Geotechnical Engineering

K.Sai Rama Rao


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It is also used to correct faults methods and devices to stabilize land and one commonly grouting or used method that is worldwide a is injecting liquid (cement and additives) into voids within a structure. Deep Soil There are various Mixing. earth. grouting has been performed on the foundation of virtually every one of the world¶s large dams. etc. Grouting is an essential construction procedure . load size. Cement Deep Mixing System. Since first usage in the 19th century. in order to reduce the amount of leakage through the rock. In this paper. depends on several conditions like the type and alternative layers of soil. in concrete and masonry structures. Purpose of grouting can be either to strengthen or reduce water flow through a formation. Some examples of grouting method are hydro fracture grouting. or displacing the gases and liquids from within these. different kinds of commonly used grouting and injection method specially. Vacuum Grouting Injection. among others. or rock fill. compaction grouting. Jumbo Eco Pile System are discussed. Deep Mixing Method - be it of concrete. and sometimes to strengthen the foundation to support the weight of the overlying structure.ABSTRACT Shallow Soil Mixing. Dry Jet Mixing System. jet grouting. Selecting the right method for soil stabilizing however. the situation and type of project.

y Perform special geotechnical study.2. Instead. with the aim to increase resistance against deformation. it displaces the soil into which it is injected.It is a technique that is generally used to reduce ground permeability and control ground water flow. shear-strength and uniaxial compressive strength or finally to reduce conductivity and interconnected porosity in an aquifer. Compaction grouting In this method. the volumes of voids are reduced and the deposit is locally densified. y Develop performance prediction. permeation grouting refers to the replacement of water in voids between soil particles with a grout fluid at low injection pressure so as to prevent fracturing . In Compaction grouting a very stiff (say 25mm slump) mortar is injected into loose soils. y Develop initial grouting program. without penetrating the soil pores . Injection and Grouting Methods Permeation grouting This method describes the process of filling joints or fractures in rock or pore spaces in soil with a grout without disturbing the formation. but it also can be used to strengthen and stiffen the ground 2. grout mix is specifically designed so as not to permeate the soil voids or mix with the soil. forming grout bulbs which displace and densify the surrounding ground. jet grouting. Hydro fracture grouting . to supply cohesion.Introduction Grouting is the injection of pumpable materials into a soil or rock formation to change the physical characteristics of the formation. Grouting for ground engineering can be subdivided into: permeation grouting. compaction grouting. DESIGN STEPS: y Identify underground construction problem. More specifically. In granular deposits not at their maximum density. rock grouting and compensation grouting and deep mixing method. hydro fracture grouting. y Refine design and prepare specifications. y Establish objectives of grouting program. y Compare with other solutions.

fly ash and other additives. The aim is minimize movement of the ground that would affect the existing structure Deep Mixing Methods (DMM) The Deep Mixing Method (DMM) is performed to improve the strength. thus reducing the mass permeability of the ground and produced the controlled uplift of structures.Hydro fracture grouting is the deliberate fracturing of the ground (soil or rock) using grout under pressure. fractures or joints in a rock mass with grouts without creating new or opening existing fractures. It is based on mixing binders. Rock grouting is the filling or partly filling by grout injection of fissures. such as cement. in the process modifying it and thereby improving it. These methods have been suggested and applied for soil and rock stabilizing. vibration reduction(along the railway). liquefaction mitigation. If the grouting pressure is increased sufficiently. This also referred to as claquage by French engineers. Typically it is used to compact and stiffen the ground or to access otherwise inaccessible voids. road and railroad and bridge foundations and embankments. existing fissures may enlarge and new breaks may occur. permeation or hydro fracture grouting as an intervention between an existing structure and an engineering operation (particularly tunnel Excavations). with the soil by the use of rotating mixing tools in order to form columns of a hardening material In Sweden and Finland. deformation properties and permeability of the soil. a soil mass may split and artificial grout-filled fissures are formed. solidification and stabilization of contaminated soils etc. lime. deep stabilization techniques are quite popularly used for stabilization of soft soil (Ahenberg et al. construction of excavation support systems or protection of structure close to excavation sites. In normal operation the drill string is advanced to the required depth and then the high-pressure water or grout is introduced while withdrawing the rods Jet grouting systems will discussed further in this paper. The main advantage of these methods is long term increasing in strength especially for some of the binders used. in rock. Jet grouting The high-pressure water or grout is used to physically disrupt the ground. 1995). in order to reduce the permeability and increase the stiffness of the grouted mass Compensation Grouting Compensation grouting is the responsive use of compaction. slope stability. resulting in the increase in strength of cement stabilized clay with the increase in curing time Rock grouting . Pozzolanic reaction can continue for months or even years after mixing.

Method of additive injection (i. II) Dual phase (grout + air injection). . there are four basic jet grouting systems which are widely used nowadays and they are I) Single phase (grout injection only). According to most researches. wet or dry injection). Method by which additive is mixed (i.e. III) Triple phase (water + air injection and followed by grout injection). rotary/ mechanical energy or by high pressure jet). 2. The location of the mixing tool (i.e. near the end of the drilling rods or along a portion of the drilling rods). 3.e..The Federal Highway administration has suggested that these techniques can be classified based on 1.

II. DSM (Deep Soil Mixing) and JGS (Jet Grouting Systems) The Methods which are utilized in DMM Parts Shallow Soil Mixing (SSM): RasColumns Deep Soil Mixing (DSM): Cement Deep Mixing System (CDM) Jet Grouting Systems Single Phase Dual Phase Triple Phase Jumbo Eco Pile System (JEP) Vacuum Grouting Dry jet Injection mixing System (DJM) Super Jet Grouting Ras ± Jet System Based on conditions such as the types of soil and rock layers. V. III. jet grouting methods or a combination of several methods may be required The following are the characteristics of the improved soils and rocks when these methods are employed I. SSM (Shallow Soil Mixing). Remediation of contaminated ground It is important to note that Deep Mixing Methods are divided into three parts namely. VI. in bottom auger the mixing blades rotate clockwise and in the upper auger. Increase of stability. In some conditions where mineral soils are absent (in the soft soil). the mixing blades rotate anti clockwise. Cement Deep Mixing System (CDM) The second method which is related to Deep Soil Mixing and is one of the DMM methods is Cement Deep Mixing System (CDM). IV.CDM is normally utilized in soft soil that contains mineral soils such as clay or sand. VII. time table of project. The mixing head is combined with blades which can rotate inversely. sand should be added before mixing in cement . and the economic situation. In other words. location and importance of project. Reduction of vibration. Reduction of settlements. Increase of bearing capacity. Liquefaction mitigation. Columns of stabilized material are formed by mixing the soil in place with a µbinder¶ and the interaction of the binder with the soft soil leads to a material which has better engineering properties than the original soil. Ras-Columns Ras-Columns are one of the most common soils mixing in DMM methods which are based on mechanical soil mixing technology. the use of multipleauger or single auger deep mixing methods. Prevention of sliding failure.IV) Super Jet Grouting (air injection + drilling fluid by grout injection). This method has been used for improving shallow soils and seldom in deep mixing.

and spread readily into place. this method also applies the same process whereby the in-situ soil will be cut and broken by high pressure jet of slurry and produce homogenously improved zone around the mechanically mixed core. In this method. for underwater applications. rather than exerting any potentially disruptive forces in pressure injection. Because of a series of overlapping augers the main geotechnical purpose will be obtained. The method is based on injecting dry binder carried by compressed air into soil [21]. . the injection liquid is introduced either through injection pipes set at appropriate intervals and depths or. the applications of JEP.slurry. peats and other weak soils. are: underpinning. fissures and porous areas Dry Jet Mixing System (DJM) The second part of Jet Grouting Systems is Dual Phase System. In this technique a partial vacuum is first established in a portion of the structure (or the whole of the structure if it is small enough). deep foundation. After achieving a stable vacuum. the slump flow is influenced (in order of influence) by the anti-washout admixture concentration and the binder content. the same slurry is jetted simultaneously. shaft supports. groundwater exits. It can be said that the Jumbo Eco Pile System (JEP) is the most popular method in this system Most frequently. have some similarities with the previous methods.Jet System Ras-Jet System is used in super jet grouting method. joint sealing. 30 years has passed since then but the technique has been evolved considerably. Kjeld Paus from Sweden. Apart from having the same mixing tools. the process employs the effects of both hydration and the bonding of soil particles to increase the shear strength and reduce the compressibility of the soil mass Jumbo Eco Pile System (JEP) The next part of Jet Grouting System is Triple Phase System. sealing slabs. vault slabs. This equates (to) a mid range slump. This method is the same as the Ras-Columns which have been elaborated in the first part of this paper. Jet Grouting Systems Jet Grouting Systems. However. drawing off gases and liquids from the voids and interstices. tunnel protection. A very high slump grout gives maximum water dilution. column walls. A very low slump grout results in little or no flow characteristics. foundation restoration and modification. dam sealing. The slump of concrete or grout is a good measure of the consistency and flow characteristics of a concrete or grout mixture. With this system. earth pressure relief. sealing cover. One of the most commonly utilized methods in Dual Phase System is Dry Jet Mixing System (DJM). Dry Jet Mixing System (DJM) is a Highly effective ground treatment system used to improve the load performance characteristics of soft clays. and the water reducer concentration Vacuum Grouting Injection The third part of single phase of jet grouting is Vacuum Grouting Injection. The concept of using dry binder for deep soil mixing was first presented in Scandinavia in 1967 by Mr. panel walls. This vacuum holds the structure together. etc Ras. while the mixing blades are rotating. with in-situ soils for remediation. Dry Jet Mixing System uses mixing blades to mix dry reagents. For underwater grout. In addition. which is the third part of DMM method. it is desirable to have highly flowable grout that can resist water dilution and segregation. such as cement or lime. over the surfaces and into the structure through cracks. in Ras-Jet System. the watercementitious material ratio. which is also named Soilcrete-Jet Grouting.

etc. 2. using rotating mixing tools or jetting simultaneously in order to form columns of a hardening material since pozzolanic reactions between the binder and the soil grains are developed. slope stability. air and drilling fluid are pumped through separate chambers in the drill string. while the pumping of drilling fluid is ceased. The Deep Mixing Methods (DMM) which are applied to stabilize and improve soils are increasingly spreading and have been accepted world-wide as a soil improvement method. lime and other additives) with the soil. vibration reduction (along the railway). The choice of which Deep Soil Mixing Methods is the best to use depends on various factors like: the soil type. It is based on mixing binders (such as cement. 3. environmental conditions. coaxial air and grout slurry to erode and mix with the soil. remedial grout injection of building.the homogenous soil-cement column mass of a large diameter will be installed underground. liquefaction mitigation. road and railroad and bridge foundations and embankments. project conditions and its place or location. Grout slurry. 4. etc. solidification and stabilization of contaminated soils. Upon reaching the designed drill depth. Designers are expected to solve problems more easily should the advantages and the main points of each DMM method . jet grouting is initiated with high velocity. These methods have been suggested and applied for soil and rock stabilizing. importance of project. economical and time issues. construction of excavation support systems or protection of structure close to excavation sites. This system uses opposing nozzles and highly sophisticated jetting monitor specifically designed for focus of injection media shows the soil cement columns which are produced by Ras-Jet System mentioned in this paper are taken into consideration Conclusion 1.

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