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Roland Gareis Bucharest, December 9-11, 2010
Developing an understanding about – methods for the design of projects as temporary organizations – the project start process Cyclic learning approach – presentations, examples from industry – application of methods on „real projects“ – discussions Not objectives: Project planning and controlling methods
Workshop 1 – Introduction – Traditional project organization models – New organization models: Empowerment, integration, partnering Workshop 2 – Project organization charts – Project roles: project owner, project manager, etc. – Responsibility chart and project communication structures Workshop 3 – Project team work and leadership – Project culture – Project start process
Department of the WU Vienna - University of Economics and Business Administration since 1994 Education programmes – Special subject „Project Management“ within the master programmes – Professional MBA “Project & Process Management” – Contribution to the IT bachelor programme: IS Project Management pm lectures and pm events (in cooperation with RGC) – happy projects events – tough changes events Facilitator of PMUni – an international network of universities
Project management: SustPM Management in the project-oriented company : HR Social competence for projects Managing changes by projects
Basic Scientific Paradigms and Research Process Social systems theory Radical constructivism and not critical rationalism Qualitative social research – and not quantitative research methods .
Process Map of the PMG Students. Community Auftrags Abwicklung A Auftrags Abwiclung B Angebots legung Service Performing a Course Agreeing on. performing research Organizing a pm lecture Cooperating in a pm event Performing PMBA program Service Primary Processes Planning the courses Product development Markt Produkt Infrastructure Management Managing Partner Relations Marketing & PR PR Defining Research Topics Secundary Processes Personnel Management Strategic Planning Project Portfolio Management Tertiary Processes . Supervising a Master or PhD Thesis Proposing.
projectRGC. changeRGC and social 9 . Our consultants are management experts. company . process . RGC. RGC. project . companychangeRGC and socialRGC. Our high-qualitative consulting and and training services are based on Our high-qualitative consulting training services are based on RGC RGC processRGC RGC .ROLAND GAREIS CONSULTING Vienna We are management experts.
ROLAND GAREIS CONSULTING Bucharest 10 .
projectRGC 11 .
Project Management Process Project assigned Project Starting Project Coordinating Project Controlling Resolving a Project Discontinuity Project Closing-Down Project approved 12 .
Project Management Objects of Consideration Scope Schedule Costs Scope. resources.. business case 13 . risks Organization and culture. schedule. infrastructure Context: Pre-. post-project phase. relevant environments.. income. costs. and . personnel. other projects. company strategies. Objectives.
partners – applied management paradigm 14 .Design of Project Organizations: Objectives Creation of a competitive advantage Promotion of the evolution in the project organization during the project performance Organizational design „contingent“ on – relationships with clients.
Design of Project Organizations: Elements Project organization chart Project role descriptions Description of project communication structures Project responsibility matrix Project organization rules 15 .
Traditional Project Organization Models 16 .
Formal Authorities in Projects Project Project Manager Manager Line Line Manager Manager Project Project Team Team Member Member 17 .
Distribution of Authorities Project Manager What? How well? Who? How? How much? When? Pure-line Project Organization Matrix-ProjectOrganization Influence ProjectOrganization 18 Line Manager .
Pure Line Project Organization Projec t Procure ment Produc tio n Owner F&E Projec t mana ger Market in g Base Organization Project Organization 19 .
Influence Project Organization CEO/Project Owner CEO/Project Owner Project Project Manager A Manager A Controlling Controlling Procurement Procurement Production Production R&D R&D Marketing Marketing Project Team Member 20 .
Matrix Project Organization CEO CEO Procurement Procurement Project Project Owner A Owner A Project Project Manager A Manager A Production Production R&D R&D Marketing Marketing 21 .
Authorities in the Matrix Project Organization What? When? How much? Project Project Manager Manager Line Line Manager Manager Who? How? How well? Project Project Team Team Member Member 22 .
taking notes – Plenary discussion 23 .GW: Traditional Project Organization Models Objectives – Reflecting the traditional project organization models Contents – Analyzing advantages and disadvantages of the traditional project organization models – Questions to the models Working form – Group discussions: 10‘.
Empowerment 24 .
It is too slow and too expensive.The Matrix-Project Organization is dead! A hierarchy of control is not lean. It is not customer oriented. 25 .
Design Element: Empowerment Empowerment of the project team members – Responsibility for the How? and How well? – Expert pool managers (instead of department heads) responsible for the Who? Empowerment of the project team – Common project responsibility of team members Empowerment of the project – Minimum interventions from the base organization – Project autonomy is required! 26 .
Project Team What? When? How much? Project team Project manager Expert Pool manager Who? Project team Project team member member How? How well? 27 .Empowerment: Project Team Member.
Project Organization Chart: Empowerment Project Project contributor contributor Sub team 2 Project Project contributor contributor Project Project contributor contributor Project Team Project team Project team member member Project team Project team member member Project Project manager manager Project Project contributor contributor Subteam 1 P ro jec t Project Project contributor contributor Or ga nis a tio n Project Project owner team owner team 28 .
Integration 29 .
Hierarchies of Project Organizations Client´s Client´s Project Organization Project Organization General Contractor´s General Contractor´s Project Organization Project Organization Sub-Contractor´s Sub-Contractor´s Project Organization Project Organization Sub-sub Contractor´s Sub-sub Contractor´s Project Organization Project Organization ~ 30 .
Parallel Project Organizations Investor Network Contractor Billing Contractor Project Owner Project Owner Project Owner Project Owner Project Owner Project Owner PM PM Technical Technical Experts Experts Billing Billing Experts Experts Technical Technical Experts 11 Experts PM PM Technical Technical Experts 33 Experts Billing Billing Experts 11 Experts PM PM Billing Billing Experts 33 Experts Organisational Organisational Experts 22 Experts Technical Technical Experts 22 Experts Billing Billing Experts 22 Experts 31 .
Organizational Shortcomings Parallel project organizations and hierarchies of project organizations – too slow and too expensive Cultural and structural misunderstandings – several project managers and project teams in one project 32 .
Project Owner Team Project Manager Technical Expert Organizations Expert Commercial Expert Subteam Technics Subteam Organization Project Organization Subteam Billing Technical contractor Billing contractor 33 Investor .
Design Element: Integration
Representatives of different organizations in the project team Possible partners – external: clients, partners, suppliers, sub suppliers, authorities,... – internal: different profit units of the company, subsidiaries,... Basis: Common project management competences, trust, common history, clear objectives Separation of contracts and organizations Definition of the project boundaries from the investors point of view Common project objectives and project plans “Open books”?
Design Element: Partnering
Integration of the partners by – contractual agreement – common incentive systems
Berlin H.D. an excellent solution to meet Project Execution Challenges Presentation at the 16th IPMA World Congress 6 June 2002. Fluor Daniel BV 37 .Alliance. van Wieren.
Ruhr Oel Project Objectives Start EPC-Engineering Procurement Construction work 2 January 2000 Construction work to fit the turn-around schedules Last plant ready for operation 1 August 2001 Cost should be fitting the low refining margins Due to severe time constraints Ruhr Oel elected to execute the project in a for Germany new execution concept: an Alliance 38 .
Selected Contract Form One Alliance contract (36 pages) Five partners – Client Ruhr Oel (Germany) – Engineering contractor Fluor Daniel (The Netherlands) – Civil contractor (Germany) (France) (Belgium) – Piping/mechanical contractor – Electrical/instruments contractor All expenses are being paid at cost Sharing of over/under-run of target price Bonus for timely completion No claims allowed against other partners 39 .
end schedule plus shutdown schedules Budget. Meet Fluor standards Relationships. good relationships and communication Meet statutory requirements.Key Project Objectives Schedule. no negative publicity Make the Alliance a success 40 . under-run the Target Price Quality. of the parts and the total Safety.
formed the basis – Operating System Requirements – Operating System Implementation Plan – SHE Management System – Knowledge On-Line – Project Activity Model Project Execution Plan/ Project Procedures Manual Alignment meetings used to share information and to get involvement and buy-in by project personnel 41 . founded on TQM.Project Execution All partners had their own Quality Management system Fluor Daniel system.
shutdowns not delayed Cost 9% under Target Price Plants operating as specified and meeting quality standards No LTI’s.90) Good relationships prevailed. excellent communication All authority requirements fulfilled and positive publicity The Alliance is considered very successful by all involved 42 .65 (limit 0. incidence rate 0.Key Project Results In spite of 25% increase in work due to scope development and added scope during the EPC phase: Project completed on time.
Alliance Basic Engineering (months) Bidding and Evaluation EPC (months) EPC phase Delays due to changes Change orders Contract form Flexibility Cooperation between parties Team satisfaction Competitive bidding 6 0 19 0 open book at cost with incentives high high high very difficult
Normal 8 - 10 3 24 2 closed lump sum limited limited varying possible
The applied Alliance approach of mutual trust and cooperation enabled us to achieve the desired, very challenging, project targets A very attractive way of working for all people involved Possible in a multi-cultural environment Financially attractive for all parties People are the key element !
GW: New Project Organization Models
Objectives – Reflecting the new project organization models Contents – Analyzing advantages and disadvantages of the new project organization models empowerment, integration, partnering – Questions to the models Working form – Group discussions: 15‘; taking notes – Plenary discussion
Project Organization Chart 46 .
Project Organization Chart: Engineering Company Project Manager Advisory Board PM Assistant Technical Expert Comissioner Site Manager Procurement Expert Logistics Expert Matrix-Project Organization Pure Project Organization etc. 47 .
Organization Chart: Reorganization of Swissair (1990) Steering Committee Project Management Project Team 48 .
Project Organization Chart Project Project contributor contributor Sub team 2 Project Project contributor contributor Project Project contributor contributor Project Team Project team Project team member member Project team Project team member member Project Project manager manager Project Project contributor contributor Subteam 1 Project Project contributor contributor Project Organisation Project Project owner team owner team 49 .
responsible person Adaption over time. Quality standards: Date. shadows behind boxes. . as the project evolves A communication instrument 50 .. not persons Different presentations of the project organization provide different information Symbolic project management – The chart is an artefact of the project culture – Boxes or bubbles. version..Project Organization Chart A model of the project reality Presentation of roles (and communication structures). size of boxes.
Project Roles 51 .
List of Project Roles: Example Project role Project owner team Project manager Project team member: Construction Project team member: Engineering Project team member: Procurement Project contributor: Engineering Sub team: Engineering Name XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX 52 .
representing the project to relevant project environments. directing the project team and the project contributors. in practice sometimes two persons Content work Project management. project coordinator. competences regarding the projectperforming organizations. realizing the project objectives. from the external personnel market 53 Project manager. the products. project leader.Role Characteristics: Project Manager Names Importance for the project success Objectives Representing the interests of the project. the technologies Project management expert pool. preparing and adapting of the project management documentation Number of persons Non-objectives Competences Recruitment One person. etc. Very high .
. together with project team members and the project owner team •….Role: Project Manager Objectives • Representing the interests of the project • Realizing the project objectives • Directing the project team and the project contributors • Representing the project to relevant project environments • Preparing and adapting of the project management documentation Organizational position • Reporting to the project owner team • Member of the project team Tasks Tasks in the project start process • Know-how transfer from the pre-project phase into the project. 54 .
project sponsor. often not performed accordingly . strategical orientation.Role Characteristics: Project Owner Team Names Importance for the project success Objectives Representing the interests of the company in a project. directing the project manager. Very high. who are interested in the project results 55 Project owner. setteling conflicts of the project team Project management. 2 to 4 for projects. social and decisionmaking competences Executives from the project-performing organizations. project steering committee. of the same or of different hierarchy levels Performing project management functions. supporting the project team Number of persons Non-objectives Competences Recruitment 1 for small projects. project supervisory board. etc. assigning the project to the project team.
Role: Project Owner Team Objectives • Representing the interests of the company in a project • Assigning the project to the project team • Directing the project manager • Supporting the project team Organizational position • Member of the project organisation • Project manager reports the project owner team Tasks Tasks in the project start process • Selecting the project manager and project team members • Agreeing on the project objectives with the project team • Contributing to the construction of the project context 56 .
relations to environments.Relational Description of Project Roles Application of standardized structures Structure: Objectives. formal authorities Relating the tasks to the project management sub-processes Consideration of relations between different roles 57 . tasks. organizational position.
. Projekt PM manager SW SW Org Organisation HW 58 . .Objects of Consideration and Project Team Roles Objects of consideration SW SW HW HW Organisation Organisation Objectives -Completed SW solution -Implemented SW and HW solution -Developed concept for organisation Project Projekt Projekt Planning Planung Planung Realisierung Realisation Realisierung Test Test Commissioning IBN IBN Scope SW Planung Planung plannin SW SW g HW Planung Planung HW planning HW Project team . .
GW: Project Roles Objectives – Developing an understanding about the relationships between the project roles Contents – Analysis of project roles (project manager.) – Analysis of the relationship between the roles – Own perception of these roles Working Form – Group work: 15` – Documentation: Notes – Discussion of the results in the plenary 59 . etc. project team member. project owner.
generalists. communicating with relevant environments. – Project management professionals. … Project managers come in different forms. of experience groups. team players. service providers. solving conflicts. – Moderating. business-oriented. marketing-oriented. leaders. achievers. – Project management exchange. … 60 . for different project types. – Drivers. reflecting. … Project managers require social competences. project manager only or in combination with a contents-related role. project management associations. – Part time or full time. peers in the company. … Project managers are not the best technical experts. presenting. leading teams. … Project managers are part of a project management community. not administrators.Perception of the Project Manager Project managers are managers.
Project Responsibility Chart. Project Communication Structures. Project Rules 61 .
decision (D) 62 . – WBS. e.. role definitions. contribution (C). : performance (P). information (I). coordination (C1).g. project environment analysis Consideration of individual roles and of team roles Definition of functions for the performance of each work package Use of different functions.Project Responsibility Chart Method to plan the fulfilment of work packages For selected work packages An integrative project management method. integrates .
I 63 .
Guests Once a month (and when required) As required Sub-Team Meeting Sub-Team Members 64 . Project Manager. Guests feedback Project Team Meeting Information. project controlling. reporting. project decisions Solutions of contents-related problems Project Team Members. strategic decisions.Project Communication Structures Communication Form Project Owner Meeting Objectives Participants Frequency Once a month (and when required) Project status Project Owner.
The “Big Project Picture” is to be constructed. Representatives of relevant project environments may participate in team meetings.Project Team Meetings Detailed problems regarding the project contents are not subject of project team meetings. 65 . Dates for team meetings and project owner meetings have to be fixed in the start process.
Project Rules Meeting rules – Being on time – … IT application rules – MS Office version … – Filing on server … – … Corporate design rules – Usage of project logo only in combination with company logo – … 66 .
Project Role Assignments 67 .
but .Combination of Project Roles Project Owner and Project Manager Project Owner and Project Team Member Project Owner and Project Contributor Project Manager and Project Team Member Project Manager and Project Contributor NO NO YES YES.. YES 68 ..
Inter-Role Conflicts and Potentials Mr. Miller Pr oje nt ct me rt (P Team a ro ep je c M fD t B em o be ) ad r He Project Manager (Project A) 69 .
GW: Role Conflicts and Potentials Objectives – Reflecting inter and intra-role conflicts and potentials Tasks – Defining individual roles one is „playing“ – Analysing individual inter and intra-role conflicts and potentials – Exchange of the results of the analysis with another student. challenge statements regarding conflicts and potentials Form – Individual analysis: 5` – Exchange of the analysis results`: 10` – Brief discussion in the plenary 70 .
20` – Brief presentations and discussions 71 .GW: Organizational Design of a Project Objectives – Application of methods for the organizational design of projects for a „private“ project Tasks – Selection of a „private project“ – Definition of project roles – Design of a project organization chart Form – Small groups.
Project Leadership 72 .
lead. organize. control Systemic leadership functions – Construction of a common realities – Building-up and reducing complexity – Managing dynamics – Providing sense Leadership – Part of the management functions – Interventions versus individuals and teams Intervention: A goal-determined communication 73 .Management and Leadership Traditional management functions – Plan.
Leadership in Projects Providing (context) information Providing conditions to motivate the members of the project organisation Agreeing on objectives Controlling progress and giving feedback Making decisions Solving conflicts Reflecting to promote learning of individuals and teams 74 .
Leadership Roles in Projects Project owner Project manager Project team 75 .
Event-oriented Leadership Approval by the user „Energy“ Project start workshop Project presentation Project close-down workshop Project controlling meeting Project controlling meeting t 76 .
Teams in Projects 77 .
Project Organization Chart Project Project contributor contributor Sub team 2 Project Project contributor contributor Project Project contributor contributor Project Team Project team Project team member member Project team Project team member member Project Project manager manager Project Project contributor contributor Subteam 1 Project Project contributor contributor Project Organisation Project Project owner team owner team 78 .
“Unreal” team-work Real team-work Individual work 79 .
Team-Performance Performance (Katzenbach) Team Potential Team Pseudo Team Working Group Integration 80 .
trust and team spirit Strong. relying on each other Group "I am in a Group" Individual objectives dominate Individual responsibility for individual results Little coherence Weak Task orientation Responsibility Coherence Interdependencies 81 .Group versus Team Team "We are a Team" Individual objectives less important than team objectives Common responsibilty for the results High coherence.
Team Development 82 .
Team Development Process Traditional Model Forming Performing Storming Norming Performing Adjourning Adapted Model Forming and Norming Performing Reflecting Renorming Performing Adjourning 83 .
“capitals” Establishing a coherent team by … – Informing each other about „private secrets“ – Performing common social activities – Developing a common project view – Defining common project rules. norms – Ensuring the identification of the team members with the project 84 .Forming: Objectives Assuring the required qualifications.
„Capitals“ Required in Teams Know-how Capital Relational Capital Decision Capital Project Success = Quality x Acceptance 85 .
associative methods Feedback: Objectives – Feedback is directed versus someone. the project team) – Basis for learning.g. for further development Reflection: Working forms – “Flash light”. meeting 86 .Reflection and Feedback in Projects Reflection: Objectives – Reflection by a social system (e. for further development Feedback: Working forms – Questionnaire. smilies. something – Informal or formal feedback – Basis for learning.
Reflection: Status per … Results ☺ ☺ Process 87 .
Johari-Window A Area of Free Action B The “Blind” Spot Known by others C Hidden Area D The Unconscious Not known by others Known by oneself Not known by oneself 88 .
A B C 89 .
clear and on time – Be constructive.Feedback Rules Rules to give feedback – Be concrete. the timing – Be aware of the consequences of your feedback Rules to take feedback – Ask. positive and possibly negative statements – Consider the situation. to clarify the feedback – Don`t argue – Accept the feedback as a subjective statement – Be grateful for the feedback 90 .
…? Form – Groups of two.GW: Feedback Objectives – Experience a formal feedback situation: Giving and taking Tasks – Find a student to give feedback about your observations of him/her in class – Prepare for the feedback situation – Give feedback to each other student by applying the feedback rules (3`) – Criteria for feedback: Contribution to the discussion. giving feedback to other students. not friends! – Duration: 10` – Plenary: Experiences gained 91 . socialize with other students. making presentations.
Project Culture 92 .
project folder.Elements of the Project Culture Project name. etc) Project room Social project events 93 . project anecdotes Project artefacts (project management documentation. project mission statement Project language. project colour Project values. project logo. project slogans.
providing orientation to the members of the project team Promotion of a relative project autonomy Creation of the basis for project marketing 94 .Project Culture: Objectives Creation of a competitive advantage by … – establishing clear project boundaries to allow the recognition of the project – promoting the identification of the members of the project organization with the project Development of a team spirit.
e.g „Conception Product XY“ NO-NOs – unclear abbreviations. numbers („4711“) – only the customer name – wrong associations („Route 66“) 95 . short. allowing associations with the project objectives Identifying the project type.Project Name Clear.
Project logo and project colour 96 .
Possibility.. to document the values in a project mission statement – Practical relevance still low 98 .Project Values/Mission Statement Result-related values and process-related values Questions to ask: – What is specific about the project? – What is important for the project team? – What is not important? – What differences are there between this project and others? – ..
folders To give orientation to – the members of the project organization – representatives of the relevant environments 99 . in brochures.Project Slogans Project specific or project phase specific Used in project meetings.
100 . no major changes in the project culture are desired.Project Culture Development The project culture is developed initially in the project start process. The project culture is further developed by “meta-communication” in the project controlling process. Usually. To resolve a project discontinuity also the project culture requires major changes.
. organization. Invitation of participants Documentation of the results of the pre-project phase Drafts of plans. II. .Responsibilities Members of the project team Project manager Project owner Project coach Project team Activities Planning the project start • • • • • • • • • • • Check: Internal project assignment and results of the pre-pj phase Selection of forms of communication Selection of project team members (and of a project coach) Selection of methods and form of documentation of PM to be used Agreement with the project owner Hiring of a project coach (option) Preparation of starting communications I.. culture and marketing of the project Developing of information material for starting communications C R R R R R (C) (C) R C C C (C) (C) (C) C C C 1) Preparing the project start 2) 3) Documents Externals 101 .
IPMA`90: Management by Projects 10th World Congress of the IPMAInternational Project Management Association June. 1990 102 .
IPMA`90: Context. congress as a marketing chance The preceding congress in Glasgow 1988 was a flop Demand for a clear profile of the product and intensive marketing 103 . Situation Periodic world congress of the IPMA PMA was established in 1986 at the WU Wien.
IPMA`90: Project Name IPMA`90: Management by Projects Repetitive event: – Organiser: IPMA-International Project Management Association – Year: 1990 Contents – Management by Projects 104 .
IPMA´90: Mission Statement Science and practice Traditional and innovative Viennese and international Mind and body Individual and co-operative. a learning chance Product and process related statements! 105 .
Date 12/88 10/89 IPMA`90 Slogans Total Marketing! No more creativity! Love for the details and for a high quality in the production! Have fun.A High Touch Project 5/90 6/90 Project phases related slogans! 106 . everything is decided! IPMA´90 .
GW: Project Culture Objectives – Project culture development Contents Developing a project name. a project slogan. notes – Report in the plenary 107 . project specific values for a specific project Working Form – Group work: 20’.
Project Start Process 108 .
Project assigned Project starting Project coordinating Project controlling Project discontinuity resolving Project closing-down Project approved 109 .
people do not know each other (in their new roles) Need for orientation Different levels of information of participants 110 . high demand for „project work“ Social uncertainty.Project Start: Situation Time pressure.
social system established Project is known to relevant environment.Project Start: Results Appropriate project plans and appropriate project organization established Common „big project picture“. initial project marketing performed Project management documentation „project start“ completed Agreements upon project controlling and project-close down 111 . project team spirit developed Project culture developed.
Project Start: Methods Application of methods in the project start process Planning Methods Project objectives plan Objects of consideration plan Project work breakdown structure Project work package specification Project bar chart Project finance plan Project cost plan Business case analysis must can must can must can must can must must must must must can must must Small Project Project 112 ROLAND GAREIS Project and Programme Management® .
Project Communication Forms Quality of PM Project Workshop Kick-off/ Close-down Meeting Individual Meetings low low middle 113 high middle high Need for Resources .
customer representatives. seminar hotel Duration: 1-3 days Sequential workshops: e.g. 3 days in between for documentation work Several workshops with different target groups at different locations – project team.Project Start WS: Organization Venue: Outside of the company. contractor Professional moderation of the WS Visualization. afterwards electronic documentation Invitation of the project owner at the end of the WS 114 . 1 plus 1 day.
offices for (distributed) project team members PM software. e-mail.and video conferencing Visualization and moderation tools 115 . office software Intranet and Internet (project portal..) Telecom: Telephone...Project Start: Infrastructure Project office. homepage.
project manager.Project Start: Assurance of Management Quality Project consulting – supporting the project in the start process to build up project management competence Coaching of … – the project owner. project team by external or internal consultants 116 .
II. Invitation of participants Documentation of the results of the pre-project phase Drafts for planning. . organizing and marketing of the project Developing of information material for start communications R R R R R (C) (C) R C C C (C) (C) (C) C C C 2) C 1) Preparing the project start 3) 117 Documents Externals ..Responsibilities Members of the project team Project manager Project owner Project coach Project team Activities Planning the project start • • • • • • • • • • • Check: Internal project assignment and results of the pre-pj phase Selection of form of start communication Selection of project team members (and of a project coach) Selection of PM methods and form of documentation Agreement with the project owner about start process Hiring of a project coach (option) Preparation of forms of start communications I..
advertising agency.Case Study: Start of Project „Feature Development“ Project information – Based on the results of a conception project the Project Portfolio Group of an Austrian telecommunication company decides to further develop an existing product by adding a new feature to it (e.g. 10`-15`.000. Working form – Small groups. providing information about the daily telefon costs) – Project duration: 2-3 months – Project costs: € 120.... documentation 118 .– Partner: SW developer.
Case Study: Assignment Analysis of the strategic importance and the social complexity of the project Planning the … – knowledge transfer from the conception project into the project „Feature Development“ – project management methods to be applied in the start process – communication structures for the start process – required infrastructure for the start process – involvement of a project management consultant and/or coach in the start process – initial project marketing 119 .
Happy Projects! Roland Gareis 120 .
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