You are on page 1of 382

CO

~

DO

164881

^

DO

1< CO

MODERN SCIENCE

DENT'S

SERIES

*
J

*
I
<$.

BY THE SAME AUTHOR AN INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL SCIENCE
224 pp.
3s. (tf.
'

* t & * 4 ? *

| SCHOOL CERTIFICATE PHYSICS | Being an enlarged edition of GENERAL 4
*
SCIENCE PHYSICS'
428 pp. 6s. Qd. | GENERAL SCIENCE FOR GIRLS | 324 pp. 4s. 6^. | $ GENERAL SCIENCE CHEMISTRY 224 pp. 3s. 9^7. $ I GENERAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY
I;;

*

t
y
| y

$ I f ^ * *

25C pp.

4s. Od.

THE ELEMENTS OF TECHNICAL SCIENCE
350 pp.
5s. 6d.

*

| *
^*

PRICES SUBJECT TO ALTERATION

GENERAL SCIENCE
PHYSICS
A.

SPENCER WHITE
B.SC..

L.C.P.

ILLUSTRATED WITH 310 DIAGRAMS

J.

M.

DENT AND SONS LTD
ST.

BEDFORD

LONDON

W.C.a

Leeds. and these sources are indicated. Templeton Smith and Mr. J." and here I must thank colleagues. has made many valuable improvements in the text for which I am very grateful. Holmyard. . The writer of a school textbook is always indebted to his colleagues on account of the many ideas put forward on those numerous occasions when they foregather to " talk shop. . The Publishers for their friendly spirit and infinite patience are also deserving of best thanks. the University of London. Sheffield. Examination Board . Where eight examining " " appears. SPENCER WHITE. T. The General Editor of this series. Many questions have been taken from back papers of the boards. thanks for permission to use such questions are due to the The University of Bristol . the Delegates of the University of Oxford Local Examinations the Oxford and Cambridge Schools and the Central Welsh Board. A. A. Mr. and Birmingham . the University of Camfollowing the University of bridge Local Examinations Syndicate . Williamson. Durham . the Joint Matriculation Board of the Universities of my my My : Manchester. Dr. Liverpool. E. this means that the remainder of the part question question was not appropriate to that particular chapter.vi PREFACE The section on Electricity has been written in such a way thai Electrostatics can be read before or after Current Electricity.

XVIII. LIGHT XVI.. LENGTHS. PACK v T. V... . VELOCITY OF LIGHT 165 182 197 vii REFLECTION REFLECTION : : PLANE SURFACES. MECHANICS . SHADOWS. .. 46 54 JJEAT VIII. 143 '154 MORE ABOUT MUSICAL SOUNDS . .CONTENTS CHAP. . VI. RECTILINEAR PROPAGATION. THE MEASUREMENT OF EXPANSION CALORIMETRY CHANGE OF STATE . PREFACE . . . II.. AREAS.. IV. CURVED SURFACES .... . . . WORK. XI. POWER..120 . XV. . . . 128 SOUND XIV. PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION . . . . - . ..172 . XVII. . WEIGHT. . XIX.. . . XIII. VII. . . MACHINES. X. MOTION . . . III. REFRACTION . MASS. THE PARALLELOGRAM OF FORCES MOMENTS .12 29 34 . XII. . 3 6 .. AND DENSITY FLUID PRESSURE . 71 .. IX. THERMOMETERS. AND VOLUMES FORCE.. . 80 92 100 THE NATURE OF HEAT TRANSMISSION OF HEAT ...

. OTHER IMPORTANT OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS DISPERSION AND COLOUR PHOTOMETRY OR LIGHT MEASUREMENT . ... . RESISTANCE ELECTRICAL ENERGY... XXIII. . . XXI... . ELECTROLYSIS CURRENT ELECTRICITY: MORE ABOUT THE MAGNETIC EFFECT POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE.. XXVIII. . .. INDUCED CURRENTS . ANSWERS TO NUMERICAL : . ... . XXVI.Vlll CHAP.. CONTENTS XX. 217 228 238 . ELECTROSTATICS . . PAOB XXII....... OHM'S LAW. LENSES ... . HEATING. . . . 357 . .. XXX. XXVII. 319 326 337 343 INDEX . . AND CHEMICAL EFFECTS.. 274 298 XXIX. ... CURRENT ELECTRICITY MAGNETIC. . 263 XXV. . MAGNETISM . 255 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY XXIV......

MECHANICS .

.

make these divisions 9 him. 2) depends on the fact that on any given screw the pitch or distance between . This instrument (fig. zo equal This parts. i).^ 3-4 cm. tape or surveyor's we frequently need to measure a length with great accuracy or to measure a thickness too small for these everyday methods. For these purposes we have two instruments called the vernier and the micrometer screw gauge. AREAS... AND VOLUMES IN ordinary life we measure lengths with ruler. may be illustrated.g. in other words. By causing the vernier scale to slide off by taking 9 of the along the main scale various" readings. FIG. Draw a narrow rectangle and mark off the length in centimetres (fig. but in science \\ I" |2 |3 15 |4 14 [5 |5 |6 |7 ' 2 E Mark |8 i. r will be the vernier scale. With a still read to a millimetre while e.. 5*i cm. This may be called the main chain. The Micrometer Screw Gauge. long. scale. etc. The Vernier. at a second narrow rectangle with divisions arrived main divisions and dividing into. we are tfius able to vernier^ using divisions very easy to see. 2.CHAPTER 1 LENGTHS. |9lO FIG.

MECHANICS
successive turns of the thread is constant. When the screw is given a complete turn, the screw point moves one pitch. If the pitch is \ mm. and the screw is twisted fa of a complete turn, " " collar form the screw point moves T i<f nim. The screw and one piece. Complete turns are recorded on the frame while With such an fractions of a turn are registered on the collar. instrument the thickness of a hair is easily determined. Areas. The areas met with in physics are those which are Tha^aUowing may be noted ordinarily treated in arithmetic.
:

Area of Area of

circle

=
*=

ellipse

n x (radius) 1 or nr* n x semi major axis x semi minor
axis
(radius)

Curved surface of cylinder
Surface of a sphere

= in x = 471? *

x

(length)

=

2nrl

tracing

of an irregular plane surface may be found by on squared paper and counting the squares. Volumes. The volumes of regular solids are often calculated Those most frequently needed in physics are in arithmetic.
:

The area

Volume Volume

of sphere of cylinder

=

n x (radius) = far* n x (radius)* X height
3

=

nr*h.

Volume of Liquid

is measured by pipette, burette, graduated In all cases the cylinder or graduated flask. instrument is^so made that the bottom of the meniscus rajist be read. The eye should always be 01^ a level with the meniscus. To check the accuracy of one of these instru-

we weigh the water which it delivers and use the fact that i c.c. of pure water at 4 C. weighs i gm. Volume of Solid by Displacement. This dates from the discovery by Archimedes that he could find his own volume by stepments,

IFIG.
3.

ping into a bath
is

full of

water.

(N. B.

This

We may

what is known as Archimedes' Principle.) To-day we immerse the solid in water in a graduated cylinder and note the rise.
not
(fig.

also use a displacement vessel weighing the overflow.

3)

measuring or

LENGTHS, AREAS, AND VOLUMES
Useful Numerical Data.
i

litre

=
= =

i

cubic decimetre
-

=

1000

c.c.

i i

kilogram metre
litre

i

i

kilogram

=

of 1000 c.c. of pure water at 4 * foot 39'37 in 30-5 cm. i inch 1-76 pints 2-54 cm.
2-2 Ib.
i

Mass

C.

Ib.

= =

454 gm.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
1.

Draw a main

of 1-8 cm.
2.

A

Repeat for

main

2-3 cm., 3-6 cm. scale is marked off in inches
7 quarters

scale ^jjftfnier scale, arid set to

show a reading

scale is

degree of accuracy ..will the vernie^ read ? Draw die arrangement. 3. Describe and explain an instrument for measuring the diameter of a half-penny to one-hundredth of an inch. (C. part question.) Count 4. Measure the thickness of an exercise book with a ruler. the pages and calculate the thickness of one page. Check with screw gauge. Mea5. Coil a length of thin copper wire tightly round a pencil. sure the length occupied by 20 or 30 turns and thus determine the diameter of the wire. Check with screw gauge. 6. How could you arrange three rectangular blocks of wood to measure the diameter of a cylinder or sphere ? 7. Make a perspective drawing of a cubic decimetre (a litre). Mark off the base into cubic centimetres alternately plain and shaded. 8. Draw the best instrument you know for measuring (a) 21-6 c.c. of water, (b) 180 c.c., (c) 25 c.c. Give reasons for your choice of instrument. 9. How would you find the vblume of an irregular solid lighter

made by taking

and quarters. A vernier and dividing into 8 equal parts.
*

To what

than water
10.

?

A rectangular tank is i J metres long,
Find
its

50 cm. wide and 550

mm.

deep.

volume

in litres.

11. You are provided with a foot rule graduated in tenths of an would you construct a vernier so that you could measure inch. Show in a diagram the position of the in fiftieths of an inch ? vernier on the scale if the reading is 7-64 in. (D.)

How

CHAPTER
FORCE, MASS, WEIGHT,
Force.

II

AND DENSITY

Sir Isaac Newton, who has been described as the greatest philosopher of all time, stated three Laws of Motion. At present we are only concerned with the First Law Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is acted upon by a force. The iirst part of the law is readily understood and a little thought will provide many illustrations of the second. We do not see bodies moving on indefinitely because there is always a force, generally friction, stopping them. If you are standing in a moving train when the brakes are put on, you fall forward because the brakes stopped your feet, but the upper part goes
:

on in a straight

line.

Stepping

off

a moving vehicle gives

another illustration.

The law really provides us with a good definition of force and we may say Force is that which changes or tends to change a body's state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line. The best-known force is undoubtedly the force of gravity, and concerning this also Newton made a very important dis-, covery. It was realized before his time that the falling of unsupported bodies was due to the earth's attraction on them. Newton wondered why the moon should go round the earth instead of keeping on in a straight line to disappear ultimately in space. He came to the conclusion that here again it was a case of attraction. The motion of the earth and c^her planets round the sun could be similarly explained. H#* accordingly stated his Law of Gravitation Every body attracts J^ery other
:

:

body with a force proportional to the product of tneir masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between
the bodies.

Apart from their agreement with everyday
6

expq^H& new-

FORCE, MASS, WEIGHT, AND DENSITY
ton's SLaws
eclipses,

7

Mass and Weight. We are now in a position to understand the meaning of the terms ''mass" and "weight" and the difference between them. The mass of a body is the amount of matter in it, while weignt is the earth's attraction on the body. Mass is a fundamental property of a body, while its weight is more or less an accident depending on its position in the universe. ) If we could make a journey to the moon, our provisions for the journey would have the same mass all the way, but at some point in between, the earth's attraction would be just cancelled by that of the moon. On the moon itself the weight would be about one-sixth of the terrestrial weight. But we need not wait for a journey to the moon ; a body taken from the equator to the poles will increase in weight because Such variations it will be nearer to the centre of the earth.
in weight could, of course,

have enabled astronomers to calculate the times of the paths of comets and led to the discovery of new Such a successful prediction of new facts is, of course, planets. the very best support any theory can have.

be observed only by using a spring

balance.
is constant and weight varies, we find very convenient to measure and compare masses by means of their weights for at the same place equal masses have the same weight and the greater the mass the greater the weight. There is in London a certain lump of platinum called a mass of i Ib. Elsewhere there are copies of this in brass and iron. If we want to buy sugar having a mass of i Ib., one of these lumps of metal is put on one scale-pan and the sugar on the The amount of sugar is adjusted until the earth pulls other. equally on both. We then say that since the weights are the same, the masses must be the same. Besides providing us with a unit of mass, the same lump of platinum affords a convenient unit of force. Thus the practical unit of force is the pull exerted by the earth on that mass of i Ib. We should always refer to a mass of i Ib. and a force of i Ib.-wt. Just as jui London there is a lump of platinum called a mass of i Ib., so in Paris there is a lump of platinum called a mass of i kilogram. In science the common balance is always accom" panied by a box of masses (generally called weights ") based

Now, although mass
;

it

on

this kilogram.

8

MECHANICS
The
chief difference
is

balance
J"
""

that the latter

between the shop balance and the science is more sensitive, i.e. a very small

difference in load causes the

beam

to turn.

V2j)

*^

I

I

Correspondingly the instrument requires more In particular the moving careful treatment. parts should not be touched while the beam is raised. Apart from careless misuse the most frequent mistakes are (a) not using the weights in the strict order of the box, (b) miscounting the weights. N.B. The 50 and 500 mgm. weights when reversed look very much like 20 and 200 and vice versa. Extension of a Spiral Spring. Fix up a spiral spring carrying a pointer against a scale as shown in fig. 4. Take a number of readings of load, scale reading, and extension during increase and decrease of load. Draw a axis and extension graph showing load on the on the Y axis. Unless we have exceeded the elastic limit of the spring, we shall find that the graph is a straight line going through the origin. We conclude that the extension is directly proportional to the load (Hooke's Law). This is the principle of the spring balance, a convenient instrument not only for the measurement of mass but also for the

X

measurement of

force.

The non-scientific man would say Density. " heavier" than aluminium. He that lead is
quite understands, and would explain if asked, that equal volumes must be taken for the comparison. In science we say lead is denser FIG. 4. than aluminium. Density is defined as the mass of unit volume. To find the density of a body we only need to know its mass and its volume. It is obvious that

_

.

Density

=

Mass

and Mass

= Volume x

Density.

The
thus
:

densities of water, aluminium,

and lead may be stated

FORCE, MASS, WEIGHT, AND DENSITY
Water.
i

9

gm. per

c.c.

2-7

Aluminium. gm. per c.c.
Ib.

Lend,
11-3
ft.

gm. per
Ib.

c.c.
ft.

62-5 Ib. per cu. ft. 10 Ib. per gallon.

168-75

per cu.

706-25

per cu.

We
and

notice that aluminium

is

this is true

no matter what units are used.

2*7 times denser than water In industrial

physics

we more

frequently say the relative density or specific

gravity (S.G.) of

aluminium

is

2-7.

Relative Density or Specific Gravity
S.G. of
~~

may

be defined

:

a body

Wt. of body Wt. of an equal vol. of water

Density of the body Density of water

Therefore Density of a body Density of Water x Rel. Density. If metric units are used, the number expressing density and specific gravity will be the same, but when speaking of density the units of mass and volume must be stated specific gravity is a number and will be the same in any country. Again, the density of lead is 706*25 Ib. per cubic foot or 11-3 gm. per c.c. or S.G. 11-3. To find the density of any Regular Solid. The density of a brick, a metal or wooden cylinder, or a piece of wire can be found by calculating the volume and determining the weight on the balance most suitable for the particular solid. To find the density of a Small Irregular Solid. Here the volume is determined with a burette, graduated cylinder or beaker according to the size of the solid. The method of using the beaker for a large solid is as follows Place the solid in the beaker and fill to a mark with water from a graduated cylinder. Note volume of water required. Remove the solid and again fill to the mark. Note volume of water required. The difference between the volumes required will be the volume of the solid. To find the density of a Liquid. Mark the neck of a small flask. Weigh empty, then full of water, then full of the liquid.
;

=

=

:

Wt. of flask Wt. of flask + water Wt. of flask + liquid /. Wt. of liquid /. Wt. of water
.*.

=

a gm.
b
c

Vol. of water, flask or liquid

= = =

gm. gm.
a)
a)

(c

(6
(6

gm. gm.

a) c.c.

Density of liquid

*B

*

r

~a

gm. per

c.c.

G.S.P.

10

MECHANICS
specific gravity bottle
(fig.

Repeat the experiment with a and explain the advantage of it.

5)

FIG.

5.

FIG. 6.

To find the density of Air. Into a round-bottomed flask of about 250 c.c. capacity pour about 50 c.c. of water. Fit the flask with a rubber stopper, glass tube, rubber tube and clip (fig. 6). Boil the water for a few minutes so as to drive out the air. Remove burner and close clip simultaneously. Cool, dry and weigh the apparatus. Open the clip and weigh again. This Fill flask from a graduated cylinder gives the weight of the air.
noting volume required.
Calculate the

mass per

litre.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
I.

Explain the difference between (a) A law of nature and a law of a country.
(b)

lo-c.c. graduated cylinder weighs 19*43 gm. empty and a. 155-89 gm. when full of mercury. What is the density of mercury ? rectangular block of wood measures 150 cm. x 40 cm. x 3. 14 cm. If it weighs 67-2 kilograms, what is its density ? 4. Find the weight of a column of mercury of height 30 in. and cross-section x sq. in. [S.G. of mercury = 13-6.]

A

(c)

Mass and weight. Density and Specific Gravity.

A

A flask partly filled with water is boiled. It is now opened and reweighed. 5. 160 gm. A thread of mercury 20 cm. Full of water it weighs y gm. Does your graph agree with Hooke's Law? 100 gm. 16-9 cm. Newton's First Law is sometimes stated as a property of matter called "Inertia" thus: Inertia is that property by reason of which every body continues in its milk g gm. . A piece of steel wire of length 20 in. 7172 gm. this mean ? When is this inertia an advantage ? 13. 18-2 200 gm. X : Load no gm. Bottle -h water. respectively. the tea things remain undisturbed! Why? 14. ft. M M . 7. 130 gm. To fill the bottle completely requires another 120 c. but. 14-2 cm.. of lead. full of the density of milk ? 6.] the tube. A bottle weighs x What is '. The flywheel of an engine is said to have inertia. From the following readings plot loads on the Y axis and axis extensions of spring on the of rest. density of water. Calculate the mass of 4 cu. Length 9-0 cm. Load 120 gm. 140 gm. The two weighings are 70*56 and 7071 gm. n-6 cm. Find the average diameter of = 13-6. How does the inertia of your body make itself evident when you are travelling by train or bus ? What does 12. 190 gm. its mass and d is the volume of a body. cooled and weighed. 9. What is its specific gravity? 8. Make an equation connecting V s. . [S. 150 gm. and cross-section 0*2 sq. WEIGHT. cm. 15-6 cm. 180 gm. state Complete the statement. Find the relative density of a salt solution from the following 20-12 gm. MASS. of mercury and d where V is the 10. 20-9 cm. 19-6 cm. then corked. zi. 10-2 cm. in.FORCE. Length 7-5 cm. aluminium. behold. mercury. . of bottle Bottle -f solution.c. 12-9 cm. 70-22 gm. Calculate the density of air. data: Wt. . s its specific gravity. The comedian on the stage suddenly whisks ofi the tablecloth. AND DENSITY n gm. 170 gm. long is blown out of a capillary tube and found to weigh 0-623 gm.G. weighs i -i 2 ib.

while gases have indefinite size and is shape. We sometimes classify it into solids. and we 4 '///////////* FIG. liquids. The most striking difference between solids. liquids definite size and indefinite shape. and gases that solids have definite size and definite shape. 12 . put the last two together and have two classes solids and fluids. 7.CHAPTER III FLUID PRESSURE IN physics we define matter as anything which occupies space. and gases. liquids.

If you lean on a crutch or a walking-stick. the force is transmitted in a straight line there is no bulging out at the sides. The working of this machine (fig. Fluids transmit pressure equally in all directions. the tyres bulge out at the sides. Again. and that of the large plunger 100 sq. If you sit on a cycle saddle. and this pressure was transmitted through the liquid and up the tube. 8). in. closed with the thumb and inverted in a bowl of mercury (fig. Suppose that the sectional area of the small plunger is i sq. in. the fountain in the public gardens is a good illustration of this. Our experience with fluids is summed up by a natural law called . If a force of 10 Ib. An ment which Italian physicist. a pressure of 10 Ib. Torricelli. fluid like water presses downwards and sideways. of mercury and above the mercury would be a vacuum. at one end. The normal air pressure was just able to support 30 in. the water would always spirt out at right angles to the pipe. thus have an upward force of 1000 Ib. A force pump drives water from a well or tank into a cylinder fitted with a large plunger.FLUID PRESSURE way 13 Another important difference between solids and fluids is the in which they pass on or transmit a force applied to them.-wt. We Area of small plunger Area of large plunger __ ~" Force on small plunger Force on large plunger* Atmospheric Pressure. 7) is an excellent application of the fact that liquids transmit pressure equally in all directions. Pascal's : Law is There no doubt that a Bramah Press. long and closed spheric pressure. if a hole were drilled anywhere in a water pipe. This was filled with mercury. Torricelli realized that this was an illustration of Pascal's discovery . When . In a swimming bath we get ample proof that water also exerts an upward pressure. per square inch is transmitted through the water to every square inch of the large plunger. The fact that water finds its own level depends on this upward pressure . air pressure was squeezing on the mercury in the bowl. in 1643 carried out an experilaid the foundations of our knowledge of atmo- He took a glass tube 36 in. is applied to the small plunger. The mercury dropped until its height above the mercury level in the bowl was round about 30 in.

8. 9. Very soon Otto von Guericke in Germany and Boyle and Hooke in England produced the first air pumps. column of 30 When FIG. of mercury. but all the time the air could support a vertical in. Perier did this and found. A rubber Torricelli's to produce a stopper with a little vaseline in the bore is then slipped down . The apparatus (fig. 9) is set up on the air-pump plate. experiment taught the world that it was possible vacuum. FIG. that the mercury column became shorter because of the diminished air pressure. A bell-jar with a well-vaselined flange is then passed over the tube so as to rest on the plate.MECHANICS the tube was sloped. Pascal heard of this experiment he suggested to his brother-in-law Perier that a similar apparatus should be fitted up and carried to the top of a mountain. Using any type of air pump it is possible to prove in a very striking way that the mercury in Torricelli's experiment is really kept up by air pressure. the mercury ran to the top with a characteristic click. as Pascal had predicted.

IVORY POINT LEATHER FIG. When the mercury rose it was generally a sign of fine weather and vice versa. This is because dry air exerts more pressure than air water in the gaseous form is less containing water vapour . The Barometer. Before taking a . On working the pump the mercury falls. But immediately a difficulty arises as the mercury rises or falls in the tube. 10). .FLUID PRESSURE 15 the tube into the neck of the bell-jar. Boyle very soon found that Torricelli's apparatus gave some indication of weather changes. there is a variable zero. to. in other words. it is convenient to have a scale of inches or centimetres fixed to the tube. The difficulty is neatly overcome in the Fortin barometer The mercury is contained in a leather bag which may (fig. the level in the bowl changes. dense than air. be raised or lowered by an adjusting screw. To use the Torricelli apparatus as a barometer.

Glass is more convenient if the apparatus is to be permanently fixed on a board. per square inch. To express the atmospheric pressure in Ib. 12). connected to a set of levers which multiply this movement until finally a hand is caused to move round on a circular scale. the mercury is brought into contact with an ivory pin which is the zero of the scale. II.i6 MECHANICS reading. The U-tube or siphon barometer is another important type which is a variation of the for every 100 ft. ^ from sea-level. Then evidently the atmospheric . Such an instrument is called an aneroid barometer from Greek words meaning "without liquid. Problem. it is standardized against a Its compactness and portsuitable for use specially For this purpose a scale of heights is also placed round the dial in addition to the ordinary inch and centimetre markings. ability make in aeroplanes. The U may be of glass or rubber. The barometer common in houses has a flat case of thin corrugated metal (fig. 13). This can be done equally well by a U-tube of mercury (fig. 12 ami 13. ments of the A metal pillar fastened to the centre is case. while rubber is better for easy filling in a quick demonstration. Variations in the atmospheric pressure cause in-and-out move- FlG. Consider a siphon barometer in which the tube has a cross-section of i sq." The instrument Fortin barometer. rise If we carefully consider Torricelli apparatus. For small altitudes the rule is that the barometer falls approximately in. the latter instrument we shall see that the mercury in the bowl merely serves to transmit the air pressure to the mercury in the tube (tig. n) which has been made nearly vacuous. FIGS. in.

Thus p similarly Ib. x 1-028 26-7. mercury. x 6 cm.c.h in. Ib. Head of water or mercury. X X 62-5 per cu. ft. per sq.. x d gm. N. x d x d Ib. p or Ib. of mercury weigh 30 f or 14-7 J Ib. = h ft. in. = a= h in. ." Thus the ordinary atmospheric pressure can be expressed as a 34~ft. is suspended vertically in water so that its top surface is 5 cm. We must also remember that the pressure at a given depth the same in all directions. cm. x 4 cm. of equal to the weight of 30 cu. ft. gm. Calcu- . (60 x d 12) Ib.G. A rectangular block of metal (fig. = Archimedes' Principle. is p gm. per sq. per sq. etc. 15 cm. Ib. Ib.FLUID PRESSURE pressure per square inch is 17 in. cm. Fluid pressures can therefore be stated in A Atmospheres. per cu. = h cm. per sq.B. 2. This is an illustration of the fact that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is proportional to the depth and the density. We may note that the pressure is given by the product of a length and a density. " " head of water fluid pressure is sometimes referred to as a " or a head of mercury. head of water or 3O-in. /. 14) measuring Problem. 3. of water weigh 62-5 30 cu. below the water surface. in. in. Now 1728 cu. Ib. in. per sq. What is the water pressure on a diver working in ft. per cu. in.. in. 1. per sq. Thrust Pressure X Area. of sea water 1*028. of sea water ? [S. per c.] 60 = p Ib. Problem. head of mercury. in.

-wt. the upthrust on the base. Wt. of water displaced -* 360 gm. x d gm. exposed. x Area 20 x i x 24 480 gm. per c. iox6x4Xi = In each of the above problems we notice that the upthrust wt. = 15x6x4x1= 360 (fig. 15. that a length of 10 cm. x d gm. is immersed and 5 cm.15 MECHANICS late the downthrust on the top. 14. Upthrust on base = Pressure x Area = h cm. If the block is weighed in water the upthrust will be indicated . =120 gm.-wt. gm. x Area = 10 X I X 24 = 240 gm.-wt.-wt.-wt. and the weight of water displaced. of water displaced. FIG. Downthrust on top = 5x1x24 Net upthrust Wt. per c.c. Pressure x Area Upthrust on base = h cm. Problem. Calculate upthrust on base and weight of water displaced. of water displaced = 240 gm. The same block 15) is suspended in water so cm r!5J cm -10 cm 14 FIG.c.-wt.

16. then bucket in air and cylinder in water. To find the density of Glass and of a Solution of Tie a thread round a glass stopper and weigh it. These facts FIG. it is acted upon by an upthrust. So we have Wt. Again. it will float and apparently lose all its weight.FLUID PRESSURE block 19 by an apparent loss of weight on the balance. facts are true not only for regular solids immersed for all bodies immersed in any fluid. The loss of weight in the second case is just made filling the bucket with water. can use Archimedes' Principle to determine densities and up by We specific gravities. if the is of wood. The principle can be illustrated experimentally by the wellknown bucket and cylinder experiment (fig. then . first Copper Sulphate. The bucket and cylinder are first weighed in air. in air. which states that v when a body is wholly or partly immersed in a fluid. This upthrust or apparent loss of weight is equal to the weight of fluid displaced. The volume of cylinder == internal volume of the bucket. 16). The above in water but are just particular cases of Archimedes' Principle. of water displaced. of floating body Upthrust Wt.

ft. of water displaced Vol. 15*10 gm. of stopper in air Wt. Again. /c. of stopper in solution Wt. x i) cu. S. Wt. 768 168 Ib.c. of floating body = Upthrust or Wt. -f x Ib. = 13-98 c. of solution displaced 13*98 c.c. By the same method we can easily find the density of a floating body such as cork. A rectangular block of wood 6 ft X 2 ft.. Wt.'. <= 2-54 2-54 gm. balloons and airships all depend upon Archimedes' Principle. x i ft. Density of copper sulphate solution = . 13-98 c. volume of sinker alone.G. c..c. then volume of cork by difference. If the block weighs 600 Ib. of water displaced Vol.c. But Archimedes Principle has a still wider applicaFlotation. rafts.'. ships. . c. 20-44 g = 15-10 gm. per c. Hydrometers for testing accumulator acid. (fig. 1-08 gm. of solution weigh i = 35-54 gm. 600 + x x - (6 x 2 Ib. ranging far beyond these simple laboratory experiments. Attach a piece of lead to sink it. is thrown into sea water having a density of 64 Ib. what additional weight will sink it ? 600 Ib. floating docks.c. S. = 13-98 c. Wt. From the above see that Archimedes' Principle enables us to find the volume of a body in c. . MECHANICS then in the solution. 35*54 gm. /.c.c.20 in water. lactometers for milk. .c. Find volume of cork and sinker. Density of stopper = 13*98 gm. 21-56 gm. x 64 Ib. of stopper 13*98 c. (same as stopper) = m ..'. of stopper weigh i Wt.c. of stopper in air of stopper in water = = = 35-54 gm.G. we Density of a Body which Floats in Water. per cubic foot. of liquid displaced. using a " bridge " and beaker 16).c. tion. Most problems on floating bodies depend on the following fact 1 Wt. /. 2-54 gm. of solution displaced Vol. = i -08. .. Problem. . 1-08 gin.

" d ~~ V ""*' L is i x dj. __ _. 21 A of the solid. then d^ and dw ~-y y = A- block of wood of specific gravity 0-7 is placed Problem. What fraction of the volume will be immersed in each case ? A Wt. of water displaced v x d where d = density 0-7 of total volume V.c. c.G. Vol.c. in water. x Density of water But volume immersed. FIG. x Spec. A cylinder of wood (fig.FLUID PRESSURE Problem. 1-25) with Find the specific gravity of the solid. of unit vol. of block V x 0-7 x d \ Immersed volume (a) ' Wt. then in alcohol of specific gravity 0*8. d wt. of floating body wt. = \V s X 1-25 x d = | x 1-25 or 075. If the liquid is water. of glycerine displaced Wt. exposed. of wood of liquid displaced =* v = total volume immersed volume V x <*w but Vdw . Problem. Compare the densities of the wood and the liquid. Let then V Wt. Grav. of its length immersed and 3 cm. Wt. = = /. = = v c. of alcohol displaced v x 0-8 x d 0-7/0-8 of Total Volume 0-875 f of water Total Volume. Let V = volume of its solid floats in glycerine (S. then Wt. 17) floats in a liquid with 7 cm. . of block V x 0-7 x d Immersed volume v (b) Wt. V x s x d :.vdj. of water. Wt. 17. s its specific gravity.

Two recorded in Lloyd's Register of Shipping. who succeeded in getting a law passed to prevent the overloading of ships. of FIG. 19. Here again we have examples illustrating the fact that wt. unscrupulous owners sent to sea old heavily laden (and heavily insured) vessels and profited by the disasters so caused. but it would not vary much for some distance above and below " " Plimsoll mark The letters L.22 MECHANICS notice that the block sinks farther in the light liquid. the area enclosed by a line drawn round the ship at the water surface or the horizontal crosssection of the ship. alcoholic mixtures. As the accumulator runs down.P. the (fig.R. This cross-section would not of course be the same all the way down because the ship tapers towards the keel. perhaps. 18. Before his time. 18) so much used in daily life for determining the specific gravity of accumulator The acid from a charged accumuacid. 19). We often " speak of a ship drawing 30 ft. named The mark is after Samuel Plimsoll (1824-98). is the distance from the keel to the water The expression " water line area " means surface. of floating . milk. lator gives a hydrometer reading of about 1220. that this safe loading line is considered signify reasonable for that particular ship by Lloyd's Insurance Company and that the fact is duly body = wt. We This is This means that the specific gravity is 1-220. the principle of the hydrometer (fig." often referred to these ships as Problem. A sea-going ship without cargo draws 25 ft." Here 30 ft. expressions are worth noting. of liquid displaced. 1160 this is a sign that recharging is necessary. FIG. a Bristol M. Sailors " coffin ships. Ships and Floating Docks. of water. the specific gravity of the acid drops to. .

The Siphon. the tube at C is greater by the water column BC. pressure at C. It is therefore able to overcome the external also are pressure.000 sq.000 x = 20. The action may be explained as The external pressure at follows. the dock sinks to the line say (fig. what load will make draw 27 vol. line area is 20. The pressures inside the tube at A and B equal to this external But the pressure inside FIG. Then the water run as long as C will continue to is lower than B.000 x = 20. ft.. . 20. and the vessel floats in. 21. of of water ? Extra water displaced Wt. When these B FlO. of water displaced Wt.000 x Load = 20. 2 x 62-5 x 1-25 tons. If its it water ft. chambers and the dock rises until the floor of the dock is clear of the water. 2 x 62-5 Ib. A and C is the same. 2.FLUID PRESSURE water. 20). A simple siphon is shown in fig.000 x 2 cu. of sea water displaced = 20. 2 x 62-5 x 1-03 Ib. Finally the upthrust due to water displaced is equal to the total weight of dock and ship. suction is are full of water. The water is then pumped out of the AB applied at C. To start the water running. 2240 A floating dock has air chambers in its base. ft.

Owing to unavoidable leakages. On the next up stroke. The atmospheric pressure acting on the water in the well forces water up through the lower valve to fill this partial vacuum. When such a pump fails to start. When we refer to a litre of water or a cubic . On the down stroke the bottom valve closes and the piston valve opens. The height to which water may be forced depends only on the power available for . a tendency to form a vacuum in the cylinder. rises. is about the limit in practice. while another valve opens to the delivery tube. driving the piston.24 MECHANICS of fig. in at the top The Force Pump. its is As the piston valve closes and there FIG. water is driven out from the spout. villagers generally pour a little water this makes the piston and valve more air-tight. It is obvious that even a perfectly constructed pump of this type could not draw water up more than 34 ft. Boyle's Law. FIG. The principle common water pump will be readily understood from the 22. On the down stroke a valve prevents the water returning to the well. 23. In the force pump (fig. 22. 23) water may be drawn up from a well as in the common pump. The Common or "Suction" Pump. 28 ft.

One tube is closed at the top and contains the air enclosed by mercury. 24). The atmospheric pressure is first read spheric on the barometer. In FlG 2 4this way a considerable variation of pressure may be obtained. In the figure the volume of the air is AB. When necessary. mercury is added to the open tube. while the pressure is atmoCD. Two glass tubes are connected by pressure tubing. The other tube is open at the top. It is important to know exactly how pressure and temperature affect the volume of a gas. Provision is made for both tubes to slide up and down against a scale. found that when the pressure is doubled litre of He the volume is halved. rare or compressed. The results are drawn up as follows + - . Then AB is placed as high as possible and the open tube moved step by step to the lowest position. but when a mentioned the actual quantity of air is uncertain . both pressure and volume can be measured in units of length. if the pressure is trebled the volum^ diminishes to one-third and so on.FLUID PRESSURE air is inch of iron. Put in more general terms the result was this If the temperature is constant. AB is placed as low as possible and the open tube raised step by step to the highest position. then this is added to the various values of CD. Since the cross-section of the tubes will not vary during the experiment. the volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure (Boyle's Law). the air may be hot or cold. This result may be verified for air by a modified form of Boyle's apparatus (fig. the idea is perfectly definite. The effect of pressure was investigated by Robert Boyle in 1662.

A solid cylinder 15 cm. Problem. This graph always an indication that one If is inversely proportional to the other.G. . A brick measures 8$ in. A man sitting on a football bladder can be gradually raised from the ground by pouring water into a long narrow tube which is attached to the bladder. " " 24 ft. per square inch. mm. ? mm. a weight of 30 Ib. How below the reservoir ? 7. = 760 7. = 1000 x 740 = lo x !|# = P. P is plotted against -^ a straight line passing through the origin obtained. The greatest recorded ocean depth is 32. If 2. x 2j in. [S. What when the atmobe the volume under a Vol. 6. A litre of hydrogen is collected will spheric pressure is 740 pressure of 760 mm. PV is a constant within the P is plotted against V on a is limits a hyperbola quantity is obtained.) application of this principle. What would be the height of the liquid in a Torricellian barometer filled with (a) water. What will be the upthrust when it is suspended (a) in fresh water. B. (b) in sea water far is the tap S. x 4 in. The pressure at a water tap is 150 Ib. Explain this. in the Pacific.c.26 It MECHANICS should be found that If is of experimental error. acts on the small one. (6) glycerine? [S.1000 x |$f QUESTIONS Explain with the aid of a diagram the Principle of the Bramah How could the same principle be used to work a lift? Press. i -03 ? . mm.] 8. long and 4 sq. Find the pressure in atmospheres and Ib.] 4. (J.F. of sea water 1*03. of glycerine = 1-26. what load will be supported by the other ? 3. of air at 740 i pressure 76 mm - orP^ 740 x 1000 /. below the surface of the water 5. F. Find the water pressure at the leak in Ib.G. 9. and 25 in. = 1000 c. A pipe springs a leak in the supply cistern.000 ft. The pistons in a Bramah Press have radii 2 in. per square inch. cm. M.G. per square inch. of its length exposed. Calculate the weight of the cylinder and the density of the material. cross-section floats upright in water with 3 cm. Describe briefly any one z.

] 22.G. long. find the weight of the elephant.FLUID PRESSURE 27 10. Find the density of the cork. 2. A log 12 ft. Find the density of the solid and of the salt solution. When 20. 114 gm. its depth immersed. (6) in sea water S. weight of the log. 14. of its thickness is immersed. The air in a certain room weighs 145 when the barometer . is placed on top it sinks } cm. In which direcnumbers increase? Why? floating dock is 324 ft. what fraction of the iceberg will be immersed ? If the 19. long and 3 sq. is suspended from a spring balance and immersed in water. i. A cylinder of oak 20 cm. A and 76 gm. with 8 cm. in air. 0-7. of its length immersed. 17. in a salt solution. ft. A beaker containing lead shot floats in water. A cubical block of metal floats in mercury (S. what weight will it lift when filled with (a) hydrogen. A raft is made of logs of S. 13-6).G. A any hydrometer which you have seen. i cu. 13. cm. A When of hydrogen weighs 0-0056 lb. Calculate the upthrust lb. in water and 112 gm. A ship sinks & in.. water line area is 3456 sq. and 10 in. a load of 170 gm. The lead alone in water weighs 41-2 gm. 24. 68 gm. and a lump of lead 45-2 gm. piece of marble weighs 108 gm. find the weight of beaker and shot.G. The reading of the balance is 76 gm. the cork and lead are tied together and weighed in water the result is 33-7 gm. What is the length of one side of the cube ? 21. A cube of metal with edge 2 cm. If the raft has a volume 15. If ice and sea water have specific gravities 0-92 and 1-03 respectively. (b) the weight which must be put on the top to just sink it. ? 1 8.. (b) helium? [Densities of air. i -03 ? 16. 12. 6 in. when an elephant is taken aboard. ft. piece of cork weighs 2-5 gm. of If the average radius of the beaker is 3$ cm. Find (a) the weight of the cylinder. of 100 cu. when the air chambers are just immersed. A solid weighs 126 gm. What additional weight will sink the beaker another 2 cm. in cross-section floats in water with 18 cm. What is the weight of the cube in air? What is the density of the metal ? xi.. long. Draw tion do the 23. wide and the air cham- bers are n ft. helium and hydrogen are as 14-4. 105 ft. in water. in air. what load will make it awash (a) in fresh water. in alcohol. is floating horizonFind the tally in water so that 7 in. wide. thick. Find the specific gravity of the marble and of the alcohol. 2 ft. deep. ft. If an airship has a capacity of one and a half million cubic feet.

Use the following data relating to men digging a trench.) of volume in mixing. weighs 36 gm. and state the principle involved. . when the barometer stands at 30-5. and the mercury falls 15 cm.) glass and of the wood. of mercury. [Assume no change 25. (L. plot axis. What volume of gas at atmospheric pressure has been used? (C. whose volume is 40 c. in air.W. and 16 gm. A piece of glass weighs 24 gm. What will be the volume at a pressure of 760 mm.. (B. Half a litre of hydrogen is collected at a pressure of 754 mm. and when fastened to the glass the two weigh 10 gm. State Boyle's Law.] 29.c.28 MECHANICS stands at 29 in. A piece of wood weighs 60 gm.. Show that if one part by volume of liquid of specific gravity i -84 is mixed with four parts of distilled water. if the temperature does not change ? 26. the specific gravity of the resulting mixture is approximately 1-17.) 30.B. men on the axis and days on the The mercury space above it is Y X Men What i 2 12 3 24 4 Days kind of graph do you obtain ? How are the two quantities How does the graph resemble a Boyle's Law graph ? Now related ? 3 8 6 8 12 T" plot men on the Y axis and T on the X axis.) 27. and the 3 c. . in air. Find the are admitted to the tube. will this body float or sink in water ? Give reasons for your answer. Some of the gas is used and the pressure falls to 3 atmospheres. (O. and describe how it may be verified experimentally. in length. State the relation (L. Find the specific gravity of the (L. 28.c. area of the cross-section of the tube.) 31. at the same temperature. What do you understand by the expression "the density of a solid"? A block of an insoluble substance. in water. in water. Find the weight of the air in the same room. A gas cylinder contains 40 litres of gas at 20 atmospheres pressure. part question. of air at atmospheric pressure 5 cm.) between the pressure and density of a gas at constant temperature. in a barometer tube stands at 75 cm.

Apply forces of 3 and 5 lb.CHAPTER IV THE PARALLELOGRAM OF FORCES IF two boys pull on a rope in the same direction with forces 30 and 50 lb. the effect is the same as if a man pulled in the same direction with a force of 80 lb. gradually varying the magnitude and direction Draw a line to represent its until the equilibrant is obtained. acting in the opposite direction would produce a state of balance or equilibrium and is therefore called The equilibrant is a single force which can the equilibrant. the line representing the equilibrant. Fasten a large sheet of paper on a table and draw lines at an angle of 60. along the two Now pull the lines. North.-wt. We say the resultant of 30 and 50 lb. balance two or more forces. directions.-wt. magnitude and direction. will be found to have the same length and to be continuous with resultant. It therefore represents the It should be 7 lb.-wt. two or more forces is a single force which can replace the given of forces.-wt.-wt. acting in that direction. Attach strings to three spring balances and join the free ends in one knot. 25).-wt. South and the equiNote that the equilibrant is always librant 20 lb. making one 3 units long. A force of 80 lb. acting in the same direction is a The resultant of force of 80 lb. to the equal and opposite to the resultant. Suppose now that the two boys pull on the rope in opposite North and 50 lb. say 30 lb. the other 5 units long. (fig.-wt. holding the knot in a stationary position. The resultant is now 20 lb. The problem is a little more complicated if we imagine the pulls exerted on two ropes inclined at an angle. third balance.-wt. say 60. have thus arrived at a rule known as the Parallelogram We 29 .. Complete the parallelogram and draw It the diagonal which passes through the point of application.-wt.-wt. to the South.-wt.

. 25)." " if three forces acting at a point The converse is also true can be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a triangle taken in order then the three forces must be in 1 ' equilibrium. We may look at fig. OB. namely. For example. OC represent three forces in equilibrium acting at a point. You will remember from geometry that when we are given three lengths it is only possible to draw a triangle when any two of these lengths are together greater than the third length. These two rules are generally known as the Triangle of Forces. that three forces acting at a point are in equilibrium. then their resultant may be represented in magnitude and direction by the diagonal which passes through the point of application.30 MECHANICS of Forces // two forces acting at a point are represented in magnitude and direction by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram. OAD This "if can is just a particular case of a general fact. OB. you could not draw a triangle having sides of 3. then they be represented in magnitude and direction (but not in position) by the sides of a triangle taken in order. But the three forces OA. OC can also be represented in if we make the magnitude and direction by the triangle arrows follow round in order (fig. 25 from two different points of view thus : (1) (2) OD is OA. the resultant of the forces OA and OB.

Thus a horse walks along a towpath in order to pull a barge along the canal (fig. Measure the angles ECD. ECA and ACD.B. FIG. N. long. pulls it into the side. Calculate the useful force and the wasted force. A horse pulls a barge along a canal exerting a force of 60 Ib. You will find that a force of 56 Ib. We : 3. act at a point and are in equilibrium. You will notice that this problem is the reverse of that known be inconvenient.-wt. Correspondingly. 27).-wt. any other arrangement would is certainly exerted in a slanting direction and part of the force exerted is wasted. 4 and 5 Ib. 26). to scale (fig. Resolution of Forces.THE PARALLELOGRAM OF FORCES 31 Draw a triangle ABC having sides proceed as follows 4 and 5 in.-wt. urges the boat forward and a force of 2oJ Ib. The pull . Sometimes it is not convenient to apply a force in the direction in which the body is intended to move.-wt. at an angle of 20 with the direction of motion. Forces of 3.-wt. This latter force is neutralized by the bargeman at the rudder. 4 and 8 Ib.-wt. Problem. Complete the rectangle and measure OA and OB. Problem. Show how they must act and measure the angles between them. forces of 3. 26. Choose any one of the three angular points and arrange the three forces to act away from that point. The same figure will be obtained whichever angular point is chosen (fig. Represent the pull of 60 Ib. 4 and 8 cm.-wt. Put arrows round the triangle in order. 27) . could not possibly be in equilibrium. The two components do not add up to 60 Ib.

OA has no effect. 28. The Aeroplane. The engine in wind acting on the wing driving the aeroplane along the ground. 27. equal to the components along OD and OA. there is another force along OD due to suction caused by the formation of a partial vacuum behind the wing.32 MECHANICS as the parallelogram of forces. The DIRECTION OF FLIGHT FIG. creates an artificial in the direction OC (fig. FIG. Here we resolve a single force into its components and the process is known as resolution of a force. There we compounded two forces to form a resultant. 28). 29) we get a resultant upward force along . of the resolution The rise of an aeroplane is a good example and compounding of forces. Moreover. If we now compound the total force along OD with the engine's force along OC is The component along force along OE (fig.

2 Ib. W Find the resultant. Using the parallelogram of forces. 3.-wt. It is pulled aside force of 10 Ib. A pull of 20 Ib. long is attached cm.. at B. State the theorem known as the Triangle of Forces.-wt. N. and respectively. (L. a frictionless pulley. vertical by a horizontal force until the string makes an angle of 30 with the horizontal. is Given and a pound weight. A roller of mass 200 Ib. Find their resultant.-wt. to two nails and 75 A D A string is attached to a nail in the floor. find the string 5. Three forces act at a point. AB = 29 cm. S. 4 Ib. E. is suspended by a string.) NW.. the aeroplane Similar reasoning applies to the rise of a kite and to the fact that a sailing ship can have its sails so adjusted that it can travel almost opposite to the wind. BC = 47 cm. A 5o-gm. find graphically the tension in CB. and 7 Ib. back? C G. Find the direction and tension of the A string ABCD 107 cm. horizontal force and the tension in the string. l<unicular Polvgon.S. Using the triangle of forces. act N. 7.M. is being hauled up a slope inclined at 30 with the horizontal. how would you determine the approximate weight of a given body ? (J. 7 Ib.-wt. string. What force will just prevent it running 9.. BD = 63 cm. then the mass x. A stout thread fastened to a tooth in the upper jaw of a small boy is held at an angle of 30 with the horizontal. 'CD = 31 cm. A by a mass of 10 Ib. mass is attached at C and x gm. 33 this is greater than the weight.THE PARALLELOGRAM OF FORCES OR. How is force measured at a point.-wt.B. and when rises.) 8.. zo. Find the horizontal and vertical components when the pull is 10 oz. 3.. (b) bend the nail over. 5. QUESTIONS ? Dest ribe with the aid of a diagram an experimental method of finding the resultant of two forces acting 1. 4. 2. The fact to remember is that the net effect of the wind on a surface is a thrust normal to that suiface. The bob of a pendulum weighs 40 gm.P. Find the force tending to (a) pull the nail out. . It is pulled out of the 6. Forces of i.-wt. apart in the same horizontal line. W. applied at an angle of 40 with the vertical.-wt.

3 Ib. Moment = Force x Distance. but that the turning effects shall be equal. A force of FIG. The necessary condition for successful working of the see-saw is not that the weights shall The be equal. (b) the perpendicular distance from the fulcrum to the line of action of the force. 30). More exactly we say the moment of a force is the turning effect it exerts about a fixed point called the fulcrum. 30. turning effect. Thus: The moment of a force about a point is the product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the point to the line of action of the force. From the scientific point of view. us consider the opening of a gate (fig. the heavy boy gets nearer the centre or the small boy moves farther away. It depends upon (a) the magnitude of the force. has more effect acting along AB than along AC because the perpendicular FA is greater than the perpendicular FC. depends partly on the weight and partly on the distance from the fulcrum.CHAPTER V MOMENTS IT is although there common knowledge that two boys can play at see-saw may be a great difference between their weights . To let appreciate the importance of "perpendicular" distance.-wt. the see-saw is a lever turning about a fulcrum. or moment as it is called. 34 .

(1) When the lever is . You should learn two facts from the experiment : in equilibrium. 35 ft. Hang a weight on each side of the bar and adjust for equilibrium. 31).MOMENTS Experiment. (2) The upward force registered on the spring balance is equal to the total of the downward forces. the sum of the clockwise moments is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise moments. The experiment can be varied by using more than two weights. Vary the weights and the distances. then compile a table. of a spring balance. adding the moments on the same side to get the total moment. 31. Take a light stiff rod about 2 long marked off in inches (fig. Suspend it at the mid-point by means i i I i i i m i i i FIG.

and the 7 Ib. These two moments are equal. acts in a clockwise sense with a moment of 3 X 21. the 4 Ib.-wt.-wt.-wt. pull has a clockwise moment of 7 X 12 7lbs M i i i i i i rm B i r F M M M M i "4lbs FIG. the sum of the moments tending to turn it of We clockwise round tending to turn any point it is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise round that point. moments We may usefully consider the above example from another point of view.-wt. 32. an anticlockwise moment two moments are also equal. Thus if A is taken as the fulcrum. These are now in a position to understand the general statement the Law of the Lever or the Principle of Moments // a lever is in equilibrium.36 MECHANICS We will now consider the particular case illustrated in fig. Clockwise Anticlockwise moment round F = moment round F = 3 x 12 4 x 9 and these are equal. therefore the 4 and 3 Ib. of 4 X 21. and the 3 Ib. the 3 Ib.-wt. The 7 Ib.-wt. But the equilibrant is always equal and opposite to the resultant or replacing force. the 3 Ib. the 7 Ib.-wt. pull of the balance acts in an anticlockwise sense with a moment of 7 x 9. . if B is taken as the fulcrum. 3lbs and the 4 Ib. has no turning effect. But we may also regard A or B as a fulcrum. has no turning effect. pull of the spring balance acting at F can be regarded as the equilibrant of the 4 Ib. Again. 32.-wt.

and 3 Ib. is the point of action of the resultant of all the little parallel forces It is the acting on the particles of the body due to their weight.G. Pierce the triangle at the intersection of the medians with a pin. The upward force you apply is the equilibrant of all the little parallel forces due to the earth's attraction on the little particles of which the scale is made.G. It may be thus defined The centre of gravity of a body = .-wt.G. Similarly the C. The pin will be found to come out at the C. The C. Centre of Gravity. already determined.G. 33). acting down from F and 4AF 3BF. On the other side of the cardboard draw medians AD and CF. is. A lamina is a Cut out a triangular lamina of cardboard thin flat sheet. When a body is supported at rest. acting down from F.MOMENTS That 37 could be replaced by a force of 7 Ib.-wt. This line must contain line of action of the supporting force. . of any parallelogram will be found to be at the intersection of the diagonals. Balance a metre scale on the flat end of a pencil. The equilibrant and resultant both act at a point which is called the centre of gravity of the body. Support the lamina from another point and obtain a second line. the line of action of the supporting force must pass through the centre of gravity.-wt. All these little forces it is have a resultant which we call the weight of the body the sum of the particle weights. Suspend it from any point in its area and draw the (fig. is a force of 7 Ib. the C. Centre of Gravity of a Triangular Lamina. point where the whole weight of the body may be supposed to act. is at the intersection of these two lines. the resultant of the parallel forces 4 Ib.-wt.

(fig. and 9 units.G. 35. A circular hole is cut out close to tne C. of any Quadrilateral Lamina. It two must be parallel forces. in. C. areas are 16 and 6 3 in. of the remaining portion. 34). Problem. Area of large circle ~ 3671 Area of small circle = gn Area of remainder =2771 The C. but GB = AB . A and 35) as a bar with weights of 27.AG = 3 . 36 being the resultant of 27 and 9. SAG = 3GB. in. 36). Find the AG . must be point at some X on the diameter through B. 34. The C. 36. radius edge from a uniform sheet of lead of 6 in.ft in. in.G. long and is in effect a bar carrying weights of 16 and 6 units or 8 and 3 at the ends. We may suspend the Divide lamina from two different points or proceed as follows the lamina into two triangles by drawing a diagonal BD (fig. at a point G such that /.G. (fig. of the whole figure. Find the C. AX = gAB = i g x 3 = 27 FIG. radius. of the triangle is at B.AG SAG = 3(3 AG) from which we get that Problem.G. 3 in. The problem is to find the point of action of the resultant or the equilibrant is AB of these FIG.G. The C. XAB We may look upon Therefore = /. A 4 and an isosceles triangle erected The sq.G.MECHANICS piece of cardboard consists of a square of side on one side with an altitude of 3 in. of the square is at A. : .

when moves farther in stable equilibrium. are always in stable equilibrium. The C.G.G.. well illustrated 37). when slightly disturbed they always return to their Bodies supported original position. the line of action of the supporting force must pass through the C. then on is In the moment W first X AF and position there a restoring f Y I I 1 \J W FIG. that is. it returns to its original position because there is a the bob restoring moment W X AF.G. that is. moment X AF and the cone is in unstable equilibrium. Now the supporting We can be applied (a) above the C. If by a simple pendulum supported at a point F (fig. when disturbed it tends to move farther still from its original position. the body is not always in Consider a cone supon its vertex. In the third position there is neither an upsetting moment nor a restoring moment. have seen that when a body is supported at rest.MOMENTS 39 Find the C. 38).G. that is. its side (fig. In Case (b) stable equilibrium. away from Case (c) can be illustrated by thrusting a compass point .. is slightly disturbed. of Conditions Stability. of each triangle by medians. tion there is an upsetting the cone is therefore In the second posi- W disturbed it neither returns to its original position nor it.G. above the C.G. 37. the C.G. and the cone is said to be in Neutral Equilibrium. 36. of the lamina must be in the line Draw the other diagonal and ER repeat the process or calculate the areas of triangles ABD and CBD and use these areas as weights on the bar EF. ported on its base. (c) Case (a) is at the C. (b) below force FIG.

G. It can be shown with a pencil that this can quite easily happen when the C. What is the balance reading ? What weight is supported by the table ? Since the bar is uniform the weight may be taken as acting from its middle point. situated ij ft. the body will topple over if the disturbance is great enough to cause the vertical through the C. Note that even in stable equilibrium. is high and the base of support narrow.G. It is supported at one end by a table. to fall outside the base of support. 25*3 . away (fig.G. a motor-bus loaded below more stable than one loaded above. long weighs 20 Ib. at the other by a spring balance The bar carries a mass of 18 Ib. 25-3 Ib. supported by the table = 20 + 18 = 127 Ib.40 MECHANICS through any lamina at its C. W STABLE NEUTRAL More Complex Lever Problems. Bodies supported in this way are always in neutral equilibrium. Problem.G. (20 x 5) -f (18 x 8J) T x 10 ioo + 153 :.G. Take moments round the table end. Let force exerted by the spring balance be J Ib. It is useful to remember that in stable equilibrium any disturbance raises the C.. 39). while in unstable equilibrium any disturbance lowers the C. It is for this reason that a motor-cycle is more stable than a pedal cycle.-wt. from the spring balance. T - Wt. A uniform bar 10 ft.

39. Call the point of action X. It is a very useful exercise to take moments round each of the other points in turn and see if the same result is obtained.P. and 24 in. T 18 Ib Problem. 40. What horizontal force applied at the axle would be necessary to enable it to surmount a step 4 in. 5 in.S.-wt. A garden roller weighing 2 cwt. Problem. in diameter rests on a horizontal surface.MOMENTS 1 20 Ib FIG. Take moments round any point. Where must it be supported to balance horizontally ? The upward force = 12 -f 20 -f 16 = 48 Ib. The same bar carries weights of 12 and 16 Ib.) *C G.W. high ? (C. say A. 48 I 12 20 Tl B X C 16 Flo. 40). . at the ends (fig. 2oAB + 1 6 AC = 48 AX Hence AX = 5 ft.B.

not according to and merit. that is. we overcome a large resistance with a small . In every common lever we have a fulcrum and two forces each having a turning effect or moment round the fulcrum. The mechanical advantage is generally greater than i in classes (i) and (2). The lever principle is applied in daily different ways. Levers are generally divided into three classes. The ratio ^r is called the mechanical W while a and b are the effort arm and resistance arm respectively. if the lever is in equilibrium. The Common life in many Levers. In all cases. 42). is equal to the anticlockwise moment E x a a - or Wxb W advantage of the lever. One force is the resistance or load (W) and the other the effort (E). but according to the positions of F. (fig. 41) We Find FA x FA x FB the theorem of Pythagoras and show that by P W P = 112 VJ = 250 Ib.42 MECHANICS The corner of the step is the fulcrum and the acting forces are inclined to one another. the clockwise W E moment round the fulcrum round the same point. have (fig.

-j w a (3) W FIG. FIG. 43.^. necessary to cut a wire. Thus a fire poker used in the usual way is a simple lever of the first class while a pair of scissors is a double lever of the same class. Levers may be simple or double. Problem. 42.MOMENTS effort. is Using a pair of cutting pliers a force of 8 Ib. 43 less In class (3) the ratio is is always than i and the object of using the lever just convenience. f w E (I) (2) . If the wire is \ in. away from the .-wt.

43).44 MECHANICS pivot and the force is applied 6 in. A see-saw 16 ft. QUESTIONS 1. The moment of the couple in fig.-wt. on a stiff pole 6 ft. O its centre of gravity. We 44 is 2Ea where E is the effort and a the length of each arm.-wt. E and F 5. fastened to the ends of a 6-ft. are the mid-points of AB and BC respectively. ABCD is a square lamina. Find the C. If the boy can only carry 40 lb. long is balanced at its centre. apart 8 lb. and turning a door knob. and So gm.G. Find the resultant and : point of action in the following 20 gm. Such a combination of two equal unlike parallel forces is called a couple. Where is the C.G. of the remainder when the square EBFO is cut out ? 6. Couples In all cases previously considered.. apart 4 tons and 7 tons placed 22 ft. balance it except by a couple acting the other way. where must ? the load be placed 2. Two table forks are stuck in a cork and the latter is then . W = 96 -8 x 6 Ib. E is the mid-point of AB. placed 60 cm. long. placed 3 ft. spinning a top. part. A couple cannot have a resultant nor can we FIG. 7. 44. rod whose weight is negligible. of two masses of 8 and 24 lb. 4 in. calculate the resistance exerted by the wire (fig. But consider what happens when we turn a water tap. ABCD is a square lamina of side 6 in. They are then said to be like parallel forces. from one end. Find the C. 4. Other examples of couples will occur to you such as those exerted when winding a watch or clock. apply two equal parallel forces in opposite directions they are unlike. A 6-stone boy sits cases 3 ft. Where must a 4-stone boy sit to produce its equilibrium ? 3. and 12 lb. A man light and a boy wish to parry a load of 100 Ib. we have W x i /. our parallel forces have acted in the same direction. from the pivot. of the remaining area after the triangle CED is removed. Taking moments round the pivot.G.

) 14. : . sugar tongs. bag of cement is hung on the ladder 4 ft. Show graphically how such a rod would hang if suspended by the end of the short arm. in diameter is supported on three upright legs equally spaced round a circle of 2 ft.) 9. weighing 12 lb. 13. pliers. in diameter arid weighing 180 Ib.) Describe the way in which a straight rod may be used as a lever to tilt a heavy solid block. the other 4 ft. Two men are carrying a 2o-ft. What is the least value of this force ? [This (C. Roman steelyard (used by butchers for weighing carcasses).B. Classify the following and state whether they are single or double levers nutcrackers. what weight hung on the projecting edge will just cause the bar to overbalance ? (L. treadle of sewing machine. What force is required to make the bar overbalance (i) when applied in a downward direction to the projecting end. uniform ladder weighing 80 Ib. one man is at one end.W.MOMENTS Illustrate 45 balanced on the finger tip. it is suspended from its centre point at one end a weight of 400 gm. from the opposite end. and the bar lies on a horizontal table with 40 cm. long is bent so that the two parts 10 in. from one end. A unifoim cylinder 30 in. the human forearm. handle of village pump. What is meant by (a) the moment of a force. A uniform metal bar 30 in. Two men are carrying a 2o-ft. is hung at what point must a weight of i kg. (b) the centre of gravity of a body ? A uniform straight bar 12 in. is being rolled up a slope of 30 by means of a tangential force parallel to the slope. Work out example 15 in three other ways.B. A symmetrical circular table 5 ft. radius. . 10. oar. (2) when applied in an upward direction to the other end ? (L.B. (a) . projecting over the edge. What kind of equilibrium is this ? your answer by a diagram.] 12. Define centre of gravity of a body.) 11. be suspended to make the rod hang horizontal ? (c) If the weight of the bar is 200 gin. 8. wheelbarrow. long and 20 in.W. What weight is supported by each ? 15. Define the moment of a force about a point.W.) can be solved graphically. II the men support the load at the ends of the ladder. rests on a flat table with 4 in. . what is the least vertical force applied at the edge of the table that will cause it to tilt ? (C. If the whole table weighs 45 Ib. f (C. of its length projecting over the edge of the table. common balance. . uniform ladder which weighs 80 Jb. A 40-lb.. long enclose a right angle. what force is exerted by each ? 1 6. (b) A uniform steel bar is i metre long . long.

-lb. When a 56-lb. __ _ = 55 x 10 x 400 x 3 == 20 H. When physicist author dictates a I2oo-page novel to his typist.CHAPTER THE word " work The an is VI WORK. is a rate of working. of work. so he decided to call an engine i H. if it had a rate of working of 33.200 ft.-lb.-wt. all the " is done by the typist! force is said to do work when the point of application moves If you lift a mass of in the direction in which the force acts. POWER. Water collects in a mine shaft 400 yd. per minute. c i.-lb.-lb. he has done 80 Ib. Watt at this time was making Power. i Ib.000 ft. Work is measured as the product of a force and a distance. pulls a cart half a mile along the road. MACHINES has a very special meaning in physics. X 2640 ft. per minute.e. but if the wall is too strong you are doing no work. x (400 x 3) ft. 211.000 ft. or Work Done Resistance overcome X Distance through which the done .-lb. 50% higher than that of a real horse. accustomed to using horses. If a you are only applying force horse using a force of 80 Ib.] Work to be done per minute VT ^ Necessary horse-power 1 = (55 x 10) Ib. Force applied x Distance moved by the point of Work Done application in the direction of the force. deep at the rate of 55 gallons per minute. vertically through a distance of i ft. the work "work" A If you push against a wall and make it fall is 560 ft. mass is lifted 10 ft. selling engines and it was necessary to have some method His customers had been of stating the power of the engines. At what horse-power fnust the pumping engine work to keep it under control ? [i gallon of water weighs 10 Ib. = = = We have to consider the time taken to do the ft. 1 and Problem. you have done i ft. of work. 46 .-lbs.P.. only concerned with mechanical work.P. Power resistance is overcome. over you have done some work. James Watt investigated the rate of working of horses and found that a good horse could do 22.

or Force Ratio (1) The Mechanical Advantage " (2) Resistance or Effort Load _ " W W* E's distance The Velocity Ratio _ "~ Distance effort moves Distance load moves W's distance* : These ratios are connected with the efficiency ratio thus x W's distance _ _ Work got out = = Force Ratio Efficiency = E x E s distance Work put in Velocity Ratio' The Wheel and Axle. We can use effort in a more convenient direction. In no case do is T-/V- Efficiency of a J . e.g." There are two ropes : one round the wheel.WORK. (6) (c) wheel and axle.g." the smaller axle. the larger roller being the " wheel. *. a We single fixed pulley for hoisting purposes. in This ratio is always less than i. Machine . It consists of two cylindrical rollers forming one piece and turning on a . is so large that direct action crowbars. the work got out of a machine is equal to the work put in. In dealing with machines there are two other ratios which are also important. . e. lifting jacks. can use a large effort through a small distance to overcome a small resistance through a great distance. There a rule called the Principle of Work which applies to all machines // there is no friction. in cases where the resistance is impossible. X b Applying the Principle of Moments we have E X a where a and b are the radii of the wheel* arid axle respectively. some work is wasted in overcoming this and the work got out is less than the work put in.g. Actually there always is friction. the other round the axle. . a great distance to (a) We can use a small effort through overcome a great resistance through a small distance. MACHINES 47 The Simple Machines. block and tackle. Let us apply these ideas to a simple machine called the Wheel and Axle (fig. A machine is a device by which effort can be applied more conveniently than would otherwise be the case. 45). pedalling a bicycle. the human forearm. 7--. POWER. got = Work1~ ^ put out Work . we get more work out than we put in. e. W ' > common one the " axis. =W .

-r-. ma Therefore Velocity Ratio Efficiency 17 =--= IV's distance 2:16 6 Work got out Wx ~ -r--. _ applied through a distance of moves through a distance of 2nb a 2na E's distance . It is the force ratio or W L -=. for E has to be increased to overcome the friction which can never be entirely eliminated. i. Using various loads. .Work put m ~E~x Force Ratio Velocity Ratio H^'s distance E's distance a 1 In a perfect machine the force ratio is equal to the velocity and the efficiency is i or 100%.48 MECHANICS v E \ w/ FIG. = b' E W is __ _ . note the effort . In an actual machine the velocity ratio is still the same because it depends solely on ratio the dimensions of the machine. E \w Therefore Mechanical Advantage or Force Ratio **F In one revolution while _. 45. which suffers. To find the real efficiency of a given wheel and axle we proMeasure the circumferences of the wheel and ceed as follows axle to get the velocity ratio which will of course be constant : throughout the experiment.

(a) Single fixed pulley (fig. But actually has to be E W E greater than W. _________ \ ) W= 4 E W (b) = E FIG. would be equal to E and the Force Ratio would be i. 47). . 46). the load moves i ft. If the effort moves through i ft. The tension in Pulleys. POWER.*. moves i ft. is 2.WORK. W Velocity Ratio . Single If /. If there the string will be the same throughout its length. Actual Effiaency TO . FIG. start.. 46. 48. were no friction. E movable pulley (fig. = W x W's distance x distance ^ W i W E ** . Velocity Ratio is i. moves 6 in. MACHINES 49 necessary in each case to maintain motion when given a gentle Draw up a table and find the efficiency at different loads.

MECHANICS (c) The block and tackle If /. and 7j 1 released. 49. illustrated diagrammatically in fig. bring the efficiency down. two pulleys of different radii cast in one piece and a single movable pulley.-wt. The Weston Differential Pulley.. Therefore the net shortenThe load will 2nb. n(a b). should lift a ton friction is purposely introduced into this machine to practice. the Velocity Ratio (and Theoretical Mechanical Advantage) But in will be 32. is i. Velocity Ratio therefore 2nd n(a If b) 20 a b the top pulley has radii of 8 in. This machine. and a pull of 70 Ib. Velocity Ratio is 4. Actual Efficiency = In this scheme 4 there are two pulley blocks and in each block the separate pulleys are parallel to one another. 49. the load will not run back when FIG. W (fig. But at the same time the turning of the smaller pulley lengthens the chain by 2nb. In the compound pulley suppose that the large pulley has radius a and the small pulley radius b. E moves i ft. 3 in.. but in diagrams they are generally drawn one above the other to show the position of the string (d) ~& W i x - W more clearly. moves 48). since it is found that with all machines of efficiency less than 50%.e. consists of an endless chain. When this compound pulley turns through one revolution the effort E moves a distance of zna. . ing is 2na W rise half this amount. and the chain round the lower pulley shortens by 2na.

he is PERP. Let us now consider a laboratory inclined plane (fig. ^r **> j. trying to increase the velocity ratio. . 50.'. MACHINES The of a think of Inclined Plane. ' see a horse tacking ' ' ' up a steep hill. The hill has a velocity ratio.." a mechanical and we advantage can speak of its effi- 1 ' When you ciency. round the plane. We may pull a heavy roller FI G.= Hypotenuse . of effort applied with a spring balance. Next suppose that the effort is applied parallel to the base For this purpose a stirrup is used which will pass 51). Velocity Ratio perp. 50). Velocity Ratio J i ^ = Perpendicular and as in other machines Actual Efficiency = -g- ~ Velocity Ratio = -g- x Y PERP. but it certainly satisfies the definition machine as a device whereby we can use a small effort through a great distance to overcome a great resistance through " " a small distance. In this case (fig. effort . When we climb a hill we do not often it as a machine. up the hypoby means tenuse W While the is lifted E moves along the hypotenuse the weight a height equal to the perpendicular.WORK. POWER.

x J lb. : 4224 Problem. I ngth of each arm and 6 is the pitch of the screw is 2nd the Velocity Ratio is ^ a 3 18 TEETH IOTEETH FIG. You can illustrate this by wrapping a to piece of paper. The velocity ratio of a screw = circumference the If a Similar reasoning applies to the screw press (fig.-wt.'. Problem. in. W W W x 14 x 2n x 6 x i in. Forces of 14 Ib. approximately . 53. to each arm. round a pencil. but it has a screw is an important application in the ordinary screw an inclined plane wrapped round a cylinder. cut shape. .MECHANICS This method of applying the effort is not usual.-Wt. In the screw jack shown (fig. 2 X 14 X in X 6 . long. the bevelled wheel has 10 teeth engaging with Show that wheel of 18 teeth which raises a screw of pitch in. 53) the crossbar is a 7 in. FIG. are applied Find the resistance overcome. the velocity ratio is 198. 52. 52). and the pitch of the screw J in. Work put Work got in 2 out = Neglecting friction. The length of each arm of a screw press is 6 in.

rides up a gradient of i in 12 at 5 miles per hour. 3. if the system is 60 per cent. The arm of a screw jack is 2 ft. (J. MACHINES QUESTIONS x.h. long and engages directly What force applied at the with the screw whose pitch is in. (C. the working of 7. POWER. 53 A" man ? scraper skyweighing 9 stone 6 Ib. man wishes to pull a 2-cwt. 4. What extra horse-power must it develop to maintain the same [One speed up the slope.. A cyclist travelling at 12 m. per second. roller up the garden steps a 11. He uses a plank 12 ft.-lb. deep in 72 is engine raises 2 tons from the bottom of a shaft 440 yd. Explain exactly how you could find the efficiency of an inclined plane.-wt. " working in 2.? A car travelling at 25 (a) 10. Describe and explain the action of a mechanical device that will enable him to do so.) 9. What effort will be required to lift 72 Ib.B. A cyclist weighing. high in 40 min.W. with explanation and diagrams.) 550 ft. (C. = 454 gm. long. What fraction of the load will his applied force need to be ? down slope.B.) 6. An 5500 Ib.B. end of the arm will lift a weight of i ton ? 15. A horse holds a load on a 10 force is he pushing back if the load weighs i ton ? 14. ? (C. With what 13.) A .B. At what horse-power is the engine working ? If its total weight Ail aeroplane climbs 6000 ft. finds that he has to work harder by one-tenth of a horse-power on account of the wind Calculate the force exerted by the wind on the cyclist. If i inch and i Ib. express 10 ft. cm.) miles per hour comes to a slope of i in 20.. vertically for some distance.W. efficient ? (C. if the weight of the car is 2200 Ib. sec.] horse-power 8.-lb. Describe. What force does he exert 12. a block and tackle. requires to raise a weight of 700 Ib. gm.W.p. at what horse-power is it working against gravity ? Describe with a diagram a simple pulley system in which the effort moves four times as fast as the load. A man capable of exerting a force of 150 Ib. ? A railway porter pulls a trolley up a 15 slope from the " " metals to the platform.WORK. in 5 minutes. Define a Unit of Work. (b) a differential pulley. 150 Ib. climbs to the top of a 1000 ft. At what horse-power was he 2-54 cm. vertical distance of 3 ft. with his machine. What work does he do per second 5.M. if friction resistance is equal to 10 lb.

Moreover. due N.h. we have a rule called the Parallelogram of Velocities by which velocities can be compounded into a resultant velocity. his velocity will be 10 m... a quarter of the way round it will be 10 m.se of velocity. however small the intervals may be. Suppose the car in II sec. " word speed distances in equal intervals of time. When we We 1 second in each of the n sec. it is approximately so.h.p.. half-way round it will be 10 m. per second. due S. You will sometimes hear motorists speaking Acceleration. half a mile every 3 minutes and so on down to the smallest interval of time. speak of "velocity. i mile every 6 minutes. due N. Most people would call this " " acceleration.CHAPTER MOTION VII There is an important difference in meaning between " and the word " velocity.p.h." It will be instructive to " " account. Acceleration generally means an increa. or W. The speed of a body is said to be uniform when the body travels equal the Velocity. Now. It is very unlikely that he will do 5 miles in each half-hour.p. although speed is rarely absolutely uniform. Further. His speed will not be uniform.p. is It is worth rememberft. and so on.h. ing that a speed of 60 miles per hour the same as 88 per consider the meaning of this phrase." the direction is taken into speak of a velocity 10 m. the acceleration might also be 54 . if the car put on 8 ft. E. but his velocity is certainly not uniform At one instant since the direction is changing all the time. we frequently meet cases where second. A velocity can be represented by a straight line drawn to scale just like a force. per rapid . " of smooth and rapid acceleration. got up a'speed of Bo it." Suppose a man running round a track does 10 miles in an hour. The speed of the runner on the track may be approximately uniform.

" ? " Not . When the car is slowing down. Distance :./sec. /sec. per sec. per second in every quartersecond./sec. 2 which means that the speed increases by 8 ft. s = = o -f at x t 1 starting from rest has an acceleration of a ft. the scientist still considers it as a case of acceleration negative acceleration. ft. In the case mentioned above. per sec.a* = 25 and 25 (i) (2) (3) from . To find the distance s travelled in sec. (c) To find the distance the body must travel to pick up a velocity of v ft./sec. or 8 ft./sec. Velocity at the end of t sec. ~ = but /. /sec. average velocity x time o -f v x * v at ^.* To find the velocity v at the end of / sec.\*P . v (b) = a at = = ft. smooth. /sec. however small the intervals may be. a x 2 at. 2 ft. and so on. Thus acceleration is said to be uniform when the body receives equal changes of velocity in equal intervals of time. (a) A body starting from rest moves with an acceleration of a ft. /. (3) t* = V2 -5 '" &=H tf f r " * 20S We have now obtained three useful formulae relating . per second every second. By the use of very elementary algebra we can deduce several very important formulae concerning the motion of a body moving with uniformly accelerated velocity. Formulae. the acceleration would be called 8 ft.*~~^ 1 A body starting from Distance rest has an acceleration of a / ft. per sEIxmcTin each half -second.MOTION truly called acceleration 55 But would the scientist call it unifojan unless the car gained a speed of 4 ft. Velocity at the end of 2 sec. Velocity at the end of i sec.at . A body v s V* From (2) < .

The penny and paper reach the ground together. Perhaps his most important experiment was that in which he showed that the motion did not depend upon the weight of the body. It is generally referred to as g and we may rewrite our formulae with g in place of a. Both reached the ground at the same time. Newton (1642-1727) showed that even a coin and a feather would fall at the same rate in a vacuum. Later on. You may yourself do a simple experiment. per sec.56 MECHANICS motion of a body which starts off from rest and travels with uniform acceleration. which illustrates the same fact. per sec. Before his time it was generally thought that a heavy body would fall faster than a light one. The whole question was first investigated by Galileo (1564-1642) and he it was who first derived the above formula? by experiment and mathematical reasoning.. The acceleration due to gravity is roughly 32 ft. The most important example of such motion is that of a falling body. Place a small piece of paper middle of a penny and allow or^the the penny to fall. Galileo climbed the leaning tower of Pisa and from the top dropped vu+afc simultaneously a cannon ball and a musket bullet. .

and calculate the time he will take to get from one boat to the other. A boy swims from one boat to another anchored 100 yd. 54 illustrates s ut \at*. Complete the parallelogram. 55). a body instead of starting from of. but they can easily be derived by the same methods.B. = then be represented by areas. marking time #-axis and on the distance travelled velocity will Fig. With centre at R. Show that the resultant velocity is 1-3 miles per hour and that he will take 157 sec. u ft.MOTION If 57 rest has an initial velocity per second. 55. the formula + To Compound Velocities. the formulae will be slightly different. The current is flowing eastwards at i \ miles per hour.) and radius units long. say. (C. Relative Velocity. their proof being left as a simple mathematical exercise.. The formulae can \ all be illustrated graphically. The boy must swim in the direction SB. and the boy can swim at 2 miles per hour in still water. When a body has two velocities simultaneously.W. graphically the direction which he must swim. For convenience they are brought together here. Show in Fic. they to pounded can be comform a resultant EXAMPLE. east i Draw SA due A 2 units cut the SN line . velocity just like forces. due north of the former (fig. Sometimes two bodies are in motion and it is important to find the velocity of one relative to the other.

p. But as soon as he walks he has to slope the umbrella and the faster he walks the (fig. (c) . This explains the north-east trade winds. 57. When rain is falling straight down and a man is standing he holds an umbrella straight up. REVERSED VEL. The same rule again holds good dcd Reversed Velocity of Velocity of rain relative to man com - Actual Velocity of rain 57)- PJ man (fig- Spin a globe from west to east and attempt to draw a chalk line from the north towards the equator. 56. If B happens to be travelling at the same speed. Then suddenly a train C flashes by in the opposite direction.h. 100 50 miles an hour 50 miles an hour = or Actual Velocity of C ded Reversed Velocity of A. it seems for a moment that both trains are at rest. (b) still. until we look out of the opposite window. The line will come from the north-east. FIG. Then Velocity of B relative to = A B or Actual Velocity of 50 miles an hour C ded m Velocity of C relative to = A com Po ^ 50 miles an hour Reversed Velocity of = o A. Suppose all three trains are doing 50 m. OF MAN VELOCITY OF RAIN VELOCITY OF RAIN VELOCITY OF MAN FIG. greater the slope 56).MECHANICS (a) train When we are sitting in a train A there may be another B on our left going in the same direction.

/- Can y u offer any suggestions as to why . 121 and 144 cm. that is. The final result should show that when the length is increased four times the period is doubled. arise in a similar way. then be drawn 64. The time for 20 to 40 vibrations is taken with a stop-watch. is proportional to the square These facts can be lead bob. verified with a long thread attached to a /The length of the pendulum is measured from the bottom of tne supporting clamp to the middle of the bob. The period or time of swing is the time taken for a double journey. 100. " " beats seconds. 49. Galileo may be said to have invented the pendulum as an instrument for measuring time. A up thus : It will be convenient to take 20 swings when the pendulum is long and 40 when short. long. This is called the seconds pendulum because it It is shown in more advanced mechanics that T the period is equal to 2n. two vibrations orgeats. but that the period root of the length. or on the extent of the swing provided this is not extremely wide. the_period is proporIt should also be noticed tional to the square root of the length) that when the pendulum is 100 on. Try to explain this on similar lines. table should. 25. the period is 2 sec. The effect of altering the length can easily be investigated by making the length 16. jvhen the length is increased nine times the period is trebled^That is. He discovered that the period or time of swing does not depend on the weight of the bob. 81. at right angles to the course of a cyclist may become almost a head-on wind in either direction. (d) The south-east trade winds Wind blowing The Pendulum. 36.MOTION Velocity of 59 wind relative to earth - Actual Velocity of wind com P ded Reversed Vclocity of carth .

60

MECHANICS

should occur in the formula ? The formula provides an excellent method of determining the value of g, and if I is measured in feet then g should in our latitudes work out to 32. Newton's Second Law of Motion. The product of the mass m of a body and its velocity v is called the momentum of the mv. The momentum of a motorbody. Thus momentum coach travelling at 10 miles per hour would be considerably But greater than a sports car travelling at the same speed. if the car is travelling at 80 the momenta might easily sports be equal. Newton's second law of motion states that the rate of change of momentum is proportional to the acting force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts. Suppose that the velocity of a body of mass m increases from u to v during a time /.

n and g

=

The change
of

of

momentum
is

is

mv
or

mu.

The

rate of

change

momentum
mv

mn
or

m(v

tt)

ma

(since v

=

u

+

at).

That

rate of change of momentum is ma. Newton's law means that F the acting force and ma are proportional to one another. On these ideas scientists founded a new unit of force. They agreed that this unit of force should be the force which causes unit mass to move with unit accelerais,

Now

tion. In the British system of units the new unit was called the poundal. A poundal is that force which acting on a mass 2 Thus to give of j Ib. will give it an acceleration of I ft./sec. 2 i Ib. mass an accel. of i ft./sec. requires a force of i pdl. 2 m Ib. M i ft. /sec. m pdls. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, m Ib. a ft./sec. 8 ma pdls. ,,

Calling this force
CF

F we

have

~ Ib. x a ft./sec. 8 poundals ] In the metric system the new unit was called the dyne and

m

is

that force which acting on tion of i cm./sec. 2 Again
.

a-

mass

of i

gm. gives
j

it

an accelera-

f F dynes
are the

=

m gm.

x a cm./sec. 8

1
;

The poundal and dyne are the absolute units of force they same everywhere, whereas the gravitational units, the Ib.-wt. and the gm.-wt., depending as they do on the pull of the earth, must vary slightly from place to place. But since

MOTION

61

the acceleration due to gravity all over the earth may be taken as 32 ft./sec. 2 approximately, we may say that the earth's pull a produces in i Ib. mass an acceleration of 32 ft./sec.
force of i Ib.-wt. = 32 poundals. In the Metric System g is 980 cm. /sec.* Therefore i gm.-wt. 980 dynes.

Hence a

Absolute Units of Work.

We

saw

in

an

earlier chapter that

when a

force of i Ib.-wt. moves its point of application through a distance of i ft., the work done is i ft.-lb. The corresponding

metric unit of work is the cm. gm. These are the gravitational units of work. The absolute units of work are the foot-poundal and the erg which are thus defined The foot-poundal is the amount of work done when a force of one poundal moves its point of application through a distance
:

of i

ft.

amount of work done when a force of one dyne point of application through a distance of i cm. Energy. Energy is the capacity for doing work. Any living thing has energy, but in mechanics we are mainly concerned with the energy possessed by inanimate bodies. A body may have kinetic .or motion energy or it may have potential energy. Energy is measured in work units ft.-lb., cm. gm.,foot-poundals or ergs.
The moves
erg is the
its

kinetic energy of a moving body is the amount of work it do in being brought to rest. The potential energy of a body is the amount of work it will do by reason of its position or because it is in a state of tension or compression, e.g. a mass poised above the ground, stretched rubber, coiled springs, stretched springs, compressed springs, a bent ruler.

The

will

This

kinetic energy when it starts. gradually transformed into potential energy as the body rises, until at the highest point the body possesses only potential energy. On the down journey the potential energy is again transformed into kinetic energy. This transformation of energy At the highest is also well illustrated in swings and pendulums. point the energy is all potential, at the lowest all kinetic. A pendulum finally comes to rest because the energy is gradually dissipated as heat produced by friction with the air or at the

A

body thrown upwards has
is

support.

62
Problem.

MECHANICS

cricket ball of mass is travelling with velocity find the amount of work it does in being brought to rest, that is, to find its kinetic energy. while Suppose that the fielder applies a constant resistance he is drawing his hands back through a distance s and suppose that the time taken is t. Work done by the ball against jp Fs.
v.

A

m

To

F

=

The average
.'.

velocity over this distance

=

v
-

5

$vt,

but

F = ma = mr
^j

t/

:.

Work done - Fs =

x

~ -

J

mv.

Note that if m is in Ib. and v in ft. /sec. then the kinetic energy \mv* is in foot-poundals. This is also the amount of work that would have to be done on the cricket ball to give it this kinetic
energy. have seen that Potential Energy. is lifted 5 ft. the work done is 50 ft.-lb.
of 10 Ib. In foot-poundals this will be 50 X 32, and generally we may say that the work done Ib. through h ft. against gravity is mgh f t.-pdls. This in lifting We say is also the work which the body would do in falling. then that the potential energy of the body is mgh ft.-pdls. Ib. Transformation of Energy. Suppose that a mass of falls from a height h ft. through a distance s ft. We can show

We

when a mass

m

m

that Potential Energy lost

Kinetic Energy gained. Potential Energy lost = mgs ft.-pdls. Suppose that in falling a distance s the velocity gained is u* = 2as we have u o and a Then in the formula v*
.'.

=

v.

g

V*

=

2S.

Kinetic Energy gained

= \mv* = mgs

--=

\m x

2gs

ft.-pdls.

This is a particular example of a general law the Law of Conservation of Energy which says that energy cannot be created or destroyed. It may seem at first sight that the kinetic energy of the moving cricket ball was lost when caught by the fielder, but in this case the mechanical energy is converted into heat energy ; the ball and the hands will all be a little warmer. In fact this law may be regarded as the fundamental law of physics ;
there are

no exceptions.

Friction.

When

dealing with machines,

we saw

that there

MOTION
was always a

63

certain amount of work lost in overcoming friction. Let us consider a simple example of friction from the point of view of energy. Suppose a table to be dragged along the floor. Work has to be done in the process, but the table in its new position has no more potential energy than before, nor has it kinetic energy. The energy has been changed into useless heat energy and sound energy.

may define friction as a force brought into play when two It always opposes surfaces slide or tend to slide over each other. motion. It is important to find out what this force called friction
depends upon.

We

W
FIG. 58.

Experiment. Take a block of wood whose faces have different Lay the block on a horizontal board and attach a spring balance (fig. 58). Load the block with various weights and compile a table showing (a) R the normal reaction which will be equal to the weight of the block loading weight, (b) F the force required to keep the block moving slowly with uniform velocity, (c) the ratio of F to R.
areas.

+

64
It will

MECHANICS
Frictional Force

be found that
is

Normal Reaction

is

a constant.

This

constant

called the coefficient of friction for those surfaces

and

denoted by the letter //. The frictional force is therefore proportional to the normal reaction. The experiment should now be repeated, putting one of the other faces in contact with the board. It should be found that the frictional force does not depend on the area of the surfaces in contact. We can find the ratio /z in another way. Experiment. Place the block on the board and tilt until the
is

FIG. 59.

block just slides

(fig.

and measure

AB

59).

Fix the board with a block of wood

and BC.
r

Then

AB
BCThis fact can easily be proved either by Resolution of Forces
of Forces. surface does not need to be very rough to make In this case the dragging force would have as high as J or (i or \ the weight. Let us imagine our prehistoric ancestors to be faced with the problem of transporting a cubical block of granite It is quite possible that they will find it more of side 20 in. convenient to roll it by pushing at Taking moments (fig. 60).

or

by the Triangle

Rolling.

A

.

A

round
or

C we have

/.

P x AC = W P x 28 = W P is roughly

x EC x 10
J of

W.

MOTION
This
is

the

maximum

becomes

less as

value of because the moment of the block turns round C. In this case rolling

P

W
is

certainly as easy as dragging. Consider next a block of roughly hexagonal shape again assumnow have ing a 20-in side (fig. 61).

We

P
and the maximum value
It is

x 40
of

W

x 10
sides there are to the

now

easy to see

%W. that the more

P

is

block, the

more advantageous does

rolling

become as opposed

,-TP

to dragging or sliding. It was probably by some such practical experience that our remote ancestors first discovered the wheel. We must not of course assume that they reasoned it out from the Principle of Moments Nowadays we have advanced a step further and we overcome the disadvantages of sliding friction by applying the rolling idea in ball and roller bearings. Now although we use considerable ingenuity in overcoming
I

friction,

we should be

in

abolished from nature.

We

a very bad way if it were entirely should be unable to tie a knot,

spin yarn, weave cloth, use nails or screws or even to

move

D

G.SJP.

66

MECHANICS

about on the surface of the earth ; life as we know it would be absolutely impossible. The Third Law of Motion states that "action and reaction are equal and opposite/' In other words, whenever a force is in action there is always an equal force in opposition. The law is readily accepted by students when no motion occurs they quite believe that the two forces acting between the ground
;

and any object resting on it are equal. But the law also holds good when a horse pulls a log along the ground. The horse pulls forward and the log pulls back and the pulls are equal even when the log moves. The difficulty only arises when we ignore two other forces, namely, the backward push of the horse's feet on the ground and the equal and opposite forward push of the ground on the horse's feet. It is this forward push which urges (horse If the ground were very log) forward. smooth or the horse were fitted with roller skates, he would find it impossible to push back and the ground would not then For the same reason we ourselves would find it push forward. impossible to move on a perfectly smooth surface. Again, sup-

+

pose a powerful spring balance to replace part of the rope between the horse and the log ; which pull is registered, that due to the horse or that due to the log ? There are many daily life illustrations of the third law. .A swimmer doing the breast stroke kicks back a wedge of water when his legs come together and the water reacts and urges him forward. Gold fish in a suspended bowl cannot set their home An oarsman pushes off from the bank with an oar in motion. and the bank urges the boat into mid-stream.

QUESTIONS
Explain the terms velocity and acceleration. starting from rest moves with an acceleration of 5 ft. per sec. per sec. In what time will it acquire a velocity of 50 ft. per second, and what distance will it have travelled in that time ?
z.

A

body

(L.)

the difference, between velocity and acceleration ? How long will a stone take in falling from rest a distance of 200 ft. => to the ground ? (L.) 32 is.s.] [g A} A shot is projected vertically upwards with a velocity of 160 ft. per second ; how higji will it travel and what will be its
2.
is

What

MOTION
position

67

and

its velocity

at the end of the fourth and of the eighth
(L.) sec.

second
4.

?

A motor-car
standstill.

can attain a speed of 60 miles per hour in 14

from a

Calculate the acceleration. graphically the formulae relating to the motion of a body starting from rest and travelling with uniform acceleration. car travelling at 40 miles per hour has its speed reduced in 6. 2-5 sec. to 10 miles per hour. Assuming the retardation to be uniform, what distance was covered in the time ? (C.W.B.) 7. Illustrate graphically the formulae relating to the motion of a body starting with an initial velocity and moving with uniform
5. Illustrate

A

acceleration.
8. A motor-car with an initial speed of 40 miles per hour has its speed rf/luced by a uniform retardation to 10 miles per hour in What was the time occupied ? What was the travelling 400 yd. average velocity ? 9. State the formulae relating to the motion of a body which has an initial velocity and moves with uniform acceleration. Show how these formulae may be proved algebraically. 10. The following table gives speeds of a car and corresponding braking distances (distance in which speed is reduced to o).

60 80 50 70 30 40 266 66 105 150 213 37 J Calculate the retardation in each case. 11. Obtain an expression for the distance traversed by a uniformly accelerated body in terms of its initial and final velocities

Speed

. .

Distance

20 m.p.h. 17 ft.

and

its acceleration.

A

train

moves from

rest

per sec. per sec. After what time and distance will 30 miles per hour ?
12.

with a uniform acceleration of 1-5 ft. its speed be
(C.W.B.)

from rest, with uniform acceleration, attains a speed of 30 miles per hour in 8 sec. It then runs with uniform speed for 2 min., after which the brakes are applied and it is brought
car, starting

A

to rest in 4 sec. What is the total distance covered ? (D.) 13. A stone is projected vertically upwards with a velocity of 1 60 ft. per second. Indicate its subsequent behaviour by completing the table shown.

68

MECHANICS

14. Use the results of (13) to plot a space-time curve and a velocity-time curve. From the graphs find when the body is 320 ft. from the ground, and the velocity at that instant. 15. In a series of experiments with simple pendulums the following numbers were obtained
:

Plot a graph showing the relation between the length of a pen-

dulum and the square of its time of swing. 16. How far will a body fall from rest in half a second

(D.)
?

a unit of force on the foot-pound-second system. 10 Ib. acted on by a constant force for one minute acquires thereby a velocity of 1000 yd. per minute. Determine the

A body of mass

17. Define

value of the force. (C.W.B.) 18. A body of mass 50 gm. acquires a velocity of 14*7 metres Find the force acting on it in dynes and gm.-wt. in 10 sec. 19. If the bob of a simple pendulum is drawn aside and let go when the string is taut so that its vertical fall is 3 in., what is its velocity at the lower position ? Neglect air resistance. (C.W.B.) 20. Calculate the momentum and the kinetic energy of a mass of 30 Ib. which has fallen from a height of 16 ft. 21. Explain clearly the difference between kinetic and potential energy. Show, with the aid of examples from everyday life, how
potential energy
vice versa.

may

be transformed into kinetic energy, and
(L.)

stone projected with a velocity of 10 ft. per second along a horizontal sheet of ice comes to rest in 25 sec. What is the ratio between the frictional force and the weight of the body ? (D.) 23. A motor-car weighing 2500 Ib. and travelling at 20 miles per hour comes to a slope of i in 30 down which it travels for 200 yd., with the engine disconnected, without diminution of speed. What is the resisting force due to friction ? Which of the data can be altered without affecting the result ? (C.W.B.)
22.

A

HEAT

CHAPTER

VIII

THERMOMETERS
IT has been said that man is an animal which cooks its food. is certainly not used by any other animals, so the definition The earliest known means of obtaining fire logically sound.

Fire
is

was by rubbing together two pieces of dry stick. NQW although this demands considerable skill and experience, there are many
other cases known to all of us where we produce considerable heat by the rubbing of two surfaces together ; in cold weather we rub our hands together, a brass button rubbed on wood becomes very hot, if we rub the rim of a bicycle wheel with emery cloth with sufficient vigour we get burnt. The effect is very striking when using the kind of saw which is adapted for the narrow blade of such a saw becutting a hole in wood
;

comes unbearably hot. If a nail is hammered repeatedly both nail and hammer get hot. There is one fact which is common to all these operations we are doing work or using up motion energy. This fact is so striking that scientists have come to the conclusion that heat is a form of motion energy. Heat is certainly not a form of matter, otherwise a body would be heavier when hot. Yet the hot body is strikingly different in its behaviour, and it was difficult at first to explain why. The modern explanation is that in rubbing, the motion energy is passed on to the molecules of the bodies rubbed the hotter the body, the faster its molecules are vibrating. As a body cools, its molecules slow down until finally they come to a standstill at the absolute Further knowledge will convince you of zero of temperature the reasonableness of this mental picture of vibrating molecules. Heat and Temperature. If we have a large flask and a small flask both full of boiling water, the large flask contains more " heat," but both flasks are at the same temperature. Again, suppose that a red-hot poker is plunged into a bucket of tepid
; !

HEAT
water. Heat will pass from the poker to the water because the former is at a higher temperature, but it is quite likely that the bucket of water contained more heat.

Temperature

may

be compared with water-level.

Thus

if

a

burette and an inverted bell-jar are joined up as shown (fig. 62), water will flow from the burette if the level is higher. Similarly, if two bodies and B are placed in contact and heat to B, it is because was at passes from a higher temperature than B. We are accustomed to judging the temperature of bodies by feeling them, but a little thought will show that the sense of

A

A

A

A^

JJ ^^ ^^
FIG. 62.

Thus in would feel hotter than the neighbouring woodwork although both would be at the same temperature. In winter the opposite would be the case. The metal part of a workman's shovel feels very cold in winter and the grips on the handlebars of a bicycle feel warmer than the adjoining metal work. A more reliable method of judging temperature is to use some kind of thermometer. Most thermometers depend on the fact that matter expands on heating.
touch
is

not always

reliable.

summer sunshine a corrugated

roof

Expansion.

There are

many

show that

solids

expand on heating.

simple experiments designed to In fig. 63 the metal bar

FIG. 63.
is

fixed at one end against a weight while the other end rests on a needle pushed into a straw pointer. When the bar is

heated, it can only move at the needle end. The needle rolls and causes the straw to travel round the graduated scale.

THERMOMETERS
We
;

73

often meet examples of this expansion of solids in daily a railway lines " gap is left between the ends of the " which connects the ends have bolt rails the fish-plate holes which are longer than they are wide. Without these precautions the rails would buckle either upwards or outwards. The glass for windows and picture frames has to be cut a little smaller than the frame. In the summer of 1934 the metal of a drawbridge over the river in New York expanded so much that it was impossible to close it. It can be shown that different metals do not expand at the same rate ; a compound bar of iron and brass riveted together, when heated in a bunsen flame, forms a curve with the brass on the outside.
life.

On

The expansion of a liquid can be shown with the apparatus illustrated
in
fig.

64

A.

A

flask

full of

coloured

with a stopper and capilOn immersing the flask in lary tube. hot water, the thread of coloured liquid drops a little, then rises considerably. The initial drop is caused by expansion of the glass before the heat reaches the If the flask is filled with alcohol, liquid. it can be shown that this liquid expands more than water for the same rise in

water

is fitted

temperature. The expansion of a gas (air) can be shown with the same flask fitted up as shown at fig. 646. On warming the flask with the hands the air expands and forces the coloured liquid up the capillary tube. It can be shown, though not conveniently with the present apparatus, that all gases expand at the same rate, a fact which lends support to an important hypothesis in chemistry.

The first thermometer (fig. 65) was made by Galileo. This, an air thermometer, consisted of a long glass tube of fine bore with a bulb at the top. The bulb was wanned a little and the end of the tube was then dipped into coloured water in the small bottle. When the bulb cooled the water ran a little way

up the
*D

tube*
G.S.P.

66). FIG. FIG. 65. on cooling.74 HEAT The instrument was very sensitive to small changes in temperature but had the disadvantage that air pressure also affected the height. mercury passes down into the bulb. After repeating this a few times. the end (fig. the bulb and part of the stem will be full of mercury. O rKj FIG. 66. The operation of filling the therrather difficult because of the narrow bore and funnel is either blown or attached to the presence of air. The Mercury Thermometer. This drives air out and. Mercury is then poured into the funnel and the bulb gently warmed. 68. is mometer bulb A .

104) in order to mark the upper fixed point (fig. 6. (See Chap. and its boiling-point 357 C. If the barometer is not at 760 mm. we must use vapour pressure tables and apply a correction before making a scratch on the tube. has a low specific heat. This prevents the presence of air in the finished thermometer. the higher point is called 100 and the lower point o.THERMOMETERS The mercury 75 is now boiled to get rid of air which tends to cling to the walls of the tube. degrees = 180 F. The boiling-point also alters with the pressure. blowpipe flame. the space between being divided into 180 equal parts. here there are some precautions to take. " " The thermometer is next placed in a (see hypsometer But p. If the thermometer is to be of the Fahrenheit type the corresponding points are marked 212 and 32. is a good conductor of heat. It is 4. mark A where the mercury is just visible above the ice. 3. therefore the bulb must not be even within splashing is made* on the glass distance of the water. It has a long range of usefulness because its freezing-point 39 C. After cooling down. 68). If the water is not pure the boiling-point will be a little higher than the steam which comes off. Pure ice must be used because dissolved solids have the effect of lowering the freezing-point of a liquid. Marking the Fixed Points. and also read the barometer. The bulb of the thermometer is immersed in small pieces of pure melting ice (fig. It does not wet the tube. 67). the space between being divided into 100 equal parts called degrees. It 5. the tube is again heated up to a temperature a little higher than the thermometer The tube is now drawn off with a small is intended to read. : It is easily seen. To ensure this we must see that both arms of the water gauge are equal by adjusting the burner. so inside the hypsometer the pressure must be 760 mm.> Its expansion is very uniform. degrees. By filling the tube . X. If the thermometer is to be marked according to the Centigrade scale. while it is still full of mercury. Mercury as a thermometric substance has the following advantages 1. Thus 100 C. 2.

76 HEAT above the liquid with compressed nitrogen to raise its boilingcan be used even above 357 C.112 2. a distinct disadvantage when the temIt wets the tube It boils at perature is falling. which absolutely disshall learn later that qualify i t the best substance is hydrogen . 69) showing freezing-point and boiling-point on the two scales. 4. The disadvantages compared with mercury are It : 1. What Centigrade reading corresponds to 158 F. rules: (6) Ask the question () Draw a rough diagram (fig. In marking an alcohol thermometer it is usual to fix the lower point by means of melting ice and obtain the other graduations by comparison with a standard mercury thermometer. Conversion of Readings from one Scale to Another. EXAMPLE. 69. Its expansion is not so uniform. it : . Water as a thermometric substance would combine the disadvantages of mercury and alcohol besides doing strange tricks round F 9C I00\ about 4 C. Alcohol as a thermometric substance has the following advantages 1. 3. It can be used in cold countries since its freezing-point is point. We >IOO son with a thermometer filled with this gas but having a different shape from the ordinary thermometer. C. ? The frequent blunders committed with such examples can be avoided by following two FIG. It does not conduct heat so readily as mercury. 2. for the expands about six times as much as mercury same rise of temperature. very accurate mercury thermometers are graduated by compari. " How many divisions is the given . 78 C. This procedure is necessary because of disadvantages (i) and (2). The Alcohol Thermometer.

The Maximum and Minimum Thermometer. Fig 70 shows another type (Six's).p.THERMOMETERS temperature above or below freezing-point?" 126 F. 71). and contains alcohol. EXAMPLE. pushes the mercury thread round the bend and up the right-hand Above the mercury on this side is a steel index with a side. A is the bulb of the thermometer. divisions above I0 f. position by means of a magnet supplied. ? f. divisions above f. actual reading 70 C.. divisions above . 77 is But 1 80 /. What .p. When the thermometer is taken . This allows alcohol to be driven up into D when the temperature As the temperature rises the alcohol in A expands and rises.. Before taking the temperature of a patient the mercury is shaken down well below temperature the normal blood temperature. The Clinical Thermometer (Greek. divisions above freezing-point. maximum temperature. 126 F. = _ = 100 C. from B to C a thread Bulb D of mercury.'. 158 F. is closed at the top. likewise left in position at the minimum position when the Both indexes can be pulled back into rises again. and from C to D another column of alcohol. ti$ x 7<> . Kline-abed) is a maximum thermometer used by doctors (Fig. F. divisions above f.p. Fahrenheit reading corresponds to 70 C. .'. But freezing-point is . divisions above scale f. but now pushing a similar index back on the left side.. = = =3 180 F.p.p. 100 C.*. It has a limited range and must never be washed in hot water. and only contains alcohol and alcohol vapour..p. 120 ^ is x I2 ^ above 70 C. spring just strong enough to stop the index slipping back when it The bottom end of this index will record the is pushed forward. From A to B is alcohol. When the temperature This is falls the alcohol contracts and the mercury comes back round the bend leaving the maximum index behind..70 . but freezing-point is o on the Centigrade scale . 32 on the Fahrenheit actual reading is 158 F. . divisions f.

B. Describe liquids.) the Centi3.78 HEAT from the patient and the cools.W. Explain why water is not a suitable liquid for . on expand Mention some of examples common practical precautions necessary on account of expansion. the thread breaks at a constriction in the bore and the main body of mercury runs back into the bulb. (L. in water entering the system at 63 F. Describe exactly how you would proceed to make a simple form of thermometer. temperature. (C. 71. Explain and Fahrenheit grade scales of temperature. showing simple exthat and gases heating. 70. showing that they have been tested at the National Physical Laboratory." Rewrite the above sentence using the Centigrade in place of the Fahrenheit scale Maximum and Minimum Thermometer. Clinical temperature of 41 F. QUESTIONS x.) 2. and test points. periments solids. FIG. The mercury more expensive clinical thermometers carry the sign NE. A hot.) 4.water heating system produces a rise in ' ' FIG. Six's of Thermometer. its fixed (L.

Draw and explain the working of a maximum. mometer have compared with a similar mercury one? (L. and 210 mm. and state all the precautions you would What advantages and disadvantages would such a thertake. From the graph determine the C. Explain the need for fixed points on a thermometer scale.THERMOMETERS use in thermometers. a minimum. to noF. and a clinical thermometer. If C and mometer and a Fahrenheit thermometer respectively. Draw a graph showing Fahrenheit readings on the #-axis and Centigrade readings on the y-axis. Define the fixed points on the Centigrade temperature scale. ? (C. are the upper and lower fixed points of What reading on a Centigrade thermo- 54 mm. What is the temperature (a) in degrees Centigrade. Describe how you would construct an alcohol thermometer to read from o F. prove that (b) in degrees Fahrenheit. The fixed points correspond to readings of 25 mm.) are corresponding readings on a Centigrade ther10. reading corresponding to 40 F. A mercury thermometer with uniform bore has a millimetre scale marked on it. 6. 7.W. 79 How a thermometer determined ? meter corresponds to 77 on the Fahrenheit scale ? (O.B. when the reading is F F -32 C . 9.) 8.) 5.

CHAPTER IX THE MEASUREMENT OF EXPANSION measuring the expansion of solids we deal with the linear expansion or increase in length. it will obviously to measure such a small increase. Linear Expansion. the superficial expansion or increase in area and the cubical expansion or increase in volume. and free to move at 80 . difficult a centimetre. If the unit length is We fairly long temperature range and employing some multiplying is One AB is of the many multiplying devices a brass tube clamped at a mark illustrated in A fig. 72. 72. get difficulty by using a long bar. through j be very over the device. WHEN The coefficient of linear expansion of a length is heated substance is the increase in length when unit STEAM FIG. warming it through a C.

expands by 0-0000189 mile. Since its internal diameter is only J in.of the ordinary coefficient. but if we adopt the Fahrenheit scale the coefficient will be f. the coefficient of superficial expansion is twice the coefficient of linear expansion. it will take ordinary rubber tubing by which steam may be sent in. Changing the unit of length makes no difference to the coefficient. The coefficient of linear expansion is given by DE x CB CD x AB x Range' a brass tube this should come to about 0-0000189 per i C. By similar reasoning we arrive at the conclusion that the coefficient of cubical expansion or the increase in volume when unit volume is wanned through i C. of brass heated i C.THE MEASUREMENT OF EXPANSION 81 the B end. This means that i cm. When heated through i C. One interesting way of overcoming . . Similarly. Since the coefficient of linear expansion is generally indicated by the letter a we may say the new area is + (i + a) = = I I + 2<x + a* + 2 x 0-0000189 H- 0-0000189* third term is evidently negligible compared with the other terms. CD is a lath 70 cm. and CD is 70 cm.. expands by 0-0000189 cm. i mile of brass heated i C. Suppose we have a square of brass i cm. At B a steel needle is firmly fixed in a drilled hole. The initial and final temperatures are taken by slipping a thermometer into the tube. * AB is 100 cm. As the rod expands the needle B pushes the lath out of the vertical. CB is I cm. The tube and scale DE are set up horizontally. In other words. expansion of a substance is the increase in area when unit area is heated through 1 C. Expansion has also to be allowed for in the case of clocks controlled The longer by pendulums during warm weather the pendulum gets and the clock loses. side. Therefore the increase in area of unit area is 2oc. long with a centre line marked along its length and a hole drilled at C to carry a supporting pivot. for The coefficient of superficial Superficial and Cubical Expansion.. the new length of each side will be i 0-0000189. Further Consequences of Expansion* In the last chapter mention was made of the precautions necessary in laying railway lines and fitting glass to windows and picture-frames. is equal to 3<x.

73. In measuring the expansion of liquids we are only concerned with cubical expansion. the wheelwright heats up an iron tyre which is slightly small. but this is cancelled by the expansion of a short column of mercury because the coefficient A for mercury is about five times greater than that for iron.HEAT the difficulty is shown in fig. but the question is complicated by the fact that. slips it over FIG. the woodwork and cools the job with buckets of water. unless the vessel is of fused as MERCURY .G. more modern method is to use an alloy of nickel and iron an alloy containing 36% nickel is found to have practically a zero It has therefore coefficient over a wide range of temperature. A vessel made of fused silica does not crack so readily because its coefficient of expansion is about one seventeenth as great. It contains 45% nickel and is now used in electric lamps to conduct the current through the glass seal. make a gas-tight joint Now between a metal and glass." Boiler-makers use red-hot rivets because on cooling they pull the plates IN GLASS CYLINDER For the same reason tightly together. " been given the name Invar. only known method. but in recent times another alloy of nickel and iron (not Invar) has been made which has the same coefficient as glass. platinum and glass have the same necessary to coefficient of expansion. 73.. the heated surface tries to expand before the heat reaches all parts. Expansion of Liquids. The well-known tendency of glass to crack under extremes of temperature is due to its bad conductivity ." In science and industry it is often . so the joint between these two does not break on For many years this was the cooling. It is found an advantage to plate this alloy with copper. This gives it a reddish colour and in the trade it is sometimes known "red platinum. The expansion of the iron rod tends to lower the C.

of Initial bottle bottle 4. 1-84 gm. The bottle is weighed empty and dry. The bottle is taken out.C. of turpentine Wt. of turpentine drawn off Let density of turpentine 9-21 gm31-05 gm. Wt. 100 C. A suitable apparatus is shown in fig. 21-84 gm. volume of turpentine is adjusted to the mark off A by adding more or drawing some with a small pipette. FIG./c.c. x c.c. of Wt. 20*00 gm. 1-84 I C. 74.C. heated through 100 C.turpentine finally Final wt.THE MEASUREMENT OF EXPANSION silica. drawing off turpentine when After boiling for about five minutes the necessary. turpentine is adjusted to the mark and the bottle dried. expands 20 X 100 . The water is now gently heated to boiling-point. of bottle 4. o C. taining vessel. 74. d 1-84 3 -r 2O'OO then -7 c.c. To obtain the real coeffi- we must take We thus cient we add the apparent coefficient and the coefficient of cubical expansion of glass or whatever material the containing vessel is made of. To find the coefficient of apparent expansion of turpentine. 1T heated through i X 2O-OO C. c. gm. C. cooled.c.turpentine Original wt. dried and weighed.c. and weighed. an into account the expansion of the conhave a real coefficient of expansion and apparent coefficient of expansion. then again immersed. It is then filled with turpentine and immersed The in ice-cold water for ten minutes. = 29-21 gm. In dealing with this problem you will need to remember the fact that Density Mass or Volume Volume Mass Density' Experiment. expand c. of turpentine - temperature Final temperature Wt.

C- Since alcohol and mercury are used in thermometers. FIG. = = 0-00092 per 0-000026 per 0-00095 P61 " C. 75. and the surface water it As the water in the middle cools. We have seen that as a general Water rule matter expands on heating and contracts on cooling. falls until The explanation gets denser and 4C. O'OOiio and o -00018 per coefficient for mercury is small that the bore of a mercury thermometer has to be so narrow. it is worth noticing their coefficients of real expansion which are It is because the C. A Useful Freak of Nature. expands. The experiment explains what takes place in winter in a lake or any large body of water. is sinks to o C. to o C. C. A by a mixture glass jar containing pure water is surrounded at the middle If readings are taken on the therof ice and salt. (2) and remains The upper one now freezes. when it This fact is illustrated in Hope's experiment (fig. No ice can form on the surface . mometers at short intervals we shall observe: lower thermometer sinks to 4 (1) The stationary. the lower half of the water is all at 4 C. Any further cooling "at the middle then causes gradual cooling of the upper half. HEAT Coefficient of app. respectively. C. 75). expansion of turpentine Coefficient of cubical expansion of glass Coefficient of real expansion of turpentine /. obeys the rule except when cooled from 4 C.84 /. Water has its maximum density at simple.

it expands. the main bulk of the water remains at 4 C. but when dealing with the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas we must obviously keep the pressure constant. Expansion of Gases. When studying the expansion of solids and liquids there was no need to consider the pressure. The means is conveniently found by shown in fig. there are no further convection currents and since water is a very bad conductor of heat. 77. When this temperature is reached. If ice were denser than water each layer would sink as it formed until the whole lake became a solid block of ice. The thick line in fig." --* THE FISH'S LIFE LINE -6 ( C 4C FIG. The bulb A contains acid. to the solid state enables aquatic life to survive the hardest winter in temperate " zones. gets lighter. 76. If the surface layer gets any and stays there.THE MEASUREMENT OF EXPANSION until the 85 whole mass of water has cooled to 4 C. 76 might well be termed the fish's life-line. The acid levels coefficient of expansion of air of the apparatus . cooler. That the burst only becomes evident during the thaw is due to the fact that the crack was nicely sealed with ice. The inair enclosed and kept dry by strong sulphuric verted bell-jar contains ice and water initially. The peculiar behaviour of water from 4 C. +6C BEHAVIOUR OF WATER NEAR FREEZING POINT EXAGGERATED) The expansion of water during freezing is also the cause of the bursting of water pipes in winter. If it freezes it also stays there because freezing causes further expansion and the ice floats at the top.

Volume. we can say that the FIG. theoretically becomes o. If the temperature is plotted on the #-axis and the volume on the y-axis. and counting from this point they have invented a new scale of temperatures called the absolute scale. Erect a new jy-axis at this point calling 273 the new zero. By constantly the acid levels. 373 A. volume of the air is directly proportional to the The French scientist absolute temperature. 27-8 28-7 29-6 30*5 c. adjusting the pressure is kept equal to atmospheric pressure. scale are : . I 173 C. oC. 100 A. ioo c C. 20 C. This it will do at Here the volume of the air 273 C. Since the graph is a straight line going through this new zero. The water is well stirred.c. Charles found that other gases behaved in the same way and made the general statement that the volume of a given mass * * \ of gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature provided that the pressure remains constant (Charles's Law). Scientists call this the absolute zero. oC. then stopped by opening clip C.86 HEAT are adjusted by means of the tap B. The volume and temperature are read. Temp.273 - o Abs. Results. volume and temperature again The process may be =*STEAM repeated until the water boils if time allows. Produce the graph backwards until it cuts the #-axis. Steam is now sent in for half a minute. Now we have made an assumption above that requires a . 77. 25 C. the acid levels adjusted and the ^ read. 273 A. Corresponding temperatures on this B \ 1 scale and the Centigrade C. we shall obtain a straight-line graph indicating that the expansion is uniform. 10 C.

at o C. but in the case of solids it does not make much difference on what part of the temperature scale we are working.. and " we assumed that it would " keep to the straight path when cooled below oC. ^73 c. by vfa . z c. c. and 60 C. Hydrogen keeps to the straight line down to about 253 C. From the above reasoning we can get another statement of Charles's Law.*. when it starts liquefying. it has been found possible to reach a temperature between 272 and 273 C. of gas warmed from o * to . Our experiment only gave us information concerning the behaviour of air between o C. tt .c.c.c.c. c. we should say from o to i C.. It will be remembered that we defined the coefficient of cubical expansion of a solid as the increase in volume when unit volume is warmed through i C. while helium goes to 269 C. . We The Gas Thermometer..THE MEASUREMENT OF EXPANSION little 87 more investigation. We found that 25 c. By causing liquid helium to evaporate rapidly. and so on.c. expanded by 5-5 c. at 51 C.c.. : - 0-00367 or But consider the following facts i c. i C. It is thought that at this temperature the molecules stop moving. C. a gas expands yfa of its volume at o C.. As a matter of fact it does until about 184 C. is very necessary and important.c. o 25 6Q vhThe expression o to i C. c..c.c.. 273 274 323 324 c. at 50 C. of air heated from o to 60 to x C. become at i C. they have no kinetic energy and there is no heat left in the substance. we must therefore be more precise with get ?fc not gases and define the coefficient of expansion of a gas as the increase in volume when unit volume is warmed from o to j C. c.. c. but the absolute zero has never yet been reached. provided that the pressure remains constant. for each rise in temperature of z C. From this we see that if we take the coefficient at 50 C. ^... Strictly speaking. What will happen if we heat a gas and prevent it expanding? Obviously the pressure will in- . Let us now consider our experimental results from another point of view. namely. expands . .c.c.

This fact can be deduced coefficient from Boyle's Law and Charles's Law or it can be proved by experiment using the apparatus shown in fig.88 HEAT crease . the volume is adjusted by bringing the mercury to the zero index at A. its pressure increases by ^| 7 of its pressure at o C. the pressure coefficient " are both equal to ?fa. The height AB is read and added to the atmospheric pressure. " " " volume and the other words. and 3-81 766 273. = 760 +6 i Final Pressure at 100 C. and here is a striking fact // the gas is heated through In i C. Using the readings obtained at freezing-point and boiling-point we proceed thus axis at Initial Pressure at FIG. or taken away if B happens to be lower than A. = = = 766 mm. but if time allows we may let the water cool and take various readings during the cooling. These two readings will suffice to enable us to calculate the pressure coefficient. 1047 mm. With care we should again obtain a straight-line graph cutting the #- o C. 281 mm. The bulb is now immersed in a vessel containing ice and distilled water. . 78. volume again adjusted to the zero index and the pressure read. 760 -f 287 Increase of pressure for 100 C. 78. 2-81 I mm. plotting temperature on the #-axis and pressure on the 3/-axis. After stirring well. The water is now raised to the boiling-point. The bulb is filled with dry gas by exhausting it several times and allowing the gas to enter through a drying tube after each exhaustion. C. the 273 C. A graph may then be drawn.

. and 740 mm. 7\ = 290 A. v \ ' ^ This combination of Boyle's as the Gas Equation. Suppose that we have a vessel full of gas and that the volume is v lt the pressure pi and the temfor scientific uses. = = 740 mm. v 2 Pi v i = is 290 Absolute 273 Absolute 350 c.. p 2 and the temperature Then it is Next suppose that the pressure alters to to T 2 absolute. I In other words pv is r a constant.. required. pressure.c. easy to prove that v9 new volume = \\* r J. The Gas Equation. and 760 mm.c.P.T. c. EXAMPLE. + = = f but _i Tr^TT' 2 a Pz v 2 74 x 35 v 760 x v t from which we can obtain the value of . then pi and pt . . Law and (Sharlfes's Law is known The gas equation is very useful in chemistry. not of course be very suitable for domestic use or mm.. Convert 350 17 C. (/ .T. for there we frequently need to find what the volume of a certain mass of gas would be under standard conditions of temperature and The Standard or Normal Temperature and Pressure pressure. For these reasons it is much used for standardizing mercury thermometers. Ta = 273 A. are regarded as o C.T. v l 760 mm.THE MEASUREMENT OF EXPANSION Our apparatus could evidently be used every It rise or fall of 2*81 89 would as a gas thermometer. but it has some very important The gas thermometer has a very long range. in the pressure representing i C. pressure to N.P. 17 . while with a non-fusible bulb temperatures even above 1000 C. Call the new volume v a . can be measured. It is also very sensitive and the%expansion of a gas is uniform. * . thus with helium in the bulb it can be used almost to the absolute zero. f j . or N. of oxygen at 17 C. a doctor's waistcoat pocket. = 273 o C. perature TI absolute.P. and these are generally referred to as S.

expansion of mercury in glass per degree C. 0-000012.). " Water facts : From a graph volume coefficient.) 8. be its area at 40 C. What will its value be in terms of the Fahrenheit scale and why is it unnecessary to consider the unit of length used ? At o C. the following results were obtained 7.HEAT QUESTIONS Define the coefficient of linear expansion of a solid. 6. 78. Explain why ice forms on the surface of a lake. find the volume at oC. a bar of aluminium is 2 in. in length. coefficient of cubical expansion. ? [Coeff.W.] [a What will 4. ? ix-9 x io-. Show how the coefficient of cubical expansion is related to the coefficient of linear expansion.) 3. coefficient of linear Explain clearly what is meant by the statement that the expansion of brass is 0-0000185 per degree C. What weight of mercury will flow out when the bulb is heated to 0-000180 90 C. At what temperature will they be of equal length ? [Coeff. L/ at t C. A square sheet of steel has a i5-ft. of cub. of mercury when full. Then calculate the . In an experiment on the expansion of air at constant pressure. glass bulb at o C. Answer Question i. p. An iron bar is 15 ft. The coefficient of linear expansion of aluminium is 0-000024 for i C. ? [a = o-ooooii." Quote some which support the truth of this statement. and C.] (D. long at 60 C. What will be its length at 10 C. using the additional facts learnt in x. this chapter. If the length of a bar is L at o C.. contains 544 gm.] 5. side at o C. show that Lt = L (i -f afl.B.) 2. of Linear Expan. for iron. long and a bar of iron 2-01 in. (C. Describe the experiment you would make to determine the coefficient of linear expansion of a metal. What is the temperature of the water at the bottom of the lake when its surface is coated with ice ? Give a reason for your answer. Deduce the value of the A = is not a good thermometric substance. (L. and a is the coefficient of linear expansion.] (O.

State the relation connecting the pressure.) 14. find the coefficient of real expansion of the liquid.) zo. The volume of a gas is 500 c. and a temperature of 10 C. is 273 Absolute.. pressure and 15 C. above the mark ? [Atmospheric pressure 76 cm. Five cubic feet of air are measured at 750 mm. and 59-64 gm. The vessel is heated until the pressure of what is its temperature ? [Assume the air is two atmospheres that the vessel does not expand and that o C. part question.) zi.W. below the mark when the bulb is in ice-cold water and 20 cm..c. of mercury. and temperature of a gas like air. ? 15. when the pressure is 76 cm.B.T.B. If* the coefficient of linear expansion of the glass is 0*000009 per C.) 16.T. 91 Describe the constant-volume air thermometer. What will the new pressure be if the temperature is lowered to 12 C.c. above the mark when the bulb is in boiling water. if the pressure is 85 cm. Calculate the coefficient of apparent expansion of the purpose for which m - liquid. A quantity of air occupies 250 c. of liquid has been expelled. and show what is the relation between them. It is heated in a bath at 60 C.] .P. . ? (C. at a pressure of 28 in. A specific gravity bottle weighs 15-44 8 empty. at a temperature of 50 C. volume.P. A quantity of air is at atmospheric pressure in a closed vessel at a temperature of 15 C. (B. At what temperature will its volume be 230 c. How would you determine by experiment the increase of pressure needed to keep a mass of gas at constant volume as the temperature is raised ? A given volume of air has a pressure of 850 mm. Distinguish between real and apparent expansion as applied to liquids.W.] (C. Explain one it may be used. On a gas thermometer the mercury in the long arm stands 5 cm. What will be the volume at N. after which it is found that exactly i gm.) 12. What will be the Centigrade temperature when the mercury stands 8 cm.c. (C. 13.THE MEASUREMENT OF EXPANSION 9. when full of a certain liquid at 15 C. at 15 C. but the volume remains unchanged ? (L. Find the volume at N.

but the large one has absorbed more calories or more B.000 B. A Therm is In Chapter VIII we referred to two flasks of boiling water. of water through It It is sometimes called the pound-degree Fahrenheit. Here we have a very striking fact when part of the water was replaced by an equal mass of lead.Th.CHAPTER X CALORIMETRY THE title of this chapter indicates that we are about to deal with the measurement of calories. Pour away the water and put lead shot in the beaker to a depth of about J in. A calorie is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of I gm. flasks are at the same temperature. If they were both started from cold on equal burners the large one would take longer to boil because of the greater mass of water to be warmed. may help the memory to notice that a British unit would naturally refer to pounds and degrees Fahrenheit. Both noting the time necessary to arrive at boiling-point. much less heat was required to warm the total mass through the same temperature range. 100. i Therm = 100. Raise to boiling-point over the same flame and note the time. but there are also two important practical units met with in gas bills and in engineering. of water through It is sometimes called the gram-degree Centigrade.U. is the unit most frequently used in science. Heat the beaker of water on a tripod and gauze over a flame of medium size.U.Th. The British Thermal Unit is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of i Ib.000 of these small units. showing that much less heat was necessary. i F. This i C. Add water and again adjust the total weight to 200 gm. Experiment. We may vary the experiment by finding the times 92 . The time will be much less. Place a beaker of water on a balance and with a pipette adjust the total weight to 200 gm.

mass. is known as the specific heat of lead. i. but the fact is not so striking as in the case of lead. i i 45 cals. The specific heats of other substances are decimal Here are a few well-known substances with their fractions. requires 0-03 cal. You will soon find by experiment that i gm. 0*03. heated from / x to /. Here again the water will require more time and therefore more heat. alcohol 0-55. Problem. mercury 0-033. the specific heat of a substance is sometimes defined as the of calories required to raise the temperature of i gm. see therefore that 50 gm.CALORIMETRY 93 taken to heat two equal masses of alcohol and water up to 60 C.. ? i gm. and the degree Centigrade. of the substance through iC. gm. C. How many calories are required to heat 50 gm. of lead heated through i C. slowly on the approach of winter.. With very few exceptions water has the highest specific heat. Note that in calculating we M MS = We . of lead from 10 to 40 C. C. The Specific Heat of a substance Heat required to raise the temperature of the substance i Heat required to raise the temp. the thermal capacity of the lead is 50 X 0*03 1-5 cals. For the same reason the sea warms up more slowly than the land in early summer and cools more specific heats. 50 x 0-03 cals. 50 x 0-03 x 30 cals. the mass. and the temperature range. will require MS(t t ^) cals. of any substance of specific heat 5 when Generally. and when allowed to cool will give out the same number of calories. turpentine 0-42.. This number. The high specific heat of water makes it an excellent substance for storing heat. namely. . 50 50 . of the same mass of water i' The specific heat is a number and will be the same no matter what units of heat. and temperature we take. multiply three quantities together. number Aluminium 0*21. hence its use in warming houses and buildings generally. The is known as the heat capacity or thermal capacity quantity of the substance and may be defined as the quantity of heat Thus in the above example required to raise its temperature j. of lead has only the same thermal calories. Since we generally use the calorie. of lead heated .. 30 C. only takes in 0*03 calorie. the gram. the specific heat.

of calorimeter Wt. To find the water equivalent of a calorimeter weigh the calorimeter empty. Take the temperature. FIG. 1-5 cals. Suspend the weighed piece of marble in Read the temperature of the boiling water. Place the calorimeter in a larger vessel which is generally polished on the inside and packed loosely with cotton-wool (fig. =12-4 = = = Heat gained by x S x temp. of lead is 1-5 gm. boiling water. Add hot water at a known temperature. the specific heat of Weigh a calorimeter which is generally a hollow cylinder polished on the outside. transfer the marble to the cold water. of calorimeter and water Wt. gm. To find marble.. then one-third full of water. 79. 50-4 gm." Wt. if the specific heat The thermal capacity is of copper is 0-095 ? 50 X 0-095 475 cals.B. . 24*4 " M Total water " rise 5 0-2O. stir. but it is possible to determine the water equivalent by experiment. of water The water equivalent of equivalent of 50 gm. then the cold water. of lead gm. Thermal Capacity Water Equivalent of 50 of 50 MS = = equivalent is 475 gm. fall 60-3 x 5 x 75-1 . Experiment. of marble Wt. 99-5 C. C. Experiment. of water Water equivalent of calorimeter " Total water " Temp. of lead ==1-5 gm. while the water N. a body is that weight of water which has the same thermal capacity. 79).94 HEAT ! In other words. 75 x i x 12 C.*. 70-2 gm. Temp. Temp. 50*4 x 0-095 75*0 gm. What will be the thermal capacity and water equivalent of a hollow cylinder of copper weighing 50 gm. 120-6 gm. lent In the above experiment we have calculated the water equivafrom the mass and the known specific heat of copper. mx 4*8 gm. Half-fill with water and weigh again. Heat lost by marble m x 5 x temp. of marble of cold water of mixture = = = = = = = 60-3 gm. stir and take the temperature of the " mixture. the water capacity as 1-5 gm.

of hot water Temp. = 50-4 90-6 40-2 138-8 48-2 62*0 20-0 gm. 80.'. = = = .CALORIMETRV read the temperature of the mixture. Oxygen is driven in by the tube O. of cold water Temp. the upper one having fine perforations through which the gases escape into the water. of mixture the water equivalent E gm.'. gm. of calorimeter Wt. Wt. gm. 41 -7 Call 48-2 xix 20-3 . An apparatus designed for this purpose by C. it In industry frequently necessary to find the number of calories obtainable is A Fuel Calorimeter. the water equivalent of the appar- FIG. R. of calorimeter -f cold water Wt. It is found that when the gas is thus broken up into tiny bubbles they are more likely to give up all their heat to the water in the outer vessel. gm. Darling is illustrated in fig. Knowing the weight of water. then weigh calorimeter and mixture. of calorimeter + mixture Wt. of cold water Wt. fuel. C. of hot water Temp. . Heat lost = Heat gained . = E= (40-2 xix 217) -f (E x i x 217) 4-9 grams. C. The crucible is held in position by three brass clips forming part of a brass W tube A. gm. of One gram of coal is put in a nickel crucible C and ignited by an electric current carried by the copinto a thin iron wire per wires embedded in the coal. 80. The hot gases pass down the inside of the brass tube into a shallow chamber formed of two recessed plates. from i gm. C.

the temperature remains at o C. This absorption of heat without rise of temperature during the melting of a solid is not peculiar to ice but is a general phenomenon discovered in 1762 by Joseph Black.cals. of warm water "Total 65ogm. say on to a shelf. = = = = = gm. 60-2 gm. Wt. He therefore referred to the heat so absorbed as latent heat. of mixture Wt." The modern idea is that the kinetic energy of the flame has been converted into potential energy. C. 4. When a beaker of ice and water is stirred.g6 at us easily HEAT and the rise in be calculated. and this energy will once again be converted into heat or motion energy when the liquid changes back to a But Black's term still survives and the Latent Heat of solid. per gm. Experiment. Wt. the calories evolved can for use with a liquid or gaseous fuel. until all the ice has melted. Read the temperature when it starts Weigh the calorimeter and mixture. warm water" Temp. kinetic energy is changed into potential energy which again changes back into So here there is some sort kinetic energy when the body falls. Fusion of a substance is defined as the quantity of heat required to change unit mass of the substance from solid to liquid without change of temperature. To find the Latent Heat of Fusion of ice. " " Black got the idea that some of this fluid had become hidden amongst the" molecules. of ice Heat lost by __ Heat used in 5o C gm. When a body is thrown upwards. then add ice dried with filter paper until the temperature is about as far below air temperature as the warm water was above. Wt. -f (15-5 x i x 5) The accepted value is So. of rearrangement of the molecules in which they have more potential energy. Heat used in warming ice-cold water x 20 whence L = i55L 79. . of warm water Water equivalent of calorimeter = *= no -6 gm. of calorimeter + warm water . Weigh a calorimeter empty. rising again. . At that time it was thought that heat was a weightless fluid. Latent Heat of Fusion. The apparatus can be adapted temperature. of calorimeter Wt. Take the temperature. of calorimeter + mixture /. warm water 65 x x melting ice "*" 15-5 gm. 25 -0 126-1 Temp.8 50-4 gm. then half-full of warm water..

QUESTIONS piece of copper is heated to 100 C. then immersed in an equal mass of water at ioC. As " the case of fusion. Weigh a calorimeter empty. of steam Heat lost Heat lost by "*" by steam boiling water . Temp.P. of calorimeter -f. Experiment. 71-6 ^ "^ Heat gained by XIX gx The higher the of boiling-point. The final temperature is I. cold water l6'2 83-01 Accepted value = 540 cals. Take the temperature. It is common experience that is boiling. of cold water Temp. 2-21 C. of cold water Water equivalent of calorimeter " Total cold water of boiling water Temp.mixture 50-40 128-61 " = = - gm. To find the Latent Heat of Vaporization of water. C. During the passing of steam into the calorimeter. Read this temperature. then weigh calorimeter and mixture. pj Q when the water boils at 100 C. A i8C What do you E G. The heat sent in is now used in changing water into steam and not in raising the in temperature. per gm. 83-01 gm. 81) into the cold water until the temperature has risen about 15 C. Wt. of mixture Wt. gm. then pass dry steam by way of the water trap (fig. infet from this ? . this heat is referred to " as Latent Heat and is recovered when the steam changes back into water. the temperature does not rise any further provided the steam can escape. the latter should be carefully screened from the boiler. 12-2 100 = 28-4 130-82 gm. Wt. 2-2IL -f 2'2I XIX whence L 537. the smaller does the latent heat steam become.CALORIMETRY when once water 97 Latent Heat of Vaporization.S. of calorimeter 4. 78-21 gm. then half-full of cold water.. 4-8 gm. C. gm. The Latent Heat of Vaporization of a liquid is defined as the quantity of heat required to change unit _ mass of the liquid into vapour without change of tem- perature. of calorimeter Wt.cold water Wt.

U. of aluminium S. In each case find also the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature from 16 to 70 C. Calculate the specific heat of iron. containing water at 10 C. The final temperature is 50 C.H. is heated to 90 C. and explain how you would work the result. Describe how you would find the specific heat of German silver wire in your laboratory state the experimental precautions to be taken. raised the temperature of 96 gm. 8. Neglecting the effect of the containing vessel. with 120 gm. 5 gm. and immersed in 100 gm. " " tin can 9. was placed on a gas It boiled in 3 min. HEAT The following quantities of water are mixed. at 30 C. with 70 gallons at 50 F.Th. Explain each of the following Why is : (a) (b) atmospheric pressure. is heated continuously until it is all converted into steam. at 70 C. show in tabular form how you would record your readings.H.. 20 gm. calculate the calorific value of the coal. (O. of water at 15 C. 10.] [i Ib. ? 454 gm. is 540 Centigrade units. If the water equivalent of the apparatus was 250 gm. of water at 10* The The specific heat of brass is o-i. 0-033. paying regard to state. of water at 80 C. to 25*0 C. 500 gm. 0-21.Th. 200 gm. 3. Calculate the latent heat of steam. at 90 C. 21 litres at 120 F.) water used in hot-water bottles ? Which produces the worse scalding effect. with 140 gm. of water from 20-1 C. at 10 C. of coal heated 1400 gm. ix.98 2. boiling water or steam ? Explain the physical causes producing an insular climate. == there in one B. 7. Describe and explain all the changes that will take place. 6. 100 gm. are added to 90 gm. of alcohol S. How many calories are 4. volume and : A A A temperature. Calculate the latent heat of vaporization of water.H. 4 gm. calculate the final temperatures. Calculate the water equivalent of the calorimeter. in a calorimeter weighing 100 gm. piece of iron weighing 50 gm. 12. latent heat of steam. 80 gm. 0-095 150 gm. 40 gallons at 72 F. of mercury S. of water from 15 to 40 C.H. 1 8 min. with 48 litres at 43 F. and the water had disappeared in another stove. In a Darling Calorimeter i gm. What do you understand by the term Latent Heat ? block of ice whose temperature is 4 C. of steam at 100 C. of steam at 100 are passed into 200 gm. The final temperature is 19 C. 0-55. of copper S. of water at 20 C. at normal . Define the calorie and the B. (L.U. Calculate the thermal capacity and water equivalent of the : following 160 gm.) 5.

What do you understand by the statements (a) that the temperature of a certain body is 50 C. and 50 gm.) Define latent heat of steam. of water at 44 F. Explain what is meant by temperature. What was the weight of ice added ? [Latent heat of fusion of ice * 80 cals. After adding a piece of dry ice the temperature becomes steady at 8 C. per gm.) 17. of copper (C. respectively are mixed together. (6) that the thermal capacity of a given brass weight is 20 cals. Equal weights of water at 17 C. (L. 1 6.) 19. Explain the terms specific heat. of ice and 400 gm. is reached.W.) are the effects usually observed on supplying heat to a substance ? Can heat be supplied to a substance without raising its temperature ? Give an explanation and describe an experiment in which the heat can be recovered. The calorimeter and water weigh 840 gm. to 104 F. What is the final result if 150 gm.) Describe 15. If the original temperature of the calorimeter was 19 C. of water at 25 C. of water at 50 C. ? How would you find out which of two metal balls of the same (O. contains 240 gm.CALORIMETRY in a brass calorimeter of 99 mass 40 gm. (C. per gm. S. What resulting liquid. water equivalent. Calculate the latent heat of steam. Calculate the thermal capacity of the piece of iron. of water at o C. .. of water contained in a vessel of water equivalent 20 Ib. Define latent heat of fusion of ice. of water were added to 100 gm. A sample of brine was found to have a specific heat of o8. A copper calorimeter weighing 130 gm. piece of iron is heated to 212 F. the steam supply is removed and the increase in weight is found to be 19 Ib. find its thermal capacity and the specific heat of the material.H. Find the specific heat of the % - o-i. are added to a mixture of 100 gm.) weight had the greater thermal capacity ? 20. Steam at normal atmospheric pressure is blown into 300 Ib. [Latent heat of fusion of ice 80 cals. Calculate the resulting temperature. When the temperature has risen from 40 F. the temperature rises to 72 F. Boiling water is poured into a "heavy calorimeter" weighing 725 gm. and is then dropped into 6 Ib. A .] (D. (B. and describe the Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales of temperature. and 59 F.H. 13. and C. What will be the final temperature of the mixture in degrees Centigrade ? (O.) 18.] 14. of the brine. A steady temperature of 66 C. part question. how you would measure the specific heat of brine.. and describe an experiment whereby you could determine its value.

Increase in volume.CHAPTER XI CHANGE OF STATE the point of view of physical properties. It will be convenient here to sum up our knowledge of the distinctive properties of these three physical states of matter. 2. 1. classified into solids. matter can be and gases. liquids FROM General Effects of Heat on Matter. What exceptions do you Rise in temperature or 100 know ? .

This fact is used in the construction of platinum resistance thermometers for measuring very high or very low temperatures. which the solid melts and remove the heat. Note the temperature at which the liquid solidifies. Clamp test-tube and thermometer in a beaker of water. a testPut enough tube to cover the thermometer bulb when the solid has melted. Increase in electrical resistance. 101 Change of state. two horizontal portions may show on the graph indicating two naphthalene in . Heat slowly in a beaker of water with constant Note the temperature at stirring. an electric current flows round the circuit when the junction is heated. TIME FIG. 4.)(b) 14 The cooling-curve method. 5. Then remove the heat. find the melting-point of a solid. Put a few tiny bits of naphthalene in the tube and strap it to the bulb of a To thermometer with small rings cut from rubber tubing. Raise the temperature some degrees above the melting-point. tubing and seal off. Draw out a piece of small glass (a) The direct method. 82. In the second case "supercooling" may In the case of mixtures also occur (fig. The average of these two temperatures should be the true melting-point (79 C. once with constant stirring and once without touching the apparatus during cooling. Take readings Plot a graph showing time of temperature every half-minute. 82. it is interesting to do the experiment twice. If time allows. In both cases there should be a well-marked horizontal portion where the liquid stops cooling because the latent heat given out just balances the cooling losses and the temperature remains constant (fig. This fact is used in the measurement of temperature and radiation. The Lower Change Experiment.CHANGE OF STATE 3. on the #-axis and temperatures on the y-axis. 82). dotted line). If two different metals are joined end to end and the free ends connected through a galvanometer. of State.

To show the effect of pressure on the meltingpoint of ice. with "relegation" which refers to league football teams! We meet regelation in skating and making snowballs. . geler to freeze). This depression of the freezing-point is also used in chemistry in the determination of molecular weights. To show . But the effect of pressure is only very small . This process is called Do not confuse the term regelation (re again. The ice melted under the wire and froze again above the wire. HEAT This sometimes occurs with paraffir wax. freezing Support a block of ice on two retort stands. but the latter will still be in one piece. a pressure of 1000 atmospheres would be necessary to produce melting. expands on the melting-point of ice is lowered by pressure. and again find the boiling-point. one atmosphere produces a lowering of 0-0076 C. The pressure of the skate on a small area melts the ice and the water freezes again. Experiment. Thus the making of snowballs in very cold weather is impossible. ' The Higher Change of State. For this reason a solution of common salt or of calcium chloride is used as the circulating liquid in cold stores. To show the effect of pressure on the boilingpoint. Also read the temperature of the steam.' When snow is squeezed it melts at the points of contact. as we have seen. If the air temperature is 7-6 C. higher than that of the pure solvent. that the boiling-point of a solution is Experiment.102 definite melting-points. then regelates to make a firm mass. Attach a weight to each end of a thin copper or iron wire and place the wire across the block. Boil some distilled water in a flask and take the temperature Add some salt or some calcium chloride of the boiling liquid. Water. It is for this reason that the skate is able " 1 to bite. Most substances contract on freezing and their melting-points are raised by pressure. making sure that the thermometer bulb is in the liquid. The weights produced a considerable pressure or force per unit area because the wire was thin. The freezing-point of a solution is lower than the freezing point of the pure solvent. Experiment. The wire will steadily cut its way through the block.

The reason why the boiling-point rises and falls with the pressure will be understood when the question of vapour pressure is studied. To study the effect of increased pressure boil the water with the screw clip open and take the temperature. 83. At the same the burner and cork the flask. The water now boils vigorously under can be shown in more detail with the apparatus shown in fig. now understand why. Then close the clip and find the boiling-point The pressure. attach a filter pump and open the clip. there are varying depths of mercury in the gas jar. lower the burner.CHANGE OF STATE Boil 103 moment remove reduced some water in a round-bottomed flask. To study the effect of reduced pressure. when using a hypsometer total pressure is when We . Invert the flask under a running tap.effect of pressure o: = FIG. Mercury then rises in the long tube. The found in each case by adding the mercury depth to the height of the barometer. 83.

Blanc. the water is not allowed to touch the bulb and why the point is not marked iooC. of the word "hypsometer is height measurer. From the above formula it can be shown that at the top of Mt. calls the process boiling the thermometer. When dealing with barometers we saw that the greater the altitude the less the air pressure.). As a general rule.104 to HEAT mark the upper fixed point on a thermometer." but he was not quite sure whether a farometer or a thermometer had to be used. the valve can be set so that boiling takes place at any temperature and pressure within the limits. . Some substances jump over the liquid state and are then said to sublime. on account of its portability. " in A Tramp Abroad. when the steam blows off through a safety-valve. The boiler has a dial showing pressures and corresponding boiling-points . Mark Twain. / The original meaning 968 (if11C. Again in other cases we are not able to produce a high enough temperature to change the solid into a gas. water will boil at about 84 C. in all three physical states. This keeps the steam in until the boiling-point rises to the desired temperature. in making Boiling under reduced pressure also has its uses condensed milk much of the water can be driven off at a low temperature without altering the food value of the milk. In this way the great expansion necessary to form the gaseous state is prevented and the heated solid can only become liquid. unless the pressure is normal. 16. while sal-ammoniac does it perfectly. ? C. Solid to Gas. The boiling-point of water is determined at two stations and the difference in altitude can then be found from the formula h ft. For this reason a hypsometer (page 74) is. These substances can be liquefied by heating under pressure.000 ft. To get over the difficulty a pressure boiler is used. Such a boiler is frequently used at ordinary altitudes in cases where rapid cooking is advisable. high. We have just learnt that the less the air pressure the lower the boiling-point. used to measure altitudes. Iodine almost does this. = ! . so he boiled both Cooking and tea-making at high altitudes are difficult because of the comparatively low temperature at which water boils. we may say But that any substance can exist in some cases a solid decomposes before it reaches the gaseous state.

Above 31 C. gram of water at 15 C. This fact is applied in tropical countries to keep water cool. By means of a curved pipette (fig.P. This temperature is called the temperature and the corresponding pressure which will just liquefy the gas at this temperature is called the critical Thus the critical temperature of carbon dioxide is pressure. In the vacuum we have an unsaturated vapour. and its carbon dioxide 73 atmospheres. the vapour so formed exerts a definite pressure. would require considerably more than 540 cals. 84) a few drops of ether are sent up into the vacuum of a Torricelli barometer. latent heat has to be supplied to change the liquid into a vapour. Pass up a few more drops of ether until a layer is seen on the top of the mercury. below it is a vapour. during hot weather we perspire and the evaporation of this moisture keeps the temperature down. The liquid vaporizes almost immediately and the mer" " cury is forced down. Again. It can be shown that when a liquid evaporates. We have now a saturated *B G.CHANGE OF STATE All 105 . The water freezes because the forced evaporation has lowered the general temperature of the ether and the water. The former more important and there is in fact for every gas a certain temperature to which it must be cooled before pressure. The simple fact that evaporation at ordinary temperature requires latent heat can be illustrated by a well-known experiment. evaporation takes place and the necessary latent heat is taken from the main body of water. effect liquefaction. Andrews A Experiment. This is accom- by the joint effect of cooling and pressure. to change it into vapour at that temperature. a true gas. For the facts about critical temperature science is indebted to Thomas critical pressure is of Belfast (1813-85). The water is stored in porous vessels. If this heat is not supplied the general temperature of the water drops. known all they have plished is gases show a perfect agreement with the rule been liquefied and even solidified. Place a beaker containing ether in a pool of water on a block of wood. critical can 31 C. Evaporation. Water is a gas above 365 C. and a vapour below that temperature. Bubble air through with a foot bellows. As in boiling so also in evaporation. however great. Vapour Pressure. Experiment. It is well known that a liquid need not be boiled to change it into vapour.S. . We constantly find that water disappears at ordinary temperatures and we say that it has evaporated.

the boiling-point rises. The experiment can be repeated with water in place of ether. that the vapour pressure at the boiling-point equal to the external pressure. is 9 mm. At 10 C.. the vapour pressure will be equal to the atmospheric pressure and the mercury will be at the same level inside and outside the tube. using a steam jacket instead of a warm It will be noticed that for duster. the vapour pressure is equal to the ETHER MERCURY W _ FlG 8 higher temperature. namely. At 20 C.io6 vapour exerting HEAT its maximum vapour pressure for the existing temperature. At 35 C.. this will be 291 mm. if atmospheric pressure. it is 440 mm. Regnault's apparatus was . There is for any given liquid a definite vapour pressure corresponding to each temperature. We may now define the boiling-point of a liquid as that temperature at which its vapour pressure becomes equal to the normal If the exatmospheric pressure. In chemistry you will have need to use a table " Maximum Pressure of Aqueous Vapour. it is 17 mm. Wring out a duster after immersion in warm water and wrap it round the upper part of the tube.. At ioC. the boiling-point of ether. passing up more ether if necessary. the fact arrived is due to Regnault. at 20 At 100 C. In the same way. ternal pressure becomes greater than this." This table called His method was based on. it C. The vapour pressure increases with the temperature. the external pressure is diminished the is mainly due to the English Dalton (1766-1844) and the French physicist Regnault (1810-78). either naturally or by design. the boiling-point of water. the same temperature the vapour pressure is considerably less than in the case of ether. then the vapour pressure has to rise to some value corresponding to a In other words. Our knowledge of vapour pressure scientist is at above. boiling-point drops.

85. besides doing a good deal of pioneer work which paved the way for Regnault.CHANGE OF STATE similar to that shown in fig. FIG. Regnault worked up to a pressure of 28 atmospheres. in C and flowed back into the flask. the temperature and pressure were steady these were read. using metal vessels for the higher pressures. A few of his results for low temperatures and pressures are The vapour condensed When given here. It boiled when its vapour pressure was equal to the pressure in B as registered on the open manometer M. 85. The water (or other liquid under investigation) was heated in A. Then a new adjustment of pressure was made and the corresponding temperature found. adjusted to some definite value by 107 The air pressure in B was pumping air in or drawing air out. With this apparatus. John Dalton. discovered that even if a closed . The reservoir B was immersed in water and served as a buffer to steady the pressure.

the theory has enabled us to predict new facts. _J of Pressu e of the ^ at Sas vapour [partial pressure of water But the pressure (Regnault's tables). another liquid will still evaporate into it until it sets up its own vapour pressure appropriate to the existing temperature. = 17-5 mm.-. Consider a water molecule well inside the liquid.'. The idea of molecular motion may therefore be regarded as well established. It is attracted by all the molecules round it within a short range. of hydrogen are collected over water 20 C. 500 c.P. Moreover. Scientists have found that many of the observed facts of physics and chemistry can best be explained on the supposition that matter consists of molecules in motion and attracted by each other with a force called cohesion. Metal workers find the force of cohesion is then less.io8 HEAT space is already occupied by a gas. Total pressure (770 Partial mm. then the pressure will be the sum of the pressures which each would exert if it occupied the . but the force of cohesion is still strong.c. - 17-5 Volume at N. His law of partial pressures states that // two or more gases which do not react chemically are mixed together in a closed vessel.T.c. So far no facts have been discovered which contradict that supposition. pressure of the gas if 770 . Each molecule of a solid is supposed to oscillate about some fixed position and the force of cohesion is strong. the surface tends to decrease in area . In a liquid there is more freedom. The Kinetic Theory of Matter. Find the volume tions in chemistry at of the dry gas at N. But molecules at the surface are only pulled inwards. alone would be 752-5 mm. .space alone.c. water it vapour 20 C. This law has some important applica- and also in refrigeration. - occupied 500 c. EXAMPLE. When the solid is heated the molecules move faster and farther from their average positions the solid expands. * 752 5 X 5 ' 760 x 293 - ^ 461 c..P.T. These attractions balance out and the molecule is not s urged in any special direction. and barometric pressure 770 mm.

Allied to surface tension WATER FIG. making the (fig. It is used by gnat larvae " and pond skaters " and may easily be demonstrated by lowera clean needle on to the surface of water. surface concave because the drag is greatest round the circle of contact. 86). The also evident in soap films. If the diameter is halved the height is doubled. Here we have a struggle between cohesion and adhesion. Water wets glass because the force of adhesion between glass and water is greater than the cohesion between the water particles. the surface of contact tends to increase and the water rises until the adhesive dragging force is just equal to the weight of the water supported The liquid naturally sags in the middle. latter is the force of attraction MERCURY between unlike bodies.CHANGE OF STATE 109 and acts Kke a stretched sheet of rubber. 86. Surface tension ing is is an effect known as capillarity. The liquid rises higher in a narrow tube because the weight to be supported increases faster than the internal circumference along which the pull is exerted. The force of cohesion in mercury is greater than the force of . When a narrow glass tube is dipped into water. This is the phenomenon known as surface tension.

therefore mercury does not wet glass. In the case of gases there is still more freedom and the force of cohesion is practically negligible. support is given to the idea of molecular motion by a discovery of a botanist. placed over a porous pot connected to a J-tube drawn out to a jet and containing water (fig. and the surface The is depressed in a narrow glass tube dipped in that liquid. surface. When very fine particles of pollen were suspended in water and examined under a microscope. it may be able to overcome the attraction It then escapes through the of the molecules underneath.no HEAT adhesion between mercury and glass. 87). The water spurts out because the fast-moving hydrogen FIG. This prediction velocity. Blottingpaper and lamp wicks depend on capillarity. Now. the molecules of a liquid will not all be moving at the same speed. but more important is the part it plays in the transport of liquid along root and stem in the plant world. In more advanced work it is shown that Boyle's Law. 87. although we cannot see the moving molecules of a liquid. they were seen to be moving in an irregular fashion which could only be explained on the assumption that they were being phenomenon is bumped by water molecules. move fast is by %mv* where m is we see that hydrogen to make up for their confirmed by a well- . Since the energy of a body its is expressed mass and v its A jar of hydrogen is experiment. the contact area tends to decrease. molecules get in more frequently than air molecules get out. The mental picture of moving molecules is also valuable in explaining evaporation. a hair). this is evaporation. Charles's Law and Avogadro's Law all follow directly from the simple assumptions of the Kinetic Theory. thus setting up an excess pressure. Owing to frequent collisions. When a molecule near the surface happens to have a speed higher than the average. Robert Brown. Since it is the average speed known diffusion molecules should low mass. This now known as the Brownian movement. name " capillarity " comes from the fact that the effect only occurs with tubes of fine bore (Lat. Gas pressure is caused by the incessant bombardment of the enclosure by moving gas molecules. capillus. ji in 1827.

the brine is circulated by another pump. about 170 Ib. When the vapour pressure in these bubbles is equal to the external pressure they are able to grow and rise through the liquid . Refrigerating machines depend on cooling by evaporation. but it has an additional feature this pressure is removed. The Electrolux refrigerator is a wellknown example of this system. The Compressor System. To obtain blocks of ice. But consider again the case of the liquid in an open vessel. an evaporating liquid taking its latent heat from the bath or enclosed space which has to be cooled. the liquid cannot remain liquid but rapidly vaporizes and this is arranged by letting the liquid leak through a regulating valve. Ammonia gas is compressed by a into coils immersed in cold water (fig. the in loss of a large number of the faster-moving molecules will cause the temperature to fall unless energy is received from outside. cans of water are suspended in the bath. The latent heat is taken from a bath containing a 20% calcium chloride solution. The Absorption System. There is now a condition of equilibrium. Two systems will be described the Compressor System and the Absorption System. but it requires higher pressures. equal numbers of molecules k escaping and returning. we have a different state of affairs. This is cooling by evaporation. The work done in the compression is partly converted into heat as in a bicycle pump. the average kinetic energy of the molecules will increase and more molecules will have the speed necessary for escape.CHANGE OF STATE which determines the temperature. 88). per square inch being sufficient at 30 C. This heat of compression is removed by the cold water of the condenser and the ammonia liquefies under pressure. the vapour will finally set up its appropriate vapour pressure corresponding to the existing temperature. When the boiling-point is reached. The suction stroke of the pump causes the low pressure and on the next Once . But if the liquid is in an enclosed space. Carbon dioxide is sometimes used instead of ammonia. pump compression stroke the ammonia again starts the cycle. If the temperature rises. this is ebullition or boiling. To do cold-store work or freeze a skating rink. Refrigeration. Bubbles of air or of vapour form inside the liquid and into these the liquid vaporizes.

The cyde of operation starts with the heating of a strong aqueous solution of ammonia. 88. ammonia now passes into the evaporator where it trickles over Here it baffle plates and meets a stream of hydrogen gas. Let us follow the ammonia. Here it meets the water coming from the boiler. Fig. This solution is lighter than water and becomes denser as the ammonia is driven off. Here the cooling takes place. its own volume of gas.112 of its HEAT own in the fact that there are no moving mechanical parts to make a noise. sometimes by air and sometimes by water. The ammonia therefore travels up and the water down. latent heat being taken from the surroundings. vaporizes. The mixture of hydrogen and ammonia now travels to the absorber which it enters near the 700 times set up bottom. setting up its own partial pressure in accordance with Dalton's law. The . Since the aqueous solution gives off about WATER FIG. 89 shows a diagrammatic sketch of the apparatus stripped. for simplicity. a sufficient pressure will be to liquefy this gas on its way through a tube where it The liquid is cooled. of some details not essential except for optimum working.

upward course and wends its way back to the evaporator. 89. The ammonia solution now passes through a spiral pipe wound . hydrogen.CHANGE OF STATE 113 water trickling over baffle plates dissolves the ammonia and carries it down while the lighter gas. continues its COLD WATER AMMONIA CAS HYDROGEN FIG.

It is not so much the high temperature as the high relative humidity which bothers white people in the tropics. The Chemical Hygrometer uses ratio (a). Cooling water is carried in a copper coil surrounding the absorber. Both these quantities rise with the temperature. Bubbles of ammonia gas are formed in the liquid and these push the liquid up over the top into the ready to start the cycle again. but in the smaller refrigerators The evaporator is situated inside this arrangement is omitted. A relative humidity of about 60% is regarded as healthy. the tube being continued alongside the liquid ammonia pipe to serve as a condenser. In a muggy atmosphere.114 HEAT round the source of heat. the dewpoint is the same or nearly the same as the air temperature. The weather is of primary importance to our health and our first topic in conversation. boiler WATER VAPOUR IN THE ATMOSPHERE This part of physics probably comes nearer to daily life than any other. The dew-point may be defined as that temperature for which the existing vapour pressure is the maximum vapour pressure. A large measured volume of air is aspirated through U-tubes containing calcium chloride in lumps. Relative humidity is measured by one of two ratios. while 90% is approaching the muggy state. Generally the atmosphere is unsaturated with water vapour and the air would need to be cooled down to some new temperature called the dew-point before it would deposit water. Mass of water vapour in unit volume of air a' Mass of water vapour which would saturate unit volume of air at the same temperature Actual vapour pressure ' Maximum vapour pressure for the same temperature' Both these ratios give the same value for the relative humidity at any given time. ' ' . the chamber to be cooled." The air is then at or near the saturation-point perspiration does not readily evaporate and the body finds difficulty in keeping its temperature constant. An instrument for measuring relative humidity is called a hygrometer. Now the weather which is " most generally and thoroughly hated is that known as muggy. and the increase in weight for z cubic metre . There is for any given temperature a definite mass of water vapour which unit volume of air can hold and a definite vapour pressure.

90. vapour pressure at 17 C.CHANGE OF STATE (xooo litres) of air is found. Difference 4 C. Wet bulb 13 C. The corresponding for the dew-point vapour pressures and the air temperature are found FIG. But if the air is not saturated. The dry bulb reading and the From a table giving dry bulb readings difference are noted. The Wet and Dry Bulb Hygrometer consists of two identical thermometers. from Regnault's vapour pressure tables and the relative humidity calculated. Thus Dry bulb 17 C. 90). the wet bulb will be cooled by evaporation to an extent depending on the dryness of the air. * 14-4 Actual vapour pressure 9-1 mm. through the ether by means of an aspirator. both will read the same temperature and the relative humidity will be 100%. The AIR point TO ASPIRATOR aspirator and the thermometer " erally immediately stopped read. The denominator of the ratio is found from tables. and differences. Regnault's Hygrometer makes use of ratio (b) and a little thought will show that this can be written as Maximum vapour pressure at the dew-point Maximum vapour pressure at the existing temperature Ether is placed in a glass tube terminating in a silver Air is drawn thimble (fig. Rapid evaporation of the ether cools the air in contact with the thimble. the bulb of one being covered by a muslin bag dipping in a small bottle of water. so we allow the temperature to rise and take the " " disappearance temperature. . When the dewis reached. The mean of these two will be the dew-point. Max.^ Relative humidity - 63%. This " appearance temperature is gen- is too low. If the air around is saturated with water vapour. the actual vapour pressure and maximum vapour pressure can be found and the relative humidity calculated. water vapour condenses on the thimble.

If desired. we frequently see mist. the dew-point can be obtained by finding from the table what temperature corresponds to a maximum vapour pressure of 9-1 mm. Hail. particles of sea-salt or even molecules of oxygen and nitrogen which have been acted upon in some peculiar way by sunlight. The fog then prevents the escape of the smoke and the smoke .B. fog. without using a hygrometer. Determination of relative humidity is important in meteor- ology. Air charged with water vapour. by rising air. and certain factories If we wish to illustrate. the possibility of "super-cooling" naphthalene. Fog. then the drops may become fall as rain. Drops of pure water have been supercooled to 20 C. greenhouses. When the temperature of the air falls below the dew-point the water vapour is ready to 'condense but can only do so if " there are present hygroscopic nuclei. rises into regions of lower The air then expands. at the time or subsequently. Mist.n6 N. The temperature then falls below the dew-point and its heat. cold stores. cloud. 101 we saw 1 . We then have a mist. Snow." These may be molecules of sulphur dioxide. forming a cloud. further condensation does take place. But the water vapour also shows itself in other ways . hail or snow. hospitals such as cotton mills. The same thing is thought to take place high up in the atmosphere. If the mist becomes very dense it is called a fog. rain. vapour condenses on hygroscopic nuclei. Here the temperature colours the fog. HEAT The wet bulb reading does not give the dew-point. doing work at the expense of pressure. It is not the smoke which is the prime cause of the notorious London fogs the fog is formed by a lowering of temperature due to radiation of heat from the lower layers of air into a cloudless sky above. Clouds are formed large enough to On p. But this condensation liberates latent heat which may be sufficient to prevent further condensation. being less dense than dry air. Pure liquids often do this but immediately solidify when touched by a particle of the solid. Cloud. the bare fact that the atmosphere contains water vapour we can do so either by dropping pieces of ice into a tumbler of water or by leaving recently fused calcium chloride in a dish. If. Rain. In this case it will be found to be approximately ioC.

This is regarded as true dew. G.. and gases respectively. It is a direct change from vapour to solid.) understand by the boiling-point and melting-point of a substance ? Explain the effect of pressure on the boiling-point and melting-point and describe experiments to illustrate your answer. (O. and it is formed in the same way as on the tumbler of iced water.S. What are the effects likely to be observed when heat is applied to a solid ? Describe how you would investigate one of these effects. and October la.R. but now instead of passing off as vapour it may condense on the leaf. During the day a plant gives off water vapour and during the early evening water still rises to the leaf pores. F. These freeze on to the ice particles which now grow to hailstones. The formation of hoar-frost is similar to that of snow. liquids. Name the distinctive properties of solids. (D. C. During the night it frequently happens that solid bodies on or near the ground radiate their heat so rapidly that their temperature falls below the dew-point.) 3. 1923. What do you " Dew " " *' 1 The are fully dealt topics of Water in the Atmosphere and with by Dr. This is also sometimes referred to as dew. 1 QUESTIONS 1. Simpson. and ice particles have formed which has dropped below then fall through clouds containing supercooled water drops.CHANGE OF STATE 117 20 C. so the opposite change produces the snow in the higher reaches of the atmosphere by a kind of reversed sublimation. in Nature. April 14. The conditions favouring the formation of dew are a clear sky. and C. What physical conditions are necessary in order that a gas may be converted into a liquid ? (L. Snow results when water vapour changes direct to the solid state without liquefying. although the temperature of the air is still above the dew-point. no wind and a good radiating surface not in good thermal contact with other bodies. Just as snow can change into vapour and disappear without melting.) 2. . Drops of water are then formed from the vapour in the air in contact with these bodies..

12. What pressure. pressure and 500 c. what does the pressure become in each reservoir ? (D. 254 c. If the reservoirs are connected by an open pipe. C.) Distinguish between evaporation and boiling. How does the volume of a gas vary with the pressure if its temperature remains constant ? Describe the experiment you would make to verify your statement. 5.c. of mercury.) 11. pressure and 2000 c.. while B has a volume of Both reservoirs are filled with the same gas. What will be the final pressure when the tap is opened ? . Hint : Find the new pressures by Boyle's Law. (L. of hydrogen are collected over water when the pressure is 775-5 mm. A reservoir A has a volume of 1000 c. of nitrogen at 700 mm.P. of oxygen at 600 mm. (O. and C. of hydrogen at 700 mm.c. The dial of a pressure cooker gives corresponding temperatures and pressures as follows : Plot temperature and pressure on a graph and explain what the graph means. of oxygen at 100 mm. " " dew-point ? De13.c the pressure in A is 80 cm. illustrating (O.c. Explain the phenomenon of surface tension. and the temperature 18 C. What do you understand by the term t partial pressures. but while 1500 c. Find the final 8.c. Plot the given maximum pressures of aqueous vapour against temperature.c. 9. pressure. then add these 10. Find the volume of the dry gas at N. Explain clearly any experiments you have seen showing the effect of increased pressure and of decreased pressure on the boiling-point of water.) 6. A weight is suspended by a loop of copper wire passing round a block of ice.n8 HEAT and 4. are passed into a vacuous litre globe. that in B is 60 cm.c.) your answer with three examples. Describe and explain carefully what happens. use can be made of the graph ? 100 c. Two vessels connected by a tap contain respectively 500 c. 7.T.

part question. Find the pressure exerted by the water vapour in the air on the day in question.) why dew an experimental way of finding the dew-point. by the evaporation of 500 grams of liquid ammonia ? (J.M. Liquid ammonia has a latent heat of evaporation of 340 calories per gram and ice has a latent heat of fusion of 80 calories per gram..CHANGE OF STATE scribe 119 14. at which temperature the pressure of saturated water vapour is i o -5 mm.) . of mercury. (L. (O. Describe two different methods by which the presence of water vapour in the atmosphere may be detected. How many grams of ice can theoretically be formed from water at 10 C.) The 1 6. part question. On a certain day the relative humidity was 40 per cent.B. (L. What effect has the presence of this vapour on the height of the barometer ? Give a reason for your answer. Explain sometimes forms in the evening on the ground. temperature of the air was 12 C.) 15.

It is our business now to look carefully into the caloric theory and to learn what new facts were discovered which it could not explain. They knew for example that the heat capacity It was they in fact of water was 30 times that of mercury. thought But we must not look upon the stupid. calorists or materialists as This they certainly were not. They also knew that solid water (ice) had only half the capacity of liquid water. so the temperature of the filings and the rubbed solids went up. They thought " " than mercury. When heat was produced by rubbing and grinding metals together they said the heat was there already but that the filings produced had a smaller capacity for heat . Faraday.CHAPTER XII THE NATURE OF HEAT IT was mentioned in Chapter VIII that heat is now regarded as a form of motion energy. Their theory explained all the facts then known and proved quite useful at the time. who first used the word capacity in that sense. first The fact which made trouble for the calorists was dis- covered by Count Rumford (1753-1814). 96) and his contemporaries was that heat was a weightless The advocates of this caloric fluid which they called caloric. Rumford showed that the filings He further had the same thermal capacity as the rubbed solids arranged that a Uunt drill should be revolved by horse-power ! 120 . one of the founders of the Royal Institution. since made famous by the work of Davy. just of water as putting more out of the way as we might say of a boy eating cakes. They thought that there was in the universe a constant quantity of heat. " " materialists since they theory are sometimes referred to as of heat as a form of matter rather than a form of energy. these filings did not need so much heat to maintain the former temperature. The old idea held by Joseph Black (p. Dewar and Bragg. The calorists knew that different substances had different heat capacities.

The temperature of the ice at the beginning was 29 F. Davy fastened two blocks of ice by wire to two bars of iron. question . The temperature went up 70 F. 91. but was produced by the conversion of work into heat. and the weight of the metallic dust was less than FIG.THE NATURE OF HEAT X2I 2 ounces He next surrounded his cylinder with 2\ gallons of water and repeated the experiment. the heat was not there already. The ice blocks were then rubbed violently together by a mechanical device. The friction melted most of the ice and raised the temperature of the water produced to 35 F. The fact that with a blunt drill one could go on producing heat indeflhitely showed that the filings had nothing to do with the 1 ! in a hole in a metal cylinder weighing 113 Ib. as the calorists thought. The next blow to the caloric theory was due to Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829). He managed to make the water boil He thus showed the weakness of supposing that such a small quantity of filings could liberate such a large quantity of heat by a mere change in thermal capacity. The "filings" produced by the rubbing here is water which the calorists knew to have twice the thermal capacity of ice t .

This law of nature indicates the " " machine which perpetual motion folly of trying to make a The quantity on the would give out more energy than is put in. When the temperature of a body is raised. The latter is converted into electrical energy. i calorie I calorie. His experiments showed that 772 ft. gm. of work would produce I British Thermal Unit. Now that heat was shown to be a form of energy the principle was seen to be universally applicable . Joule's work may be said to have established the fundamental principle of physics The Principle Towards this fact of the Conservation of Energy (p.700 cm.U. = i B.-lb. Later investigators found that Joule's result was rather low and 778 is now the accepted figure. 91. or 4 '2 x io 7 ergs left is called the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat or Joule's Equivalent and is often denoted by J.-lb. that potential energy could be changed into an equal quantity of kinetic energy and vice versa. During friction this extra energy comes from the work done. Rumford and Davy came to the conclusion that heat is not matter but motion energy. Conservation of Energy. scientists had been groping since Newton's time. 62). some carried away by cables. Between 1842 and 1849 James Prescott Joule showed that there was a definite relation between heat generated and work done.Th.122 HEAT As a result of their experiments. it means that the molecules are moving faster . Thus 778 ft. or 42. The heat generated was calculated from the mass of water and the rise in temperature. their kinetic energy is increased. Falling weights rotated a paddle in water and the friction raised the temperature of the water. They were aware that it applied to mechanical energy. As an example of the way in which energy may be transformed we may consider an electric power station worked by a waterfall. is changed into kinetic energy during the fall. Some of this will be stored as chemical energy in accumulators. In the . part of this energy is converted into heat and part into the kinetic energy of the rotating shaft. One piece of apparatus used by Joule is illustrated in fig. The work done was calculated from the product of the weight and the distance fallen. The water at the top has potential energy which At the turbine. energy could be transformed from one kind to another but could not be created or destroyed.

244) that the green colouring matter. and cellulose. sodium and chlorine have more energy than common salt. We sometimes speak of a sportsman " " as running to fat. the oil is certain to be in some way caused by the sun. It is interesting to notice that the is energy we use on the earth will learn in Light (p. e. Thus although energy cannot be destroyed it is constantly being ^ . This energy mainly due to the sun. The electrical energy may be converted into chemical energy by the electrolysis of various compounds. this heat is low-temperature heat. ! dissipated. energy is again liberated.THE NATURE OF HEAT cables 123 some of the electrical energy will be converted into heat owing to the resistance of the cables. it is not difficult to see the relation of waterfalls and windpower to the sun. chemical energy and stored as such.g. of plants is capable of absorbing part of the radiation of the sun. The coal of to-day was produced by the absorption of radiation by the chlorophyll of prehistoric plants. When these compounds are oxidized again into carbon dioxide and water." Energy has a similar weakness it runs to heat. Again. the rest will pass on to appear as heat and light energy in lamps and heating devices or used to run motors where it becomes mechanical energy. This process is known as The sun's energy is thus transformed into photosynthesis. This may occur in an animal which has eaten the plant or in a second animal which ate the first animal. The plant may also be burnt as a fuel and the energy liberated as heat energy. it always ends its career as heat energy which passes off and warms the surroundings. Heat is constantly passing from hot bodies to colder bodies and we know no method of making it go the other way we cannot take the calories out of a tepid bath and use them to boil a Even in refrigeration we only make heat go the small kettle reverse way by using up a further supply of energy. oxygen being set free as a waste product. A fair amount of the original energy will be used in overcoming friction and this will appear as heat and sound energy. . Now a little thought will convince you that whether the energy is used at once or stored in accumulators or otherwise. The oil used to-day is said to be of animal origin." Moreover. You enables the plant to cause carbon dioxide and water to react to form complex compounds like sugar. chlorophyll. but whatever the explanation. starch.

The water is heated by flames passing through tubes in the boiler. 93). the slide valve having moved to the left to allow of this. of mechanical energy. 92.124 HEAT Transformation of Heat Energy into Mechanical Energy. steam comes in through the right port. a heat engine is denned as Work units got out The efficiency Work units put in as fuel i Ib. The steam now passes into the cylinder by way of the left port. The to-and-fro motion of the piston is communicated to the driving wheels by the connecting rod. of coal would yield. The pressure of the steam is allowed to rise to about 15 atmospheres and then admitted to the steam chest (fig. There are two well-known methods of converting heat energy into mechanical energy. when burnt. the used steam escapes through the exhaust E.-lb.000 X 778 ft..Th. One of the most striking features of these of heat engines is the amount of heat energy wasted. good steam engine returns about 20% of this as mechanical energy 1 Now A A locomotive is worse still. Here it expands and cools while pushing the piston along. On the back stroke.U. DOME FOR REGULATOR SAFETY VALVE -FIRE-TUBE-BOILER - FIG. say 14.000 B. FUNNEL its efficiency being less than 10%. 92. At the end of each stroke. the equivalent of 14. say. An elementary knowledge of the locomotive may be gained from the simplified drawing in fig. and here we have one of the great sources of * . the steam engine and the internalcombustion engine.

the successive burettor where it is strokes being suction. Air is drawn through a car- STEAM 4zh VALVE ROD FIG. . Other losses occur by hot gases passing out of the flue. " " carburetted with a small charged or quantity of combustible vapour. and exhaust. It also has a four-stroke cycle. 93. In most locomotives the steam is led back through pipes placed in the fire tubes before it is allowed to enter the steam chest.THE NATURE OF HEAT 125 for since the steam escapes as steam the latent heat of vaporization is lost. The Diesel engine is another and more efficient example of the internal-combustion type. then sweeps out the products of combustion during the exhaust stroke. The engine used on a motor-cycle or car is a good example of the internal-combustion type. hot ashes raked out of the fire-box and friction in all moving parts. but the locomotive even then never reaches an efficiency of 10%. radiation from the boiler and other parts. its volume causes intense heat followed by rapid expansion and This is the working stroke of the piston. By this device (not shown in the figure) the steam is superheated and the efficiency increased somewhat. The piston cooling. compression. This is the so-called four-stroke cycle. This intimate mixture is compressed into about a fifth of its volume and exploded by an The chemical action which goes on throughout electric spark. working.

combustion engine the working substance consists of the products of combustion. It is somewhat as if we had a reservoir on a hill 2000 ft. The I. While the compression ratio of the petrol engine is about 5 to I. The exis roughly as follows : The boiler of a steam engine cooler than the furnace itself. 33. but owing to conIn an internalstructional difficulties we are not able to use it.P. a = area of piston in sq.H. Since almost any kind of crude oil can be used. The efficiency of an internal-combustion engine is about 30%.P.000 per sq. At the end of the compression stroke a spray of oil is forced in by means The mixture is then ignited and we have the workof a pump. in. The chief advantage of the steam engine is the relative cheapness of the fuel. farther down.126 HEAT but there are some striking differences. the other have two fountains from the tank. As a result of the great heat of compression. = where p = mean effective pressure in length of stroke in ft. The suction stroke draws in air only. the engine does work on the forward and backward stroke as in a locomotive the formula becomes If is determined by connecting to the cylinder a device which measures and records the varying pressure on an indicator diagram. ing stroke followed by the exhaust stroke. In the valley we high feeding a tank 1500 ft. The fuel produces the high temperature necessary for efficiency.P. This is much higher than that of any steam engine. of piston n number of strokes per minute. The second and more feeble fountain represents the steam engine. is the total power put out by the The " 33/000 mean effective pressure " .H. in. planation is much one worked by the reservoir. I.H. and the high temperature produced by the fuel is used. and B. these engines are cheaper to run than those using petrol. The Indicated Horse Power / BS of an engine Ib. the temperature is sufficiently high to ignite the mixture without the aid of a sparking plug. but the Diesel engine seems likely to be a serious : rival in the near future. that of the Diesel is 12 to i. Hence the term Indicated Horse Power.

1.] [i B.W. is equivalent to 778 [Spec. What is the maximum rise in temperature of the mercury that can be expected ? = One B. and C. 127 Some of this is used in overcoming the friction of the parts and the power actually available for doing external work is called the Zfrake #orse Power. of lead shot (S. of the engine is 24%. A cardboard tube 2 metres long and closed by corks contains 400 gm.-lb.H. and C. gm. per pound when burnt ? . travelling at What is 0-03. strikes a target.) 4.] is (D.] 7. assuming that half the energy remains in the bullet as heat.Th.. A tube 6 ft.Th. meant by the mechanical equivalent of heat ? Find the rise in temperature. . Thus B.THE NATURE OF HEAT cylinder. (O. 8. .U. It is inverted 50 times and the temperature of the shot rises by 7-4 C. ft.-lb. operated for io hours a day.-lb. (O. of mercury -fo. Davy.) . What will be the rise ergs. .) 2. -f Power used to overcome friction.*] 5.550 ft. ht.778 ft. A Diesel engine consumes 30 gallons per hour of a fuel oil which If the efficiency yields 150. per second.U.H.Th.U. per gallon on combustion. What is meant by saying that a British Thermal Unit is equivalent to 780 ft.U. ht. 0-0315).i calorie. 4*2 x io 7 (C. I.-lb. in temperature of the water due to falling through this distance ? (L.-lb. 3.-lb.P.P.) Explain what is meant by the efficiency of an engine. calculate the horse-power which it develops. which yields 14. per sec.Th. what is the daily consumption of coal. Calculate J in cm.] [X B.000 B. (O. when a lead bullet. I H.P. by how much would its temperature rise. i H.P.B. and how has this statement been established ? If a lump of lead falls from a height of 200 ft.) [Acceleration due to gravity = 981 cm. of lead = 0*03. supposing that all the heat generated by the blow is retained in the metal ? [Spec. " of lead 6. QUESTIONS Give an account of the experiments performed by Rumford. ht.U.Th.000 B.) ergs . ahd Joule which prove that heat is a form of energy and not a material substance.550 ft. [Spec.P. .778 ft.) 300 metres per second.H. and C. /sec. on to a stone pavement. " (L.] 7 Explain the statement one calorie is equivalent to 4*2 x io The height of a waterfall is 50 metres. long containing a little mercury and closed at both ends is rapidly inverted 50 times. The boilers and steam turbines of a power-plant have an If the plant is over-all efficiency of 22% and deliver 5000 H.

This method of heat transference is typical of solids and is called conduction. and gases are heated. to The medium in which these waves travel is called 0-00003 c ether and is supposed to be present in all space. In other words. This process is known as convection. the heat cannot be travelling by conduction or convection. The modern view is that it arrives by a transverse wave motion somewhat like water waves but of very short and mixed wave lengths. making room for other molecules. hot molecules constantly departing and cooler molecules arriving. Since the greater part of the journey is through a vacuum. The name radiation is used for this process and for the form in which the sun's energy is stored during its journey (see also m ' . the molecules nearest (b) When liquids the source have their speed increased and move upwards. Some of the waves of medium length produce light and these will pass through a material like glass without being absorbed. A ways: source of heat may body to vibrate more rapidly this increased motion is passed on to the next molecules and from these to their neighbours and so on. but even these finally strike some material which will absorb them and they too are then converted into heat energy. the liquid or gas expands. but all the molecules keep the same relative positions. Currents of moving molecules are thus set up. (c) It is well known that heat travels from the sun to the earth. The wave lengths vary from about 0-04 cm. becomes less dense and rises. The sun's energy is thus transformed into a wave motion for the journey and only transformed back into heat energy when the waves are absorbed by matter.CHAPTER XIII TRANSMISSION OF HEAT HEAT different (a) energy may travel from one place to another in three cause the nearest molecules of a .

XXII). The fact that some solids conduct heat more readily than others is a matter of common experience. Six rods of equal length and thickness but different material are coated with wax into which lead shot are stuck. Conduction.TRANSMISSION OF HEAT . woodwork because the former conducts heat more In the winter the gate latch wooden gate for a similar reason. the shot begin to fall off. When the ends are heated with hot water. its greater conductivity. the hand. readily to feels colder than the To show that different solids have different conductivities there is a well-known experiment suggested by Benjamin Franklin to John Ingenhousz (fig. more shot will have fallen from the aluminium rod owing to F G. In the case of two metals like iron and aluminium.P. Thus if we hold the hand below an electric-light bulb. 94). 129 Light. In the sumnjer a galvanized-iron roof feels hotter than the adjoining FIG. . But this process of radiation is not peculiar to the journey from sun to earth any body is capable of sending out heat in this way. it is evident that heat has travelled to the hand mainly by radiation.S. when a steady temperature has been reached. Chap. 94.

piece of metal gauze above a bunsen. This fact was discovered and applied by Sir Humphry Davy Oil is burnt in the in the safety lamp for miners (fig.130 HEAT relative conductivity of. the flame will not strike through. This is due to the fact that the gauze is a good conductor of heat and the gas on the other Hold a flame. 95). Two rods of copper and iron of equal length and thickness are placed on a piece of wood and a sheet of sensitive paper pinned down over them (fig. lamp. FIG. or failing large filter paper or a sheet of drawing paper can be The well illustrated this a soaked in a solution containing 5% cobalt chloride and 5% calcium chloride. For general use the lamp has now been . set for a luminous the gas is now ignited above or below the gauze. say. copper and iron can be by Jamieson's heat-sensitive paper. On heating the wires with a bunsen at A. a green coloration will be seen which travels farther along the copper. and although the methane or fire-damp gets in through " " the gauze and burns as a cap on the flame. the gas outside does not ignite. 96. If side never gets hot enough to ignite. 96).

FIG. Notice the shape Note also that of the boiler and its low position in the system. . for above a certain percentage it would still be liable to ignition by sparks from the miner's pick.. 98. etc. 97). Bad conductors have their uses no less than good conductors. tank. can be illustrated in the laboratory the apparatus shown in fig. liquids The mode of transport of heat in can be easily shown. 97. The hot-water system of a house is a well-known application of convection currents. convection currents will be seen travelling in the direction shown. t n quently wrapped round water pipes in the winter. With the exception of mercury. The efficiency of clothing depends partly on the bad conductivity of the fabric and partly on that of the air enclosed by the Flannel and felt are frefabric. cold water enters at the bottom and hot water leaves at the top. will be potassium permanganate is dropped into the " " tank represented by an inverted bell-jar. Withdraw the tube and heat with a small bunsen flame (fig. understood from a study of fig. while straw is often used to protect a football field from frost. pipes. water is a bad conductor of heat. Convection. 99. Heat the top of the water with a bunsen. The actual lay-out of the boiler. A The process by means of crystal of FIG. Tie a piece of lead to a lump of ice and drop it to the bottom of a test-tube nearly full of water.TRANSMISSION OF HEAT superseded by an electric lamp. 98. The porous nature of snow makes it a bad conductor and a fall of snow often saves the underlying crop from more severe cold. this is true of liquids and gases in general. but the Davy lamp is still used to estimate the amount of methane in the working places. When the boiler is heated. Drop a crystal of potassium permanganate down a wide glass tube to the bottom of a round-bottomed flask full of water. It is possible to boil the water at the top without melting the ice .

in spite of its name.132 HEAT If a radiator is connected into the system. The "radiator" vection. FIG. will warm a room mainly by setting up convection currents in the air. As the water gets . otherwise would get hot enough to ignite the mixture as soon as it entered. 99. Cooling water is therefore made to flow round the cylinders. this. entering the water jacket at the bottom. of a motor-car also works mainly by conthey It is necessary to cool the cylinders.

but it must not be forgotten that a chimney with any kind of fire at the bottom is a valuable aid to ventilation. Here the water begins to be cooled by air circulation produced by a fan and the motion of the car. Hot air rises to the top of a room owing to its lower density and cooler air flows in to take its place. The ideal in FIG. As the water passes down through the radiator tubes. The apparatus also illustrates the old method of ventilating mines. To understand the action of convection currents in water during the cooling of a pond you should refer again to Hope's experiment (p. ventilation to renew the air without creating an uncomfortable this aim in view. ventilators are often sloped upwards so that the air is warmed as it comes in. The convection currents produced by a fire and a chimney can be illustrated by the apparatus shown in fig. the cold fresh air going down the winding shaft while a fire was kept burning at the is draught. 84). most of the heat of a fire goes up the chimney. Convection plays an important part in the ventilation of rooms. loo. smouldering piece of brown paper or blotting-paper is pushed down the right-hand chimney.TRANSMISSION OF HEAT 133 heated it expands and flows to the top of the radiator. this cooling continues until the water again reaches the inlet. or the air It is often said that inlet may be placed behind a radiator. A continuous convection current is thus maintained. 100. With A .

It also has a velocity from west to east owing to the rotation of the earth. The trade winds are also explained by convection. and partly to its greater absorbing power of solar radiation. But it is constantly approaching places having a still greater velocity from west to east. There is much evidence to support this view of the relation between heat waves and light waves." conjunction with see Light (Chap. and one small group of them happen to have the additional property that they can be detected by the eye. Heated air rises over the tropics and cold air tends to flow in from the north and south. The air over the land becomes heated and rises. All these waves are converted into heat when absorbed by matter. but since the air in the house communicates with that out of doors there is an effective column of cold air Generally speaking. This is why factory chimneys are made tall. During the day the land reaches a higher temperature than the This is due partly to the lower specific heat of the land sea. Convection now works the other way round and we have by night a breeze from the land. trade wind is caused in the same way. p. It thus becomes converted into a NE. showing that both travel at the same speed.134 HEAT base of the other. the draught. 1 It has already been mentioned that the sun's energy comes to us in the form of waves of many different wave lengths. Convection currents also account for Land and Sea Breezes. wind (see relative The SE. Radiation. but there is no advantage unless there is a big enough ike at the bottom to keep the gas hot all the way up. the taller the chimney the just the same. velocity. and owing to its low specific heat quickly falls in temperature. heat simultaneously. Cooler air flows in from the sea to produce a sea breeze.) . because the column of light gas is longer greater and this causes the speed of the gas to be greater. XXII. and light are cut off (a) During an eclipse of the sun. Consider a mass of air moving towards the equator from the north. The draught is due to the difference in weight between the cold column of air and the light expanded column. These we call light waves. 58). In a house there is not of course an extra chimney full of cold air. '* 1 This should be read in Dispersion and Colour. During the night the land radiates heat more rapidly than the sea.

mometers should be tested to see if they correspond. heat is also reflected. One tin is then smoked all over with a candle or camphor flame. The therhole is drilled in each lid to take a thermometer. When the image of the sun is produced on a piece of . radiates to the ice more heat than he receives from the ice. Radiation and Absorption. tins are filled with boiling water. a good reflector is a bad absorber and radiator. It is easy to believe that any hot body gives out heat waves. On the other hand. the bystander is due to an exchange. The black tin will A A warm up more (6) The same rapidly. a source of light is increased. let us T^o consider a coil of wire being heated in a dark room by means It soon gets warmer than its surroundof an electric current. radiates well when it is hot. When the current is increased a greater variety of waves will be sent out. (see Light. There are many ways of showing that the rate at which a body absorbs heat depends very much on the nature of its surface. but when you stand near a lorry delivering ice. It can be proved that heat waves travel in straight (d) When light is reflected by mirrors. These are long waves. as more and more and shorter and shorter waves are added to its output. it seems to be " cold. It is also found that a surface which absorbs heat well when cold. radiating radiate heat and at the same time absorb heat.TRANSMISSION OF HEAT (6) (c) 135 lines. (a) Two equal "tin" cans (say cocoa-tins) are taken. The coil next becomes bright red and finally white." This is because all bodies above o absolute. surface coated with lampblack is the best absorber and radiator. The final effect In the case considered. In addition to the long waves there will now be shorter ones and the coil will be seen to be dull red. the (e) As the distance from intensity falls off according to the Law of Inverse Squares The intensity of heat follows the same law. light and paper by means of a convex lens. fix our ideas about heat waves and light waves. screened from . The cooling is also of course partly caused by the convection currents starting from the bystander. 256). p. All the time the heat given out has also increased because light waves are also heat waves. the paper burns heat are refracted similarly. ings and we become conscious of the heat it is sending out. Both cans are filled with cold water and placed equidistant from a gas fire or other constant source of heat.

an electric current flows from bismuth to antimony at the hot junction. The cube is then turned so as to bring . About 16 or 25 of these couples are made into a block. (d) Leslie's cube (fig. 101. When joined to a sensitive galvanometer. one face dead white. The black tin will cool more (c) A sheet of Jamieson's sensitive paper is partly coated on the non-sensitive side with tin foil stuck on with seccotine or paste. The varied surface is then held towards a fire or other source of heat and the sensitive surface watched for a colour change. The dead-black surface of the Leslie cube is set to face the thermopile and the distance adjusted so as to give a reasonable galvanometer deflection. boiling. it is a good detector of radiation. When one set of junctions is heated and the other set kept cool. It is filled with hot water and then kept gently A thermopile shown diagrammatically in fig. 102 consists of a number of bars of bismuth and antimony joined together in couples. 101) is a can with one face tin painted dead black. one polished.136 HEAT cool. partly painted with lampblack and a third strip painted dead white. one left rough and A " " FIG. one another and allowed to rapidly.

the black surface wins easily because black absorbs all wave lengths while white scatters the short luminous waves. i 02. A copper calorimeter (S. 50 c. in 321 sec. (b) The liquid is cooled through the same temperature range. to 40 C. The drop in temperature will of course depend on the specific heat of the liquid. This has an interesting application in daily life. The short waves are not absorbed but scattered.P. If a calorimeter containing a hot Specific Heat by Cooling.) of glycerine cooled from 50 C. it is found that it will lose calories at the same rate no matter what the liquid (a) is. It will be found that the dead-black surface is the best radiator and the polished one the worst.H. We wear " f< " in summer to keep cool. The dead-white surface may turn out to be almost as good a radiator as the black one and we might therefore expect its absorbing power to be equal to that of black. This is true if we confine our attention to long waves like those given off by a Leslie cube. . That is why black looks black and white looks white. But when a black surface and a white surface are exposed to sunlight. o-i) weighing 20 gm. Problem.S.TRANSMISSION OF HEAT 137 each surface in turn opposite the thermopile and the same distance away. (63 gm.c.c. liquid is placed inside a larger vessel and allowed to cool. of water under the same conditions *F G. warm enough to of these give off long waves. and containing 50 c. provided : The same volume of liquid is taken. The body " inside is just whites 1L BISMUTH ANTIMONY FIG. and white is a good radiator and of any long waves absorbed from the sun.

But a vacuum favours the passage of radiation so the walls are silvered The idea has since inside the vacuum. These absorbed waves become heat. ' ' been commercialized as the thermos flask It keeps liquids hot for the same (fig./sec. Absorption and Transmission of Radiation. 6305 +20 K. to cool from 50 C. absorbs most of the long infra-red waves. cals./sec. Most substances exert a selective action on the waves which strike them. 103. they only radiate long waves. Rate of loss for calorimeter -f - m 6305 cals. The waves which get through the glass when the sun shines are absorbed by the ulterior. Rate of but loss for calorimeter -f glycerine 6305 +20 cals. and the vacuum between the walls is a worse one. absorbing certain wave lengths and transmitting others. This vacuum also prevents convection taking place.e. The vacuum flask was invented by James Dewar to store liquid air. ' ' reasons that it will keep liquids cool. to 40 C. transmits the light waves and FIG. heat of glycerine. But there is another possibility a body may allow the radiation to pass through it. 500 cals. 321 = O*60. 103). i. Calorimeter lost 20 x oi x 10 water Water 50 x i x 10 Glycerine lost 63 x s x 10 lost 20 cals. in other words it may be transmitted. Thus ordinary glass absorbs the short ultraviolet waves. Heat cannot get in by conduction because glass is a bad conductor. but the articles inside never get hot enough to be luminous.135 HEAT Calculate the specific took 420 sec. So far we have dealt mainly with surfaces and considered whether they would absorb or reflect radiation. These cannot get out but are absorbed by the . This explains why the temperature inside a greenhouse is higher than that of the air outside.n 5 321 The Vacuum Flask.

and these. 4 QUESTIONS When the surface water of a lake is at o C. The fact is sometimes used by fruit-growers who cover their orchards with a thick smoke to protect the trees from night frosts. lower than at sea-level. the waves which the glass absorbed from the sunlight also become heat. important part in dimate. heat waves. This is because clouds are practically opaque to the long heat waves radiated from the ground. i. Consider a mountain of this altitude. rise. in conjunction with plates sensitive to this are now used in long-distance photography. Moreover. it rises and very cold air from around flows in. What would happen then if water were a good conductor ? of heat . " " vitaglass Quartz glass and (2% boric oxide and no iron will transmit ultra-violet radiation and are often used oxide) for window-panes in hospitals and zoological gardens. The absorption and transmission of radiation play a very The air transmits most of the sun's radiation. The air is thus mainly warmed from below by radiation and convection. Therefore the temperature at the top of a mountain is generally lower than at sea-level. An airman at an altitude would find the temperature about 10 F. the bottom is at C. This is now used for camera lenses. off from a fire glass fire-screen will absorb most of these and reradiate them. Very little is absorbed. wave band. absorbs the sun's radiation. so the air is not warmed The ground absorbs the radiations and gives off long directly. It is common experience that a clear calm night is usually colder than a cloudy night. also radiated into the interior. and some of this is The waves given waves.TRANSMISSION OF HEAT glass 139 and radiated back into the interior. If the air gets slightly warmed. for every 300 ft. The ground about i ft. One there- A are mainly long infra-red fore gets the advantage of seeing the fire by means of the short wayes which pass through while much of the heat is cut off. and we find that the temperature falls of 3000 F. A special kind of glass can be made which transmits the infra-red radiation. but now they will travel in all directions and not straight at the person sitting behind the screen. but this heat is very readily radiated back into space on account of the rarity of the atmosphere.

(C.) of turpentine cooled through the same range in 83 sec. Find specific heat of turpentine.c.H. (D. 7. If the same 150 gm.c. The same calorimeter containing 100 c. of the various ways in which it loses heat. (b) mercury is a better conductor of heat than water. of water cooled from 50 C. of water cools from 60 C.) range. calorimeter (S. (87 gm. calorimeter containing an equal volume of glycerine of specific heat and specific gravity 1-25 is allowed to cool through the same (O. (c) a lamp-blacked surface is a better radiator and also a better absorber of radiant heat than a polished surface. A calorimeter of mass 100 gm. and specific heat o-i containing in 4 min. 4. to 40 C. 0-6 .) Explain why ice sometimes forms on puddles on a clear night although the temperature of the air is above freezing-point.) (vacuum) flask.B. Describe experiments you would make to show that (a) copper is a better conductor of heat than iron.) 3.140 2. In what way would the rate of loss be affected if a large sheet of copper wire were placed under the flask and a glass beaker inverted A over 5. A 50-gm. to 55 C. o-i) containing 100 c. it so as to enclose it completely ? (B. and C. Write short notes on the methods of transference of heat and point out how they are illustrated in the action of a thermos (L.W. 6. how long will it take ? 8.) Give a concise account flask of hot water stands on a table. in 210 sec. HEAT What is meant by convection of heat ? Describe examples of its utilization in everyday life.

SOUND .

.

Some people cannot hear the squeak of a mouse or the chirp of a grasshopper because the vibrations causing FIG. There are several interesting ways of proving that a sounding body. Strike the fork and hold it against the tongue or the teeth. vary with different bility people. On a gramophone turn- A *43 . say a tuning-fork. but soothed by others. 104.000 per second the human ear is conscious of a definite musical These limits of audinote. one prong of the fork by means of plasticine. We are worried by some sounds. The worrying sounds are those that occur at irregular intervals. Sound is always produced by some movement of matter. Clamp the fork in a burette stand and ink the brush. These we call noises. is in rapid vibration. You will probably have heard the story of the man who heard a boot above. If the vibrations are beI tween 30 and 30. falling in the bedroom Some hours later he went up to find out when the other boot was going to fall It was the irregularity which was worrying him.CHAPTER XIV PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION The Cause of Sound. When the movement of matter is regular and rapid our nerves are not jarred. or allow it to touch a suspended pith-ball. Attach a tiny brush to neater method is the following. these sounds are too rapid.

144 table place SOUND a disc of drawing paper. lines. The vibration of a sonorous body is beautifully illustrated by what is known as a Chladni's plate (fig. 105. 106. is i eas t the so-called nodal at different at various other places. Set the table rotating. while the . definite note. b represents the bowed point and d the point where the plate is damped by touching gently with a finger. Great skill and much practice are necessary to do as well as this. and allow the brush to dip lightly on to the The experiment may be varied by attaching 104). A damped point will of course start a nodal line. By bowing places and damping d b In fig. smoked plate of glass. The sand is thrown away from the moving parts of the plate and gathers along lines where the vibration FIG. the plate is set in vibration and gives out a . each note giving its own sand pattern. The plate is of metal or glass and I has a little fine sand scattered over it When a violin bow is rubbed vertically against the smooth edge. Chladni obtained about forty different notes. but most people can manage a few notes. 105). a bristle to the fork and making it travel along a strike the fork paper (fig.

On the other side of that call interstellar space. Sound is not transmitted across a Vacuum. 107. If we watch a cricket match from a distance. We You can probably see the lightning before we hear the thunder. we see the stroke. violent disturb- huge vacuum which we ances may be taking place in the sun. An interesting experiment on the velocity of sound in air was carried out in 1822 just outside Paris. From we Velocity of Sound in Air. These form the electrical leads from a battery and plug key to a buzzer hanging inside a bell-jar on the air-pump plate. The fact that sound does not travel across a vacuum is probably a very good thing for us. Thread a needle with 36 d. This is the case when the vibrations take place in a vacuum.c. these noises bodies. Although sound is always caused by matter in motion. In order to verify this fact a very efficient air-pump is necessary. The sound will be louder in the second case because carbon dioxide is 22 times as dense as hydrogen. On exhausting the bell-jar. the sound of the buzzer gets more and more feeble. The method can also be adapted to show that the loudness of a sound depends partly on the density of the gas surrounding the source. think of other examples to illustrate the same fact. then hear the click. IG. The fact that sound does not travel n .c. instantaneously is well known. 107). we may have a vibrating body which is not producing a sound.PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION vibration is 145 a maximum at the bowed point and all other points symmetrical with it. The observers adopted the method known as reciprocal firing of two cannon miles apart. I. copper wire and pass it twice through a rubber stopper (fig. The cannon at one station stationed about was fired and the observer at the distant station noted on a moon and other heavenly are effectively cut off. This is done by connecting the exhausted jar in turn to sources of hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

neglect the time taken for the flash to travel n velocity of sound in air is found to be independent of the atmospheric pressure. but this is only because w same answer as the happens to be small " The catch here is similar to the old question. but we must remember that the opposition acts for a longer time than the assistance. upstream and back or 100 yd. for every rise in temperature of i C. It will be noticed that we assume the flash to arrive instantaneously. In The distance this way the effect of the wind was allowed for. still air then K+ o. " " takes the longer time.146 SOUND chronometer the interval between the flash and the arrival of the sound. in velocity of the wind in metres /sec. Therefore upstream and back Whenever time comes into problems we always have to be specially careful not to go astray. You will probably say. the velocity is 332 metres per second and increases by 60 cm. Which will take longer to swim 50 yd.). When we remember the tremendous velocity of light (186. but increases with the temperature. for there is an interesting " catch lurking in it. per second for each rise of i C. was 18612-5 metres and the times 54-4 and 54-8 sec. The wrong method compared with V. or 2 ft." times The Let correct method is this : V w - velocity of sound in metres /sec. in still " water ? We are tempted to think that the assistance in one direction just balances the opposition in the other. and F addition _. At o C. and therefore has more effect on the final result. In British units it is roughly 1090 ft. and increases by 2 ft. gives practically the right method. per second at oC.000 miles/sec. The . Average the two and divide into the length. we see that it is quite reasonable to miles. The other cannon was then fired and the time taken for the sound to travel in the opposite direction. 4*o By w is eliminated. Are you sure that you know the correct way of working out the velocity of sound from these figures ? It is worth while looking into this question in detail.

Such waves are called transverse (trans across). up and down while the wave itself is travelling in to the shore. The wave motion must be carried by the air. It cannot therefore be a case of the projection of air particles from the sounding body to the ear because these would be stopped by the jar. it passes the bump on to its neighbours rarefaction 256 times per second. When hit by the tuning-fork. These are not waves in the ether like light waves because we could see the vibrating body even when we could not hear it. it hits the air particles so that they crowd together. Each time it swings outwards. It will make 256 vibrations per second. The air-pump experiment showed that sound reached the ear when there was air in the jar. but not when the jar was vacuous. it causes a partial vacuum. . Suppose we have a tuning-fork which gives the same note as middle C on the piano. Let us now consider how sound is transmitted from the sounding body to the ear. causing the air to be slightly compressed. When it swings inwards. Therefore close to the tuning-fork there is a compression followed by a But consider the behaviour of a single air particle. something vibrates across the direction in which the wave is In water waves we often see a cork or a boat bobbing passing.PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION 147 Transmission of Sound. 108. You will remember that in water waves and light waves FIG. The only reasonable explanation is that sound is carried by waves.

148 SOUND and then bounces back. such waves are called longitudinal. in the middle of a disc of cardboard as large as your gramophone turntable will take. It thus helps to form a compression. Longitudinal waves can be very well illustrated by a device as Crova's disc (fig. 108). 109). Since the air particles move to and fro along the direction in which the wave is travelling. Divide the circumference of this small circle into eight equal parts and number the points. 109. The circles should be done in ink. draw a circle of radius i in. With the 2nd point as centre draw a circle ij in. increasing the radius each time by | in. /'/ / / /iff \ \%\ ' \ FIG. radius. Starting with the ist point as centre. then a rarefaction. In this way compressions and rarefactions travel outwards until they reach the ear (fig. Draw a circle of radius J in. then a second compression. Bore a small hole at the centre so that the disc will fit on to the turntable. making one of them red (dotted in fig. 109). Repeat with the other points in order. known .

compressions and rarefactions are seen travelling from the tuning-fork along the slot.256. It will therefore be readily seen that the In other words of each wave must be 1. Frequency and Wave Length. Bore a hole near the end of the slot. no. When the top cardboard is held and the under one rotated. Place this second piece of cardboard on the turntable on top of the disc. The larger the amplitude. the to-and-fro motion of a single air particle The maximum distance moved from will easily be understood. ? 1.100 ft. ? 256. in length to the radius of the disc. length How How many rarefactions. A (lambda) is universally used to denote .100 ft.PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION scale in 149 Cut out another large piece of cardboard as shown on a reduced On it draw a tuning-fork. -j. no. By concentrating the attention on the red circle. far will Wave Length or or Velocity letter = V- -7. its position of rest is called the amplitude. FIXED CARDBOARD FIG. Cut a slot equal fig. from the middle of one compression to the middle of the next or the distance between corresponding points of two consecutive a compression travel in air in i sec.Frequency Frequency x Wave Length n\ Velocity The Greek wave length. waves will the middle C fork put into this length in i sec. the louder the sound. In transverse wave-motion the distance between consecutive crests or troughs is called the wave In longitudinal waves the wave length is the distance length.

Imagine a skylark singing high up in the air. Therefore when we double the distance the sound is four times weaker. > in. Frequency and Wave Length be shown graphically as in fig. the less the effect upon the ear. The may will 550 VIBRATIONS PER SEC 1100 FT PER SEC FIG. the repeated echoes or reflections from the walls will probably give you the idea that your machine flash of lightning is accompanied by a is falling to bits! thunder clap. It is common experience that the farther are from a sounding body. we A We We A . yd. the energy is shared over a sphere of area 471 X i a or At double the distance the sphere has an area 431 sq. of qn X 2* or i6n sq. of sound. HI where the wave length A obviously be 2 ft. air particles becomes less according to the same rule. " " Switzerland you will see the Alphornblasser (fig. The sound energy sent out by the bird spreads over a larger and larger sphere. often meet examples of the reflection Reflection of Sound. but this becomes a peal because the sound is In reflected several times from earth to cloud and back. little thought will convince you that the intensity of sound and the intensity of light both fall oft in the same way when we travel away from the source. The rule in each case is called the Law of Inverse Squares. In other words. Intensity of Sound.150 SOUND relation between Velocity. The first time you drive a motor-cycle through a tunnel or archway. If you shout at some distance from a cliff there is frequently an echo. At a distance of i yd. when the distance is trebled the sound is nine times weaker. the intensity is inversely proportional to the square may also say that the amplitude of the of the distance. 112). and so on. Similarly. We have here almost a point source of sound. yd. a man who blows a tune through a large horn resting on the ground .

In rooms of ordinary size the sound of a speaking voice is reflected back so quickly that it blends with the original sound. 113. the sound will be I FT I FT.PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION the tune returns several times from the sides of the Alpine valley. I FT. 113. but in badly designed public buildings such echoes can be quite ja. If a walking-stick is struck on the pavement. FIG. The walls of broadcasting studios are covered with heavy curtains and the floor fitted with a very thick f pu will occasionally meet a musical sort of echo when walking near palings or long flights of steps. reflected intervals of from the vertical portion of each step at regular time TtV? second because successive echoes have a path . This is less marked when the hall is full of people as the sounds are not then reflected from the floors. nuisance. The cause of this musical note will be readily understood # lGt II2t from a consideration of fig.

114.g. Two filter FIG. This generally weakens the fabric sufficiently to make the inflation easy. 115. recede from the source.152 difference of twice the will SOUND width of a step. Refraction of Sound. it should first blown with the be and left until next day. the gas being heavier than air just as the glass of an optical lens is denser than the air a Kipp's apparatus round it. toy balloon filled with carbon dioxide from in such A is then hung up between. Exceptions to the Inverse Squares. the sound Apparent of Law We . if Yet it is quite easy. speaking tube. to carry on a conversation with a person in a distant room. If any difficulty is found in filling the balloon. and its position varied until the sound from the watch is a maximum. up tied up mouth FIG. The refraction of sound may be illus- trated by means of the apparatus shown in fig. A note of frequency 550 then be produced. The balloon of gas thus acts as a lens. 114. The sound waves are therefore brought to a focus. have seen that the intensity of sound falls off very rapidly as we we double the distance. funnels are joined by a few inches of rubber tubing and held a position that the ticking of the suspended watch just cannot be heard. by means of a is four times as weak. e.

but this number is only chosen for convenience. ? If the 5. but it goes round as in a speaking-tube. listening to the. whisperer at the whisper came across directly.. QUESTIONS resemblances and differences between Say what you know of the " " " the physical effects known as sound and light. also made use of this fact. (c) In what way or ways do the waves which you have drawn differ from sound-waves ? (O.. If the temperature of the air is 10 C. What evidence can you produce to show that sounds of different pitch travel at the same speed ? second. (b) If these waves are propagated at a speed of 300 metres per Compare the intensity of the sound of an explosion at two places 2 miles and 8 miles away. To-day doctors regularly use the stethoscope for listening to the sounds of heart Squares. its intensity would be lost. In the speaking-tube and the megaphone the energy is sent in one direction. Anything which confines the sound to a definite path will tend to diminish the rate at which the intensity falls off. Paul's Cathedral. after the sound is made. part question. how far away was the lightning ? 6. find their frequency. and amplitude i cm. C. temperature of the air is 25 C. In 1816 the French physician Laennec. What will be the wave length when a 256 fork vibrates in air 1. at 15 3. 4. A clap of thunder occurs 5 sec." 2. 115). (a) Give a drawing of a transverse wave-train of wave-length 3 cm. beating of a patient's heart through a roll of paper. An echo from a cliff is heard 10 sec.PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION 153 apparently have here an exception to the Law of Inverse But this law is only true when the waves are able to spread out in all directions.) . after the lightning flash. We same fact in the whispering gallery is plainly heard by a listener at L (fig. of St. We and meet the lungs.. how far away is the cliff ? 7. In the diagram the A W If reflections are represented as taking place along eight chords.

36. This can be done with the smallest tube of a set of cork borers. Simple Siren. s d 1 . while noises are produced by isolated or irregular vibrations. the note of highest pitch being given If the disc does 10 revolutions per second 154 . Now push through the centre a piece of threaded brass rod and secure it with two nuts. The sounds emitted should be d m angles of 15. Insert the other end of the rod in a hand drill. by the largest circle. we say that the pitch of the first is higher than that of the second. It is easy to show that pitch depends on the frequency of vibration of the source. drill 24. and 48 holes respectively. 116.CHAPTER XV MORE ABOUT MUSICAL SOUNDS WE have already learnt that musical sounds are produced by regular vibrations. From its centre draw circles whose radii are in On these circles the ratio 4:5:6:8. 12. The holes should be evenly spaced. In describing the top note of a soprano and the bottom note of a bass. 10 and 7$ respectively and holes drilled at the ends of the radii. To do this the circles should be divided into arcs subtending A FIG. Take a disc of cardboard about 10 in. Steady the drill on a table and revolve rapidly while an assistant blows against the holes with a piece of glass tubing. 30. diameter.

32. Musical Intervals. 144 allow the inked brush to make a wavy line on the disc. A fork makes 23 waves in 60. s 40. they give pleasure to the ear. The pleasurable effect seems to be intimately connected with the simple ratios between the numThus the most pleasing effect is given by the two dohs. because there will be 240 puffs per second. The next most pleasurable interval and the ratio is here $ J or or $. r 30. Our musical scale is made up is s d and the ratio is of eight notes whose frequencies are in the ratio of the numbers 'f When these . The above arrangement is designed for use at home. we could tune the siren in unison with any given tuning-fork and thus find the absolute pitch of the fork. Place the disc on the m 1 notes are sounded either together or in succession. This is done on the more elaborate sirens. On a radius. 60. p. As on p. say. bers. In our experiment with the siren we saw that when the vibration frequencies were in the ratio 24 : 30 36 48. and it now seems quite reasonable to call it the natural scale. = The frequency or pitch of a fork can a gramophone in the manner illustrated the disc of drawing paper mark turntable and find the number of revolutions in half a minute. 45. 116). : M 24. It will now be readily understood that. we obtained s d the notes d : : also be found by using in fig.MORE ABOUT MUSICAL SOUNDS 155 the pitch of this note will be 24 X 10 240. What is the frequency of the fork ? Ans. A gramophone turntable makes no revolutions in i min. 104. in. 48 t and these we call d 1 1 This scale has gradually grown up with us through the centuries. m 36. The Pitch of a Fork. The intervals are as follows C or DEF : G 38 32" A 40 Ttft 30 27 32 BC TO 45 H 3XJ * f . turntable does not revolve fast enough. At school you will probably see the same thing done rather more But a gramophone effectively on a whirling table (fig. d or CDEFGABC f 1 27. 143. 253. if we had a device for counting the revolutions. Calculate the time taken for i revolution. EXAMPLE. Count the waves The frequency of the fork can then be calculated.

156 SOUND We thus have five intervals of about the same magnitude and two smaller intervals. of course. in geometry. As the vibrating portion of the wire is shortened. From C to C# is one of these intervals. Vibrating Strings. The laws are as indicated below: (a) n the frequency *s inversely proportional to the length. There is. which equals The ordinary eight notes will now have the following 2*. The interval between C and D is therefore equal to two of these intervals or 2& X 2^. 117 To-day the properties of vibrating strings are illustrated by an instrument called the Sonometer (fig. the smaller intervals would come in the wrong places. intervals : C This scale D EF G A B C is called the equally tempered scale. If now we wanted to start with D or E as the key note. You have probably met his well-known theorem FIG. The difficulty is overcome by introducing five extra black notes. The facts relating to vibrating strings were first investigated by the Greek philosopher Pythagoras who lived about 500 B.C. Since some wires then pass over others. 117). so that the octave is divided up into 12 small intervals each equal to 2^. Why ? But on a piano something must be done to get over the trouble. The middle and lower strings are often set slantwise so as to allow the use of longer wires. This can be shown on the sonometer by shifting the movable bridge along the wire. from C# to D is another. and for each new key we should require some new notes. such a . the pitch of the note rises. The top notes on a piano are given by short wires. no difficulty in the case of the violin or the human voice.

of Touch the a chicken. per cm. Bow . The same fact is often illustrated on the gear wire bicycle. The above three laws are conveniently summed up in the formula __ n Note : _ L "" 2/ cm. of This can be illustrated on the sonometer by using wires of various thicknesses. The note given out is the octave of the first note. The stretching force is measured either by a spring balance or by hanging weights. To double the pitch. of sound is thus ensured. This arrangement would cause the top notes to be thin compared with the lower notes. The note given out is called the fundamental. (6) n the frequency is proportional to the square root of the stretching force. (c) of a The bass notes on a piano are produced by thick wires and the top notes by thin ones. each of the middle and upper notes is often produced by three identical wires. violin bow across the middle of the sonometer (a) Draw a wire. To guard against this. On the piano and violin the pitch is also raised by the tightening of keys. a String Vibrates. v A /Ldynes m 980 dynes = gm. 118 (b) How maximum movement (a)). The string The ends are called nodes while the is vibrating in one segment. 118 (&)). i gram weight. is called the antinode or loop centre of the wire with the edge of a tail feather at the middle of one of the segments. pitch of a string when he shortens it by finger pressure.MORE ABOUT MUSICAL SOUNDS piano 157 The violin player raises the is described as overstrung. the stretching force has to be increased four times. There are nodes at the centre and If paper riders are placed at the nodes at the ends (fig. The hammer strikes all three simultaneously and a good volume Such a piano is described as trichord. The string is vibrating in two segments. The thick wires are generally made by coiling one wire spirally round another. and antinodes. point of (fig. This can be done on the sonometer by tightening the keys. they will be jerked off at the antinodes. n the frequency is inversely proportional to the square root the mass per unit length.

158 SOUND the feather at a point one-third of (c) Damp the motion with the length from one end. The experiment is more striking when carried out close to a The notes corresponding to the harmonics of the string can then be found on the keyboard. . Bow the shorter segment. etc. and the human voice. But if a blindfolded person listened to a note of the same pitch and loudness rendered by a piano. The note given out will be the twelfth of the original note. are called harmonics. their relative pitch. A long wire can be divided into still more segments and further notes obtained. the octave the second.. the octave. the fundamental itself being generally called the first harmonic. easily discovered again by paper riders (fig. the twelfth. 118 (c)). he would easily distinguish between them. a violin. the (a) (b) (C) N N double octave. We have seen that the pitch of a note depends on the frequency of vibration. Quality of a Musical Note. and it is easy to find out piano. and so on. (d) With careful practice the wire can be made to vibrate in four segments and the note will be the double octave (fig. There will now be four nodes and three antinodes. and the loudness upon the amplitude. 118 (d)). The fundamental.

When the resonance is a maximum. Resonance. The fundamental is heard. There is an application of this fact in the piano the seventh harmonic does not blend well with the others. " " Our damping was simply a device for filtering one note from the rest. The explanation of this is quite simple. Let us repeat our experiment in a slightly different way. and immediately touch the wire at the middle with the feather. If you pluck at the quarter length the fourth harmonic cannot be present. then the octave or second harmonic. Note here that to get this fourth harmonic. The fundamental will be first heard. In travelling downwards from A it sends a compression down the tube. prong. We are now better able to understand what is meant by the Quality of a musical note. This gives the fourth harmonic. we had to change the plucking point because we want a node at the quarter length. If a vibrating tuning-fork is held over a column of air in a burette (fig. The quality of a note depends on the number of harmonics present and also on their strength.MORE ABOUT MUSICAL SOUNDS Scientists 159 and musicians say there is a difference in quality. Both were there at first. but this and the octave are quenched by the damping and the twelfth or third harmonic is heard. the air resounds loudly. A node cannot then form at this point and the seventh harmonic will be missing. it is found that when the column has a certain length. but the octave was faint and could only be heard when the fundamental was quenched by forcing a node to form at the centre. A . (2) Again pluck at the same place and immediately damp at one-third. (1) This time pluck the sonometer wire with the finger about a quarter of the way along. You will be surprised to hear that the natural thing is for the wire to give most of those notes at the same time. therefore the hammers are made to strike the wires at about one-seventh of the length. it means that this compression has travelled down Pluck a little nearer to the end and damp at one-quarter. 119). We saw that the same wire by damping could be made to yield several notes. (3) If it is a 256 fork. it travels from A to B and back to 256 times per second. But what is quality ? Our last experiment gives us the clue to the explanation. Consider the lower .

sound travels 1 100 but V V x 256 nl means This resonance experiment gives us a of finding the pitch of a fork if we are given the velocity of sound in air.i6o SOUND the tube and back and is ready to assist the prong in its upward motion from B to A. The pitch ot a locomotive whistle is noticed to drop sharply as the engine passes the observer. Doppler's Principle. the compression has travelled Ms of Trjff sec. if column. so that on blowing across the tubes or striking them with a lead pencil. The U D the diameter of the tube. The above experiment on resonance shows that air columns have their own natural fre- . 2/ in or 4/ in TrJ^ sec. 120). or in I sec. The fork is then able to give bigger sound " " refers to the waves to the surrounding air. We may illustrate the same point in a very FIG. (Note : bigger amplitude. or the velocity of sound if we are given the pitch of a fork. 119. it travels 4/ X 256. In i sec. amusing way as follows: Take seven test-tubes and add water to varying depths from a pipette (fig. produced B C Very little musical skill will then enable you to play the National Anthem. Lord Rayleigh has shown that the true value of - 4 depends slightly on quency. Organ Pipes. the following succession of notes is E F G A. but noo ft.) the length of the resonance In these circumstances. and that this frequency depends upon their lengths. The observed length should be increased by o3 of the diameter.

).MORE ABOUT MUSICAL SOUNDS 161 explanation is simple. emits E O B C E F G be the observer noo ft. The pitch on receding got from i V c C. If now the engine 1100 Fb FIG.h. Suppose the engine. /sec. 2-16 . stationary at a note of frequency 550 and let (fig. 550 pitch on approach is = " 84 ft the engine passes the observer noo 88 + 88 ft.S. 121. got from V A ~ is noo i-8 4 598. and recedes. away. The engine puts 550 waves per second into EO and the wave length is 2 ft. the same and the wave length noo + The 2-16 ft. into approaches at 88 ft. 121 not to scale).p. and the wave length will be 1 100 88 -555When 550 waves will be put into will be .P TOO 509. (60 m. the 550 waves will be put AO a distance of noo 88 ft.

Johann Christian Doppler It has an important application in astronomy (1803-53). gramophone turntable makes 80 revolutions per minute. (see Light. String times the force acting on B. : *= 0-5 in. 2. 4. = = 1. Calculate the velocity of sound in air from the following data = 269 Frequency of fork Resonance column Diameter of tube = 12*4 m. Calculate the frequency of a fork from the following data: 1. A fork puts 24 waves into 30. per second. 247).) Resonance column Diameter of tube 5. What is the frequency of the fork ? and is stretched by four is twice as long as string 3. Compare the pitch of the two strings given that the material and thickness are the same. p. Calculate the frequencies of the next five white notes. .162 SOUND first This change of pitch caused by the motion of the source was explained by an Austrian physicist. 6*4 in. The absolute frequency QUESTIONS of middle C A A B Velocity of sound in air (9 C. 0-5 in. on the piano is 256.118 ft.

LIGHT .

.

Such bodies are called luminous. after striking the book. and it is by means of this light that we are able to see the book. 122. ever since man began to think about the matter at all. Some of this light. VELOCITY OF LIGHT describe bodies like the sun.CHAPTER XVI RECTILINEAR PROPAGATION. straight line along which light is travelling The path of a ray is reversible. luminous body throwing light on the book. an electric bulb. light travels in straight lines in a transparent homogeneous medium. It has been realized. There are many other illustrations of the fact that light travels in straight lines in a transparent 165 homogeneous medium. The scientific fact may be stated thus.e. we do not WE FIG. i. is reflected. if the eye and the object change places. SHADOWS. But the eye is also affected by things which are not luminous. Why can we see a book ? The answer is that there is some It is certainly not luminous. . the path will be the same. that light travels in straight lines . or a candle as giving out light and we know that this light affects the eye. A homogeneous medium all is is one which has the same density through. expect to see round a corner. Any called a ray.

almost (pen- Eclipses. insula). The lighter circle and the shadow region ACD and ABE are called Note that the prefix pen means darker FIG. The above experiment also illustrates the produc- Moon. 123. the Set straightness of the path Experiment. 124). The image on the second card will be inverted because the extreme rays go straight through the aperture and cross one another. " " Below an electric-light bulb having milky A B (fig- Two 123). hold a ball smaller than the bulb. When the moon is totally immersed in the umbra we have a total eclipse. up two pieces of cardboard and a candle as Make a small hole in the middle of the first fig. ball of suitable size may be made from plasticine and held on a knitting-needle or a compass point. This is the principle of the pinhole camera. U the penumbra. light is well illustrated in the formation of shadows. involves deserved exile in the scullery or a shed in the garden. other (fig. 124. 122. or frosted glass or a covering of tissue paper. 125). cardboard. The name umbra is given to the circle and also to the shadow cone ABC (fig. Gradually raise or lower a piece of white paper held horizontally below the ball Experiment. It may be remarked here that many simple and interesting experiments in light can be carried out in a sitting-room or bedroom with apparatus readily available in every house. Since the moon experiment is tion of eclipses. 123). while " the use of a chemistry set/' if tolerated at all.i66 LIGHT light When shown in comes through a small opening into a room. In this case the dark ball of our the earth (fig. shadows will be one darker than the t A FIG. sheet of is made obvious by the dust particles. (a) Eclipse of the . circular produced. The rectilinear propagation of Shadows.

the moon (a) must be on the far side of the earth from* FIG. (6) must be in or near the earth's orbit. (6) Eclipse of the Sun. M FIG. a total eclipse of . It will therefore be readily understood that whereas a total eclipse of the moon may be visible simultaneously all over a hemisphere of the earth. * orbit round the sun. the earth it is impossible for the latter to be completely imin this case the moon (fig. In other words. 125. mersed in the umbra. (2) It may pass partly through the umbra. 126. The dark ball forming an umbra is Since the moon is smaller than 126). the sun.RECTILINEAR PROPAGATION * goes round the earth every month. causing a total eclipse. that an eclipse shofl. take place. (3) It may pass quite through the umbra. producing a partial : eclipse. even when condition (a) is satisfied three things may happen (1) The moon may pass entirely above or below the umbra. it might be thou^ moon would suffer eclipse every month. therefore. But we must f8f * u "*c * that the moon's orbit round the earth is inclined to the elJ1 In order.

With wonderful sight he looks back at his home. BETELGEUSE * FIG. This gives such a very large number that it is found more convenient to say that the distance of the star is one light-year. and Rigel (fig. 128).000 x 365 x 24 x 60 X 60 miles. Similarly. then we can also picture him still watching William the Conqueror landing in England. since light from the earth will also take 900 years to reach the star. The distance of the Pole Star is truly immense. Other stars are farther their distances being estimated in millions of light-years. the distance of the Pole Star is given as forty-seven The use of time to express distance is really quite light-years. we speak of a house as being " 5 " minutes from the station. but the two brightest stars in Orion. common in ordinary life . are between 300 and 500 light-years away. and that the observer has either superhuman sight or a wonderful telescope. Betelgeuse still. variation of this idea is to imagine an observer shot off from the earth at an enormous speed.170 LIGHT earth its distance is 186. 128. If his speed is just equal to that of A . RIGEL The fact that light has a definite velocity and does not travel instantaneously has often provided imaginative writers with useful material. Thus if we imagine an observer on some star which is about 900 light-years away.

from the source of light and a second screen (B) is placed farther from the source than (A). In this way his past life would be unfolded before his eyes. (b) the source of light is In each case let the object be midway larger than the object.) . object when (a) the source of light is a point.) Explain how a total eclipse of (a) the sun. Where must (B) be placed so that there will just be no umbra * Determine (by using a diagram) the areas of the umbra and penumbra if (B) is 4 cm. Describe. from A source of light has an area of 3 cm. (D.RECTILINEAR PROPAGATION light 171 he will see everything as a still picture. the formation of the umbra and penumbra in shadows. QUESTIONS homogeneous: A table jelly. he would be able to catch up with rays of light which had gone before. But if his speed could be greater than that of light. giving diagrams. (b) on the moon. between the source of light and the screen. If (a) ? there were people eclipse. Its distance is 4 '4 light-years. Express this in miles. a Christmas pudding. 5. square. square is placed 10 cm. what would they eclipse ? see during a solar a lunar 3. Draw diagrams to show the shadows cast on a screen by an 4. (A). a blanc-mange. (L. visible only in the southern hemisphere. A screen (A) 2 cm. (b) the moon is formed. the air above the tram lines on a hot day ? Is there amongst them a transparent homogeneous z. The nearest star to the earth is Alpha Centauri. Which of the following are medium 2.

we call it the incident ray. The room need not be darkened provided the sunlight is not too powerful. 129. shall call a collection of rays a beam of light. In the ^ vertical sheet a slit is cut TV in. carrying a tiny blob of \^_ plasticine in which a pin is stuck by the head. If the rays are parallel we have a parallel beam rays spreading out from a point produce a divergent beam. above the table. When the rays strike the surface of a new medium. and a plane mirror 6 in. x 9 in. 129) consists of two pieces of cardboard 7 in. several things may happen. x i in. The pin serves as the 172 electric . Let us consider the case where the new medium is a plane mirror. while if the rays travel towards a point we have a convergent beam. When this strikes the mirror. The apparatus shown (fig. FIG. Hold the vertical cardboard in one hand and the mirror in the other.CHAPTER XVII REFLECTION I PLANE SURFACES IN the foregoing chapter. We . away from an lamp hanging 3 ft. Place the apparatus on a table about 6 ft. the rays of light were considered to be travelling in a homogeneous medium. Experiment. wide and 6 in. An almost parallel beam will be produced. long.

If instead of an electric bulb. Thus we meet " " " and convergent pencil. you should be able to verify three important facts. we shall obtain a FIG." the expressions divergent pencil The Laws of Reflection can also be verified by means of a mirror and a few pins. 'the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection. 131). a reflected ray will be produced. . 130. but it has more important uses the sextant used by sailors is based on this fact. we use daylight with our pieces of card- board (fig. The incident ray. Fix a The two points will indicate the path of a single second pin P 2 or at any rate the path of a very narrow beam. 1. it is often referred to as a pencil on account of the shape. 2. On rotating the mirror. likewise certain electrical galvanometers. Experiment. set a plane mirror on edge. Draw a straight line at the back of the mirror (fig. These two facts are called the Laws of Reflection. 130). These are called. and the reflected ray are in the same plane. Looking ray . With this simple apparatus. If the direction of the incident ray is kept unchanged and the mirror is rotated through any the reflected ray moves angle. very good illustration of a divergent beam. Note that when a beam is divergent or convergent. and support it by means of a block of wood or a cork in which a slit has been cut. 3. Fix a pin P! vertically in the paper. Somewhere near the middle.REFLECTION: PLANE SURFACES 173 normal to the mirror. the normal. Observe the angle between the incident ray and the normal and that between the reflected ray and the normal. This third fact is the cause of the amusement you obtain in throwing the sun's image on the ceiling. From the point where this pin enters the paper an infinite number of rays will pass. Fasten a piece of white paper on a drawing board. . respectively. through twice that angle.

Experiment. . Remove them and draw a On the* other side of straight line through the points A and B. 10 reflected ray. be seen that |ABN [CBN. place another pair of pins P. Measure the distances of O and I from the mirror. Thus the first law is verified. then draw lines PjPa and P 8P 4 . say. This is the image of the point 0. Remove the pins and the mirror.P 4 in line with the images of the first pair. Thus the second law is verified. pin The Image of a Point. Stick a and draw a in line with the image. Find the new rotate the mirror through. They should meet at a point B at the back of the mirror. = Insert pins P x and into the position angles CBCj and Pa and M^. This is the normal. Insert pins A and B in line with the image of O. Compare O in the paper to serve as object (fig. it will be found (i) that the line joining object and image is perpendicular to the mirror and (2) that the image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front. Fix up a mirror on paper as before. and until they meet behind the Produce the lines D AB CD mirror at a point I. Remove the pins insert pins C and straight line through the points C and D. 132).174 LIGHT in the mirror. It will . If the experiment is done carefully. At B draw a line perpendicular to the mirror. Replace the mirror and notice that the lines PiP 2 P SP 4 and the normal are continuous with their respective images.

and that those rays strike the mirror are reflected in such a way that they all MB/ M FIG.REFLECTION: PLANE SURFACES But what is an image and how is it caused is really 175 ? You will not need nothing behind the mirror. There is another instructive method of finding the image of a point. which is quite simple when we realize that the point 133) throws out rays in all directions. c\ seem to be starting from the point I behind the mirror. to be told that there FIG. ." Kittens are often seen to be similarly mystified. 133. You probably satisfied yourself on that point some years ago when " you looked into a mirror and tried to touch the other baby. 132. It is based on what is called the Principle of Parallax. The eye takes no account of the fact that the rays have been bait back by the mirror. O The explanation (fig.

176

LIGHT

Consider for a moment a clock at 12.30. If you view it from the right, it will possibly say 12.31, while from the left it seems to be 12.29. There is parallax between the minute hand and the painted figures on the dial. Next get someone to hold a I pencil over a bunsen so that (a) the pencil is a continuation of the bunsen, (6) the pencil is above but slightly behind, (c) the pencil If is above but slightly in front. you keep one eye shut and do not FIG. 134. move, you will not be able to dis-

M

o

tinguish (a) (b) and (c). you are asked to decide the point, you will find yourself quite naturally moving the head sideways, and the object which seems to move with your eye you will judge to be the farther one.
t

If

We may sum up this question of parallax by saying
is
;

Parallax

an apparent change in the relative position of two objects due to a change in the position of the observer's eye of two objects, the farther one seems to move with the observer's eye.

REFLECTION: PLANE SURFACES

177

Experiment. To find the image of a pin by parallax. Insert a short pin O in the paper in front of a mirror (fig. 134). Place the eye at such a height that you can only see the lower part of the image. Hold a longer pin behind the mirror, and move it about until the upper portion of it seems to be a continuation of the lower part of the image, no matter how you move the eye sideways. In other words, adjust for no parallax. The Image of an Extended Body. Since any body may be regarded as made up of a number of points, it is quite easy to construct the image of some simple object. Thus to construct the image IM of the object OB (fig. 135), we need only take points in OB and mark corresponding points at the same perpendicular distance behind the mirror. The construction of the rays by which the eye sees the image will also be readily understood.
Properties of the
(a)

Image formed by a Plane Mirror.
as far behind the mirror as the object
I

The image

is

is in

front.
(6)

The image

is

the same

L-*.

size as the object. " lateral inver(c) There is

sion." Lateral Inversion is an interchange of sides, right hand

A

becomes a left hand (fig. 136). A man with his right arm in a sling gazes at another whose Most left arm is in a sling.
faces are slightly unsymmctrical, in other words, the two sides do not balance. So when

M

M

look into a mirror, we do " see ourselves as others see us." We can, however,

we

not

by using two mirrors, produce two lateral inversions and thus
get the ordinary view of ourselves.

A

show nine

clock which seems to o'clock in a mirror

FIG. 136.

17*
is really

LIGHT

registering three o'clock, and again we can get it right by looking into a second mirror. Lateral inversion by a plane mirror is a fact well known to writers of detective stories. The detective holds a blotting-pad before a mirror, and there behold the criminal has written his The pad has laterally inverted the writing, name and address
1

the mirror does the same, so the writing can be read. Experiment. Hold a piece of cardboard horizontally in front of a vertical mirror. Looking into the mirror, try to draw a square quickly on the cardboard.

Images formed by Two Inclined Mirrors.
Experiment.
Set
(fig.

up two
137).

an angle of 90

strips of mirror so that they make Place a pin at any convenient point

M,

+0

A
FIG. 137.

M2
How many images can you see ?
by
parallax.

M

4

M2
FIG. 138.

O.

draw a centre A and radius Are the images on the circumference of this circle ? circle. Repeat the experiment with an angle of 60. Set up thfe mirrors at 45 and count the images without finding their exact positions. Do the same for 30. Experiment. Obtain two small wall mirrors such as can be Set them up parallel to one purchased at a universal store. another, one with the length vertical, the other with the breadth Put a pin or other small object between them. Place vertical. the eye in the position shown (fig. 138) and count the images. The experiment is a little more interesting if the pin is replaced a couple of toy animals, say cows.
positions

Using a long

pin, find then-

With

AO

by

REFLECTION: PLANE SURFACES
The
results of this

179

and the preceding experiment should agree
:

with the following table Angle 90
60 45 30 o

Images

W w

+

Object

W

-

4 6 8
12

To find geometrically the positions of the images Exercise. formed by two inclined mirrors, and to draw the rays by which an eye sees an image after two reflections.

Let M! and
at

M

a

O

(fig.

139).

be two mirrors inclined at 60 with an object With centre A and radius AO describe a circle.

Remembering that the perpendicular distance from the object to the mirror is equal to the perpendicular distance from the image to the mirror, it is easy to mark the images Ij, I lt , I 1M . Then mark the images I t , I ai I lla
, .

i8o

LIGHT
will notice that

You

both mirrors.

we continue until the image is behind What do you observe about the images I 121
exercise will be easily understood

and I 2 i2 ? The second part of the
the figure.

from

Exercise. Work out the images formed by two parallel mirrors, and draw the rays by which the eye sees an image after two

or three reflections.

Some Simple
"

Optical Illusions.

Burnt at the Stake." This is an interesting stage trick in which a man is apparently surrounded by flames and yet is

o

will

The explanation uninjured. be quite obvious from fig.
The
fire is

140.

at F, hidden from
;

the audience by a screen the man to be burnt is at P. A
large sheet of plate glass is set vertically on its edge so as to make an angle of 45 with the front edge of the stage. The
effect is

1

SCREEN

made more

realistic

by

keeping the stage lighting dim in the neighbourhood of the
victim.

The

trick

can easily be imi-

tated at home. In place of the man put a glass of water, instead of the fire about 2 in. of AUDIENCE candle ; the sheet of plate glass can be an old photographic FIG. 140. quarter-plate with the film washed off, and a couple of pieces of cardboard will serve as It will then be quite easy to convey the impression screens. that a candle is burning in a glass of water. Pepper's Ghost. This is an illusion which was very popular in the latter half of the nineteenth century. It was exhibited " " 4?y .John Henry Pepper (1821-1900). ghost appeared on the stage and mixed freely with the actors. T^iere are at least two ways of producing the effect. Thus in

A

REFLECTION: PLANE SURFACES

181

fig. 140 an actor can be placed at F and strongly illuminated, while the actors at P are in dim light. Another good method is that illustrated in fig. 141. G is a large sheet of plate glass placed at an angle of 45 with the main is a plane mirror placed at 45 with the sub-stage stage S t .

M

AUDIENCE

FIG. 141.

actor on the sub-stage is strongly illuminated from the " " His ghost appears on the main stage. It" will be " ghost readily understood that the actors can walk through the

Sa

.

The

side.

" " farther the ghost actor on the sub-stage ?

and

vice versa.

Why is

away from

the audience than the

QUESTIONS
Assuming that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection, prove by geometry that in fig. 131, p. 174, |CBC t is twice
z.
'

2. Explain how two parallel mirrors fixed in a long tube would enable a small boy to see a football match over the heads of the (Hint : Study fig. 141, above.) people in front of him. 3. Draw the rays by which an eye sees an image of the fourth order (e.g. I 12 i 8 ) i n parallel mirrors. 4. State the laws of reflection of light. A man stands in front of a looking-glass of the same height as himself. Show that he only requires one-half of the mirror in order to see a full-length image of himself ; illustrate your answer by a

diagram.
5.

How would you arrange two plane mirrors so that you could see
?

(O.

and

C.)

the back of your head to the eye.

Show on a diagram

the path of the light
question.)

(C.W.B part

CHAPTER XVIII
REFLECTION
:

CURVED SURFACES

often find curved surfaces acting as mirrors. Look into the hollow or concave part of a tablespoon; you will see an inverted image of your face. The image will probably be distorted, that is, the face seems either very thin or very fat. Turn the spoon so that you are looking into the back of it. Such a surface is called convex. This time the image is erect, but it

WE

probably again distorted. In order that there shall be no distortion, the curved surface must be part of a sphere. In other words,, it must be a spherical mirror. A good example of a spherical convex mirror is that seen on motor vehicles. Such a mirror gives an image of quite a large area behind the vehicle. Occasionally the mirror in a lady's vanity bag is of the convex variety for a similar reason.
is

You will undoubtedly have in your laboratory spherical mirrors
and convex kinds. Hold a convex mirror at arm's length and gradually bring it closer to you. The image is always erect and always diminished. Repeat with a concave mirror having a pronounced curvature. The image is at first magnified and inverted, then there is a blur
of the concave
finally you get a magnified erect image of your face. Let us see if we can use the two laws of reflection and arrive at a satisfactory explanation of the peculiarities of these mirrors. The Concave Mirror. With centre C and radius CP draw an arc to represent the section of a concave mirror (fig. 142). CP and if P is at the middle of the is called the radius of curvature, arc, then CP iflSJTalso Tie'called the principal axis of the mirror

and

.

while P is the pole. _X^ Consider any ray OA travelling dose to, and parallel to, the principal axis, and striking the mirror at A. Now a spherical mirror may be regarded as made up of a large number of tiny plane mirrors. A small length of the tangent at A will represent
182

The distance PF is called the focal length of the mirror and.REFLECTION: CURVED SURFACES 183 the section of one of these tiny mirrors. 4 FIG. Why t From our diagram (fig. it is equal to half the radius of curvature or are now able to show that there are five distinct effects obtainable with a concave mirror depending on where the object is placed with reference to the points C and F. All rays travelling dose to and parallel to CP will after reflection pass through this point F. using . Alternate angles . 143) it appears that the image IM is formed in mid-air. Therefore CA is the normal and the reflected ray will be AF. :. Now but /. |FAC |FCA . . 142. |OAC |OAC IFAC /. Object beyond C. But we know from geometry that the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent.|FCA FA = FC FA = FP FC . as shown above. which is therefore called the principal focus of the mirror. but OA is close to CP . a/-r. Notice that rays from the object OB. and the image may be put on to a screen of thick white paper or cardboard* Try this. which pass through C. Thus the principal focus of a concave mirror is that point on the principal axis to which a ray is reflected after travelling close to and parallel to the principal axis.-. Laws of Reflection . We Cose (i). .FP. return along the same path. This is really so.

Note that we use here another important ray. an electric lamp or a chimney on the skyline. A virtual image is behind the mirror and 'cannot be put on a screen. 183. namely. 144). Case F (fig. appear to come from behind the Case mirror. as in the case of the plane mirror. It is worth noticing th&t we can illustrate all five cases by the basic or fundamental diagram of fig.184 LIGHT as object. Case (2). places. foci. and using rotating a ruler or a piece of string round the point C. (5). Object at C (fig. the one which travels from the top of the object to the pole of the mirror. 145). Such an image is described as real. it travel after reflection ? Object between Object at C and F * (fig. 143. 142. Inverted. (4). mirror (i) Image : Real. The principal axis is then the normal and the angle of incidence FPO We may also use is equal to the angle of reflection FPL the ray which travels from the top of the object through F. A jeal image is in front of the mirror and can be obtained on a screen. p. Note that in Cases (i) and (3) image and object have changed are called conjugate and In such cases the points B M Conjugate foci are two points such that an object placed at either of them forms an image at the other. How Case would (3). Here the rays do not meet in front of the mirror but. One fact of great importance will be discovered in this way as . Diminished. Rays of light actually pass through a image while they only appear to come from a virtual image. FIG. Try this. 146). 147). a candle. Object between F and P (fig. while that formed by a plane real is called virtual. The image is therefore virtual.

Magnified. (3) Image : Real. FIG. FIG. FIG. . ///// M (5) Image: Virtual. 147. Inverted. 144. Erect. 146. (4) Image: At FIG.REFLECTION: CURVED SURFACES 185 (2) Image : Real. Inverted. infinity. Same size. 145. Magnified.

or any other available * the latter to Stick a pin in the end of a ruler s^dj-S): holder. :48). the distance of the image from the pole of the mirror. can illustrate the formation of images by a concave mirror with very simple apparatus. answer the Keeping the eye well back. Focus a chimney or tree at the skyline on a clear inverted image is obtained. free you have any doubt about this. This gives us the easiest method of finding the focal length of a concave mirror. the image gets nearer and nearer to F.^ ^ it change ? your observations agree with Cases 1-5 above ? Try to arrange for no parallax between object and image. and get an assistant to hold the ends about 2 in. apart. fasten two strings about long to a nail in the wall. until for a very distant object the image is at F. as follows : in an erect position on Experiment. and fro along the bench in front of the m. The average result gives the focal length of the mirror. Putting the matter in another way. name do you give to this distance ? What will find that in certain positions of the object pin.. while 2 in. we may say that rays arriving at the mirror from a distant object are parallel to the principal axis and will therefore be reflected through the principal focus. If 30 ft. Repeat several times. The nail represents a point on the distant object. Now cover up the angle and fix your attention on any part of the two lines. Experiment. Measure sheet of paper.i86 LIGHT the object moves outwards from C. it is . when does How J47). Fix a concave mirror the bench by means of a cork with a slit. This is often described as the distant object method of finding the focal length of a concave mirror. Do When You is this possible ? Measure then the distance from object to mirror. is about the aperture of the mirrors generally used in school. make observ A We M following questions : does the size of the image alter as tr^^lrecedes from the mirror ? Is the image always erect or always inverted ? If it is sometimes erect and sometimes inverted. You will find that they are indistinguishable from parallel lines.

be more convincing if we can focus the image on a screen. For this purpose we must use a well-lighted object. and a cardboard screen with its back to the window In this way the confusing effect of the sunlight will be reduced to a minimum. FIG. set the candle at a distance of 6 in. from the mirror. Find the focal length of a concave mirror by the distant object method. A short candle-end is generally available and this will serve quite well. If the focal length is. This makes the image pin clearly visible against a white background. Put a lighted candle-end on the bench SCREEN DAYLIGHT M 1 Y/////)////////// /////////A FIG..REFLECTION: CURVED SURFACES 187 an advantage to bring up a piece of cardboard C to a point just below the eye. Which case is this ? Where will you search for the image ? To get the image on the screen you will probably have to tilt the mirror gently forwards. 4 in. 148. Our investigations have shown that in certain cases the image is formed somewhere in the air in front of the mirror. say. 149. It will M. and then set it up on the bench so that it faces the window. backwards in front of it (fig. . Experiment. 149).

Case (3) can also be illustrated if the lamp is shaded on one side or if a cardboard box is made in which the hole and gauze form of the candle as object. 151). distance from the mirror. Repeat the preceding experiment. Which case is this ? Measure the distance from screen and object to mirror. Set the screen and candle side by side. 151. from the mirror. and the other about 4 in. but . 150. Cut a small triangle from the centre Stick them together with a piece of gauze between to of each.158 or sideways. 192. cover the hole. FIG. a window. In Case (i) very accurate adjustment is possible. Experiment. FIG. Move the mirror until the image is clearly focused. square. 150. p. measure the distance as before. Keep the numerical observations recorded in this experiment. use the which can be made as follows : Take two pieces of cardboard. but instead arrangement shown in fig. give to this distance ? What name do you PIG. Which case is this ? Where will you search for the image ? When found. Illuminate the hole with an electric lamp. They will be useful later. Set up the apparatus shown on page 172. one about 4 in. 152. X 10 in. Case (2) will be specially striking. for the image and object can be made to touch at their vertices (fig. Experiment. Place the candle 10 in. LIGHT its measure When the image is clearly focused on the screen.

FIG. 153. draw an arc to represent the section of the mirror Consider a small object situated at OB. 152). 153). close to and parallel to the principal axis. The ray (fig. Hold a concave mirror vertically across the beams. travelling close to and parallel to the principal axis will be CA reflected in such a way that it appears to be coming from F. ray travelling from O towards C. Diminished. will A . Image: Virtual. Diminished. OA be the normal. 154. The Convex Mirror. Image: Virtual. FIG. It will be readily seen that rays. the centre of curvature. Erect. As before. cross at the focus after reflection (fig. Let us now use the laws of reflection in an attempt to explain why the convex mirrors used on motorcars and cycles always give an erect diminished image. will be reflected back along its ownr path and will appear to be coming from C.REFLECTION: CURVED SURFACES have two 189 slits in the cardboard about an inch apart. Erect.

154 shows that the image becomes larger as the object approaches the mirror. = / then distance of object from the pole of the mirror distance of image from the pole of the mirror focal length of the mirror i lj i i "^ ** u 7* Proof for Concave Mirror. The image will be distorted. after reflection. erect and diminished.190 LIGHT Thus rays from OB will. Distorting Mirrors. u t. (6) short and fat ? Formula If for Spherical Mirrors. seem to be coming from an image IM. 155 OB AS OBC and IMC represents the object are similar * and IM the image. Under what conditions would you look (a) tall and thin. OB IM BC "MC NF AS ANF and IMF are siniikr AN ** IM "MF . 155. It will now be readily understood why a convex mirror can give a complete image of a very large object. FIG. In fig.Fig. A mirror which forms part of a cylinder will act partly like a plane mirror and partly like a spherical mirror. This image is virtual.

Size of This result also applies to convex mirrors.= -> can r v u f for be proved to * Jiold good re- convex mirrors. you will find that the suspicion is quite unfounded our mirror always has a small aperture. Size of image. When using this formula you must . while the focal length of a convex mirror is positive. (c) distances measured against the Thus the focal length of a concave mirror is negative. member B FIG. Beginners are inclined to treat this step with suspicion.REFLECTION: CURVED SURFACES bat 191 OB -AN. in other words. Use 156 to prove that image ~~ v Size of object u fig. 156. but our diagrams are generally exaggerated . * small fraction of its sphere. HE-E1 NF = PF* PF "" but for mirrors of small aperture BC *' MC MF V _ 2/-V then " _ -f Cross multiply and divide by uvf i W --4 +M / also The formula .+ . (6) distances measured with the incident light incident light are negative. the mirror is never more than a very . that (a) distances are always measured from the mirror are positive . but if you draw one of the school mirrors with the aperture and radius " life size.

It is very important to use the extreme ray XA. Note that u has a negative value. Note that u has a B. When object and image are at the same distance from the mirror. Set up the convex mirror with a pin as object. find the Focal Lengtfc of Concave Mirror. Experiment. p. From a point draw a number of straight lines to represent incident rays From C travelling to the mirror from a point source of light. Substitute the values of u and v in the formula and calculate /. Coincident Object and Image Method. We met this method in the experiments on pages 187 and 188. 1. To A. 186. Repeat for different positions of the object pin and obtain an average value for /. The Effect of a Wide Aperture. Stick a pin in a cork or ruler and place it in front of the mirror in such a position that an erect image is seen. negative value. 157). You will immediately X . It is called a caustic curve. 2. draw the normals (in dotted lines to prevent confusion). The Distant Object Method. Use the numerical observations obtained in the experiment with the candle and concave mirror. Experiment. using a long for this image ? glass-headed pin. Where will you search Find its position by parallax. On a sheet of graph paper draw a large semicircle to represent a concave mirror of wide aperture (fig. This method therefore gives r the radius of curvature which of course equals 2/. The Formula Method. on the axis distant about two and a half radii.rg2 LIGHT a Spherical Mirror. This curve repeats itself on the other side of the axis. Experiment. Find the position of the image by parallax. You will find that the reflected rays do not come to a focus but that neighbouring rays intersect at points situated on a welldefined curve. Fix up a concave mirror in a holder on the bench. 3. 188. What is the sign of v in this case ? Substitute the values of u and v in the formula. Find the reflected rays by applying the second law of reflection. both are situated at the centre of curvature. Convex Mirror. See p. Substitute these values of u and v in the formula for spherical mirrors and calculate /.

So " here scientists call this straying away aberration/' and since " we are dealing with a spherical mirror. the point where the two branches of In fact. is thus the image of X." Compare a straying away of thoughts from the usual paths.REFLECTION: CURVED SURFACES 193 recognize here an old acquaintance. 157. . It will now be readily seen that the wide aperture causes a straying away of some of the reflected rays from the true focus. p. the branches intersecting A H G. Experiment. X Y and Y FIG. we see that the reflected rays all pass through Y. caustic curve will again be formed. for caustic curves are frequently seen on cups of tea and glasses of milk.S. If now we confine our attention to the rays striking the small portion of mirror just round the pole. the caustic curve meet. They form a number of foci on the caustic curve. it is referred to as spheri" " which means mental aberration cal aberration. are conjugate foci. Apply the directions of the last exercise to the case where the incident rays are parallel to the principal axis of the mirror. We always try to invent a new word to take the place of two or more.P. 184.

Mark the outline of the mirror and draw its principal axis.. you will the illustrations of them to which we shall now proceed. Meier and set up a comb. its conjugate focus would move towards the mirror. Take a concave cylindrical mirror strip of in. The principal focus is a fixed point. i. p. If the point from the mirror. Sept. X X X Y X Y Y FIG. F. When reaches infinity where will be ? At the principal focus. (School Science Review. away from the mirror. 158. a few inches above the paper and about 18 in. In the last exercise the point was a focus when the object was at and the point would be a focus if the were moved farther away object were at Y. But why do we always refer to this point as the principal focus ? The answer is that this is the focus when the object is at infinity. Let us now follow a suggestion due to the late Mr. A well-defined caustic curve about 3 will be obtained. Fix up a gas-filled lamp in a burette stand with its horse-shoe filament in line with the principal axis. Experiment.e. and its distance from the pole is a property or characteristic of the particular mirror used. the point midway between pole and centre of curvature.194 LIGHT at the principal focus of the mirror. radius and set it up on a piece of drawing paper. 58) . A. If you found the two previous exercises more readily appreciate the experimental tedious. 1926.

The incident light is thus divided into "rays" and the construction of a caustic curve will AB be made apparent. 159)- All rays parallel to AFP. Such paraboloidal mirrors are used as reflectors in searchlights and lamps for cydes and motors. to a single- ^X\ \ point focus. the " rays " become nearly parallel. It is called the paraboloidal mirror. (fig. not part of a sphere. a mirror capable of doing this. after reflection. nor is its section a circular Its surface arc. and the second exercise can be o GH illustrated. but this not absolutely essential provided the mirror is set up with its back to the daylight and screened by means of a large book or otherwise. all rays parallel to its principal axis. pass through the focus F. (fig- and its section is like a parabola will. Next place the pieces of cardboard in posiand JK so that the intersection of two neighbouring tions " " can be observed. should have wide and uniform spacing. is There is. on to the mirror Now from a distance. we put a small source of light at F. What will be the result ? The mirror will send out a parallel beam of light. The Paraboloidal Mirror.REFLECTION: CURVED SURFACES 195 The comb teeth downwards in the position 158). We have seen V NA \ \ \ \ \ that a spherical mirror of wide aperture will not reflect. even extreme ones BC. DE. C^ ^*^~ D The experiment is is best done in a darkened room. rayg On moving the lamp some distance away. however. suppose that instead of sending light . and move them outwards and inwards so as to make a mirror of varying aperture. Place two pieces of cardboard in positions CD and EF.

6. 5. Find the answers to Question 5 by calculation. away from a concave mirror whose radius of curvature is 8 in. Explain real image. (c) 15 cm. are the four most 2. Illustrate by diagrams the formation of a caustic curve (a) when the incident light diverges from a point on the axis of the reflector. (b) virtual ? 12. ? five diagrams illustrating the properties of a concave mirror. (e) 5 cm. An object i cm. " glse the " fundamental diagram on squared paper and find position and size of image in each case. With the object standing on the principal axis. x. Find graphically and by calculation the position and size of the image. zo. How would you arrange a concave mirror and a candle or other source of light in order to look into a person's throat ? convex mirror of focal length 8 in. In graphical work on spherical mirrors..196 LIGHT QUESTIONS N. Where is the object ? 14. Where would you place an object so as to obtain a magnification of 3 when the image is (a) real. 8. Explain by means of diagrams why a convex mirror gives a is placed (a) 30 cm. What Draw important rays to consider when dealing with concave mirrors 3. 9. conjugate foci. 10 cm.) . (c) " " fundamental diagram mentioned in the Explain how the (a) (b) chapter can be used to illustrate all the cases.B. concave mirror has a focal length of 1 8 in.. (b) 20 cm. virtual image. An object I cm. 4. (b) when the incident light is a parallel beam. and C. high is placed in front of a concave mirror whose focal length is 6 cm. is placed at a distance of 15 cm. high Xxi. An object is placed 20 in. away from a convex mirror of focal length 4 in. from a concave mirror. 13.. a more accurate result is obtained if the mirror is represented by a straight line instead of a curve.. 7. An object is placed 12 in. centre of curvature. away from the mirror. The image is real and twice as large as the object. Find position and size of the image. An object of height 2 cm. pole. principal focus. from a concave mirror of focal length 10 cm. Find graphically and by calculation the position l) large field of view. With the object partly above and partly below. With the object below but touching the principal axis. in height What is the radius of curvature of the mirror ? o^the A object. and the image is found to be inverted and 8 cm. forms an image 6 in. A (O.

that as the angle of incidence increases so the reflected beam Compare the direction of the Turn the slab into all possible thicknesses It will increases in strength. Note the reflected beam and the emergent beam. too. 160. Experiment. the incident beam. Observe.CHAPTER XIX REFRACTION IN the last two chapters we studied cases where rays of light " meet a new medium and are reflected or bent back. Lay a slab of glass on the cardboard so that the of light is perpendicular to one of the faces. positions so that the various is may be tried. be found that the beam which gets through the glass 197 . Set up the apparatus described on page 172 and illustrated again here (fig. Slowly rotate the slab. Both are naturally weaker than beam V- FIG. This time it is more essential to have a darkened room for a reason which will appear very soon. This is the reason for darkening the room." In the present chapter we shall consider what happens when the light strikes a new medium and passes into that medium. 160). incident and emergent beams.

Repeat the experiment using 45 and 60 <r Jr the angle of . the emergent ray is parallel to the incident ray. You may find in your chemical laboratory a red powder called If a little of this is dissolved in dilute caustic soda fluorescein. We use a similar word " when we talk of a fractured limb. Notice that each of these two rays makes the same angle with its own normal. The layer of adhesive should cover every portion of the glass face. Join OP and draw the other normal X You will notice that the ray which leaves the glass is parallel to the ray which entered the glass. It is displaced but not deviated. In other words. The path of the beam of light then be plainly visible. a peculiar yellowishgreen solution will be obtained." We shall now investigate this bending in another way. If one of the faces is rubbed on emery cloth until the polish is removed and this ground face is laid on the cardboard. at O and A. the path of the beam through the glass will easily be seen. to break). We have here a good example of the fact that will MPM . Looking through the opposite stick pins B and C apparently in line with the first pair. Experiment.ig8 LIGHT parallel to the incident beam. Replace the glass and fix pins vertically face of the glass. Lay the slab of glass in the middle of a sheet of paper and make a pencil line round it. 161). This peculiar bending of a ray of light which we have just met is called refraction and the ray in the glass is called the refracted ray (Lat. To study refraction with pins and a slab of glass. that washing with water will restore the slab to its former condition. The same result is obtained by smearing one of the faces with seccotine or other adhesive and covering that face completely with a sheet of white paper. The longer the path through glass. a ray of light is reversible. Remove the glass and at a point O draw a normal NON X to the face of the slab (fig. . the greater is the displacement. and added to the water in the glass cell. frangere. This method has the advantage over grinding. Make the angle NOA 30. This angle is called the angle of incidence j^ Simple geo/netry shows Each of these is called the angle of that |MjPO == |NiOP refraction |r. It is also interesting to repeat the above experiment with a rectangular glass cell containing water instead of the glass slab. Produce the line BC to meet the slab at P.

. 199 In all three cases measure the displacement. sin i sin r Divide sin by sin r. vary ? Make a table of it N The problem was finally solved by Willebrordus Snail's Law. Snellius van Royen (1591-1626). for there is no simple relation and for many centuries scientists failed to find any relation at all. as he is generally called in England. Take your table of and |r and find from mathematical * tables the sine of each angle. was Professor of Physics and Mathematics at Leyden University. How does and jr Can you see any relation between and jr ? It will not be surprising if you do not. Snell.REFRACTION incidence. should be a constant.

For water p is J and for glass f. refractive indices are generally greater than i. of light bent towards the Some Consequences (a) of Refraction. now known all over the world Others had merely sought for a when expressed in degrees only \ relation between the angles Snell thought of using the Laws of Refraction. When dealing with the slab of glass. In other words. the normal and the refracted ray are in the same plane. The stick therefore appears to be bent at the water surface (fig. we noticed that rays normal when going from air to glass and away from the normal when travelling from glass to air. 2. This is what generally happens when the second medium is denser than the first. The eye takes no account of this bending. When the first medium is air. The incident ray. sin * divided by sin r is always a constant.200 LIGHT is This was SnelTs discovery and as Snell's Law. we call this constant the refracIt is generally indicated by the Greek tive index of the other. For FIG. The Apparent Bending of a Stick in Water. The reason letter /*. 162. 162). The first is similar to the first law of reflection and the second is simply Snell's 1. sines of the angles. the it is same neces- reason . for the phrase "for light of the same colour" will be understood later. Rays of light from the bottom of the stick bend away from the normal on leaving the water. For the same two media and for light of the same colour. may now state the We Law.

163) . = AD = the air which is called the angle angles clear. Note that the diagram is only drawn with a very oblique ray to make the could not take in such an In other oblique ray. A must be close BC to B. In this well-known trick a coin is placed in a cup or basin so that it is just out of sight (fig.) the real depth. BD the apparand ent depth.P." This is *H G. deep I This is just another way of Water 4 FIG. But an eye looking tically down on the water words. saying that p or Real depth sin i Apparent depth may easily be proved. (c) ft. deep looks 3 ft. This again is caused by the bending of rays of light on leaving the water. 163.S. (b) fish. Observe also that although the light is travelling from water to air. Hint : First This fact sin r prove that in sin i fig. it is the angle in of "incidence.JUSrJKA^llUJN REFRACTION sary. in. 164 AC "AD ver- sin r B . 2O1 when trying to spear the fish appears to be. That is AC (approx. When water is poured the coin appears to rise into view. to aim below the place where / ^~ The Coin Experiment. .

165. For this reason the heavenly bodies rise early and set late. the appears to be at S' When FIG. Problem. the rays each time being bent towards the normal. The day is thus lengthened by some minutes. Given the angle of incidence and the refractive index.202 quite reasonable reversible. it (fig. to find the angle of refraction geometrically. The above is not the explanation of twilight. . This is caused by reflection of sunlight from the solid and liquid particles in the atmosphere. LIGHT when we remember good that a ray of light is A similar relation holds sin i for glass and we say p or Real thickness sin r Apparent thickness' (d) Early Rising and Late Setting of the Heavenly Bodies his horizon. because rays from it traverse layers of the atmosphere which gradually become denser as the earth is approached. 165). with HH as Imagine an observer at sun or a star S is below the horizon.

The angle of refraction has now its maximum value. 166).REFRACTION 203 The problem is a little easier on squared paper. 166. for glass 42. let us consider what will happen if the light travels from water to air. the light is totally from To sum up we may say that when the angle of air on to a denser medium is nearly 90. If the light strikes the water surface at the critical angle. Then is the refracted ray and NjOR is the angle = = = A OR of refraction. When the angle increases ever so slightly beyond reflected this there will be no emergent ray from the water surface. angle of refraction 167). using angle " of incidence 90 (called grazing incidence "). Repeat the above exercise. From draw a perpendicular to meet the circle in R. the exercise. 167. At B erect a perpendicular BI to meet OC produced. With centre and radius 01 draw a circle. Let the angle of incidence be 60 and the medium water (p 3) Mark off OA 3 units of length and OB =r 4 units (fig. This maximum water (fig. The Critical Angle. FIG. Measure it. FIG. using is called the critical angle for Repeat ^ =| and thus find the critical angle for glass. the incidence angle of refraction is called the critical angle for that critical angle for water is 49. it will just manage to get out. medium. Draw the normal NON^ Make NOC 60. Remembering the reversibility of rays of light. The .

There will be total reflection from the hypotenuse face since the angle of incidence on to it is greater than 42. slips of glass. interesting variation is as follows : Take two rectangular These may easily be made from an old glass negative with a glass-cutter. 49+ FIG. 169). isosceles right-angled prism on paper on Fix pins at PP (fig. Next fill the tube with water and notice the difference. Look down on to the side of the tube. Experiment. 168. 170) in front of one of the equal sides. On the face of one lay a thin roll of plasticine near the edges. 168. in Experiment.204 LIGHT Illustrations of Total Internal Reflection. Write your name on paper with a pen flowing freely. of water. Into a beaker put a coin and about half an inch Place the beaker on the edge of a table. Use this in place of the test-tube. When an eye looks in the direction shown in fig. Squeeze the other slip on it so as to enclose a layer of air. . The actual path of the light can be shown by sticking " " a piece of paper on the base and using a beam as in previous experiments. You should be able to read your name by looking down at the sloping tube. It looks like a tube of mercury. Hold an empty test-tube in a sloping position a beaker of water (fig. Lay an its triangular base. Quickly blot the signature and hold the blotting-paper against the beaker at B. the water surface looks like a plane mirror and the coin is seen by total reflection. Such prisms have many uses in science and at An Experiment.

there is total internal reflection at the on the hypotenuse equal faces and Fro. made from in underground skylight these prisms and slabs of " . 171. falls When light from an extended object face. see p. This fact is applied . the " lavatories is frequently glass set alternately. 170. 171). the image is laterally inverted in prism binoculars.45. FIG. 169.REFRACTION least 205 one in ordinary life . FIG. " " (fig. 236.

There is thus only about a one-in-four chance of getting out. Moreover. Rays from 180 on entering the diamond crowd into an angle of 49. At each face where they fail to emerge . I FIG. must have a small This can also be shown in another way.206 LIGHT will quite The Sparkling of Diamonds.'. water (/* $).49. 172. when these rays strike another face of the diamond. sin c = 0-75 c . be proved in a similar way that glass (/* =* 1-5) has a may critical angle of 42 and that diamond (p 2-417) has a critical /. If you examine figs. for angles of incidence between 24! and 90 they are totally reflected. 166 and 167 easily realize that carefully. you a substance with a large refractive index critical angle. = Consider air and sin i *" sin Y * " sin 90 sin c where c ** is the critical angle ' * i_ sin c * . they only get out if the angle of incidence is between o and 24$ . Let DD (fig. 172) represent in section one face of a diamond. from tables It = angle of 24$.

the pool . The Hot Weather Mirage. Sometimes the thirsty traveller in the desert is the victim in the distance he sees a palm tree and of a cruel delusion " " its reflection in a pool. 173. 174 it will be evident that a fish sees objects on the surface of the water apparently crowded into a cone whose slant sides meet at an angle of about 98. disappears The explanation will be easily understood from I fig. as usual. the air above the sea decreases in density upwards. 173. A travelling through the from the normal until the critical angle when totally reflected. From fig. does not allow for this meet the same illusion in our own country on asphalted roads during a hot summer day. often We bending and so the illusion is complete. different layers is constantly bent away it strikes a layer at an angle greater than it is increases upwards. but on approaching nearer. The Cold Weather Mirage. In polar regions and occasionally in warmer climates. The a powerful beam of light from a few faces while the others look comparatively dark. he is able to see objects in the water . The result is that an image of a ship appears in the sky I The World as seen by a Fish. The FIG. air is divided into layers whose density ray of light from the top of the palm.REFRACTION result is 207 they are reinforced by another bundle of rays just entering. The eye. By casting his eye a little beyond this cone.

208 itself LIGHT by total internal reflection. even when those objects are hidden by intervening rocks. (a) As in the experiment on page 199. cut the normal and thus locate P t . -_-_-_-_-^=ryfr. (fig. normal to one face.ARoCKVI FIG. behind and touching the the glass. _ __ To Find the Refractive Index of a Medium. (6) Using the fact that Real thickness Real depth or Apparent thickness Apparent depth* Experiment. 174. with the image Produce the line through A and B . Stick a pin on this normal. Keeping dose line eye very to the two pins A normal put and B in Pt to .r-. Place a slab of glass on paper and make a pencil mark round it Draw a 175). fi To find for glass.

the image disappears. using a pen against the side of the jar find by the method of parallax the apparent position of the nib. The image P t will now be found to travel along a caustic curve. GH. Measure the real depth of the gas jar (fig.REFRACTION Measure real thickness and late fi. 177. until more Experiment. To find/* for glass by parallax. Therefore use a distant rays like CD. Work out H as before. What is the meaning of the disappearance of the image ? series of etc. To find /* for water. Hold another pin on the top of the slab and FIG. To find u for water the last method improved. 176. Place a pin at the back of the slab as before (fig. Drop a nib in.. 209 apparent thickness and calcu- It will now be instructive to find the reason for keeping the eye close to the normal. Compare the use of extreme rays in the case of the concave mirror. Measure real thickand apparent thickness as before. It will readily be understood that the best result will be obtained when the slab is paper is The pin does not of ness used lengthwise. adjust for no parallax between this pin and the image of the first pin. Experiment. : Experiment. Take several rapid readings of the apparent depth and find the average. . Place a cylinder of water on a piece Then of white paper. Place the jar FIG. 176). again keeping the eye close to the normal. then slip on the glass surface. 177). EF. The adjustment easily if is made a little more a narrow piece stuck on the slab.

then it pointed should be possible to see in the dark. Fix a pin in the damp and arrange for no parallax between the image of this pin and that of the immersed pin.210 LIGHT on the base board of a burette stand. Aristotle. Instead of the immersed pin use an ink line on a piece of white paper. out that if that were the correct explanation. simply the direction in which the wave is travelling. Some of the old Greek philosophers thought that the eye saw objects by sending out either particles or some kind of optical But one of their number. The distance from the top pin to the back of the mirror then gives the apparent depth. Why ? Adj ust several times and take fill The Cause of Refraction. and proceed as before. but it had ' ' the average reading of the apparent depth. This idea agreed fairly well with the facts then known. Young's experiments indicated that light did bend round corners a little but not as readily as sound waves because light waves have a much shorter wave length. what is it that moves in Huyghens believed that is light travelled in waves and that a ray light waves since light will travel through a vacuum all ? Huyghens a suggested that there is " medium pervading medium he called the ether. The great scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) suggested that " the eye received particles or corpuscles as he called them. To answer this question. This difficulty was cleared up by the celebrated scientist and . Experiment." space and this Newton's objection to this wave theory was that sound waves and water waves easily bend round corners whereas light does not the wave theory could not explain shadows. Replace the jar of water by a slab of glass with Place the mirror strip in position its length arranged vertically. we must examine briefly the various theories of the nature of light. To find p for glass by the preceding method. Across the top lay a plane mirror face upwards. Drop a bright pin in and to the rim with water. a rival in a theory first stated in 1678 by the Dutch scientist Huyghens. Calculate p as before. Egyptologist Thomas Young (1773-1829). He was met with this objection In sound waves the air moves and in water waves the water moves. . quite reasonably feelers. We have not yet inquired why a ray of light should bend towards the normal when travelling from air into a denser medium.

While the point r ^ these 4 units. showed that light travelled more quickly in air than in water. In that year a French scientist. its speed is redu< Divide CE into 4 units of length. and in 1880 an American scientist. 178 represent a parallel beam of light or a train waves moving through air to a water surface AB. It is of course the same as the refractive index of water so we have Velocity of Light in Air Velocity of Light in Water "" on the corpuscles. We Given the Speed Ratio to prove the Refraction Ratio.e beam make with the ** . the point D will only do 3 units. that the bending is directly caused by the change in velocity. Michelson. and. and when a fact meets a theory the victory is always with the fact Let us now return to the mysterious fraction J. Newton had assumed that water exerted a in water In consequence of this pull. the corpuscles would travel faster * and sin i "" *" sin r Is this a coincidence or not ? shall find that it is not. is slewed round into a new direction.>i . showed that Velocity of Light in Air ** Where Velocity of Light in Water have we met that fraction before? *' Why it should this fact kill the corpuscular theory ? To* explain the bending of a ray of light when pull enters water. in other words. and that the second fact is a direct consequence of the first . Foucault.REFRACTION 211 But it was only after 1850 that the wave theory really ousted the corpuscular theory. than in air! But the fact discovered by Foucault and Michelson definitely contradicted this. will suffice to prove the equality of the angles then sin i and m ED FD ? FD A *er ^s and measure sin r s | n * sin r That is. the refraction ratio is on the triangular ace the prism across the same. Very simpl > fig. r Let light soon as the point D touches the water.

The bare surface not . the wavepath of light in air while the covered surface This difficulty irdation experienced by light travelling in water. readily as sound wave length. You can illusFit up an axle and a pair of wheels so that trate it at home. the action is not peculiar to waves. similar thing is light consists of waves. a Draw . Water waves travel faster in A anc suggested medium he/e independently of the axle and of one another. Moreover. It is what is perfectly natural. A ray ick at an angle of 60 of light strikes (JJL = 1-5).212 LIGHT if This slewing round action we should expect frequently seen on deep water than in shallow water. Egyptologist Thott/are marked if the top half of the board is indicated that light *t of glass. so when a wave approaches a sloping shore obliquely it can often be seen to swing round. Newton's wn a pastry board or drawing board slightly sloping and water w*. wavuse (Problem).lower half covered by a towel. the coast.

This is a double application of the problem on p. Draw the perpendicular SC to cut this circle in C. 203. . Produce OV to meet the edge of the slab at B. Then 0V is the refracted ray. Mark off OP and OQ 3 units and 2 units long respectively. and 3 units long respectively. Refraction through a Prism.REFRACTION incident ray 213 the path of the emergent ray. Here the reveJrse procedure is adopted and BR and BS are made 2 units = FIG. With radius BW (which will be the same length as OT) describe a circle. 179). 197). Stick a piece of white paper on the triangular base of an equilateral or isosceles prism. Why ? Erect the perpendicular PT. Produce it backwards and measure the displacement. With radius OT draw a circle. Erect the perpendicular RW. Draw the perpendicular QV to cut this circle at V. 179. Then BC is the emergent ray. Experiment. Make the angle AON 60 (fig. Place the prism across " " a beam of light Let the beam make with the (see p. Show that it is parallel to the and measure the lateral displacement.

The deviation varies. A D and /. observation will be dealt with more fully later on. but there is a certain position where the deviation is a minimum and the emergent beam will be seen to travel up to this position then back. r9 rx A x + Why ? Why ? (i) Why are the angles rx and *. the angle of emergence. but we should notice also the presence of other beams and try to explain their causes. . e. a a -A rx -f r . Fig. r t so marked ? .' -i + t-A D + A . The incident beam is not displaced as in the case of the slab but is deviated towards the base.ti + *. Slowly rotate the prism round a vertical axis through its centre. To prove an Important Formula. We may now rewrite r . the beam passes symmetrically through the prism. i . Therefore the ray forms the base of an isosceles triangle of which A is the vertex. In the position of minimum deviation. of incidence. This important beam. t\ is the angle by single letters. 180 represents the path of a ray through a prism and the important angles are indicated is the angle of deviation. the ray passes symmetrically through the prism. Hold a piece of white paper vertically across the emergent band of colour will be observed..rJ + ft ft . You will observe a strong emergent beam making an angle with the incident beam.'i .g.'.214 face LIGHT an acute angle on that side of the normal remote from the apex. Why ? In this case f\ = * t and r l equations (i) and (2) thus: = D -f A A ^ 2f 2i % " sin* sin r sin "" j(D sin + A) JA We here have an important relation between the angle of the . D- rj Why ? (2) *' t But if the prism is set for minimum deviation.h + . We are at present mainly concerned with the emergent beam.

6. . 180. 4. 215 minimum deviation and the refractive index We can therefore find quite easily the refractive FIG. \ji Using the more exact value of /i. 2*417. Moreover. By construction find the emergent ray A A = A and the lateral displacement. 3. prove that the ray emerging from a slab of glass must be parallel to the incident ray. long and /* is 1*5. draw the emergent ray and find the lateral displacement by means of squared paper.]. use 2*4.REFRACTION prism. we can fill it with a liquid and determine the refractive index of that liquid. the angle of of the glass. If each x. index of the glass. hollow cube having thin glass walls each 6 cm. 5. ray of light strikes one face. Draw a cold weather mirago. and 40. A ray of light is incident normally on one of the equal faces of an isosceles right-angled prism. By means of squared paper find the critical angle of diamond. QUESTIONS 60. but use 1-7). Given the sine law and the fact that a ray of light is reversible. tains carbon disulphide (ft 1-68. calculate the critical angle for diamond. if we have a hollow prism with thin glass walls. ray of light strikes a cube of glass. square con2. and j* side is 6 cm. Prove that it must emerge normally.

thick and silvered on the under side. The emergent ray shows a lateral displacement of 2 cm. using an aniline prism. Two parallel rays strike the faces of an isosceles prism.) 9. O= 1-59. Calculate /* for glycerine. (Hint : Produce one side through the apex. find graphically or by calculation the angle of emergence and the angle of deviation. water = A of the liquid. Explain figure. 15. If the refractive index of the glass is 1*5. that the angle between the reflected rays is twice the angle of the prism. If the angle of the prism is 60 and p is i -5. The critical angle for turpentine is approximately 43. A ray of light is incident at 45 on the upper surface of a rectangular slab of glass.] Prove 11. find the thickness of the slab.216 LIGHT a diagram. Find by means of a diagram on squared paper the refractive index 14. A ray of light strikes a rectangular vessel having thin glass walls and containing a liquid. use 1-6. to a depth of 16 ft.] Find 12. with reference to index. the meaning of refractive 7. and the breadth of the vessel 37 cm.] (L) is incident on the face of a glass prism at an angle of 50. 213. showing the complete path of the ray [Refractive index of glass 1*5. The shore of a lake gradually shelves from a depth of 2 ft. The angle of minimum deviation is 34 i. 1 6. result. Define. Repeat Question 8. its refractive index.] hollow prism of refracting angle 60 contains glycerine. The glass is 2 in. Draw a through the glass. the lateral displacement 2 cm. The angle of incidence is 60. A ray of light strikes a slab of glass at 45 with the normal. 8. Calculate the apparent shelving. Repeat Question 8. A ray of light your 10. full size. [u for f . . but use angle of incidence 20. (Hint : Study the graphical exercise on p. 13.

217 . You will probably know that such a piece of glass is called a lens. Converging. Very short-sighted people have spectacle lenses which are thin at the centre. Rays of light travelling parallel to the axis diverge from a virtual focus after passing through the lens (Lat. (b) lenses can be divided into three classes : Piano convex. 181. apart). dis. Convex or converging (a) Double convex. are called convex or converging lenses. (c) Concavo convex (fig. Rays of light originally parallel to the axis converge to a real focus after passing through the lens (Lat. You will have seen similar pieces of glass in cameras. Thick Centres. together). 181). Thin Centres. Diverging. FIG.CHAPTER XX LENSES IT is almost certain that at some time or other you have used a piece of glass with spherical surfaces to magnify something or to burn a hole in a piece of paper. These are called concave or divergent lenses. The lenses just mentioned all have one thing in common they are thicker at the centre than at the rim. optical lanterns and in spectacle frames for people who can see far objects but not near objects. They e Convex. con. Concave.

The same construction (fig. The double convex lens can be regarded as made up of prisms. In the present chapter we shall confine our attention to the (a) and (d) classes and try to account for their most important classes properties. 182. but the prisms have their bases facing away from the centre. (e) Piano concave. it is quite easy to study this lens at home. 183. is evident in the double concave lens 183). The prisms have their bases towards the centre. truncated prisms and a slab of glass.2l8 LIGHT : Concave or diverging lenses can likewise be divided into three (d) Double concave. Rays parallel to the axis are bent away from the axis and therefore diverge from a virtual focus. FIG. Rays parallel to the axis are bent towards the bases of the prisms and therefore converge to a real focus (fig. Since most people possess a magnifying or reading glass of some kind. 181). A V FIG. 182). Images formed by a Double Convex Lens. (/) Convexo concave (fig. .

of the object to the first principal This ray travels parallel to the axis after passing through the lens. 2. until the lens is at a distance of about / from the object. You will readily understand that a double convex lens has two foci. Graphical Work. After refraction. one on each side equidistant from the lens. when the skyline is well illuminated and the lens and paper held in a shaded position. Let us now try to account for our results by means of carefully drawn diagrams. i and 2. This is the focal length. gas jet. holding lens and screen as before. Describe the image and note how it changes in size.LENSES Experiment. Put the screen down and look through the lens. But since in an ordinary lens the " " is very thin. A magnified erect image of the candle will now be seen. a candle. Observe very carefully the size of the image when the lens is at a distance of about 2/ from the object. may use. 3. Experiment. but later . The ray from the top of the object to the optical centre of " " and is therefore slab of glass the lens. noting the changes in size. of the object travelling parallel to the axis. This ray strikes the not deviated but displaced. Therefore we may assume that this ray goes The ray from the top straight through. an electric lamp or the illuminated gauze described on p. What is the effect now? For distances less than this. On the other side of the lens hold a piece of white paper and vary its position The clearest image is obtained until a clear image is formed. Approach from a distance a candle or the illuminated gauze. This focus is generally called the second principal focus. The ray from the top focus. At present we shall only make use of rays you will occasionally find ray 3 very useful. there is no image on the screen. Describe the image and measure the distance from image to lens. 188 will be sufficiently distant to give a reasonable result. There are three important rays which we 1. 219 Hold up the lens so as to receive parallel rays from a distant c'himney-pot on the skyline. Bring the lens closer still. the displacement is so slight that it could slab not be shown. If the experiment is done after dark. this ray passes through the focus on the other side of the lens.

focal length. inverted or erect. Case Case (4). Case (3).220 In fig. Draw separate diagrams to illustrate all five cases and try Where is the image when to answer the following questions. concave mirror). Distance of object greater than / but less than Case (i). (5). Distance of object equal 'to 2/. Distance of object greater than 2/ where / is the (Stretch a piece of cotton from the top of the object through C the optical centre. 184. real or virtual. LIGHT 184 we have what will enable us to solve may be called a basic diagram which most of our problems on the convex lens. Distance of object less than /. or same size. J\ B ' (1) (3) (3) (4) (5) FIG. diminished. the object is moved to an infinite distance ? Of what use is Describe the beam of light which emerges from the this fact ? lens when a small electric bulb is placed at one of the foci. Distance of object equal to /. (Compare the basic diagram for concave mirrors on p.) Consider the following five cases and describe the image formed in each case. .) Case (2). When are image and object the same size ? Where is the image in Case (4) ? Where must the object be placed in order to get a Under what circumstances do we get real magnified image ? a virtual magnified image ? Where must the eye be placed to receive it ? Note that in those cases where the image is real. magnified. 183. the image and object can change places and the two points are conjugate foci (cf.

In that case the experiment gave the radius of curvature of the mirror which was twice the focal length. Since rays parallel 2v Coincident Object and Image Method. and we cannot say that either of them is equal to twice the In it is only by chance that this would happen. rays which start from the focus will be parallel to the axis after What will happen if we put a plane refraction by the lens. (Compare concave mirror. 185. Compare and contrast this experiment with the corresponding one on the concave mirror. mirror at right angles to their path ? Experiment.LENSES To find the Focal 221 i. . From Case (i) we learnt that when nj^gn* nhjftf. the rays arriving at the lens are parallel to the principal axis and are therefore refracted through the principal focus. Place the screen carrying the illuminated gauze roughly at the focus. W[f knd the object is moved to an infinite distance. Set up a lens and plane mirror as in fig. the shorter is the focal length. there is no very simple relation between these three lengths. Length of a Convex Lens. We can only say here that the thicker the lens. . Measure the distance from the screen to the lens. to the axis converge to a focus after passing through the lens. But lenses have two radii of curvature. that is the smaller the radii of curvature.) We have already used this method of measuring the focal length. This is the quickest method and should always be used first. one for each surface. Carefully adjust the position of the screen so that a clear image is formed. focal length fact. our distant object being a chimney-pot on the skyline. This will be the focal length.

. but the proof is a little easier to understand when applied to the concave lens.222 LIGHT Experiment. 186). 3. 187. iG. 191 applies here also and that u has a negative value. The formula method or the method of conjugate foci can be applied in two ways. Lay the convex lens on a plane mirror. Object pin Lens FIG. focal length of a convex lens is therefore positive. Adjust the height of the pin until there is no parallax between it and its image. focal length. Place a pin roughly at the focus (fig. Measure the distance from the pin to the lens.0 Adjusting pin (a) Fix up the illuminated gauze IG at a distance from the lens equal to about three or four focal lengths. This is the The Formula Method. It is =7 where FIG. o Lens Screen T r. . Adjust the screen S for a dear image. u the distance from the lens to the object and / the focal length. lenses. both illustrated in fig. The Note that the rule of signs used in dealing with mirrors on p. 186. 187. Experiment. The formula holds good for all lenses. As in the case of spherical mirrors there is a standard formula for v u f v is the distance from the lens to the image.

i8S). the image is distant 2/ on the other side. = = M FIG. We then have Maximum Ft and the F . Substitute the values of v and in the formula and calculate /. but in> some cameras the bellows are twice as long. you will understand the reason for this procedure. When a screen is placed there to receive the image. then u 10 and v + 20 will be another reading. 20 and image and object can be interchanged. The bellows of the ordinary camera will not rack out as far as this. You will probably have learnt by experience that the best way to use a reading glass is to put it close to the print and then gradually withdraw it until the magnification is a maximum. when the adjustment is made. magnification is obtained when the object is between lens and as near to But we l as possible (fig. by the principle of conjugate foci. shall learn later that the best position for the object dependsalso on the observer's eyesight. and the space between screen and lens is enclosed by a box or bellows. The Convex Lens in a Camera. for. By carefully studying Case (5) above.LENSES 223 (i) Use a long pin as object and adjust the position of a shorter pin so that there is no parallax between it and the image of the first pin. When the object is distant 2/. we see that when the object is situated anywhere betweea infinity and 2/. Note that each adjustment serves to give two readings. we have a camera. real. a real inverted diminished image is formed on the other side of the lens. The Convex Lens as a Magnifying Glass. inverted and equal to the object. On examining Cases (i) and (2). 1 88. Thus if u = v = + 10.

Fig. Double Extension Camera. a diagrammatic representation of the " " magic The condenser is a pair of plano-convex lenses arranged to send a large quantity of light through the lantern slide ab. The focusing lens or objective generally consists of two or more lenses so arranged that the image AB shall be free from colour. very few rays from S. Condenser FIG. The " " Magic Lantern and Cinema Projector. FIG. would pass through the slide. 189.224 LIGHT is what known as a double extension camera which can be used (fig. Without the condenser. The point represents the optical centre of this com- . 190 gives lantern. the source of light. for copying photographs 189). 190.

the smaller does the image become. The lens. ruler or a piece of thread is passed through the optical centre and made to rotate round that point. If the slide ab is inverted. and diminished. lens. 191. erect. rays through this point are undeviated. in other words. .P. lens formula is easily proved by reference to a concave In fig. the magic lantern is an tpplication of Case (3) above. Experiments with a concave lens an will show that only one kind of image can be obtained The farther the object is from the erfect diminished image. 191 also IM _FM ~ f-v ~ f FC IM CM v OB" CB "iT AC but '"' AC = OB FM CM FC~"CB I G. Let us try to account for these results by a carefully drawn diagram. A FIG.LENSES 225 bination and. As far as the objective is concerned.S. The Double Concave Lens. it is clear from the figure that the image AB will be the right way up. ray close to and parallel to the principal axis will be bent towards the circumference of the lens. we shall see that the image is always virtual. as usual. the slide must >e at a greater distance than / from the objective. and will appear If a to diverge from a focus on the same side as the object.

away from the lens. (c) through the first principal focus. convex lens has focal length 4 in. on the principal axis 3 in. Draw five diagrams illustrating the properties of a convex lens (a) With the object standing on the principal axis. (b) to copy photographs exact size . An object i in. A . 7. high stands 5. 2. (c) With the object partly above and partly below. (C. away. magic lantern makes a picture on a screen 13 ft.226 LIGHT Cross multiply and divide xt_ then III = u by uvf f 7- t. in front of a convex lens of focal length 2 in. (a) to photograph landscape . away from a luminous object i in. far must the camera has a lens of 4 J in. Note also that the magnification formula arises out of the same proof and we have which is Size of Image v ** Size of Object u QUESTIONS An object ^ cm. each way find the position of the slide and the size of the picture. focal length. A pin is placed 3 in. A thin convex lens has a focal length of 8 cm. clear image is formed on a screen 24 in. An object J in. Find graphically and by calculation the position and size of the image. (b) through the optical centre. Illustrate your answer by a diagram. away from the What is the size of the image ? Find/ graphically and by object. converging lens is placed 6 in. (b) With the object below but touching the principal axis. part question. 1. calculation. A clear image forms on a screen 12 in. If the focal length of the objective is 6 in. away from the lens. 3. long. (c) to make copies double length and width ? 8. high stands on the principal axis of a convex lens at a distance of 6 in.) 4. high stands on the principal axis at a distance of 16 cm. A A A A How bellows stretch. Find the position of the image. Find the position and size of the image. from the On a diagram drawn to scale illustrate the behaviour of the lens. Explain why the slide is always inverted before being put into a magic lantern. the standard formula for lenses. three rays from the top of the object which travel (a) parallel to the principal axis. 6. What is the size of the image ? Find the : focal length graphically and by calculation. and the slide 3 J in. 9.

convex lens of focal length 12 in. What kind of lens is it and A printed page is held focal length ? what 1 8. An image is formed from the lens on the same side. and the screen picture is 12 ft. away from a convex lens of focal Find the magnification produced. Calculate the distances from lens to film and lens to screen. An 20 in.. real. What sort of lens held close to the eye will produce an image at the required distance ? An image is formed 17. say 24 in. produces an erect image object in.) be placed to produce an image 10 in. in. An object is placed 6 in. from the lens on the same side. A convex lens of focal length 6 ? length of the object. Find the focal length. How far from the object must a magnify ing-glass (/ 2 in. sort of lens held close to the eye will produce an image at the required distance ? cinema film measures i in. away ? What magnification is produced ? An inverted 14. What kind of lens is it and is formed 24 what 16. being very A focal length ? . A printed page is held 10 in. 6 in. from the lens. but he can only read by holding the book at arm's length. is its What short-sighted.LENSES zo. object is situated 10 in. but. away. An object is situated 10 in. (b) virtual Where must the forms an image twice the if object be the image is (a) XI. image 15. is its 10 in. 227 in. from a man's face. A three times as high as the object. from an old gentleman's eye. An length 10 12. x } in. Where is the object ? 13. the projector lens has a 19. is placed 4 in. focal length of 10 in. away from a lens. from a lens. he can only read print at a distance of 5 in. x 9 ft. from a lens.

Between this and the lens is a watery liquid called the aqueous humour.M TO - To. 192 shows the horizontal section of a CM C. The transparent horny membrane which forms the front covering of the eye is called the cornea from Latin cornu.CHAPTER XXI OTHER IMPORTANT OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS The Eye. On the other side of the lens 228 is another . 192. The eye is in many respects similar to the photographic camera. a horn. *"Nose I Temple" FIG. Fie. right eye.

is the ciliary muscle. Close the left eye and gaze perpendicularly at the dot in 6^193. therefore. the vitreous humour. do not fall on both blind spots at the same time. and when at rest it brings rays from a distant object to a sharp focus on the retina.OTHER IMPORTANT OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS CM 229 watery fluid. To focus nearer objects. 193. Experiment. This is where the image forms when we fix our attention on some small object. the ring of muscle round the lens acts in such a way as to thicken the lens and thus shorten the focal length. The experiment can of course be repeated with the left eye. It is quite an easy matter to pass an image across the retina from one side to the other and thus prove the existence of a blind spot. Rays. in contact with a membrane called the retina. The retina is sensitive to light and corresponds to the film.. This power of accommodation is very marked in children's eyes. but with age the lens loses its elasticity. grandfather at arm's length. The fact that there is a blind spot in each eye does not cause us any inconvenience because it is not situated in the middle of the retina but rather on the nasal side. At most positions the cross carTalso be seen by means of slanting rays. Vary the distance of the book from the eye. The camera lens does the same " " when set at the infinity catch. Moving the book nearer or FIG. farther causes the rays to strike left or right of the spot and the cross reappears. but at one position these oblique rays strike the blind spot and the cross disappears. The area occupied by the optic nerve is not itself sensitive to light and forms what is known as the blind spot. the camera lens moves forward. To the right of it in a right eye ai\d to the left of it in a left eye is the most sensitive part of the retina. The latter has normally a focal length of about 15 mm. but to achieve the same result in the eye. called the yellow spot. The light impressions are carried to the brain by the optic nerve. . so that while young 'children " " holds things can focus on very close objects. plate or focusing screen of the camera. There is one great difference between the camera lens and the eye lens.

. When use one eye. but it is You will remember that when a lens forms a real image on a screen. purposes. An inverted pin will be seen. long with FIG. Experiment. 194. For this reason the stop is called the iris. Why. 194) and look at the sky or a light through a pinhole placed about z or 3 in. all objects a little way off appear to be at the same distance. Hold an erect pin close to the eyelashes (fig." Popular taste leans towards brown or blue. Images formed on the retina must therefore also be inverted. trates this peculiarity. In very bright light only the centre of the lens need be used and this improves the definition of the In the eye there is also a stop which serves the same image. experiment triangulation nevertheless very serviceable. Move the pin slowly up and down and left to right. but some of us have to be content with a green or yellow iris 1 What we know as the pupil of the eye is the circular opening in this iris. the image is inverted. from Latin and " Greek words meaning a rainbow. This " " the distant chimney forming the vertex of the triangle. but instead of being black as in the camera.230 LIGHT You probably know that the camera lens has a stop to vary the size of the aperture. Very little thought enables us to realize the advantage of having two eyes. One eye gives a flat picture while two eyes give us a solid or stereoscopic view. away. do we not see all objects upside down ? The answer is that the brain from long experience has learnt to read these inverted images as erect There is an interesting little experiment which illusobjects. Oneeyed people have to do we parallax experiments daily as a matter of routine But ! with two eyes we have a sort of base line 3 in. it may be of various colours. The iris of a kitten and that of the adult cat have striking features with which you are probably well acquainted. may be only rough. then.

When an image is flashed on to the retina and then off. the two impressions blend and the hat appears to be on the head. The pin obscures the light and causes a sharp erect shadow to be thrown on the retina. Ikis for this reason that if the glowing end of a stick is whirled But the brain that FIG. The card is twirled until the strings are very much twisted. Boys sometimes amuse themselves by drawing on the corners of . it is follows its usual practice and we get the idea an inverted pin which is on view. 195 and 196. we do not circle of light see a multitude of glowing ends. but a bright due to the blending of the images. round. the impression remains for about TV sec. There is an old scientific toy called the thaumatrope. 196.OTHER IMPORTANT OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS The explanation travels is 231 quite simple. FIG. they blend. On one side of the card a head is drawn. Therefore if images are flashed on at the rate of 10 per second or faster. on the other a hat. When the strings are now quickly pulled. A diverging beam of light from the pinhole to the eye. 195. the idea which is illustrated in figs.

The fact here and is the basis illustrated is known as the persistence of vision When this is shown at the ordinary rate. the snaps are taken at 120 per second and then shown at the ordinary rate of 24 per second. the lens thickening to shorten its focal length. Somewe meet little booklets of pictures such as a seal in all Running the pages rapidly stages of diving into water. We have already learnt that the normal eye at rest forms a sharp image on the retina when the object is " " at infinity. On the other hand. It is called the . This is accomplished by having a shutter which opens and closes at that rate. The positive film is drawn through the magic lantern or projector. Curious tricks are often performed on the cinema. and since the light used is very powerful each little snap gets warm. or 25 cm.This makes possible the careful study of such things as high illusion of jumping. in the making " slow motion of a picture. and that for nearer objects accommodation takes This place. and normally it ceases when the object is 10 in. Photographs of the planting and growth of a seed can be taken at intervals over a comparatively long period of time on a single of film. it does not get hot enough to catch alight. and strokes in cricket. At this distance the image has its maximum clearness. But unless the film gets jammed.232 of LIGHT an exercise book two men in various boxing attitudes. and a shutter operates at the same rate as before to cut off the light while one snap moves off and the next gets into view. tennis or golf. Defective Eyes. we get the very rapid"growth. or even reversed. The cinema camera takes snapshot photographs at 24 per second on a long film. forwards or backwards produces the illusion of continuous times motion. . a film depicting the preparation and eating of a Christmas dinner makes a very amusing spectacle when reversed. Can you explain why we occasionally see on the pictures a cart moving rapidly forward while the spokes of the wheel appear to be travelling backwards ? You will meet applications of this idea in more advanced physics. The film is developed and printed to form a positive on another film. thickening cannot go on indefinitely. Again. from the eye. Natural processes can be accelerated. retarded. cinema pictures. The film being of celluloid or some such materia) is highly inflammable.

The method is to place an image of the object where he can see it. What is the remedy ? use an additional lens which is thick at the centre. are prescribed. The Magnifying-Glass or Simple Microscope. In other cases the focal length is too small for the eyeball . say. This trouble is known as short sight and the remedy is to use an additional lens which is thin at the centre concave spectacles D . In other is much less than 10 in. and the thickening is perhaps at a maximum when the object this person cannot see near objects clearly. Chap.S. The eye lens is not sufficiently convergent . D words convex spectacles.e. 15-18. and rays from a distant object come to a focus behind the Accommodation has to be used even for distant objects retina. at one of them the object is situated. able to focus on points perhaps only 5 or 6 in. it is not He must thick enough at the centre. away in this case is greater than said to have long sight 10 in. Where should the object D= be?" Evidently things must be so arranged that the image *i C. You have already done some problems like this (Nos. in other is still .OTHER IMPORTANT OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS minimum letter 233 distance of distinct vision and is indicated by the D. " Mr. Why is this? Let us consider the following problem. The first distance is obviously u and the second one v. away. XX) and you are recommended to work them again in the light of your new knowledge. Distant objects cannot be words. 10 in. Very little experience with convex lenses will prove that the most powerful magnifying-glasses have short focal lengths. focal length. 6 ft. parallel rays corne to a focus in front of the retina even when no accommodation is used. of the Then when accommodation comes into play the eye is lens. while the other is the distance to which the person can see. His eye is normal. seen because the eye lens is too thick at the centre. In some cases the focal length is too great for the eyeball. Brown is using a magnifying-glass of 2 in. He is . 30 in. The image only forms on the retina when the object has approached to within. In problems on long sight and short sight you are generally given two distances.P is where . so that an application of the usual lens formula will give the nature and focal length of the lens necessary. i.

In fig. and since -*--* The magnification is A 10 . This real image now acts as object to another convex lens of focal length 3 in. Brown can see in.6 in. V = - ii- By drawing a diagram to scale it is quite easy to show that the magnification depends on the focal length.234 LIGHT 2 /= Mr. 197 magnification = D+ JF IM From greater IM OB^AC this result it is easy to see that the smaller is F is. long is placed ij in. On the same diagram find the size and position of the final image. farther away. M FIG.. The Compound Microscope. we have it best. from a convex lens of focal length I in. Problem. A real magnified image is formed by . Find by means of squared paper and by calculation the size and position of the image. A small object in. The above problem illustrates roughly the principle of the compound microscope. the the magnification. placed 2 in. 197. therefore v = x| 10 in.

placed 100 in. On a burette stand or other convenient holder set up one of them above a printed page. at or near the focus. This image is then magnified by the eyepiece. The objective should therefore be a long-focus lens and the eyepiece one of short focal length. 198) nifies the and adjust it so that it magreal image formed by the objective. Experiment. away from a convex lens of focal length 20 in. farther away. It will be obvious that if the object were a star or some really distant object. The objective should also have a large aperture to ensure that a large quantity of light is taken in. another convex lens of focal length 4 in. The Astronomical Telescope. An object 10 in.OTHER IMPORTANT OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 235 the object glass. is such a tiny distance. The fact that the final image is inverted. Fix up the second lens as an eyepiece (fig. The above problem is only a very rough illustration of the principle of the astronomical telescope because 100 in. laterally and actually. but for ordinary work such an instrument would be a nuisance. say 2 or 3 in. For great magnification the lenses should both be of short focal length. placed 3 in. high is Objective Problem. a small inverted image of the distant object. This image now acts as object 'to FIG. then we could not make a scale drawing. For great magnification p j should be large. 198. so that the latter is more than one but less than two focal lengths away. The distance between the lenses is generally equal to f where F is the focal length of the objective and / that of the F+ eyepiece. On the same diagram find the size and position of the final image. Find by means of squared paper and by calculation the size and position of the image. is no disadvantage in astronomy. and this image is then further magnified by the eyepiece. The objective forms. In the terrestrial telescope . Take two lenses of short focal length.

This lens acts as the eyepiece. 205) and *he actual inversion is corrected by the second prism. an extra convex lens is therefore inserted behind the eyepiece a second inversion. 199). The two lenses now form an astronomical imum In telescope. Having set it for maxmagnification. 199. 200. thus making the final image Experiment. If desired. Prism Binoculars.236 LIGHT lens to produce erect. the screen and lenses being placed as before in the most shaded part cTf the room. In prism binoculars (fig. In the most shaded part of the room set up a long focus lens with its axis horizontal. the lenses can be fitted into cardboard tubes blackened on the inside and sliding one into fair sunlight line may the other. an object on the skybe used. Moreover. Fix up a short-focus lens on the other side of the screen (fig. is " the objective. FIG. the instruto be very long. Set up a lighted candle or the " illuminated to object FIG. Since the magnificaan astronomical telescope depends on F being large and the distance between tion in the lenses is practically +/. There is thus no F ment tends . the lateral inversion produced by the objective is corrected by the first prism (see p. remove the screen. gauze This in a remote corner of the room. 200) this long length is folded up into three parts by the use of two rightangled prisms. Focus the image on a piece of frosted glass or on a screen made by sticking a piece of thin paper on a slip of glass.

focal length. ft. best when it is 15 cm. case of 4. 10 cm. Explain what happens if the lens is the eye lens of a child. need to enable him to read a book at a distance of 30 cm.. Find graphically or by calculation how far a book should be from the lens. Show 2. What . by" diagrams how the position of the image changes. away ? magnification will be obtained when a person with normal eyesight uses convex lenses of the following focal lengths : 5 cm. the value of D is 30 in. 15 cm. In the case of Mr.. ? 8.OTHER IMPORTANT OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 23? need of an erecting lens. ? What spectacles 5. 9. Point out the resemblances and differences between a compound microscope and an astronomical telescope. A (a) long sight. certain from his eye. must he use to make him normal in this respect ? What 6. away ment 20 7. uses a magnifying-glass of 5 cm. A person whose minimum distance of distinct vision is 20 cm. 3.. Note that the second prism is really set with its refracting edge at right angles to that of the first.. X. 20 cm. A person cannot see clearly beyond a distance of 8 ft. An object travels up from infinity to a glass lens. QUESTIONS Write an account of the resemblances and differences between a photographic camera and the eye. lenses must he use to recognize his friends on the opposite pave- man can read print What glasses will he (b) short sight. Illustrate by diagrams what happens to parallel rays in the x. 8 cm.

201).CHAPTER XXII DISPERSION AND COLOUR When dealing with the prism (p. Red. Indigo. Blue. called the band a spectrum (fig. for this is the light which is bent most from its original path. The colours were most distinct when the prism was in the position of minimum deviation. In other words. Violet. These dispersion experiments indicate that the greatest reduction takes place in the case of violet light. 211) that refraction is caused by a reduction in speed when light enters a denser medium. Orange. FIG. red light " travels faster in glass than violet light. He distinguished the follow- A and ing colours. Green. similar experiment was done on sunlight by Sir Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century. is called We have already learnt (p. 238 . Yellow. This splitting up of white light into different colours dispersion. 201. Therefore the speed " " " or refraction ratio ratio or refractive index is greater for violet light than for red light. 214) we observed a band of colour on a piece of white paper held vertically across the emergent beam.

How many waves would it put If you work this out." Ether Waves. io 14 . red light consists of waves which are longer than the waves which produce violet light. Have you met second and 1500 metres. red to a low . Multiply these two numbers together.000. Opposite the Light programme you may see 200 kilocycles per kilocycles. The wave length of red light is roughly double the wave length of violet light. viz. Our eyes act as detectors for these short ether waves. and we have just been using the well-known fact about wave motion that .000 metres per second and the wave length of red light is 0*00008 cm. Does the result come to anything like the velocity of light? What is the explanation? Is there any connection between light waves and wireless waves? Modern science says that there is a very close relation between them.DISPERSION AND COLOUR " 239 said. of violet light is double that of red light.000 metres ? you will find it to be 375 followed by 12 noughts. . but nature does not provide us with a detector for the long waves. we must make or buy a "wireless set. The frequency 7-5 X sound one. Colour in light may be compared with pitch in violet light corresponds to a high note. divided by sin r is always a constant. in fact they are both waves in the same medium ether. Short waves are thus more retarded and therefore more deviated by glass than longer waves. look at the broadcasting programmes in a daily paper.000." The table below shows that there is a long range of these ether or electromagnetic waves available to man and useful for widely different purposes. a number which is more conveniently written 375 X io 14 This number is obviously the number of waves sent out per second or what is called the frequency. These frequencies are sometimes stated as 7-5 11 375 X io X io 11 and If kilocycles before ? flot. According to the modern idea of considering light to be a sort of wave motion. Imagine a source giving out red light. Velocity Frequency x Wave Length. sin i You will now understand why. into that length of 300. Now the velocity of light is 300. we For the same two media and for light of the same colour. in stating SnelTs Law.

Set up a convex lens of focal length about 12 in. In other words. If the light continues to be emitted even after the short waves are cut off. If a duster containing a key is held between the tube and the screen. the paper emits a yellowish-green light. The bones of the hand may be seen in a similar way. The sulphides of calcium and barium used in painting the figures and hands of luminous watches. the spectrum was fairly pure. then the substance is not only fluorescent but also phosphorescent. a dark shadow of the key is plainly seen. To Produce a Pure Spectrum. from an illuminated slit. In our prism experiment the beam of light was almost parallel and the colours were fairly well separated. blue at the bottom Experiment. red at the top and the spectrum is impwc (fig. fluorescent substance is one which absorbs short waves and converts them into longer waves of visible light. 202). possess this property of phosphorescence.240 LIGHT few remarks may be helpful in explaining the fluorescent screens used in detecting the band of high-frequency waves. If the beam is divergent. . When a piece of paper is coated with either of these and held A A near an X-ray tube. we obtain so much overlapping that colour is only seen at the two edges. The most efficient fluorescent substances are two expensive chemicals called barium platinocyanide and cadmium tungstate. Where . at a distance of about 14 in.

If the aperture of the lens happens to be larger than the prism face. The colours are then brightest (fig. Screen \ FIG.DISPERSION AND COLOUR will the 241 image be ? Focus it carefully on a white screen. Both distances will depend on the power of your source of light. 203). 203. remove the objective and cut cardboard large enough to cover the hole. A pure spectrum will be formed on the screen. The prism may be on either side of Why the lens. 202. Having obtained this real spectrum on the screen. In the disc cut a Around the circumference stick a piece of slit i in. Rotate the prism until it is set at minimum deviation. Move the prism until the colourless image entirely FIG. stuck on the lens in such a way as to leave aperture of the desired size. a square paper. . ? Place the prism close to the lens with its refracting edge parallel to the slit. an illuminated slit can a disc of easU)" be fixed up . it can be stopped down with four strips of black adhesive disappears. look into the prism for a virtual spectrum. X I** in. If a small magic lantern is available.

" " a reading glass and a glass lustre the whole experiment can be done at home. Crookes discovered the metal Thallium and definitely proved the rare gases of the atmosphere to be really distinct elements. Gases give If common salt bright line spectra. namely Rubidium and Caesium. Continuous Spectra. the electric arc. no two of which are alike. The spectrosco/>0 is an instrument for examining such spectra with a telescope. Scientists have found that substances can be identified by the spectra they give when heated.242 paper. then the spectrum is no longer continuous. e. Instead of the lantern arrangement it has a metal slit which can be illuminated in various ways (fig. It enabled them to discover two new elements of the sodium family. the tungsten filament of an electric lamp. or the carbon particles in an means that inclusive. then we get a continuous spectrum. When the slit is illuminated by an incandescent gas or vapour. 204A). the eyepiece of which magnifies them considerably. ordinary gas flame. Use another parts of the spectrum.g. . only certain wave lengths are present. The spectrum obtained above was really a number of coloured images of the same slit. and may yet solve the problem of the release and control of atomic energy. To-day the method of spectroscopy is playing a great part in the study of atomic structure. What do you notice? now With such a lantern. The Spectrometer. " " exactly similar prism or lustre with its refracting edge parallel to the first. If the slit of the spectroscope is illu- minated by an incandescent solid. Hold different coloured pencils or skeins of wool in various Record your observations. By this same method Sir Wm. LIGHT This serves as a cap to slip on to the lantern. When the instrument is adapted for carrying out measurements it is called a spectrometer. and not merely different sorts of nitrogen. This all wave lengths are present from red to violet Bright Line Spectra. we get a bright line in the yellow region from the incandescent sodium vapour. but set the opposite way round. The method of analysis here indicated was first used by the German scientists Bunsen and Kirchhoff in the latter half of the nineteenth century. is held on a platinum wire or ordinary wire gauze in the nonluminous bunsen flame.

some of the light will be absorbed. yellow. Strontium gives lines in the red. But the action of the liquid is not to absorb a little . 204A).DISPERSION AND COLOUR 243 line Similarly from incandescent lithium vapour we get a red and a yellow line. If the slit is illuminated by an electric bottle containing a dilute solution of blue light. Absorption Spectra. lower frequency. or that of sodium. therefore it will be slightly nearer to the red end of the spectrum. 2043). and blue regions. and so on for other elements (fig. 2048. The yellow lithium line corresponds to a " " than lower pitch longer wave length. and a medicine litmus is held in front of the slit. Sr K a red line by means of a third tube (fig. Potassium gives and a violet line. The positions of these lines can easily be distinguished by reflecting a graduated scale into the telescope Scale tube K SrLiSrLiNa FIG.

The alcohol quickly goes green. without the absorption of energy from the sun in those dark bands. and the synthesis could not go on in the absence of light.244 light of all LIGHT wave lengths. It is by means of this wonderful pigment called chlorophyll that the green plant is able to take in carbon dioxide and use the carbon to build sugar. that is. therefore the two between them produced darkness. To a 10% solution of copper sulphate add ammonium hydroxide until the precipitate which first forms just Test this liquid for selective absorption. diluting if dissolves. Experiment. the absorption is not general but there will be a dark band in the yellow. light. selective . Experiment. it takes mainly wave lengths from the In other words. necessary. It is called by this name from Greek photos. a fact which is at the basis of life itself as we know it on this planet. Cover the leaves with alcohol in a test-tube and immerse the tube in hot water. carbon dioxide is returned to the air from which it came many centuries ago. When the coal is burnt for the sake of its energy. Coloured glasses and gelatine films likewise show this property A pure blue glass would absorb all of selective absorption. a pure yellow all colours but yellow. yellow. You will have heard that all energy comes to us directly or The sun's energy is absorbed in those indirectly from the sun. and both together would produce darkness. The process of making these complex compounds from carbon and water is known as photosynthesis. The working ox derives his energy from the green plant. The coal used to-day is the result of absorption of energy by chlorophyll in the primeval forest. then pour off the water. and the carbon cycle is complete. . The green plant is the basis of the food supply of all animal life including man himself. but he may also serve . Now find the effect of putting one solution behind the other. dark bands in the red and blue which you have just seen. colours but blue. Filter if necessary and examine this alcoholic solution of chlorophyll with the spectroscope. Boil some green leaves in water for a minute or two. and cellulose. But we can complete the cycle in other ways. Repeat with a solution of potassium ferricyanide. In the first experiment the solution of copper ammoniosulphate absorbed all light except blue the ferricyanide solution absorbed blue. starch. In the second experiment we have come face to face with a fact the importance of which cannot be over-emphasized.

in 1802. the bright D lines of the sodium flame were exactly replaced by the dark D lines of sunlight. H. It had been noticed that two of these dark lines were situated in the yellow exactly where sodium vapour gives two bright These were called the lines. B. Kirchhoff soaked the wick of a spirit lamp in sodium chloride On examining the flame through solution and then dried it. and nitrogen peroxide. which consists of prisms and lenses mounted in a single brass tube. When sunlight is examined with a spectroscope. and in 1859 ^e was able to give a clear explanation of the whole question. Wollaston. D. but the German physicist Fraunhofer in 1814 counted 576 of these lines and lettered them off in groups A. W. A few of them were observed by an English doctor and scientist. etc. chlorine. Foucault showed that lines. Kirchhoff reasoned that if sodium D . C. But when strong sunlight was made to pass through this flame into the spectroscope. if a very powerful light from an electric arc was made to pass through a flame coloured yellow by a sodium salt. may sum up the matter from the energy point of view by saying We Carbon -f Oxygen -> Carbon dioxide (Energy given out) Carbon dioxide -> Carbon + Oxygen (Energy taken in). the spectroscope showed two dark lines in the exact position of the D lines. " " The cause of these Fraunhofer lines was an absolute until 1848 when Foucault in France made a most mystery remarkable discovery. iodine vapour. The mystery was further investigated at Heidelberg by Kirchhoff. Chemistry of the Sun and Stars. the bright D lines were seen as usual. Other substances giving interesting absorption spectra are potassium permanganate solution of various dilutions. All the spectra dealt with in this chapter can be very nicely observed with a handy little instrument called the direct vision spectroscope.DISPERSION AND COLOUR 245 as the unfortunate connecting link between the green plant and the tiger! In both cases the slow combustion of the carbon in the body causes the energy of the sun to reappear as heat and work. a large number of dark lines is seen running transversely across the spectrum. and they were darker than usual. From this strange result. a spectroscope. and carbon dioxide is restored to the air.

dark lines were produced 1 On cutting off the limelight. an engine sometimes passes through while giving out a shrill whistle. as the absorbing photosphere. calcium. When you are standing on a railway platform. If the brilliant background of the sun's nucleus could be for an instant cut off. Since the time of Kirchhoff the work has gone on steadily. there is in each case a bright background on which the less bright D lines look dark by contrast. the lines were bright again and these results could be repeated at will. lengths. etc.. magnesium. To-day his experiments are often repeated with an arc light as the hot source and a bunsen flame containing vapours of the compounds"of sodium. vapour could darken these then it might have caused in the first place. pitch in sound corresponds to colour in light. calcium. As a result of all his experiments. the most prevalent being hydrogen." Kirchhoff' s work thus cleared up the mystery of the Fraunhofer lines. the lines in star spectra move towards the violet or region of higher pitch when the star is approaching. then those dark lines would become bright as in the limelight experiment. iron. Since the rest of the light gets through unweakened.246 LIGHT lines. and carbon. potassium. and there again on the ordinary red to violet background. The most reasonable explanation of all this is that the in- candescent lime corresponds to the sun's nucleus. and to-day we know that the sun's atmosphere contains more than thirty of our terrestrial elements. Similarly. and here we meet another wonder of spectroscopy. them D D With lithium in the flame similar results were obtained. The pitch of the whistle is higher than the true pitch while the engine is approaching and drops suddenly below the true pitch when the engine receding. Kirchhoff came to the conclusion that a glowing gas or vapour absorbs its own wave lengths from light sent out by a hotter source. sodium. By measuring the shift in the is Now . By its aid astronomers have been able to measure the speed of stars which happen to be travelling towards or away from the earth. He now passed limelight through the sodium vapour. llie same methods have been applied to stars. potassium. and towards the red when the star recedes. strontium. the sodium flame to sodium vapour in the sun's glowing atmosphere or In both cases the sodium absorbs its own wave photosphere.

The fact that these heat waves are similar to light waves was discovered in 1800 by the elder Herschel. If the cooling is continued. the action was greater still. a scientist of Munich. Is it still giving out waves? Yes. Johann Wilhelm Ritter. When a solid is white hot it is giving out light of all wave lengths. These short waves of ultra-violet light have since been found to have important health-giving properties. Moreover. The Invisible Parts of the Sun's Spectrum. This makes the cost high. Sir William Herschel put a thermometer with a blackened bulb into the sun's spectrum. Ordinary window glass is also opaque to practically the whole band of ultra-violet wave lengths. The sun evidently sends out waves which are longer than red waves. in the dark space beyond the violet. the difference between them and light waves is simply a question of wave length. In fact. the rise was still more marked in the dark space beyond. In exploring this region photographic plates are used. Considerable research has been carried out in several countries . is required to soften the quartz crystals. But in the manufacture of this. it is now giving out heat waves or the socalted infra-red rays. Like light waves they can be reflected and refracted. He found that the temperature Moreover. About the same time as Herschel's discovery of the infra-red rays. These infra-red rays have since been carefully investigated by the American physicist Langley.DISPERSION AND COLOUR 247 spectral lines it is possible to measure the speed of the star. a temperature about three times higher than that necessary for ordinary glass-making. Ritter found that the action of light in blackening photographic silver salts increased as one passed through the sun's spectrum from red to violet. When it is merely red hot it is only giving out red waves. steadily rose in passing from the violet to the red. but unfortunately they are stopped or absorbed by smoke and clouds. Quartz glass transmits down to very short waves and certain rooms in hospitals are now being fitted with window-panes of this material. who had already made himself famous by the discovery of the planet Uranus. This change of pitch in sound and light was explained by an Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler (1803-53). was busy exploring the other end of the visible spectrum. it becomes invisible in the dark. a temperature of about 1700 C.

. regard to the ordinary properties of reflection and refraction. we finally placed two prisms with their refractive edges in opposite directions. discovered that glass containing 2% boric acid and no iron oxide went a long way towards satisfying all three conditions. In 1925 an Englishman. The disc was then rapidly rotated. e. Lamplough. but some of them are acted upon by the atmosphere. These were painted with the seven colours in order and then the colours were repeated. It will be obvious that all lenses and prisms used in the investigation of the properties of these rays must be of quartz With glass since this transmits almost the whole wave band. A disc of white cardboard was divided into fourteen sectors. The fact that it is not quite white is due to the fact that pigments are never as pure as the colours of the spectrum. Another experiment of his on the recomposition of white light is the well-known colour disc experiment. In our experiments with a pure spectrum. We found that the image of the slit returned to its old position and was free from colour. (fig. We may imitate his experiment by means of a well-known toy The disc when spun will be approximately white." A short time ago the skylights of the monkey-house at the London Zoo were glazed with this material to the great joy of the inmates. Recomposition of White Light. I FIG. blue always contains a little green. 205). This glass is now on the market " under the name Vitaglass. the difference is just a matter of wave length. 205. conditions.g.LIGHT with the object of making a glass which would transmit a fair proportion of the rays and yet be not too expensive for general Several glass materials are known which satisfy these use. This experiment was first done by Sir Isaac Newton. it has been found that ultra-violet rays like infra-red rays are similar to the waves of the visible spectrum.

so this is the resulting colour. An article described as red in daylight reflects red wave lengths but absorbs most of the rest. When we held a coloured object in our pure spectrum. The last fact is back some green. for when using the colour disc. but in any other part of " " the spectrum it would look black. namely black. the effect would be the same as with the blue and yellow glasses. Actually blue and yellow pigments are impure and each sends result is green. so no light would be sent back at all and the result would be black. Here we have the key to a well-known optical puzzle. the result is white. but we infer its existence because we are receiving light from its surroundings. transmits blue wave lengths and absorbs the rest. A pure red would absorb all the remaining wave lengths. The difficulty is to reconcile the following three facts: (a) If blue light and yellow light are sent from two lanterns on to a white screen. If the pigments were pure. we found that the apparent colour depended upon the part of the spectrum in which it was held. Thus yellow absorbs blue and blue absorbs yellow. the blue pigment would send back blue and absorb all other colours. blue has not to pass . But this blue light has to get through a yellow pigment which absorbs everything but yellow. when held up to daylight. it is the white linen collar which tells us where the black coat starts! Why does a blue suit look darker in artificial light? Because such light is deficient in blue and the cloth cannot reflect what it does not receive. the result is black. then spun. the result is white. (b) If a disc is painted partly blue and partly yellow.DISPERSION AND COLOUR 249 The Colour of an Object. A pure red article held in the red would look red. Similarly a pure yellow glass transmits only yellow. A pure blue glass. In (a) we meet the fact that blue and yellow are complementary colours (see below). There is thus a great difference between mixing lights and mixing pigments. In (b) we are again mixing lights and not pigments. A dead-black object absorbs all wave lengths so that strictly speaking we do not see it. For when white light strikes the paper. (c) Yet if blue pigment is mixed with yellow pigment the no an accident due to the impurities of the pigments. When both are held one behind the other light is transmitted.

we may say that in (a) and (b) we are mixing lights (addition) and in (c) we are mixing pigments (subtraction). But although they were both medical men as well as physicists. 206. the retina of the eye. namely. Two colours which together produce white are called Comple- on a through yellow nor yellow through blue " " mentary Colours. green.White Magenta : White White White To mix colours or lights. they were . Thomas Young in England and Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-94) in Germany suggested that there were three different sets of nerves in the eye corresponding to the three primary colours. two methods have already been mentioned. FIG. The relation between primary and complementary colours can easily be remembered by means of the following scheme Yellow Peacock Blue Green Red Therefore + + Blue . Red -f Peacock Blue Green -f Magenta Blue -f Yellow 206 V and Y are strips of violet (or and yellow paper standing on a sheet of black paper. and Blue. Experiments with the colour disc show that any other colour may be obtained by mixing in the right proportions the three colours Red. The eye sees both papers at once. Colour Vision. the colour disc and the method which uses two lanterns. The result of course is not a perfect white owing to the slight green in the pigment. Since all the other colours of the spectrum may be produced by mixing red. Primary and Complementary Colours. Other colours may be combined in a similar way. and the result is approximately a white strip. Green. For this reason they are called the Primary Colours. S is a sheet of glass which may In fig. and blue. To sum up.250 LIGHT screen the lights are mixed . blue) be a photographic quarter plate with the film removed. There is a third which may be tried. To make white we should need some of all three.

in lamp Graham Savage. his own lamps throw out all wave lengths from red to violet. "colour blind Repeat with other coloured slips and try to make up a list of the complementary colours. 51. the more easily they are A scattered or irregularly reflected by small obstacles.. Experiment. then allow it to slide off. Hold this in front of a milky minute or so there will be a fine precipitate i "Colour" is fully dealt with by Sir Science Review. Parts 49.DISPERSION AND COLOUR 251 unable to confirm this theory by dissection of the optic nerve. light from the lamp and from the sun has been deprived of a large the light proportion of its short blue waves by this scattering which gets through is therefore redder. The colour of the setting sun can be imitated in a To " " A very simple way.B. fog looks red like the setting sun. " In a of sulphur. 1 street lamp seen through a Scattering of Light in Nature. The . The area now looks peacock blue sec. get over this trouble he uses an antiglare lamp with a yellow glass. " hypo solution and acid (the usual 10 to electric globe. the C. Take half a beaker of i% add the same volume of dilute hydrochloric i reagent). but this is not his chief trouble . the theory is quite useful in explaining many of known facts relating to colour vision. Experiment. Nevertheless. The eye is for the moment light received 11 with respect to red. 50. " " red nerves are tired and the complementary colour.. The " " and blue nerves are responding to the white the on}y green from the paper. The useless blue-violet waves now do not get out* red glass would serve the same purpose except that red is the recognized colour for rear lights. but the blue-violet waves are reflected back from the particles of the fog giving the appearance of a bluish-white blanket in front. Place a slip of bright red paper in the middle Gaze at it steadily for about 20 of a sheet of white paper. The shorter the waves. This scattering of blue light is responsible for the light blue colour of smoke and the blue sky is thought to be due to the same cause. 66. The explanation is the same in both cases. Light has to travel a longer distance through the atmosphere at sunset than at other times of the day. Approaching lamps look red. The School . The motorist in a fog is also affected by this scattering effect.

The most wonderful example of dispersion in nature is undoubtedly the rainbow. The ray will bend towards the normal . just in front of the condenser. The Rainbow. In order to obtain a rough idea of the cause of the rainbow. 207). and finally will become invisible. then orange. and the screen will show the sun reddening slowly from the bottom upwards. throw a disc of light on to a white screen. let us consider what happens when a ray of light strikes a spherical drop of water (fig. or better.252 will LIGHT look yellow. 207. FIG. then red. Place in front of the lantern. Add the other liquid. a flat-sided glass vessel containing one of the liquids. if an optical lantern is available. Or.

the violet making an angle of 140 with the original direction and the red an angle of 138. If |*^has any value outside these limits. 208. the red and violet from the same drop will not reach the same observer because they are diverging . Mr. but will also be dispersed. Robinson But the red from one drop and the violet from another farther down wiH converge to a single observer. \ \ FIG. and when it comes out it will be still more dispersed. the red forms the top of "Mr. Outside this bow will be drops of water which send no light to our observer and there he will see a dark patch. will then see the primary bow forming the rim of a cone whose semi-vertical angle varies from 40 to 42. the rays coming out of the drop will form a strong beam of dispersed light. But farther out still will be drops of water giving a spectrum . It can be proved that when has any value within a few \i_ degrees of 60. then the emerging beam will be too divergent to affect any single observer. Some of the then be reflected at the back surface of the drop. \ /I -72 \ approx.DISPERSION AND COLOUR light will 253 on entering the drop. Brown's" rainbow while the violet forms the bottom of the rainbow seen by our neighbour " " who is standing some distance farther back. while other colours The observer arrive from drops situated between these two. Even when is within the limits.

Why does the photographer use a dark red glass in his developlamp ? ing 4. (d) On the same diagram repeat exercise (b) using an angle of 65 9. (b) Draw a large Draw two radii. 65. scribe experiments you would make to justify your answer. Explain fact ? How could you illustrate the 6. making an angle of 60 with the second radius produced and parallel to the horizontal radius. (C. formed by two internal 208). the other inclined to it at 60. Let a ray of light strike the upper part of the sphere. light yellow An thrown on a white denly removed ? observer gazes for 20 or 30 sec. 60. Work out the path of the ray allowing it one Find the angle between the incident and emergent rays.] circle to represent a spherical drop of water. at the sun's spectrum What will he see if the prism is sudscreen. a crayon and then 7. both (c) lights at once. what is the result ? Why ? 8. part question. an angle of 55 (c) On the same diagram repeat exercise (b) using instead of 60." sodium lines. (b) red light. QUESTIONS Can you justify the statement that coal is " bottled sunshine " ? Since a lens is partly made up of prisms.254 LIGHT reflections (fig. From the above reasoning it will be seen that the rainbow is caused by dispersion of sunlight in raindrops and that the observer must have his back to the sun. These produce the secondary bow. some in green and others in red. [ft 1-33. 1. (L. Describe and explain the effect of illuminating it with (a) green light. 2. on a white background. reflection. 10. Describe two laboratory methods of reversing the bright blue. " White the statement 5. Give an explanation of the cause of the colour of (i) a piece De(2) a piece of red glass when viewed in daylight. If a patch of yellow is made on paper with rubbed over with blue. 3.) .) of red cloth. should it disperse Give reasons for your answer and illustrate light like a prism ? by a diagram. one of them horizontal. (a] Calculate the angles of refraction when light passes from air into water at incident angles of 55. A trade poster consists of letters printed.

a 40-watt lamp gives more light than a candle. The object of the present chapter is to study some of the simpler methods of comparing sources of light.CHAPTER XXIII PHOTOMETRY OR LIGHT MEASUREMENT more experience that some sources give out much e. r ft. But let us try to get a more more precise statement than this. The areas of the spheres will be 4^ X 4tt X 2 f. FIG. 2. It is (fig. 2 2 4* X 3 4^ X 4 i . . described round the source of light and let L units of light be sent out from the i a. source every second.g. 3.. 4 . . 209). 209. Imagine spheres of radii i. Suppose there is a point source of light at IT is common light than others. the be to read by it.. difficult it will clear that the farther you are away from this light.

256 LIGHT of light falling The quantity on i sq. we have two sources of side of the grease spot. ft. units per second.nr* 3671 6471 iV an d so on. Li FIG. Next suppose that. This is called the Law of Inverse Squares. You will often meet this law in physics. Bunsen's Grease Spot Photometer. of each sphere will be L or L L 4^3* L 1 L L 47* * : 4M JL jL JL 1621 " * * L . then either the spot disappears or it will look the same from each side. and when seen from the side of weaker illumination it appears bright. light. To sum up. or We } : ( see : . Thus when the spot is viewed from the side of stronger illumination it is dark. If the intensity is the same on each side. When it Hold the paper up so that the spot is solidifies. It will be possible to arrange the distances d l and d % of the two sources so that the intensity of illumination is the Let one give out Ll same on each side (fig. The spot looks bright. seen by transmitted light. we may say that the intensity of illumination is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source. one on each units of light per second and the other L. When we treble the distance the intensity is nine times weaker. The spot is dark. Now . Drop a blob of candle grease on the centre of a piece of white drawing paper. Hold the paper so that the spot is seen by reflected light. 210. 210)._ ^. then that the intensity of the illumination falls off when we double the distance it is four times very rapidly weaker or four times more difficult to read. scrape it off.

. generally managed so that FIG. da 2 Now the Candle-power of a source is proportional to the quantity of light given out per second.PHOTOMETRY OR LIGHT MEASUREMENT . 2 ix. 257 the spot can be regarded as being a small part of a sphere radius d l and also part of a sphere radius d z From our previous reasoning the intensity on one side will be --g and on the other is 5.S. But we have just arranged matters same on eacli side so that the intensity the or 7L - 2 -3-. the spot can be seen from both sides simultaneously.P. and in practice things are. Fig. 211 represents the plan of a cardboard or wooden box fitted with K G. Therefore we may rewrite the above equation thus Candle-power of Source (i) d^ __ "~ d%* Candle-power of Source (2) The above arrangement of the grease spot is not very convenient.

It is convenient to enclose the paper carrying the grease spot in a sort of picture frame made of strips of cardboard. P is a wooden rod. The plan of the arrangement is shown in fig.258 LIGHT two mirrors and a grease spot. wide. two sources of light. Rumford did not . It is an improvement if the inside of the box has a coat of dead-black paint. The Rumford l Shadow Photometer. either circular or rectangular. During the experiment the top of the box should be covered with a lid or an exercise book. whose name you met in studying heat. The apertures may be i| in. LI and L. 4^ in. can be cut with a steel cutter from a cheap mirror obtainable at a well-known popular store. For practice the two sources may be four candles stuck on a wooden block. One of the earliest photometers. 212. 212. Candle-power of 1 Lt ** Candle-power of ZT2 describe his photometer till (Distance of L t ) (Distance of L. x 3 in. When the shadows are equally dark we have. as in the other are photometers. Such an apparatus can easily be made in the school workshop. 1813. Each penumbra shadow is illuminated by only one of the two Thus AB is illuminated by L only and CD by L t only. say a pencil. The two mirrors. stood on its end a little distance away from a white screen S. FIG. sources.) ' 1 Wollaston used a shadow photometer in 1799. and still interesting. is that generally credited to Count Rumford. and one candle similarly mounted.. This and the mirrors can be fixed in an erect position in slots formed between bits of wood nailed to the bottom of the box.

A is replaced by a lamp of twice its candle-power. from a grease spot. Two men are reading evening papers. How must B be moved to give equal illumination ? (L.PHOTOMETRY OR LIGHT MEASUREMENT QUESTIONS 259 source of light consisting of four candles mounted close together is situated 50 cm.. If a gas-light print has to be held for half a minute 12 in. verified for two sources of light. Compare the intensity of illumination in each case. tion. the other at 30 ft. one at 10 ft. A 3o-candle-power lamp ? 5. 3. 4. Show how it could be 2. State the Law of Inverse Squares. Describe the apparatus and method you would use to compare the candle-powers of two light sources.) . from a street lamp. how far should it be held from a 1. away from a 2o-candle-power lamp. Two lamps A and B are placed so as to give equal illuminations on a surface. so that there is equal illuminaFind the distance of the single candle. A single candle is fixed on the other side of the spot.

.

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY .

.

They called it " magnes. not only was he held fast to the rock by the attractive force. spear.CHAPTER XXIV MAGNETISM The ancient Greeks were Early History of Magnetism. To approach such an island was very dangerous. To-day we call this ore magnetite. stone " because it helped to lead the way. About the eleventh century the sailor's superstitious dread of became tempered by the discovery of another property it was found that a piece of this same valuable in navigation rock suspended by a thread or allowed to float on a cork in a dish of water pointed north and south. and dagger suffered a like fate 1 (fig. tales the villain is fast In more modern fairy out from the rock." The shepherds of Asia Minor found that pieces of this rock clung to their iron- many legends and superstitions grew up round Sailors said that islands were known which were made entirely of this strange material. for the nails and the ironwork in the ship this fact. i Now called Manissa. 1 near Smyrna in Asia Minor. This was the first mariner's compass. acquainted with a peculiar kind of black stone found round the town of Magnesia. held this rock made to stand straight by his hobnailed boots. but his sword.C. 263 . The steel acquired the property of pointing north and south when suspended by a thread or floated on a piece of wood. 213). The rock was now called "loadstone" or "leading . The next advance was to rub a strip of steel with the loadstone. In later times would be so strongly attracted that they would fly off and the ship would break up Sometimes a dangerous wizard would take up his dwelling near one of these rocks and when the mail-clad knight approached to attack. It has been claimed for the Chinese that they knew the attractive and directive properties of loadstone as far back as 2000 B. shod crooks.

His experiments in magnetism are described in his book. et de Magno Magnete Tellure Concerning the Magnet. magnetism. Magneticisque Corporibus." As a mineral the oxide is widely distributed. 213. It is always attracted by a magnet.264 MAGNETISM . Magnetic Bodies. From the chemical point of view loadstone is ferroso-ferric oxide Fe 3O 4 This oxide can be made in the laboratory and it It is is the oxide which scales off iron in a blacksmith's shop. The next great stride forward in our knowledge of magnetism was made by William Gilbert (1540-1603) of Colchester. and the Great Magnet the Earth. FIG. red-hot bar of steel treated in the same way also became a A . it became a magnet. but only rarely is it a magnet itself. " also called magnetic oxide of iron. and chemistry. Dr. In his spare time he studied electricity. De Magneto. Gilbert was Court physician under Queen Elizabeth and for a short time acted in the same capacity for James I. Gilbert showed that if a bar of iron was placed in the north and south direction and hammered.

Suspend a bar magnet in a stirrup of paper by means of unspun silk. When the magnet was suspended. a guess which was in later times amply justified by the experiments of Oersted in Denmark and natural or artificial. lie down or march along in life-like fashion. 1. poles attract each other. 2. Press a Gently stroke the needle with *K G.S. 3. They cling mainly at the ends the poles are at or near the ends. 265 the first to point out that. The filings can be made to stand up. . in any magnet there were two points where the attractive These he called the poles of the magnet. It will point north and south. neath with one pole in contact with the paper. Sprinkle the Hold a bar magnet underfilings on a smooth piece of paper. Bring up another It can be shown that like poles repel and opposite bar magnet. steel knitting-needle on them.MAGNETISM magnet. Stick two small bits of plasticine to the bench. force was strongest. Simple Experiments with Magnets." If two of these magnets were suspended. one of these poles pointed " " " or north to the north and was called the north-seeking pole " " " or while the other was called the south-seeking pole pole " it was south pole.*. found that Like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other. He was Faraday in England. He conjectured that magnetism and electricity were intimately related. 214. Sprinkle iron filings on a bar magnet. ^Gilbert further pointed out that the observed facts relating to magnetic needles could be explained by supposing that the earth was itself a magnet having two poles close to the north and south geographical poles. N SingleTouch FIG.

Break the needle into quarters and test again. This the method of Double Touch. 215. Break off about an inch and test this small bit. 215. In all cases the piece is a complete magnet having north and south poles (fig. Note 214). S have pole a consequent or intermediate then cling at three places. 217). that repulsion is a surer test of magnetization is than attraction. The filings will 216). N SN SN FIG. Test each piece with a like poles together you will get (fig. in contact. 216. You Stroke the needle with two magnets as shown in fig. should find that the needle becomes more strongly magis netized. same direction south end of a Repeat several times in the Apply the end last stroked to the compass needle. Why? This method of magnetizing known as Single Touch. . the north end of a bar magnet. You should find that you now have two magnets. 217.266 MAGNETISM (fig. It should be repelled. break the correctly magnetized By needle into halves approximately. Note that the If strokirfg magnets have opposite poles the stroking magnets S N FIG. Double Touch FIG. means of pliers and a vice. SNSNS compass needle and iron filings.

According to Ampere in France. When cold test it with filings and compass needle. the tube with a cork cut as short as possible. Shake the tube and test again. Test for magnetization. The stroke of a bar . and since FIG. Each nail became magnetized by induction. collapses. for the time being:. each nail becomes itself a magnet. Weber in Germany. the above experiments have a Partly Magnetised N ~s JUT ZT JIT* JUT ZZ *""* very simple explanaIn a piece of untion. nail from the magnet and the whole system 5. Un magnetised Molecular Magnets. the filings to a great extent stand end to end they also be- come magnets. 218. In other words. The bottom nail Remove the top readily picks up iron filings. a south pole being induced at one end and a north at ithe other. Lay the tube on the bench and magnetize by Double Touch. Fill a test-tube with steel filings. but the molecules are IT Fully Magnetised FIG. and Ewing in England. rolling the tube gently through a small angle between each few strokes. magnetized iron each molecule is a magnet. so that all filings near the surface shall be affected. 219). 218. 219.MAGNETISM 267 Take one of the quarter lengths and make it red hot in the bunsen flame. Close 4. generally so thoroughly mixed up with their axes in all directions that they neutralize one another (fig. nails as Use a bar magnet and a few small wire shown in fig.

This fact is well explained by the above theory. Hammering a bar of iron or steel lying north and south shakes up the molecules. nothing further can be done. and they all stay put " . opposite poles together (fig. but the latter retains more magnetism when the magnetizing force is removed. When a keeper is used. but they mix up as soon as they get the chance./' and so on. The tendency is therefore for the molecular magnets to swing round and the bar loses its magnetism. " Against each pair of ends is a soft iron keeper. wood between and . They are also slightly attracted by the opposite poles at the other end of the magnet. There is mutual attraction and the poles of the tiny molecular magnets are no longer free. The molecules in steel are a more disciplined crowd but a little hard of hearing " one shout. Bar magnets should always be packed away in pairs. The soft iron molecules quite readily obey the command. the free poles induce opposite poles in the keeper. NS. NS.. Experiment shows that there is a limit beyond which a piece of iron or steel cannot be magnetized. and being all like they repel one another. At each end the poles of the tiny molecular magnets are free. Between soft iron and steel there is here a very important difference. and the earth's magnetism then lines them up." the use of which may easily be understood. N N FIG. 220)." and the little molecules near the surface number off NS. 220. provided it is loud enough. A long bar magnet retains its magnetism better than a short one.. The former is more easily magnetized. The Care why magnets piece of The above considerations give the reason should not be dropped or thrown about.268 MAGNETISM " magnet acts like the order from the right in twos " number. with a of Magnets. for obviously when all the molecular magnets are in alignment. even when the influence is removed. Heating a magnetized needle causes the molecules to move faster and they get mixed up again.

precautions are not so necessary with the modern cobalt steel keeper. poles . Produce The all four lines into the rectangular trace of the magnet. The magnetic axis is the straight To find the Poles s< FIG. Place a bar magnet on a sheet of paper and make a pencilmark round it. using a magnet. 221. a magnet are the points in the magnet where the The poles of attractive force is strongest. you should remember that its condition But these is unnatural and very unstable without a keeper.MAGNETISM 269 A horseshoe magnet retains its magnetism better than a bar magnet because the poles of the molecular magnets being attracted by their neighbours across the way are not so free and the tendency to swing round is less. The poles and magnetic axis can be found with the aid of a "plotting compass" which consists of a very short compass needle pivoted in a round box generally having glass faces. several thin horseshoe magnets are screwed together. Join the points by a straight line. and Axis of a Bar Magnet. it may or may not coincide with the line joining the two poles geometrical axis. Place the plotting compass near one end of the . These powerful horseshoe magnets may be seen in the magneto of a car or motor-cycle. Repeat on the other side of the geometrical axis and do the same at the other end of the magnet. To make a really powerful horseshoe magnet. When magnets. The addition of a still further diminishes this tendency. Put pencilmarks opposite the two ends of the needle. magnet and close to the geometrical axis (fig. The north end of the needle is usually coloured blue. and magnetic axis are then found. 221). across the ends. This is because during magnetization it is the molecules near the surface which are most affected.

222). but we can illustrate the idea fairly well as follows. north pole of the magnet. At every point near a magnet. each field at a certain tangent being the direction of the magnetic A field with a plotting compass. Mark a dot on the paper at each end of the needle. trough In the place a strong bar magnet. Elevation be only of such a depth that the bot- tom end of the needle may clear the magnet. . A magnetic field may be defined as the region round a magnet where its influence may be detected. Experiment. Draw a pencil-line Place the plotting compass near the fix the paper to the bench. Move the compass so that the near point is over point. and if this north pole were isolated and free to move it would trace out a definite line.270 MAGNETISM Magnetic Fields and Lines of Force. line of force is made up of a number of tangents." It is of course impossible to obtain an isolated north pole. The water should f^3~~~~E FIG. To map a magnetic Place a bar magnet on a sheet of drawing paper with its north round the magnet and pole pointing north. the needle through a small cork and float on water in a trough. Experiment. Maga sewing needle by means of a bar magnet or by netize Plan pulling it across one pole of a strong elecStick tromagnet. 222. Such lines were called by Faraday "lines of force. that is a north pole without a south pole. the north pole of another magnet is acted upon by a force. This bot- tom end will be practically an isolated pole and it can be made to describe lines of force round the magnet (fig.

JL FIG. Repeat this process until the line traced out either returns to the magnet or goes off the paper. The iron filings act like a large number of plotting compasses and the field is instantly mapped out. 271 Make a third dot opposite the far pole. In the regions indicated by the earth's magnetic field a just neutralizes the field due to the bar magnet. North pole pointing east. Place a bar magnet between two similar exercise books. 223. move the slightly varied compass so that its centre point is over the far dot. 223. sift a small quantity of iron filings over the blotting-paper. Repeat the process until the whole field is mapped out as shown in fig. it is : in- teresting to map the fields in the following cases South pole pointing north . . 224. In this way the neutral points X . North pole pointing nor th FIG. To map a magnetic field with iron filings. By means of a paper tray perforated with the points of a pair of dividers. are If more easily located. Here the plotting is rather more diffiThe method should be cult. Over the top lay a piece of white blotting paper (fig.MAGNETISM the far dot. Experiment. Touch the paper with one finger on the middle of the magnet to prevent violent movement. then tap gently with a pencil. 224). you have time. Now start again at a different point near the north pole of the magnet and trace out another line of force. Each line of force indicates the path which would be traced out by a single isolated north pole.

If these same poles are placed 2 cm. the paper is carefully waxed paper. . The angle Terrestrial between the geographical meridian and the magnetic meridian obtained with a compass needle is called the declination or The declination not only varies from place to place. points In addition to the above case of a single bar magnet. More generally we may air. the direction of the shortest shadow. i. the measure- . The earth's field is not powerful enough to make iron filings point north and between a south. The statement that a compass needle to the north is only roughly true. one another with a force of i dyne when placed I cm. where m and m. but at most places on the earth it will also dip.272 This method is MAGNETISM filing quick. force = is * 8 dynes.e. A Two . are the pole strengths and d cm. and S. to 24 W. it will point towards the magnetic north. In this be obtained. but since there is naturally more friction and the paper than exists in the bearings of a plotting compass. In England it will dip through about 67. or geographical meridian. you may use the filings method to map the following fields. When held over a source of heat. at 12 noon by sun time. gives the geographical N. apart the force is J dyne and so on. squares. the method is not very sensitive. If the distance apart in the poles are unlike then the force will be attractive. apart in they are called unit poles. if placed 3 cm. While this is a good way of showing the fact of dip. variation. Magnetism. If a pen is fixed verpoints tically on a horizontal sheet of paper in a good light. say. way a permanent record of a magnetic field can If two like poles of equal strength repel Unit Magnetic Pole. in the course of centuries. therefore to investigate the earth's field or to find neutral " the plotting compass must be used. The the filings are sometimes sifted on to field is mapped. The force thus obeys the law of inverse air. but at the same place it gradually changes from about 24 E. " horseshoe magnet bar magnets about an inch apart with like poles opposite Ditto with unlike poles opposite. apart in air the force is J dyne. If a knitting-needle is suspended at its centre of gravity and then magnetized.

-seeking pole in the Antarctic (fig. plane. Declination and Dip might be explained by supposing that is a huge magnet buried in the earth with its S. 226. when the angle of dip can be read off.MAGNETISM ment circle 273 is best made with a dip The instrument is rotated on its base until the needle takes up a vertical position. FIG. position Therefore rotating the instrument 90 from this it accurately into the magnetic meridian. J3ut although this gives a very conthere venient mental picture.-seeking end somewhere in the Arctic Circle and its N. 225). When this is so. W. must put NGP SGP FIG. and of the angle of dip or inclination (fig. 225. 226). No thoroughly satisfactory theory to account for the earth's magnetism has yet been found. it must not be regarded as the real explanation. the horizontal component of the earth's slanting magnetic force is having no effect and the needle must be swinging in the E. .

Non-electrics. it acquired the power of picking up bits of thread or other light objects. William Gilbert. Robert Boyle (1627-1691). The first book ever written on the subject was by Boyle* It was published at Oxford in 1676 and called On the Mechanical Origin or Production of Electricity. t No substances he gave the name electrics from a Greek word meaning amber. In 1729 Stephen Gray (1696-1736). discovered that glass. Thales discovered that when amber was rubbed. To these centuries." More than a hundred years elapsed before Gilbert's mistake was corrected and even then it was only done by slow and sometimes accidental steps. if a glass tube fitted with a cork at each end was rubbed. whose acquaintance we have already made. and any or given a charge other substances which Hb could not electrify. It is to the Hon." He called metals. he made one important mistake he came to the conclusion that metals could not be endowed with this power of attracting light " " electrified bodies. further advance in the subject was made for twenty-two Then Dr. and. by the name " . that we owe the word electricity as a name for the peculiar power possessed by such rubbed bodies. the corks as 274 .C. a Fellow of the Royal Society. Although Gilbert made a decided advance in the subject. All these early experiments can be repeated at home. sulphur. sealing-wax. or in other words. was surprised to find that. and resin would also when rubbe d attract light bodies. it is interesting to apply a rubbed fountain-pen to a ping-pong ball standing on a polished table.CHAPTER XXV ELECTROSTATICS THE earliest recorded experiments in electricity were carried out by the Greek philosopher Thales (Thay'leez) of Miletus about 600 B. in addition. that a metal could not be " of electricity.

The experimenters came to the conclusion that the electricity leaked away through the supports when these were of metal or pack-thread but not when they were made of silk. the ivory ball picked up feathers tricity had therefore travelled from glass to cork to wood to I ivory ball. suggested silk loops. Gray's discovery of conduction was the first step in the correction of Gilbert's mistake. ii i> l ii iiiiiii . 227. On replacing the silk loops by loops of pack-thread. Dr. namely a length of pack-thread (fig. This was carried out at Wheeler's house and the experiment was a success with the pack-thread extending horizontally to a distance of 886 ft. insula an island). A friend.. The still experiment was again successful. Electricity again travelled to the ball. 227). electricity had therefore travelled to the corks.~ conductor or insulator (Lat. His next effort was to make electricity travel horizontally. He suspended a long piece of pack-thread by loops of metal wire. but now electricity did not travel to the ivory ball.ELECTROSTATICS 275 well as the glass attracted light bodies . Gray had thus distinguished between conductors and non-conductors a pack-thread and metals were conductors. He then fastened a fir rod into one of the corks and fixed an ivory ball to the free end of the rod. Between the ball and the wood he next interposed another body. The next step was carried out by . while silk was . FIG.-non'*-. the ivory ball 1 again failed to attract feathers. On The elecrubbing the glass. The pack-thread was then lengthened and hung from the balcony of his house. Granville Wheeler.

the pith balls. the charge leaked away from them as rapidly as it was formed. They began to think of it as a fluid. it is quite easy to electrify the brass and pick up bits of paper or feathers. it could be In other electrified quite easily. 228. Following Gray's discovery of conduction. . This was the so-called two-fluid theory. piece of thread tied at the middle to an insulating support.276 ELECTRICITY Jean Thfophile Desaguliers (1683-1744). holding the glass end. tricity His experiments seemed to indicate that there were two kinds of electricity which he called "vitreous" and" resinous. for. With this you can easily illustrate will You Desaguliers's discovery. He found that if a metal was mounted on an insulator. but after contact with the rod they are repelled. while bodies carrying unlike charges would be attracted to one another. The next great discovery in elecwas due to a Frenchman. Now rub a rod of ebonite with dry warm flannel or catskin. 228)." the former being produced on glass (vitrum) by rubbing with FIG. Two bodies charged with the same kind of electricity would repel one another. probably find in your laboratory a rod made partly of brass and partly of glass. Experiment. They also repel each other. They are attracted. silk. sealing- wax or amber by rubbing with flannel. philosophers quickly got the idea that electricity was something which would flow. conductors insulators. then hold the rod near (fig. Charles Francois du Fay (1699-1739). Tie the thread connecting the two pith balls to a rod of glass or ebonite fixed in a wooden burette stand Rub a glass rod with silk. the latter on resin. These ideas of du Fay can be illustrated by the pith-ball on a It consists essentially of two balls of elder pith electroscope. 11 " non-electrics " " electrics = words. Desaguliers showed that Gilbert's "non-electrics" were the best conductors.

Hemispherical holes were cut in the wood to take the pith balls when the arrangement was folded up and carried in the pocket. thick was sawn in two and then joined by a hinge of linen (fig. FIG. . Robert Symmer. F. but after contact they are repelled by the ebonite and attracted by the rubbed glass rod. When in use the electroscope was placed on a drinking glass near the corner of a table. Thus a glass rod half smooth and half rough developed both kinds of electricity when excited by the same rubber. : Just before this time another English scientist. it gained a certain amount of the one fluid and lost an equal quantity of the other. When it was electrified. A piece of wood 12 in. of thread and fastened at the middle to the end of one of the pieces of wood. (1715-87). The two-fluid theory of du Fay was elaborated by an Englishman. Among other discoveries made by John Canton was the fact that the kind of electricity generated on a body by friction depends not on the material but on the surface of the material. about 1759.R. To make the instrument more effective. I in. His mental picture of elecA body in its natural state contained trification was as follows the two fluids. Henry Cavendish recommended that the thread should be dipped once in salt water. The first pith-ball electroscope was made by an Englishman. wide and i in. 229). long.ELECTROSTATICS 277 Bring the rod near the pith balk.S. Sir William Watson. then no matter how dry the weather. They are attracted. Two pith balls were connected by 12 in. John Canton (1715-72). the thread would still be a good conductor. had propounded a one-fluid theory. 229.

but when an electron leaves it. Franklin's idea was that a rod of glass and a piece of silk both possessed a certain amount of the electric fluid. The fact that the rubber actually is charged can easily be proved with This is why we But if an electroscope. while the silk having less than the normal amount of fluid was said to be Thus according to Franklin negatively electrified. we must touch In other words. To make sure that the rod is properly charged. But electrons do not travel freely on an insulator. so it is not much use touching just one spot of the ebonite. When they were rubbed together. the flannel really parts with electrons. some of the fluid passed from the silk to the glass. while a negatively charged body has received an extra number from some outside source. ductor these planetary electrons are able to leave their own solar systems and travel freely to distant parts of the body. The glass became positively electrified. An atom in its normal condition is electrically neutral. According to this view. Although it may be a little out of place from the historical point of view. an American scientist and statesman of Philadelphia. it should now have atomic residues each carrying a positive charge. a positively charged body is deficient in electrons. the residue being short of negative electricity becomes positively charged. but in a perfect insulator they cannot do so. contact the surface atoms of the rod and those of the rubber. it is better perhaps to give here a brief account of the modern view of electrification arising out of the experimental work of Sir J. rub the rod. vitreous electricity =* positive electricity resinous electricity negative electricity. Thomson and others. we must try to bring into all points on it. J. Why does an ebonite rod become negatively charged when rubbed with flannel ? Because the flannel gives extra electrons to the ebonite. Any single atom may be pictured as a tiny In a consolar system in which these electrons act as planets.278 ELECTRICITY This one-fluid theory was amplified by Benjamin Franklin (1706-90). . It will now be seen that Franklin got very near to the modern He thought that only one thing moved about and that idea. These experiments seem to indicate that there are in all bodies a vast number of minute particles called electrons each carrying a negative charge.

but we say the movable something is that which resides on ebonite. This discovery was at least as important as his experiments on conduction. he held an electrified glass tube near the boy's feet. We will now apply the modern theory to a phenomenon first discovered by Stephen Gray. This phenomenon which is the long conductor AB represents the boy. the feet would pick up light 1 bodies. But there is also another curious fact . We agree with this. Having suspended a boy horizontally by silken cords. He pictured a moving fluid producing a positive charge. We picture moving particles producing a negative charge. The end B would therefore attract light bodies. attracts those in AB and some of these accumulate at A. He found that the H f^ A mm B ^ G FIG. we . There is at B therea pbsitive charge. The positively charged glass tube G. being deficient in electrons. At B there are fore is perfectly general with conductors called electrostatic induction. On the electron theory it is explained as follows : In fig. then the glass rod. 230. 230 atomic residues which have lost electrons. Likewise when the boy's nose would then pick up feathers tube was held near the boy's head. if we touch AB with the finger and then remove first the finger.ELECTROSTATICS 279 a state of electrification was due to an excess or deficit of this something. To him the movable something was that which collected on a rubbed glass rod.

S. 232. but being lighter the arrangement would be more sensitive. Here the work is done in separating the two charged knobs. for we have to overcome the mutual attraction between them.280 ELECTRICITY This is because electrons find that AB is charged negatively. Fix two door knobs or bedstead knobs on sticks of ebonite or sealing-wax. FIG. Fit a pair of wooden feet and place the knobs in contact (fig. 231. A distinct advance on the pith-ball electroscope was made by a clergyman of Wirksworth in The Rev. FIG.R. and at first sight it might appear that we have here some miraculous way of creating But you will always find that when an electric charge electricity. On testing with an electroscope. Hold a rubbed ebonite rod near one of the knobs. Abraham Bennet. to neutralize the positive charges on the atomic residues at B. in other words. then remove the charged rod. We have charged the conductor An interesting variation of this can be carried out by using a conductor divisible at the centre. Derbyshire. while knob (2) is negatively charged. conceived the idea of using slips of gold leaf instead of the pith balls. work has been done in producing it. have travelled from the earth through the finger to make up the deficiency at B. 231). is produced. Experiment. 232 consists of a wooden box having the front and back replaced by two J-plate glasses to serve as windows. The Gold-Leaf Electroscope. by induction. A modern form of the gold-leaf electroscope can easily be made. a farthing soldered to a stiff brass wire passing through leaf. Separate the knobs. of aluminium stick the brass wire through . it will be found that knob (i) is positively charged. two F. (1750-99). These slips when electrified would repel one another just like the pith balls. The same charged rod could be used with several other pairs of knobs if desired. The apparatus in fig. a sulphur stopper and two slips To make the sulphur stopper.

ELECTROSTATICS 281 an ordinary cork. then wrap a piece of drawing paper round the cork so as to make a cylindrical extension. being positively charged. repel one another (fig. To Charge the Electroscope Negatively. Electrons pass from the earth to neutralize the positive charge on the leaves. and the instrument is negatively charged (fig. the paper can be removed and the ordinary cork cut away. A The of electrons are repelled into the leaves. The electroscope can also be charged by induction. What charged body approaches? What positive charge approaches? will happen if will the leaves a negatively do when a To Charge the Electroscope Positively. 2330). Hold a rubbed ebonite rod near the disc. Into this pour sulphur just above the melting-point. A certain number which therefore becomes negatively charged. The leaves are now short of electrons and therefore. A small charge given to the disc from a rubbed glass rod or ebonite rod causes the leaves to diverge on account of mutual repulsion. The leaves therefore collapse (fig. 233 A). certain leaves number become . Touch the disc with the finger. Hold a rubbed glass rod near the of electrons are attracted to the disc disc. It can be used to test the sign of the charge on any approaching body. 2336). 2330). Remove the glass rod electrons spread from the disc to the leaves which now diverge. Remove the finger the leaves remain collapsed (fig. When the sulphur has cooled.

long. would become negatively charged. then broke off the glass. and later Francis Hawksbee. Further improvements glass A . " " to Professor Bose of Wittenberg. We have already learnt that Stephen Electrostatic Machines. while the positive charge on the hands would be neutralized by electrons from the earth. still better results.282 ELECTRICITY negatively charged and repel one another. sphere gave. 235). while the disc being short of electrons becomes positively charged (fig. Remove the ebonite rod electrons from the leaves partly neutralize the positive charge on the disc. The sulphur sphere was mounted on an axle and revolved while an In this way the sulphur assistant pressed dry hands against it. Remove the finger the leaves remain collapsed (fig. just over an inch in diameter. found that a It is rather strange that German scientist. able to get away still farther. His tube was 3^ ft. although Otto von Guericke (1602-86) anything had already. In this way. discovered a much better method of generating electricity. The leaves therefore collapse (fig. 234. 234A). Sir Isaac Newton. disc and leaves are left with a positive charge (fig. B FIG. 2340). Guericke allowed molten sulphur to cool in a glass globe. fitted a prime conductor This was a long tin tube suscollect and store the charge. touch the disc with the The electrons which were repelled to the leaves are now finger. and closed with corks to keep out the dust. Gray never seems to have used more elaborate. 2346). pended by silk threads and making contact with the globe by means of a hanging chain (fig. before Gray was born. Gray made some very valuable discoveries using a simple glass tube for generating electric charges. namely to earth. 2340). Keeping the ebonite rod in position.

and got his pupil Cunaeus to hold the bottle so that the nail dipped into the water (fig. was a member of a Dutch family of physicists and instrument makers. He received a violent .ELECTROSTATICS 283 were the use of a leather rubber and the substitution of a glass cylinder for the globe. (1692-1791). a most important covery was accidentally made by two men independently in the years 1745 and 1746. Petrus van Musschenbroek living in Pomerania. Cunaeus tried to take the nail out of the water. Musschenbroek. After the machine had been worked for some time. hung a nail to the prime conductor of an electric machine. 235). 233. FIG. the water would be able to collect and hold a considerable quantity of electricity. disUsing one of these friction machines. One was a monk called von Kleist The other. had noticed that bodies soon lost their electricity in damp air. then professor of physics at Leyden. He accordingly put some water in a glass bottle. He thought that if he surrounded some water with an insulator.

It must suffice . 236. water stored or He further showed that both inside and the hand outside. The friction machine described above became obsolete in the latter half of the nineteenth century. and to-day we use instead FIG. The Wimshurst Machine.294 ELECTRICITY . a machine invented by James Wimshurst about 1878. This is the modern form of the instrument. It is one of these that you will probably meet in your physics laboratory (fig. these conductors could be replaced by layers of tinfoil stuck inside and outside the glass. " " condensed by means of the two conductors. This discovery made a great stir amongst the scientists of the time and the Leyden jar soon became a very popular scientific Sir William Watson suggested that the electricity was toy. or shock in the arms and chest " " and thus was the " Lcyden " phial Leyden jar discovered. The is full a little explanation of the working of a Wimshurst machine beyond the scope of the present book. 236).

One knob is held against the outer coating of the jar and the other is brought near the knob of the jar (fig. FIG. A boy may be placed on a stool with glass legs and instructed to hold one of the discharging knobs of the Wimshurst. It has the advantage over the friction machine that its success is not so dependent on the weather. the two opposite charges neutralizing one another. A small jar may safely be discharged through a row of boys holding hands. sist of two brass rods terminating in knobs and joined by a hinge to one or two glass handles. A plump spark passes. With this instrument it is possible to repeat all the experiments carried out by the old philosophers and with more certainty of success. 237. It is a little less comfortable if the hands are perspiring. The inner coating becdmes charged and this charge induces an equal and opposite charge on the outer coating. Thus we may charge a Leyden jar by putting its knob in contact with one of the discharging knobs of the Wimshurst and giving the handle a few turns. one end touching the outer coating and the other end touching the knob. After removing the discharging knob by its ebonite handle discharge the condenser by means of a pair of tongs These discharging tongs conspecially made for the purpose. After we may . as the charge will more readily pass to earth through that person.ELECTROSTATICS 285 here to point out that it depends not upon friction but upon induction. 237).

Without some preliminary warming. Distribution of Charge. If a drop of liquid is allowed to form on the knob. later. if dry. When he presents his knuckle to a boy on the ground. both receive a shock. It will probably be noticed that in each case the liquid in the spoon piles up in a heap. as if a powerful draught The reason for this you will understand is acting downwards.286 ELECTRICITY a few turns of the handle his hair. the spoon will be quite methylated spirit is easily ignited in the warm spoon. Solder a farthing to the nib of a pen and replace the wooden holder by a rod of glass. He will be able to light the gas with his knuckle. stands up. Such conductors can be made by sticking tinfoil on wood with seccotine. Experiment. Copper wire is wound round a clean metal spoon and the other end twisted round a clean gas jet or joined to any " other good earth. at shown A . When the ether has burnt away. It is quite easy to ignite ether by sparks from one of the knobs. 238)." Ether is poured into the spoon and the knob is brought to within half an inch of the liquid (fig. the spoon may be warmed by burning some of the spirit in it in the ordinary way. not easily available. Obtain two insulated conductors of the shapes and B (fig. 239). a depression will appear on the liquid in the spoon. the ignition of methylated spirit is rather uncertain. and then warm and If ether is a fresh supply of spirit is easily ignited by the sparks. Try to explain this by induction.

Charge the sphere by contact with one of the knobs of the Wimshurst Having broken contact. Touch the proof-plane against some other part of the spheres and repeat. Discharge electroscope and proofby touching them with the finger. Stick the eye end of a needle into the plasticine. Note the o B FIG. The distribution of charge on a sphere is uniform. FIG. 240. so that the needle makes metallic contact with the knob and projects horizontally (fig. The greatest divergence will be found after the proof-plane has touched the pointed end.ELECTROSTATICS 287 This will serve as a proof-plane (fig. plafie divergence of the leaves. Electricity collects on edges and Joints. The divergence should be the same no matter which part of the sphere is touched. Repeat the experiment with the conductor B. 241). Work . then against the disc of the gold-leaf electroscope. Experiment. touch the proof-plane against any part of the sphere. 239. 241. 240). Squeeze a lump of plasticine on to one of the discharging knobs of the Wimshurst. FIG.

Atmospheric Electricity. Experiment. A point connected to earth is then held towards A his skin. 242. the accompanying smell. Here we have a good illustration of Newton's Third Law of Motion. collecting at the point. charges the gas molecules and then repels them. there is no visible spark. spins backwards. Stick a needle on one of the knobs so that its point is about half an inch from the other knob (fig. The point effect is well illustrated in the electric whirl (fig.288 ELECTRICITY the machine and hold one hand a few inches away from the needle point. On working the machine. This draught is used by doctors " " in the so-called static breeze treatment for neuritis. was his work on atmospheric electricity. Hold a lighted candle in the same position. the crooked or forked nature. however. 242). the colour. The name of Franklin has already been mentioned in connection with the one fluid theory. The electricity is discharging peacefully. The only difference was in the magnitude. This is because electricity. decided draught is produced. Franklin noticed that electric sparks and lightning were similar in many ways the noise. for while sparks were . for while the gas molecules are repelled by the points. and the destructive power. Franklin's most interesting contribution to our subject. 243). The patient is placed on an insulating stand connected to the positive knob of a Wimshurst machine. the latter recoil and the whirl FIG.

He conceived the idea that if a pointed conductor connected to earth could be sent up under a thunder " draw the clpud. But no very great charge can accumulate at the point because as fast as it forms. When a thunder cloud appeared over the kite and the string got pI0 244 wet. If. At it discharges and neutralizes the charge on the cloud. two light cross-pieces of cedar wood and a silk handkerchief. He had already shown that electricity passed off readily and peacefully from points. By means of the key attached to his kite. .P. The pointed wire projected about a foot from the vertical cross-piece. At the junction of the string and silk was a key. the pointed end negatively and the bottom end positively. . 244). and sparks could be obtained by presenting a knuckle to the key.S.ELECTROSTATICS measured in inches a long. the point would electric fire/' His pointed conductor was a sharp-pointed wire fastened to a The kite was made (fig. The person operating the kite stood inside a doorway holding the silk. To the kite was attached the usual long piece of twine with a piece of silk ribbon attached to the bottom end. the lower end a similar peaceful discharge takes place due to electrons coming in from the earth. silk kite of being chosen instead of paper so that the kite would be better able to withstand the wind and rain. its separate strands were seen to stand out. a positively charged cloud appears over the conductor. the latter becomes charged by induction. L G. Franklin's kite experiment led to the use of lightning conductors for the protection of buildings. The modern explanation is this. say. Franklin was able . 289 flash of lightning would be a few miles simple experiment carried out in 1752 confirmed his idea that an electric spark was a flash of lightning on a small A scale.

as well as making many other scientific discoveries. This fact was also proved later by Michael Faraday (1791-1867) in his famous ice-pail experiment described later on. the force in a very definite way. This versatile philosopher amused himself by discovering hydrogen. Charles Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806). " and it has been said that he probably uttered fewer words in the course of his life than any other man who ever lived tc Communication with his housekeeper was mainfour score. so we may state the law thus the intensity of light. and magnetic force all vary inversely as the square of the distance. The word potential ! ' ' ' ' . He first showed by mathematics that if the inverse square law was true for electric charges. ignite spirit and carry out all the experiments usually associated with electric machines. The other quantitative investigator was Henry Cavendish (1731-1810). He then proceeded to show by experiment that there was no charge on the inside of a hollow conductor. Although Cavendish had such varied scientific interests and was extremely wealthy. proving the composition of water and weighing the earth. a Frenchman who took part in the making of the metric system. the law of inverse squares which we met in light and sound. Potential.290 ELECTRICITY to charge Leyden jars. the force was nine times weaker. His work in electricity is very striking as showing the intimate connection between mathematics and physics. sound. He thus con" " electric fire of the atmosphere was firmed his idea that the exactly the same as laboratory electricity but on a much larger scale." tained by notes left on the hall table The word potential was first used by Cavendish. then the charge on any hollow conductor must be entirely on the outside. electric force. Until the late eighteenth century our philosophers had mainly dealt with the Now we find two men getting qualitative aspect of electricity. if the distance was trebled. showed that the force of attraction or repulsion between two electric charges depended on the distance apart If the distance was doubled. and so on. was four times weaker. But this surely is our old acquaintance. Let us try to get some idea of its meaning. he seems to have been very unsociable. Coulomb showed that it also applied to magnetic attraction and repulsion. The Beginnings of Quantitative Work. busy on the quantitative side.

we talk of heating a body to a certain temperature. If heat passes we say that is at a higher temperto a point from a point to ature than B. The large kettle has the greater thermal capacity. 245). say. When each has received the same number of visits from the proof-plane. Suppose that a bar of iron is heated at one end with a bunsen burner . 245.ELECTROSTATICS " 291 In electricity roughly corresponds to the word temperature in heat. Again. Let charges be carried to each from the knob of a Wimshurst by means of a proofplane. Likewise if electricity passes from a point is higher we say that it is because the potential at a point than the potential at B. The large sphere has the greater electrical capacity. what can we say about the quantities of heat absorbed ? Which will be at a higher temperature ? What will be the result of emptying the small kettle into the large one ? Next suppose that we have two insulated spherical conductors. Let both be wanned FIG. heat will pass from one end to the other. After. how will their charges compare ? Which will be at a higher potential ? What wUl be the result of joining them by a copper wire ? . with equally slow burners. There is a potential difference between " A B A A B A A'and B. one minute. 246). Suppose we have two kettles of water on a gas stove and that one is much larger than the other (fig. So also we speak of charging a conductor to a certain potential. The small kettle had the higher temperature and the small sphere the higher potential. . one much larger than the other (fig.

Ultimately FIG. Likewise electricity passed from the small sphere because it had the higher potential. 247. decide the transfer of heat and electricity. 247). the kettles will be at the same temperature and the spheres at the same potential. a large cylinder connected by a tap (fig. Let both cylinders be charged with water in tablespoonfuls while the tap remains closed! When each cylinder has received the same number of tablespoonfuls. . 246. they correspond to two insulated conductors of different capacity charged to different potentials. Thus temperature and potential. not quantity. " The idea of potential is also somewhat like that of water " in hydrostatics.292 ELECTRICITY The result of mixing in the case of the kettles was that heat passed from the small kettle to the large because the former had the higher temperature. Suppose we have a small cylinder and level FIG.

Connect a proof-plane with the disc of a gold-leaf electroscope by means of very thin cop- per wire. and this causes a sudden flow of electricity when the coatings are connected by any conductor. mica. analogy with flowing water. Between these two coatings there is a difference of potential. What is the essential difference between a large jar and a small jar ? The case is similar to that of the two heated kettles the large one has the greater capacity. The substance between the coatings is called the dielectric. Compare and contrast this with a former experiment where we tested the same conductor for density of charge. we may have more than two coatings or plates and the dielectric may be air. Condensers. the large jar contains more electricity than the small one. water flows from the high level to the low From level because there is a difference of water pressure. Experiment.c. Again. say 36 d. the greater the capacity becomes. a potential difference is often described as a difference of electrical pressure. Touch the blunt end of the conductor with the proof-plane The leaves diverge. The thinner the dielectric. 248. Charge the pear-shaped conductor by touching it for a moment with the knob of a Wimshurst. Move . the greater the capacity. To show that all parts of a charged conductor are at the same potential. the proof-plane along the surface to the sharp end of the conductor. We saw on a former page that a Leyden jar was " " an instrument which stored or condensed electric charges on its two coatings. or paper soaked in paraffin wax. The greater the area of the coatings. The capacity also depends on the material between the coatings and the thickness of this material. may be dozens of plates. when there is the same potential difference between the coatings. mains the same. 248). The capacity is directly proportional . The divergence reFIG.ELECTROSTATICS On opening the tap. In wireless tuning condensers the dielectric is air and there (fig. to the number of plates. In other words.c.

sure that the rod is not already charged. plate glass. Then (a) Hold the rod and cap near a charged gold-leaf electroscope. (c) Hold the rod near These three tests should prove the proposition. 250). a condenser the capacity waxed paper. (6) Take off the cap the electroscope. Charge electroscope. FIG. .294 ELECTRICITY The fixed condensers of a wireless set generally have mica as the dielectric. The conventional diagram for such a condenser is shown in fig. Obtain an ebonite rod and a flannel cap which fits tightly on one end and has a silk thread attached (fig. turpentine. positively. Place a deep calorimeter or other metal can on the disc of an Suspend a brass ball by a long silk thread. To show that positive and negative electricity are produced simultaneously and in equal quantities by friction. say. When we change the dielectric of air. mica. 249. 250. Faraday's Ice-pail Experiment. Fit the cap and twist it round a few times. and hold it near the electroscope. 249. the lines representing the plates and the layers of dielectric being left blank. Experiment. the ball. In the base of a sparking coil you will find that there are numerous sheets of tinfoil. Hold the ball well inside the can. and sheets of waxed paper serve as the dielectric. To make increases in the following order FIG. pass it quickly through a bunsen flame.

252 A). Induced negative charge = Induced positive charge. The leaves diverge with positive elec- Note the divergence.ELECTROSTATICS 295 There is now an induced negative charge on the inside of the can and an induced positive charge shared between the outside and the electroscope. But why is it that the ball after touching the can and neutralizing the induced negative charge did not bring away some of the positive charge ? This can only be explained by assuming that the positive charge was entirely on the outside (fig. The leaves remain diverged (fig. 2510) then the ball. Remove the finger (fig. Again hold the charged ball well inside the can. 2523). tricity 2513). Therefore Inducing charge = Induced charge. As before. (fig. The same result would be obtained if you touched the inside . Earth the electroscope with a finger. 25IA). The leaves diverge to the same extent as before. the leaves diverge (fig. The it by holding ball can be shown to be completely discharged near another electroscope. Touch the can with the ball. 2510). but now with negative This shows that electricity (fig. 2520). The leaves collapse and the only charge on the can is the induced negative charge (fig.

touched with the finger and then removed by the insulating handle. There is no charge on the inside of a hollow conductor unless there is a charged body inside. because we are tempted to think that the cake is giving an endless supply of A little thought. If the disc is now placed on the cake. " is nothing like the widow's cruse of oil. Although so simple in construction. it has a perfect right to be called an induction or influence machine. When the surface of the cake is rubbed with flannel it becomes negatively charged. The electrophorus was invented by the It consists essentially of a Italian physicist Volta in 1775. On a dry day a bunsen may be lighted with a spark from the disc. Leyden jar can be charged up by repeatedly touching the knob with the charged disc. will convince us that it electricity. At first sight this seems quite miraculous. sealing-wax. The Electrophorus." In the first place it can be that the disc carries a positive charge by bringing proved A . The electroscope would not be affected. it will have a positive charge. 253). Further charges may be obtained without again rubbing the cake.296 ELECTRICITY of the can with a proof-plane and then held the proof-plane near an electroscope. or sulphur. circular cake of ebonite. a metal disc and an insulating handle (fig. however.

253. Robert Boyle.P. Cavendish ? " gold "3. ? Explain the action of a lightning conductor. J. the Law of Conservation of Energy. You are given a small charged conductor. pennies and sticks of sealing wax. Moreover. the cake is not a conductor and the points of contact between disc and cake are very few. Thomson. Stephen Gray. J. 5. how would you charge an insulated conductor (a) positively. Simple electrophori can easily be made by using small metal lids filled with molten sulphur. (b) negatively ? 6. The negative charge on the cake induces a positive charge on the lower face of the disc and a negative charge on the upper face When the disc is touched with the finger. . How could you find out the sign of the charge and its distribution ? How could you 7. for the electrical energy obtained is produced by the work we do in lifting the disc against the electrical attraction between the two opposite charges.S. disc and the original negative charge is still on the cake ready for the next operation. Nor is the instrument a contradiction of We + -ftJ J I I I I I I FIG.ELECTROSTATICS it 297 near a positively charged electroscope. discharge it completely without earthing it ? *L G. so it is not a case of conduction. von Guericke. John Canton. What contributions were made to our knowledge of electricity by the following men William Gilbert. Coulomb. A copper calorimeter standing on a slab of paraffin wax has been given an electric charge. Given an electrophorus. the negative (fig. The explanation is rather to be sought through induction. But the cake has a negative charge. 253). What are the advantages of using aluminium leaf in a leaf electroscope 4. now have a positive charge on the charge goes to earth. Abraham Bennet. QUESTIONS I and 2. du Fay.

The first step in current electricity was made in 1786 by an Italian physiologist and anatomist. the muscles contracted as if Galvani they had received an electric shock. but so far. any such flow was only for a very short time. He thought the observed 298 . it is called static electricity. Galvani was born at Bologna and became professor of anatomy there For some years he was busy studying in 1762. It was while engaged in this work that he made his celebrated discovery. 254. chapter MAGNETIC. In everyday life you will be familiar with continuous currents of electricity and we will now endeavour to trace the steps by which man first discovered how to produce such con- Brass tinuous currents. One is that a brass hook was thrust through a pair of frog's legs and then hung on iron railings (fig. the effect of electricity on the nervous and muscular systems of animals. Luigi Galvani (1737-98). 254). Every time the FIG. thought that the electricity was generated by the frog's leg. To Volta it seemed highly improbable that electricity should be generated by a dead frog's leg. There are many stories as to how the first observations were made. condition. Volta was professor of physics at Padua and at one time paid a visit to England where he met Joseph Priestley of oxygen fame. legs touched the iron. Alessandro Volta (1745-1827).CHAPTER XXVI CURRENT ELECTRICITY IN the last : EFFECTS. HEATING AND CHEMICAL ELECTROLYSIS electricity we were mainly concerned with Since it is then in a stationary residing on the surface of a body. When it moves from one point to another we have a current of electricity. The next step in the development of the subject was due to the Italian physicist.

it is convenient to adopt this way of looking at things. What will happen if we connect the two plates by a piece of wire ? Modern science says that electrons travel from the zinc through the wire to the copper. however." But the healthy-minded sceptic will ask. P. we frequently use the term "electrical pressure. to switch over to the other picture whenever shall therefore think of necessary. this point of view. being always ready. being driven by the difference of potential between the two plates.D. There is thus a flow of negative electricity from Copper Zinc zinc to copper. it is also called the electromotive force or E.D. namely.F. Voltage. by Thus Difference of Potential or P. To-day we dissimilar metals realize that these are the essential conditions. Since the final Acid result is the same in either case. Most people. If a piece of zinc and a piece of copper are immersed in dilute sulphuric acid (fig. that must be immersed in a suitable liquid. is " after Volta.CURRENT ELECTRICITY 299 muscular contraction was rather due to the contact of two While carrying out experiments to confirm dissimilar metals. The Simple Voltaic Cell. How do you know that this copper wire connecting the zinc and copper plates is " different from any other piece of odd wire lying on the table ? We = = To answer this question let us repeat an experiment first . so it often goes Volts measured in units called the name of Voltage. since electricity is regarded as something which flows like water. still have the old mental picture they imagine positive electricity flowing through the wire from copper to zinc. " P. however.M. Again. Finally. two In Galvani's experiment the liquid was the fluid in the frog's leg. Electromotive Force Electrical Pressure or E.F.M. FJG. he discovered what is now known as the " " which consisted of a piece of zinc and a piece of Voltaic cell copper immersed in salt solution or dilute acid. 255positive electricity travelling through the wire from the copper or positive pole to the zinc or negative pole. 255) there is a difference of potential between the two plates.D." This difference of potential is often referred to as the Because this difference of potential puts electricity in motion.

is round a compass. end of the needle will be deflected towards his left hand. When the wires form a circular coil set vertically FIG. disOersted's Experiment. He did a considerable amount of research on the relation between magnetism and electricity. Let us now wind the copper wire several Ampere times round the plotting compass (fig. Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851). covery Fasten a strip of copper and a strip of zinc to a piece of wood by means " " into the telephone terminals wood and connect them by short pieces of wire to the metal Immerse in a beaker of strips. Connect the copper and zinc by about a yard of copper wire. The needle is deflected. This idea was first carried out in 1822 by Schweigger. See if the deflection is in accordance with the following rule. Straighten out a few inches of this wire so that it is in the magnetic meridian and hold it close to the top of a plotting compass. Imagine a man swimming with the current and facing the compass needle. His "multiplier" was the first galvanoscope or The galvanometer. FIG. This rule is due to the French physicist and mathematician.300 carried out in 1819 ELECTRICITY by the Danish physicist. 256. was a professor at Lyons and later at Paris. Fix two We now cell . have a convenient simple 256). 257. then the N. 257). professor of physics at Copenhagen. of electro-magnetism. deflection is increased. (fig- of screws. dilute sulphuric acid. Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836). for each time that the current passes over or under the needle it exerts its magnetic force. we have what known as a . This was Oersted's important discovery.

TT^ *= > > is constant. reason for the name you will readily appreciate if you understand the principle of moments. The compass needle is generThe ally very short with an aluminium pointer at right angles. It will now be evident that the wire joining the zinc and copper plates of the simple cell certainly has at least one property not Now F H the earth's controlling force it is then . The coil is always set so that it is in the meridian. so if we double not the angle 6 which will be doubled but tan 9.CURRENT ELECTRICITY 301 Tangent Galvanometer (fig. The needle will set so as H FIG. 259.H. 258. Deflecting Force is directly proportional to the Tangent of the angle of deflection. tan & is trebled.NA or T? r = TT * ''** Jrl. 258).AO . the deflecting force F due to the current and the controlling force due to the earth's magnetism. the If jp is trebled. 259). In other words. Then F. we have two forces acting on each end of the needle (fig. by the to be in equilibrium under the action of these Principle of Moments two forces. This is the reason for the name. When a current passes through the coil. and so on.

The lighting up is of course caused by the heating of the fine .c. Fasten the other end we to one of the poles of the simple cell. FIG. This magnetic field is therefore conveniently described by what I is called the right-hand rule Grasp the conductor with the right in the direction of the current.c. Bare the ends of the wire and wrap one of them round the brass part of the lamp. fields ? it will be shown that we can. This statement FIG. 261 Having shown that the electric current has a magnetic effect will next show that it has another important property. serves as an alternative to Ampere's rule. The lamp lights up. then fades away. and that the lines of force form circles round the wire (fig.. hand with the thumb pointing then the grasping fingers indicate lines of force. Experiment.302 possessed ELECTRICITY by any odd piece of wire lying on the table it has a Can we plot this magnetic field with iron filings magnetic field or a plotting compass as we did in the case of other magnetic In a later experiment (p. and a bulb from a pocket flash lamp. Take about a foot of thin copper wire. say 26 d. 319). Bring the lead stud of the lamp into contact with the other pole. doubling the wire back on itself and threading through the loop to secure it in position (fig 261). using a stronger current. 260. 260).

in 1814 and Professor of Chemistry in King's He was contemporary and friendly College.M. The hydrogen layer is a bad conductor of electricity. is set up.CURRENT ELECTRICITY 1 303 wire through which the current passes. " a saturated solution of depolarizer.R." This acts on the H. some coming off and some remaining on the plate. When the plates are once more immersed the lamp lights up again but quickly fades as the layer of hydrogen forms.F. These bubbles are hydrogen gas.F. Thus in addition to the magnetic effect the current also has a heating effect But why did the light fade away ? If you watch the copper plate of the simple cell. London. To copper sulphate is used as a hydrogen according to the following equation get rid of the layer of hydrogen. but as soon as the circuit is closed" bubbles appear.M. Daniell was a meteorologist and chemist. In connection with his work on meteorology he in- vented a hygrometer which you have probably met in school. This back E. with Michael Faraday. We shall also learn that what is a nuisance in the simple cell is actually made use of in that valuable piece of apparatus. namely. This defect of the simple cell is called polarization because the hydrogen layer forms a new pole between the copper and the zinc. The Daniell Cell. We shall meet other cases where one or both of the existing poles become modified in this way. Rub the copper plate with a slip of cardboard or take out the plates and wipe the copper with a duster. of polarization tends to send a current in the reverse direction. the accumulator or secondary At present we must study methods of overcoming the cell. The main reaction in a Daniell cell is exactly the same as in the simple cell. (a) (6) A back E.S. He became F. will find that as long as the external circuit is "open" you " nothing is happening there. This layer of hydrogen weakens the current in two ways. layer of hydrogen therefore replaced by an extra film of . This cell was invented in 1836 by John Frederick Daniell (1790-1845). Zn -f H SO 8 4 > ZnSO 4 + H 2. in 1831. Close the circuit again by means of the lamp. The 4- CuSO 4 -> is H t SO 4 + Cu. Polarization. trouble in simple cells.

but here it serves not to separate two liquids but as a convenient holder for the carbon and Carbon and Mang. Like the Daniell cell the LeclancW has a porous pot. _ shelf to carry crystals of copper sulphate to maintain the strength of the solution. The copper sulphate is separated from the zinc and acid by a porous pot. If a porous pot is left to dry with copper sulphate solution in its pores. When putting a Daniell cell away be after use.304 ELECTRICITY copper on the copper plate. \Ac\d / by Georges Le- Copper Sulphate solution FIG. The granulated carbon increases the effective area of the positive pole. 262. The positive pole is a flat carbon plate packed round with granulated carbon and granulated manganese dioxide. 263. thereby decreasing the internal manganese . Inside is a porous pot of unglazed porcelain to contain the zinc and acid. the outer vessel should washed out and the porous pot left to soak in water. 262) the copper plate forms the outer containing It is fitted with a perforated vessel. The Lcclanch6 Cell. dioxide. Dioxide/ Sal ammoniac solution FIG. This cell (fig. The negative pole is a zinc rod immersed in a concentrated solution of sal ammoniac. crystallization will take place and this causes cracking and chipping. 263) was devised clanchS in 1868. In one form of the cell (fig.

from copper to zinc outside and zinc to copper inside. When the copper and zinc of a simple cell are joined through an external circuit. Surely zinc sulphate is always formed when zinc is put into sulphuric acid whether " there is any electric current or not ? The answer is that pure zinc does not dissolve in the acid except when a current is passing. work. bell batteries. difference of potential between the two plates. the hydrogen carrying positive electricity to the copper while the S0 4 part of the sulphuric acid molecule carries negative elecThis transfer of electricity maintains a tricity to the zinc. a a 8 8 The manganese dioxide is a slow depolarizer but acts quite well The cell is therefore best suited for intermittent if given time. The top of the glass vessel is painted to The stop the creeping of the liquid. shall glass outer vessel is always made square so that there be no wastage of space when a number of cells have to be used simultaneously." actually find it more convenient to picture a namely. It also prevents the manganese dioxide forming a cake. Local Action. Any hydrogen collecting on the carbon and polarizing the the manganese dioxide thus 2 cell is oxidized by MnOj + H -> Mn O + H O.g. It is as well to bear these modern opinions in mind. The main reaction in the cell is indicated by the following equation Zn + 2NH 4C1 > ZnCl a + 2NH 8 + H a . In chemistry you probably used commercial zinc and here also ' ' . What happens inside the cell ? Modern opinion says that here both kinds of transfer take place. " " The dry cell is really a Leclanch6 containing a paste made of plaster of Paris. e. The material in the porous pot is held in position by a layer of pitch which has a small vent to allow the escape of the ammonia and hydrogen.CURRENT ELECTRICITY 305 resistance of the cell. we think of positive electricity travelling from copper to zinc or negative electricity travelling from zinc to copper. zinc chloride and a solution of sal ammoniac. even if we " one-way traffic. Some of the ammonia dissolves in the moisture present. What happens to the zinc when the S04 part of the acid moleBut cule arrives ? It is converted into zinc sulphate (ZnSO 4 ). the rest escaping through the vent. if you have done any chemistry you will say.

Series and Parallel. consideration of If the voltmeter They work on various principles the which must be postponed for the present. This is called It must never be done with any other short circuiting the cell. He coated the commercial zinc with mercury." Here the positive joined to the nega- pole of one cell tive of the next and so on through the In the diagram positive series. there are two ways of arranging them. If therefore we use in the simple cell a plate of commercial zinc. science. voltage of i-i volts especially after connecting its two poles " connected to a simple cell. is I volt. This local action can of course be avoided by using pure zinc. it will probably A for a short time by a thick piece of copper wire. but this is rather expensive.306 ELECTRICITY the dissolving of the zinc is really an electrical effect. electrical pressure are called voltmeters." Four such cells in series would give a voltage register Daniell cell gives a constant or electrical pressure of 4 volts. and lead. William Sturgeon. Four Daniell cells in series will give a . but in those of the Leclanche type it is not so necessary because sal ammoniac does not act much on zinc except when a current is passing. then mercury is poured over it and rubbed in with a piece of rag tied to a stick. poles are indicated by long strokes and negative poles by short strokes. an English electrician and lecturer in 1830 discovered another way out of the difficulty. only dissolves when the cell is giving a current. kind of electric cell. 264) is called cells in series. Amalgamation is essential in Daniell cells. To amalgamate a zinc rod or plate it is dipped into dilute hydrochloric or sulphuric acid to clean it. whole In this Cells series m series. Commercial zinc contains an impurity of lead and we have a number of small local cells consisting of zinc. The " first method is (fig. in . arrangement the sepapressures are added Instruments for measuring FIG. rate electrical together. If we have several voltaic cells available. Sturgeon's whenever mercury unites with process is called amalgamation another metal the resulting substance is called an amalgam. The zinc then. 264. it will dissolve wastefully even when the cell is not giving a current. acid.

and zinc 5:2:2). nickel. (6) the thickness. of 36 d. It can easily be shown that the is " Each arrange- current flowing from a battery through a wire depends on (a) the length.c. i yd.c.c. (b) (c) (d) 8 yd. (a) 8 yd. of 26 d. copper wire. 2 yd. 265 we have what is called parallel. 4 4-4 volts. It will be convenient to use as our source of current either four Daniell cells or two accumulator cells. thtat we have one large cell and the electrical to one pressure is that of a single cell. A single Leclanch6 cell gives Four of these in series will give about 6 = in In the second arrangement of cells shown " cells in fig.MAGNETIC. 266. of 36 German silver wire.). and (c) the material of the wire. copper wire. HEATING. FIG. . of 36 German silver wire (an alloy of copper." Resistance. with one another and with a flash lamp and plug key with plug out pocket Across the terminals of the plug connect in turn (fig. pressure of i-i AND CHEMICAL EFFECTS 307 X about volts. Arrange the cells in series Cells m parallel. The effect .c. i5 volts. 265. Experiment." Here all the positives are joined common point and all the negatives to The result is now another common point. 266). These wires are conveniently wound on a cotton reel having holes bored in the top to receive the ends (fig 266. ment called an electric battery.

The wire is of German silver or some similar alloy wound on slate or other non-inflammable insulating material. rheostat. . 268. The jar is nearly filled with water acidified with a little sulphuric acid. 267). tangent galvanometer. Only where the rubber squeezes on the wire is the enamel worn off and there " The above experiment careful examination will show only is metallic contact made that there is still insulating enamel between the wires. You may have met already in chemistry an experiment called the electrolysis of water in which the gases hydrogen and oxygen are obtained from water by passing an electric current through A convenient method of doing this is shown in fig. it. thickness. From the projecting ends of the platinum wire. Chemical Effect of the Electric Current. The Rheostat or Variable Resistance.308 ELECTRICITY be plainly seen by the " of length. The wire is either covered with enamel or wound so that the separate turns are not in contact. An inverted bell-jar is fitted with a rubber stopper through which are fixed two glass tubes in which platinum wires are sealed. . and a battery of three accumulator cells. copper leads pass to a plug key. and material will variation in the light of the lamp. illustrates the principle of the or variable resistance rheostat so frequently used in controlling the current in electrical experiments (fig. Welded on* to the wires are pieces of platinum foil called the electrodes.

then place the tubes in position. The jar with its fittings is called a water or hydrogen voltameter. Allow the current to run for 5 min. " current measurer. pull the glass tubes farther down through the cork.c. These tubes should be calibrated in c. If this adjustment cannot be made with the rheostat. the other is called the kathode. This can be done with the aid of a burette and a sharp file. keeping it constant by watching the galvanometer and altering the rheostat if necessary. Read the volume of each gas. Over the electrodes are placed two test-tubes also filled with the same FIG." a name which means Adjust the rheostat so that the bubbles come off at a convenient rate. 15. acidulated water. Repeat the observations for time intervals of 10. 268.. and 20 min. It will be found that two volumes of hydrogen appear at the kathode and one volume of oxygen at the anode. It should be possible to prove that the volume of either gas is proportional to the time during which the current has .s.ELECTROLYSIS 309 The electrode next to the positive pole is called the positive electrode or anode .

1 x amp. and weighed. When electrodes of silver are used with a solution of silver nitrate. . of crystals in a litre 4 or 5 c. the anodes being lighter and the kathode heavier in proportion to the quantity of electricity which passes." + lator cells. The kathode is then dipped into water with sulphuric acid. per 50 sq. They are placed one on each side of the kathode to ensure will be deposited on both that copper The kathode should be sides ol it.3io flowed. 269. of strong 1 the copper anode sulphuric acid). then 30 min. of kathode. In other words. the current should be passed for 10 min. sis ELECTRICITY This is which says electrode Faraday's first law of electrolyof substance liberated at either proportional to the quantity of electricity which is : an " illustration of The quantity We may now replace the water voltameter by a piece of apparatus called the copper voltameter which consists essentially of two electrodes of copper dipping in a solution of copper sulphate (150 gm. will deposit 0*001118 gm. The copper kathode has been electroplated need only be two accumubattery passes. that it is from them that we now get our legal definition of the amp&re as that current which in z sec. cm. On passing a current. the " " with copper. of silver from a solution of silver nitrate in water. FIG. After weighing the kathode. rinsed in water and dried on a filter paper placed on a radiator. for 20 min. acidified dried. increases in weight should be as I 2 3. 269).c. dipped for an instant in mediumstrength nitric acid. The clean surface should not be touched with fingers otherwise the copper will not adhere. gets lighter and the kathode heavier. similar results are obtained. Generally there are two copper anodes joined to the same terminal (fig. The The process should be repeated first : : again agreeing with Faraday's law. rinsed. So definite and regular are the results of these experiments.

Allow the current to run again for the same time. then the weights of the elements liberated will be in the same proportion as their : : : : chemical equivalents. iodine is driven into the knee under the kathode pad. i 11 Some (a) Interesting Electrolytic Experiments. A coulomb will liberate o 'oooo 1 03 5 gm. then a few drops of phenolphthalein. like hydrogen and all metals. a beaker of (b) Add a salt-spoonful of potassium iodide to water. of Oxygen 0-0003292 gm. namely. under these conditions is called a coulomb. will be liberated at the kathode. of Hydrogen 0-00008281 gm. It may be asked whether there is any simple relation between these numbers. Metal electrodes are wrapped in cotton-wool pads soaked in a weak solution of potassium iodide. Here it acts on the water forming caustic potash which turns the indicator pink. This is in accordance with Faraday's second Law of Electrolysis which says "If the same quantity of electricity passes through various electrolytes. Similar experiments with the same carbon electrodes may (c) be carried out with solutions of zinc sulphate and lead acetate. i 8 3i8 108. . Electrolyse by means of carbon electrodes taken from an old dry cell. There is a sharp explosion like a pistol shot. Using the hydrogen voltameter. say the knee. When the current passes. These may be pushed through a piece of cardboard laid on the top of the beaker. Potassium. Hold either tube to the Bunsen flame. This experiment has a medical application. A brown colour due to liberated iodine appears at the anode. or an ampere-second. of Silver. interchange the tubes after a few minutes. Each tube now contains electrolytic gas. It is sometimes desired to administer iodine through the skin into a joint.ELECTROLYSIS 311 The quantity of electricity which passes in i sec. The answer is that they are in the same proportion to one another as their chemical equivalents. the kathode pad being placed on the knee while the anode pad is placed some distance away on the same limb. of Copper 0-001118 gm.

it is found best to (a) Silver Plating. soda. Repeat the experi- ment using sodium chloride instead of potassium iodide. use. Two brown iodine spots appear because the current travels first one way then the other.312 ELECTRICITY In In the former we get a spongy mass of zinc on the kathode. In plating with silver. Pink spots now appear due to caustic 270. This and the characteristic smell are sufficient indication that ozone is being produced. instead of a solution of silver nitrate. Dip a piece of filter paper in starch solution containing a little potassium iodide and proceed as above. Electrolysis in Industry. Electrolysis with a Wimshurst Machine. Support a gas jar cover glass so that it is nearer to the Wimshurst knobs than these are to one another (fig. While we are using the Wimshurst. Currents obtained from a Wimshurst have a much higher voltage and much lower amperage than ordinary electric currents. out a few of these electrolytic experiments with a Wimshurst machine and so illustrate the fact that current electricity We may carry and static electricity are really identical. We do not see pink spots due to caustic potash because they are masked by the brown. It is an oscillating current. 270). Blue spots will now be produced on the paper. Lay it on the glass under the knobs and work the machine. but they quickly fade away. it is worth noting another effect which is not exactly electrolytic but is nevertheless important the production of ozone. For this reason it is generally difficult to carry out the same experiments with the apparatus designed for current electricity and that intended for electrostatics. the latter case a lead tree forms. a solution containing . Dip a piece of filter paper into a solution of potassium iodide containing a little phenolphthalein.

271. electrolyte. Copper refining is carried out entirely by electrolysis. The may be surprised to hear that the accumulator is an application of electrolysis. The anode is a piece of the kathode the article to be plated. The ammeter A is not absolutely essential but is useful to measure the current which is passing. The crude copper blocks are used as anodes in a bath of acidified copper sulphate." We have another example of this back E. we referred to the " back E. The method is similar. zinc. chlorine is liberated and collected at the anode while sodium goes to the kathode.F. the article is marked E. the electrolyte being (6) Gold Plating.P. and Chlorine. Since. and nickel. The process of electrolysis finds many similar uses in industrial chemistry. or silver After plating. Secondary Cell or Storage Cell. then chromium. In the final stage the bath usually contains chromic acid (CrO 3 ) and a lead anode. This is evaporated to dryness and then electrolysed to obtain metallic sodium. The Accumulator. the anode does not keep up the strength of the is added from time to time. in the hydrogen voltameter. the copper being then deposited on thin sheets of pure (d) Copper Refining. The battery is a 4-vplt accumulator. wires and cables and its copper acting as kathodes. a solution of gold cyanide and potassium cyanide. then nickel.F. will soon show that this is really the case. Experiment.ELECTROLYSIS silver silver. Kj and K. copper. (c) Chromium Steel is first plated with radiators and bathroom fittings. When dealing with the simple cell. Fit up the circuit shown in fig." an alloy of copper. Chromium-plated goods have the advantages that they do not readily tarnish nor are they easily scratched. The sodium acts on the water giving sodium hydroxide solution. in this case. A few experiments.M. are tapping keys. The articles most plated in this way are made of so-called "nickel frequently " " German silver. of polarization" caused by the formation of a "new pole. V is a voltmeter to indicate the HV is a hydrogen voltameter. 313 cyanide and potassium cyanide. (e) Manufacture of Sodium When a strong solution of brine is electrolysed. however. electrical pressure. (/) reader .M.S.N. more chromic acid Copper is largely used for conducting good conductivity depends on its purity. This is much used for motor-car Plating.

' we find a back E.314 ELECTRICITY The Close K! for a minute or so. We have in also made a toy accumulator FlG *7*- which may be charged up and then discharged through lamp.F.F. bell. " new poles. The positive will be slightly chocolate-coloured due to " the formation of lead dioxide (PbO 2 ). acid which has been diluted . thick. and it is to his extensive work on polarization that we owe the idea of the common accumulator cell. Proceeding as in the last experiment. Whenever we electrolyse water. Experiment. of more than 2 volts 1 We may fact replace the voltmeter by a lamp.F. Since x was open. During the charging.M.M." The of the hydrogen voltameter caused by voltameter will not give a reading on the ammeter hydrogen unless the platinum plates are very large and very close together.F.M. Our little accumulator is gassing See if there is any difference of colour between the two electrodes. especially from the negative electrode. K K K by adding i volume of acid to about 4 of water.M. of polarization. or buzzer. comes into action and has to be overcome by the battery. then open x and close t voltmeter will give a kick to about 1-5 volts and the reading will then quickly decrease. This is the new pole " a back E. this electrical pressure cannot be due to the accumulator but must be the back E. in the present case was discovered by Gaston Plant in 1860. this back E. Simple Theory of the Accumulator. This is why we could not hope to electrolyse water with a single Daniell cell. notice the bubbles coming off. or a buzzer. a bell. should be fitted to each. causing The high back E. Use the same circuit but replace the hydrogen voltameter by a pot containing two lead plates separated by a Half-fill the pot with sulphuric piece of wood about J-in. We do not of course in ! . This time we shall be able to read the discharge current on the ammeter. The lead plates are conveniently cut from a piece of leaid A brass terminal roofing.F.M.

272. 273).S04 > PbS04 + H. Charging. a dynamo generally used.->Pb04-H.S04 -I- Pb Pb + O. 272) and discharge (fig." H H 2 SO4 H 2 S04 then O. Acid gets weaker and less dense.O > FIG. . conies off causing "gassing. PbO Fb+O->PbO + H. 273.H. Discharging. PbS04 (if o + H.O H2 S04 PbO -f H. Let us consider what happens during charge (fig. -> P60." FIG. Acid gets stronger and denser.0 />6S04 -f H. ->. present) then t comes off causing" gassing.ELECTROLYSIS 315 Charg*. Is practice charge one accumulator from a larger one .SO4 PbO. Discharge.-f H.

hydrometer on the market for testing the density of the acid. The best tests of a complete charge are (a) free gassing. Can you explain why they are there ? When all the balls are at the top of the acid. the sulphate gets hard. the oxygen comes off. The method of using will be readily understood from the figure. but if the cell is allowed to stand for a time in a discharged condition. When the negative plate is perfectly clean lead. some of the water is split up and sulphuric acid is generated.ELECTRICITY If we remember that hydrogen travels with the current and oxygen against the current. and red. green. When this plate is completely covered. To increase the capacity of the cell. 275. saw that our toy accumulator was quickly charged up to gassing point and was just as quickly discharged. These are illustrated in figs. Recharg- ing removes this sulphate. 274 FIG. yellow. signal. If two sink the cell must be recharged. because it Q| R quite natural for the ordinary sulphate It is the change of this sulto form. " hydrogen comes off and the cell is said to be gassing. the of 1*200. 274 and 275. (b) a specific gravity is During discharge the specific gravity must not be allowed to fall below 1*170 as beyond this point the lead B sulphate readily hardens." During discharge. There are two well-known types of FIG. the cell is When the red one sinks. During charging. the manufacturer uses lead grids. B is like an old-time fountainpen filler containing three balls. At C C are two bent strips of celluloid. The positive plate becomes coated with brown lead dioxide (PbO a ). therefore the acid is strengthened. the acid becomes weaker and lead sulphate (PbSO 4 ) forms on both plates. the cell gives a current in the reverse direction." This is an unfortunate term. It is then difficult to remove and " the cell is said to have sulphated. A We . it is a mild danger fully charged. the diagrams will be readily understood. phate to a hard white coating which has to be avoided.

In recent years another kind of accumulator has appeared on the market. It was invented by the American electrician Edison. What contributions were - made by the following men to our knowledge of electricity Galvani. There is then a much larger quantity of active material on which the charging current can act. It wUl be useful to compare the two kinds of accumulator. . Schweigger." It is a secondary cell. It is for this reason that it is called a storage cell. cell. Volta. Ask your chemistry master what he thinks of this trade mark. Plants ? State Ampere's Rule and the 2. The accumulator depends on some " outside source of energy.ELECTROLYSIS 317 positive being filled with a paste of lead dioxide and the negative with spongy lead. Describe Oersted's experiment. Right-hand Rule. It is called the Nickel-Iron accumulator and bears the trade mark NIFE. Leclanch6. It does not accumulate or store probably meet the terms primary cell and secondary its energy is voltaic cell is a primary cell generated within itself. QUESTIONS z. Its energy is second-hand. electricity. Notice that an accumulator stores chemical energy which can be converted into electrical energy. You will " The simple .

passes for 80 min.M. of copper was deposited hi 30 min. hydrogen. 13. through various voltameters arranged in series. What was the error in the reading of the instrument if the electrochemical equivalent of copper is 0*00033 && Per coulomb ? (B. (d) 4 name and how volts. and silver which would be liberated. secondary cell. What was the strength of the current? How many coulombs were used ? How much oxygen would be liberated by the same quantity of electricity? current of 4 amperes was allowed to pass for 20 min. depolarizer. A current of 1-5 amps. gassing. (6) a gram of 1 6. Explain why it received it depends on the principle of moments. silver? 17. A certain current deposited 3-936 gm.c. How are they 4. of a hydrogen a circuit for charging and discharging a toy accumu- Explain sulphating. its ELECTRICITY Describe the Tangent Galvanometer." 12. (b) a coulomb? State Faraday's a magnetic How (e) 2 volts. A per c. XX.. cm. 8. How could this arrangement be used to test the accuracy of an ammeter? In a particular case 0-802 gm. lator. of copper on a copper kathode hi 40 min. How long would a current of 2 amperes take to turn out from the appropriate electrolytes (a) a gram of copper. (c) 10 volts. (2) a circuit to illustrate the back E. through a solution 15.318 3. is the thickness of the copper deposit? Density of copper is 9 gm. What is meant by short circuiting? When must it not be done ? 6. rheostat. Give a brief account of what happens when an electric current passes between two copper plates immersed in a solution of copper sulphate. 15 14.) . 7. Describe two forms of hydrometer and explain how to use them. (b) 20 volts. would you show that an electric current has a heating effect. effect. Illustrate by diagrams how you would arrange 20 accumulator cells to give voltages of (a) 40 volts. copper.F. what of copper sulphate. amalgamation. By means of diagrams and equations explain what happens in the ordinary accumulator cell during "charge" and "discharge. If the kathode has an area of 75 sq. when the ammeter reading was 1-3 amps. weights of oxygen. 10. Explain "Local Action" and "Polarization/ avoided in a Daniell cell? When may it be done? 5. Calculate the sec. Laws 9. (i) voltameter. Draw of Electrolysis. and a chemical effect ? What are (a) an ampere.

276. well-marked circles will be seen. The coil shown in fig. 276 is made of 20 d. is 9 in. a rheostat and an ammeter. wire bent into a square coil of 15 turns. The coil is connected to a 4-volt accumulator. Plotting compasses may be placed on the cardboard. Experiment. . The square FIG. and the cardboard tapped gently. It is difficult to show these lines of force going round a single wire unless we have a very powerful current. We can.CHAPTER XXVII CURRENT ELECTRICITY I MORE ABOUT THE MAGNETIC EFFECT IN the last chapter we learnt that a wire carrying an electric current has a magnetic field and that lines of force form circles round the wire. however. from 16 yd. or iron If a current of 2 to 4 amps. The cardboard has a hole at the centre and a slit running to one side so that it may be slipped easily on to the coil. send the same current through several wires and show the lines of force quite well.c.c. each way and the last turn is twisted spirally round the others to keep the coil together. is sent through filings sprinkled on it.

278. Just like a magnet it will attract a piece of iron. copper wire is joined in series with an The reel 8-volt accumulator. a heavier striking. above the table. and therefore the hand. 277). is made through the tapping key. 278 repreFIG. The increase in weight supported by the coil. 277. Notice that Ampere's rule gives its polarity. When the circuit. the rod is sucked into the reel and oscillates up and down. To show the attractive force of a solenoid.c. .320 ELECTRICITY Such a coil may really be regarded as a short thick magnet. is held in the hand about 4 in. In Chapter XXIV we learnt that magnets can be made by . is very With a more powerful source of current. bar can be used. . . rests with one end on the table and the other in the hole of the reel. an ammeter and a tapping key. we do not need to make one in every laboratory its . sents a circuit in which a pound reel of 20 or 22 d. Fig. .c. soft iron weighing about 40 gm. there is stitute a very effective subwe may use a reel of ! copper wire Experiment. while a 6-in. two faces are the north and south poles. It is then called a solenoid (fig. . * . This effect is best shown when the coil is wound in the form of a spiral. i FIG. rod of J-in.

" By means of a solenoid single touch and a battery we are able to make much more powerful magnets. of the latter form. applied discovery to the making of the first electromagnet. the electrician.Ct/RRENT ELECTRICITY " " 321 and double touch. He used it as a lifting magnet. O i MI i i .. the hammer strikes the gong. CLJ^ U.gjVx^rj. " stopped it ceases to be a magnet. FIG. 280). Under the it becomes converted into a permanent magnet.1. The latter springs back. Probably the commonest application of the electromagnet occurs in the working of electric bells and buzzers (fig. makes contact and is again attracted. The circuit is then broken at the contact screw B and the core no longer attracts the armature. Sturgeon's first electromagnet was i 0. the circuit is completed. On pressing the push P. The soft iron core attracts the armature to which the hammer is attached. If a piece of steel is placed in the solenoid and a current is passed. was and Simple Bell Circuit. William Sturgeon. It later improved upon by Faraday and Joule in England Joseph Henry in America.P. A M G. Humphry Davy and In 1825 an English 279) . The wire may be coiled round a straight piece of soft iron or the ( )O iron may be bent into a horseshoe (fig. .i. same conditions a piece of soft iron becomes a temporary magnet . The advantage here is that the magnetism is absolutely under control. The result is a rapid series of blows on the gong. Every time the armature is attracted. 280.S. These facts were discovered independently in 1820 by Sir as soon as the current is the French scientist Arago.

showing moving room in which the bell push was used. The ebonite is I Keeper FIG. Soft iron core The Lifting Magnet.ELECTRICITY probably have seen an indicator. can easily be made (fig." ! ' 1 ! 1 1 ''!'! 1 '!' > 'J M FIG. The soft iron core has a pointed extension screwed into it. The electromagnet is frequently used to draw particles of steel out of tli3 eye or other parts of the body.g.. capable of lifting 40 or 50 lb. sparking coil or Ruhmkorff Coil. e. Two tiny holes must also be bored in the ebonite plugs to take the coil leads. Insulated coils Gauge20 1 Brass p bonltcca8e Ring JlMJ'llllll'll'llj'l'l I'l'lll' I'lli'i'ii'i'li'i'i'i'l *N J TJ'I'I'II'HI'I Vi'l 'r "vT^s. and tapped to carry the terminals. Two holes are bored and plugged with ebonite. Fig. 281. 282. If sizes. Equally striking is the use of electro- magnets Plan in industrial work for lifting masses of iron of varied and awkward shapes and iron. scrap iron or pig a lathe is available a good working model. 282). Elevation This extension is also made of soft iron and enables the operator to concentrate the force on a small area. A channel is cut out in a piece of soft iron. is filled with 28-gauge insulated copper wire by winding on a wooden former of the same cross-section as the central portion of the magnet. These also work on the same principle. Centre holes are drilled and tapped in the magnet and keeper drilled to carry the screw hooks. Later on you will meet the will flags to indicate the You same idea in the induction coil. 281 shows one type of surgical I electromagnet. and then slipping it off into the first The channel .

are now in a position to underAmmeters and Voltmeters. coil Another flat method of showing that a carrying a current has magnetic properties (fig. having paraffin first 323 passed the ends through the plugs. joining one end to a plug FIG key and the other to another clamp on the same burette stand. Suspend the coil vertically between the poles of the magnet. Wind thirty or forty turns of gauge 30 or 36 insulated copper wire round two fingers.P. wax should Experiment.MORE ABOUT THE MAGNETIC EFFECT channel. (c) (b) Moving Iron. The hook of the keeper is attached to the weight. its poles We may (a) Moving G. Still another. however. the coil is set in one particular way. If. M2 . perhaps the most important. Explain. On passing a current. stand something about the inner working of ammeters and voltbe roughly divided into three classes : meters. Connect a 2-volt accumulator and a rheostat in series with the coil. " and quickly restored to the "all in position as soon as the weight is safely replaced on the table or floor. the coil faces acquire polarity and the . They coil will twist. the other is the ring of metal surrounding the coil. Molten now be run in. use of electromagnets will be met when you study dynamos and motors. being attracted by the opposite poles of the magnet until there is equilibrium between the magnetic twist and the twist of the suspension wire. To use the lifting magnet it is joined in series with a 4-volt accumulator and a rheostat. the rheostat moved to the "all out" position. 283). Place a horseshoe magnet on the clamp of a burette stand. Shape the wire into a circular coil and wrap the loose ends round the coil so as to hold the strands in position. Coil instruments. Hot Wire.S. there will be no twist. Where are the poles of such a magnet ? One is at the centre.

285). This movement causes the rotation of a pointer also attached to the axle (fig. is free to move when repelled. . we have a model working iron spring-controlled in that way.385. The moving iron instrument is sometimes based on the principle of the experiment in which a piece of soft iron was sucked In fig. One of these is fixed while the other. " " In the hot wire instrument (fig. being part of a frame attached to the axle. 284 into a coil (p.324 ELECTRICITY The moving coil type depends on the principle of the last experiment. 38$. but the coil is wound on a soft iron core and its movement is controlled by a spring instead of by the twist of the suspension wire. In another type of moving instrument. Attached to the coil is a pointer which moves over the arc of a circle. the current running through a cylindrical coil magnetizes in the same sense two pieces of soft iron. 286) T >M FIG. FIG. 320).

C. How may the principle of 3. where A is the ammeter and V the voltmeter. Moving Iron and Hot Wire instruments can QUESTIONS Describe any two experiments illustrating the fact that a wire carrying an electric current has a magnetic field associated with it. it expands and the spring is then able to pull the pointer round. It will be sufficient here to mention that an ammeter is a /ow-resistance instrument placed in the circuit so that the current passes through it. 310). Make a list of the different uses to which electromagnets may be put and illustrate one of them. Ammeters are calibrated by means of a silver voltameter (see p. also be used for A.MORE ABOUT THE MAGNETIC EFFECT most of the current goes through a thick wire 325 S. 5. 287. A silk fibre goes from B round a pulley D carrying the pointer and then to the spring E. The exact difference between an ammeter and a voltmeter will be better understood later. Draw an ammeter depending on the magnetic effect and one which does not. be the effect of substituting steel for soft iron in ? . the instruments are connected up as shown in fig. 349). When the wire ABC is heated by the current. FIG. but a certain definite fraction goes through the thin wire ABC. while a voltmeter has a high resistance and acts as a sort of by-pass to the current. the shunt. Thus if we wish to know the current passing through a lamp and the electric pressure acting across it. 1. 287. (see p. Draw a What would such a circuit simple bell circuit. What is a moving coil ammeter ? such an instrument be demonstrated ? 4. 2.

288) happens if a bird alights on an overhead power cable ? At first sight you may think it will be very bad Actually it is for the bird. 326 The amount damage done by a . (b) far apart. Water will spurt farther from a leak in a pipe when the difference of water pressure is greater.CHAPTER XXVIII POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. long. 299) between the two points. for the bird's feet are so close together that there is not (see p. 288. 290 A and of B). Connect the lamp to two points on the long wire (a) close together. quite safe. say. Fasten a piece of copper wire round a pocket flash bulb as shown on page 302. Matters will now be in another way. falling brick will depend on the height difference through which it has fallen. Join a 4-volt accumulator to it by the usual thick copper leads (fig. much potential difference But suppose that the wire between the feet were cut and joined to a loop of wire which had travelled round an insulator. OHM'S LAW. RESISTANCE WHAT (fig. What do you observe ? You may be helped to a clear idea about potential difference or fall of potential between two points by considering two other : cases (fig. 100 or 200 cm. half a mile away. 289). There is probably in your laboratory a board carrying a long wire perhaps illustrate We may quite different this ! FIG.

but when the lamp was joined to two points far apart. Let us investigate this in pIG 2QI more detail. Experiment. of 26-gauge German silver wire (fig. . Ohm's Law. Most of this electrical pressure was used in driving the current through the thin A FIG. 290 B A AND 9 Between two points close together there will be very potential difference so the lamp did not light. 289.OHM'S LAW 327 In our electrical experiment there was a potential difference of 4 volts driving current round the circuit. 291). little . FlG. Our previous work shows that the current travelling through a conductor depends on the electrical pressure driving it. Take as many freshly-charged accumulator cells as are available and join them up in series with an ammeter and a conductor. say 47 yd. f [ through the lamp. there was sufficient difference to potential drive a large current J wire.

in cross-section at oC.328 ELECTRICITY so oa. 307) it was shown that the resistance of a conductor depends on three things (a) the material. mm.F. This is the fact discovered by the German physicist. of each to be 2 volts.M. taking the cell E. As regards material it may be shown that silver is the best conductor while copper takes second place. or E is ^ L is a constant/ 1 what is known as the resistance of the con- ductor. is a c constant. the current is directly proportional to the E. Within the limits of experimental error we find that -.'s and currents.M. Georg Simon Ohm (1787-1854) and now known all over the " world as Ohm's Law. and we may say < E C (volts) hms E > r C or E " RC : (amperes) In an earlier experiment (p. in other words. and (c) the cross-section. An ohm may be defined as the resistance of a column of mercury 106-3 cm . 2 cells. Take readings on the ammeter using I cell. mometers for the measurement of high and very low temperatures. In any conductor at a constant temperature the current is directly proportional to the potential difference between Thfe constant -^ E its ends. it may be proved that the resistance is directly proportional to the length and inversely proportional to thz cross-section. It may be stated thus. By using an ammeter (6) the length.M. in that experiment in place of the lamp.F. 3 cells and Draw up a table of E.F.l nS an<* i sq. It may be noted in passing that the temperature must be stated because the resistance of a metal increases as the temperature On this fact depends the use of platinum resistance therrises. .

Therefore the combined resistance will be less than that of any one of the separate conductors. E ohms -f c 9 + ohms + 3 E E 4 ohms . and cz . When the current has more than one path the conductors are said to be joined "in parallel' (fig. Resistances in Parallel. 293. 292. In the example shown we 1 proceed in this way. The effect is the same as if we used a thicker conductor. Resistances in Series. 2 ohms FIG. /. 4 ohms The combined resistance is then found by adding the 292). 293). will deposit 0*00x118 gm. The current C divides at the point electromotive force acting between along all the paths. The volt is the potential difference which will drive a current of x We ampere through a resistance of i ohm. The will be the same C = GI . separate resistances together. of silver from a solution of silver nitrate in water. Thus in the example shown the total resistance is 9 ohms. they are said to be joined 2 ohms 3 ohms FIG. joined end to end. When two or more resistances are " " in series (fig. 2 + c.OHM'S LAW 329 have already learnt that the ampere is legally defined as the current which in i sec. A into c A and B lt cf.

/. . the cell itself has a considerable resistance. Suppose that a Daniell cell of E. It is in fact a liquid conductor and its resistance depends on the same factors as the resistance of a metallic Ivolt Thus the conductor. This again diminishes the reresistance. see that part of the E. Applying Ohm's Law to the whole circuit. The other things in the circuit. we have e = rC = O'5 . = o-i volt Lost Volts 0*1 volt. In some cells." quently refer to this part of the E.M. of a cell must be used up in driving current through itself. Resistance of a Cell.M.F. Engineers fre" Lost Volts. the shorter the liquid conductor and the less the ) 2 ohms The bigger the cell.'. ohm X 0-2 amp.F.M. Law O closer the plates. however. 294) is joined in series with a resistance galvanometer of resistance 2 ohms.F. the accumulator cells and the ammeter had a negligible resistance. as A simple example may make things clearer. sistance. we have E Applying Ohm's i-o Law to the cell itself. 2*5 ohms Fj Gg 294> also depends The resistance on the From the above we nature of the liquid. R= | ohm. i volt and internal resistance 0*5 ohm of 2-5 ohms and a (fig. the greater the cross-section. In our experiment to illustrate Ohm's our conductor had a resistance of 4-8 ohms.330 ELECTRICITY C but = ~ where R is the combined resistance.

* a current much higher than the cell is meant to give. the product rC or lost volts will increase and the voltmeter reading will drop still more.F. we shall see that the expression is quite reasonable. but negligible. Open Circuit. cell. Resistance of an Accumulator Cell. When the key is open. then the greater the current the greater will be the Lost Volts." We will return to this point later. of the " This is also called the P. A voltmeter is also connected across the cell. the voltmeter reading drops because of the lost volts used in driving a current through the If the variable resistance is cell. As soon as the key is closed. the current will increase. The plates get hot. then shown 2 volts O'Oi r ohm 200 amps.D. FIG. A Daniell cell is connected in series with a key." If we look into this question. the voltmeter registers the E. on open circuit. It was mentioned above that when a voltmeter is joined to the terminals of a cell. diminished.RESISTANCE 331 Since Lost Volts Resistance of cell X current.. the paste expands and breaks away from the grids. Thus if we cut out the 2-5 ohms the current becomes 0*4 amp. To avoid such a possibility it is a good plan when wiring up circuits to fix leads to the accumulator last and remove first. An accumulator cell has a very small internal resistance so that the lost volts are generally This is one of the advantages of such a cell. and the lost volts will then be 0-2 volt. = This fact can be illustrated experimentally by the circuit in fig. a variable resistance and an afnmeter. 295. 295. voltmeter always has a large number of turns of very thin A wire.M. The resistance may be in the neighbourhood of 1000 . the latter is still said to be " on open circuit. on the other hand the low resistance makes short-circuiting very dangerous to the cell. Thus suppose the internal resistance " " is O'Oi ohm and the terminals are accidentally shorted by a piece of wire of negligible resistance.

removed. 4 ohms ligible resistance and 6 ohms culate (fig. 296). and the effect ioci'5 will be approximately trebled.M. . of the cell." ? and the cell is and purposes " on open X 0'5 again 6 1000-5 a negligible quantity. be connected to a Daniell 0*5 cell of E. how does the voltmeter give a reading ? Because the effect of the minute current is multiplied over and over again by the vast number of turns of wire. What current flowing ? amp.332 ELECTRICITY Let it ohms. 6 ohms An Instructive Resistances. (c) first and second lamps are removed. With 3 cells the current will be amp. Therefore the instrument can be calibrated in volts.F. first volts lamp is FIG. The voltmeter is therefore registering the full E. still minute. This is so small as to be negligible circuit. But if the current is so minute." " " itself and resist as little as possible it is a low-resistance instrument. Problem on A 6-volt accumulator of negis joined to three lamps in parallel having resistances 2 ohms. r 1001 but it will have approximately double the effect on the instru3 ment.F. The important point to notice here is that the tiny currents are for all practical purposes proportional to the voltages.M. 296. i volt is and internal resistance 1000 5 to all intents ohm. Cal- the (a) all when currents passing the lamps are in (b) 6 their sockets. It must taste the current and so judge the An ammeter must take all the current through pressure. What will be the effect of joining the voltmeter to two Daniell are the lost volts in this case /> What amp. cells in series ? The current will now be A voltmeter must not provide an easy alternative path for " the current.

viz. as before. will flow through all the lamps. as before. The Wheatstone Bridge. and when one is removed all will go out. 297. /. /. 6 volts. amp. A circuit shown in fig. one of the pioneers of telegraphy.'. * * ^ ohms 2 ct c3 Also r 2 C} Again (c) r 3c 3 =6 =6 or 4^ a or 6c 3 = = 6. In that case the same current c l will flow through P and while c. X = . as before. viz. amp. 6. = = i i J amps. G is a sensitive galvanometer. then y^i = 6 or 2 x c also r 2 c 2 = 6 or 4 x c z also r 8c 8 = 6 or 6 x 3 (b) of is = = 6. the lamps must be in parallel. Total Resistance ' R= " c " 6 . The important point that arises out of our problem is that when a building is to be wired up for lighting. In this case again c 3 What would happen if the lamps were in series ? You will easily see that the same current. The principle will be readily understood from the theoretical P and are fixed resistances. ij amps. /.RESISTANCE (a) 333 All in. A simple cell sends a current in at A. Suppose the current divides into It will always be possible to find some point on the GI and c a wire so that there is no current through the galvanometer. noting that the fall " RC drop" of the engineer) along any path potential (the the same. flows through the wire. divides a resistance wire into two sections of wander key resistance Q and R. Potential at D. 6. . ct ca cg = = 3 i amps. /. Also Potential at B X D . . 6. i amp. J amp. This is a method of comparing two resistances invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802-75). Total Resistance R = T~_r~rxi 6 volts ** H ohms - - by Ohm s Law c ' - -flf-sss 5i amps Next apply Ohm's Law to each branch. First and second lamps removed. Each lamp then takes its own current under all = circumstances and does not go out or flare up when others are switched off... First lamp removed.

298. 297. Fall of Potential in a Conductor = Resistance X Current and '* X^ = Rc^ Xc ^"Rcl **-'i->i FIG.334 ELECTRICITY to therefore Fall of potential from to D. A B= E= Fall of potential from A Fall of potential from D But by Ohm's Law FIG. . Also Fall of potential from B to to E.

What resistance would have to be placed in parallel with 8 ohms to make the total resistance 2 ohms ? 9. What is the resistance in each case ? 4. are joined in series to a coil of resistance 4 ohms and a galvanometer of resistance 2 ohms. 10. The actual apparatus generally negligible resistance. lamp joined to a 2-volt accumulator takes 0*2 amp. zz. If connected to a 6-volt accumulator. know P we can measure X. what is the value resistance Two feet of wire is put in the -ohm coil in the right. What z. The terminals of a galvanometer of resistance 40 ohms are Find the resistjoined by a shunt (parallel resistance) of 10 ohms. Calculate the current flowing through one of the lamps when (a) all the lamps are in. It is consists of copper strips of straight wire mounted on then called a metre bridge or a half- and a metre bridge according to the length of the wire. i-i volts and internal resistance 4 ohms. nitrate for half an hour. 298). A 6-volt accumulator is joined up to three lamps in parallel. i -i volt and internal resistance 2 ohms are joined in parallel to an external resistance of 4} ohms.M.M. and /. each having resistance 5 ohms. Calculate the tion 6 and the total drop round the circuit. i If balance occurs at measured against a 5-ohm coil on 20 cm. terminals are the lengths of the two Thus if we a board (fig. what resistance would be needed to keep the current the same ? 5. An unknown unknown resistance ? is & half-metre bridge. each of E. What will be the resistance of another wire of the same material four times the length and half the diameter ? 2. ance of this combination and the current which goes through the galvanometer when a potential difference of 16 volts is applied to its terminals. Find the strength of the current. 3. Four cells each of E. A A the current ? Three Daniell cells. (b) only is 6. (b) in parallel.F. of silver were deposited. What is the current ? " RC drop " in each part of the circuit in Ques7.F. 8. An electric current was passed through a solution of silver 10-062 gm. one is in. of the 12.RESISTANCE where /x 335 sections.. When left gap of a metre bridge and a the galvanometer shows no deflec- . 8 ohms and 4 ohms are joined (a) in series. QUESTIONS certain piece of wire has a resistance of 5 ohms.

? Three cells resistance of 4 ohms up to three lamps A. (b) B and C are in.) 21. Three wires each having a resistance of 9 ohms are joined in If a current of 2 amps. The lighting system of a country house takes 10 amps.336 ELECTRICITY on the wire is 56 cm. The potential difference at the terminals of a generator is 400 volts.) . How much current will pass through the cell and (O. and 6 ohms respectively.) ating plant to the house ? 22.M. What is the greatest permissible resistance per mile of the cable ? (O. What are their resistances 15.M. What i ohm ? Two coils ? When joined in series have a total resistance of 10 ohms. and C Find the in parallel. what E. parallel. What would be mile of this wire ? length of the wire in Question 12 would be needed to i tion. joined in parallel the resistance is i\ ohms. what percentage main given that the resistper mile ? 1 6. On what factors does the resistance of a wire depend ? a voltmeter and a suitable battery how would you compare the in parallel. resistances of two coils of wire ? (J. at 100 This is supplied by a dynamo that maintains 220 volts at volts.. and C.F. is needed.) joined only C is left in.F. current through each lamp when (a) all are in. part question.) through each resistance ? Given 23. is being used ? 17. and 5 ohms internal resistance is connected to two resistances of 100 ohms and 10 ohms respectively (c) 20. make 14. B. the resistance of which .M. through an external resistance of 6 ohms. What is the resistance of the of the volts will be lost in half a mile of ance is 0-2 ohm battery 18. the left-hand reading the resistance of 13. A 2-volt accumulator each having an E. is which they will is 10 ohms. Power is supplied to a factory by two cables two miles long. (O. of i -45 volts and an internal calculate the current are connected in series pass through a flash lamp. 19. A i2-volt battery sends a current of 1-5 amps. and C. If the current in the mains is 200 amps. (C. and C.F. of resistances 2. and at the power-station the potential difference between the ends of the cable is maintained at 220 volts. flows through each.M. A cell of i '5 volts E. Explain the meaning of Ohm's Law.B. The potential difference between the two ends at the factory must not fall below 200 volts and a maximum current of 40 amps. What is the resistance of the mains from the generits terminals. 3.

Watts . is a rate of working called . . joule = 0-24 cal.CHAPTER XXIX ELECTRICAL ENERGY learnt in Mechanics that energy is the capacity for doing falling body possesses an amount of energy which also depends on (a) the fall. will generate 0-32 cal..P. joule in i Horse-power and watt are units of power.-lb. i calorie. know that this energy can be converted into heat. . we may E EC 337 . Experiments by Joule and others have shown that i ft. volts or C amps . A We We to 0*24 cal. . We may sum an electric current up the comparison between a falling body and by means of the following statements : i Ib. 400 watts watts. does i joule per second driven by i volt i watt i volt has power or i amp.Volts x Amps. Notice that a ft. per second . 200 volts . have seen it used to drive an electric motor. the joule of a ft. and a joule are both units of work. The energy of an electric current depends on (a) the fall in The potential. or 4-2 joules = .-lb.. (b) the mass which is falling.. being about In Mechanics we learnt that 550 so i ft.-lb. i i H. Everyday experience also teaches us that an electric current has energy. . x Coulomb falling i volt has energy z = 0-32 cal. so also say that i amp. It is only necessary to feel an electric-light bulb to prove that the energy of an electric current can be converted into heat. . How H.-lb.. ? Now a current flow of i coulomb per second many is watts called an ampere... watt. one joule is equal unit of electrical energy is called the joule WE work.. falling i ft.. (b) the quantity of electricity which is moving.. . has energy i ft. or 2 amps..-lb.P.

.T. how many he do ? If you use a watt for an hour.700. amps.. ... per second ..000 ft. unit.O..-lb. of energy. thus 0-24 calorie joule i watt = 0-24 cal.-lb. ft. Formerly platinum was used.) unit. . we get 1000 joules per second 1000 watts 1000 watts acting for an hour = 1000 x 60 x 60 joules 3. The two chief kinds are the vacuum lamp and the gas-filled lamp. against gravity. . The best-known example of the use of energy is undoubtedly the electric lamp.. . It is interesting to observe that when we pay we Let us see how many are really buying ft. roughly enough energy to lift a ton through 1200 ft.O. /. joules supplied and the bill will be the same. will Now hour. J hour.000 cals. Guillaume.600.T. . Like platinum. may have 1000 watts obtained from The Thus we 1000 amps. joules will it do ? If you use a watt for 1000 hours. the power station will charge for one Board o/ Trade (B. Again.-lb. driven by or or i i volt amp. 2 1000 volts 500 volts... : We may also look i upon it as a case of buying calories. 2 hours 100 hours . and so on. . . They call it a kilowattft. but the amount of platinum in the world is so strictly limited that Guillaume's nickel-iron alloy has taken its place. . for a B. We may many ways of using our have i or 1000 watts or 500 watts 10 watts or or 2000 watts watt working for 1000 hours i hour . It How many joules will that be should be noticed that there are ? unit. how many This number of joules is called a watt-hour..*.. Electric electrical .-lb.338 ELECTRICITY if you use a (theoretical) horse for an hour. This alloy was first made by M.000 joules or 2. it has the same coefficient of expansion as glass and can therefore be sealed into glass. and so on. * Lamps. 1000 watts working for i hour will give 864. The current enters and leaves by short lengths of a reddish wire consisting of an alloy of 45% nickel and 55% iron coated with copper. . the watts may be produced in various ways.

When there is an inert gas in the bulb the escaping tungsten molecules meet gas molecules and to a great extent bounce back on to the filament. the gas-filled lamp is filled with a mixture of : argon and nitrogen. the greater the percentage of energy converted into light. therefore. to stout nickel wire. be heated to very high temperatures without risk of fusion. a springy metal called molybdenum (thin spokes). through tungsten filament. filament to such an extent that the high temperature advantage would be completely lost. Now in all lamps only a very small percentage of the energy consumed is radiated as light. most of the energy being converted into useless heat. however. ever noticed an electric lamp which has gone nearly " " This is due to filament evaporation caused by the high temperature. Nowadays it is done in neater fashion. Here. After exhaustion and before sealing. and 2500 C. that is the whiter the filament. stout nickel. but the particles of filament are deposited on the glass and the light is obscured. Both kinds of lamp have to be exhausted of air. we meet a difficulty. Tungsten and molybdenum have very high melting-points. This not only makes the filament thinner and more liable to break. To avoid this the filament is wound in a spiral so that it is in contact with as little gas as possible. " " The coiled coil lamp is a further development of the same Have you ? black idea. This process formerly left a point on the bulb where the outlet had been sealed. They may. respectively. to and out through " " spokes alloy. In a vacuum lamp there is no cooling by conduction and convection (compare vacuum These effects in a gas-filled lamp might easily cool the flask). 3400 C. But the convection currents have one advantage in a hanging lamp any blackening particles are carried upwards to the neck where they can do no harm. Careful examination of a modern lamp will reveal in the base a glass tube open on the inside and sealed on the outside. : . The addition of the inert gas makes it possible therefore to use a higher temperature without increased blackening or shorter life. But the higher the temperature.ELECTRICAL ENERGY In both is 339 from vacuum and gas-filled lamps the path of the current alloy. The filament is by radiating of either nickel (thick spokes) supported or. Note the current does not pass through the molybdenum.

216. = . It will use i B. Explain the sign and say what further information can be derived from it. X C. = 0-24 x Ohms x Amps.400 cals. X t 3072. (iii) A of a coil potential difference of 80 volts is applied to the ends whose hot resistance is 10 ohms. 24 X 600 cals. When used on higher voltages the light increases. at 20 volts pressure is sent through for 10 min. 0-24 x Amps. In 10 min. A (i) current of 5 amps. but the light will be less. The mains in lighting this lamp would do work at the rate of 60 watts or the power The current taken will be used by the lamp is 60 watts. The lamp is meant for a 200-volt supply. by a (ii) current of 40 amperes flowing through a resistance of 200 ohms ? Cals. lamp bears the mark 2OoV 6oW. The hot resistance of the lamp is (iv) An electric 200 -=.000. = 0-24 x 200 x 4O 2 x 120 How many = 9. Watts ~ = = = Volts x Amps. If used on a lower voltage the power consumed will be less than 60 watts. unit in i6| hours. 2 x calories will Sees. = 0-24 x Ohms x Amps.* x Sees.O. per second. but the life of the lamp is shortened.o3 667 ohms. Rise of Temp. 14-4 Note but also that Cals.'.'. 100 watts 20 x 5 100 100 joules per second 100 x 0-24 cal. Cals. 100 watts will generate 100 *= . x Volts x Sees. ELECTRICITY A resistance wire is immersed in 1000 gm. = 14.T. of water. = Volts = . = 0-24 0-24 ECt E X E y. Calculate rise of temperature. = 0-24 RC 2 t be developed in 2 min. 60 -7. = 0-24 ECt Ohms X Amps.340 Simple Problems. Find the heat genCals. erated in 20 sec.200 = 0*3 amp.

A power of 50. Ten lamps similar to that in Question 9 are burning simulHow long will a unit last ? Calculate the heat genertaneously. joule. mass through 7 ft. ated in i hour.P. What is the strength of the current in the wires ? If it has a candle-power 9.-lb. 5. of the battery and the resistance of the wire. horse-power ? Quote 14. per second. If its efficiency is 1-5 15. unit ? 8. out of a well at the rate of 6 in.000 kilowatts is sent out from a generating station is 3. A man lifts a load of 55 Ib. kilowatt-hour. the equation which shows how the heat generated depends on the E. find its efficiency in candle-power per watt and watts per he working ? a man lifts a lo-lb. watts per candle-power. How many ft. what is its candle-power ? What 1 6. per unit ? iron has a resistance of 100 ohms when used on a . calorie. through a resistance What horse-power is being used ? Hotpoint Electric Iron is marked WATTS [400! VOLTS What is its it How long could 19. 1. at 200 volts. a watt-second. A lamp takes 075 amp. An electric lamp takes ampdre on a aoo-volt supply. at 132.M.-lb.O. watthour. In Question 10 what horse-power is being used? " a power of 34 watts.. generator drives a current of 2 amps. A man does a kilowatt-hour in four 6-hour days .F.ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUESTIONS 341 of energy are there in a joule.000 volts. At what rate is the lamp consuming energy ? 7. 10. unit. is its efficiency in watts per candle-power and candle-power per 11. watt. What current does it take ? In what time will it consume one B.O. A 5o-candle-power lamp takes 0*5 amp. An electric lamp working from 2io-volt mains has a hot resistance of 735 ohms. and a kilowatt-hour ? 2. 12. against gravity." Can it be Explain the expression " " in terms of expressed horse-power ? the following are units of energy and which repre13. at what H. how many joules does he do ? 4 If 746 watts = i H. watt? 17. If candle-power.P. A A of 373 ohms. [200/2 1 o|. at 220 volts. 18. Which of sent rates of working ft. B.T. of 1 80. At what H. kilowatt. An electric hot resistance ? What current does it take ? be used tor a shilling at $d.T. watt-hour. A lamp takes 0-5 amp. A wire is accidentally joined across an accumulator.P. is he working ? 6. express the joule in terms of the footpound. 6 in.. at no volts.

(c) the cost of 23. What current will be used when the driver sounds his horn at night (a) in the country. (b) the heat generated in 10 min. A certain electric power plant is said to have a capacity of 236. What in 100 gm. Calculate (a) the current. The head lights are stamped 6V " " 24W and street ? 21. is passed through a coil of wire immersed In 2 min. The dim lamps and the rear lamp of a baby marked 6V 6W.342 220. a unit. A current of 2 amps. a unit ? car are each the horn takes 2 amps. (b) its hot resistance.000 per annum. (b) in parallel. instead of a single coil? (C. was the potential difference between the ends of the wire ? 24. Find KWH . What does this mean ? 27. now many calories are you buying ? 26. electric (a) An circuit. If you run a 2ooo-watt electric fire for 2 hours. hour by the lamp takes a current of 0-55 amp. Calculate the number of calories generated in i iron mentioned in Question 19. on a 2 20. What will be the effect on the heat production of using two such coils (a) In series.W. (b) in a well-lighted 20. ELECTRICITY What will it cost to run it for 20 hours at ijtf. the temperature rises 7-2 C. the energy used in 500 hours at 4^. An electric heating coil of 80 ohms resistance is used on a supply of 230 volts.B.volt the power used by the lamp. 25.) 22. of water.volt supply. An electric lamp on a 2oo-volt supply has a hot resistance of 400 ohms.

but on moving the coil rapidly upwards. Use the other pole. (fig. in other words. We have already seen how in 1819 Oersted showed that an electric current has magnetic properties. the needle comes back to zero. out more slowly the kicks of the needle are feebler. end of the magnet into it. It was natural then for scientists to wonder whether the opposite trick would be possible can we produce electricity from magnetism ? In 1831 this question was definitely answered in the affirmative by Michael Faraday in England and Joseph Henry in America. Support a horseshoe magnet in a suitable stand Connect an old tuning coil to a sensitive galvanometer. On using Experiment. however. If there were no other method than this. Holding the coil stationary. Record your observations. electrical engineering would not have made much progress.CHAPTER XXX INDUCED CURRENTS studied one method of producing an namely. soon learn that there is a much better method. the needle If the movements are now carried is deflected the other way. laboratory. We shall. Move the coil rapidly down over one of the poles so as to cut lines of force. The 343 . Such a current is called an induced current. Instead of the horseshoe use a bar magnet. Repeat the movements slowly. the other pole of the magnet the effects are reversed. 299). The results of their work can easily be illustrated in any physical So far we have only electric current. Rapidly withdraw it. Our experiments show that an electric current is generated whenever there is relative motion between lines of force and a coil of wire. by using chemical energy. If the coil is now allowed to remain at rest. it is possible to produce magnetism from electricity. thrust the N. The galvanometer needle is deflected. Experiment.

end of the bar magnet. A more detailed experiment would show that the induced current gives the near face N. E. . Experiment. battery and tapping key 300). Further investigation are still subject proves that the present case is no exception. So far we have always had in order to electrical We We We FIG. The matter is neatly stated in a Law due to a Russian scientist. H. work to produce this electrical energy.344 ELECTRICITY e. are really doing to the Law of Conservation of Energy. the other to a (fig. There is therefore a repulsive force between the coil and the magnet and it is by doing work against this repulsive force that the electrical energy is generated.f. of the other. polarity. Two One is old tuning coils are placed one on top joined to a galvanometer. know that when a current flows in a coil its faces acquire Imagine the coil in the last experiment being polarity. 299. F.m. Lenz's Law The direction of the induced current is always such that its electromagnetic action tends to oppose the motion : which produces it. - Two other illustrations of electromagnetic induction are worth noticing. corresponding electromotive force is referred to as an induced and the method of producing these currents is called electromagnetic induction. to use chemical energy or do work produce energy. approached by the N. Lenz (1804-1865).

INDUCED CURRENTS circuit. of insulated copper wire wound on one side of the ring and conThe secondary circuit connected to a battery of voltaic cells. in diameter. At break the needle is deflected the other way. Dynamos. Its cross-section was circular and J in. Record your observations. 300. sisted of 60 ft. The primary circuit consisted of 72 ft. Open the draw one coil rapidly away. FIG. of 22 d. of similar copper wire wound on the other side The ends of the secondary were connected and made of the ring. welldeflections are given with a couple of cells in the primary circuit. 301).c. the needle is deflected and then comes to rest. marked Using a sensitive galvanometer instead of the needle. Consider a loop of wire rotating clockwise between .c. Faraday's Ring. Experiment. 301. Faraday used a soft iron ring of external diameter 6 in. The foregoing experiment is the basis of an important piece of electrical apparatus called the transformer. On making the circuit. it quickly to its first position. Restore FIG. to pass over a magnetic needle. A ring from a retort stand carrying two lots of 10 yd. (fig. 345 Close the battery circuit by Close the circuit and means of the key. wire will be found satisfactory.

. forefinger and centre extended so that they are at right angles to each other. finger If arrows or by a right hand having the thumb. It is cutting the lines of force " or the Suppose that the loop is connected to magnetic flux." two slip rings rubbed by brushes of carbon or copper gauze. In one revolution there are two maxima and two zeros. 303. Careful thought will show that : (a) The induced current is a maximum when the coil is passing through the horizontal position. u D r\ Quarter Resolutions FIG. This is Fleming's Right-hand Rule for thumb and Dynamos. 302. 302). The direction of the induced current will be related to the directions of flux and motion in the manner shown by the three FIG. CD &.346 ELECTRICITY the poles of a magnet (fig. Let the brushes be connected to a galvanometer having a central zero. (6) The induced current is zero when the coil is passing (c) through the vertical position. indicates motion forefinger indicates flux then centre finger indicates current.

304).) and the dynamo producing it is called an alternator. 305. other always negative. by a split ring called a commutator The sections of the com(fig. 303). at that same instant each commutator section Quarter Revolutions u FIG. imitator are separated from each other by mica or other insulating In this case one brush will be always positive and the material. is With such a pulsations (fig. Actual machines have many loops of wire and these are wound on a soft iron core to increase the magnetic The core and windings form flux.C.) is desired.INDUCED CURRENTS (i) 347 The two maximum currents in the external circuit. 304. the armature and the slip rings revolve with it. so that the current always in the same direction in the external circuit.C. Such a current is said to be alternating (A. nators are generally made to have a frequency of 50 cycles per second. single coil the current would have very marked To get over this difficulty the armature 305). moves into contact with the other brush. If direct current (D. are in opposite directions These facts are conveniently shown on a diagram in which current is graphed against quarter revolutions (fig. Each complete series Alterof changes is called a cycle. . the slip rings are replaced FIG. Whenever the current changes its direction in the loop.

Thus in the grid system. is not always used.ELECTRICITY is made of several coils wound in different planes and joined to a commutator of several sections. it will help you with Fleming's two rules. AAAA www^ vWVW > accumulator cells. it is dynamo interesting to send current into its brushes from a couple of available. Frequently they are identical in construction and the same machine . 306 shows the conventional diagram resistance. It is generally excited by "shunting" part Such a dynamo of the current generated through the field coils.000 " It is then transmitted to sub-stations where it is volts. The main reason is connected with transmission. so this at high voltage large current is transformed to a small current " " for the purpose of transmission. there is a left-hand rule for motors in which the fingers stand of a If you remember that petrol for precisely the same quantities." is said to be " " to produce a starting current. stepped . while motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. residual magnetism Motors. If a current is sent into a dynamo. 306. " There is always sufficient shunt wound. at maximum dethe resistance till the armature begins to revolve. Fig. may be asked why D. " " the current is stepped up at the generating station to 132. again increase the resistance. Dynamos convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. To stop the motion. Gradually shunt-wound motor with starting resistance.C. " " motors in England keep to the left-hand side of the road.i can be used for either pur- 1 I pose. Corresponding with Fleming's right-hand rule for dynamos. The magnetic field is produced by an electromagnet of the horseshoe type.C. the dynamo becomes a motor. To carry a large current requires a thick and therefore expensive copper cable. If is a small D.C. The brushes should be joined in series with the cells and a rheostat crease set 1~~ _t FIG. The Use It of A.

or the hot wire type (page 324). then any alternating current sent through the thin coil will Jiave its voltage stepped down in the ratio 5 to I. Further.414). Dance (5. E. the explosion of which gives the force which drives the car. turns. For these reasons current is generally supplied as A. In garages you will sometimes hear people talking about "coil ignition" and "magneto ignition.5.. Also.C. e. C.B. it again stepped down to voltages of about 230.INDUCED CURRENTS down is 349 to 11.e.R.000 volts. Bearing this precaution in mind." They are discussing the two methods of igniting the mixture of air and petrol vapour. Separate the flex and Why is there no try each branch in the same way. : " effect (c) ? Using the transformer of (a). i See also Articles by Sir Graham Savage. No. great care is necessary because the voltage is much higher than in the ordinary D. Hold the twin flex leading to a lamp over a compass (b) needle.S.g. there are several methods available for converting A. The Induction Coil. connect the low voltage side to a voltmeter (of suitable range) of the iron type.1?. 230 X Such experiments should therefore only be done at 1.C. Why moving do you get readings now (d) ? Rotate the poles of a horseshoe magnet slowly round a 1 lighted carbon filament lamp. and electroplating. would be unsuitable. This stepping up and down is carried out by means of transformers based on Faraday's iron ring. . A safe rule is.C.. experiments. connect the low voltage side to the hydrogen voltameter. These transformers generally consist of a thin coil and a thick coil wound on an iron If the thin coil has 1500 turns and the thick coil 300 core.C. Switch on the current. Before being supplied to the public. In doing experiments with the A. 66). where A.C. No.C. a nominal voltage of 230 means that " " twice in the cycle there is a peak voltage of 325 (i. This procedure is not possible with D. supply down to 25 volts or less.C. school and under supervision. to D. H. supply. never touch any metallic part of the apparatus while the switch is on. battery charging. 65) and Mr. (S.C. it is worth while trying the following (a) Using a transformer which steps the ordinary A. in those cases.

307). we must study an instrument sometimes called the Induction Coil and sometimes the Ruhmkorff Coil (fig. similar to the simple bell circuit (p. The current from a couple of cells this The primary is A very passes through . 307. circuits. layer or two of thick insulated copper wire is wound round a bundle of soft iron rods. It consists of two FIG. the primary and the secondary.350 ELECTRICITY In order to understand these two methods of ignition. 321).

but care must be taken not to touch the secondary terminals unless the coil is a very small A ! one. the induced E. may large number of turns of thin wire. at make and at break.F. set up between the ends of the coil. the hammer is attracted and the circuit broken. it flies back into contact with the screw and the circuit is complete again. at break. Across the interrupter there is joined a condenser C generally consisting of sheets of tinfoil separated by waxed paper. In the early days of motor-cars and cycles. The longer the secondary coil. will be great enough to overcome the resistance of the air and a spark will pass. coil was once made to give a the longer will be the spark. a question of great importance in the working of petrol motors of all descriptions. But we have seen that when lines of force pass across a coil there is an induced E. Since the hammer is mounted on a piece of springy metal.INDUCED CURRENTS coil 351 then into a soft iron hammer in contact with an screw and so back to the battery through a key.F. the ignition of the explosive mixture was brought about by . " At break/' the lines of force collapse into the soft iron core again cutting across the secondary. the secondary. be several miles in length. The E.M." lines of force spread out from the temporary magnet cutting across the coils of the secondary. There is thus an induced E.M. We are now in a better position to understand ignition.M. spark of 42 in.F. The hammer " " " or makeand^ screw are together called the interrupter and-break. At "make. Ignition Systems. at break is found to be greater than that at make because the break is a more sudden action. The core of soft iron rods becomes a temporary magnet.M.F.M." Round the primary coil and insulated from it is wound a very This. thus still further increasing the E. but in opposite directions. The effect of this condenser is to reduce sparking between the platinum points and to make*the break still more sudden. Its secondary was 280 miles long The experiments usually carried out with a Wimshurst machine can be done with an induction coil.F. If the secondary terminals S S are close enough together. The screw and hammer both have platinum contacts.

to Distributor Arm to Frame toLJ. the magneto was invented. To get over this difficulty. " " " " The primary has a make and break or contact breaker of the One end in it and across this is the usual condenser.Coil i i i Firing order 1.352 ELECTRICITY means coil.2.3. Cam Spring This instrument is to all intents and purposes a small dynamo and induction coil combined.Coil to Frame* Condenser Make and Break FIG. . while the secondary is a coil of many turns of thin wire. of a battery and an induction coil similar to the one we have considered. The armature is wound with two coils. The coil ignition ^Rotating Distributor Arm Frame PromHT. 308. carried. This type of coil is sometimes called a trembler method was rather inconvenient for motorbecause of the cumbersome battery which had to be cycles. the primary consisting of a few turns of thick wire.4. The dynamo is of course driven by the engine itself.

is found. the ether will burst into flame. it fact that the plug points are generally might be thought that only a comparaIt tively low voltage would be necessary to produce a spark. the circuit is completed through " the frame. While the spoon is still warm. Experiments with the Induction Coil. generally in the base of the distributor where the condenser may also be found (fig. Its make and break is located elsewhere. Since at the moment of firing. On passing sparks. fashion has changed once more and coil ignition is again fitted on the majority of cars although the motor-cycle still retains its compact magneto." The cam on the rotating distributor arm causes a break four times per revolution.INDUCED CURRENTS secondary " 353 work or is connected to earth which in this case is the metal" frame of the car. To-day.000 volts is necessary. a contact breaker somewhere in the primary. the metal piece on the top of the arm engages with one of the four electrodes in the distributor cover. Having regard to the fairly close together. 308). that the greater the pressure of the gas. a voltage in the neighbourhood of 10. In conclusion it is worth noting that any ignition system may be compared with an induction coil in that it must have a spark gap in the secondary. At each instant. 309). it has no moving parts. causing a spark in one of the The firing order i'3'4'2 is found to be best for smooth cylinders. that is. The coil is generally a plain coil. the gas is under compression. The spark jumps across the air gap to the outer part of the plug which is in contact with the frame and the secondary circuit is thus complete. the higher the voltage necessary. i. It will be seen from the diagrams that both in the low-tension and the high-tension circuits. working. and a condenser across this contact breaker. however. methylated spirit is . Not only did the magneto become popular on motor-cycles but cars also adopted magneto ignition. Another wire is joined to the other terminal and its free end brought near to a few drops of ether in the spoon. one end of the wire being attached to one of the secondary terminals of the coil. But the coil ignition of to-day is rather different. The other end goes to the central electrode of the sparking plug. Copper wire is wound round the handle of a clean metal spoon (fig.

s n FIG. across the small gap in a sparking plug a voltage of about 10. 309. A spectrum tube con- hydrogen gives a striking appearance when joined to the terminals of the induction coil (fig. The discharge may be examined with a direct vision spectroscope when the taining rarefied . which . sure the higher the voltage needed.000 volts is necessary. have seen that to make a spark pass 3. or across a short gap with only a small voltage acting. may A piece of paper is held between the ends of two wires . The We former fact is used in spectrum tubes and X-ray the latter fact is tubes used in working discharge tubes and lamps. a After passing sparks a joined to the secondary terminals. 310.354 ELECTRICITY Petrol or benzole poured in and the experiment repeated. 2. that the discharge of electricity will take place across a very long gap if the gas is rarefied. But here the gas is under pressure and the greater the presIt is found. give characteristic colours on the ordinary town voltFIG. 310).. also be used. Spectrum Tubes. age. however. number of tiny perforations will be seen on holding the paper up to the light.

lead.W. Neon. lamp.INDUCED CURRENTS characteristic 355 hydrogen lines will be plainly seen in the orange and blue. On referring to p. 21.G. or tinned copper. Following these and the main switch you will find a number These are let of smaller fuse wires also mounted on porcelain. A current of 10 amps. a lead wire of S. fuse. mercury vapours give yellow and blue respectively. however. . The metal may be tin. House Lighting. The various shades of green may be produced by cadmium.G. Some coloured lights. and artificial daylight. fuses. an excessive current would flow and sufficient heat would be generated to burn the insulation on the wiring or even set fire to the building. are merely filament lamps with tinted glass. nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases give Sodium and red. a spark jumps across and hot drops of molten metal are produced. The meter and the main fuses are chosen to suit the maximum current likely to be used hi the house. This is prevented " " by the blowing of the fuse and the breaking of the circuit.W. The discharge lamps now so often seen in town lighting or for advertisement signs contain a rarefied gas or vapour. of the house a very easy path were made for the current any part by the touching of two leads. 333 it will also be evident why each lamp always takes the same current and does not flare up when others are switched off. and magnesium. Discharge Tube Lighting. 20 and a copper wire of S. These are called lo-amp. At the instant of melting. If the fuse box has a glass front you will see two strips or wires of a white metal mounted on porcelain and let into the leads." a meter and a double-pole main switch. wall switch. thallium. connected to two fuse wires thus It will readily be understood that all the lamps must be in parallel with each other. Where the supply leads come in you will find a ''fuse box. respectively If in into the leads travelling to different parts of the house.G. buff. in the building is Each lamp fuse. Such a switch makes a gap in both leads. Useful knowledge may be gained by a careful examination of the electric lighting system of your house. Hence the use of a porcelain mounting.W. 33. will melt a tin wire of S.

C. of See fig. In what way does an induction coil illustrate electromagnetic induction ? Under what conditions will the instrument give (a) only an induced E. An electric cable whose resistance per yard is 0*005 ohm carries a current of 30 ampdres.M. 302. make and 5. (c) motion. " " in the electric supply to short circuit 9. Why is an induction coil sometimes called a 7. resembles and differs from a simple bell circuit. State 3. 1. motor.356 ELECTRICITY QUESTIONS Draw a diagram to illustrate the essentials of a D. With the help .B." such as is found in many electrical instruments. and D.M. Describe the ignition system of any motor-car with which you are acquainted. What is meant by a to cause damage unless the circuit is a house and why is it likely " " ? fuse protected by a Explain the action of a fuse. What are the main differences between A. How much heat is produced per minute in each mile of the cable ? The mechanical equivalent of heat is 4 2 joules per calorie.) 306 draw the conventional diagram for a shunt-wound dynamo with a lamp in the external circuit. fig.C. (J. Show one armature coil and mark the directions of (a) lines of force. (b) current.C. Show how it 4. ? the advantages which each has over the other. Draw the primary circuit of an induction coil. " 2. (D.) " " transformer ? 6.F. Describe the principle and mode of action of the break. Give two examples of its use in everyday life.. (b) an induced current ? 8.

.ANSWERS TO NUMERICAL EXAMPLES N G.S.P.

.

. 66) io 25.c. . 3 Ib. 26. 27 ft. (12) 10. 20 lb. 80 gm. (17) SJpdls... (27) 3.-wt.. per c. (12) (13) 30 Ib. (io) 100 Ib..p... (3) 100 gm. (19) 4ft. 14.-wt. 44) from other end... (23) 10. (9) :>er c. (13) 2-7. (8) 1-03. per c. (19) 9000 lb. 6f 25. CHAPTER IV (2) (p. 0-174 ton../sec.-pdls. CHAPTER (2) III (p. from E (8) 6 Ib. (21) 50-3 tons.h. (3) . 0-9. (15) 1875 lb. (5) #=23 gm. (2) (4) 3-5 sec. 0-8 gm. 2063 lb. >Vd 2825 675 3400 lb. (4) 14-7 lb.-wt. 13 Ib.P.. (7) 970... 256 (io) (12) (20) ft.. 6 gm. (15) 72 lb. from 80 gm.S... ft. (3) 0-8 gm per c. (2) 6 in.. 16 in. (16) 875 lb. 3-2 lb.. (io) Af= (5) . (io) 84 gm 10-5 gm.P. (8) 8-7 oz. io) 13-65 gm.900 tons: (24) 153 lb. 96 sec..7-5. 6 (8) T T min. (16) 4ft.... 4687-5 lb. 1-17 gm. (22) V (18) ( 7350. S. 77 gm.. (15) 3'i Ib. 359 . n . (30) 075 sq.-wt. 45 vertical...-wt. (6) 91! ft.. per sec.-wt CHAPTER VII (i) (p. from centre. 960 units..-wt.c.....-wt. (25) 496 c. lb. (n) 45 Ib...-wt. (n) 54 gm.-wt 30 lb. . 5) (io) CHAPTER (2) II (p.. (5) 98 7JH. 32 ft.-wt. from 12 lb.. 26 ft. (n) 0-5 cwt.P. 27 N.ANSWERS TO NUMERICAL EXAMPLES fc CHAPTER 412-5 litres. 200 yd.. (14) 0-25 gm. 384 ft. sec. 400 ft. from boy.. 15. ii Ib..-wt.. *N G. from 7 tons... per c.. (13) 30 Ib.. 53) (4) o-iH..c. 33) ... CHAPTER VI (i) (6) (p. (4) 1-5 ft. ft.-wt. 2 3) 8 3i Ib... I (p. (2) (7) 138379. (14) 50 lb... (29) 680 litres. tons 8 ft.. 12 cm... f 5 oz. 46-5 tons.-wt. 1-25 gm. . 25 m. (5) 10-4.360 ft. (3) I49JH. . 4 3r litre. per (3) . (io) 20 cm. (18) 0-9.. 50 gm.266. (6) 346 ft. sec 2 (n) 29$ sec. CHAPTER (i) V (p. 8 ft. (9) 15 Ib. 5544^. from 24 lb. (17) 308 gm.. (6) lb... 645$ ft.c. per cc. cm. 250 per 26..c. 2ooH.... (9) 48 gm. 26.-wt. (14) 7'4lb.. 48 lb. (5) <J S of BD from O (6) 2 in.-lb.W to (4) 14 Ib. per sec.. of W. 3-6 ft.-wt. ft. (8) 3-1 IK.-wt. (3) 2-8 Ib. . 26. . per c. . 0-259. (6) 69 gm.5.P. (7) 7-7. 0-8.c.. 0-54 i-ZA gm mm.P.c. 26) 34 ft. (20) 5 cm.

. (16) 1-6. (7) 540 cal. . ( z 5) Con vex 20 in io. .. (16) 52 C. . 66 F.. .. (z) . 2 '5^ * io lf . (i4)4'8m. (12) 25 C. per gm. CHAPTER XIV (2) (p. (9) (15) 0-87.. 5940 cal. 13-44 **! cm - CHAPTER XVTII (7) 33 in-> I -84 . 31-5 cal. 8-5" F.. (14) cm.. (zi) 1} (Z2)8in. . (3) -f 6 in. Same size Z2 in. (14) 6J gm. 58 F. zSso yd. (8) 0-42. (13) i* to 12 ft. 4$ in. . 127) (5) (4) 0-1 C. (4) 225-198 s<i 14-999 ft. 56 26'. (3) (6) 8-812 gm. (8) 12'. I2i ft. .. (5) i m. ft. mm. (3) 162) 288.. (18) i-2B.. (5) . (14) 1889 gm. . 0-000541. (13) 48-9 gm... (9) 6*24 in. no gm.. CHAPTER (2) X (p. 153) (6) 4} ft. .. (4) 2 in. 1701 cal. (13) 24 in . (4) 512 ..9in.. (5) o-ii. (p. (5) <6)3 in.. .. 3 in.. XX I . (9) 16* C. 60 F. c. (16) Convex 17} in. (is) (xo) (12) 1-47. 2-56 sq. 196) 6 m... (15) 303* C. (6) 10 gm.3 6o ANSWERS CHAPTER VIII 22}" (3) C. of ice left. beyond A. . 540 cal. 226) 16 cm. 3 cm. CHAPTER (z) XIX 47 1-47. 97) . . CHAPTER (p. (13) 750 mm. cm. CHAPTER XI (8) (p... (6) 180 C. (12) 450 (10) 0-000514. : . . 37*8'... ... (z7) Concave x$ in. (7) 10. (p. 2 in.300 Ib. CHAPTER IX (2) 90) ft... J . . . (5) 1127 H.. 139) 3 min. 417 C. (7) 4i >n. CHAPTER XVI <3) (p.U. . .. 427 . (8) - (p.. 41.c. . (3) 16 : i . . (8) 424 (2) (p.... 140 yd. 117) (zi) 410 (i6j 4-2 mm.. no cal.. (2) 2 cm.Th. (5) 20 cm.. 2505 cal.. 238 c. (zo) 68 cm.U. (3) 5-28 cal. 4 in. 172* C. 12 in. . (2) Same 171) . (20) 83cal. *7-5 gm.. (14! 6cm.m .. (M) 23 C. .. CHAPTER XII 43-000. : .. 5-28 gm 47-5 cal. (z8) Concave {19) zo-07 in.6. .. 285 cal. (17) 16 C.o-xx.. 21 C.. (7) CHAPTER XIII ft) (p.000 CHAPTER (i) XV 384 . (16) 97oB. (14) 4-7 .. 46 26'. 320.. square . .40 (p.. . 78) C. 45 C. cu. 341. (X3)im. (8) 8085 cal. .c. 31-5 gm. 13 Jin. (10)9 in. 8z} in. (9) 220 mm. (4) 25 C. (3) 11-6 F. .Th. 384. . . (p. (zo) 9 <-' (") 24 215) in.

CHAPTER XXII (8) (9) 254) (a) (a) (b) (c) 42 or 138 approx.^.. (24) 14. (b) 400 ohms. invisible. 2-25.. 12000 coulombs. J amp.. green ground. (n) 7$ or 3^ ohms..P.. (27) Halved. 38.. 0-050 gm. red. (23) 1 2 5 volts. 4 cm..176 cal. Black... 3-5. -lb. CHAPTER XXVIII (z) (p. (17) 2 ohms. (7) 6. (19) i. (18) 0-20 amp. 447 sec.. 0-56... (12) -^H.. 2-67.. 2%d. (13) if ft. (19) is. 335) ohms. (p.. 356) 114. (10) i hr. (6) 5 amp. 10 hrs. (22) (a) 121 watts.. (17) 2H. (15) 5%. 0-057 H. (25) 3.. (15) 0-0035 cm. (ii) 1-34 H.. (10) i2amp.. (8) 379 amp.P. 237) 30 cm.. Doubled. 864. (7) -'/A H> li 3'3 volts. (4) 0-74 ft. (8) (6) ft.(i8) loo-ni. (21) 12 ohms.. (15)110. 25 cm. f. (16) 1520 sec.000 cals. (5) 0-22 amp. (9) 1-8. (9) 8 ohms. (14) 0-403 gm. 4-13. (2) 5 amp.\ (20) (a) 13 amp. ohm per mile.. (6) 0-18 amp. (5) 259) 3 r ff of its distance nearer. 43. (3) - ^H CHAPTER (9) XXX (p. (21) 418. 2$ ohms. 341) p -> (fl 4 ioo joules. Invisible. 40 -5. CHAPTER (13) XXVI (p. (7) f amp.. yellow ground. o -4 amp.ANSWERS (4) 361 Concave 13 J Concave CHAPTER XXI (p.400 cal. (4) 20 ohms. 2-1-9. (12) 3360 ohms. 2<. (20) 80 ( 22 ) TTff' 3T7T AV CHAPTER (2) XXIX (p. (3) 9:1. (5) watts....456.000. (17) 0-05 amp.. (b) (c) (d) CHAPTER XXIII (1) (p. red ground. i6f hrs... .P.. black.048 cals.P. (16)1^.. (8) 2} ohms.. (4) 14-7 in. Green.> 0-160 gm. 5-43 gm.. 0-990 gm... (16) 18 volts. (5) Convex -f 15 in... 317) 5 amp. (3) 12 ohms. (14) 6 and 4 ohms. (c) ^i os.

.

.

.

109 Caustic curve. 12 Thermal Unit. 157 Archimedes. 92 Brownian Movement. prism. 310 Corpuscular theory. 321 Candle-power. 16 Antinode. 347. 236 Black. 19 Chladni's plate. 257 Declination. A. 95 Camera.. 131 Cooling curve. 105 Aneroid. 347 1 3 Back E. 133. 284. 291 Capillarity. 112 Daniell cell. 269 Cohesion. 166. 134 Acceleration. 337 Couple. Thomas. 86 Chimney. 14. J. 54 Accumulator. 274 Charles's Law. 127 Bramah British press. 313-317 Adhesion. 306 Ammeter. Joseph. 349 Amalgamation. 280 Binoculars. 37 Charge. 106. 205. 105 Crova's disc. 297> 344 Convection. 75. 267. 224 " Davy. 17. 209 Cavendish.F. 277 Capacity. 120 Boiling Point. 300 Amplitude. 339 Coil ignition. 144 Chlorophyll. 130. 71 Canton. 332 Ampere. 184 Brake Horse Power. 128. 122.. 223. 285. 224. thermal. 323. T. 192. 86 zero. 339 Armature.INDEX Aberration. John. 109 Aeroplane. 293 Conduction of heat. 244 Chromium plating. no Consequent poles. 313 Cinema. 100. 44 Critical angle. 120. 101 Copper voltameter. Commutator. 24. 210-211 Coulomb. 106 Effect of pressure on. 93 electrical. 290. 96. 102104 Boyle. 352 Argon. 314 Barometer. 206 temperature. 89 Condensers. 266 Conservation of Energy. 148 Dalton.M. 203. 108. 150 Alternating current. 32 Alphornblasser. 16. 311. 128-130 Conjugate foci. 108 Coiled coil lamp. 347 Atmospheric pressure. 272 Desaguliers.. 95 12*. 232 Cobalt steel magnets. 92 Calorific value. spherical. 303. 149 Andrews. 290 Centre of Gravity. electric. 303 Darling calorimeter. Caloric. 62. 274 Boyle's Law. 121." 120 Calorie. 193 Absolute temperature. 4. 276 365 . 15 Bennet. Rev. 123.

46 Humidity. 1 60. 353 electrostatic. 355 Dispersion. 294 luminiferous. 59 Galvani. 349. 348 Electrochemical equivalents. 279 electromagnetic. 272 Gilbert. 115 Electrolysis. 338 Earth's magnetism. C. 247 Hoar-frost. 62 Fuel calorimeter. 343. 294. 51 Indicated Horse Power. 296 Electroplating. 60. 61. 138 Guericke. 311 Electrolux refrigerator. F. 297 Engine. 311. 343 Herschel. 125 Petrol. 162. 348 Floating dock. 114 Diamonds. 210. 276. 316 Hygrometers. 101 Efficiency of machine. in Eclipses. 244. 89 thermometer. 129. 351 Inclination or dip. 278 Electrophorus. Joseph. 120. 6 Gray. Diesel. 238 Distorting mirrors. 310. 338-339 Geographical meridian. 298 Galvanometer. 264. 14. 272 Inclined plane. 22. in 308-317 Electromagnet. 345 Filament evaporation. 105. 24* 2 47 . 206 Dielectric. 158 Helmholtz. 239 Evaporation. 190 Doppler. 105. 115 " Hypsometer. 85 Fleming's rules. 355 Galileo. 124 Erg. 247 Fortin. Eye. 345 Dyne. 264. 322 Electromagnetic induction. 104 Ice-pail experiment. 293 Diffusion. 2ii.366 Dew. 288 Fraunhofer. 274. 346. 56. 250 Henry. 139. 274 Gravitation. 95 Fuses. 114. 313 Electroscope. chemical. 344 Infra-red. 139 Ignition systems." 75. 84 Horse-power. 125 Steam. Stephen. 124 Electric bell. William. 339 Fire-screen. 282 Guillaume's alloys. 276 Dynamo. 117 Hope's experiment. 321 lamps. 23 Fog. 56 Faraday. 75 Falling bodies. 272 Dip. 61 Ether. 47 of heat engine. 343 Induction coil. 300 Gas equation. 272 Discharge tubes. 114 Huyghens. 245 Friction. Harmonics. 299 Electron. 117 Dew-point. 126 Induced currents. 279 Greenhouse. 228 no Fahrenheit. 278. 62. 344 Electromotive force. 102-104 Effects of heat. 245 Franklin. 15 Foucault.. 46 Force pump. 116 Foot-pound. 87 Gas-filled lamp. 1 66 Effect of pressure on boiling-point. 265. 272 Ebullition. 280 Energy. INDEX Fish's life-line. 338 motor. 82. 122. 24 no du Fay. 210 Hydrometers.

155 N. 46. 2x1 Quartz glass. 328 Ohm's Law. 344 Leslie's Ohm. 157 Noise. 236 Leclanche. electric. 87. 47-52 Magnetic field.P. 134 Latent Heat. 232 Photosynthesis. 151 interval. 129 367 276 Internal combustion engine. 207 Momentum. 136 Joule. 338 Land and Sea breezes. 291. 88 Proof-plane.T. 337 Joule's experiment. 233 Machines. 134-139 Rainbow. 290 Microscope. 270. 245. 60. 154. 148 Long sight. 305 Pinhole camera. 302 lines of force. 96 Lateral Inversion. Invar. 136 jar. 210. 157 Parallax. 82 Inverse Square Law. electrostatic. 319. 122 Megaphone. 108 Kirchhoff. 242. 125. 173 Pendulum. 319. electric. 272 Magnification. 66 Lamps. 172. 166 Pitch. 343. 35i variation. 270. 234 Magnifying glass. 302. 246 Plimspll. 233. 326 Energy. 100 Cube. 59. 300 6. in . 56. 105 Local action. 128. 223. 180 Overstrung. 175. 13 Pencil. 233 Pumps. 33 Natural Scale. 143 N. 89 Oersted. 270. 155 Musschenbroek. 150. 252 Refrigeration. 60 Power. i88f 213 Lightning. 362 Motors. 290 Difference. 60. 327 Optical illusions.. 144 Nodes. 82 Pepper's Ghost. 158 Mass. Levers. 42 Equivalent of Heat. 314 Potential. 42 Leyden " Light beam 197' 284 " apparatus. 343. 299. 317 Nodal lines. 78 Newton. 346. 122 Kilowatt. 153 Michelson. 124 Longitudinal waves. 348 Musical echo. 139* 247 Radiation. 123 Physical states. 61 theory. 351 Liquefaction of gases. 256. 226. 304 Lenz's Law. 248. 340 Pressure Coefficient. 246 Kites. 234 Mirage. 180 Persistence of vision. 24 Quality. 338 Kinetic energy.. 287 346. 191. electric. 170 Lines of force.INDEX fngenhousz. 130. 282 Newton's Laws of Motion. 7 Mechanical advantage. 303. 22 Poundal.L. 288 Light year. 61 Locomotive. 176 Pascal. 265. 283 Jamieson's paper. Ni Fe accumulator. 177. 282 mechanical. 205. Polarization.P. 353 Insulator. 302.

306 Short sight. Mark. 299 Voltameter. 104 Supercooling. 116 Surface Tension. 306. 242 Spiral spring. 64 Ruhmkorff Coil. 350. 329 thermometer. 210. 138 Thomson. 299. 101. 277 Telescope. 339 Twain. 30 Trichord. 168 Rolling. 250 . Robert.P. 61 X-rays. 157 Tungsten filament.T. 153 S. 210 Wheatstone bridge. 23 Siren. J. 1 60 Ventilation. 308 Roemer. 337 Wave Theory. 284 Therm. 137 Spectacles. 154 Solenoid. 19 heat. 247 Umbra. Sir William. Sir J. 46. 333 Whispering gallery. 211. 109 Symmer. 272 Screw gauge. 353 Rumford. 57 Resistance. 233 Vacuum Vapour lamp. Thomas. 338 Spectrometer. 320 Speaking tube. 101 Resolution of Forces. 248 Volt. 46. 159 Rheostat. 107. 89 Voltage.. 145. 92 Thermal capacity. 233 Siphon. 9. 93 Thermos flask. 122. 105 Velocity. 134 Transformer. 1 68. 133 Vernier. 298 Stethoscope. 153 Wimshurst. 329 Volta. 345 Transverse waves. 3 Vitaglass. 13 Young. 166 Unit magnetic pole. 277 Watt.368 Regnault. 307. 71 Thau matrope. 8 pressure. 239 of Sound. 309 Voltmeter. 106. 3 Series and Parallel. 240 Torricelli. 332 Sturgeon. 235 Temperature. 139. 147 Triangle of Forces. 104 Ultra-violet. Count. 231 Water Equivalent. 93. 323. 153 Specific gravity. 31 Resonance. 120. 278 f Work. 94 Watson. 321 Sublimation. 54 of Light. 258 INDEX Trade winds. 115 Relative velocity.