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Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior

Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Q.1 Explain the theories of emotion. Answer: The word emotion is a composite formed from two Latin words. e(x)/out, outward + motion/movement, action, gesture. This classical formation refers to the motivational aspect that causes one to begin, continue, or end bodily movements from a source often hidden from conscious inspection though necessary even for rational actions. The scientific community applies the term to any creature's activity that exhibits complex response traits similar to that of a human. Alternatively some consider the outward movement to refer to immediacy of action rather than motivational source. I) James-Lange Theory (1890) [cited in Taylor, 1999]: Subjective emotional responses are the result of physiological changes within human bodies. The brain perceives an event and, in turn, sends messages down its neural circuitry to other areas of the brain. This action ultimately produces motor, autonomic and endocrine responses. These responses elicit an emotional response, which in turn, is perceived by the brain. Therefore, it is a cyclical process. This theory argues that physiological behaviors precede the emotion. II) Cannon-Bard theory (1927) [cited in Taylor, 1999]: Emotion-provoking events induce the subjective emotional experiences and physiological arousal simultaneously. Through experiences, individuals begin to acquire certain expectations for every given situation. These expectations provide a filter and every situation is processed through this filter. During this process, brain produces the emotion and corresponding physiological behaviors at the same time. III) Schachter-Singer theory (1962): Both feedback from peripheral responses and a cognitive appraisal of what caused those responses produce emotions. How one interprets the peripheral response will determine the emotion he / she feels. Individuals label the emotional response depending on what we think is causing the response. For example, when someone interprets a stimulus as dangerous, it leads to physiological arousal. Then, this physiological arousal is interpreted to a particular emotion. It can be fear, surprise, excitement, and astonishment depending on how the arousal is labeled. IV) Lazarus' appraisal theory (1980): An individual makes an initial and sometimes unconscious cognitive appraisal of the situation to decide, if there is a threat; coping action is taken if necessary; and the individual takes a closer look and identifies the emotions he or she is feeling. V) Weiner's attribution theory (1986, 1992): Certain attributions produce specific emotions. Once the initial evaluation has been made, the individual looks at what caused the event. These attributions of causality can modify the emotion felt. It is the interaction of the perceived internal and external causes, controllability and outcome that will determine the emotional responses. What are the basic emotions? Ortony and Turner (1990) collated a wide range of research as to what basic emotions are and the basis of including them as basic emotions and proposed a comprehensive description of basic emotions and corresponding reasons for inclusion : A comprehensive description of basic emotions and corresponding reasons for inclusion

joy Izard Anger. disgust. fear. joy. pleasure Anger. tenderemotion. disgust. ideas are forwarded without any discussion taking place. Forms of action interest. surprise Fear. 1983) Felt emotions are an individual‟s actual emotions. wonder Pain. guilt. disgust. surprise Fear.Decision in lack of response – In this type of decision making. Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. grief. shame. shame. fear. dejection. happiness. Displayed Emotions (Hochschild. Q. (What's basic about basic emotions?)1 1 Source: Basic Emotions Basis for Inclusion Arnold Anger. elation. joy. Friesen. 1979. sadness. disgust. anxiety. sadness Ekman.2 . fear.. anticipation. J. rage Anger. readiness wonder. and Anger. interest. hate. distress. contempt. A. fear. love. surprise Anger. anger. This is particularly true in organizations. love. surprise. disgust. happiness. Discuss the techniques of decision making in groups. sadness. Hardwired anxiety. aversion. interest. all others . rage Happiness. fear. Felt and displayed emotions may be different. & Turner. T. love. Answer: Schein (1988) observes that groups may make decisions through any of the following six methods: i. distress. rage. hope. sadness Hardwired James McDougall Mowrer Oatley and JohnsonLaird Panksepp Plutchik Bodily involvement Relation to instincts Unlearned emotional states Do not require propositional content Hardwired Relation to adaptive biological processes Density of neural firing Tomkins Watson Weiner and Graham Hardwired Attribution independent Felt vs. panic Acceptance. contempt. When the group finally accepts an idea. sadness Expectancy.Ortony. Universal facial Ellsworth joy. tendencies desire. sorrow Gray Rage and terror. fear. despair. subjection. They are learned. surprise expressions Frijda Desire. joy. disgust. fear. where role demands and situations often require people to exhibit emotional behaviors that mask their true feelings. Relation to action courage.

The most common form of group decision-making takes place in face-to-face interacting groups. ii) Evaluation Apprehension: Some individuals suffer from evaluation apprehension in brainstorming groups. iii. but only to clarify the ideas. Decision by majority rule – Here. They fear that others might respond negatively to their ideas. NGT has the following discrete steps: i) Individuals silently list their ideas. This is a “logically perfect” group decision method that is extremely difficult to attain in actual practice. suspending evaluation until all of the ideas have been suggested. vi. and imagination is emphasized. v. is merely a process for generating ideas. iv. Group members are all physically present. No criticism is allowed. Decision by unanimity – All group members agree totally on the course of action to be taken. Brainstorming: Brainstorming is a good technique for generating alternatives. One recent trend is the use of electronic brainstorming instead of verbal brainstorming in groups. about 6 to 10 people sit and discuss the problem. The group leader states the problem in a clear manner. ii) Ideas are written on a chart one at a time until all ideas are listed. No criticism is allowed.Decision by consensus – One alternative is accepted by most members and the other members agreeing to support it. however. Groups that use brainstorming have been shown to produce significantly more ideas than groups that do not. viewpoint of the majority is considered as the group’s decision. Interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion. ii. Participations are encouraged to build upon the suggestions of others. but members operate independently. Nominal Group Technique (NGT): The nominal group technique restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision-making process.Decision by authority rule – The leader makes a decision for the group. iii) Brainstorming. In a typical brainstorming session. as in a traditional committee meeting. Electronic brainstorming overcomes two common problems that can produce group-brainstorming failure: i) Production Blocking: While listening to others. Seven techniques are summarized below: 1. . iii) Discussion is permitted. hence the term 'nominal'. The idea behind brainstorming is to generate as many ideas as possible. so that all participants understand it.have been bypassed and discarded by simple lack of response rather than by critical evaluation. with or without discussion. Brainstorming is meant to overcome pressures for conformity in the interacting group that retard the development of creative alternatives. individuals are distracted from their own ideas. 2. Once a manager has determined that a group decision approach should be used. This is referred to as production blocking. he or she can determine the technique best suited to the decision situation. Decision by minority rule – Two or three people are able to dominate the group into making a decision to which they agree. and all the alternatives are recorded for later discussion and analysis.

Unlike quality circles. This helps organizations avoid costly mistakes in decision making by identifying potential pitfalls in advance. iv) Each member receives a copy of the results. whose role is an advisory one. Quality circles are often generated from the bottom up. v) After viewing the results. A co-ordinator summarizes the responses to the questionnaire. members are again asked for their solutions. Quality teams. 3. As such. Electronic Meetings: This method blends the nominal group technique with sophisticated computer technology. and the co-ordinator tabulates the results. as well as aggregate votes. Quality Circles and quality teams are methods for using groups in the decision-making process. are displayed on a projection screen. that is. self. The following steps characterize the Delphi technique. 'dotted-line' linkages to the organization's structure. The chief advantage of the NGT method is that it permits the group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thinking. This person(s) (called Devil's Advocate) has (have) the task of coming up with the potential problems related to a proposed decision. Individual comments. The next method. and they rely on voluntary participation. such as work scheduling. and the summary is sent back to the experts. 6. quality circles are not empowered to implement their own recommendations. 4. Issues are presented to participants and they type their responses onto their computer screen. self-managed teams take the concept of participation one step further. an individual or a group is given the role of critic. Quality Circles and Quality Teams: Quality circles are small groups that voluntarily meet to provide input for solving quality or production problems. They operate in parallel. job assignments and staffing. Devil's Advocacy: In this method.iv) A vote is taken by ballot or other recordable means. . and reproduced. they provide advice to managers. iii) Results of the questionnaire are compiled at a central location. are included in total quality management and other quality improvement efforts as part of a change in the organization's structure. Quality teams are generated from the top down and are empowered to act on their own recommendations. The experts then rate the various alternatives generated. 5. 7. Experts at remote locations respond to a questionnaire. ii) Each member anonymously and independently completes the questionnaire. Self-managed Teams: Self-managed teams make many of the decisions that were once reserved for managers. in contrast. NGT is a good technique to use in a situation where group members fear criticism from others. transcribed. who still retain decision-making authority. as does an interacting group.managed teams are delegated authority in the organization's decision-making process. i) The problem is identified and members are asked to provide potential solutions through a series of carefully designed questionnaires. The Delphi method is similar to the nominal group technique except that it does not require the physical presence of the group's members. Delphi Technique: The Delphi technique originated at the Rand Corporation to gather the judgements of experts for use in decision-making.

d) A manager who wants to provide total empowerment to a group should consider the possibility of allowing it to self-manage itself. It can be of three types (Schermerhorn et al. 2002): Approach – approach conflict occurs when a person must choose between two positive and equally attractive alternatives. b. . There are several types of intrapersonal conflict. For example: a) The need for expert input would be best facilitated by the Delphi Technique. intra-role and person . An example is being offered a higher paying job whose responsibilities entail unwanted demands on one’s personal time. including inter-role. Avoidance – avoidance conflict occurs when a person must choose between two negative and equally unattractive alternatives. Intra-role Conflict: Is conflict within a single role. Inter-role Conflict: Occurs when a person experiences conflict among the multiple roles in his or her life. and he may experience person-role conflict. Q. Analyzing this type of conflict is difficult because "inner states" of the individual must be assessed. Intra-individual or Intrapersonal Conflict: This refers to conflict within an individual about which work activities to perform. in which their role as worker clashes with their role as spouse or parent. a. Approach – avoidance conflict occurs when a person must decide to do something that has both positive and negative consequences.role conflicts.Before choosing a group decision-making technique. the nominal group technique would be appropriate. salespeople may be officially required to offer the most expensive item in the sales line first to the customer. An example is being asked either to accept a job transfer to another town in an undesirable location or to have one’s employment with an organization terminated. the manager carefully evaluates the group members and the decision situation. even when it is apparent that the customer does not want or cannot afford the item. Affective Conflict: Occurs when competing emotions accompany the incompatible goals and result in increased stress. An example is having to choose between a valued promotion in the organization or a desirable new job with another firm. Person-role Conflict: Occurs when an individual in a particular role is expected to perform behaviours that clash with his or her values.3 Elaborate the different stages in process of conflict. One inter-role conflict that many employees experience is work/home conflict. decreased productivity or decreased satisfaction for the individual. c) If group members were reluctant to contribute ideas. Answer: Intrapersonal conflict – Some conflicts that affect behavior in organizations involve the individual alone. Then the best method for accomplishing the objectives of the group decision-making process can be selected. For example. Cognitive Conflict: An intellectual discomfort created by trying to achieve incompatible goals. This may conflict with the salesman's values or past experience. It often arises when a person receives conflicting message from role senders (the individuals who place expectations on the person) about how to perform a certain role. An individual may experience. 1. b) Decisions that concern quality or production would benefit from the advice of quality circles.

there is inter-individual alarm reaction. Included in this category. irrespective of the size of the group. attempt to balance power in the marketplace. A conflict exists here because the subordinates are blocking the goal achievement plans of the boss. Although the boss can exercise formal authority to suppress this type of conflict. and develop procedures for resolving existing conflict. Inter-individual Conflict: When two individuals disagree about issues. 2. The figure below shows the course of the General Adaptation Syndrome. defence mechanisms exhibited by individuals and ways of coping with difficult people.. Inter-group conflict exists between or among groups. suppliers. Q. marriage counselling) often focuses on personality differences and why individuals feel obliged to block the goal attainment of the other person. or customers. since subordinates often find a way to retaliate. To further complicate matters. Only in unusual cases will an individual be able to mobilize the resources to block the group's movement toward its goals. Inter-individual or interpersonal conflict often arises from differences in individuals' status. actions. some individuals are more likely to engage in conflict than others. Research on this type of conflict (e. it is helpful to understand power networks in organizations. an adaptive response that occurs in three phases: A. Answer: Hans Selye. Organizational Level Conflict: Conflict can also exist between organizations. Such conflict may motivate individuals to reveal additional relevant issues or it may prevent any further communication. The amount of conflict may depend on the extent the organizations create uncertain conditions for competitors. there are two important situations where individuals find themselves in conflict with groups.2. The first situation is one in which an individual is violating group norms. Recent attempts to manage such conflict and ensure that it has a positive impact on organizational performance have emphasized the formation of strategic alliances and partnerships.4 Write a note on GAS ( General Adaptation Syndrome).the stage of exhaustion. cultural differences. power discrepancies and attempts to preserve the groups' separate identities. The reason for this conflict is that groups have a greater ability to block an individual's goal achievement than the other way around. Individual-Group Conflict: In organizations.the stage of resistance. 3. . 1. B. The second case of individual-group conflict is one in which subordinates of one boss collectively disagree with a course of action the boss wants to take. this is generally an unwise course. competition for limited resources. is interdepartmental conflict within organizations. To manage interpersonal conflict. Inter-group Conflict: This involves conflict between groups of people. or goals and where joint outcomes become important. Such conflicts can be traced to competing goals. encourage communication. therefore. perceptions and orientations. the world's foremost authority on stress was the first to describe systematically the changes through which the body passes to deal with a perceived threat. and C.g. attempt to access or control the same resources. He described what he called the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS).

the way a person tries to adapt to a stressor. but the person's resistance to other stressors may be low because the body's resources are being used up. The most common strategies involve the following (Kipinis et. In this stage. even panic. 2.Bargaining – Use of negotiation through the exchange of benefits or favors .Fig: GAS The above diagram shows the course of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) and describes the psychological and physical response to stress – that is.Coalition – Getting the support of other people in the organization to back up the request .the person manages to solve the problem. or adjusts to the change. pupils dilate and muscles tense. 1984): • Reason – Use of facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of ideas . There are many useful ways of exercising relational influence. the symptoms of the alarm stage return and the person eventually uses up his or her adaptive energy. the person is coping ineffectively. GAS has 3 stages. Resistance to the stressor is high. 1. In such cases. the general adaptation syndrome begins when a person encounters a stressor and enters the alarm stage. the person may enter the third stage: exhaustion. At this stage. Q. Answer: Using position and personal power well to achieve the desired influence over other people is a challenge for most managers. Al. 3. the general adaptation syndrome ends during resistance stage. delegates the challenge. creation of goodwill. During the second stage of the general adaptation syndrome. A person in this stage wonders how to cope and feels anxiety. he or she begins to feel more confident and to think of how to respond. and being friendly . or the situation ends on its own. "resistance".Higher authority – Gaining the support of higher levels in the organization to back up requests . Alarm Stage: According to this model. Exhaustion: Many stressors are short term . The syndrome is called "general" because the stress response occurs in several areas of the body. acting humble. The person tackles the problem. a stressor persists.5Discuss the power and influence tactics .Assertiveness – Use of a direct and forceful approach such as demanding compliance . Evidence shows that a person's immune system function tends to decline during periods of stress. Resistance: Assuming the person can summon the resources to cope with the stressor. In situations where stressors persist.Friendliness – Use of flattery. But occasionally. blood pressure rises. the person channels his or her energy and uses it to resist the stressor's negative effects. The person breathes faster.

My boss supports this idea. or I'm going without you.Sanctions – Use of organizationally derived rewards and punishments Employees rely on the seven tactics variably. .Second. . . When past experience indicates a high probability of success. The manager’s relative power impacts the selection of tactics in two ways. will have a significant bearing on defining which tactics are considered appropriate. managers who control resources that are valued by others. you're fired.First. There are eight basic types of influence tactics. managers use simple requests to gain compliance. The manager’s objectives for wanting to influence causes them to vary their power tactics. Upward appeals .When seeking benefits from a superior. or appeals to higher management for assistance in gaining Examples If you don't do this. use a greater variety of tactics than do those with less power. . You have until 5:00 to change your mind. They are listed and described in the table below: Tactics Pressure Power tactics Description The person uses demands. The organization itself will influence which subset of power tactics is viewed as acceptable for use by managers. individuals tend to use the above strategies accordingly to the suitability and the likelihood of the success to be achieved by employing the same. they usually rely on reason. Differences are consistent with values among countries–reason is consistent with American’s preference for direct confrontation and coalition is consistent with the Chinese preference for using indirect approaches.Resistance leads to managers using more directive strategies. they use friendliness.Managers use reason to sell ideas to employees and friendliness to obtain favors. Depending on the situational factors. For example in US people prefer use of reason in contrast to China where coalition as a tactic is preferred. . The person seeks to persuade you that the request is approved by higher management. People in different countries tend to prefer different power tactics. Where success is less predictable. The organizational culture in which a manager works. or intimidation to convince you to comply with a request or to support a proposal. managers are more likely to use assertiveness and sanctions to achieve their objectives. managers with power use assertiveness with greater frequency than do those with less power. 224 The manager’s expectation of the target person’s willingness to comply is an important factor. I'm reporting you to my boss. The organization’s culture also plays an important role in deciding the use of power tactics.. threats. Research evidence also supports the following with regard to use of tactics and the choice used by managers with regard to power: Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The objectives may be as follows: . or who are perceived to be in positions of dominance.When they are in need to make superiors accept new ideas.

your compliance with the request. Ingratiation Only you can do this job right. Being environmentally conscious is the right thing. How can we make it more acceptable? What do you think we can do to make our workers less fearful of the new robots on the . The person makes an emotional request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your values and ideals. The person seeks the aid of others to persuade you to do something or uses the support of others as an argument for you to agree also. I can always count on you. or by increasing your confidence that you can do it. This new procedure will save us $150. but I know you can do it. or reminds you of a prior favour to be reciprocated. I'll take you to lunch if you'll support Coalition All the other supervisors agree with me. The person seeks to get you in a good mood or to think favourably of him or her before asking you to do something. The person uses logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade you that a proposal or request is viable and likely to result in the attainment of task objectives. he has the most experience. I'll ask you in front of the whole committee. strategy. Exchange The person makes an explicit or implicit promise that you will receive rewards or tangible benefits if you comply with a request or support a proposal. Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation This new attendance plan is controversial. Getting that account will be tough. so I have another request.000 in overhead. You owe me a favour. or change. It makes sense to hire John. The person seeks your participation in making a decision or planning how to implement a proposed policy.

The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. and cyclic processes. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. problem-solving. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. joint goals and means. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. they are ongoing. Action research is the basis for such intervention.6 Explain the characteristics of organization Development. 6. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that „norms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones‟. or catalyst. or isolated problems. 2. dynamic and adaptive system. and then. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term.Q. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. participation. he conducts surveys. collects relevant data. rather. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. This „planned‟ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. He shares a social philosophy about human values. and integrate individual and organizational goals . takes actions for intervention. It recognizes that organizational goals change. OD efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. so that change is easily observed. 7. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. 5. 4. They discourage „do it yourself‟ approach. temporary. Thus. interactive. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. At the individual level. 1. third party change agent. The relationship involves mutual trust. Rather. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems conceptopen. Answer: A number of special characteristics together distinguish organizational development from other approaches to managing and improving organizational function. rather. evaluates these data. and mutual influence. rather than focusing attention on individuals. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be „human‟ and to increase awareness. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. 3. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed.