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Roland Gareis Bucharest, December 9-11, 2010
Developing an understanding about – methods for the design of projects as temporary organizations – the project start process Cyclic learning approach – presentations, examples from industry – application of methods on „real projects“ – discussions Not objectives: Project planning and controlling methods
Workshop 1 – Introduction – Traditional project organization models – New organization models: Empowerment, integration, partnering Workshop 2 – Project organization charts – Project roles: project owner, project manager, etc. – Responsibility chart and project communication structures Workshop 3 – Project team work and leadership – Project culture – Project start process
Department of the WU Vienna - University of Economics and Business Administration since 1994 Education programmes – Special subject „Project Management“ within the master programmes – Professional MBA “Project & Process Management” – Contribution to the IT bachelor programme: IS Project Management pm lectures and pm events (in cooperation with RGC) – happy projects events – tough changes events Facilitator of PMUni – an international network of universities
Project management: SustPM Management in the project-oriented company : HR Social competence for projects Managing changes by projects
Basic Scientific Paradigms and Research Process Social systems theory Radical constructivism and not critical rationalism Qualitative social research – and not quantitative research methods .
Community Auftrags Abwicklung A Auftrags Abwiclung B Angebots legung Service Performing a Course Agreeing on.Process Map of the PMG Students. Supervising a Master or PhD Thesis Proposing. performing research Organizing a pm lecture Cooperating in a pm event Performing PMBA program Service Primary Processes Planning the courses Product development Markt Produkt Infrastructure Management Managing Partner Relations Marketing & PR PR Defining Research Topics Secundary Processes Personnel Management Strategic Planning Project Portfolio Management Tertiary Processes .
ROLAND GAREIS CONSULTING Vienna We are management experts. company . project . Our consultants are management experts. companychangeRGC and socialRGC. projectRGC. RGC. process . changeRGC and social 9 . RGC. Our high-qualitative consulting and and training services are based on Our high-qualitative consulting training services are based on RGC RGC processRGC RGC .
ROLAND GAREIS CONSULTING Bucharest 10 .
projectRGC 11 .
Project Management Process Project assigned Project Starting Project Coordinating Project Controlling Resolving a Project Discontinuity Project Closing-Down Project approved 12 .
income. other projects. business case 13 . infrastructure Context: Pre-. relevant environments. schedule. and . post-project phase. Objectives.Project Management Objects of Consideration Scope Schedule Costs Scope.. personnel. company strategies.. costs. risks Organization and culture. resources.
Design of Project Organizations: Objectives Creation of a competitive advantage Promotion of the evolution in the project organization during the project performance Organizational design „contingent“ on – relationships with clients. partners – applied management paradigm 14 .
Design of Project Organizations: Elements Project organization chart Project role descriptions Description of project communication structures Project responsibility matrix Project organization rules 15 .
Traditional Project Organization Models 16 .
Formal Authorities in Projects Project Project Manager Manager Line Line Manager Manager Project Project Team Team Member Member 17 .
Distribution of Authorities Project Manager What? How well? Who? How? How much? When? Pure-line Project Organization Matrix-ProjectOrganization Influence ProjectOrganization 18 Line Manager .
Pure Line Project Organization Projec t Procure ment Produc tio n Owner F&E Projec t mana ger Market in g Base Organization Project Organization 19 .
Influence Project Organization CEO/Project Owner CEO/Project Owner Project Project Manager A Manager A Controlling Controlling Procurement Procurement Production Production R&D R&D Marketing Marketing Project Team Member 20 .
Matrix Project Organization CEO CEO Procurement Procurement Project Project Owner A Owner A Project Project Manager A Manager A Production Production R&D R&D Marketing Marketing 21 .
Authorities in the Matrix Project Organization What? When? How much? Project Project Manager Manager Line Line Manager Manager Who? How? How well? Project Project Team Team Member Member 22 .
GW: Traditional Project Organization Models Objectives – Reflecting the traditional project organization models Contents – Analyzing advantages and disadvantages of the traditional project organization models – Questions to the models Working form – Group discussions: 10‘. taking notes – Plenary discussion 23 .
Empowerment 24 .
It is too slow and too expensive.The Matrix-Project Organization is dead! A hierarchy of control is not lean. 25 . It is not customer oriented.
Design Element: Empowerment Empowerment of the project team members – Responsibility for the How? and How well? – Expert pool managers (instead of department heads) responsible for the Who? Empowerment of the project team – Common project responsibility of team members Empowerment of the project – Minimum interventions from the base organization – Project autonomy is required! 26 .
Empowerment: Project Team Member. Project Team What? When? How much? Project team Project manager Expert Pool manager Who? Project team Project team member member How? How well? 27 .
Project Organization Chart: Empowerment Project Project contributor contributor Sub team 2 Project Project contributor contributor Project Project contributor contributor Project Team Project team Project team member member Project team Project team member member Project Project manager manager Project Project contributor contributor Subteam 1 P ro jec t Project Project contributor contributor Or ga nis a tio n Project Project owner team owner team 28 .
Integration 29 .
Hierarchies of Project Organizations Client´s Client´s Project Organization Project Organization General Contractor´s General Contractor´s Project Organization Project Organization Sub-Contractor´s Sub-Contractor´s Project Organization Project Organization Sub-sub Contractor´s Sub-sub Contractor´s Project Organization Project Organization ~ 30 .
Parallel Project Organizations Investor Network Contractor Billing Contractor Project Owner Project Owner Project Owner Project Owner Project Owner Project Owner PM PM Technical Technical Experts Experts Billing Billing Experts Experts Technical Technical Experts 11 Experts PM PM Technical Technical Experts 33 Experts Billing Billing Experts 11 Experts PM PM Billing Billing Experts 33 Experts Organisational Organisational Experts 22 Experts Technical Technical Experts 22 Experts Billing Billing Experts 22 Experts 31 .
Organizational Shortcomings Parallel project organizations and hierarchies of project organizations – too slow and too expensive Cultural and structural misunderstandings – several project managers and project teams in one project 32 .
Project Owner Team Project Manager Technical Expert Organizations Expert Commercial Expert Subteam Technics Subteam Organization Project Organization Subteam Billing Technical contractor Billing contractor 33 Investor .
Design Element: Integration
Representatives of different organizations in the project team Possible partners – external: clients, partners, suppliers, sub suppliers, authorities,... – internal: different profit units of the company, subsidiaries,... Basis: Common project management competences, trust, common history, clear objectives Separation of contracts and organizations Definition of the project boundaries from the investors point of view Common project objectives and project plans “Open books”?
Design Element: Partnering
Integration of the partners by – contractual agreement – common incentive systems
Alliance. van Wieren. Fluor Daniel BV 37 . Berlin H. an excellent solution to meet Project Execution Challenges Presentation at the 16th IPMA World Congress 6 June 2002.D.
Ruhr Oel Project Objectives Start EPC-Engineering Procurement Construction work 2 January 2000 Construction work to fit the turn-around schedules Last plant ready for operation 1 August 2001 Cost should be fitting the low refining margins Due to severe time constraints Ruhr Oel elected to execute the project in a for Germany new execution concept: an Alliance 38 .
Selected Contract Form One Alliance contract (36 pages) Five partners – Client Ruhr Oel (Germany) – Engineering contractor Fluor Daniel (The Netherlands) – Civil contractor (Germany) (France) (Belgium) – Piping/mechanical contractor – Electrical/instruments contractor All expenses are being paid at cost Sharing of over/under-run of target price Bonus for timely completion No claims allowed against other partners 39 .
Key Project Objectives Schedule. under-run the Target Price Quality. no negative publicity Make the Alliance a success 40 . good relationships and communication Meet statutory requirements. end schedule plus shutdown schedules Budget. of the parts and the total Safety. Meet Fluor standards Relationships.
Project Execution All partners had their own Quality Management system Fluor Daniel system. formed the basis – Operating System Requirements – Operating System Implementation Plan – SHE Management System – Knowledge On-Line – Project Activity Model Project Execution Plan/ Project Procedures Manual Alignment meetings used to share information and to get involvement and buy-in by project personnel 41 . founded on TQM.
incidence rate 0.65 (limit 0.Key Project Results In spite of 25% increase in work due to scope development and added scope during the EPC phase: Project completed on time. shutdowns not delayed Cost 9% under Target Price Plants operating as specified and meeting quality standards No LTI’s.90) Good relationships prevailed. excellent communication All authority requirements fulfilled and positive publicity The Alliance is considered very successful by all involved 42 .
Alliance Basic Engineering (months) Bidding and Evaluation EPC (months) EPC phase Delays due to changes Change orders Contract form Flexibility Cooperation between parties Team satisfaction Competitive bidding 6 0 19 0 open book at cost with incentives high high high very difficult
Normal 8 - 10 3 24 2 closed lump sum limited limited varying possible
The applied Alliance approach of mutual trust and cooperation enabled us to achieve the desired, very challenging, project targets A very attractive way of working for all people involved Possible in a multi-cultural environment Financially attractive for all parties People are the key element !
GW: New Project Organization Models
Objectives – Reflecting the new project organization models Contents – Analyzing advantages and disadvantages of the new project organization models empowerment, integration, partnering – Questions to the models Working form – Group discussions: 15‘; taking notes – Plenary discussion
Project Organization Chart 46 .
Project Organization Chart: Engineering Company Project Manager Advisory Board PM Assistant Technical Expert Comissioner Site Manager Procurement Expert Logistics Expert Matrix-Project Organization Pure Project Organization etc. 47 .
Organization Chart: Reorganization of Swissair (1990) Steering Committee Project Management Project Team 48 .
Project Organization Chart Project Project contributor contributor Sub team 2 Project Project contributor contributor Project Project contributor contributor Project Team Project team Project team member member Project team Project team member member Project Project manager manager Project Project contributor contributor Subteam 1 Project Project contributor contributor Project Organisation Project Project owner team owner team 49 .
. version.. not persons Different presentations of the project organization provide different information Symbolic project management – The chart is an artefact of the project culture – Boxes or bubbles. as the project evolves A communication instrument 50 . Quality standards: Date.Project Organization Chart A model of the project reality Presentation of roles (and communication structures). shadows behind boxes. size of boxes.. responsible person Adaption over time.
Project Roles 51 .
List of Project Roles: Example Project role Project owner team Project manager Project team member: Construction Project team member: Engineering Project team member: Procurement Project contributor: Engineering Sub team: Engineering Name XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX 52 .
representing the project to relevant project environments. project leader. the products.Role Characteristics: Project Manager Names Importance for the project success Objectives Representing the interests of the project. directing the project team and the project contributors. Very high . preparing and adapting of the project management documentation Number of persons Non-objectives Competences Recruitment One person. in practice sometimes two persons Content work Project management. project coordinator. competences regarding the projectperforming organizations. the technologies Project management expert pool. realizing the project objectives. from the external personnel market 53 Project manager. etc.
54 .Role: Project Manager Objectives • Representing the interests of the project • Realizing the project objectives • Directing the project team and the project contributors • Representing the project to relevant project environments • Preparing and adapting of the project management documentation Organizational position • Reporting to the project owner team • Member of the project team Tasks Tasks in the project start process • Know-how transfer from the pre-project phase into the project. together with project team members and the project owner team •…..
often not performed accordingly . strategical orientation. project supervisory board. supporting the project team Number of persons Non-objectives Competences Recruitment 1 for small projects. setteling conflicts of the project team Project management. assigning the project to the project team.Role Characteristics: Project Owner Team Names Importance for the project success Objectives Representing the interests of the company in a project. directing the project manager. Very high. etc. project steering committee. project sponsor. who are interested in the project results 55 Project owner. social and decisionmaking competences Executives from the project-performing organizations. 2 to 4 for projects. of the same or of different hierarchy levels Performing project management functions.
Role: Project Owner Team Objectives • Representing the interests of the company in a project • Assigning the project to the project team • Directing the project manager • Supporting the project team Organizational position • Member of the project organisation • Project manager reports the project owner team Tasks Tasks in the project start process • Selecting the project manager and project team members • Agreeing on the project objectives with the project team • Contributing to the construction of the project context 56 .
tasks.Relational Description of Project Roles Application of standardized structures Structure: Objectives. organizational position. formal authorities Relating the tasks to the project management sub-processes Consideration of relations between different roles 57 . relations to environments.
Objects of Consideration and Project Team Roles Objects of consideration SW SW HW HW Organisation Organisation Objectives -Completed SW solution -Implemented SW and HW solution -Developed concept for organisation Project Projekt Projekt Planning Planung Planung Realisierung Realisation Realisierung Test Test Commissioning IBN IBN Scope SW Planung Planung plannin SW SW g HW Planung Planung HW planning HW Project team . . . . Projekt PM manager SW SW Org Organisation HW 58 .
etc.GW: Project Roles Objectives – Developing an understanding about the relationships between the project roles Contents – Analysis of project roles (project manager.) – Analysis of the relationship between the roles – Own perception of these roles Working Form – Group work: 15` – Documentation: Notes – Discussion of the results in the plenary 59 . project owner. project team member.
leaders. achievers. – Moderating. communicating with relevant environments. … Project managers require social competences. peers in the company. team players. project manager only or in combination with a contents-related role. for different project types. – Project management professionals. project management associations. … Project managers are not the best technical experts. – Part time or full time. – Drivers. – Project management exchange. presenting. leading teams.Perception of the Project Manager Project managers are managers. business-oriented. service providers. reflecting. solving conflicts. of experience groups. … Project managers come in different forms. … 60 . marketing-oriented. generalists. not administrators. … Project managers are part of a project management community.
Project Rules 61 . Project Communication Structures.Project Responsibility Chart.
coordination (C1). contribution (C). role definitions. integrates . information (I).. – WBS. project environment analysis Consideration of individual roles and of team roles Definition of functions for the performance of each work package Use of different functions. e. : performance (P). decision (D) 62 .g.Project Responsibility Chart Method to plan the fulfilment of work packages For selected work packages An integrative project management method.
I 63 .
project controlling. Guests Once a month (and when required) As required Sub-Team Meeting Sub-Team Members 64 . project decisions Solutions of contents-related problems Project Team Members. reporting. strategic decisions. Project Manager. Guests feedback Project Team Meeting Information.Project Communication Structures Communication Form Project Owner Meeting Objectives Participants Frequency Once a month (and when required) Project status Project Owner.
65 . Dates for team meetings and project owner meetings have to be fixed in the start process. Representatives of relevant project environments may participate in team meetings. The “Big Project Picture” is to be constructed.Project Team Meetings Detailed problems regarding the project contents are not subject of project team meetings.
Project Rules Meeting rules – Being on time – … IT application rules – MS Office version … – Filing on server … – … Corporate design rules – Usage of project logo only in combination with company logo – … 66 .
Project Role Assignments 67 .
YES 68 . but .Combination of Project Roles Project Owner and Project Manager Project Owner and Project Team Member Project Owner and Project Contributor Project Manager and Project Team Member Project Manager and Project Contributor NO NO YES YES...
Miller Pr oje nt ct me rt (P Team a ro ep je c M fD t B em o be ) ad r He Project Manager (Project A) 69 .Inter-Role Conflicts and Potentials Mr.
GW: Role Conflicts and Potentials Objectives – Reflecting inter and intra-role conflicts and potentials Tasks – Defining individual roles one is „playing“ – Analysing individual inter and intra-role conflicts and potentials – Exchange of the results of the analysis with another student. challenge statements regarding conflicts and potentials Form – Individual analysis: 5` – Exchange of the analysis results`: 10` – Brief discussion in the plenary 70 .
GW: Organizational Design of a Project Objectives – Application of methods for the organizational design of projects for a „private“ project Tasks – Selection of a „private project“ – Definition of project roles – Design of a project organization chart Form – Small groups. 20` – Brief presentations and discussions 71 .
Project Leadership 72 .
lead.Management and Leadership Traditional management functions – Plan. control Systemic leadership functions – Construction of a common realities – Building-up and reducing complexity – Managing dynamics – Providing sense Leadership – Part of the management functions – Interventions versus individuals and teams Intervention: A goal-determined communication 73 . organize.
Leadership in Projects Providing (context) information Providing conditions to motivate the members of the project organisation Agreeing on objectives Controlling progress and giving feedback Making decisions Solving conflicts Reflecting to promote learning of individuals and teams 74 .
Leadership Roles in Projects Project owner Project manager Project team 75 .
Event-oriented Leadership Approval by the user „Energy“ Project start workshop Project presentation Project close-down workshop Project controlling meeting Project controlling meeting t 76 .
Teams in Projects 77 .
Project Organization Chart Project Project contributor contributor Sub team 2 Project Project contributor contributor Project Project contributor contributor Project Team Project team Project team member member Project team Project team member member Project Project manager manager Project Project contributor contributor Subteam 1 Project Project contributor contributor Project Organisation Project Project owner team owner team 78 .
“Unreal” team-work Real team-work Individual work 79 .
Team-Performance Performance (Katzenbach) Team Potential Team Pseudo Team Working Group Integration 80 .
Group versus Team Team "We are a Team" Individual objectives less important than team objectives Common responsibilty for the results High coherence. relying on each other Group "I am in a Group" Individual objectives dominate Individual responsibility for individual results Little coherence Weak Task orientation Responsibility Coherence Interdependencies 81 . trust and team spirit Strong.
Team Development 82 .
Team Development Process Traditional Model Forming Performing Storming Norming Performing Adjourning Adapted Model Forming and Norming Performing Reflecting Renorming Performing Adjourning 83 .
“capitals” Establishing a coherent team by … – Informing each other about „private secrets“ – Performing common social activities – Developing a common project view – Defining common project rules.Forming: Objectives Assuring the required qualifications. norms – Ensuring the identification of the team members with the project 84 .
„Capitals“ Required in Teams Know-how Capital Relational Capital Decision Capital Project Success = Quality x Acceptance 85 .
g. meeting 86 . smilies. for further development Feedback: Working forms – Questionnaire. for further development Reflection: Working forms – “Flash light”. the project team) – Basis for learning.Reflection and Feedback in Projects Reflection: Objectives – Reflection by a social system (e. something – Informal or formal feedback – Basis for learning. associative methods Feedback: Objectives – Feedback is directed versus someone.
Reflection: Status per … Results ☺ ☺ Process 87 .
Johari-Window A Area of Free Action B The “Blind” Spot Known by others C Hidden Area D The Unconscious Not known by others Known by oneself Not known by oneself 88 .
A B C 89 .
the timing – Be aware of the consequences of your feedback Rules to take feedback – Ask.Feedback Rules Rules to give feedback – Be concrete. positive and possibly negative statements – Consider the situation. to clarify the feedback – Don`t argue – Accept the feedback as a subjective statement – Be grateful for the feedback 90 . clear and on time – Be constructive.
making presentations.GW: Feedback Objectives – Experience a formal feedback situation: Giving and taking Tasks – Find a student to give feedback about your observations of him/her in class – Prepare for the feedback situation – Give feedback to each other student by applying the feedback rules (3`) – Criteria for feedback: Contribution to the discussion. …? Form – Groups of two. not friends! – Duration: 10` – Plenary: Experiences gained 91 . giving feedback to other students. socialize with other students.
Project Culture 92 .
project logo. project colour Project values. project mission statement Project language. project folder. project slogans. etc) Project room Social project events 93 .Elements of the Project Culture Project name. project anecdotes Project artefacts (project management documentation.
Project Culture: Objectives Creation of a competitive advantage by … – establishing clear project boundaries to allow the recognition of the project – promoting the identification of the members of the project organization with the project Development of a team spirit. providing orientation to the members of the project team Promotion of a relative project autonomy Creation of the basis for project marketing 94 .
short. numbers („4711“) – only the customer name – wrong associations („Route 66“) 95 .Project Name Clear. allowing associations with the project objectives Identifying the project type.g „Conception Product XY“ NO-NOs – unclear abbreviations. e.
Project logo and project colour 96 .
Project Values/Mission Statement Result-related values and process-related values Questions to ask: – What is specific about the project? – What is important for the project team? – What is not important? – What differences are there between this project and others? – . Possibility... to document the values in a project mission statement – Practical relevance still low 98 .
Project Slogans Project specific or project phase specific Used in project meetings. in brochures. folders To give orientation to – the members of the project organization – representatives of the relevant environments 99 .
The project culture is further developed by “meta-communication” in the project controlling process. no major changes in the project culture are desired.Project Culture Development The project culture is developed initially in the project start process. 100 . To resolve a project discontinuity also the project culture requires major changes. Usually.
II. . culture and marketing of the project Developing of information material for starting communications C R R R R R (C) (C) R C C C (C) (C) (C) C C C 1) Preparing the project start 2) 3) Documents Externals 101 . Invitation of participants Documentation of the results of the pre-project phase Drafts of plans.. organization..Responsibilities Members of the project team Project manager Project owner Project coach Project team Activities Planning the project start • • • • • • • • • • • Check: Internal project assignment and results of the pre-pj phase Selection of forms of communication Selection of project team members (and of a project coach) Selection of methods and form of documentation of PM to be used Agreement with the project owner Hiring of a project coach (option) Preparation of starting communications I.
1990 102 .IPMA`90: Management by Projects 10th World Congress of the IPMAInternational Project Management Association June.
IPMA`90: Context. Situation Periodic world congress of the IPMA PMA was established in 1986 at the WU Wien. congress as a marketing chance The preceding congress in Glasgow 1988 was a flop Demand for a clear profile of the product and intensive marketing 103 .
IPMA`90: Project Name IPMA`90: Management by Projects Repetitive event: – Organiser: IPMA-International Project Management Association – Year: 1990 Contents – Management by Projects 104 .
a learning chance Product and process related statements! 105 .IPMA´90: Mission Statement Science and practice Traditional and innovative Viennese and international Mind and body Individual and co-operative.
everything is decided! IPMA´90 .A High Touch Project 5/90 6/90 Project phases related slogans! 106 .Date 12/88 10/89 IPMA`90 Slogans Total Marketing! No more creativity! Love for the details and for a high quality in the production! Have fun.
project specific values for a specific project Working Form – Group work: 20’. a project slogan. notes – Report in the plenary 107 .GW: Project Culture Objectives – Project culture development Contents Developing a project name.
Project Start Process 108 .
Project assigned Project starting Project coordinating Project controlling Project discontinuity resolving Project closing-down Project approved 109 .
people do not know each other (in their new roles) Need for orientation Different levels of information of participants 110 .Project Start: Situation Time pressure. high demand for „project work“ Social uncertainty.
Project Start: Results Appropriate project plans and appropriate project organization established Common „big project picture“. initial project marketing performed Project management documentation „project start“ completed Agreements upon project controlling and project-close down 111 . project team spirit developed Project culture developed. social system established Project is known to relevant environment.
Project Start: Methods Application of methods in the project start process Planning Methods Project objectives plan Objects of consideration plan Project work breakdown structure Project work package specification Project bar chart Project finance plan Project cost plan Business case analysis must can must can must can must can must must must must must can must must Small Project Project 112 ROLAND GAREIS Project and Programme Management® .
Project Communication Forms Quality of PM Project Workshop Kick-off/ Close-down Meeting Individual Meetings low low middle 113 high middle high Need for Resources .
seminar hotel Duration: 1-3 days Sequential workshops: e. afterwards electronic documentation Invitation of the project owner at the end of the WS 114 . contractor Professional moderation of the WS Visualization. 1 plus 1 day.g. customer representatives. 3 days in between for documentation work Several workshops with different target groups at different locations – project team.Project Start WS: Organization Venue: Outside of the company.
and video conferencing Visualization and moderation tools 115 . e-mail. homepage.. offices for (distributed) project team members PM software..Project Start: Infrastructure Project office.) Telecom: Telephone.. office software Intranet and Internet (project portal.
project manager. project team by external or internal consultants 116 .Project Start: Assurance of Management Quality Project consulting – supporting the project in the start process to build up project management competence Coaching of … – the project owner.
. organizing and marketing of the project Developing of information material for start communications R R R R R (C) (C) R C C C (C) (C) (C) C C C 2) C 1) Preparing the project start 3) 117 Documents Externals . . Invitation of participants Documentation of the results of the pre-project phase Drafts for planning..Responsibilities Members of the project team Project manager Project owner Project coach Project team Activities Planning the project start • • • • • • • • • • • Check: Internal project assignment and results of the pre-pj phase Selection of form of start communication Selection of project team members (and of a project coach) Selection of PM methods and form of documentation Agreement with the project owner about start process Hiring of a project coach (option) Preparation of forms of start communications I. II.
providing information about the daily telefon costs) – Project duration: 2-3 months – Project costs: € 120...g..– Partner: SW developer. Working form – Small groups.Case Study: Start of Project „Feature Development“ Project information – Based on the results of a conception project the Project Portfolio Group of an Austrian telecommunication company decides to further develop an existing product by adding a new feature to it (e.000. 10`-15`. advertising agency. documentation 118 .
Case Study: Assignment Analysis of the strategic importance and the social complexity of the project Planning the … – knowledge transfer from the conception project into the project „Feature Development“ – project management methods to be applied in the start process – communication structures for the start process – required infrastructure for the start process – involvement of a project management consultant and/or coach in the start process – initial project marketing 119 .
Happy Projects! Roland Gareis 120 .
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