nationalized thirty-two large manufacturing plants in eight major industries. In response. Studies by economists in the 1960s indicated that the forty big industrial groups owned around 42 percent of the nation's industrial assets and more than 50 percent of private domestic assets. his speech struck a chord with public opinion. Much of the economy. who were largely traders who migrated to Pakistan's cities. he promulgated a major act that devalued the rupee by 57 percent and abolished the multiple-exchange-rate system. Except for large government investments in the Indus irrigation system. Many of these firms moved into industry in the 1950s as a response to government policies. the strict control of imports. reform the tax structure toward greater equity. Mechanization increased but had the adverse side effect of displacing farm laborers and tenants.down approach to development" had only concentrated wealth in the hands of "twenty-two industrial families. and firms engaged in oil distribution. petrochemicals. This act greatly stimulated exports and indicated that the removal of price distortions could spur the economy. These refugees brought modest capital. heavy engineering. Some public manufacturing plants were established by government holding companies. grain milling. and output stagnated in the 1950s. Government policies afforded liberal incentives to industrialization. and particularly industry. By the late 1960s. motor vehicle and tractor assembly and manufacture. implementation was weak or nonexistent. domestically owned life insurance companies." He argued that the government needed to intervene in the economy to correct the natural tendency of free markets to concentrate wealth in the hands of those who already possessed substantial assets. However. Manufacturing proved highly profitable. Concern over the concentration of wealth was dramatically articulated in a 1968 speech by Mahbubul Haq. The result was a drop of nearly 50 percent in private investment in large-scale manufacturing between FY 1970 and FY 1973. Subsequently. and public utilities. cement. Yet he downplayed economic analysis and planning and relied instead on ad hoc decisions that created many inconsistencies. agriculture was left largely alone. the cessation of trade with India. was eventually dominated by a small group of people. the muhajirs. and rationalize salary structures. Eight of the nine major commercial banks were also controlled by these same industrial groups. The broad outline of government policy in the 1950s and early 1960s involved squeezing the peasants and workers to finance industrial development. promote collective bargaining for labor.

In June 1980. Self-assessment by farmers is checked by local groups if a farmer fails to file or makes a very low estimate. when many persons left to seek higher salaries in Middle East oil-producing states. by March 1992 control of twenty industrial units and two banks had been sold to private investors. eased restrictions on repatriable direct and portfolio investment from abroad. Labor legislation set high minimum wages and fringe benefits. and economic reform aimed at reducing structural impediments to sound economic development. port operations. such as the export of cotton and rice. Between 1970 and 1977. Despite resistance from officials and labor unions and criticism that the government was moving too quickly. Able managers and technicians were scarce. deregulation. Zakat is a traditional annual levy. Bhutto also supported large.5 percent. . Islamization of the economy was another policy innovation of the Zia government. A demarcation of exclusive public ownership was made that excluded the private sector from only a few activities. a major highway on the west bank of the Indus River. The government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif (1990-93) introduced a program of privatization. telecommunications. allowing some deductions for the costs of production. surpassing private industrial investment in FY 1976. long-term projects that tied up the country's development resources for long periods.such investments were little more than one-third (in constant prices) of those in FY 1970. Ushr replaced the former land tax levied by the provinces. except in sensitive industries. Ceilings on the size of landholdings were lowered. usually 2. which boosted payroll costs for both public and private firms. In 1977 Zia asked a group of Islamic scholars to recommend measures for an Islamic economic system. enabled foreign firms to issue shares in enterprises in Pakistan. and authorized foreign banks to underwrite securities on the same basis as Pakistani banks. In FY 1991. a situation that became worse after 1974. to be paid in cash by the landowner or leaseholder. and plans were under way to begin denationalizing several utilities. shipping. plants were built by the government and additional public companies were created for various functions. Efficiency and profits in public-sector enterprises fell. and selling utilities to private interests. The public sector expanded greatly under the Bhutto government. power generation. In addition to the nationalization of companies. Public industrial investment rose. and successive governments continued this policy throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s. The largest projects were an integrated iron and steel plant. and road construction were also in various stages of implementation. After 1977 the government of Mohammad Zia ul-Haq (1977-88) began a policy of greater reliance on private enterprise to achieve economic goals. Public-sector enterprises accounted for a significant portion of large-scale manufacturing. Ushr is a 5 percent tax on the produce of land. airlines. Private investment no longer requires government authorization. Top priority was given to denationalizing some 115 public industrial enterprises. and measures were enacted to tax farm income. Yet government continued to play a large economic role in the 1980s. As of early 1994. Many of the other economic measures undertaken by the Bhutto government were largely ineffective because of the power of vested interests and the inefficiency of the civil administration. Soon after Zia came to power. it was estimated that these enterprises produced about 40 percent of industrial output. abolishing the government's monopoly in the financial sector. the Zakat and Ushr Ordinance was promulgated. and a highway tunnel in the mountainous north. on wealth to help the needy. Proceeds of ushr go to zakat committees to help local needy people. Private capital fled the country or went into small-scale manufacturing and real estate. industrial output slowed considerably. Investment reforms eliminated government sanction requirements. proposals to end state monopolies in insurance. the government instituted constitutional measures to assure private investors that nationalization would occur only under limited and exceptional circumstances and with fair compensation. but inadequately planned. tenants were given greater security of tenure.

but in 1958 the government renewed its commitment to planning by establishing the Planning Commission. the balance of payments deficit was kept under control. however. This mix of private enterprise and social responsibility was hailed as a model that other developing countries could follow. More formal planning--incorporating overall targets. it failed to address the problem of a growing budget deficit.Although the Nawaz Sharif government made considerable progress in liberalizing the economy. assessing resource availability. announced its intention to continue the policies of both deregulation and liberalization carried out by Nawaz Sharif and the tighter fiscal policies put in place by Qureshi. But the initial effort was unsystematic. mainly because political instability led to a neglect of economic policy. The government also said it intended to devote a greater proportion of the nation's resources to health and education. Yet the plan failed to stimulate substantial private industrial investment and to raise significantly the expenditure on rural infrastructure development. which in turn led to a loss of confidence in the government on the part of foreign aid donors. asserted that the nation was near insolvency and would require a number of measures to impose fiscal discipline. low agricultural productivity. Under Bhutto. stiffer enforcement of existing taxes. Increased defense expenditures and a flood of refugees to Pakistan after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. As a result. and they were largely ignored. produced only modest growth. The Second Five-Year Plan (1960-65) surpassed its major goals when all sectors showed substantial growth. Pakistan's success. designed along the lines of its immediate predecessor. partially depended on generous infusions of foreign aid. heavy reliance on imported energy. In early 1994. the government of Benazir Bhutto. The plan encouraged private entrepreneurs to participate in those activities in which a great deal of profit could be made. The Zia government accorded more importance to planning. It was designed to tackle some of the major problems of the economy: low investment and savings ratios. The caretaker government of July-October 1993 led by Moeen Qureshi. while the government acted in those sectors of the economy where private business was reluctant to operate. however. drew resources away from planned investments. The economy grew at the targeted average of 6. especially for women. The Fifth Five-Year Plan (1978-83) was an attempt to stabilize the economy and improve the standard of living of the poorest segment of the population. some of the plan's goals were attained. and low spending on health and education. elected in October 1993. a former World Bank vice president. and reductions in government spending.5 percent during the plan . and Pakistan became selfsufficient in all basic foodstuffs with the exception of edible oils. particularly from the United States. new taxes. The government thus included sharp increases in utility prices. The Fourth Five-Year Plan (1970-75) was abandoned as East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh. planning was virtually bypassed. In practice. By 1950 a six-year plan had been drafted to guide government investment in developing the infrastructure. as well as the sharp increase in international oil prices in 1979-80. and assigning priorities--started in 1953 with the drafting of the First Five-Year Plan (1955-60). partly because of inadequate staffing. After the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War over Kashmir. Development Planning Pakistan's economic development planning began in 1948. More resources than had been intended also were diverted to defense. this plan was not implemented. Many of the controls on industry were liberalized or abolished. the Third Five-Year Plan (1965-70). When the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came to power in 1971. The Sixth Five-Year Plan (1983-88) represented a significant shift toward the private sector. only annual plans were prepared. Nevertheless. the level of foreign assistance declined.

5 percent for industry and minerals. Pakistan consistently seeks friendship and cooperation in its foreign relations on the basis of sovereign equality. In keeping with its international obligations and in conformity with the United Nations Charter. 38 percent was designated for energy. 4 percent for health. and senior civil servants. 8 percent for physical infrastructure and housing. the eighth plan had not yet been announced. This group. as they should be. Total planned private investment was Rs292 billion. presidents of chambers of commerce. Based on these principles and considerations. major powers and immediate neighbours. submitted its report in late 1992. (b) Safeguard vital security and geo-strategic interests of Pakistan . mainly because the successive changes of government in 1993 forced ministers to focus on short-term issues. Instead. economic policy for FY 1994 was being guided by an annual plan. there is also a change of emphasis and nuance. 9 percent for water.public ratio of investment was expected to rise from 42:58 in FY 1988 to 48:52 in FY 1993. noninterference and peaceful settlement of disputes. Of this total. 18 percent for transportation and communications. and the private-to. It is also responsive to regional and international imperatives. in early 1994. (c) Resolve the core issue of Jammu and Kashmir in accordance with the resolutions . Pakistan 's foreign policy is guided by its history. The plan gave much greater emphasis than before to private investment in all sectors of the economy. mutual respect and benefit.period and would have exceeded the target if it had not been for severe droughts in 1986 and 1987. 7 percent for education. In August 1991. the government established a working group on private investment for the Eighth Five-Year Plan (1993-98). which included leading industrialists. Pakistan has opted for a proactive foreign policy. Pakistan Foreign Policy Of Pakistan Foreign Policy Of Pakistan The Foreign Policy of Pakistan strives for the promotion of peace and security at the regional and global levels. While there are elements of continuity in the foreign policy. Given the persistent challenges. It also aims at accelerating the country's socio-economic progress. the key objectives of Pakistan 's Foreign Policy are to: (a) Develop friendly relations with all countries particularly the Muslim world. The Seventh Five-Year Plan (1988-93) provided for total public-sector spending of Rs350 billion. However. It was also intended that public-sector corporations finance most of their own investment programs through profits and borrowing. and 11 percent for other sectors. geographical location and the aspiration of its people.

• Relations with Super Powers . • Strengthening the Domestic Economic Infrastructure.Economic Issues and Challenges. Removing the fiscal indiscipline. • Stability in Home Political System Removal of Corruption. Democracy. from all walks of life. privatization. moderate and democratic Islamic country. dynamic. A shift from defense to economic benefits. Industrialization and Specialization in accordance with ISO standards. Deregulation of economics. B. (e) Augment economic and commercial interests abroad. • External and Internal Borrowings. free trade and New Global Economic Agenda • Pakistan’s Changing Foreign Policy. lowering of tariff walls. (d) Promote the image of Pakistan as a strong. • Global Economic thinking Economic Co-operation. A. Participation of people in National Politics. Policies for setting grounds and encouraging Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). • Globalization and its effects Impact of Globalization on Common man (baffled and perplexed) Non transparency of the process. and (f) Protect the interests of Pakistan 's expatriate community abroad Pakistan’s Foreign Policy Issues and Challenges. causes of the change and future precepts.Political Issues and Challenges. progressive.of the UN Security Council and wishes of the Kashmiri people.

• Present status of Pakistan in International Politics. nuclear weapons and the requirement of new systems.• Relations with Muslim World • Pakistan’s policy towards third world and nations struggling for independence.Pakistan and Human Rights . • Diplomacy. • Nuclear program Development in Nuclear capability. ( Army. • Peace Keeping Peace keeping and anti-terrorism policies. Pak.Logistic Issues and Challenges. D. C. Nuclear proliferation aspect of international politics and Pakistan’s strategy in this regard. Air Force. Navy) • Kashmir Issue. • Present Defense Status of Pakistan Artillery. communication systems.India negotiations in this regard and future scenario.

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