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PII: SOOl6-2361(98)0@048-9

Fuel Vol. 77, No. 12, pp. 1339-1347, 1998 0 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved Printed in Great Britain 0016-2361/98 $19.00+0.00

on in a lean
Dehong Zhang and Steven Ii. Frankel*
Thermal Science and Propulsion Center, School of Mechanical West Lafayette, IN 47907-7003, USA (Received 15 July 1997; revised 22 January 19981 Engineering, Purdue University,

Results from multidimensional numerical simulations and cycle simulations are presented in an effort to optimize the performance of a fuel-lean-burn, homogeneous charge, natural gas spark-ignition internal combustion (IC) engine. The multidimensional numerical simulations are performed using modified versions of the KIVA-2 and IUVA-3 computer codes. The engine cycle simulations are performed using the WAVE code. The IUVA codes are enhanced with a turbulent combustion submodel which employs a two-step, natural gas/air chemical kinetics scheme with a temperature-dependent activation energy, together with a modified eddy dissipation model to treat the effects of turbulence on the burning rate. The output from the multidimensional calculations is used, in a novel way, as input to the WAVE cycle simulation code to predict overall engine performance. The Caterpillar G3400 and G3.500 fuel-lean-bum natural gas engines are the specific engines under study. The predictions for brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) are within 1% of the measured values for all cases where engine data are available. The effects of swirl, combustion chamber geometry, and spark location on burning rate and BSFC are investigated. Specifically, the results show that: (1) the numerical predictions are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with engine data; (2) there is an optimum initial swirl ratio for the central bowl, central spark plug geometry; (3) an offset bowl results in a lower BSFC than a central bowl for the same initial swirl ratio and spark plug location; and (4) an offset spark plug results in a lower BSFC than a central plug for the same initial swirl ratio. 0 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved (Keywords: natural gas engines; turbulent combustion; numerical modeling)

INTRODUCTION The widespread use of natural gas as an alternative to gasoline and diesel fuel in internal combustion (IC) engines is motivated by dwindling fuel oil reserves and desires for reduced pollutant emissions. Previous experimental studies have reported that natural gas bums slower than conventional fuels, such as gasoline and diesellS2. Therefore, in order to achieve fuel-lean-burn natural gas combustion, and still maintain competitive performance levels, manufacturers of natural gas IC engines need to make design modifications to achieve a faster bum while optimizing engine performance3. These design modifications should consider the effects of in-cylinder flow motion, e.g. swirl and tumble, combustion chamber geometry, e.g. for a bowlin-piston chamber, circular versus non-circular bowl, centered versus offset bowl, open versus deep bowl, etc., and spark plug location (an extensive review has been published elsewhere4). In order to examine all possible combinations of the aforementioned design modifications in the test cell, expensive and time-consuming engine testing would be required. With recent improvements in the accuracy of multidimensional numerical engine modeling codes and the increase in speed of computational performance of desktop workstations, it has become feasible to conduct engine optimization studies using numerical *Corresponding

modeling. Because of the nature of the models used and the sensitivity of the results to grid resolution, it is important to have engine data available for model calibration. This combined numerical/experimental testing can reduce the cost and time of the design process considerably. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of swirl, combustion chamber geometry, and spark plug location on the burning rate and overall engine performance in the Caterpillar G3400 and G3500 series fuel-lean-bum, homogeneous charge, natural gas, spark-ignited engines. The approach combines multidimensional KIVA simulations to predict the in-cylinder combustion process with the WAVE cycle simulation code to predict the overall engine performance. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The next section discusses the numerical models employed in the study, including details on the governing equations, the turbulent combustion model, the initial and boundary conditions, numerical methods and grid-refinement effects. This is followed by a summary of the specific engine details. Results are presented and discussed, folIowed by conclusions.

KIVA multidimensional model The multidimensional numerical models used to simulate

the in-cylinder combustion process are the KIVA-2 and

Fuel 1998 Volume 77 Number 12


The K--E turbulence model. with some standard two-equation added terms to account for compressibility effects. which increase storage and Due to the wide range of time CPU time considerably”. H.53 0.015 __ 1340 Fuel 1998 Volume 77 Number 12 . The KIVA code integrates the transient. Zhang and S. The turbulent combustion rate is predicted based on the limiting process. The consumption k. quasisecond-order up-winding approach together with the arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) technique to treat grid movement associated with the piston motion. knock or pollutant emissionsrfenerally requires a fairly sophisticated chemistry model . and e are empirical coefficients and are specified in Table 1. but have not yet been tested in multidimensional interest in engine simulations ’’ In engine simulations. boundary conditions must be enforced to obtain a unique solution. The mathematical form of the governing equations is provided in detail in the KIVA users manual and is not repeated here5. Therefore. co* rate of methane is given by”: (3) rate of carbon monoxide is given by17: (4) CO + 2H20 by carbon monoxide oxidation (1) to form (2) KI-U”[~. More details can be found in the marma?. the KIVA code was modified to include a turbulent combustion submodel in order to account for the effects of turbulence on the mean reaction rate. and T are the pre-exponential factor. but the application of these mechanisms to turbulent reacting flows is still in its early stages’ The computational . momentum.o Table 2 Reaction 1 2 Combustion model parameters step AI 2. combustion is modeled using either finite-rate laminar chemistry or chemical equilibrium. from ignition through to the power stroke.51 X IO5 6. In configurations where symmetry planes exist.07 X 10’ ni 7. predicting kinetically-controlled phenomenon such as ignition. In KIVA.95 . constant volume combustion experiments16.0.5 1.40 X lo9 EiO 1. The chemical kinetics scheme and the eddy dissipation model are used to compute characteristic chemistry and turbulent mixing time scales. Detailed7 and reduced8 chemical kinetics models for methane exist. The model was developed by Zhangi” and was initially calibrated against data from swirling premixed natural gas/ air. a global. The temperature-dependent activation energy was found to be necessary in order to predict the entire combustion process. 0. c. the model treats natural gas as methane.55 *. 0. two-step chemical kinetics scheme’ s with a temperature-dependent activation energy is used in conjunction with a modified eddy dissipation model”. Reasonably accurate predictions of engine heat release and pressure can often be achieved with a simpler chemical scheme. More details can be found in the manuals. In the version used in the present study._ B. together with a Bessel function velocity profile. In IC engine simulations our numerical tests have shown that it is not possible to predict both the early burning and main burning rates with a constant activation energy. the universal gas constant. scales associated with chemical kinetics. the computational domain is restricted to a pie-shaped sector of the physical domain. In-cylinder calculations are performed after intake valve closing and therefore initial conditions are required for all flow variables at all points within the cylinder and on the walls.82 X lo4 1. we will simply refer to KIVA simulations in general. Turbulent law-of-the-wall velocity conditions with fixed temperature walls are employed. Frankel KIVA-3 computer program?‘ .3 c d 0. axisymmetric and three-dimensional configurations are simulated. and (b) closure of the filtered chemical production term in the averaged thermochemical conservation equations. respectively. Turbulent combustion model Two major obstacles to including hydrocarbon finite-rate chemistry into multidimensional engine simulations are: (a) uncertainties and the large computational expense associated with implementing detailed reaction mechanisms in turbulent flame simulations. The values for Ai are specified in Table 2. and a. The two-step chemistry scheme involves methane oxidation to form carbon monoxide and water via an initial step: CH4 + . but in global empirical chemistry modeling treating the activation energy as a constant can lead to problems.65 e 0. with periodic boundary conditions enforced at the azimuthal ends of the domain. The activation energy is a constant for elemental chemical reactions. and the temperature. the combustion model has been modified to account for the important effects of turbulence on the mean reaction rate. in this study Table 1 Concentration coefficients in chemical kinetics scheme b 1. is used to characterize the eddy viscosity. The initial in-cylinder velocity field is chosen in order to mimic any swirl which would have been generated during the intake process.26 1. Recent work in developing computationally efficient techniques for implementing combustion chemistry in turbulent flame analyses appear promising. The reaction rate coefficient for the ith step has the following Arrhenius form: where Ai. In the present study. systems of stiff differential equations also result. and the consumption W~lcP. especially in transient situations where ignition phenomena are importa@.02 which is followed carbon dioxide: co + 40. In order to address the closure problem. the activation energy. expense associated with finite-rate chemistry is related to integration of additional species transport equations.ldkb~l’ where k. b. R. KIVA integrates finite-difference approximations to the governing equations. The main difference between the two codes is related to grid generation. energy and species equations governing the ensemble averaged behavior of chemically reacting turbulent flows.A numerical study of natural gas combustion: D. Temporal and spatial differencing is achieved using a semi-implicit. The details of this model are described in the next section. In addition.. Both two-dimensional. . Therefore. In the original code. Ei. and k2 are the reaction rate coefficients for the first and second chemistry steps. respectively. For the rest of this paper.3 a . this is achieved by specifying a non-zero initial swirl number which is defined as the ratio of the swirling air speed to the crankshaft speed. conservation of mass.95 0.

The computational grid size for each case is specified below. ENGINE AND COMPUTATIONAL DETAILS for the chemical k 7ti = Bi E time scale. These two time scales are compared in order to determine which is larger. where Bi is a constant which. heat transfer and piston work. The rate of turbulent mixing of these eddies is assumed to be proportional to the rate of decay of the turbulent kinetic energy. Thus. More details can be found in the manua119. Zhang and S. vaporized fuel.A numerical study of natural gas combustion: D.i + (1 . wall heat flux. and for the turbulent time scale. but the average grid spacing is 1. Calculations are started just after intake valve closing with initial conditions specified as discussed above. The energy equation involves the first law of thermodynamics and accounts for internal energy changes of the in-cylinder gases due to enthalpy fluxes. Frankel a temperature-dependent activation is formulated in the form: Ei = Eio + niTm’ energy for each reaction Table 3 Engine Engine details Bore Stroke Speed (r/s) Compression ratio -12. The chemical production rate per unit volume is assumed to depend upon either a chemical kinetics rate or the turbulent mixing rate of these eddies.1.7 in all cases. based on the average temperature profile15.5:1 12:l (6) 3400 3500 137 170 152 190 25 25 where Eio is the constant part of the activation energy. The fuel-to-air equivalence ratio is fixed at 0. WAVE involves a time-dependent simulation of the in-cylinder processes using the equations of mass and energy conservation. The cumulative heat release is defined as the ratio of the amount of heat released from the actual combustion process at the present crank angle to that after complete combustion. which makes up about three-quarters of the total activation energy.1.1 are arbitrarily chosen. along with the other parameters in the model. Fuel consumption is measured with a positive displacement meter where the time required for usage of a specified volume of fuel is measured and corrected for gas temperature. All results have been checked for grid and time step sensitivity and the trends are observed to be consistent in all cases. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the next three subsections. pressure and lower heating value. close to the cylinder head by internal energy deposition as described in the KIVA manual. Caterpillar has been using heat release rates and cumulative heat release information to monitor combustion improvements for the past decade”. but are found to be sufficient. is calibrated to match experimental data. The Cutoffs at 10 and 0. and the chemical production rate is computed from ki = l/rci. The mass equation accounts for changes in in-cylinder mass due to flow through valves and due to fuel injection. The WAVE code is used here to predict the engine brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC).Jrti < 0. Proprietary software (heat transfer model) is used by Caterpillar to determine rate of heat release and cumulative heat release curves for methane-based fuels. for each reaction step. Fuel 1998 Volume 77 Number 12 1341 . The first is based on the chemical kinetics and the second is based on turbulent mixing. and (3) a combined chemical kinetics and turbulent mixing regime when 10 > 7. in the form of combustion chamber pressure. In this model. The main difference between the two engines is their size. where D = 7cil(7ci + Eli).9 mm and the typical average flame thickness is 10 mm. The implementation of this model involves the calculation of two characteristic time scales. Values for Bi used in this study are summarized in Table 2. In order to provide a smooth transition between the chemical kinetics-limited regime and the turbulent mixing-limited regime. Data are available from these engines for different aspects of the numerical study in the form of combustion chamber pressure and cumulative heat release versus crank angle. This package is used here in a novel way by providing input from the multidimensional KIVA simulations. The effect of turbulence on the mean reaction rate is accounted for by using a modified version of the eddy dissipation modeli4. and estimated from engine measurements. finite-rate chemistry or turbulent mixing. Heat release data are collected by measuring time resolved cylinder pressure. premixed turbulent combustion is treated as a mixture of unburned and burned gas turbulent eddies with chemical reaction presumed to occur at the interface between these eddies. Fuel is supplied by the local gas utility. Fluxes of air. H. and the chemical production rate is computed from ki = l/rti.i/7ti > 0. is slower or limiting. The fuel lower heating value is constantly monitored with an on-line gas chromatograph. (2) a turbulent mixing-limited regime when r.i/7ti > 10. results. the combustion process is divided into three regimes: (1) a chemical kinetics limited regime when T. As input to the model. They are computed based on the following expressions: fuel and combustion products are also accounted for in the model. unless otherwise indicated. and turbulence kinetic energy versus crank angle. the cumulative heat release and wall heat flux are input as a function of crank angle from results obtained from the multidimensional KIVA simulations. The mixture is ignited along the cylinder axis. and ni and mi are two constants. WAVE engine code The WAVE cycle simulation program is a code which is often used by engine manufactures for design calculations”. A crank angle encoder and cylinder pickup are used to collect cylinder pressure data. The G3400 engine is smaller than the G3500 engine as indicated by the geometric details for each engine summarized in Table 3. liquid The two engines under investigation in this study are the Caterpillar G3400 and G3500 series fuel-lean-burn natural gas engines. a buffer regime is incorporated into the formulation18. cumulative heat release. The chemical production rate is determined based upon which process. The values for these quantities are also specified in Table 2.D)rJ. and the chemical production rate is computed from ki = ll[Dr.

5 -2 -----3.0 to 2.5._ 3 i 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 % In order to confidently examine the effect of swirl on the burning rate. Reasonable agreement between the numerical predictions and the engine data can be observed. When the initial swirl ratio is set at 3. 2._ z 3 E _T Q.0.A numerical study of natural gas combustion: D. These results will be presented and compared for different cases in the last section. Cumulative heat release and wall heat flux information are then provided as input to the WAVE engine cycle simulation code in order to predict overall BSFC.E tii $ .3. There are 23 grid points in the axial direction. The results show that as the initial swirl ratio is increased from 0. Frankel are presented.0. while keeping all model parameters fixed.0. There is no engine data at (b) / A P/exp -21 j_/__()_-- 1. In Figure 2. Figure 1 Computational grid for axisymmetric computations G3500 central bowl-in-piston combustion chamber of Effect of swirl (4 A Qhp ~-0 100 T @ (II P $! t aI c g .31 100 90 1 /. and 44 grid points in the radial direction. Figure 3 shows cumulative heat release plotted versus crank angle for four different initial swirl ratios 0. Zhang and S.e. H.3. Comparisons are made to engine data where available. 100 90 a0 70 60 50 40 30 20 Figure 2 Cumulative heat release versus crankangle for G3500 central bowl with initial swirl ratio of (a) 0 and (b) 2. numerical predictions as lines) Figure 3 Cumulative heat release versus crankangle for G3500 central bowl for initial swirl ratios of 0. along the cylinder axis. and 3./* T b f z . the lack of an ignition model. 1. to examine its effect on the overall burning rate. The computational grid for the calculations presented in this section is shown at TDC (top dead center) in Figure I for the G3500 central bowl-inpiston geometry. i. 1 S.0 (experimental data as symbols. and 3 1342 Fuel 1998 Volume 77 Number 12 . 2.0. Contour plots of temperature are also presented to examine mean flame shapes. With the parameters in the combustion model tuned to this data set. it is important to first calibrate the model against available engine data. The model predicts a slower initial bum rate in comparison to the engine data which may be due to lower initial incylinder turbulence levels. plots of cumulative heat release versus crank angle are presented comparing KIVA numerical predictions to engine data for initial swirl ratios of (a) 0.0 and (b) 2. the numerical model predicts a slower burning rate than even the case with zero initial swirl.0 the burn rate increases continuously. or the effect of cycle-to-cycle variations not captured in the simulations. the initial swirl level is now further varied.

in general. The corresponding cumulative heat release value is also shown for reference. Figure 5 shows the total turbulence kinetic energy versus crank angle for the different swirl cases. This so called ‘ flame pencilling effect’ can be attributed to the centrifugal force that is created by the swirling motion and the density difference between the burned and unburned gases. 2.3 x = 13. . with central spark ignition. is not conducive to rapid flame propagation. should increase the burning rate. Higher swirl does generate more turbulence.._.0 and 3 _. there exists an optimum swirl ratio for fast burning.- (a) _-. which.0 x= I$. 2. Zhang and S.A numerical study of natural gas combustion: D. lending some credence to the numerical predictions.31 sr = 0 x = 14._.-. Frankel I-*_- 0 --- 1. This increase in wall heat flux with increase in swirl levels will.5 -2 ______3. However. premixed natural gas/ air constant volume bomb combustion’ 6.’ _* . The main result from this part of the study is that for a central bowl-in-piston geometry.4 @I ol CA [ATDC] Figure 5 Total turbulent kinetic energy versus crankangle for G3500 central bowl for initial swirl ratios of 0. The zero swirl case shows a hemispherical flame shape. higher Figure 6 Wall heat flux versus crankangle for G3500 central bowl with initial swirl ratios of 0..5 -2 sr = 3.0. in general. which shows wall heat flux versus crank angle for the different initial swirl ratios considered.- .0 and 3. 1._ . : ‘ * : sr = 2.3. and 3._. H. Effect of combustion chamber geometry In order to overcome the flame pencilling effect observed at high swirl levels with the central bowl in the previous Fuel 1998 Volume 77 Number 12 1343 . *-. . Similar behavior has been observed experimentally in swirling.I-*. 2. in order to examine the effect of swirl on the flame shape and explain the adverse effect of high swirl on the burning rate as predicted by the simulations.3/ Figure 4 Temperature contour plots for G3500 central bowl at 10 ATDC for three different initial swirl ratios (indicated by sr value) along with corresponding cumulative heat release value (indicated by x value (%)) this high initial swirl ratio. . the flow pattern which is generating the turbulence.-. 1. allowing the flame to propagate faster in the axial direction._0 --1. Contour plots of mean temperature are compared for initial swirl ratios of 0. in this configuration.5.-.0 (Cl _____.4 O”~ ..5. This issue will be investigated in the section on overall engine performance. the intermediate swirl case shows a conical flame shape. and the high swirl case reveals a barrel flame shape.3 turbulence levels lead to higher wall heat fluxes as can be seen in Figure 6.. Also.0.3 at 10” ATDC (after TDC) in Figure 4. Increasing the initial swirl ratio increases the turbulence levels in the cylinder. It appears that the effect of swirl is to suppress flame propagation in the radial direction.. affect the overall engine BSFC.

The effect of bowl offset on the in-cylinder combustion process is represented by a plot of the cumulative heat release versus crank angle for several different initial swirl ratios shown in Figure 8.8 (experimental data as symbols. the flame shape is similar to the centered bowl case. in addition to a diffusive burn.3 A 2lexp 100 90 5 T 3g g z a c $ ‘ G 2 zz 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 CA [ATDC] Figure 9 Cumulative heat release versus crankangle for G3400 offset bowl with initial swirl ratio of 1. Data is available for the case with initial swirl ratio of 2.5 -2 .. Frankel . In order to examine the effect of swirl and bowl offset on the combustion process. (2) at r/2. temperature contour plots at 10” ATDC are shown for three different swirl ratios in Figure 10 for the G3500 engine.. shows 44 X 18 X 23 grid points at TDC in the radial.8. in the offset bowl combustion chamber. Thus. for the offset bowl cases. respectively. Zhang and S.3 data as symbols. An increase in the initial swirl ratio. For the zero initial swirl case. the corresponding cumulative heat release value (represented by the x value) is included on the figure. numerical predictions as lines) subsection. results in a continuous increase in the burn rate. This is in contrast to the central bowl case where there was a decrease in the bum rate at high swirl. and 3. the flame shape becomes distorted by the swirl and offset bowl effects. 2. Good agreement with the engine data is observed lending further credence to the results obtained in the G3500 study discussed above. Also comparing the offset bowl case to the central bowl case for the intermediate swirl level there is a significant increase in the burning rate and hence the cumulative heat release for the offset case. Figure 7 Computational grid for three-dimensional computations of G3500 offset bowl-in-piston combustion chamber 2 60. Figure 13 shows the grid and 1344 Fuel 1998 Volume 77 Number 12 . In addition. /-_-- 1. numerical predictions as lines) v Figure 8 ” cl 7 z CA [ATDC] LFi 8 s Cumulative offset bowl with initial (experimental heat release versus crankangle for G3500 swirl ratios of 1. The results show that higher turbulence and wall heat flux levels accompany the faster bum associated with the offset bowl and high swirl. H.. azimuthal and axial directions.A numerical study of natural gas combustion: D. the flame has already propagated to the piston crown with a significant increase in the cumulative heat release value as compared to the other two cases. Effect of spark plug location In this section. shown in Figure 7. For the intermediate swirl case. the effect of spark plug location on burning rate in the G3400 engine is examined.0 and reasonable agreement with the numerical prediction is observed. where r is the bowl radius. and (3) at r. a swirl-induced convective bum is becoming important.8: (1) at the center. For the high swirl case. The offset bowl will also generate a stronger squish jet and hence more turbulence. The three-dimensional computational mesh for the offset bowl.3. Figures 11 and 12 show plots of turbulent kinetic energy and wall heat flux versus crank angle. Further validation of the abilities of the combustion model to predict the effect of the offset bowl are shown in Figure 9 which compares predictions of cumulative heat release versus crank angle to engine data for the G3400 offset bowl configuration for an initial swirl ratio of 1. The net effect of these changes on the overall engine performance will be examined in a later section.0.. The reason the offset bowl is able to overcome the flame pencilling effect is due to higher turbulence levels from the stronger squish jet and the fact that the flame center is slightly offset from the swirl center. respectively. the bowl is offset by 8 mm in an attempt to disturb the alignment between the flame center and the swirl center. which should help overcome the swirl-induced pencilling effect.5. Three plug locations are studied for the central circular bowl with an initial swirl ratio of 1.

as shown in Figure 16.0 (b) Figure 11 Total turbulent kinetic energy versus crankangle G?500 offset bowl with initial swirl rat& of 0.928 0. levels are not significantly effected by the spark location.8 G34OO/CC/CR= 12. compression ratio. Zhang and S.3 for sr = 3.937 0.941 Table 4 8 z 0 51 8 8 CA [ATDC] Figure 12 Wall heat flux versus crankangle bowl with initial swirl ratios of 0.0 (4 i . CR.0.3 sr = 0 x = 15.937 0.3 x = 46. 2. as shown in Figure 15.3. The burning in this case begins in the high swirl region towards the outside of the bowl and the flame is convectively swept around the periphery of the bowl by the swirling flow while propagating towards the center of the bowl to consume the unburned mixture. and 3. The overall effect of spark plug location on engine performance will be determined in the next section. -I 0 0 7 z CA [ATDC] :: z 3 sr = 2.A numerical study of natural gas combustion: D. 2.0 x = 26.3 for G3.0 = Experimental Numerical 0..500 offset the ignition locations. offset circular bowl.5 Figure 10 Temperature contour plots for G3500 offset bowl at 10 ATDC for three different initial swirl ratios (indicated by sr value) along with corresponding cumulative heat release value (indicated by n value (%)) 01 Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) (kJ/kWh) X 104. CC. Frankel I--- 1.5 -2 . GC. central circular bowl.0. This is consistent with previous experiments examining the effect of spark location on combustion in a variable swirl engine*‘ The turbulence . The fastest burn occurs when the spark plug is located at r. and 3. swirl ratio is 1. H.. Fuel 1998 Volume 77 Number 12 1345 . Figure 14 compares cumulative heat release plots for the three different cases. but the wall heat flux is found to be higher in the offset plug cases..5 G34OOKMYCR 12.

8 G35OO/CC/SR = 0 1.8-c ------1. central circular bowl. OC.1. in spite of the higher wall heat flux associated with the higher swirl case. and r Table 5 Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) (kJ/kWh) X 104.8-c .. offset circular bowl.8-c . Frankel I~--- 1. compression ratio. H. leads to better overall performance. which results from the offset bowl. Zhang and S. 1.. Thus. swirl ratio is 1. the faster burning.1 .8-r/2 - 1. In both cases.8 and ignition offset at 0. r/2.011 35OOlCCISR= 2. r/2.. and r mm- 1.A numerical study of natural gas combustion: D.. CC. WAVE predictions are compared to experimental data for two G3400 configurations.. rl 2..8-r 1 CA [ATDC] Figure 15 Total turbulent kinetic energy versus crankangle for G3400 central bowl with intial swirl ratio of 1..924 CA [ATDC] Figure 16 Cumulative heat release versus crankangle for G3400 central bowl with intial swirl ratio of 1.3 0.8-r/2 - 1.0 0. and r Overall engine petformance In this section.8 and ignition offset at 0.. predictions from the WAVE code for BSFC for several different engine configurations are presented with comparison to engine test data where available.978 G35OOIOClSR= 3. CR...&r/2 - 1. In Table 5. the offset circular bowl with high swirl results in the lowest BSFC for the three G3500 configurations.8 and ignition offset at 0. CONCLUSIONS Results from multidimensional numerical thermodynamic cycle simulations have modeling and been used to 1346 Fuel 1998 Volume 77 Number 12 . In Table 4.8-r 0 7 0 0 Ei CA [ATDC] Figure 14 Cumulative heat release versus crankangle for G3400 central bowl with swirl ratio of 1. the predictions are within 1% of the test data.8-r __ j Figure 13 Computational grid for offset ignition computations G3400 central bowl-in-piston combustion chamber of -_-.

spark-ignited. L. Heidelberg. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge Caterpillar Inc..48. and Butler. 16 17 18 REFERENCES 1 2 Andrews. A. Vol. ed. combustion chamber geometry and spark plug location. NM.. (2) There exists an optimum swirl ratio for fast burning in a central bowl-in-piston configuration with central ignition. R. The KlVA computer code. isooctane. Energy Combust. R. O’ Rourke. 15 of Lecture Notes in Physics. KIVA-II: A Computer Program for Chemically Reactive Flows with Sprays. Combust. Frankel optimize the performance of two Caterpillar fuel-lean-bum. P. S. for financial support of this project. On mathematical modeling of turbulent combustion with special emphasis on soot formation and combustion. l-57. Witze. 1986.. Combustion Institute.) on Combustion. H. 1981.. 810151. Pittsburg. A. K. D. 10. (eds). D. 1993. J. Complication of one-step kinetics for moist CO oxidation. Energy Combust. P. 318-332. 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Multidimensional calculation of combustion in an idealized homogeneous charge engine. High wall heat fluxes are observed in this case as well. In Proc. 16th Symp. Magnussen. Academic Press. Zhou. Progress Report. B. WAVE Engine Manual. Combust. A.. L. offset ignition G3400 engine. offset bowl G3500 engine and for the intermediate swirl.) on Combustion. Burning velocities Fuel 1998 Volume 77 Number 12 1347 . This is primarily due to centrifugal forces. 21st Symp. D.D. Combust. 1984. thesis. Hill. 106(3). and Zhang. CA. 1993. G. The key results from this study are as follows: 3 4 Bruch. E. A.