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Accession No,
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AERODYNAMICS
By
the
Same Author
A
COMPLETE COURSE IN ELEMENTARY AERODYNAMICS WITH EXPERIMENTS AND EXAMPLES
AERODYNAMICS
BY
N. A. V.
PIERCY
D.Sc., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E., F.R. Ae.S. Reader in Aeronautics in the University of London Head of the Department of Aeronautics, Queen Mary College
Member of
the Association of Consulting Engineers
SECOND EDITION
AA
THE ENGLISH UNIVERSITIES PRESS LTD
LONDON
ML
1937 FIBST PRINTED REPRINTED 1943 SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLAKGED 1947
......
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Made and
Hagell,
Printed in Great Britain by
Watson
6* Viney Ltd.,
London and Aylesbury.
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION
THE present edition is enlarged to provide, in the first place, an introduction to the mathematical and experimental study of comThis and other matters pressible flow, subsonic and supersonic.
now becoming prominent
are not collected in a supplementary
section but incorporated in place as additional articles or short Following a wellestablished practice, the numbering chapters.
of original articles, figures and chapters is left undisturbed as far as possible, interpolations being distinguished by lettersuffixes. It is hoped this procedure will ensure a minimum of inconvenience
to readers familiar with the earlier edition.
To some extent the
course of reading, though a modern view of Aerodynamics requires consideration of Mach numbers equally with Reynolds numbers almost from the outset.
unlettered articles indicate a
first
Other matters now represented include various theories of thin and the reduction of profile drag. The brief account of the laminarflow wing is in general terms, but the author has drawn for illustrations on the conformal system, in the development of which he has shared more particularly.
aerofoils
The
at
original text
is
following connection.
revised to bring it up to date, and also in the Experience incidental to the use of the book
Cambridge and London Universities isolated certain parts where the treatment was insufficiently detailed for undergraduates these are now suitably expanded.
;
The aim of the book remains unchanged. It does not set out to and summarise the researches, test results and current practice of the subject, but rather to provide an adequate and
collect
educational introduction to a vast specialist literature in a form that will be serviceable for first and higher degrees, and like purposes, including those of the professional engineer. N. A. V. PIERCY.
TEMPLE,
October, 1946.
Meanwhile." will probably supersede the British. distinguished by great matter is involved. and Bryan. established. G. reach . part.VI PREFACE PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION FIRST steps towards formulating the science of Aerodynamics preceded by only a few years the epochmaking flight by the Wright Within a decade. the American or Contin C. but the treatment is intended to provide an adequate introduction to the extensive libraries of important original papers that now exist in this country and abroad. V. in familiar connections. PIERCY. Yet some time elapsed before these essentially mathematical conceptions. remains as important and there is a continual swinging of the pendulum as analysis between these two. development proceeded largely by model experiment. so many references will be made in this country to litera' k" notation that the latter has been given some ture using the ental. for the most immediate application to . My thanks are due to Professor W. No attempt has been made to summarise reports from the various Aerodynamic Laboratories. associated with " k. notably by Lanchester. also to The English Universities Press for unremitting care and consideration. its Reynolds and Rankine. with progress in aviation marking time. and the simpler parts of Chapters VIXII. being However. To facilitate reference. Joukowski. . N. as shown in the list of notations. A complete theory is stiU far out of experiment. TEMPLE. if no longer paramount. symbols have been retained. though duplication results in several Of the two current instances. constitute an undergraduate course more advanced matters are included to serve especially the Designer and Research Engineer. Today. This book presents the modern science of Aerodynamics and its aircraft. systems of force and moment coefficients. The arrangement is based on some eighteen years' organisation of teaching and research in the University of London. The first five chapters. many fundamentals had been brothers in 1903. Bickley for reading the proof sheets and making many suggestions . apart from aircraft stability. were generally adopted. a Ccoefficient derived merely by doubling the corresponding ^coefficient. Prandtl. . which must be consulted for design data. much resulting empiricism has been superseded and the subject is unique among those within the purview of Engineering in constant appeal to such masters as Helmholtz and Kelvin." " No preference. A.
. 4243... . 4446. 57. Incompressibility Measurement of Small Pressures Buoyancy of Gasfilled Envelope... 18. Balloons and Airships Centre of Pressure Relation between Pressure. Mach Number. . Integration . 1617. ... 22. Measurement Equation of Continuity... .. .. and Moment vii . .... of 44 52 Normal 54 Froude Number. 2628.... : .. 2933. Atmospheric Tunnels Coefficients of Lift. Gradient of Pitot . Irrotational Flow The Boundary Layer Experimentally Considered Constituents of Aerodynamic Force. Experimental Streamlines.. 3441.. Vertical Stability . .. Reynolds Number. Corresponding Speeds III 58 CHAPTER 5053. 54. 35 Pressure and Skin Friction 4749c. Drag..... . . 23 26 26 32 . . The International Standard Atmosphere. Stream Function. 68 75 . Basis of Velocity : .. Assumption. Forces on an Element Bernoulli's Equation Variation of Density and Pressure ...... PREFACE NOTATION PAGE V xiii CHAPTER 14.. 89...CONTENTS ART. Density. ... Rayleigh's Formula. Velocity of Sound 20 21 CHAPTER 21.. Adiabatic Flow Temperature Variation the Incompressible Flow Assumption Pitot Tube .. Application to Altimeters Gasbag Lift in General. I AIR AT REST.. Aerodynamic Scale... WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT Nature of Windtunnel Work.. Head across Streamlines. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT Pressure Density Equation.... 4 6 11 13 18 1920... Atmospheric Stability and Potential Temperature Bulk Elasticity. Troposphere. II AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 2325. 10. and Temperature of a Gas... Simple Dynamically Similar Motions.. . . Streamlines and Types of Flow Absence of Slip at a Material Boundary ExViscosity Qualitative Theory Maxwell's Definition perimental Laws Relation between Component Stresses in Nonuniform Flow Static Pressure. Circulation and Vorticity.. Isothermal Atmosphere. Properties of Air Hydrostatic 1115.
CHAPTER V FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 96100. Oval Cylinder..109 . Rolling and Autorotation. 172 180 184 186 190 . Examples ships. Aeroplanes v. Application of Complete Model Data ment 6466. ing of <f>. 106 . 80. Wind. 90.G. . .. 163 167 116117.. 101106.. .. Size of Wings. Location. Correction for Speed Effects of Altitude. ArrangeModel Experiment.. Boundary Condition.. Motorless Gliders Elevator Angle. Potential Flow. Elliptic Cylinder or Plate in Motion Acceleration from Rest. Nose Dive Circling and Helical Handley Page Slot. Doublet Flow over Faired Nose of Long Board. Double Balance Method... Supersonic Tunnel. Circular Cylinder without and with Circulation Potential Function.. Sink. of Heavierthanair Craft..... 115.. Flight... .. Compressedair .. .... 7376.. Dihedral Angle . Scale. Irrotational Circulation.. 8183. and Partial Engine Failure .. . Inducedflow Subsonic Tunnel. Pitot Tube at Supersonic Speeds. 110114.. Blockage 66B66C.. Plane Shock . Adjustment. Formulae for Velocity Flow through Circulation round Elliptic Cylinder or Plate.. . C. Aerofoil Characteristics 6163. Hyperbolic Channel Rankine's Method. Loading.. 7779. . Impulse and Kinetic Energy of the Flow Generated by a Normal Plate . . 6669. 118 126 129 137 140 143 146 149 155 156 . 106109. Some Tunnel Corrections 69A. AirAeroplane Speed for Minimum Drag Airship in Straight Horizontal Flight and Climb Aeroplane in Level Flight. Downwash. . Wall . Physical MeanVelocitypotential. . Effects of 9196. . Gliding. Examples. Laplace's Equation Source.. Examples. 8485. Wave 114 CHAPTER IV AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 6769. Practical of Single Examples.. III A 103 EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS Variabledensity Tunnel 66A.. . Illustrative Results 66D. . 86 89 92 97 Scale Effects.. Suspension of Models. Tunnel Aspect of Aerodynamic Gauge of Turbulence . Pitot Traverse Method 60. . CHAPTER 66.Vlll CONTENTS PAGE Aero77 ART. Combined Source and Sink. 7072. Landing Conditions Flaps Power Curves Top Speed Rate of Climb Climbing. 118120. 8689.. dynamic Balance.
Integration of Euler's Equations 140N140O. Steady Irrotational Flow in Two Dimensions. Streamlines with and without Circulation. Subsonic Speeds. Circular Arc Aerofoil. Lift Curve Slope and Moment Comparison with Experiment . Assumptions.194 Normal Plate by Transformation. Flow past .CONTENTS IX CHAPTER ART. Mach Angle. Com. CHAPTER 141147. . Comparison with Experiment and Example 130133A. Inclined Plate Formulae for Shape. 121124. 148150. . Piercy Symmetrical Sections... Definitions.. Example 227 235 CHAPTER VIA THIN AEROFOILS AT ORDINARY SPEEDS 140A140B. Pair. . Aerodynamic Centre.... General Case. 245 247 260 Theorem 140L140M. Irrotational Flow. Symmetrical Sections Joukowski Velocity and Pressure. Comparison with 259 Experiment. Approximate Formulae. 212 220 140.. Electrical and Hydraulic Analogies .. Glauert's Theory. Kelvin's (or Thomson's) . . Euler's Dynamical Equations. VII VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT Rankine's Vortex. Velocity over Profile.. KarmanTrefftz Sections 128129B.. . Ackeret's Theory. General Equation of Continuity 140J140K. . Conformal Transformation. More General Transformation 203 Formula. Investigation of Lift. Joukowski's Hypothesis Calculation of Circulation . VI PAGE TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS Singular Points. Shock Stall 140R140T. 267 Induced Velocity for Short Straight Vortex and Vortex Analogies 272 . 237 240 241 CHAPTER VIB COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW 140G140i. Application to Circular Arc 140D140F. 252 CHAPTER VIC THIN AEROFOILS AT HIGH SPEEDS 140P140Q.. . General Theorems . Supersonic Speeds. Joukowski and Piercy Wing Sections 134139.262 parison with Experiment . . Method and Equations 140c. 125127.. . .
. .. Eccentric and Flat Cores in . . .312 Drag Reduction Formulae Examples Solution of the Arbitrary Wing by Fourier Series. .. Example .X ART.. . General Equations of Monoplane Theory 309 The 'Second Problem. .. Form Drag Lanchester's Trailing Vortices. .Lift from Wall Pressures. FLOW AND SKIN DRAG : Laminar Pipe Flow ment. Tail Planes of Biplanes 339 . 172177. . with Monoplane 327 Examples Tunnel Corrections for Incidence and Induced Drag 335 Approximate Calculation of Downwash at Tail Plane Tunnel Constraint at Tail Plane Correction Formulae. tion to Circular Cylinder. plication of Conformal Transformation. Comparison with Experiment 320 General Theorems Relating to Biplanes. : Form of Kdrm&n's Equation .. Flat Plates with Turbulent Boundary Layers Power Formulae. 151155.' Distribution of Given Impulse for Minimum Kinetic Energy Elliptic Loading.. . Prandtl's Biplane Factor Equal Wing Biplane Comparison Examples. .. . Experimental Results 387 221A221B.391 . Viscous Circulation. Flow in Annular Channel. Starting Vortex. .. 163168.. Method of Images Vortex and Vortex Pair within Circular Tunnel. . 187188. . .. Transition Reynolds Number. VIII WING THEORY 178180. Lift... . . Detection of Transition 384 219221. . Residual Kinetic Energy Induced Drag Example of Uniform Variation of Circulation in Free Flight. . Minimum . 181186... . ... 189192. . Ap. . CHAPTER IX VISCOUS 193199. : .. 346 Pipes General Equations for Steady Viscous Flow. . .. . ... . . Source and Doublet in Stream between Walls 283 Generation of Vortices 156162. . Production and DisImpulse Karman Trail Applicaintegration of Vortex Sheets... Theory and Comparison with ExperiTurbulent Flow in Pipes the Seventhroot Law. 295 CHAPTER 169171. 287 from Experiment ... . ... . . Oseen's and Prandtl's Approximate Equations 369 Flat Plates with Steady Flow Solutions for Small and Large 2102 1 7 Scales Formation of Boundary Layer Method of Successive Approximation.357 205207. . Stability of Curved Flow 365 208209. Elliptic Shape Compared with Others.. .. Streamlines for Vortex between Parallel Walls .276 155A155B. . Extension of Skin Friction Formula . . CONTENTS PAGE Constraint of Walls. . Displacement and Momentum Thicknesses. . Alternative 200204.. Other Examples.. Karman's Theorem Examples 370 2 182 ISA. Transitional Friction..
Subdivision of Parasite Drag 469 254258. Takeoff and Landing Run. Prediction of Lift with Laminar Boundary Layer 230j~230K. .. 242. . Sweep 409 . Mixing Length. . 233238. Skin Drag... . . . The 239.. 412 419 421 back 423 CHAPTER X AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 231232. Jones Efficiency Streamline Aeroplane. Laminar Flow Wings. . High Speeds. Frictions of Bodies and Flat Plates Compared Turbulence and Roughness. 427 438 440 443 .. Vortex Theory Interference Factors Coefficients . . Incidence Effect Favourable Range. 246260. 446 CHAPTER XI PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY Preliminary Discussion. Minimum Maximum Velocity Ratio. . Static Thrust Tip Losses and Solidity. Compressibility Stall .. of Passage Application to Aircraft Surfaces. . Method for Isolated Question 466 261262. Maintenance of Negative Pressure Gradient. Cascade Wing 230i. Eddy Viscosity.... Early Example.457 252263. Preliminary Design Empirical Formulae for Diameter and Inflow Stresses Shape Helicopter and Autogyro. . Effect of Wake.CONTENTS ART. Profile and Parasite Drags. . Airscrew Interference . . .. . Position of Maximum Thickness. Dependence of Friction on Transition Point 230c230F.. Reynolds Equations of Mean Motion. 393 224230. .. Velocity Diagrams. Prediction of Speed and Climb Bairstow's and the LesleyReid Methods. . 222223. Breakaway. Range and Endurance. . Definitions. . Typical Experimental Results : . Review from Model to Full Scale 399 CHAPTER IX A REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 230A230B. Normal Profile Drag.... 240241...461 Example 259260A. XI PAGE Note on Laminar Skin Friction of Cylindrical Profiles. . Struts and Streamline Wires . . . Blade Element Theory. Ideal Propeller Ideal Efficiency of Propulsion Airscrews. .. . . Equivalent Monoplane Aspect Ratio. 473 . 425 . . . Similarity Theory. Method of Calculation Example Variable Pitch.. 243245. Boundary Layer Control. Induced. . Examples 451 251.. . Approximate Theory of Autogyro Rotor. Examples of Shape Adjustment. . Camber and Pitching Moment 230G230H.. ... .
. . . . .. Damping Factor . . . . . 293295. . Airscrew Effects Application to Prediction Wingloading and Highaltitude Laminar Flow Effect 477 Flying 263.516 Graphical Analysis Introduction to Lateral Stability 618 Solution with Wind Axes Asymmetric Equations Ap...Xll CONTENTS . 287289. . tion of Lateral Derivatives . . Engineoff Stability 508 Example. : 279280. SAFETY IN FLIGHT General Problem. Design and Stalling of Controls. Evalua: .. . 274278. Large Disturbances. . . .. Example. 487 Autogyro and Helicopter 263A.. .. . . CHAPTER 264265. .521 . 286. 281284. . .. . PAGE 262A262F. Wind Axes.. 285. Aerodynamic Efficiency Charts. . ART. . Recast Equations. Glauert's Nondimensional System.519 proximate Factorisation Discussion in Terms of Derivatives. . . Correction of Flight Observations 489 . 266269. . 523 526 629 531 AUTHOR INDEX SUBJECT INDEX . .493 Introduction to Longitudinal Stability Aerodynamic Dihedral Short Oscillation Examples Simplified Phugoid Oscillation 496 Example Classical Equations for Longitudinal Stability. . . Phugoid Oscillation Reconsidered Effects of Stalling on Tail Efficiency and Damping 513 Level Flight 514 High Speeds Free Elevators Climbing . .. 270273.. .. . . Flat Spin Load Factors in Flight Accelerometer Records .. .. Control in Relation to Stability. . . 290292. 296. . Approximate Factorisation 503 Force and Moment Derivatives. XII .
etc. drag. Nondimensional coefficients of lift. . Stability coefficients. C. lt t .NOTATION (Some of the symbols are also used occasionally in connections other than those stated below. . .A. of a C . D D D . force about C. . . . .) A . .P. Thickness of boundary layer. . a. B b fi lt . . of inertia. Stability coefficients. a . Aeronautical Research Committee's Reports and Memoranda. B* . Transverse dihedral wing. .R. . y . . Centre of gravity. Diameter . . . .I. Stability coefficients. .. . etc. of craft slope curve of wings velocity of sound in air. of a a 9 . . 8 . . . on C. . . . basis of stagnation pressure. Gas constant number longitudinal moment of inertia of blades of an airscrew. . . Rotational interference factor of airscrews. . . Air speed indicator. leverage . Stability coefficients. Axial inflow factor of airscrews . . Aerodynamic force . B . c . . . Ratio of specific heats tan' 1 (drag/lift). E E E . .R. Tailsetting angle. moment sectional area of C.T. .G. Compressed air tunnel. A. . . & M. . transverse moment A. Directional tunnel. . .G. A. Slope of lift curve of tail plane. . . C C2 CL C D lf . . Elasticity .S. . displacement thickness. twice the of inertia mean camber . aspect ratio .C. Chord of wing or aerofoil molecular velocity. . kinetic energy. . lt 2 . Aerodynamic lift of . . . . . . . Angle of incidence. Centre of pressure. drag. .
L / . . a coordinate. National Physical Laboratory. . suffix nondimensional * moment of derivative . . Impulse . .A coordinate. of craft. Distance along a normal to a surface . . Pitching moment with . Damping factor . . . . . density . Horse power the boundary layer ratio 8/0. k99 kx . . . h 7] . momentum thickness. . . . . . .L. . F g ~ H 6 . . . . . / . angle of climb angular temperature on the Centigrade / i . . Mach angle. . Kinematic coefficient of viscosity a coordinate.. . The advance of an airscrew per revolution in terms of its diameter. . . . . Circulation. . Aerodynamic gap . U. Angle of downwash. pressure gradient . . Teddington.P. .A coordinate . . Length . . coefficients of lift. leverage of tail lift about C. P . National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. X . . Base of the Napierian logarithms. relative viscosity . Skin friction (in Chapter II) Froude Number. ^A ^B *c *L *D etc  Nondimensional . M m ji .A. Coefficient of ' N aeroplane . K k . . . drag. Airscrew blade angle coordinate scale . .S. elevator angle. . . N. . . . British drag and lift coefficients of autogyro rotor. .C. . . . Frequency. incidence of autogyro disc. Mach number. . NOTATION . efficiency . . . . Yawing moment. etc. : . Mass . . as suffix to D : denoting induced drag . . revolutions per sec. . . . . mean free path of molecule mean lift per unit span. . . height or altitude.A. n v . Acceleration due to gravity.A. Vl . . .MV e e . Vorticity. . Radius of gyration Inertia coefficients. . on basis of twice the stagnation pressure. . Lift rolling . . . N. total . roughness. . . . Pitch of an airscrew pressure. 5 . second moment of area. . moment.G. .
. . r . . Overall lift /drag ratio. . ratio Angular velocity of yaw lift/drag . . . resultant fluid velocity. velocity of pitch . . solidity . . Absolute temperature . . lircraft. + )f stability charts. . p p . . . . R R Rt . Radius Reynolds number. . . . stress. . vortex Thickness thrust. T . . Royal Aircraft Establishment. with suffixes : nondimen derivatives. sectional biplane factor of an airscrew. . . . Aerodynamic stagger angle of bank helical path of airscrew element . Routh's discriminant. Deity . . . a .NOTATION XV . Farnborough.A. Distance along contour or streamline . o. / components in the directions Ox. . . mean loading of wing in at potential function $ i^. . . area of . Q q . particularly of wings. jcity of a body. . Density of air relative to sealevel standard Prandtl's . Torque. . . lt . Area. . . tail angle of aerofoil section tail volume ratio. ft. . IX <f> . . Angular . . radius. 'dinates . it ibrce. . r t . . . . . skin friction in Chapter . semispan. Angular velocity of roll pressure or Density of air in slugs per cu. angle of velocity . 'n>n f t . . undisturbed velocity in the direc Oz.E. ra . . the complex coordinate 5 + j. Period of time in sec. yaw. R. 5 s . Unit of time in nondimensional stability equations.
Impulsive pressure. . + iy. The complex coordinate x . . . Angular velocity of an airscrew.NOTATION z & o> . + . 9'/ 9* ( t&  . V2 V4 1 . Angular velocity.
V can become very small before the continuous passage of molecules in all directions across its bounding surface can make indefinite the number of molecules enclosed and or M/V uncertain. the density would be the limiting ratio of M/V as V vanishes. i. Atmospheric air contains watervapour in miles at the equator. however. Air at sealevel consists by volume of 78 per cent. little but helium or hydrogen remains.. Clearly. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT i. helium. of mercury) ~ mean diameter 15 X 10 5 mil (onethousandth inch). From the point of view of kinetic theory. : If it were.e. mil. oxygen. onethird faster than sound in air.Chapter I AIR AT REST. Density is thus defined as the ratio of the M A.D. Although the constituent gases are of different densities. the length of the mean free path being 00023 mil. such as 50 miles. a layer where the heavier gases tend to be left at lower stratosphere. They come continually into collision with one another. air at a temperature of C. at great altitudes. of Density Air is thus not a continuum. per sec. sometimes exceeding 1 per cent. varying in thickness from 4 miles at the poles to 9 Above it is the is known as the troposphere. l 1 . This lower part of the atmosphere. together with traces of neon. levels until. But we must suppose that the volume V enclosing the point is contracted only until it is M small compared with the scale of variation of density. the mixture is maintained practically constant up to altitudes of about 7 miles in temperate latitudes by circulation due to winds. and nearly 1 per cent. and other gases. to the number These molecules are moving rectilinearly of 44 x 10 11 per cu. in all directions with a mean velocity of 1470 ft. the density at a point of a small would be defined as follows considering the mass volume V of air surrounding the point. 2. 21 per cent. nitrogen. argon. by weight. may be regarded statistically as composed of discrete molecules. possibly hydrogen. while it still remains large compared with the mean distance separating the molecules. varying proportion. and at standard barometric pressure (760 mm.
will be implied. Nondimeasional coefficients are employed wherever ' * ' convenient. or of change of momentum occurs there. important to note that the lack of a tangential component to p depends upon the condition of stationary equilibrium. Density is . The appropriate unit of mass is the 'slug. fill a volume. units. Thus the size and speed of aircraft are more easily visualised when weights are expressed in tons and velocities in miles per hour. This cannot have a component parallel to the surface. serves to distinguish liquids from For gases we must add that a given quantity can expand to solids.2 AERODYNAMICS [CH. .' viz. of dry air weighs units. or the condition of rest would be disturbed. To take a further example. For example. so that a rate molecular to strike. when a particular value of the kinematic viscosity is given as a number. however. areas. that fluids at rest cannot withstand a tangential or shearing force. of It is * In this system. Velocities are consistently measured in ft. the units of length and time are the foot and the second. per sec. per sec. = = ' ' 3. the mass of a body weighing g Ib. ft. 00765/g It will be necessary to consider in many connections lengths. volume of air i. The molecular motion causes molecules continually tend to strike.e.. though finite. and standard pressure 1 cu. The intensity of the force area is the pressure p sometimes called the hydrostatic . to omit the word weight/ writing Ib.' and this convention is followed.wt. ft. We shall tacitly assume a restriction to be imposed on such contraction as discussed above. Thus.* 00765 Ib. Draw the small tetrahedron ABCO. whilst forces are in pounds weight. the aggregate rate of change of it is normal to the surface a force which is everywhere directed represented by angles towards the surface. 8 In it is convenient to use the slugft. denoted by p. Pressure Consider a small rigid surface suspended in a bulk of air at rest. It will be desirable occasionally to introduce special sq. The special units will be duly indicated in such cases. ft.' for lb. and so on.sec. when the gas is apparently at rest. when physical properties are attached to a point we shall have in mind a sphere of very small but sufficient radius centred at the geometrical point. however small. and has the dimensions M/Z.. however great. This system being understood. of the aggregate mass of the molecules enclosed to the volume itself. system of Aerodynamics At 15 C. This gives p 000238 slug per cu. specification of units will often be omitted from calculations for brevity. It will now be shown that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is uniform in all directions. and volumes that ultimately become very small. It is usual in Engineering. mass of this very small. momentum can be at right per unit t or static pressure. The converse statement. the immersed surface.
cos a . area OCA is S cos a. OBC. is p/w. But. since that JV/3 molecules move parallel to each of equivalent to suppose the coordinate axes with velocity c during the short time A* required N to describe the mean free path.e. Resolving in the direction BO. and to one side of it a right 2). mutually at right angles Erect on a unit area S of the plane. cylinder of unit length. to the second of the is field of force in . in air. W W equation. i. Oz. and is negligible compared with the other terms which are proportional to areas. It will be of interest to have an expression for p in terms of molecular motions. is proBut of the tetrahedron if also OB were vertical. which acts parallel forces simipressures on the other faces. i. we need Molecules moving parallel to Oy.pocA . i. Oz Considering a rigid plane surface suspended in its plane and Ox perpendicular to it (Fig. Hence : Similarly : 4. draw Oy. OCA are mutually at right angles (Fig. FIG. to the third order of portional small quantities. weight to the volume of the tetrahedron.I] AIR AT REST. If is that it encloses unit volume of air. when might be. 5 . The pressure pABC a force pAEC S on the From the to DO. S . it is resolved parallel to Ox. it is from the figure that the . With the help of OD 1). straight paths of mean length instant the velocities of all the molecules can be At a chosen is very large. larly arise which are wholly perpendicular Sface gives rise to to the respective faces. Denote by S the area of the face ABC. cos a for equilibrium W + pABC where W . = 0.e. consider only molecules moving . order of small quantities. Oz cannot impinge on S . drawn perpendicular easily verified to this face. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 3 which the faces OAB. Oy. a force component on the tetrahedron arising from some which the bulk of air may be situated such general would be the for example. so of molecules enclosed the total number the mass of each molecule. They are moving in all directions with mean velocity c along m N X. the gravitational field.
at the beginning of A/. The on its curved surface clearly produces pressure Sh K ^fc^'^ pA Fia. representing the rate of change of . g has the dimensions of an acceleration. . 2). ciently Since no horizontal component of external force acts anywhere on the bulk of air. momentum. in the specific direction Ox (Fig./sec. in During cules FIG. perfectly Thus the aggregate change of momentum at S in time A2 is 2mc AIV/6. towards 5. 2. We The value 322 ft. from the equator to the poles and decreasing by 05 per cent. of length SA and crosssectional area A (Fig. strike S. 5. Its value depends slightly on latitude and altitude. the pressure in every horizontal plane is constant.AERODYNAMICS parallel [CH. Each is assumed elastic. from sealevel to 10 miles At sealevel and 45 latitude its value is 32173 in ft. this interval all those mole moving the direction Ox which are distant. altitude.e. Consider an elementcylinder of the fluid with axis vertical. Let h represent altitude. is thus given by : 6. increasing by 05 per cent. and so will have its velocity exactly reversed. 0) of the molecular kinetic The Hydrostatic Equation now approach the problem of the equilibrium of a bulk of air at rest under the external force of gravity. 3. as otherwise motion would ensue. and of these only must be taken as moving i. The pressure p. will Their number is evidently >JV/6.sec. no farther than X from S. units. to onehalf Ox. 3). so that it increases upward. 2 is suffiaccurate for most purposes. L/T*. A* = *?* Thus the pressure amounts to twothirds energy per unit volume. The interval of time corresponding to the free path A* is given by = \/c.
THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 6 no resultant force or couple. and up to the levels L contains water. the density of mercury 760 mm. A8h. the pressure acting downward on its upper end will be p + J~8h. for equilibrium Thus the pressure decreases with increase of altitude at a rate equal to the local weight of the fluid per unit volume. 4). which also fills the central tube T. These pressures give a resultant force acting downward is force : A~8h. by the suffixes or for the change between two levels distinguished 1 and 2 : ~hi)This equation is (3) exact for liquids. . At supports the otherwise unbalanced When relative to that of water is 13596. and p l is the atmospheric pressure which example. per sq. ah The gravity on the cylinder pg . Bulk of Air Incompressibility Assumption in a Static Full use of (2) between p and portant. 7. If p is the pressure acting upward on the lower end of the cylinder. Chattock gauge (Fig. We then have requires a knowledge of the relationship existing case where p is constant is imp.. ft. but the particular ftp = pg \dh + const. and explains the specification of a pressure difference by the head of a liquid of known density which In the mercury barometer.I] AIR AT REST. > h lt p* C. at A! A. cohimn of mercury. = = this temperature. for the pressure difference will support. Measurement of Small Pressure Differences Accurate measurement of small differences of air pressure is often A convenient instrument required in experimental aerodynamics. But above L and the open mouth is filled of T the closed vessel surrounding this tube pressure in A above that in B Excess of air tends to transfer water from A to B with castor oil. 6. p t is found from (3) to be 21156 Ib. if A. The rigid glasswork AB forms a is the Utube. Therefore.
But this is prevented by tilting the heavy frame F. carrying the Utube. Jnstr. constantly removing slight wear. since the meniscus then remains clean for a longer period. protecting the liquids against appreciable temperature changes and plotting the zero * against time to allow for those that remain. of water weighs 6237 Ib. and a pressure difference of O0005 in. These gauges are usually constructed for a maximum pressure head of about 1 in. Longer forms extend this range. Sci. Jour. however. also of an airship usually sufficiently small for variation of density to be Cope and Houghton. 4.6 AERODYNAMICS [CH.. Buoyancy of Gasfilled Envelope The maximum change of height within a balloon or a gasbag is * Cf. xiii. The decrease of density 6 or 7 pet cent. saline solution from 10 to 20 C. CHATTOCK GAUGE. A is commonly used instead of pure water in Chattock gauges. . 83. of water. the sensitivity may be increased five or ten times. about its pivots P by means of the micrometer screw S. 8. but other types are used for considerably greater heads. The wheel fixed to S A W B is graduated. set close detected. 1936. although no fluid passes. the wateroil meniscus being observed M for accuracy through a microscope attached to F. By employing wide and accurately made bulbs together. is 015 per cent. p. 1 cu. of water is easily FIG. by bubbling through the castor oil. At 15 C. Thus the excess air pressure in is compensated by raising the water level in above that in A. Saturation with air decreases this weight by about 0'05 Ib. ft.
5).. Let the cylinder cut the envelope at a lower altitudelevel h t and at an upper one A a the curves of interneglected. which is filled with a light gas of density p'. depending on the position of S l and whether an airship or a balloon is considered. The i Since Sa cos oc 8 =A == St cos a l the resultant is upward force on the cylinder due to the pressures Substituting from (3). 6. . similar force arising at h^ may be upward or downward. and is at rest relative to the surrounding atmosphere of density p. (pi ^ a)S 2 cos a. if AL denotes the element of lift AL = ~ . p' 2t act outwardly due to the gas. section enclosing small areas S lt S a the normals to which (they are not necessarily in the same plane) make angles oc lf a 8 with the vertical. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 7 Draw a vertical cylinder of small crosssectional area A completely through the envelope E (Fig. and^> lf p 9 act inwardly due to the atmosphere. but in any case its upward value is (Pi P() S I cos . There arises at h 2 an upward force on the cylinder equal to .. On these areas pressures />'. FIG.I] AIR AT REST.
.hJA (4) the volume of gas enclosed. be built up of a large number L where = = (p (P  p'fcZfA. p')gF' . For stability the latter centre of gravity must be below the centre of buoyancy. made and FlG . For free equilibrium a of this amount. (4) gives of W W= 9gV'(lv') (5) For pure hydrogen. the Principle of Archimedes. called the centre of buoyancy. so enclosed gas that a resultant couple arises only from a displacement of the centre V It will be noted that the buoyancy from the vertical through the centre of gravity of the attached load plus gas.. The above result expresses. Balloons and Airships 1 In balloons and airships the gas is contained within envelopes of cotton fabric lined with goldbeaters skins or rubber impregnated. a' = 00695. the lightest gas known. is the total load supported by the gas and a' the density of If the gas relative to that of the surrounding air.. and. is lift acts at the centre of gravity of the or of the air displaced. I The whole volume of such cylinders. filling only at altitude being limp at sealevel. of course. Thus the envelope of a balloon weighing 1 ton would. for helium actually it would be .. so that densities greater than those given in the preceding assumed. Referring to Fig. for hydrogen and 411 ft. OA represents . for which a' 9. possible by helium. for helium.. must be weight attached. 6 . in the taut state at sealevel. have a diameter of 398 ft. less the weight of the envelope. at low altitude. 6. Practical article must lift be per values feet for thousand cubic are 68 Ib. But hydrogen is inflammable when mixed with air and is replaced where = 0138 in the pure state. together with leakage. for hydrogen and 62 Ib. Diffusion occurs through these comparatively impervious materials.8 AERODYNAMICS and of the envelope may its total lift is : [CH. larger. contaminates the enclosed gas.
1* .A.r>.
enabling excess gas pressure to be minimised. and are secured to the structure by nets. Several internal staying systems spread the load carried by the girder over the envelope. on the other hand. l(a)} has a whose shape is conserved by excess gas pressure maintained by internal ballonets which can be inflated by an air scoop exposed behind the airscrew. The modern structural rigid airship (c) owes framework covered with its fabric. . external form entirely to a Numerous transverse frames. binding together a skeleton of longitudinals or 'stringers. Some stiffening is necessary. can maintain relative horizontal velocities by means of engines and airscrews. or dirigible balloon (Fig. from which is suspended the basket or gondola B. TABLE I The largest single gasbag in the above has a lift of 25 tons. divide the great length of the hull into cells. Three classes may be distinguished. the section of which is not as a rule circular. the variation of atmospheric pressure from the level of the top of the the open filling sleeve S to that of the crest of the balloon. (Only a few of the wires are shown in the sketch. especially at the nose. each of which accommodates a gasbag. A gondola. and are shaped to streamline form for economy of power. Balloons drift with the wind and cannot be steered horizontally.) In the semirigid type (b) some form of keel is interposed between faired envelope the envelope and gondola. fuel. is suspended on cables carrying from handshaped strengthening patches on the envelope. and other loads. which may be limp. corresponding variation of pressure through the bulk of helium OH filling the envelope. the power unit. The upward resultant force and part of the force of expansion are supported by the net N. or gondolas. Single gasbags greatly exceed balloons in size. The difference between these external arid internal pressures acts radially outward on the fabric as shown to the right. which tends to blow in at speed. Some particulars of recent airships are given in Table I. The small nonrigid airship. carrying ballast and the useful load. Airships.10 AERODYNAMICS [CH.
8) is a (full) gasbag of an airship which is pitched at angle a from a level keel. point on a surface exposed to pressure through which the resultant force acts is called the centre of pressure. so that pressure is constant over horizontal planes. 6.I] AIR AT REST. pigA. Let p be the excess Then from (3) p pressure at height h above the level of B. and positions of the centres of pressure are ence. lead to moments internal to the structure. assumed plane. taken as equal to that of the atmosphere. unevenly spread over part of usually high. re Q . . Lower Bulkhead BC. THE ATMOSPHERE Centre of Pressure AND STATIC LIFT 11 10. B and E being lowest and C and D highest points. strip of BC distant Then h = y cos a. P' from the are supported by bulkheads EC and DE of areas A. Let 8A be the area of a narrow horizontal from a horizontal axis in its plane through B. the bottom of the bag. as illustrated in Fig. as in the case of the wire bulkheads or transverse frames of a rigid airship. The high centres of the total gas pressures exerted on walls which restrain a gasbag. The centres of with which we are concerned relate to the pressure differpressure Th an from the atmosphere. = where ing px is the difference in the densities of the gas and the surround air. Gas pressures are envelope separating gas small at the bottom of an envelope and reach a maximum at the top. The longitudinal thrusts P. and its pressure at B. BCDE (Fig. y and the total thrust on BC is given by : P= re JB p dA = pig cos a y dA JB = P!# cos a Ay . The gas is assumed to be at rest. (i) . often called the gas pressure. is * ' gas pressure A'.
The result is f independent of pitch. In practice. an excess pressure = nr*/4: and For a circular bulkhead of Ay = r/4. since it is always possible to draw a horizontal line generalised by (7). as will be clear from the following Bulkhead DE. / ever. The BF at which any super pressure would vanish. radius r for example. (ii) : Ay <?. Substituting in __ AV" Pl g cos a (J + Ayl)  p _ y* Hence from (i) : where & is the radius of gyration. and take moments about this axis. ro / sin &)dA P' Plg (y cos a P'(yi + A/) + pig^'^o cos a + sin a). where y is the distance of the centroid of through B. JE / oi This gives A^ ' ~ __ . .)dA J E = Ptf[(Ji + AW*) cos + A'yil sin a]. BC from the axis the B + Ay from P(y Q + Ay) = JB py dA = ^g cos a y* dA JB = ? cos a 7B . If 7 a parallel axis through the centroid.12 AERODYNAMICS [CH. TD = pig (y* cos a + yl sin <x. Hence (6) is additional term in the denominator is EF.i X + / _  ' tan a X" __^? ""yj + /tana M i. so that pB is not zero. (ii) where 7 B is is the second moment of this moment about f /B =/ the area about the Baxis. Let the centre of pressure of P be distant y axis. is the distance apart of the bulkheads. how is often introduced. . : must be made. Measuring now y in the plane of ED from Upper a parallel horizontal axis through E. we have when a correction : P where / = = 9iS(y cos a + / sin a).
Isothermal We now gravity. The absolute temperature is denoted by T and. Density. writing pV/N B'T. gas: mass of a particular (8) 1 lb. be the same for all gases at constant p and T. or. for constant volume the pressure of a gas is proportional to its absolute By temperature. It follows that B vary from one gas to another in inverse proportion to the density under standard conditions of pressure and temperature. Relation 13 between Pressure. we have. if p is kept constant. Some useful data are given in Table II. it is then evaluated from measurements of volume at a known temperature. however. Equation (2) of . B measures the work done by the volume of gas in expanding in consequence of being heated through unit temperature change. by Avogadro's law. Hence. is the ixumber of molecules in V. for a given Combining these laws. N N = or ft. It will be noticed that. The units of B are thus ft. for constant temperature the pressure of a gas is proportional to its density . pV^Bt where V is the volume. and the variation gases. of B is at once determined from a table of molecular weights. Atmosphere examine the static equilibrium its taking into account a bulk of gas under compressibility.AIR AT REST. the temperature on the centigrade scale. B' is an absolute constant having the same value for all Equation (9) is more convenient.. per C. per lb. if V is the volume of B is a constant which 1 lb. If will. is given by T if 6 is = + 273.lb. and Temperature of a Gas the experimental laws of Boyle and Charles. per degree centigrade. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT ii. TABLE II 12. is P/9=gBi: made characteristic (9) of a particular gas by treating pressure will and of the gas .
constant temperature T O so that />/p remains constant. p =p . When a bulk of air is displaced vertically.*. The value of B for the atmosphere will consequently increase with altitude. provided great altitude changes are excluded. one for each constituent gas. At : Dalton's law greater altitudes 13. unless it is stated otherwise. AERODYNAMICS [CH. applies with negligible error to a mass of air under isothermal conditions. miles into the stratosphere will. and neon will become rarer at higher levels.dh. 9g From Hence (9) : 1 _ J5r P ' 9g : . tively. although accurately true only for a single gas. The stratosphere is in conductive equilibrium. unlike its pressure. still the temperature increases again. the uniform temperature being about 55 C. P Integrating between levels A x and h 2 where .h. The constitution of the air at its lowest levels is as given in Article 1. however. the law of density variation in each atmosphere being the same as if it constituted the whole. From (2) and . As altitude increases. has insufficient time for adjustment to the conditions obtaining at the . BiQ = . Throughout this book Napierian logarithms will be intended. : *.. The result. although we have assumed it constant in order to obtain The variation of B for several (10). The result (10) states that the pressure and therefore the density of a bulk of gas which is everywhere at the same temperature vary exponentially with altitude. but specification is needed of the relationship between p The simple assumption made in the present article is that appropriate to Boyle's law. viz. nitrogen. The Troposphere The atmosphere beneath the stratified region is perpetually in process of being mechanically mixed by wind and storm. be small. t and p 2 respec. Hence argon and other heavy gases and subsequently oxygen. BT O log (pjpj = h. . its temperature. the constitution is to subject a mixture of gases in isothermal equilibrium may be regarded as the aggregate of a number of atmospheres. p. . (10) The logarithm in this expression is to base e.14 applies.
/rrT?^ or Substituting in (12) p ( n n l h tQ \i . It will be found in consequence that the pressure and density at different levels obey the law k P/9* (11) where k and n are constants.. There exists a temperature gradient with respect to altitude. while and absolute temperature By (9) : (11): by : Hence 1 PS \ P. until the merge into the is stratosphere place.. _j__ assuming. to which most regular flying so far has been restricted. \*A l and ..I] AIR AT REST. Substituting for or p from (11) in (2) leads to i  nk ~ =* m w Putting 1 p n = i __ gh const. This relationship we begin by = . (13) v ' .. atA=0. T O be the density . and on the average this is linear. The properties of this part of the atmosphere.. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 15 new level before it is moved away again.. approached. depending upon the humidity.. are subject to considerable variations with time and excepting that B varies only slightly. p =p when h = gives for the constant of integration nk" Therefore i : Ml nl n I To evaluate k let p .
. = . The temperature gradient (11): found as follows. This is defined by the temperaturealtitude relationship : 6 15 000198 116& (17) A being in feet above sealevel number of significant figures (the given is due to h being expressed in the metric system in the original The dry air value of B. viz. As the stratosphere becoming less and less 14. 960. number of atmosphere A countries have agreed upon the adoption of an international standard. the gradient steep. representing average conditions in Western Europe.16 AERODYNAMICS is [CH. == 1235 pfp 9 Similarly T ( /288) 4 P / PO == (T/288) = = (1 . is also assumed. . This shows that while n remains constant : dt dQ n 1 i. : From From From (16) (13) (14) n p/p.e. approached. This definition leads to the following approximations . From (9) and nl =(!)" Substituting in (13) 1 A or 6 denoting temperature in C. The International Standard Atmosphere It is necessary to correct observations of the performance of aircraft for casual atmospheric variation. definition). and for this purpose the device of a standard is introduced. the law changes.000000688A)*' M B *"  ' I 18 ) f a85 Some numerical results are given in Table III. the temperature variation is is linear.
and 10. TH and p denote the true altitude. C. . and h the altimeter reading corresponding to p and the graduation T. decrease of TM applies to the true increase of altitude A#. Use suffix for sealevel and write 5 for the temT O == sh.^ . 20. by about 57.000. corresponding to a from p l to p 2 while AA is indicated by the altimeter p is whose calibration temperature TO . and the dial is marked in intervals of h according either to the isothermal or to the standard atmosphere laws. if s perature lapse rate. the uniform temperature requiring to be assumed is usually taken as 10 16. Then from (14). (19) Readings of altimeters with a standard atmosphere scale require correction for casual variation of temperature. Let H. . respectively. To graduate the instrument. In the former case. (10) A# = AA. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 17 TABLE III 15. . with the help of a thermometer.Application to Altimeters A light adaptation of the aneroid barometer is used on aircraft. increasing pressure differences are applied to it. Thus. From altitudes indicated are then excessive. so that T temperature remains constant t 1 (i) . and pressure respectively. to gauge altitude. (10) and Table III the on the basis of the standard atmosphere.000 and 30. at altitudes of Correction for decrease mated mean temperatures if made by assigning estito successive intervals of altitude.I] AIR AT REST. temperature. of temperature with increase of altitude is 10 per cent.000 ft. we have from . .
Hence To giving . always distinguishing the gas by accented 1 symbols __ ~ __V ~~ a' p ~B^ So (21) at all pressures. structed. approximately. the maximum variation of the air pressure from the mean is found to be less than 0*2 per cent. becomes (22) seen that since B. and it is respect of . B' are constants. it amounts to 015 per cent. expand to fill an increased volume without loss. Similarly. . and. TO Sfl (20) v by 1 6. where it is greatest. Equation (3) shows that the corresponding variations in the gas will be smaller still. therefore. provided that no gas is lost and that no temperature difference arises between the gas and the surrounding The last requirement involves very slow ascent or descent to air. may be taken as a usual height of large gasenvelopes. L = W'(\Y p ' . . To study (4) is the condition of a constant weight conveniently written : W' of gas enclosed. . (i). At sealevel. 100 examined. Although the buoyancy depends on differences between atmospheric and gas pressures. altitudes. Gasbag Lift in General The assumption expression (4) for the of constant density made in Article 8 to obtain lift L of a gasfilled envelope may now be Although a balloon of twice the size has been conft. on ascent. so that the gas can. L remains constant in change of altitude. these are negligible compared with variations caused in both by considerable changes in altitude.18 AERODYNAMICS : [CH. (21) We also have from : (9). Gasbags should be only partly filled at sealevel. The maximum variation from the mean of the air density then follows from the formulae (18). .
Vertical Stability The foregoing conditions depend upon the absence of a propulsive or dragging force the envelope must move with the wind. weight. The condition then is that V' remains constant. ing time in the air through rate of loss of gas due to the need for con . different from that investigated. otherwise a variation of external pressure. or discharge of ballast. Excluding the case of variation of weight. since their level lighterthanair of riding is not obviously fixed. brought about by release of gas. Gas having been lost. may contribute to lift. as is the case with ships only partly immersed The first question is whether. by (9) if P \ \ 5 >T W' DT/ way )' i. : . in water. In this simple to calculate the excess gas temperature required for static equilibrium at a given altitude in excess of the static ceiling. in a stationary a balloon would hunt upwards and downwards. and safety valves operate when they become full. Variation of weight carried or of gas provides control of altitude. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 19 allow sufficient transference of heat through the envelope. 17. creates vertical acceleration which leads to vertical velocity relative to the surrounding air. . Gasbags are too weak to support a considerable pressure. from / (11) the condition it is is that n _Ljmust vary inversely as p*. or the envelope must be held at a new altitude as is possible by aerodynamic means with airships until such transference has taken place. as in the case of airships. This is called the static A lighterthanair craft can be forced to still greater altitudes by the following means aerodynamic lift heating of the gas by the sun entering a cold atmospheric region or by discharging ballast. vertical control by aerodynamic means is also possible. the practical feasibility of craft requires further investigation.e if PI \ 1 JD HT7 remain T ) Hence. will remain constant only if p p' remain constant constant. or. leading to a loss of gas. . when the temperature difference vanishes ballast must be released for static equilibrium to occur at any altitude. restrictatmosphere.l] AIR AT REST. Thus the volume held in reserve at sealevel decides the maximum altitude permissible without loss of gas. equilibrium again being attained by the supervention of an aerodynamic force due to the relative motion. for instance. we find from (4) that the gas lift ceiling. A difference between gaslift and total . but even if.
would make flight by heavierthanair craft also impossible. the load attached to = Hence. = = = . : T* TX = #A W /A\*~T = (*!\ \pj /* \ t1903 ' For the gas within the envelope the thermal conductivity is so small that heat transference can be neglected. Since p* < p lf we then have that ri < T 2 P*pz Article 16 the gasbag will sink. Atmospheric Stability and Potential Temperature The foregoing reasoning may be applied to the rapid vertical displacement of a bulk of the atmosphere. the stability in face of downward disturbance is the same. for a necessary proviso is seen to be that n < y. provided displacement is sufficiently rapid for passage of heat through the envelope to be It is said to be stable in respect of vertical disturbance. state of the atmosphere is part and parcel of the question. if sufficiently violent. a rapid descent of a gasbag results in temporary excessive buoyancy. since such currents. by it being constant. The gas then expands according to the adiabatic law : P r Distinguishing properties 1405: = const. Conversely. and we find that if.20 tinual control. / Y= r. = pl = p( and return to its original altitude if displaced. Thus a lighterthanair craft riding below its static ceiling tends to . But for upward displacement the stability is greater. to h 2f where p temperature p in standard condition we have is A second question up and down currents. AERODYNAMICS [ClL liable to continual whether the atmosphere is These would have the same effect on the duration of flight of a balloon. Consider the rapid ascent of an envelope without loss of gas from altitude h lf where the atmospheric pressure p p t and the absolute T When the atmosphere is t TJ. The 1 8. If the craft is above its static ceiling. since by accented symbols. Very closely. since no further gas is lost. but the second question has a wider significance. small. 3 = (P*\ (p'J Now assume that initially r( TJ. for the . since the weight of gas enclosed decreases./x 0288 T. we have.
vertical winds occur and make aeronautics dangerous. currents are 1405. We see that for n = y the all altitudes. n has a value damped is out. The changes are usually too rapid for mately to the small appreciable heat to be lost or gained. The interest of E in Aerodynamics is chiefly in respect of changes of In the case of liquids the compressibility is very small. The modulus of elasticity is defined as the ratio of the stress causAn increase of ing a volumetric strain to the strain produced. An potential temperature would be For n < y the potential temperature atmosphere is stable when the potential tem It will be noticed that greater the greater the altitude. W. p &p so that from (23) pressure. if not impossible. = . The a volume V to V $p will change pressure from ptop E + strain is 8V I V and E is given by '*/(?) Since dV = E P tfp . such as sealevel. and (23) thermal conditions under which the compression is supposed to take place. THE ATMOSPHERE less AND STATIC IIFT 21 atmosphere.l] AIR AT REST. perature the stratosphere is more stable than the troposphere. If n = than 1405. occurring in air moving at approxiconstant altitude. up and down . viz. The condition for atmospheric stability is discussed alternatively The potential temperature at in terms of potential temperature/ a given altitude is defined as the temperature which a given bulk of air at that altitude would attain if displaced to a standard altitude. the stability is neutral local or then said to be in convective equilibrium. a condi tion that may ' arise from temporary causes. but with gases we must specify the t sufficiently defines (23) and therefore of density. the same for is increases upward. the atmosphere When n > y.. Bulk Elasticity Fluids at rest possess elasticity in respect of change of volume.. E= .. 19. In these typical circumstances the v adiabatic law is again assumed. the compression taking place without loss or gain of heat.. having regard thermal conductivity of air.
: air. for a example. a 659v/r (27) We shall = = = nearly.. = = Vy^/p .. ft. . but yet at a considerably greater rate than the (28) body velocities common in aeronautics. on the other hand.22 20. that a moving airship disturbs the air far in front of it fast bullet. always employ the symbol a for the velocity of sound in air. A disturbing force or pressure suddenly applied to a part of a solid is transmitted through it almost instantaneously. . T = 288.. Newton demon The condition under which strated the following law for the velocity a of such waves in a homo geneous fluid : a = V(/p). a = 1118 . For 15 C. ... the flight speeds of low altitude are at least doubled to compensate for the reduced density of the . for two reasons a decreases to between 970 and 975 ft. . from (24) a or. From the preceding article we infer that through air such a disturbance is propagated more slowly. Disturbance of the stationary equilibrium of a bulk of air follows from swift but not instantaneous propagation through it of pressure changes. a VjgBi: (26) The its velocity of sound is seen to depend on the nature of the gas and temperature only. per sec. It may be noted. With y 32173 and B 1405.. overtakes its propagation of disturbance and fails to do so. Thus for gases. I (24) has been derived is ideally realised in the longitudinal contractions and expansions produced in elements of the air by the passage of waves of sound.. per sec. = (25) substituting from (9). This change assumes great significance in connection with stratospheric flying. Velocity of AERODYNAMICS Sound [CH. g 960..
i. but the velocity picture along a streamline varies from one position to another. for the velocity of any chosen element of fluid does not vary with time as it (It is specifically in this respect that wider proceeds along its path. although the name laminar is nowadays frequently used in used without qualification.Chapter II AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE and Types of Flow It is familiar that motions of air vary considerably in character.e.) General Steady Flow. Thus the elements of fluid have accelerations. Means of discriminating with effect between one kind of flow and another will appear as the subject develops. use is commonly made of the name laminar. of the flow which does not vary with time. however. A It follows that the streamlines are all parallel straight lines. In which the velocity of the element. By this we mean that the velocity of all elements is the same in magniStreamlines. depends upon distance from some fixed parallel axis or plane. ' kind of flow that is usually intended by the term steady motion ' laminar. Laminar Parallel Flow. although uniform in direction. but some preliminary 21. The simplest form of flow is uniform motion. Discussion is facilitated by the conception of the streamline is a line drawn in the moving fluid such that the flow across it is everywhere zero at the instant considered. strictly laminar motions being characterised as parallel/ Both uniform and laminar motions are steady. although this is not sufficient in itself to distinguish tude and direction. Such motions are properly ' called a wider sense. There are other motions whose stream lines are parallel straight lines. Streamlines classification is desirable. 23 . The streamlines are riot It is this more general parallel and in general are not straight. We may have a steady motion which is The streamlines then form a neither uniform nor strictly laminar. streamline. uniform motion. the velocity at any chosen position in the field of flow does not vary in magnitude or direction with time. Uniform Flow. They are more than this.
Unsteady motions are common in Aerodynamics. Consider tacitly assuming that we are dealing with a slice of the fluid in motion of unit thickness perpendicular to this plane. t 9 frequent use. Oy. the motion In addition to periodic we may have These may occur on such a scale that irregular fluctuations. Turbulence. at once the most difficult to understand and the most important in practical Aerodynamics. of which we shall that of twodimensional flow. It has come to be the form usually intended by the name turbulence. drawn in the fluid. are open to selection. with both space and time. called path: lines. will be streamlines drawn in all planes parallel to a selected #yplane It is then sufficient to study the motion in the ^yplane. Twodimensional Flow. Steady motions are often called streamline/ All steady motions have one feature in common the streamlines coincide with the paths of elements. Let the velocity components of any element in the direcTwo of the directions of these axes be u.24 AERODYNAMICS [Cfl. say v t . is fixed coordinate axes Ox. v and w respectively. tions. other cases the fluctuations are much more finely grained. say Ox and Oy. but each streamline changes in shape before an element has time to move more than a short distance along it. unfortunately. of any kind prevails. When unsteadiness is often called turbulent. At a chosen instant streamlines may be drawn. no fluid can enter or leave the tube through the walls except in respect of molecular agitation. An unsteady motion may be such that an instantaneous picture of streamlines it is then said to be periodic or recurs at equal intervals of time use of the latter term is less restricted. Streamtube. and also if neither u nor v then The vanishes. If the motion is such that we can select Ox. A conception of occasional use in discussing steady This may be defined as an imaginary tube flow is the streamtube. whose walls are formed of streamlines. conveying the impression of a chaotic intermingling of very small masses of the This last type fluid accompanied by modifications of momentum. eddying. Another conception. of small but not necessarily constant section. Oy in such a way that w = for all elements at all times. the third then following. the motion is of general twodimensional form. ' Unsteadiness and Pathlines. If besides w = we have another velocity component. But in transient streamlines might conceivably be determined. Clearly. make very Oz drawn mutually at right angles in the fluid. and in these the The velocity varies pathlines and streamlines are not the same. though . the same. of unsteadiness is.
The force of adhesion is very intense at distances from the surface of gas comparable with the size of a molecule. partly from the body of the plate and and where the partly from bombardment by free gas molecules. But the layer of condensed gas receives energy. ible.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 25 everywhere vanishing. The theorem if motion and considerable investigation is necessary to establish what we then mean by pressure/ precisely Imagine a small. contact whilst fluid that passes close by has its velocity substantially mental reduced. molecules free energy attains to the latent heat of evaporation the and return to the bulk of the gas thereby only giving themselves Thus the film of condensed gas molecules place. however. and we may have u depending either upon distance from the plane xOz or upon distance from the axis Ox. and a molecule on the surface is held there for a time. must Regarding the action of the plate on the stream of air. To explain this phenomenon in molecular terms we may suppose the plate to be initially chemically clean. we . 22. since the molecules no longer possess a free path. Experiment clearly shows that the fluid coming into with the tangential surfaces of the plate is brought to rest. where u in the latter. Unless the whole motion is uniform. This would. the directions. or parallel. we may say that the air is condensed on it. each surface being a latticework of atoms of the substance of which the plate is made. rigid. and very thin material plate to be immersed and held stationary in the midst of a bulk of air in motion let its plane be parallel to the oncoming air. Absence of Slip at a Boundary of Article 3 holds equally for a fluid in uniform the rigid surface exposed in the fluid moves exactly with The pressure in uniform motion is thus constant and equal in all it. however. on account of its extreme thinness. is in circulation with the external free gas. the motion is strictly laminar. considered for simplicity to be in uniform motion. to others. As such it exposes a close distribution of centres of adhesive force. is a function of y only. The disturbance caused by the plate to be negligmight. however. the motion is twodimensional the flow is of the kind that occurs in certain circumstances along it is sufficient to consider unit straight pipes of uniform section. through all crosssections. when of the pipe because the distribution of flow will be the same length . In the former case. be expected theorem fails. Considering the impinging whole latticework. ' . be completely at variance with experifact.
the retardation occurring at some distance into the fluid shows that the pressure . unevenly moving fluid will depend upon the direction conThe matter is further investigated in the following articles. is a function If air is moving property is % of y only. molecules are continually darting across it in all directions. for a time.26 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Its nature will be discussed with reference to laminar (or parallel) twodimensional flow. . retard the general flow to an appreciable depth. boundary gaseous or liquid. but has a tangential component in other words. and this condition entails that the same number of molecules crosses a chosen area of (Fig. The pressure at a point fluid * ' Thus a uniform in the sidered. is forced to rush through a pipe. and. the its initial The velocity of the air immediately velocity at the wall is zero. uniformity has been destroyed by introducing the plate which has a relative velocity. requiring to be accelerated by the other Thus molecules. ' ' in this affected region away from the plate cannot be equal in all It will be noted that the mass flow is no longer uniform . a further physical brought into play in consequence of the molecular structure of the fluid. for example. The phenomenon of absence of slip at the surface of separation of a material body from a surrounding fluid occurs quite generally and is of fundamental importance in Aerodynamics. Nature of Viscosity in other than uniform motion. 9). Let this flow be in the direction Q% and draw Oy so that u. in regard to the : molecular motion . the pressure on the plate is oblique. to the skin of an aeroplane at any instant is equal to that of adjacent the aeroplane itself. directions. Density remains uniformly distributed. Further. No matter how fast a fluid. the rate of change of molecular momentum at the plate is no longer normal to its surface. motion cannot persist in the presence of a material boundary which is not moving with the same velocity (although the motion may remain steady). the mass velocity. say y =y' perpendicular to Oy This plane is formed of streamlines. two effects to result from molecular constitution (a) impinging air molecules are brought to rest relative to the bulk or mass motion just as they are. therefore. t Consider an imaginary plane. VISCOSITY 23. suppose. (b) air molecules released from the plate are de prived of mass motion. but owing to molecular motion. It is known as the condition for a real fluid.
9. this procedure may be replaced statistically by imagining that p/6w molecules move at a velocity c in each of the at any instant two which are parallel to each of the three coordinate This equivalent motion must be supposed to extend through the interval of time At which is required for a displacement of the At the end of this molecules through a distance X. We are concerned only with molecules which cross S. The molecules possess. whose ends are parallel to and. 9) of unit length and unit crosssection. If p is the density of the air and m the mass of each molecule. but. a different quantity of mass that which those crossing in the opposite direction is being transported across the This phenomenon is called the viscous effect. subject to the consideration that the u of any particular molecule cannot be modified while it is in process of describing a free path. mean X. Qualitative Theory of Viscosity Consider an imaginary right cylinder (Fig. Hence molecules crossing in one direction carry away. interval collision occurs generally. which it tends to destroy in course of time. number of molecules within the cylindrical space the is p/w and is constant. The molecular velocities of all the p/w molecules can be resolved parallel to Ox. Thus A/ X/c. in addition to their molecular velocity.n] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 27 the plane in unit time from either side. Denote by 5 the unit area of the plane which the cylinder encloses. for changes can come only from collisions. it exists only in the presence of a velocity gradient. a superposed mass velocity u which by supposition is different on one side of the plane from on the other. per t momentum from bring with them. They have in addition a superposed mass velocity u whose magnitude depends upon their values of y at the instant considered. the number being very large. and so ignore directions axes. These molecules are moving all in directions with a mean molecular velocity c along straight paths of length FIG. = . Hence momentum direction of flow. equidistant from the imaginary plane y =y f . Oz. Clearly. say. Oy. as in Article 4. unit area of the plane and in unit time.
For clarity we = speak of y increasing as upward and assume u to increase upward. i We note the passage downward F acts at / gains momentum at the of momentum and on the that traction it S in the opposite direction fluid below. The direction of Similarly. a loss on account of wX du . aggregate loss is : du . It loses on acshall 9 ' ' count of the downwardmoving molecule momentum whilst it =mlu + it / du ^ receives this by the upwardmoving molecule momentum = mu. it may be represented by a force in the fluid at^ =y' acting tangentially on If the intensity of this traction is F. Oz. F is such as to oppose the motion of the fluid above. we have. the dy collision at the .ame rate. There is also no loss of generality in supposing that all molecules penetrating S from above or below y start at distance X from that plane. since A = X/c. Of molecules moving parallel to Oy only those within a distance X of y y' can cross during Atf. since the fluid above. But in addition must. by Ay end of A. add momentum to the incoming molecule du Thus the total change in the momentum of to the amount wX Ay the fluid above y' in respect of a single molecule exchanged with one du from below is a loss amounting to 2wX T. . S being unity and there being no displacement of mass. Xp/6w molecules cross in each direction during this time. Summing for all pairs. t moving parallel to Ox.28 all AERODYNAMICS [CH. dy The rate of this loss is : 1 pX 3 2 du dy AV or. the velocity at y =y' being u. Thus. find that the fluid we below . Consider a single exchange by the fluid above y'. the rate is du The rate of change of mass momentum being parallel to Ox. irging forward.
ay fluid the lower face is equal in magnitude to u. each of thickness h instructive from several points of view. u = motion of the other. 10. du that on the upper face is u + The intensity of traction F on ^~8y. Now it is assumed that. But as the motion is steady. while the others are given a common velocity U in their own The resulting conditions in all layers will be the same planes. UO and in the direction of ward. that on the upper face is jx ( ~ dy\ . after sufficient time has elapsed. Its dimensions are (Af/Z 8 ) (LIT) L M/LT. and is denoted by JA. .8y Y and tends to accelerate the dy / stratum. In these circumstances consider a stratum of air of thickness 8y between the plates and parallel to them. are separated from one t another by a series of infinite horizontal plates. and retards the stratum . 10) in the fixed plate (taken to be the lower one) y u=U u tr FIG. Maxwell's Definition of Viscosity The following example is A number of layers of air. and Oy vertically upArticle 22 air touching the fixed plate has a velocity By 0. If the velocity at the lower face distant y from Ox is u.~. while for air touching the moving plate u U. Alternate plates are fixed. The resultant traction on the stratum in the direction Ox d ( du j du\ = d*u ^ 1S r + pi jj 8y. and we shall investigate one except layer fc only. ay u + . and the = between is urged forward from above. . ^_ _ . Draw Ox (Fig.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 29 The coefficient by which du/dy is to be multiplied in order to determine F is called the coefficient of viscosity. = 24. but the ensuing motion is retarded from below. for a question of sign. the motion in the layer becomes steady.
from (30) __ ~~ _ /du \ is ~~~ )y^ Hence the forces h and opposite. the intensity of either force is equal to on the plates are equal otherwise this obvious. Let be.. (z. (30) The fluid velocity between the plates is proportional to y distribution of velocity is plotted in the figure.. uniform throughout the fluid. B.. is. as before. F the lower plate by the fluid above is given by is transmitted to the lower plate and a force of equal must be applied in the opposite direction to prevent it intensity from being dragged in the Ox direction. : =o + B U =Ah + B which are determine A and Z7/A. it is found that a This traction force F= /du\ E7 ^ But must be applied to the upper plate to maintain the motion. We find : 5 =0 A = Inserting these values in the original equation for u. Similarly. when the special values which are known. sufficient to Now insert in this are constants of integration. 1 If A. . viz. Integrating twice. F Hence U Hence. there cannot be a resultant force on the stratum. Maxwell's definition of the coefficient of viscosity as the tangential = = .. u Thus the = j. = U when y = h. and reckon it positive The traction exerted on the fluid adjacent to in the direction Ox. case of motion is known as uniform rate of shearing. as in fact. the intensity of traction. viz.y . u = Two equations result.30 AERODYNAMICS Hence : [CH. u where = Ay + B A and B w equation for u y = o.
. viz. of c calculated from this expression for C. since can be measured accurately. The first law of viscosity is that the value of the coefficient is giving. according to (i) The error. between two dry surfaces. is 1 Article greater than the mean molecular velocity given in for this temperature. is given by .. can be built up.. such as that of a shaft in a bearing. 25. 1591 per sec. x 1(T this slug/ft. as will be seen in Chapter IX. is 7 . because it is a rootmeansquare value. the boundary value of the velocity gradient can be calculated in terms of a total rate of flow which can be measured experimentally.. apart. In the general case the moving plate does work on the layer of . pressure. In certain cases of laminar flow. empirical laws expressing the variation of y. pt = 258 x 1G~ removed by more elaborate analysis. The experimental value of y. JJL independent of density variation at constant temperature. fMfiuid filling the space between them being in steady motion. for air at 7 C. (1) and (9) of Chapter I (32) The value ft. sec. amounting to 28 per C.. of the fluid unless the heat generated is temperature a fjtC7 conducted away. N = 358 It is interesting to compare from the qualitative theory. and temperature of the fluid in a series of experiments. . for cent. Laws of Viscosity is The traction on a bounding surface past which a fluid flowing is It differs in nature from the rubbing friction called the skin friction. while the skin friction can also be measured. which shows that the mean free path must effectively be increased in the viscosity formula.. Hence the value of \i can be deduced without reference to the theory of Article 23. (29) Hence. but is essentially the same as the friction of a lubricated surface. By varying the density.. This . But this mathematical development is not required in Aerodynamics. (31) with a numerical value obtainable Equations together give c* = 3gJ3T .U] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 31 force per unit area on either of two parallel plates at unit distance the one being fixed while the other moves with unit velocity. ' fluid at the rate gradual rise in The result is a /A per unit area of the plate..
moving in any manner t in the plane xOy. to p. as follows. Denote by p^ (Fig. but experiment shows [i to vary more rapidly with the temperature. such that. p xr Oy by The corresponding normal to in the direction and tangential pressures on a face perpendicular Oy are . at the instant considered. 11. [CH. Relation IN AIR FLOW between Component Stresses We now an element prove a relationship that exists between the stresses on (in the sense of Article 2) of a fluid in any form of twodimensional motion. approximately. Let Gx Gy' be the principal axes at any instant. According to (i) a second law would be [i oc VT. inclined at some angle a to the fixed axes of reference Ox Oy. and a certain nomenclature is For a adopted. Maxwell showed it experimentally to hold down to pressures of 002 atmosphere. because it is obvious that X must be After predicting the inversely proportional. moving with the element. 1 1) the principal pressure parallel to Gx' and by p^ that parallel to Gy' . It tends to fail at very high pressures. always be possible to find two axes at right angles to one another. drawn perpendicular to the normal pressure on it Ox. in the direction Ox is denoted face by p xx and the ponent tangential com x FIG.and^. An empirical law for air is ' 4 ' (33 > (Rayleigh). the pressures in these directions tend to produce either simple compression or simple dilatation in the element.32 surprising law is AERODYNAMICS expressed in (i). These axes It will are called principal axes stresses. PRESSURE 26. and the pressures in their directions principal is Let G be the centre of the element which f . where (JL O is the value of the coefficient at C. In the case we have four comgeneral ponent stresses to deal with. law. and take a negative sign to indicate that the .
which have the same motion as that of G and whose faces are perX"Y" A. " Adjacent to G draw X'Y' perpendicular to Oy and X'Y of equal length perpendicular to Ox. Let X'Y' to the area of each of these two particular faces of the prisms equal per unit length perpendicular to the #jyplane. Pyx = (Pi ^2) sin a cos a. of fluid form part of the general motion and have The forces arising from these are proportional. to mass. sin a + pz A sin a . etc. This the conversely is the condition for principal axes to exist. 2 . or Pxy = (Pi P*) sin a COS a Hence : Ay = Py* = i(#i #) sin 2a. but resolving direction now in Oy pyy 1 2 p* A cos a p l A sin a parallel to Ox with regard to B . . (34) The pressure p xy is identical with the tractional stress (29) and involves an equal tractional stress at right F of equation angles. />! .D. first. A8 2 Hence the stresses are related by the condiproportional to A tion for static equilibrium. sin a = 0.cti( Resolving in the direction Oy. unit length of the GX' face pressure = = = = . 11). and. then A is pendicular to the Ayplane. as A is supposed very small. cos a = 0. = 0.II] AIR is FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 33 tending to compress the element and a positive sign that it is tending to dilate it. p 1 .e. These two equations together give A. to be regarded as the crosssections of prisms A and B. i. A sin a . forming with the principal axes the These triangles are elementtriangles GY'X' and GX"Y" (Fig. A cos a . A sin 2 a = 0. however. . cos a + P* A cos a . which are negligible compared to . . . in regard to the equilibrium of B p xy A . are with forces arising from the stresses. respectively. A cos* a : pt . while resolving pxx A . With regard again to the equilibrium of A. A . Similarly the area per that of the GY" face A cos a. For the equilibrium of prism A we have. resolving in the direction Ox py . we have.A yx or p 1 . The prisms accelerations.
The other side of the gauge is open to the atmosphere.34 AERODYNAMICS [CH. x and y are any directions at Then p does not depend upon direction right angles to one another. Thus the tube To cope correctly transmits the static pressure of a uniform motion. that the pressure acting through the ring of holes will not in general be the same as with the tube stationary. and a ring of small holes is drilled through the tube wall a certain distance from the closed mouth. so that the outer air communicates with the gauge through the ring of holes. if the fluid were devoid of viscosity. the tube may be reduced to suitably small dimensions even 05 mm. diameter is practicable. although not necessarily equally ' at all points. The long arm is connected to a pressure gauge. it ( has been found possible to say. its short arm through approximately stationary 22. The tube is then set in motion in the direction of air. such as gravity. The mouth of the short arm of an Lshaped tube is sealed. 27. and is the compressive pressure we shall have in mind when referring to the static pressure/ or simply the pressure. with motions in which the static pressure varies from point to point. tube is immersed in uniform flow or in stationary air. a velocity equal and opposite to that of the tube converts the case of motion to that of a stationary tube immersed in an initially uniform The pressure communicated is then the same when the airstream.) It will be noted that. Hence the arithmetic mean of the normal components of pressure on any pair of perpendicular faces through G is the same. 28. on an Element of Moving Fluid on the threedimensional element fcSyftr are conveniently grouped as due to (a) external causes. It is apparent. (The system of signs adopted in the last article will be found convenient in a later chapter. Forces The forces . from Article two small perforations. large or small. Nevertheless. a design for the short arm can be arrived at by experiment. at a point of a fluid in motion. p would be the pressure acting equally in all directions at a chosen point. the ring of holes then degenerating to one or . This equation is independent of a. The basis of the experimental measurement of p is as follows. The Static Pressure in : a Flow 36) Let us write #=*(#! + PI = *(# + Pyy) where. such that the gauge shows no pressure difference when the tube is given any Adding to the whole system of tube and air velocity.
the velocity gradients are usually sufficiently small for the modification of the motion of the element due to the tractions to be neglected. face that is nearer the origin. its weight being supposed always exactly balanced by its buoyancy. f farther from the origin the force is (p + ~ 8x is j 8y8z. 8y8z (P + 'r 8*) = (c) ~ dx X the volume of the element . however. Derivation of Bernoulli's Equation The following five articles treat of flow away from the vicinity of material boundaries. Choose Ox in the direction in which p is varying and consider the forces due to p only on the The forces on all the 8x8y and 8x8z faces of the element 8x8y8z. because p is varying only in the ^direction. are proportional to p. BERNOULLI'S EQUATION 29. The resultant force in the direction Ox thus p . In regard to (a) it may be remarked generally that. An element of air may be regarded as in neutral equilibrium so far as concerns the gravitational field.. p through the field of flow. the air motions to which they give rise are conveniently considered with the aircraft assumed at constant altitude and generalised subsequently. The air will be deflected upward or downward. (b) We shall require very frequently to write down the force on an element due to space variation of p. the velocity They gradients are steep and the tractions large. . which is small for air. Away from these boundaries. (37) * ' This result should be remembered.nj (b) AIK FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 35 (c) tractions variation of the static pressure on the faces. Close to the surfaces of wings and other bodies studied in Aerodynamics. The tractions have already been discussed to some extent. although aircraft traverse large changes of altitude. On the faces cancel. and such that the tractions on the element can . but its changes of altitude are then sufficiently small for variations of density or pressure on this account to be neglected. the force is p 8y8z while on that 8y8z .
only to the particular streamline chosen it must be regarded in general as from one streamline to another of the same flow. : {41) . p. . (38) The volume is A 8s. . be regarded as a streamline J h l? p a = constant. q~^=Q ds dq v (39) ' Integrating along the streamtube. unless proved otherwise.36 AERODYNAMICS i.48s. [CH. A may vary but not. which may now . assumed to act equally in all direcassumed that the flow is steady. (40) v ' This is the important equation of Bernoulli. at any chosen posis. . is Consider steady flow of air at velocity q within a streamtube (Article 21) of crosssectional area A Denote by s distance (Fig. and the force is of a small element 8s of the air filling the streamtube on it in the direction of flow due to the pressure variation dp  . The mass of the element is and its acceleration is dq/di. by (37). The condition of steady motion means that with FlG 12> tion.e. Evaluation of the remaining integral requires a knowledge of the relationship between p and p. . . By Newton's second law of motion But = Jt ' ds It =q ds* Hence : I dp ~~~ p ds + . tions at the pressure p It is also any point. where the conditions are denoted by 1 and 2 . The constant appertains. with time. . q. Since fluid does not collect pqA = constant anywhere . measured along the curved axis of the tube in the direction of flow. be neglected. Another varying form is obtained by integrating (39) between any two values of s. p. 12).
. specific heats a being the velocity of sound and y the ratio of the This reduction is possible because (Article 1405. so that p and p obey Boyle's law dp /dp = constant. : 2. most aerodynamical motions that the isothermal assumption is inappropriate. Variation of Density assume the flow to be isothermal. (45) From (44) : dp Y*pY  l dp. Thus : f*dp J i = Y* ( P J i Y P . . Density variations actually occur so rapidly in. (44) point to point according . becomes. and. The integral remaining in (40) may then be written 1.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE and Temperature 37 30. The absolute to p = kf temperature T now varies from . the condition is closely approached that no heat is lost or gained. = 20) a remains constant under the isothermal condition. viz. . in fact. Let us first : : C dp * _ P J < Y P from (25). The adiabatic law then relates the pressure to the density. on evaluating the integral Hence (41) T or Pi Pi Expanding in an exponential series Pl under isothermal conditions.
1 pi l\pl> . Oj = 15 C. . . 1) ~ > . . provided the velocity change is not If qj q* amounts to \a? the error in (49) is only 13 this if q* = 838 ft. or = for example. this gives 0634 max. . per sec.. =a = 9 . i.. cent. 'l} where. a < a x When q 2 = a 2 and q l 0. if <7 2 = 2^ = 912 per ft. . the velocity of sound introduced from refers to the position s lt where T Substitution in (41) leads to =T (25) t. . eliminating AERODYNAMICS k by (44).. (49) great. .. applies closely to adiabatic flow. (47) Finally.38 or. would occur. it will (46) be noted. 3#x There is an important limit to the application of (47) q 2 cannot exceed a 2 because # a gives the limiting velocity with which pressure waves can be propagated. It will be noted that. expanding by the Binomial Theorem = pi less. per sec. and 2 (50) = 288. since the temperature is reduced on expansion. = we find the minimum value of the density ratio : But /i Hence : Minimum If TJ ?? = (^y ". also 2 1 i J _ I[l \ iL  __ 2dj* \2_ 2a^ / (A0\ * ' Comparison with (42) and (43) shows density variation that the convenient expression P~ now to be =* Ul .e.
mercury. They follow : immediately. 31. which alone will now be considered. by use of the relations pi/p* pi/p t for Y for adiabatic flow. assumed are p l = 760 mm. Variation of Pressure Comparison with Incompressible Flow article for densities are Equations for pressures corresponding to those of the preceding obtained in a similar way. FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE The final 39 C. cases the initial conditions = 15 C. Ai\A are obtained from (38). is found. temperature in Table is 33*7 a drop of C. Otherwise it is ignored.. The values l9 of since q. isothermal and pi/p* Thus Ber(pi/p2) noulli's equation for adiabatic flow. = 2q AJA^ = J(p!/p). .II] AIR ft. corresponding to (47) (52) Now an outstanding result of the investigation of density variation is that it is small provided velocities do not approach that of sound. however. : occurrence are studied the velocity doubled (q n = (a) 2^). a stream In all TABLE IV EXAMPLES OF ADIABATIC FLOW The variation of temperature affects such questions as the troublesome formation of ice on wings and the location of convective radiators. IV further illustrate adiabatic : Two cases of (q^ common (b) brought to rest Oj = 0). The examples worked out flow. (51) This gives. to be = = Yl r} = 0. with the help of (46). by which. 1019 487 per sec.
) : sec. with r written for q^q it to A similar expression is readily obtained to compare with (56). incompressible fluid.) 06 . it follows that air in motion may usually be treated as an . = . Making . (ft. from (40) a constant P ip? (53) for incompressible flow along a particular streamline. . as for example at the tips of approached by q l airscrews. provided that q? is small compared with a. now determine the error involved in applying (53) to a gas which is flowing adiabatically.) : 100 200 : 200 400 24 400 800 10 error (per cent. (55) or ^=A'*UrViWe < 56) These alternative expressions of Bernoulli's theorem for an incompressible fluid are of great importance. . As an example. . this reduces. (41) becomes + = . of which convenient nondimensional forms are . in particular cases. and the equation indicates that the error involved in applying (55) to a gas in adiabatic flow is The above 2 Since a is only small. (ft. provided always that tractions can be neglected. The condition this = constant is then a first approximation.40 AERODYNAMICS p [CH. assumption gives at once. such as water. theorem Expanding (52) by the binomial "" = ~ 1 fr or 2 ~~^7~~ + sv 7/ Since Y^>I/I S == p! by (25). series is rapidly convergent. The 300 600 55 error involved : per per sec. consider the case q 2 2q t in employing (55) instead of (57) is as follows ql y.
For incompressible flow.. where the timeaverage of the velocity is zero we refrain from saying that the velocity will be zero. and it is convenient to sometimes called the dynamic head. and also. variation of density. Variations of p Q are small compared with^>. . one arm being parallel to it with open mouth direetly facing the oncoming air suppose the other end to be connected to a pressure gauge so that no air can flow through. have p Q Jpy p deal with the quantity = . because some unsteadiness may possibly exist in the mouth of the tube but we can assert that the timeaverage of the square of the velocity will be negligible in ordinary circumstances.. There must exist an axial streamline about which fluid approaching the mouth divides in order to flow past. density. its diameter being made very small where the spacevariation of total head is rapid. Ignoring the small unsteadiness that may arise. the value appropriate to 15 C.D. For accurate work the tube must be oriented to lie parallel to the local streamlines of the flow.. and use suffix of the tube. per sec. and the velocity of sound at a for the mouth point of the streamline far upstream. velocity.) : 100 1*002 200 1*008 400 1032 (po 2* p)/foq*: . gives. for air flow whose changes of pressure due to variation of altitude can be neglected. (ft. . example q A.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 41 32. in the same way as for (57) : s^\ ft 1 . or total head. p p. Denote by p. compared with the square of the velocity of the oncoming stream.. (59) Putting a for = : 1118 ft. and p the pitot head. a the pressure.. . . for the moment. : (58) Such a tube is called a pitot tube (after its eighteenthcentury inventor). the pressure p in the mouth of the tube is given from Article 31 by . Air following that streamline will arrive at some point within the mouth of the tube. Comparing with (53). p. The Pitot Tube and the Stagnation Point Consider an Lshaped tube immersed and held stationary in a stream. to which Bernoulli's equation applies. we 2 For the corresponding flow of a gas we find. per sec. we note that the constant of that equation is measured by a pitot tube. Variation of p from one streamline to another is readily determined by a pitot tube in experiment. q.
and collinear with the axis of the tube. requires special strengthening If the body and tube are tilted with respect to the oncoming stream. ^ The fact that a stagnation point must exist is of considerable help in constructing curves of pressure variation round the contour of a body from meagre experimental data. FRONT STAGNATION POINT. Basis of Velocity Measurement a stream is measured as decombination of a pitot tube and a static pressure tube. such that the pressure difference 'in the tube is again Jp# 2 for there must ' . to find a new position for the tube. of the shape of an airship envelope. . ^The increase of pressure there is known as the stagnation pressure. 13. The point at which the dividing streamline meets the nose of an imfftersed body is called the front stagnation point. Fig. still exist a it dividing streamline. although now 13). Thus the correction on (58) due to compressibility remains small for moderately large velocities. in the neighbourhood of the nose of the body. other designs exist. for comconcentric form of pitotstatic tube is shown pressibility by (59). Experiment confirms this con clusion. In the above case of motion the dividing streamline is obviously Imagine a solid of straight. and indicates a pressure An airship nose increase of %pq z occurring at the nose of the body. to withstand this pressure (cf. 7). For from (58) static pressure of The undisturbed scribed in Article 27. Other methods of measuring velocity are readily devised. if need be. are given an angle of incidence/ the pressure in the tube deBut it must then be possible creases. i. The present method has a theoretical advan2 It is usually the latter tage in determining directly not q but pq . The pressure in the tube remains unchanged. may be curved (Fig. 14 . FIG. for instance.e. A ? = (60) The velocity thus obtained may be corrected. 33. called a pitotstatic tube.42 AERODYNAMICS [CH. having this same axis and situated with its nose at the mouth of the tube. enables local velocity to be measured if p is known. revolution. although none is so convenient. A in Fig.
and slight wear are instances. for instance. 14. only. PITOTSTATIC PRESSURE TUBE. per p Q p =0119 Ib. is required to be known with accuracy in Aerodyoften a comparatively rough knowledge of q itself is sufficient.L.P. pitotstatic tube.AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 43 quantity that namics . depending upon the type of tube. Wherever located within practical limita A tions. . N. Errors due to an inclination of 10 amount to 23 per cent. gives for ft. the tube can only be tangential to the local stream at one speed. 1=3 FIG. owing to various small disturbing factors. vibration. but the required sensitivity makes simple forms unsuited to rapid laboratory use. A mean alignment is adopted. Gauges (compare. beginning to become important.. Of these. The tube is connected with a pressure gauge of aneroid barometer type. Putting q = 10 ft. 2 per cent. usually of divided type. of the above head is a convenient limit to sensitivity. in. or It follows that the pitotstatic tube becomes unsuitable for smaller velocities. standard conditions at sealevel This pressure difference balances a head of water 0023. Especially if fitted to an aeroplane. Varia1 tion of temperature. which are usually negligible. is employed on aircraft to indicate speed. it is subject to disturbance from near parts of the craft to an extent depending on speed. and other means of measurement are then substituted. the change in electrical resistance of a fine heated wire due to forced convection in a stream has proved most convenient. deflection of a diaphragm of thin corrugated metal moving a . sec. but for the several reasons stated calibration in place is necessary for accurate readings. Article 7) can be devised to measure such a pressure with high accuracy. per sq. are described later Various problems in connection with the use of pitotstatic tubes but a certain limitation may be referred to here.
SUBDIVISION OF 34. If true speed is required at considerable altitudes. the which matter S#8y. 15.R. needle over a scale calibrated in miles per hour. 664. The reading is termed indicated air speed (A.C.44 AERODYNAMICS [CH. A very useful ex pression of the assumption is obtained as follows. Consider part of the a twodimensional flow enclosed within any ABCD small rectangle field of pv o FIG. the static tube is .S.). v being the components parallel to Ox. replaced by a device giving less than static pressure. u. of sides $x. and gives the true speed of the craft relative to the air at low altitude only. densities at BC and DA is ^ } Sjy / p8y = ~~ 8#8y ox Comparing similarly the massrate at o is flow across the sides AB and CD. x (Fig. is ex hausted from the rectangle on this account * ~ Now density Piercy and Mines. Particulars of Venturis for this and other purposes are given in the paper cited * (as A exposed on aircraft they are not constrained to 'run full').I. Since increase of pressure cannot exceed Jp#2 except on account of compressibility. A.R. 15). 1919. readings must be increased in the ratio VT/cr. formula for the pitot pressure at speeds exceeding the velocity of is sound given later. where cr is the relative air density. & M. Special forms of pressure tube also exist for aircraft. Taking advantage of the outstanding result of Article 30. must not approach that of sound in velocities air. From Article 3 1 maximum . designed to permit use of a more robust gauge. Xy. that the fluid sensibly homogeneous and flows incompressibly. will is FLOW PAST BODIES now be assumed. Oy of the resultant velocity. This sometimes consists of a single or double venturi tube. The rate at which fluid mass tends to be exhausted from the rectangle owing to es difference in velocities and . . it except where stated otherwise.
du This expression pressible fluid. N . integral \q sin a dn on S l N l through which Evaluate graphically it over that part. In other words. As the diameter of the hoop is decreased. 36. the speed would reach a maximum there. this statement becomes less true. Experimental Streamlines It is always possible to plot the streamlines for a steady motion from experimental knowledge of the velocity distribution. But (Article 22) the air is stationary on the surface. Imagine a hoop of diameter several times as great as the maximum transverse dimension of the body to be held across the stream. The volume of air flowing through the hoop per sec. the increase of speed increases as the body is approached. the air flowing faster to make up for the obstructed area. but at first only slowly. so that laterally distant parts are little affected. Choose a point A desired that a streamline shall pass. and is retarded for some distance into the are concerned with the manner in which such retardation fluid. If there were no friction at the surface of the body. is little diminished by the presence of the body. the inertia of the air tends to localise to the vicinity of the body the large deflections that must occur in the stream. Fig. held stationary within it. or aerofoil. 16 has been prepared from actual measurements of the approximately twodimensional motion in the median plane of a scale model of an aeroplane wing of the section shown. such as an airship. is known as the equation of continuity for an incom 35. The flow across any part of a normal is given by the value of the . which are often large. the disturbed velocity q were made along several normals to the wing surface values of q sin a/C7 are plotted for the two shown. enclosing the body. is . was immersed in a stream whose velocity U and pressure p Q were Explorations of the magnitude and direction of initially uniform. S l l and 52 ]V2 distance from the surface along either normal being denoted by n and the angle between q and the normal by a.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE Hence dv : 45 is assumed to remain constant. We consorts with the more distant. When a wind divides to flow past an obstacle. viz. though still close. increases of speed. The model wing.
curve is a streamline. . 16). Therefore there is no flow across the curve AA t A 2 A Hence this . Now there is no flow across the aerofoil contour. 16. A* on S 2 N Z such that For n small. . . determine points A. Successive streamlines follow by changing k to k'. Now find a point I O2 = O3 FIG.e. say. dn = k. O4 05 06 i. . k* . . sin a = 10. . find the line n A* (Fig. such that the area OA^A* equals the area OA ^A^ Similarly.46 AERODYNAMICS q l sin a [CH. A along other normals. It is . .
17. nor the /( original measurements so 37. Define the flow across this curve by fy 3 t]. is. It > accurate as to ensure obtaining another streamline by equating the same function of x and B B' y to another constant. 17). is (62) . ing to any constant. such as ACB. if the . With A fixed let B move in such a manner that the above flow remains constant. for all = points on the streamline BB'. joining the points. A . the velocity is inversely proportional to the distance apart of successive streamlines. i. If the value of fy (x. intervals are sufficiently small. for then. gives corresponding values of x and y for points lying on one of the streamlines of the motion. Then B traces out a streamline. second streamline . = k' = = A most conveniently constructed from the from the second. or exhausted from. because there is no flow across its path.. the area ACBA. In a motion hand.e. fy is called the stream function of the motion. and let q make an angle a with an element 8s . being the same as that across any other curve. It follows that the equation to ty all streamlines = constant . of course.. Let and B be two points. The fit would not be so close.. a third The Stream Function would be possible to fit to an experimental streamline a formula x y) = constant.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 47 convenient to make k Tc k" fc' . a function of x and y t We DC FIG. YB YA == f \ B . J A ? sin a as. for the flow across AB is independent of the shape of the curve. on the other difficulties * then have disappear. y) at A k. on equatfy (#> y)> which. This value is unique. since otherwise fluid would be compressed within. of the curve. and so on. that these is known analytically. first. not on the same streamline join them by any curve (Fig. A Consider a steady twodimensional motion in the #yplane. however..
<j of direction about the origin. 19). v = 0. . but 38. textbooks on Calculus that then shown in Hence : s ty (63) Sx = Uy. . the constant changing from one to another. of the velocity Now 8^ is variables x and y. = = . . sign is determined (63) below.48 AERODYNAMICS {CH. v = 0. 18. those of that across D and D be adjacent points on two = k and streamlines = fc + Jty. that across AE. A are x and the flow across if AD = x y. A definite value is assigned to the constant of a particular streamline by agreeing to denote some chosen 0. . consider the flow fy Qy where 2 C is a constant. again gives streamlines From parallel to 0#. Putting <J*/C 0. = 0. streamline by fy (x. components parallel to Ox. v are the q. The coorLet A : <Jj + %%> y + ED less Sy. Hence u. From As an example. but at a decreasing distance apart (Fig. From Fig. suppose u = [7. dinates of 18. respectively. y) = A sign is question the increment involved of is taken as positive if the flow is in a clockwise . and we recognise the flow as including that of . the total variation of a function of the two independent It is assumed that the partial derivatives dfy/dx It is and 3^/3^ are a l so continuous functions of x and y. and the flow evidently consists of uniform (63) <]* motion at constant velocity U in the direction Ox. Putting a series of streamlines all parallel to Ox 1. 1. Oy. 2 . generally by O FIG. (63) u = 2Cy. . gives ty/U 8 and spaced equally apart. where U is a constant. Again.
the vorticity of an element the ratio to its area of the . Sy. 39. (64) There is again a question of sign. Circulation and Vorticity So far we have dealt with the line integral of the normal velocity component across a flow. where 2C = U/h. 20. 19. the circulation that circuit and is K = Jc q cos a ds . drawn in the field of The line integral of the tangential velocity component once round any closed curve is curve called FIG. Thus : X FIG. The sides AD together contribute to counterclockwise circulation and CB an amount (du ^i u + Y 8y\ Sx Sy. and there are certain restrictions on the area occupied by y/os Wo* y/c=3 the flow. \ 8% = Su S#Sy. Let us calculate the circulation $K round the small rectangle K ABCD (Fig.n] Article AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE y/c*6 49 24. of sides 8x. If Ss is an element of of the closed curve of the circuit. 20). and a length the angle which q makes with Ss. =4!!:? is  ( 66 ) In words. STREAMLINES FOR UNIFORM SHEARING. q the velocity. round denoted by K. and this is taken as positive if has a counterclockwise sense. Similarly DC and BA together contribute Hence : !** 8x8y dx 9y B The finite limit to which VA the lefthand side tends as the area decreases is called Sx ts fy ^vtl^Sx dX TN the vorticity at the point and has the symbol .
city is generated. where u = and we now have from == = = = = = = If the pressure had acted equally in all would have exerted no couple on any element of fluid directions. = 0. Let q be the velocity along large. example of Article 38. of the vorticity to viscosity. distribu theorem A RADR tion exist. and the fluid is devoid of v started from rest. Applying the latter result to the motion of Article 24. Initially u but after a sufficient time a uniform distribution of vortivorticity. Imagine the moving plate in Article 24 to be C7/A. of and so small that its angular velocity G> can be considered Then K is due to G> alone. Writing S for area. <or . v and (65) gives 2C. vorticity of an element is twice its angular velocity. and n denote length measured along either of the normals towards the centre of curvature. it and the action of viscosity. Let the radius of curvature. SK or = 2nr . constant. which. a constant. r. the pressures act normally to the faces of the element. of vorticity is assumed to but tangential components of stress are neglected. 21). Consider the fluid element ABCD (Fig. The element exerts a centrifugal force p$s8nq*/R which. would have remained so. We are thus able to trace the generation 40. a constant.50 circulation AERODYNAMICS [CH. being originally devoid of vorticity. Choose the element as circular. bounded by two adjacent streamlines and the normals thereto. AB. Extension of Bernoulli's Equation is We are now in a position to prove a tance in connection with flow that and of practical impordistant from bodies sufficiently other boundaries. denote length measured along Let s AB. arising from the boundary condition of zero slip . assumed of the streamline AB be R. Tangential components being neglected. the flow . or there is a uniform distribution of vorticity. 7. radius round its contour. dK/dS = 2to Thus the In the v first the elements of everywhere (65) For the second example. u fluid are devoid of spin. 2Cy. DC.
provided tractions can be neglected. this . . dq Hence. across the streamlines the pitot head has a gradient proportional to the product of the velocity and the vorticity. Thus. Irrotational Flow motion is % = An irrotational one in which it is everywhere true that condition usually 0.e. (67) pj and substitute from (66) for becomes Now p Jpy* is the pitot head (Article 32). 8K round : the element. CD. (i) From the figure CZ> __ AB ~~&T Substituting in (i) CD ~~ _ l __ 8n ~~~R' dn sT R dn q . on traversing a pitot tube across a field of flow. If. 41. Where velocity gradients exist. by the force 8s8n(Sp/Sn) : Hence Now calculate the circulation flow along the normals hence . There is no . i. finally Multiply both sides of (67) by IjR. pressures on the faces balanced by a force due to the difference of the AB.II] AIR is FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 61 being steady. the pitot head remains constant. (Article 28). then the flow is devoid of vorticity so far as it + is explored. The last term : is evidently negligible compared with the others.
we note that the theorem of the preceding article leads. as will be proved Aerodynamic types of flow can now be shown. but typical. as described. was . and The pressure p undisturbed stream was verified to be sensibly irrotational by tracking across it a pitof 'tube. The flow selected is that above the aerofoil of Article 36. case will be described in some detail. Subdivision of It will Flow Past Bodies grounds. to a convenient method of investigating experimentally whether a given flow. on experimental theoretically in a later chapter. per sec. These are discussed in later theoretically Meanwhile. 42. having a chord c (length of section) of l in. or what part of it. is approxichapters. appears as an ideal which is not exactly attained by a real fluid. It was an incidence (angle made with the oncoming stream by the common tangent to its lower surface) of 95 in an initially uniform airstream of velocity U = 41 ft. but many motions of great Aerodynamic interest approximate closely to the irrotational state. This aero: foil set at small. mately irrotational. pose a particular. . that 00 O lO O Ol O2 O3 05 be separated into two parts an outer irrotational motion and an inner flow characterised by the presence of For this purvorticity. the pitot head being found to be constant.52 AERODYNAMICS [CH.
Actually was no reason to measure the pressure and velocity separately in the outer irrotational region except as a check. for short. Roy. Fig. 22 the first of these is pitot head and static pressure (p).. being the loss of pitot head caused by the model the second is conveniently expressed as (p p )/pU*. * For further illustrations see Piercy. and finally marks out a wake behind the aerofoil. respecfrom the leading edge. to h then. so that. widens as the edge approached. line drawn through all such points forms a loop which wraps itself very closely round the nose of the model (where a A special form of pitot tube for trailing is necessary is detection). were selected for study as those for which the variation of velocity (q) has been given in Article 36. S 1N 1 and S 2 N 2) distant c/3 and 2c/3. October 1923. given in the form : . or lines across the stream. The maximum pressure changes generated at the pitot boundary are transmitted without further variation along normals to the aerofoil This important point is clearly seen from the pressure surface. the pit< * and is one boundary way of marking out an internal limitation to irrotational flow. both quantities being nondimensional It is seen from the figure that the aerofoil causes negligible change t . The there aerofoil pressure decrease p Q p builds up along the normals as the is approached to maxima at the pitot boundary. . from (68). = = present. head beyond n 004c for the upstream and n 02c for the downstream normal. By traversing a fine pitot tube along a number of other normals. What will now be described is the variation that was found along them of In Fig. for here the one can be calculated from the other by Bernoulli's theorem. approximately just within them the velocity gradients are not large and the tractions may be expected to be small. we infer vorticity to be of pitot . Jour. 23 shows the wake located in this way behind another aerofoil set at smaller incidence. Soc. . tively. Beyond these limits the stream is concluded to be irrotational.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 53 The same two normals. a number of similarly critical points for pitot head can be found. Afro. The complete loop may be called.
second decreases from p + ipt^2 to p'. 0310 0308 A pressure change of 047 pC7 2 is transmitted to the surface along the Within the pitot boundary adjacent to the aerofoil the velocity (Fig. and some measurements were made in flight. The chainline curve (Fig. The pitot boundary was found to be much closer to the fullscale wing surface than it was to the model surface when expressed as a fraction of the chord. the value of the static pressure on the pitot boundary opposite the position round the contour of . related to the velocity changes there by Bernoulli's equation. This is separated from the body by a sheath of fluid infected with vorticity arising from the boundary condition of no slip and the action of viscosity. as already seen. 2. 22) gives a wider view of the manner in which the static pressure drop is built up. 3. The Boundary Layer the From many experiments which have been made on : lines simi lar to the foregoing. This sheath or film of fluid increases in thickness from the nose to the tail of the body. The Aerodynamic is which force on a body is that resultant force on due solely to motion relative to the fluid in which it it is . It merges into the wake. but is nowhere thick and is called the Boundary Layer. AERODYNAMIC FORCE AND SCALE 44. nondimensionally expressed. 16) and the pitot head (Fig. These showed the velocities and pressures. Changes in static pressure are built up in the outer flow. 43. 22) fall away The first. to be different from those observed with the model but not greatly so. the three readings nearest the surface being n\c = 0047 0127 0173 0312 ^~ = more upstream normal. An aeroplane was fitted with wings of the shape of the aerofoil. the aerofoil considered. we draw the following preliminary conclusions regarding motions of Aerodynamic interest past bodies 1. curve for the more downstream normal. There exists an outer irrotational flow.54 AERODYNAMICS [CH. vanishes on the surface the rapidly. and are transmitted to the surface of the body through the boundary layer.
The variation of p is shown by the dotted line in the The force on the element is compounded of p. SHOWING INTEGRATION OF PRESSURE DRAG AND LIFT. sometimes normal pressures (b) from a distribution of skin friction over the surface. Aerodynamic force arises on the body in two . are excluded. Let denote the area. and the angle which the normal SN at makes with SL. 24. per unit of span. outwardly figure. the section at 8s S (Fig. subtract from the pressure acting on the surface the static pressure of the oncoming stream. perpendicular thereto. : Thus forces acting on the body due to gravity. EXPERIMENTAL PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ROUND SECTION OF AEROFOIL.. ways (a) called the from the static pressures over the surface. To obtain the resultant force we require to effect a summation of the forces on all elements. leading to a variation of force from one element to another in both magnitude and direction. the perpendicular to the direction of the relative undisturbed wind.Ss. 24). For convenience. of an element of the contour of IVeesui increase Pressure decrease FIG. directed along shall we . and let p be the normal component of the remainder and F the tangential component. For simplicity assume the flow to be twodimensional. so that F has no component parallel to the span.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 55 immersed. p and F vary from point to point over the wing. etc. SN and F. for example.8s. buoyancy. an aeroplane wing of uniform section. 8s Consider.
if the aerofoil section is drawn accurately to parallel scale and all points on the contour at which p is known are projected line perpendicular to SL (i. but the directions of projection are interchanged.e. is proportional to that part of Now Ss sin upon a the lift which is line parallel to due to p. unlike the static lift of a gasbag. The sense of depends upon that of the velocity with which it is associated. . However. Hence. The first component is Aerodynamic the second the drag. Curves are also shown obtained by projection perpendicular to and in the direction of the oncoming stream.p sin 6 + F cos 6) Ss and Ss cos are the projections of Ss perpendicular and to SL. the areas under which are proportional to the lift and drag per foot run of the span at the median section. is given in Fig. completed so as to represent the whole contour. SL. As regards drag. nor even does its direction necessarily lie in a vertical plane it is perpendicular to the span of the wing and lift. It will especially be noted that the lift of a wing. we have 8L 0) SD = (p cos + F sin 8s = (. the simplest curve found for an aerofoil is of figureofeight form. the area enclosed by the curve obtained by joining the points. aerofoil contour. one loop of which is positive and the other negative the net area is conveniently obtained by tracing the point of a planimeter round the diagram in a direction corresponding to one complete circuit of the is curve all up normally to this line and a closed points and completing so as to include . and SD in the direction of the relative wind. and p is If similar projections are made along a set obtained by joining all positions round the contour. the area ABC giving negative contributions to drag. 24. 45. the correct sense is gradient F easily decided by inspection.56 AERODYNAMICS : [CH. An example of the variation of p round the median section of an aerofoil at a certain angle of incidence. upon a line parallel to the undisturbed relative wind) and p is set up normally to this line. is not constrained to be vertical. The contributions of skin friction to lift and drag are similarly determined. Apart from scientific . experimentally determined at a certain speed. the net area enclosed by the curve is pioportional to the contribution to drag by p. Denoting lift by L and drag by Z). Evaluation is usefully simplified in the following way components of the resultant force are determined parallel to SL drawn perpendicular to the relative wind and to the aerofoil span. the also to the relative wind. and is taken as positive for 8s if it is directed upward when the wing is the right way up.
24) may approach that of the positive loop. lift and nega . labour is venient for bodies other than wings will be left for the reader to devise. This drag wholly is comparatively large.L/D. greatly so at small incidences when the neglected skin friction lift A = = = = becomes relatively important. providing positive tive drag.g.e. the projected pressure curve (e. resolving subsequently in the wind direction and perpendicular thereto. i. ABC of Fig. when the contribution of the pressures to drag will be small. For 'this condition to be realised. seen to arise from the pressure distribution round the forward part of the upper surface of the aerofoil. Since D lift the drag is smaller the greater L/D. but is less than that of a cupshaped body with the concavity facing the direction of flow. without breaking away from the profile. Such analysis is Since the pressure usually required at several angles of incidence. the ' ' quantity of significance descriptive of an aerofoil is the ratio of L ~. Considering a flat plate at incidence a and neglecting skin friction. this A comparison is often 'given as illustrating the superiority of the The advantage is aerofoil over the flat plate for aeroplane wings. When a fluid flows 46. Values given by this formula must always be excessive. for a given L to the drag D. skin friction included. i. especially in the case of aerofoils. L/D.e. flat plate set normal to the undisturbed stream from unequal distribution of pressure. providing data essential to the design of sufficiently strong structural members of minimum weight for the corresponding aeroplane wing.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 57 interest. L/D cot a. at flying incidences of a wing. investigations of distribution of force are of technical importance. the contribution of skin friction The area enclosed by the negative drag loop of negligible. and writing P for the any total force due to variations of pressure over the two surfaces. a straight pipe or past a thin flat plate at zero incidence through the drag must be wholly frici.e. most conveniently be found at the same points round the contour saved by projecting along and normal to the chord of the wing. Some limiting cases may be mentioned. Negative drag loops are absent from the normal plate and very small for the circular cylinder. L/D wing having also essentially more lifting power than a flat plate. the flow must envelop the back of the body closely. the Nevertheless. we have L P cos a. as instanced by a the drag of a thin must arise parachute. Such drag is small with air as fluid. greatly exceeds cot a. Graphical processes of integration conwill for all incidences. to lift is Referring to aerofoils. D P sin a. However P varies with a. At the other extreme. parallel to the oncoming stream tional.
liquid the fluid concerned. which is proportional to p. The depend upon skin friction has been seen to depend upon U and the viscosity jju Comparing different fluids. . Geometrical similarity must include roughness of surface. one after another. stitute for IJL the quantity vjji/p . the density p and the undisturbed velocity U. although scarcely apparent to the eye. of the drag of a normal disc of diameter equal to the maximum diameter of the . . envelope. at the same incidence in a uniform stream of air. although the pressure varies considerably from nose to tail. the bodies may be supposed immersed in uniform streams of different representing a or gaseous. so as to avoid sharp changes of curvature which. instead of using french curves. As a matter of experiment it is found that the pressure drag of a carefully shaped airship envelope almost vanishes. For both lines of enquiry we need to establish a proper scale For this in terms of which Aerodynamic force may be measured. engine egg. contour of a wing. and the drag is almost wholly frictional it may amount to less than 2 per cent. purpose we keep the geometrical shape of the body and its attitude in other words. and as common condition in Aerodynamics. a process known as fairing or So exacting is this process that it pays to shape the streamlining. so that compressibility may be neglected. . or other exposed part of an aircraft by some suitable formula. But it is assumed for simplicity. But the velocity of the stream may vary and also the physical condition of the air in fact. immersed. The knowledge required for practical use will result partly from theory and partly from experiment. Preceding articles have shown that the Aerodynamic force A The pressure will arises from pressure variation and skin friction. . we to the wind constant. the general effect of viscosity depends on the ratio of the internal tractions to the Hence it is convenient to subinertia. unless effects of variation are known in a given case a caution is also necessary against tolerating any to be negligible . 47. (69) . The example illustrates the great economy in drag which can be achieved by careful shaping. but allow its size to vary consider a series of bodies of different sizes made from a single drawing. that maximum velocities attained are small compared with the velocity of sound in fluids. may increase drag considerably.58 AERODYNAMICS [CH. lack of uniformity in the oncoming stream. . strut section. Rayleigh's Formula Further investigation of how Aerodynamic force depends upon shape is left to subsequent chapters. or air in different states.
then. such as a normal plate.:[ Writing (71) in dimensional form : ML r For the dimensions of the (M\*(L\< /LV ViV \r/ \T/ it is term to be ML/T*.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 59 called the kinematic coefficient of viscosity. If it is then moved through water. It is desired to obtain a general formula for A connecting it with This may contain a number of terms. = l. I. It is concluded. a great increase velocity. v. . whose dimensions are r M/L* (cf. depends upon p. The principle of homogeneity of dimensions asserts i. U. U. by any agreed representative length is body. which is specified because the geometrical shape constant. can be arrived at in other ways experiments. *!. 3p + q + s = on account of the T's. being a force.e. p 1. by appeal to investigation. q giving /> = required that 2s r + 2. drag can be felt to depend upon size . Moving the plate finally through thick oil instead of water shows that drag also and depends upon viscosity. : p ? U q r l v 5 (71) Now A. which is essential to the e. Article 23) L*/T. that : A and on nothing else. can be written in the form . will also depend upon the size of the /. 2 . v . . on account of the L's. The Aerodynamic force. (70) This conclusion. has the dimensions of mass x acceleration. if a bluff shape. for density need scarcely have changed. ML/T all terms in the formula for A must have the same dimensions.. The importance of the more careful consideration that we have given to the question lies in the assurance that no important factor has been omitted. = is : ! s. on account of the M's. any one of which p. simple is moved by hand through air. since it results from the surface integration of pressure and skin M/LT = friction. occurs mainly as a result of increased density. I. Thus. q =y = 2 Hence the formula for A A  2p[/ 2 ~'/ 2 ~*v s .g.
.... a coefficient of Aerodynamic force body and value of R can be found required Still by actual measurement. Number first Simple Similar Motions discovered the Reynolds number after Osborne its significance. The quantity Reynolds. Writing (72) as 7//v is called who . it is (72a) an alternative form of particular use where changte of fluid is involved. one in each of a series of fields of flow past bodies of the same shape resultant velocity (and attitude) at the same Reynolds number..vnose value for lefthand side. there is the same . let us investigate what similarity in the flow of different fluids at different velocities past bodies exists of different sizes.60 or AERODYNAMICS [CH. . subject to the restriction that R remains constant. the method of Article 47 readily gives for instance u. the Since this is true of all sets of corresin direction.. the streamlines present the same picture. though to ponding points. This important relationship is the simplest case of Rayleigh's formula. on the . Reynolds absurd. any shape of PD if we have. velocity component there. The investigation equally leads to \ V . It will be noted that Aerodynamic force cannot vary with the area of the body or the square of the velocity exactly unless is indepen dent of viscosity. The magnitude of the velocity at corresdifferent geometric scales. from consideration of velocity components at right angles at geometrically similarly situated points. called corresponding points. keeping shape constant. (72) where f(Ul/v) means some particular function of the one variable OT/v. /. flow past the Considering any particular position in the field of for particular shape. any Hence. A = P W. which 48. and is written R.
A oc p[7 2/2 is now true of occurs at the same phase. The motions considered in this article provide an example of what are termed dynamically similar motions. and it is found to vary. as may be shown directly. (dimensions 1/T). . R 2 2 Fig. and 2 2 that part of resulting from pressure variation oc pt/ / . though related. 49.Il] AIR oc FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 61 ponding points U . This When curve is the graphical representation of f(R) through the range explored. ments or calculations we obtain a number of values of A for a given shape. any picture in one film would be found in the others. p. if by a series of experiattitude) and the mean value of R. Constancy of the lefthand side of (73) is also found by experiment for R constant when the bodies produce flow that varies rapidly in an irregular manner. remain constant. It follows that at corresponding points on the contours of the bodies the pressure oc pt/ 2 and the skin friction oc y. show that A is constant. Aerodynamic Scale the Reynolds number changes. oc U* oc l// a The streamlines pass through the same sequence ~=constant. 25 gives as an example the variation of (drag f. etc. of transient configurations but at different rates . while that A 2 2 part due to skin friction oc pvl// oc p/ / since v oc Ul. sometimes very little through a limited range of R. . : The foregoing assumes the motions have frequencies to depend only on ~ to be steady. sometimes sharply. it is clear from Article 48 that all coefficients will lie on a single curve. work out the coefficients and plot these against R. U. with : which we are usually concerned. The result the Aerodynamic force at any phase and also of the mean value. Hence A oc pC7 / or the lefthand side of (73) is constant. freSimilarity of streamlines. the method of Article 47 gives : Now let them With frequency assumed : While R remains If also periodic motions. v. and the pressure oc pt/ f . I. Example if also the fluid is constant. ~ oc U/l in ~ .p7 / ) with In order to fix for long circular cylinders set across the stream. because R is 2 2 constant. then quency.U/1 oc pvt///. the fluid be given so that v. and therefore Ul.. there is no reason to expect the coefficient of Aerodynamic force to remain constant. depending upon the shape of the body (or its Now. if cinema films were taken of the motions. as described above. but it would recur at a different. .
the flow 100. 25. When observations at constant Reynolds number disagree with one another. \OZ 10 _ R. variation in. and we conclude that the theory of Article 47 can be accepted with confidence. R= The broken for eddying R > line gives the variation of frequency. but the drag then relates to a length of the cylinder equal to its diameter. The full line results from a great number of observations. 3 1O 5 1O 6 DRAG OF LONG CIRCULAR CYLINDERS SET ACROSS STREAM AND FREQUENCY OF FLOW IN WAKE (/ == DIAMETER). for instance. though a cluster round a particular Reynolds number may include great 1O FIG. it has been chosen quite arbitrarily to use the diameter of the cylinder in specifyingR and the square of the diameter for /. diameter. of points These are not shown. the numerical scales. the cause is to be sought in the particular realised circumstances of the experiments if geometrical similarity is truly and velocities are demonstrably too small for appreciable . . Similar success has been obtained experimentally in many other cases. The rapid rise of drag at 10 e flattens again at 13 x 10 with a value of about 03 for the coefficient.62 AERODYNAMICS [CH. but they fit the curve closely.
The process usually depends upon discovery of a constant index for one of the variables. t M/LT*.e. they constitute merely an approximation to part of the f(R) curve for the shape concerned. although this restriction is not necessary.. the cause may be traced to considerable variation of unsteadiness in the oncoming streams. The more complicated formulae completing this chapter will show that the Reynolds number alone is often insufficient the then becomes more difficult and experiment requires position planning with judicious care. 49 A.2t. and the method of Article 47 gives p q r = = = 1* 2 2 s 5. carried out. be Provided the model is tested at the same Aerodynamic experimental measurements are accurately related to corre. which they are derived . such formulae large errors often result from extrapolation.q . Rayleigh's Formula High Speeds If the compressibility of the air cannot be neglected. The principle of dimensional homogeneity is often employed to express in a rational formula the results of a series of experiments on a given shape. =p+ l = 3p + q+r + 2 = . the Reynolds number provides a proper scale for Aerodynamic motions. Circumstances in which this scale is not suitable are described in the following articles. The outstanding practical significance of general formulae such as (72) is to establish the basis aircraft or their on which single experiments if on scale models of scale.s . possible. 2t .. amount to no more than a convenient mental note of the results from . it becomes evident that. otherwise corrections ire sponding quantities at the full scale The proviso can by no means always be satisfied even necessary. 2s t (i) E are I (M) (L) (T) i. when the gauge of Aerodynamic scale is simply the Reynolds number. It should carefully be noted that such formulae apply only through the range for which they have been shown to hold Thus. Finally. its modulus of bulk elasticity E must be admitted and the typical term in the new formula for Aerodynamic force becomes ftVWE* The dimensions of . .II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 63 compressions and expansions. with moderate velocities. component parts should..
at low altitude. a stratoat the moderate indicated air speed of spheric aeroplane flying 200 m. whilst a is (200/Vi) reduced by the low temperature to the value 975 ft. M 58 ? ft P^r se c. this dependence cannot be separated. i. By 2 Article / pt/ = 20. In speed. calculation of the stagnation pressure... M must be the same. M) . Now in fullscale flight at little more than this Mach number the effect of varying may be much more important than that of varying R. ratio t//0 is called the Mach number and de noted by M. the importance of the formula is much wider.p.h. .f(R. giving > 0*6 for every part of the aeroplane. In modern Aeronautics. where a is the velocity of sound. and the formula becomes finally A There being = 9UW.. for values speeds greater of less than J.e. . Thus. U= (22/15) .e. both R and For a dynamically similar experiment on a model of an aircraft it will be plain from the next chapter that the power required to the artificial wind is economised chiefly by reducing the produce But this would involve employing very cold air. at an altitude of 40.. and considerably greater values produce in some cases only negligible effects on A Formerly. the unknowns and only three dimensional equations new function has two arguments A depends upon both and. (73A) five to relate them. way that compressibility can be ignored for than 250 m.p.. for example. i.64 giving the result AERODYNAMICS [Cfi. however. the occasions on which it is superseded by (73A) are multiplying. leading to For two motions 1 and 2 to be dynamically similar. speeds towards the tips of their blades being so high as to make approach unity. where the relative density in a preliminary little From made theoretically. per sec.000 ft. Considering.. (U/a)*. E The pa 2 . the airscrew provided almost the only occasion calling for a formula of the type (73A). while (72) can still be relied upon in a great variety of practical circumof the air is J. =  M M stances. an inference has been M ..h..
Approximate treatment ignores air drag of parts projecting above the surface and also surface tension. 498. F. (1) Some Other Conditions for Similitude occurring in Aerodynamics When a seaplane float or flyingboat hull moves partly im mersed in water. 3 .e. (a). we write any term in the formula for drag as Dimensional theory at once gives : (M) (L) (T) whence \=p i==3p + q + r 2 = 2t s q =1 p s 2* q = 2 r = 2 s + t and the term becomes leading to the following formula for drag : .D. /. the A change from water is not fluid must be changed when Doc pv f oc p/8 modified by . For change of size the second argument gives Ucc<\/l since g is practically constant. waves formed cause variation of pressure over horizontal planes due to the weight of the heaped liquid. (73B) The drag is force but modified made up of two parts (a) a part akin to Aerodynamic by (b) wavemaking resistance. A. 25. and then by the first v oc ^/l*.II] AIRFLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 66 these circumstances and in view of the labour involved. which would now embrace a series of curves for a body of given shape. with g added. Thus gravity comes into the problem of similarity. and experiments on the effect of high Mach numbers are usually carried out with no more than the precaution of avoiding very small Reynolds numbers. the task of constructing a data sheet such as Fig. For dynamical similarity both arguments of the function must be kept constant. which again is : U*/gl is called the Froude number. C7. is abandoned. i. Then p. v refer to the water only and.
e. and it has been found sufficient. i. when its pond to 81 m. as originally suggested by Froude. Another tank (R. deep. E and n presents no difficulty.p. in windtunnel tests on unsteady motions of airThe subject is discussed under Stability and Control. to which the Reynolds resistance is added after correction for rhange of scale. To secure geometrical similarity in experiments on airscrews of different sizes. with a maximum speed of 27 m. . 7. to write (73B) as 1 D= P l7/ /. ing speed One ship tank (U. .h. but craft. maximum model is speed would corres The wavemaking resistance assessed by subtracting from the The wavetotal drag measured an estimated Reynolds resistance. The airscrew is a twisted aerofoil. each made from the same drawing.) has rather more than onethird these dimensions. (73D) Derivation from first principles on the assumption that A depends on p.J).h. . It is also convenient to replace U as far as possible by n.S. A== 9 n*D'. t . however.66 AERODYNAMICS [CH. full scale. where U is the fullscale speed. Thus a third argument must be added to (73A). and the nonThe diameter D dimensional parameter U\nD is given the symbol /. wide. long. to assume the two kinds of resistance to be independent of one another.f(R M. But it will now have become apparent that formulae even more complicated than (73D) can be constructed from dimensional considerations almost by inspection. Now n1!)4 has the same dimensions as E71/ 1 and the formula becomes . * (73C) This is convenient in regard to the wavemaking resistance. .A.p. with a maximum towing speed of 60 m. unconnected (2) Froude's law of corresponding speeds reappears. is chosen for convenience to specify /.(*) + /. it is therefore necessary that U/nl be constant. a simple example will shortly be provided by the spinning tunnel/ ' 49C. the revolutions per second n. and 12 ft. convenient. /.A. and the forward speed U.h. In the latter a ^th scale model of a : ' ' large hull is feasible.E. 24 ft. . because a model of scale e can be towed in a ship tank at the low correspondU^/e. resistance is simply related to that under fullscale condimaking tions.) is 1980 ft. each section of the blades moving along a helical path defined by the radius.p. with wavemaking. v.
TABLE III A .II] AIRFLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 67 The following extension of Table III relates to the standard atmosphere and gives approximate values of various quantities which are constantly required in calculations of Aerodynamic scale.
lay in the swirl imparted to the air by the revolving apparatus and the flight of models in their own wakes after the still . Experiments are now nearly always made in an wind generated by or within a wind tunnel. This method was introduced during the second half of the nineteenth century and wind tunnels were built in various countries during the first decade first revolution. on models made occupies an important place. which the whole basis of Aerodynamics. however. while other formulae are based as much on experiment as on theory. In early days of the science. Nature of Windtunnel Work force presents difficulties even in has been made with this problem. by experimentally determined corrections that take neglected factors into account. Great progress will be described in subsequent chapters. suspended from a balance in a natural wind (Lilienthal). models were sometimes studied outofdoors when flying freely (cf. and unsteadiness of winds was soon found to cause large errors. and designers of aircraft now rely on direct calculation in several connections. Yet many effects of change of shape or Reynolds number are of so complicated a nature as entirely to elude theoretical treatment and to require direct Measurements can be made during fullscale flight rfieasurement. or towed. apart from the formerly provided theoretical work of Lanchester in England and Prandtl in Germany. strictly to scale. but is economically reserved where possible to the final stages of investigations carried out primarily The calculation of Aerodynamic Thus model experiment. In the Whirling Arm method (Langley and others). so that experiments came to be carried out in laboratories. This method is employed occasionally. by weighing. pressure plotting. however. comparison of performance. Theoretical formulae are improved.Chapter III WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 50. additional to mechanical difficulties arising from centrifugal force. Calm days are few. as simple cases. artificial . during fall from a considerable height (Eiffel). Lanchester 's experiments). models attached to a balance were swung uniformly round a great horizontal circle a disadvantage. etc.
Through the part of the stream actually used for experiment. which flew in 1903. balances and other measuring apparatus surrounding the dynamic working section of a tunnel have usually been installed with this lies in direct purpose primarily in view. In elementary Aerodynamics it is advisable to carry out many experiments* which mathematical treatment renders unnecessary in a more advanced course. Yet with every precaution * A programme of experimental studies requiring only simple apparatus is given in a companion volume to this book. The wide range of modern has led on economic grounds to the evolution of several experiment specialised forms for the wind tunnel. rolled about its longitudinal axis. can be reduced to This standard of steadiness may be relaxed for experiments cent. The artificial wind should be steady and uniform. . for otherwise superposing a velocity cannot change the circumstances of experiment exactly to those of flight through still air. yawed. in which it is not of prime importance. It can be pitched. Questions of this nature as the subject proceeds. but there still remains unlimited scope for windtunnel work on scientific matters in which analysis is of little will avail or particularly complicated. and the variation of instantaneous velocity at any one 2 per point. and it will only be remarked appear here that their investigation invites originality of method and ingenuity in the design of special apparatus. or oscillated in imitation of a variety of circumstances arising in free A special technique flight. as will be described. described in a later chapter enables due allowance to be made for the limited lateral extent of the stream. the Wright Brothers carried out numerous experiments in a diminu* tive wind tunnel. less than 2 square feet in sectional area.CH. Another and equally important domain of model experiment The Aeroapplication to specific designs of aircraft. in prepara* tion for their brilliant success in the first mechanically propelled A aeroplane. the maximum variation of timeaverage velocity need not exceed 1 per cent. Ill] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 69 matter of great historic interest is that of the present century. and its response accurately determined. A more or less complete model of an aircraft can be suspended in a windtunnel stream of known speed and its reaction measured. The tunnel method of experiment has since been developed to a magnificent degree. Tunnels can be designed to achieve a fair approximation to this requirement. though more difficult to suppress. although in a small Aeronautical laboratory a single tunnel must serve a variety of widely different uses.
. Experiments on complete models. A new problem introduced is to piecemeal determine how each part will affect a neighbouring part or one to which it is joined. for in principle it enters into all experiments in which a model is supported in the stream by attachments. there is no alternative to large or costly wind tunnels except flying tests. and initial same Reynolds number. Such mutual effect is called interference and becomes familiar in windtunnel work. Two outstanding reasons are as follows. difficulty still to is be the effect of initial turbulence. the turbulence remaining in an artificial wind is sufficient to produce a marked difference in some connections from flight at the numbers. This question many sided and its consideration must be deferred. the interpretation of the observations in terms of fullscale flight is attended with uncertainty. especially at the compressibility of the air. Secondly. The above expedients leave the second main faced. whilst the principles and phenomena of Aerodynamics can be illustrated qualitatively with ease in a modest wind tunnel. an aircraft by employing enlarged models for component test in an artificial wind of normal density they would be larger than fullscale. It was found in high altitudes. and the effects of compressibility maintained. by the preceding chapter that for dynamical similarity under these conditions both the Reynolds and Mach numbers require to be Finally. are considerably affected. and experiments are usually carried out in small streams.70 AERODYNAMICS [CH. the constant need for quantitative information makes more serious demands and creates a study within itself. can only cross the threshold of large fullscale Reynolds fall far short in more modest tunnels. viz. The same device may be applied to wings exposed and tailplanes by testing short spanwiselengths of large chord under twodimensional conditions.to threedimensional conditions and is left to calculation. The consequent problem in this case is the change from two. For reliable data on wings at greater incidences or on long bodies. Reynolds numbers being ignored. determined as corrections of a general nature. even in national tunnels. fast aircraft numbers Tunnels capable of realising even moderate Reynolds at high speeds are particularly expensive to construct and operate. It will be seen that. but there is evidently need to ascertain by suitable tests the degree of turbulence characterising the particular tunnel employed. The first difficulty can be circumvented parts of in the case of small . The drag of the complete aircraft is then built up from tests on its parts.
h. 26. plane table S. numerous examples are Air is drawn from the laboratory into a short straight still in use. the location of the latter being adjusted to spread the flow evenly over the working section. H.p. Kramer.in] 51. W. if The only to minimise noise. If C "is the crosssectional area and V the velocity of the experimental part of the stream. oval. 26. But in some publications the reciprocal of this ratio is intended. and so the term is commonly omitted in referring to the atmospheric class. For some years many of the wind tunnels built were of the type shown in Fig. The airscrew is made as and its shaft is coupled large as direct to the driving motor. round. or of other shape. The term atmospheric applied to a wind tunnel means that the density of its air stream is approximately the same as that of the surrounding atmosphere.: \> SCALE OP FEET FIG. . Subsequently the stream has most of its kinetic energy reconverted into pressure energy in a divergent duct D. tunnel through a faired intake and wide honeycomb. from . WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT Atmospheric Wind Tunnels crosssection of 71 OpenReturn Type the experimental part of a windtunnel stream may be square. but they are few. honeycomb wall. OPENRETURN WIND TUNNEL. 4FT. P. elliptic. or similar electrical system. regenerative cone . D. inlet honeycomb . guard grid . the flow past the model is induced by a tractor airscrew located downstream. described as ' ' straightthrough or ' openreturn/ cas . The size of a tunnel is specified by the dimensions of this crosssection. the power factor P is usually defined as ' ' __  550 X input b. Apart from small highspeed tunnels actuated by a pressure reservoir. octagonal. Some tunnels employ compressed or rarified air. the speed of which is controlled preferably by the WardLeonard. possible. Though the design has been superseded.
52. which accelerates the air rapidly into the working section. showing a wide central stream almost devoid of vorticity. the boundary layer). the power factor P having the highvalue unity. The pressure in a pitot tube within connected with it is calibrated against the appropriate mean reading of a pitotstatic tube traversed across the working section (excluding. principally through the honeycomb. 4#. tunnels are . velocity increases To compensate for sometimes made slightly divergent. 14* height and width. and also overall large approximate dimensions for a tunnel of size x are diffuser. A small hole is drilled through the side of the tunnel several feet upstream from the working section. The side. The distributor returns the air. Thus the streamlines are slightly convergent and pressure decreases along the parallel length. A boundary layer of sluggish air lines the tunnel walls. In small sizes. This stream slightly narrows along the tunnel owing to increasing thickness of the boundary layer. tnio characteristic variation. however. A consequent disadvantage is that the laboratory requires to be reasonably clear of obstructions. symmetrically laid out. the return flow is conveyed within divergent diffuser ducts to the mouth of a convergent nozzle. over a wide area to the laboratory. which conveys it evenly arid slowly back to the intake and thus forms an integral part of the circuit. A ring of radial straighteners is fitted behind the airscrew to remove spin and the circulating stream is guided round corners by cascades . A second length. Ill disadvantage is lack of economy in running. 27. ClosedReturn Tunnels In the more modern tunnels of Fig. but away from this Bernoulli's equation holds closely. of course. By this means velocities can afterwards be gauged without the obstruction of a pitotstatic tube in the stream. : . At static pressure is obviously less within the tunnel than outfirst sight it appear feasible to calculate the velocity may at the working section from a measurement of the difference in static pressure between there and some sheltered comer of the laboratory.72 AERODYNAMICS ' 1 [CH. a large chamber enclosed by perforated walls W. and the pressure drop in a pipe But losses in total energy occurring at the intake. which the airscrew exhausts the air into a distributor. with disturbances due to the airscrew much reduced. prevent this. including . the working stream is less than the static pressure in the room. the type is simple to construct and convenient in use.
(b). compact open jet . enclosed section . A. lullscale (c). corner vane. 27. (a). 8* . (d). WIND TUNNELS.(c) FIG. RETURNCIRCUIT open jet 73 .D.
74
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
of aerofoils or guide vanes (see (d) in the figure for a suitable section), which maintain a fairly even distribution of velocity over the gradually expanding crosssection. The experimental part of the
stream is preferably enclosed, as at (a), but sometimes takes the form of an open jet, as at (b) and (c). An open jet is distorted by a model and is resorted to only when accessibility is at a premium. These tunnels are often known as of closedreturn or race'
'
'
type. They effect a great economy in laboratory space, a small room being required round the working section, and only also in running costs, P having approximately the value J. Wood is not a suitable material for construction, though often used, because during a long run the air warms and produces cracks which are destructive to efficient working since the ducts support a small
course
'
pressure. characteristic of prime importance is the contraction ratio of the tunnel, defined as the ratio of the maximum crosssectional area
A
attained
by the stream to the crosssectional area of the experimental
large contraction ratio effectively reduces turbulence but par*, increases the overall length of a tunnel of given size, since divergent
A
ducts must expand slowly to prevent the return flow separating from the walls. A rather long tunnel has the advantage of preventing disturbances from a highdrag model being propagated completely round the circuit. Modern designs usually specify a contraction ratio greater than 6 values for the tunnels (a), (b), (c) in the figure are 6, 5,
;
and
3, respectively, (a) may be regarded as suitable for general purposes, (b) illustrates the fullscale tunnel at Langley Field, U.S.A.,
which has an oval jet 60 ft. by 30 ft. in section, an overall length of some 430 ft., and a speed of 175 ft. per sec. with a power
input of 8,000 h.p.
(c)
indicates the
for this
it
maximum
;
possible compactness developed at the R.A.E.,
for sizes
type of tunnel
has been used
up
to 24ft. diameter.
1
1
'
i
*
i
53.
FIG, 28.
Spinning Tunnel
SPINNING TUNNEL.
A
as
M, flying model; O, observation window ; N, net for catching model
;
few vertical tunnels have been built, shown schematically in Fig. 28, for spinning
,
tests.
H, honeycomb.
An aeroplane may fly in a vertical with a velocity of descent VT say. A spiral
Ill]
WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT
is
75
question arising
this,
surfaces will steer the craft into a
whether operation of the aerodynamic control normal flight path. To investigate
a light model of balsa wood, similar in disposition of mass as well is set into corresponding spiral flight, a camera mechanism the controls after a delay. Ignoring the effects of visoperating cosity, the Froude number V*/lg must be the same for craft and model. If the latter is made to T^th scale, its velocity of descent JFF This is a small speed, and it is feasible to employ a wide vertical tunnel with an upwardly directed stream, so that the model does not lose height and the action can be observed conveniently. The difficulty with these tunnels is to prevent the model from (a) flying into the wall, (b) spinning upwards or downwards. According to tests carried out on model tunnels, (a) can be overcome by a suitable distribution of velocity along the radius, and (b) by making the tunnel slightly divergent, which gives stability in respect of vertical displacement, since the rising model then loses
as in form,
=
.
flying speed,
and
vice versa.
54. Coefficients of Lift, Drag,
and Moment *
In the general case of a body suspended in a wind tunnel Aerodynamic force is not a pure drag, but is inclined, often steeply, to the direction of flow. This inclination is not constant for a given shape and attitude of the body, but is a function of the Reynolds
number.
When the flow has a single plane of symmetry for all angles of incidence of the body, the Aerodynamic force can be resolved into two components in that plane, parallel and perpendicular to the the drag and lift, respectively. By Article 47 we relative wind
find for
any particular shape and incidence a
lift
coefficient
:
*CL
and a drag
coefficient
:
=*L =
p
/.(*)
.
.
.
(74)
D
*
There are two systems of coefficients in Aerodynamics. In the now prevailing system, associated with the symbol C, forces and moments are divided by the product of the stagnation pressure for incompressible flow, viz. JpF* (cf. Art. 32), and /* or /* ; in an earlier system, distinguished by the symbol k, the quantity pV* takes the place of the stagnation pressure. Thus a ^coefficient J x the corresponding Ccoefficient, as indicated in (74), (76), and (77). Neither system has an advantage over the other, but to secure a universal notation (^coefficients have superseded ^coefficients in this country since 1937. They are generally adopted in this book, but some matters are still expressed in the older system.
,
=
76
AERODYNAMICS
aircraft,
is
[CH.
Most bodies tested are parts of
supports weight
and
L is then positive
if
it
when the aircraft Reynolds number, we have
Aerodynamic
force (4)
right
way up.
*
For any chosen
= foV*PVCL + CD
inclination to the direction of
lift
and,
is
if its
y
(Fig. 29),
tan Y
AX/&D = CJCD and = LjD.
is
= CD/CL
.
.
(76)
called the liftdrag ratio
A
Without a plane of symmetry as above, will have a third component, called the
Again assuming
this plane of
crosswind force.
symmetry,
the line of action of
its
A
magnitude
and
can be found from direction and the
axis
in
moment about some
the
body
perpendicular to the plane, usually through
the quarterchord point. This moment is the pitching moment Af. The method of Article 47 gives for any particular shape and attitude a coefficient
called
FIG. 29.
M

:
.
.
.
(77)
M
is positive when it tends to increase angle of incidence, i.e. to turn the body clockwise in the figure. Other moment coefficients will be introduced later when the motion of aircraft is considered in greater detail. It should carefully be noted that Q, CD CM are different functions of R
,"
;
we
shall often
omit a distinguishing
suffix to
/ without implying
equality.
has been stated that any agreed length may be adopted for I to More specify the size of a body of given shape and attitude. generally, any agreed area may be used for /*, or volume for I9 Practice varies in the choice made. CL CD are always calculated for single wings on the area S projected on a plane containing the span and central chord (line drawn from nose to tail of median section). The length of the chord c is introduced as the additional length required for C M (although not for other moment coefficients, when the
It
.
,
semispan
is
used).
Thus
for wings
:
CL
L/$ P FS, CD
D/*pFS, CM
=
Hi]
WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT
parasitic, or
'
77
extratoaerofoil/ drag of a complete aeroplane, the drag of all parts other than the wings, may sometimes for convenience be referred to 5. But usually for fuselages (aeroplane bodies), struts, and the like, and sometimes for airship envelopes, /* is specified by the maximum sectional area across the stream. 2/8 Another area frequently used for airship envelopes is (volume) enabling the drags of different shapes to be compared on the basis of equal static lift. It is seldom suitable to employ the same / to specify both R and the coefficients for R, the length from nose to tail is
The
i.e.
,
;
usually chosen.
55. Suspension of
Models
It is evident that the foregoing
and other
coefficients
can be
determined through a range of R by direct measurement, given suitable balances. These are grouped round the working section of the tunnel, and the model is suspended from them. Their design and arrangement are partly determined by the following consideration. Suppose the true drag D of a model in a tunnel is required. Let the suspension attachments (called, for short, the holder) have a drag d when tested alone. Let the drag of holder and model be D'. d D D Except under special conditions we cannot write the combination represents a new shape not simply related to either The mutual effect of d on D, or vice versa, is termed the part. mutual interference. An example is as follows. If a 6in. diameter model of an airship envelope be suspended by fine wires, and a
:
=
r
;
side endon, the spindle, the size of a pencil, made to approach its of the airship may increase as much as 20 per cent, before drag contact occurs.
in general depends upon the interference second holder is attached to a different part of the being model and a test made with both holders in place. Removing the the second holder fitted original holder and testing again with only a difference which is applied as holder correction to a third test gives
The approximation used
local.
A
in
which the
original holder alone is present.
The approximation
much disturbance, gives good results, provided neither holder creates to ensure which fine wires or thin streamline struts are used. 30 shows as a simple illustration an arrangement suitable for a
Fig.
heavy long body having small drag. Near the nose the body is suspended by a wire from the tunnel roof, while a sting screwed into the tail is pivoted in the end of a streamline balance arm, for the most part protected from the wind by a guard tube. If the guard
'
'
78
AERODYNAMICS
is
[CH.
tube
is
fixed above in
of sufficient size to deflect the stream appreciably, a an inverted position. Sensitivity, in spite of the
dummy
heavy weight of the body, is achieved by calculating the foreandaft location of the wire to make, following small horizontal displacement, the horizontal component of its tension only just overcome
that of the compression in the balance arm.
To
find the effective
FIG. 30.
TESTING A HEAVY MODEL OF
P, scale pan
;
Low DRAG.
;
G, guard tube
;
S, sting
;
T, turnbuckle
W,
crosshair.
drag of the wire, another test is made with a second wire hung from the nose as shown at (a) and attached to the floor of the tunnel. Next, the sting is separated slightly from the balance arm, support being by the wires (6) from the roof, and the effective drag of the
balance arm measured with the body almost in place. Finally, the model can be suspended altogether differently, from a liftdrag balance as at (c), the wires and original balance arm being removed, and the small effective drag of the sting estimated by testing with it
Ill]
WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT
and away.
79
in place
At the same time
special experiments
can be
to investigate the interference, neglected above, between the and the original balance arm. It will be appreciated that the sting reason why the arrangement (c) is avoided except for corrections is that the spindle, although of streamline section, would split the
made
and artificially increase its drag. The model fuselage shown may have a small lift. To prevent consequent error in drag measurement, the wire and balance arm must be
delicate flow near the body,
accurately vertical for a horizontal wind. This is verified by hanging a weight on the body without the wind, when no drag should be
registered.
56.
The
Liftdrag Balance
V
When
several force
and couple components
act
on a model
it is
desirable for accuracy to measure as many as possible without disturbing the setting of the model. Omnibus balances designed for this
purpose tend to be complicated, and reference must be
original descriptions.
made
to
tunnel, however,
equipment an Aerodynamic balance that will measure lift and drag simultaneouslyjand preferably at least one moment at the
is
An
indispensable part of the
of a
same
time.
Aerofoil
Kyn^ Diaphragm
% ''
v
Tunnel Wall
W
FIG. 31.
SIMPLE LIFTDRAG BALANCE.
A simple form of liftdrag balance is illustrated in Fig. 31. The main beam passes through a bearing B centrally fixed to a hard copper diaphragm, 5 in. diameter and 0003 in. thick, clamped to a flange of a casting which abuts on a side wall of the tunnel through The diaphragm gives elastically, soft packing to absorb vibration.
permitting the beam to deflect in any direction almost freely between the fine limits imposed by the annular stop O which is opened by the
80
lever
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
T while observations are being taken. The diaphragm suspen
sion prevents leak into the enclosedtype tunnel assumed ; it may be but sensireplaced, if desired, by a gymbals with an openjet tunnel, The is then more difficult to maintain with large forces. tivity
Ib. The bearing sensitivity of the balance described is 00003 of turning the beam about its axis quickly and accurately permits
by means
of the
worm
gear
W, an
angular adjustment that
is
often
useful, e.g.
when
testing an
aerofoil of the
form which can be sus
Lift is
pended by screwing a spindle into a wingtip as shown in the figure. measured by adjusting a lift rider on the main beam and by weights on the scale pan L. The free end of the main beam carries a knifewheel E, engaging a hardened and ground plate at one end of a
ainaH end
horizontal bellcrank lever, of sufficient leverage to ensure that the movement of the main beam is negligible. This lever is
vertical knife edges, and transmits drag to a subsidiary with a drag rider and scale pan D. balance, Horizontal liftdrag balances are simple to construct and also particularly convenient for testing squareended aerofoils, negligible interference occurring between the aerofoil and a spindle screwed into its tip. They are inconvenient for aerofoils having thin tips and are not readily adaptable to measure pitching moments. Their
mounted on
usefulness
is
enlarged in combination with a simple steelyard
mounted on the roof of the tunnel, as described in the next article. But experience with this doublebalance method of testing suggested the more adaptable modern types of balance described in principle
later.
57.
Double Balance Method of Testing an Aerofoil
distinguishing feature of a good aerofoil, or model wing, at force A is, at fairly large Reynolds numbers is that its Aerodynamic small angles of incidence, nearly perpendicular to the stream ; LjD may then be 25 and y of (76) 23. The point (Fig. 32), at which A
The
P
intersects the chord, of length c, is called the centre of pressure and NP/c the centre of pressure coefficient &CP The method described
.
enables L,
D and P and consequently M to be determined with only a
simple roof balance and a liftdrag balance. The aerofoil is suspended and from from the former by wires attached to sunk eyescrews at the latter through a sting pivoted at E. A drum carried by the roof balance enables the length of the wires to be adjusted and hence the incidence a. The model is suspended upside down to avoid the use of a heavy counterpoise, although a small one is desirable with a
W
HI]
light
WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT
model
of small
for safety, to keep the wires taut, and to permit upward forces negative lifts.
81
measure
ment
Part L' of the lift L is taken at W, the remainder The at E. wires are set truly vertical at some small incidence a, when they will be also vertical at a small negative a, but at no other incidence. Let
U
FIG. 32.
6 be their small inclination to the vertical, the stream being assumed truly horizontal, and T that part of their tension due to A. They
support a part T sin of the drag D, only the remaining part d being supported at E. The liftdrag balance connected to E provides the must be corrected for accuronly means of measuring D. Thus and the method adopted is as follows. At any setting of the ately aerofoil the zeros of the liftdrag balance are observed, before starting the wind, with and without a known weight hooked on the model. An apparent drag is thus found for a known value of T at the particular value of corresponding to a, but which need not be known. A proportionate correction appropriate to the value of T measured when the wind is on can then be applied to drag observed at E. This correction requires to be determined for all values of a.
Measurements of drag must further be corrected for (a) part of the drag of the wires, for which purpose the measurements may be repeated with additional wires attached in a similar manner, or a calculation may be made based on Fig. 25, the geometry of the rig and the thickness of the tunnel boundary layer (6) the effective
;
82
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
drag of the liftdrag balance 'arm, determined as in Article 55, a effective (c) the being varied through the complete range studied of the sting, obtained by measuring drag with and without the drag sting in place at all incidences with the model suspended in some other manner, e.g. by a spindle fastened to a wingtip. L' L* and taking moments about E Referring to Fig. 32, L we have Tl cos (p A a I cos 6)
;
=
+
.
,
U
.
=
=

giving
since 6
is
small.
where
and
Finally
58.
+ tan Also D = TQ + d Tl a = j(cos + 6 sin p) A A = V(if + &) ~ y = tan (D/L). NP = c {a sec (a y)
L =7(1
9
(3)
(3
l
s }
Aerodynamic Balances
The foregoing method is simplified by fixing and adjusting a E the front wires may then form two longitudinal by displacing vees, and a vertical sting wire at E replace the liftdrag balance arm. The whole of the drag, as well as the major part of the lift, is taken by the veewires, and the sting wire supports only the remainder
;
W
of the
lift.
is the principle of the Farren balance, shown Part of the lift and the entire at (a) in Fig. 32A. schematically are communicated by two parallel pairs of veewires, interdrag secting at W, to the frame F located above the tunnel and pivoted
This in brief
The drag is transmitted by an increase of vertically above W. tension in the front wires of the vees and a decrease of tension in the back wires, and thus a counterpoise must be suspended from
a light model of high drag in order to keep the back wires taut. Such a counterpoise is advisable in any case as a safeguard, and then care need not be taken to locate well in front of the centreThe frame is weighed in the balances L and D for the ofpressure.
W
lift
it. The sting wire, shown fastened to the fuselage of a complete model in the figure, remains truly vertical with change of incidence by virtue of being raised or which is parallel to and pivoted vertically lowered by a stirrup
and drag communicated to
at
E
R
EW
above
W. The
familiar problem
is
to measure the remaining part
Ill]
WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT
of the
lift supported by the sting wire without interfering with the drag balance. This is achieved by pivoting the bell
M
crank
ports
lever, which supthe stirrup, level with the pivot of the frame F. Thus these two
pivot lines are coincident, although in the figure
(a)
they are shown slightly displaced from one another for clearness. If the pivot of the bell
crank lever
the
lift
is
carried
on
beam, the whole of the lift is transmitted
beam, and the balance marked is used to determine the only pitching moment of the
to that
M
Aerodynamic
force
about
(b)
W.
(ft)
The balance shown at in the figure makes
use of a different system, enabling all pivots to be located outside the tunnel.
The model
any
and,
lift
is suspended from the platform F by
convenient
means
are of
provided the two
beams shown
length, the true lift and drag are measured
equal
whatever the position of
the model relative to F. However, the pitching
moment
about
is
determined
line
w/////
the
the intersections
joining of the
FIG.
32A.
AERODYNAMIC BALANCES
84
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
W
centrelines produced of the two inclined pairs of sloping struts This is readily verified in the figure. which support F, i.e. about the effect of a load acting in any direction through by considering it would evidently cause tensions and compressions in the Hence the sloping struts but no force in the moment linkage. from the platform will in practice usually be so arranged suspension that the pitching moment is measured about a significant point in the model. The linkage connecting the drag and moment balances should ensure that these give the drag and moment separately, i.e. without interfering with one another. The third balance (c) is an inverted form of (b) with other The moment balance is mounted on the lift platmodifications. form G instead of being attached to a fixed point, a step which
W
;
eliminates the necessity for a linkage to prevent interference between the moment and drag measurements. All weights used on the moment balance are stored on the lift platform so that their adjustment will not affect the lift reading. The drag frame H is supported in a parallel linkage so that fore and aft movements can occur without vertical displacement, and in consequence excessive static stability is avoided without the use of counterpoises. The foregoing illustrates only a few of the many devices put to use in the design of a modern Aerodynamic balance. For clearness, the three balances have been described in 3component form, but all are readily adaptable to cope with additional components. The following constructional features may also be noted. Elastic pivots are preferred to knifeedges or conical points and commonly take the form of two crossed strips of clockspring. The amount of damping required is extremely variable, and therefore the electro
magnetic method is preferred to a plunger working in oil. When a balance is inaccessible or there is need to save time in operation, weighing and recording can be carried out mechanically. from 59. Given tunnel determinations of lift, drag, etc., freed various corrections are necessary before they can parasitic effects, be applied to free air conditions at the same Reynolds number. These are in respect of (1) choking of the stream by a body of relaundisturbed tively considerable dimensions, (2) deviation of the stream from the perpendicular to the direction in which lift is measured, (3) variation of static pressure in the undisturbed stream,
:
of the limited lateral extent of the stream, applying further principally to wings, and developed in Chapter VIII. cause of difference is introduced in Article 65. of Article 35 in approxi(1) It is possible to express the argument
(4) effects
A
In the former. The maximum convergence in a parallelwalled tunnel is only about J. assuming p small (Fig.p) = A (sin Y P cos y) = D . taking the familiar case of an aerofoil upside down.pi. and a correction factor for general use is worked out by an initial test of this kind. : . respectively. (2) Let the stream be inclined downward from the horizontal at a small angle p. y La a ( ( Thus the this error in La is may be far from true of negligible. and L/D ==>20. 33). however. Owing to the short length of the model dp/dx may be assumed constant. Considering an element cylinder of the body. however. L =A cos D = A sin y = A cos Y . and to this approximation is easily determined experimentally. but an inferior limit to the correction is readily calculated by a method that will now be familiar. of crosssection AS and length /. drag measured. the more usual case. are La and Da We have. The process is laborious. Where their design permits. and. pressure decreases downstream (x increasing). 33.P) D = A sin Y . the error in D is 17 J per This error can be removed by testing the model right way up and upside down. inclination of the stream leads If p == Example cent.III] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 85 mate numerical form for a given shape. but af for we D have D Upward to an error in drag of the (78) FIG. (3) Convergence or divergence of the stream leads to an error due to the pressure gradient that exists in the direction of flow prior to introducing the model. let its aerodynamic force be A and its true lift and drag L and The apparent lift and D. when it is seen to follow that the choke correction is small. For a body whose diameter is J that of the tunnel the correction is usually < 1 per cent. Complete analysis of the problem presents difficulty. parallel to the direction of flow and . balances are set on installation so as to eliminate the error as far as carefully possible. same magnitude but opposite in sign. and taking the mean.
Pitot Traverse Method The drag of a twodimensional aerofoil can be estimated from an exploration of the loss of pitot head through a transverse section of its wake. and measurements must be decreased on its account. approximately. for wings. This loss will be denoted by a nondimensional coLet U. pQ be the undisturbed velocity and and q. a state distinguished u. coming to ends on the surface of the body. an increase of 510 per cent. (See also Article 230B. Through an element 8y of this section. The correction does not it. giving for the downstream force on the model (dp/dx)V. P* + *pt/  (P + *P? a ) = h . of unit = length parallel to the span of the aerofoil. vanishing when the stream is parallel or the model moves through free air. is readily found to be The whole volume V can be made up of (dp/dx) (AS /). point in the wake. such cylinders. Consider first a section of the wake sufficiently far behind the aerofoil for the pressure to be equal to p Q and the velocity to have become by writing q parallel again to the relative motion. where the wake has diffused outward. if . as follows. Dg or = p/(C7 u)dy . Then the loss of pitot head at the point is efficient h. This force has nothing to do with drag. the mass passing in unit time is p8y. length of the aerofoil is given by . and the rate of loss of momentum parallel to the relative motion is pwSy Hence the drag Z) of unit (U u). iplT*. It is much more marked close behind the aerofoil than farther downstream. 1015 per cent. being required for long bodies of revolution. p the corresponding quantities at any pressure. AERODYNAMICS [CH. which is essentially positive for convergence.86 . respectively. vanish in the case of bluff shapes of small volume. but numerically unimportant. Further analysis shows that the volume should be greater than that of the body. The correction is important for low resistance shapes such as airship envelopes and good aeroplane bodies and wings at highspeed attitudes.) it is then 59A. and 30 per cent. for compact strut shapes. the downstream force on we apply a method analogous to that of Article 8.
so that in this case Defining a drag coefficient C^Q as equal to the aerofoil chord. & M. No. approximately.R. The experimental section near the wing (iii) will be distinguished by suffix 1..Ill] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 87 But u/U = (1  A)*. arising lift from the continuous generation and appearing as a modification of the Aerodynamically pressure distribution for twodimensional flow. Jones* has suggested ignoring the turbulence in the wake and relating the pressure and velocity * Jones (Sir Melvill). 1936. The pitot traverse method finds uses in the wind tunnel. the result can be written DQ lfoU*c. Hence Far behind the aerofoil h will be small and the term brackets can be expanded as follows in the square 1_(1 tAi*i + . This correction is rather uncertain. but its induced drag can be estimated separately by calculation. 1688. an of inditced drag coefficient. as will be found in Chapter VIII. but its chief application is to flight experiments. where c is CDO = (iii) This coefficient is known as the profile drag coefficient of the aerofoil. A.C. see Fig.. Exploration on the above lines of the wake of a wing can give only its profile drag. A difficulty arising in flight is that the pitot traverse must be made close behind the wing. . It includes the entire drag under twodimensional conditions but only part of the drag under threedimensional conditions. 33A. except at the incidence for zero lift at other incidences a wing has in addition . so that the pressure differs from pQ and a correction to becomes necessary. where twodimensional flow can be simulated.) = t*.R.
88 at section 1 AERODYNAMICS to those at the distant ^section.C. Tested in a fullscale found* to be accurate within experimental errors 1 along the middle threequarters of the span of a rectangular wing. f Taylor Hydro. No. where : [CH.R.F.A.A.C.M.. A.}~UV U Substituting from coefficient. Report No. Restrictions of another kind have been discussed by different treatment of the problem has been given by Betz. 7981 by Prandtl in Tietjens.h. = Pi + iPft 1 . Z.and AeroMechanics/ Goett. (Sir Geoffrey). see Arts. 1939.f His formula includes provision for dealing with the induced flow caused by threedimensional production of lift. vol.R. Betz. N. Bernoulli's equation. Then p Q by p mean stream.. qn u (V) Let w denote distance perpendicular to the direction of mean motion at section 1. 660. ' Applied . (79) This result is known wind tunnel.  (A so that  = (1 . applied along a suppositions tube.Po + Writing * this gives *~ Again. 1808. 16. 1925 . it was as Jones formula..  ktf . 1937. = Jy and Then for incompressible flow becomes (i) s (^(i&. 1  (iv) and (v) and again introducing the drag  (1  AJ*J rfn . Nearer the wingtips the induced flow associated with the production of lift under threedimensional conditions makes the method inapplicable. * t j A Taylor. & M.
dark. . openjet tunnel at 100 ft. however. 1363. in a 6ft.C. may not be truly representative of the average section of a wing or aerofoil. which is used to define inclination to the wind.g.R. combined with the maximum value attained by CL is of importance in connection with slow flying. Young. usually small. is given in Fig. when the line joining the centres of curvature of the extreme nose Lift attains a and tail defines a. 34. corrections noted in Article 59 having been made so that the results apply to free air conditions at a small Reynolds number. called aspect ratio. and formulae obtained by simple means require to be established by experiment. with a ratio of span to chord. after which it falls.R.R. especially if C DO has a considerable value. & M. and Fairtfcorne. of 6.R. in the sense that it depends upon how a is measured. 15 in the present This incidence is known as the critical jet or stalling angle and. a close estimate of drag under fairly favourable conditions the briefly when the pressure in the wake differs little from pQ and . The value 3 shown in the present case is arbitrary.C. 1938.Ill] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 89 The pitot traverse method of drag measurement offers such manifold advantages that the subject is an old one and has received attention on many occasions. Another aerofoil might have a slight concavity in the lower surface. known as Clark YH. The exact theory is complicated. per sec. pressure gradient that An example The estimates are not affected empty tunnel. Such difficulties partly explain discrepancies that are it found to atic exist. may wing characteristics obtainable by the method exist in the of Article 57 at small scale.. Zero lift occurs at a negative incidence. A. The exploring method has pitot tube should be fine in order to avoid a systemThe^ effect of compressibility on the experimental error. that the traverse should be made well downstream. Again. 1930. Most aerofoils are biconvex. The present aerofoil has a partly flat lower surface. but this is obviously inconvenient in flight. The method can be relied upon to give viz. 1881. The aerofoil is of the section shown. A M. The opentunnel determines this feature more reliably f than the enclosed. whilst in tunnel experiment may sometimes vitiate the twodimensional the section behind which a traverse is made assumption. at a moderate angle. No. when the common tangent would be employed. however. maximum instance. Features fairly typical of aerofoils in general may be noted. * f Bradfield. e. velocity trough is rather shallow. These conditions imply.* of by any 60. also been examined.. A.
FIG. 34. OPENJET TUNNEL AT 100 FT.). CHARACTERISTICS OF CLARK YH WING (ASPECT RATIO 6) AT SMALL SCALE (6rr.075 5 10* <x 15* 20 INCIDENCE. PER SEC. 90 .
C CP oo at a 3.P. illustrated for a rather similar aerofoil in Fig. Drag and the angle y begin to increase rapidly at the critical angle. D5r of O5 10 15 OUO 10 C 20 FIG. Thus the C. It moves forward as incidence is increased up to the critical angle. and to be so weighted that it is in neutral equilibrium for angles without the wind (an experiment on these lines is easy to arrange). this. 35. however. which tends to flatter compared with free air. in] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 91 section tunnel. It would also be stable . and the wind all = started.P. curve has two branches asymptotic to the broken line in Fig. LIFT PRESSURE DIAGRAMS FOR THE MEDIAN SECTION OF AN AEROFOIL (BROKEN LINE APPLIES TO LOWER SURFACE). flow is often delicate in this region. meaning that when the resultant force is a pure drag. there is a the two loops seen in the pressure diagram couple on the aerofoil for become so modified at 3 as to enclose equal areas. the lightly at oc incidence at which the C. approximately. Minimum drag occurs when the lift is small but maximum LfD at a considerably larger incidence. . imagine the aerofoil to be pivoted in the tunnel about a line parallel to the span and distant 03 chord from the leading edge. If now the model be held 5. .P. lift being zero. small disturbance of a displacing the C. is off the aerofoil. At 13 the centre of pressure is midway along the chord. different coefficients being obtained according as to The and is whether a increasing or decreasing. 35. is cut by the pivot line. the C. for a < 16 indicates a form of instability. = = The To see travel of the C. and then back.P.P. in such a direction as to increase the disturbance. at a = 20. Between 27 and 45. 34 part of the negative lift branch is shown near the lefthand zero of the scales. some lift curves branching. The aerofoil will ride in stable equilibrium. a couple tending to increase or decrease a will instantly be felt.CH. This travel results from striking changes which occur in the shape of the pressure diagram.
36 contains the essential information of Fig.P.P. Find the drag of the wire under these conditions. C. CL being more generally useful than a as the independent variable. The moment coefficient given defines the pitching moment about a line onequarter chord behind the leading edge of the aeropreferred for greater precision to that of Article 54. as the intersection by A of some Thus in line parallel to the chord but displaced from it. 34. is pivoted in front of 0*25 chord. V per second) where it is ex . as illustrated in the following. is temporary wire. for the local pressure and velocity (ft. Fig.p. curve is physically indefinite. above * a position where the pressure drop amounts to 15*36 Ib. per sq. WING CM line CHARACTERISTICS OF CLARK YH (ASPECT RATIO 6) AT THE SMALL SCALE OF FIG. fixed parallel to the span a wing just outside its boundary layer. long.AERODYNAMICS if [CH. calculations may 004 of be made for the shape body concerned in a variety of practical circumstances. First determine the relative velocity of the wire. but this case only of interest The in connection with the auxiliary control surfaces of aircraft. 36. A moment coefficient about a of J chord behind the leading edge. = pitching J in. ft. when the aeroplane is flying at 100 m. at low altitude. 006 04 two examples (a) FIG. Application of Complete Model Data Where f(R) has been found 002 in the tunnel through a sufficient range. in so far as it would have a different shape if we defined the C. Its middle point is called the Aerodynamic centre. Writing p. the above experiment different results would be obtained if the pivot line were displaced from the chord plane. 34 plotted in more compact and practical form. diameter and 2 ft. often 61.h. foil.
h.F. 96 as (b) The lift coefficient of a wing of the section shown (known R. A parasol monoplane fitted with a wing of 6 ft. 15 INCIDENCE. by Bernoulli's theorem giving ^^ _ ^ ^ ^ _ ^ ^ V =s 1855 ft. per Hence giving. ft.p. R given. ft. set at 15 incidence. is found in the wind tunnel to vary as in Fig. 25. 48) and span/chord ratio (aspect ratio) 6. = A. What lift will ? the wing exert when standard atmospheric conditions prevail . and distinguishing normal values by suffix 0. from Fig.. ig<36 ft sec. / = diameter : of wire = TV per v = 156 x 10~ * sq.A.I. 37. CD = M6 058 == X 000238(1855)' X 2 Drag = 099 Ib.. ^ ft ^ Now sec. 48 WING AT the range of this shape. APPROXIMATE SCALE EFFECT ON LIFT COEFFICIENT OF R.A.F. is required to approach a landing field chord situated at 6000 ft. through = FIG. altitude at the same incidence and 60 m. 37.S.in] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 93 posed. (indicated air speed).
Article 25). ft.h. would apply to the fullscale wing held in a natural wind of 10 m. 88 . diameter. per ft. per per sec. = 0624 ft.p. the tunnel 15 C.g. (6 X 6)6 = CL = 1248. so that v = 156 x 10 . ft.h.p. as in Article 61 (6). or a total of 638 Ib.. Frequently the drag of some aircraft part is desired accurately only under particular From these conditions. ft.94 AERODYNAMICS [CH.h. wind tunnel at sealevel working at 50 ft. from Article 33. Arrange suitable experiments in a 4ft. and. is 6'1 From Table density 0*862. Ib. Arrangement of Single Drag Experiment Such complete data as in the last article are rare. 0296 62. and. per sec. e. X 6 10* = 321 X 10*. The true relative velocity of the craft is.p. . per sq. per sq. in length. chord would have. Article 14. X 0862 = = 1*77 x 10 ~4 (cf. at top speed at a certain altitude. and relative p \ 273 / 000238 sec. The following may also be verified. V 60 m. ft. : = : 150 X VO738 88 256 60 ft. A scale model of 1 ft. and it would lift 1063 Ib. from the figure 216 sq. X 000238(88)* X 216 = 2484 Ib. since wing area = L or 115 Ib. altitude exposed at A.p. a long strut whose (b) streamline section is 6 in. (a) a streamline static balance weight of 2 in. at 60 m. _ R= Vo862 948 = 88 = 948 X sq. Hence. per sec. the temperature = ~ For 48 C. temperature C. and the true velocity ft. Assuming standard atmospheric conditions. may be assumed. when the total lift would be the same and its mean intensity .000 ft. a Reynolds number = 065 X 10 6 Its CL would be 1164. per sec.S. The same fairly low Reynolds number sq. at 10.I.. and sometimes a single decisive test arranged in the wind tunnel under dynamically similar conditions. Examples the drags are required of the following aircraft parts 150 m. v is found to be 201 x 10 *. specifications and the size of the part the fullscale Reynolds number can be calculated. III. at sealevel.h.
i. = arranged under twodimensional conditions. run of the actual strut. say. eliminating error due to the tunnel bound ary sion layer. force measured will be simply related to that on a length 2 ft. swings with of small clearance be tween the walls. for dynamical similarity we have JRT Let d be the diameter of the model of the balance weight. The drag coefficient determined will apply exactly to the fullscale The strut at the speed and altitude given. FIG. run of the strut well away from is its A model of axial length 2 ft. 6 in. which will then act as a guard tube. model . shoulders same These section fixed to the tunnel dummy ends separate the model from the walls. be in the ratio = 0816. 38. through one of the shoulders. Suspenor may be by wires sting. Fig. E.. shoulders or dummy ends fixed to windtunnel walls. (a) tunnel. = 8 in.e. Since only a gives a model section of length 4 x 6 short axial length can be accommodated in the tunnel. model of the strut should be larger than Applying the factor to the strut section 24 in. except near its sockets. The drag coefficient measured on a model 4 times as large as the actual weight will apply exactly to full scale under the prescribed From (72a) the forces on the model and the weight will conditions.ni] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 95 Models geometrically similar to the parts will be tested in the Distinguishing experiment by suffix T and full scale by J? F suffix F. 38 shows the rig. experiment ft. 0738 \201 (b) full scale in Similarly the tunnel the ratio 4. = . ARRANGEMENT FOR TESTING UNDER APPROXIMATELY TWODIMENSIONAL CONDITIONS. f4 0*625 ft. the test is limited to finding the drag per ends. E. 6 in. Then d X 50 156 (1/6) X 256 201 or d = 0662 ft. by a spindle passing and M. = .
diameter and of annular return flow type. is utilised to drive small highspeed tunnels. After rigging a model. illustrate that. 6 ft. Compressedair AERODYNAMICS Tunnel [CH. In some national tunnels. such as wings. provided incidence is closely that for zero lift. are and moments Forces measured by special balances located within the shell and controlled FIG. models will not as a rule be smaller than fullscale parts.L. but The foregoing examples destructive for large parts. 1936. Thus a model wing is seldom larger than th and may be smaller than ^th scale. =f If. 39. cylindrical part. motor gives a wind velocity of 90 ft. through the working section. To realise fullscale Reynolds numbers by testing at speeds six to twenty times as great as those of flight is impracticable both on economic grounds and as vitiating the used in a incompressible flow assumption. the air circulates in a compressed state. the working jet being diameter and 2 in. after the test. thick in its A 450h. Relf. found later on that Aerofoil Theory and Skin Friction Analysis can then be used to deduce the drag of the wing in free flight through a useful range of incidence. . H tsi up by a large compressor plant in an adjoining room. pressures of 25 atmospheres being reached.P.* The COMPRESSEDAIR TUNNEL. Roy. * N. chord could then be 5ft. when (Article 25) v oc 1/p jx is and ~~ R oc VF independent of density at constant Hence for R constant p. electrically. N. of flow. Not more than 8in. An element of the span of the fullscale wing of a small aeroplane can be tested under two dimensional conditions in a 45ft. Jour. the last factor is model and F to full ^V an d ^T/^F = iV Vr /VF scale. Soc. to secure dynamical similarity. But certain important phenomena occurring at considerable incidences must be measured directly on models of complete wings. tunnel. t Jan. per sec. tunnel as described above for a It will be strut model. the tunnel is sealed and pumped the enclosing steel shell 18 ft. It is Fig. for . however.p. VF where suffix ^ h' Pr' T refers to the example.96 63. 39 illustrates the compressed air tunnel at the N. radial vanes to prevent swinging exhaust from the tunnel. The restriction is unimportant in the case of small components. By Maxwell's Law temperature. Aero.
Practical Aspect of Aerodynamic Scale relates to aeroplane wings and complete Table V models of wings. TABLE V REYNOLDS NUMBERS OF WINGS (A) denotes atmospheric pressure.A.T. In compiling this list. some known extreme cases have been omitted in order to preserve a A. 4 . chord. so that VI for the model is 1/6 times that for full scale. F //F _ 16 a ~~l!5 or the loading on the model would be 10 times that on the fullscale wing. 25 the aerofoil lift (Z.T ) for a wing of 5 tons For example.HI] If 6 is WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 97 the compression ratio required in the C. 64. which is by no means exhaustive. Such intense forces readily distort C. ft.T. per sq. to secure a fullscale lowaltitude value of R. and indicates the maximum Reynolds numbers obtained in various types of wind tunnel and the range of Reynolds numbers charR is specified on the mean acterising various aircraft categories. then by (72) the ratio of any component force on the model to the corresponding fullscale component is also 1/6. with 6 448 Ib.A. If the geometrical scale of the model lift (I F ) would be = were TaT th we should have for the ratio of the mean of lift intensities IT//T* Z. which are therefore often shaped from metal castings. and might reach 4 cwt. models.D. Maximum sizes are assumed for the models and involve important corrections for the limited width of the tunnel stream (Chapter VIII).
long been contended. connection with deflections. will be drawn that wind tunnels. and increasing the size. altitude in regard to flight at this altitude. therefore. very large tunnel is desirable in other connections. It will be seen that a small tunnel using highly compressed air is much the most economical for a straightforward test on an aerofoil when the Mach number can be ignored. usually fullscale 65. and that experiments will be made. or details concerned which cannot be reproduced in small models instances of such details are engine cowlings and Aerodynamic controls but it is often claimed that these purposes can be served without going to the extreme of a fullscale tunnel. indeed.000 ft.g. models are expensive to construct and the exceedingly heavy air creates experimental difficulties. A e. The tunnels are not is designed primarily for high Mach numbers (as will be described later) but as a compressedair tunnel. capable of realising .98 AERODYNAMICS [CH. as shown. a process which is not simple to carry out. an atmospheric tunnel has a compression ratio of 4. under conditions quite different from those of flight. that are sometimes serious there is a case for restricting the compression to less than 8 atmospheres. an aeroplane cannot in general greatly reduced. For very high compressions. checked in the same tunnel at a experimentally smaller scale. is required to the stream during a test. generally representative view of the position. confined to existing plant that last mentioned . and the landing conditions and stratospheric Reynolds numbers of all but the largest aeroplanes. though the advantage in respect of power is then On the other hand. without special strengthening. in when access are . The relative advantages of the two methods have. Further reference to the matter will be made in the chapter on Meanwhile the conclusion testing at high speeds. at much smaller Reynolds numbers. be tested in a fullscale tunnel. of whatever kind. Scale Effects (a) Since tunnel measurements are made in general at too low a Reynolds number. The 6ft. important differences are to be expected on the . The can be used Reynolds number typical of stratospheric . Reynolds numbers are costly. size with pressures number up to 25 atmospheres covers the entire range of Reynolds low power. for experimental Reynolds numbers can be increased to about 25 million for small incidences by testing under twodimensional for small aeroplanes of conditions and applying a theoretical correction for the change to three dimensions. comparatively small flight is due to the large value of v at 40. All the other aircraft data relate to comparatively low altitudes. .
Thus it is advisable to test at as large a scale as Certain possible. 36 quickly disappears on increasing scale. atmospheric tunnel of modercourse. 40 gives further examples off(R). Two important considerations. rest entirely on experiment or engineering experience. . of which we now consider the first. where possible. effects. the upper fullline curve of (b) on maximum sectional area across the for (c) on maximum area projected perpendicular to the stream stream. By scale is meant. The curves given relate. e. sectional area across the stream . Full line smooth flow Spheres. (a) : dotted line : : turbulent wind tunnel . the total change in f(R) through the interval of R between experiment and flight. to bodies of studiedly smooth surface in streams comparatively free from turbulence. i. the dip in the 06 008 0008j 06 006 CD 04 02 % FIG. CM curve of Fig. may be introduced here. an .Ill] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT These are termed scale ' 99 ' craft. : turbulent tunnel . : : . as we shall find but others. CD is reckoned for (a) and Fig. 37 is an example. later on. Rapid changes often occur in a 5ft. subsequent changes can be estimated from theory.e. chain line : some experiments under fairly steady conditions. as before. By turbulence is deliberately meant. To facilitate comparison a lower broken line curve has been added for (b) calculated on the second basis (for (a) there would be no difference). ate speed. Full line smooth flow dotted line (c) Smooth tangential boards or plates. EXAMPLES OF SCALE EFFECT. of Aerodynamic scale. . dotted line CD reckoned on maximum sectional area parallel to the stream. But the practical term has two meanings. to some extent interconnected. hatched area steadier tunnels.g. however far this may be from that of flight. 40. : Full line C D reckoned on maximum (b) Streamline strut of fineness ratio 3. of which Fig.
Alternatively we could give it large and fairly rapid fluctuations of velocity by operating quickly an electrical resistance in series with the armature or field of the driving motor. (2) free air values oif(R) may differ from those determined in any tunnel. We note immediately that at critical scales (1) tunnels of different turbulence will disagree with one another. Effects on drag are expected to be produced chiefly by the turbulence in parts of the stream that pass the body closely. Now the initial turbulence in a stream approaching a body is found to affect drag (or lift. In Fig. . the shaded area indicates common smooth flow. 40 (a) the fullline curve shows the variation in for CD ( = D/^pF ^. but except very close to the ground it is free of turbulence in comparison with all ordinary tunnel streams. the natural wind is subject to considerable variation in magni tude and direction of velocity. but it may be noted that very slight roughness may increase drag remarkably e. 1 for diameter d) against R = ( F<J/v) by towing a sphere freely through the turbulent tunnel would give. particularly at scales where f(R) changes The sphere at circa 3 X 1C 6 affords a good example . notably hand.100 AERODYNAMICS [CH. since geometrical shape is changed. produce. the lefthand dotted curve . the tunnel will disagree with itself. Again. our mesh screen might be reduced to diminutive proportions if suitably located. To make an initially smooth stream effectively turbulent. unsteadiness that is finely grained in comparison with the size of the body. if in a given tunnel size be greatly the relative scale of the turbulence will change and varied. and not comparatively largescale fluctuations of velocity such as eddying might. In the limit it might be replaced by a thin wire bound round the forepart of the body. We could make a smooth and steady tunnel stream turbulent by interposing upstream of the body a mesh screen of cords. on the other atmosphere. .). as obtained A Similar remarks could be made in connection with the example (c).g. etc. This is to be expected. Furthermore. as occurs also with the circular cylinder at much the same Reynolds number. change is here so sharp that drag actually decreases with increase of speed. But the second form of unsteadiness is not turbulence. though R remain constant. with wings at variation in different tunnels. We infer (and may check by direct experiment) that roughness of surface modifies /(/?). Thus in general a f(R) curve in a given tunnel is a narrow band of readings the same curve for many tunnels would be a wider band. sharply.
can be inferred from the drag the pressure at the back. etc. times various attitudes in course of flight. we may note that from the engineering point of view knowledge off(R) in a given case may not be necessary. immaterial to free air. Rayleigh's (6) Small formula can only. the drag coefficient at certain small lift coefficients. incidences these occur is often INCIDENCE. Now it always happens that scale effect is more advantageous at some . to a flight scale. and at what 41. Spheres are supported from the back to obviate effects of attached wires . of course. a wide view must be taken of its performance before choice can be made for a particular Features of engineercraft.in] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 6 .000 in the atmosphere). A controlled turbulence in the tunnel may ease in some cases this difficult process. though introducing artificiality at model scale. 5ft. Scale Effects (b) ' scale effect The second meaning of is of a more ' applied nature and reserved chiefly to wings and the like. . The aeroplane wing somea single preserves but always assumes shape. be applied to a given wing shape at constant incidence. While postponing further investigation of the foregoing. a SCALE EFFECT ON L/D FOR GOTTINGEN 387 WING. maximum FIG. (a) 5 10 liftdrag ratio. By convention the degree of turbulence in a particular tunnel is gauged by the Reynolds number at which CD for spheres is 03 (= 385. ing interest include maximum lift coefficient.. 101 R> 10 Thus aerofoils are often polished or plated if they are to be tested at large Reynolds numbers. The engineer is commonly faced with inadequate data which he must extrapolate. so that in practice we have to deal with a series of f(R ) curves for a single wing. whatever the risk. lowspeed wind tunnel corrected full scale. Accordingly.
and max. max. NevertheGottingen 387. would show max. CL much R. * C L would be shown increasing These and other examples given are based on Relf. whose max. so that incidence in the tunnel 41 . . 1627. choice to be required suming between the wings R. experiments at < 2 x 10 e would give . The results shown at illustrate L2 a difficulty that will be now thoroughly appreciated in interpreting H R.A. though inconclusive. Jones. L/D.F 38 .F. 38 and the wing FIG. The change from model to full scale of max. istic. A. pass of a highspeed 6ft. from the same point of view.20T ordinary windtunnel results Asin terms of full scale. for example).R. for example. and Bell. 38 and R. 15 max. 14 (a) modi* Further 'RAF 48 scale effect of examples with this wider 42.GOTT387 C R 18 tu o J=48 preference to the second. lift to be the overruling consideration.A.F.F. 48. L/D. Again. occurs at one and at a different incidence in flight (see Fig. 42. suggesting that it might not maintain its great advantage at the small scale over smaller Reynolds numbers. & M. R 65 70 to decide definitely between R. CL or other character. tests would be required at 14' R> 3$ X 10* 55 60 Log.F.102 AERODYNAMICS [CH. while actually it should be tu z given to the first.. APPROXIMATE SCALE EFFECTS MAXIMUM CL FOR THREE AEROFOILS (ASPECT RATIO 6).A. within the comopenjet tunnel.R. 38. is then called scale effect irrespective of fication of incidence. Ill incidences than at others. decreasing with increase of R for Gottingen 387. provides a better guide than comparison at a single small scale. tests through a range of less. sharply.A. Such evidence.A.C. (a) 13 meaning are given in Fig.
and the velocity of sound a in the experimental part of the stream are much less than in the return flow just before contraction. One method of obtaining subsonic speeds for experiment is to employ a tunnel of the racecourse design partially evacuated.h. but it is gradually becoming reserved for those in which the density can also be reduced. The power required to maintain a stream of section C and velocity V.p.PC 5155 '" t M denotes the Mach number V/a b. Adaptation to withstand a crushing pressure of some 12 Ib. The latter state will be distinguished by suffix 1. per sq. appreciably Comparatively few quantitative measurements have been made for two parts : Mach numbers within the range 09 to 13 owing to lack of sufficient : Highspeed tunnels are consequently divided into stability of flow. The term variable density is often applied to tunnels arranged only for compressed air. in. In examining tunnels of this type we have to take into account that at high speeds the density p. the power factor being defined as in Article 61. as exploring the compressible flow that immediately precedes critical Mach numbers at which is experienced shock. and justifiably so since their pressure is varied. or well above it. F the formula may be rearranged = 1100 M'. Of these two distinct groups the former is the more important. the absolute temperature T. (i) 1100 103 . is "" If . the subsonic and the supersonic. a phenomenon that is accompanied by great increase of drag and decrease of lift. permits alternative use under a bursting pressure of a few ' ' atmospheres. Variabledensity Tunnel Highspeed phenomena in Aerodynamics are usually studied in below the velocity of sound.Chapter III A EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS 66.
and or 08. by Assuming a substantial contraction as is specially desirable with this kind of tunnel. C J. Using (ii).p. ' + (111) M'/5)* 288. ratio. This can be verified as follows. from (31) and (33) ' = 372 X 10' (T/288) 8 4 where ... and write a for the ratio J. (iii) yields the approxiIf we further assume P= = mate formula bhp    M* Calculations by means of these formulae speedily show that a large power is required to maintain a high Mach number in a stream of moderate size in spite of considerable rarefaction. The large power. introducing also the approximation 14. M (1 . comprise the principal disadvantages of this type of tunnel. the h. the Reynolds number R is given by R ^ Now (ji is the coefficient of viscosity for air in the state prevailing at . Vf can be neglected. On the other hand. (47) of Article 30 then gives y = P P = f \ i _ 1 Pi i.e.. I 6 ^Pi Substituting in (i). required is nearly 8000 for the empty tunnel and would need further increase to cope with the high drag of models under test. the type possesses the of combining..e. provisions for high advantage M = = Mach numbers at a reasonable experimental Reynolds number with a complete model. and also for high experimental Reynolds numbers when low Mach numbers can be accepted... Thus for 100 sq. ft.104 AERODYNAMICS Article 30.in comparison with V* and. [CH. TI of p t to the standard air density at sealevel. in a single installation. and the consequently elaborate measures necessary to cool the relatively small circulating mass of air. the working section IJL i.
always to be limited. Reservoirs A. 4* . often about 1 sq. introducing as before and assuming ^= > 288. that these considerations point to a power equipment of some 10. on the one hand. R be expected with a complete model at 08. crosssectional area. 1 J million could Referring to the numerical example above. But turning this small significance. and the advantages of moderate compressions and rarefactions on the other. would be increased to upwards of 2000. in view of the evident utility of the variabledensity tunnel. The number of such tunnels is likely. however. by employing light air for high Mach numbers and heavy air for high Reynolds numbers. and a small mass of attenuated air in which mechanical energy is being converted into heat at a great rate is difficult to cool. in air is expended economically by use of the injector principle. and the limited supply of compressed ft.000 h. A very low density leads to unacceptably small Reynolds numbers at high Mach numbers. It is unfortunate. Again. Thus a compromise is sought between apparent economy. It for 66A. Such tunnels are small. entailing 450 h. therefore.p. The Mach number is then so low as to have no = M= M= compressedair tunnel into a tunnel would enable only a small Reynolds number variabledensity to be reached with a complete model at a Mach number of 08. and the h.p. and the expectation of a Reynolds number of 11 or 12 million with a complete model. Inducedflow Subsonic Tunnel The imposing installations necessary to maintain experimental streams of ordinary size at high speeds have led to the development of small induction tunnels in which subsonic winds are produced for short periods at a time by the exhaustion of reservoirs of compressed air. Difficulties arising at the other extreme have already ben mentioned. viz.p.velocity air from a pressure chamber entraining the flow of a much greater volume from rest in the atmosphere. Excessive use of either expedient is to be avoided.D. putting (j 4 instead of J in (iv) leads for the same case to 028. a sheath of high. and the same Reynolds 25 atmospheres pressure in a tunnel and onethird the speed.HI A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS <y 105 Hence. number could be realised with of approximately half the size an expenditure of only some can now be seen that adjusting the density of the air used experiment presents opportunities for economy in two directions.
and these walls are flat and The narrow walls. or other sections.. . Rept. The section Fig. and pitching moment at the small incidences of interest in connection with high Mach numbers. square. The author's acknowledgments are also due to the following. Nos. These tunnels may have round. is 17 J in. Mach numbers exceeding for the empty tunnel is 3040 Ib.C. which receives com slots J. the permissible chord of the aerofoil increased. & M. as by dotted lines in the figure. Being of outstanding interest and suitable for wide reproduction.R. 1944. * . 42A indicates the main points of the apparatus. Rept.. where the stream attains to the velocity of sound and creates a shock wave which has a beneficial effect in steadying the flow upstream. 6622. By (vi) of the preceding article with a 1.C. are made from opposite indicated raise the turbulence metal strip and can be adjusted separately to streamline forms.R. The aerofoil stretches from one wide wall to the other. If they are shaped to lie along streamlines appropriate to the aerofoil in the absence of walls. per sq. A. whose papers have been read: Bailey and Wood. 1791 and 1853 Beavan and Hyde. per sq. the condition of free flight will be simulated. Towards the outlet.C. 09 can be produced by an injector of 8090 Ib. The injector stream induces the flow of atmospheric air into the flared intake of fine gauze screens which through a box baffle A B Reynolds number to the satisfactory value of 290. and best use made of the restricted crosssectional area of the tunnel. the upper and lower surfaces of the aerofoil. A. Ae. No. the permissible aerofoil chord is 5 in. Article 65). by 8 in. . it will be described * in some detail. pressed air from a large reservoir and exhausts it through injector about 42 millimetres wide. drag. A. No. and the plane of the figure is parallel to the wide sides. into a long divergent diffuser D. should be large and pumping plants powerful in order to provide runs of sufficient duration at reasonable intervals. the adjustable walls con may verge to a throat. parallel.R. A vertical rectangular form has been developed at the National Physical Laboratory for experiments on aerofoils under twodimensional conditions.000 (cf. The downstream end of the tunnel is surrounded by a distributing box or pressure chamber C. 2640. which pressure appears to be the optimum for this tunnel with the model in the blowing pressure pressure . by means of closely spaced micrometer screws. 1942 and Lock and Beavan. but only a moderate pressure is called for. in.R. For measurements of lift. An = A preliminary description of this tunnel is included by kind permission of the Aeronautical Research Council. in.AERODYNAMICS [CH. this gives a Reynolds number of 18 million at a Mach number of 08.
The . of For various reasons these tunnels are usually vertical. g Adjustment Walls.9 layers along all four sides and the compressible nature of the flow. as follows. Inserting the aerofoil varies the pressures along roof and floor . that lower Hj Pi The roof and floor alone are adjustable in shape. approximately freeair shape for a nonlifting aerofoil is u 3 determined in steps.III A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS more than 107 aerofoil of twice the above chord can be tested at zero incidence with only manageable difficulties. but for brevity and the side opthe upper surposite face of the aerofoil clarity will " be referred to as roof Q J3 the and its opposite surface as the floor. increasing the J O 1 JW .0 Reynolds number at need to 4 million. The roof and are first floor give sure (zero longitudinal pressure gradient) adjusted to constant pres If B ftg S % fl * 3 8 with the tunnel .empty. Owing to thickening boundary . but it is easily arrived at by experiment. the required shape is neither simple nor predictable. the wider sides remaining flat.
and linear variation of pressure change with shape is assumed. A greater speed becomes But the essential point is that the flow past possible in the tunnel.BLOCKAGE IN SUBSONIC TUNNEL. This showed that. The roof and floor of the tunnel adjusted to constant pressure with the tunnel empty are regarded as flat in this sense. which accords approximately with absence of constraint. the peak aerofoil effect opposite the is called solid blockage. onehalf the pressure changes caused along a flat wall by a disturbance. flat wall . the pressure distributions on roof and floor being reduced to curve (b) of Fig. onehalf of the pressure distribution along the flat wall is caused by the corrugation of the other wall and onehalf walls. This is termed blockage . the amount of readjust ment necessary being accurately noted from the graduated heads of the micrometer screws used for the purpose. Finally. 42B.108 AERODYNAMICS for the [CH. *** adjusted in shaPe to g* ve constancy aerofoil. 42B. Blockage is then eliminated. 42B. respectively (the factor constant pressure with the tunnel empty and with it containing the O5 is for greater accuracy replaced by 06). the wake blockage. and the maintained effect behind. under these conditions. (b) pressure along As a second the roof and floor step. a wall shaped to lie along free streamlines should exhibit. The increment of speed at the edge of the boundary layers of the roof and floor is much greater than would by curve (a) exist at the same distance from the aerofoil in free flight and indi cates the difficulty experienced by the air in flowing past the aerofoil in the presence of the tunnel. ' ' (a) Pressure along streamline wall. by the constraint which the flat wall itself exerts on the flow. Hence. The last step gives effect to a theoretical calculation by Taylor and Goldstein concerning compressible flow between two parallel one flat and the other corrugated. ^^^ of pressure along them. back part of the tunnel requires widening in the presence of the FIG. . as illustrated of Fig. from the constant values found empty tunnel. under certain conditions. the roof and floor are set to shapes approximately midway between those for aerofoil. the Clearly.
but obviously the aerofoil lift must be supported on a long floor and roof by pressure changes. 42c the reservoir or region of higher pressure is at O. as that of the floor for an aerofoil of symmetrical section at zero incidence. inconvenient. except that it would require to be enclosed or specially designed to take account of the large drop of pressure in the tunnel. but is different if a lift exists. An Aerodynamic balance could be used to weigh the force components on the aerofoil as with an ordinary wind tunnel. a large exaggeration due to tunnel interference having been removed. Suffix refers to air sufficiently removed . only a few inches in width.Ill A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS 109 the aerofoil should now be characteristic of free flight. Methods of Measurement. wind speeds in excess of the velocity of sound are actuated provide by connecting them or to receivers evacuated directly to large reservoirs of compressed air. and reference may be made to the papers cited for the best method of shapes for a which is application. Different settings of the roof and floor are required for different aerofoils. for The . In Fig. lift of the aerofoil per unit length midway between the side walls can also be determined by connecting a multipletube manometer to a line of holes in the roof and in the floor and subtracting the integrals of the pressure changes so recorded this known method is illustrated quantitatively in Chapter VII. they are kept very small. The Supersonic Tunnel Raising the injector pressure of a subsonic tunnel of the type Tunnels that just described fails to increase its speed appreciably. The principle of this further step will appear in later chapters. The location of quantities is distinguished below by use of N these letters as suffixes. 66B. and the only question arising is whether an allowance must be made for restricted length. by pumps. or incidences. A test of the sufficiency of the measures adopted is described in Article 66C. to which the above Free streamline description applies. lifting aerofoil involve bending the axis of the tunnel. Making extravagant use of highpressure storage space. as well as for considerably different Mach numbers with the same The shape of the roof is the same aerofoil. which is open to the atmosphere or region of lower pressure at R. and an approximate process is adopted. and a convergent nozzle leads through a throat T to a long divergent duct D. Forces are actually measured by wake exploration drag and by pressure plotting the aerofoil for lift and moment.
(51) of Article 31 gives .110 AERODYNAMICS [CH. For p little greater than p R the apparatus works as a subsonic tunnel or venturi tube. and therefore the local velocity of sound. mm. (i) Any further increase of at the throat or to p /p R fails to produce a larger pressure drop make VT exceed a T But if p p R be made . T velocity of sound in air of the low temperature then attained at the throat. by VQ = Wide scope exists provided p /p R can be made large. FIG. Hence the significant ratio VD /aD is increased on two This ratio will be denoted counts. from the vicinity small. 42c. The corresponding minimum value of pT/p follows immediately from (50) of Article 30 as . pPo = mm. The expansion further reduces the temperature of the air. = 0527. apart from a thin boundary velocity to layer. by (27). Supersonic speeds result from the air expanding more rapidly than the crosssectional area of the duct. SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL. along which the kinetic energy is gradually reduced. When of the intake for its velocity V to be negligibly a supersonic tunnel is working satisfactorily the entire flow. This state is indicated schematically by curve (a) in the figure. as indicated schematically by curve (6) in the figure. the pressure related to the by Bernoulli's equation by the The boundary layer will be ignored and the tunnel assumed to run full with density adiabatic law. For 0. M. a large pressure drop at the throat where the speed is a maximum being mostly recovered in the divergent duct. ( y (r + . further expansion of the air substantially greater than 0473^ occurs along a suitable divergent duct in place of the former compression. and the constant velocity over each crosssection. is is irrotational . Increasing p /p R at first merely increases the pressure at the throat and the drop But a limiting condition is reached when VT == # the speed.
An To plotted in Fig. M applies pD . for Putting p /pD = approximately the lowest Mach number at which the flow through a supersonic tunnel is sufficiently stable for accurate experiments made. remembering that the second term in the curly brackets equal to (&vla )*> the expression can be changed to with the understanding that duct at which the pressure is 4. Substituting for C from (iii). between 3 and have been obtained in practice. 14'7. Hence. yields M = 215 and 260. respectively. M = ^/2 appears as a matter of recent experience to be to the position along the 10 and 20. example. At the other extreme. . and from (i) to be ~ Y .III A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS 111 is and. C = (iii) Now the mass flow through every crosssection must be the same. 42D. and it gives p lpD = yv l = 3J. approximate value is for the constant coefficient is find the expansion of the tunnel area required for a given value of M . folpo is fi rst found from from(iv). Greater values. Let ST be the crosssectional area of the throat. For any value * PolPR greater than that required to secure FT = a r the mass flow per second through the tunnel remains constant. This result applies to all subsonic tunnels of the type considered 05 and 42D. neglecting the boundary layer. in which and then SD /5T (ii) The particular manner chosen to expand FIG. it is the tunnel beyond the throat will PRESSURE ALONG SUPERSONIC TUNNEL. It will be denoted by C.
in the position of the experimental station along the divergent Correction is required on account of the boundary layer. (a) is the continuous A D > f . 66C. duct. . But for visual purposes in a small laboratory a modest a small equipment will pressures of supersonic stream very provide a minute at a time. the issuing be seen that only one value of experimental station along a given tunnel. subsonic tunnel. <Throat Distance FIG. If downstream SHOCK WAVE IN SUPERSONIC TUNNEL. but a shock wave can be expected in will M as the wave pR < p' . tional flow is possible only as far front. in pressure curve along a tunnel which /> R is not greater than . and also to lengthen sufficiently large. provided po/fa is From this point of view.P. The flow can remain irrotational throughout the length only if the shock wave is likely to occur pressure p' at S' also satisfies (iv). the reservoirs (in the common case of tunnels exhausting into the atmosphere) should be capable of withstanding air many atmospheres and possess a large capacity. But the small tunnel enables large variations of to be obtained M readily by employing alternative divergent ducts. Downstream of the experimental station the duct expands further some continuous manner to a maximum crosssectional area S' before discharging into the atmosphere or lowpressure receiver. possible at a fixed Displacing the station is size of the along the divergent duct is usually inconvenient. 42B. the section will be put to best use if made deeply rectangular in shape. (c) shows an earlier failure due to a still Irrotagreater value of /> R (b) . p' is the discontinuous curve appropriate to a pressure shock wave forming at B . somewhere within if pR and travel upstream towards the p throat if p R is increased further. not be increased. In Fig.L. say.112 then fix AERODYNAMICS [CH. It will M jet. for. For quantitative twodimensional work with larger apparatus. 42E. or fitted with adjustable sides as described for the N. Illustrative Results numbers are sparse and Published experiments of aeronautical interest at high largely confined to twodimensional Mach tests. a battery of long boiler shells of moderate diameter suggesting together with pumps of substantial power. the necessarily brief time of a run even at a comparatively small Mach number.
Curve (a) was obtained with 0*65 FIG.> p. Fig. . after . 42F gives the drag curves for certain symmetrical aerofoils of three different thickness ratios (maximum thickness of section expressed in terms of the chord) tested at zero inci dence through a range of CD high subsonic speeds. The determination matter of first of the critical Mach number is evidently a importance and likely to be affected by the presence of tunnel walls. number depending on the what is known as the compressi* Mtty or shock stall. There CD .L. remains almost constant until.) by streamlining the walls. 42c. Supersonic tests are difficult to carry out for 14. ..Ill A] illustrations EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS 113 The way. ^ FIG. Thus the test on the * Lock and Beavan. but it is clear that after a peak value CD decreases as indicated M < small the figure. 085 CHECK ON STREAMLINING WALLS. Curve (b) applies to 12in. increases very The curyes (a) (fe) (c) are for 8ymmetrical aerofoils in ascending order of thickness. 09 ro ^ rs KM? re w 2 . tunnel described in Article 66A.. loe. cit. as already mentioned. for which the corresponding correction is relatively small. there occurs . an aerofoil chord of 12 and curve (c) with one 5 in.P. though not to its qualitatively on the righthand side of initial value. 42c reproduces some of the results of an investigation * of the reliability in this connection of the small N. . 106. CRITICAL MACH NUMBERS. of both with streamlined walls.. 42F. now given are no more than typical in a qualitative As a first example. chord with the walls shaped to give constant pressure in the absence of the aerofoil. Comparison shows the magnitude of the correction achieved in a rather extreme case (the depth of the tunnel being only 17 J in. at c some critical Mach u os o* 07 os rt section. rapidly some tests suggest to five or more times its value for incompressible flow. and the fair agreement reached as to the critical Mach number for the given aerofoil section with a test employing a muchreduced chord. in. the lefthand side of Fig.
which extends from the aerofoil for some distance into the stream and casts a shadow. Beyond the fairly thin velocity of sound.* The wave may be fitted changes the Bernoulli constant for flow passing through it.g. creating the compressibility wake already noted. The Pitot Tube at Supersonic Speeds The speed of supersonic tunnels is inferred from the static pressure drop at the experimental station as obtained from a hole in the wall. as illustrated in Fig. for this reason highspeed tunnels opposite the aerofoil. At supersonic speeds a shock wave is M .114 AERODYNAMICS [CH. a stage is soon reached when it extends right across to the roof. 42H illustrates the nature of the lift curve obtained for a CL cambered aerofoil at a small angle of incidence. It can also be delayed to some extent wave at circa by reducing thickness ratio. and experiment becomes more difficult. 66D. In a tunnel. increases strongly at first. SHOCK STALL. a circular cylinder gives a shock = 045. * See frontispiece. 42F. and the maximum liftdrag with any aerofoil obtainable has a muchreduced value. and by shaping the profile to minimise the maximum velocity attained by the wind in flowing past. The stall is easily caused to occur early by employing a bluff section e. by visually inspecting the flow It is possible to gain a preliminary idea of the nature of the shock stall under suitable illumination . Apart from its immediate interest. . Fig. The critical with glass sides Mach number is associated with the generation of a shock wave. recovery of lift is poor. the investigation illustrates the care that should be taken to establish the validity of windtunnel experiments in general. These considerations apply not only to models but equally to any exposed attachment used to support them in the stream or to explore the flow in their vicinity. The initial increase is of special importance in the design of airscrews. smaller aerofoil can be regarded with some confidence as approximating to freeair conditions. drag remains ratio high. 42n. FIG. but the shock stall causes a rapid loss of lift. formed in front of the body. With further increase of Mach number the wave penetrates more deeply into the stream and becomes rapidly displaced backward.
entropy on penetrating the wave. be the mass of air crossConsider unit area of the wave.7 (MI. and the pressure at a front stagnation point. partly in view of the importance of the case and partly as illustrating. Through the very small thickness the velocity of the air is diminished pressure and density to p v p r increased from p. The formula may also be used to estimate the speed of an aircraft diving at a supersonic speed. the nature of the phenomena occurring at very high speeds. with a minimum of analytical complication.Ill A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS 115 However. part of an infinite plane shock wave which is stationary and normal to the wind. is likely to be effective. and then a special formula is required to deduce the speed from its pressure P. the flow is isentropic. and let In doing work against the increase of ing this area per second. only the bluntly rounded apex of the cone. 5 \pl and the loss of pitot head implied in (81) becomes large at Mach numbers considerably greater than unity. and that this may be treated as plane and normal to the direction of motion. a pilot tube may be used in experiment. to differ considerably the shock wave formed in front causing P from the pitot pressure wave. the formula /p\2/7 is. / () tional flow = \2/7 0. Fig. for irrotational compressible flow. but the air increases from V to V l9 and its A A J c FIG.I) (52) of Article 31 gives for irrota To much the same approximation. p Up to the the pressure and density wave and beyond it are related by the adiabatic law.e. Simplification arises from the legitimate assumption that though the wave is in fact flatly conical. in m pressure at the rate pvkinetic energy is lost at the rate . 42i. in front of the pitot tube. If p denotes the static pressure of the oncoming wind upstream of the in approximate terms.6. i. immediately in front of the mouth of tfre tube. 42i shows. The theory is due to Rankine and Rayleigh and is summarised below. Rankine's Relationship.
i)# + (Y + \)p + (Y ( Y +  i) Pi (v) or approximately Pi WilP) (PilP) P + + G' 1 (ii) Pi 6(pi/p) ~ P and (iii). i. 160. . (iii) Hence (i) reduces to This is the Rankine.p = m(V  . vol. and the energy at the rate * r by Article 30..  FO.) = ~(pv. (t ^) =O (i) Now the increase of pressure is equal to the rate of loss of momenper unit area.* or RankineHugoniot. . . Roy.P) (V + v. . 1870. From whence M F* _ = il oF8 _ y/> * Phil.e. that pV tum .116 AERODYNAMICS air also loses internal [CH. (ii) so that the loss of kinetic energy can be expressed as i(A and . Soc. since F x. Pl . gives PI _ (Y P .pw + \(p + A) m = pF = Pl (V . The Pitot Pressure. relationship between It readily the pressures and densities on the two sides of the wave. ' 1 _ Trans. fP 1 \ p Pi\ ' P!/ The principle of the conservation of energy demands. therefore.PlVl + lm(V* F x') + ^ VJ.
multiplying through by ^J we have finally p 4Y p (vi). this 117 On substituting for p/p x from gives (vi) In like manner M 1KX . p and (ix) reduces to * (81). / P\ y (p) Vl ( v + 1 T fr . Proc. M is obtained from pjp by With the approximation 6 14 for y. 1910. Soc.. A. I = *V _ ' Pi*V + ^+T 1 ] < vii > Now. . Rayleigh.Ill A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS (v). vol. closely. Roy. v p I) A + T + Yl and. 84. the pitot pressure P can be obtained by Articles 30 and 31 in terms of quantities on the far side of the wave as since the flow Equating (vii) between the wave and the and (viii). pitot tube is isentropic.
Many of seaplanes.Chapter IV AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 67.* whilst now further improvement is equally concerned with Aerodynamics and new methods of propulsion. as with autogyros and helicopters. and so is deferred. per brake h. Investigations of the present chapter are for the most part expressed in terms of the aeroplane. now weigh less than l\ Ib. Institution of Civil Engineers. but apply equally to the seaplane and flying boat with modifications in detail only. Description of the latter type must refer to Airscrew Theory. Relf. following the work of the pioneers. All heavierthanair flying depends first and foremost on the lift of wings of birdlike section. Article 46) and the theory formance and minimise structural weight. * Cf. craft are illustrated motion through the atmosphere either as a whole. Useful flying depends acutely upon extremely light power plant. which has already received preliminary of which. These depend for lift entirely upon in Fig. Specialised development of reliable engines has been remarkable. Aircraft wings are much more heavily loaded than those of birds to improve per and discussion (cf. 7. and large units. It may be said that. No attempt is made in this book to describe the work of the pioneers even a cursory record of their gallant and brilliant achievements would occupy much space. the principles established also apply in a general way to autogyros helicopters. 43. mathematically utility of wings of this kind was first realised by Horatio Phillips and Most aircraft avoid flapping as a their principle by Lanchester. The chapters. matter of structural and mechanical expediency. complete with metal airscrews of variable pitch. Examples and flying boats. 118 .p. highperformance flying first waited upon engine design. as with aeroplanes. But in no department of aviation . the subject of later resembles that of the electric motor. or in respect of their lifting surfaces which then have a relative motion. 1936. Aircraft Heavierthanair of airships have been given in Fig. then upon Aerodynamics. James Forrest Lecture.
throttle. and control attitude or incidence to the flight path in side elevation. are hinged to a fixed or only slowly adjustable tail plane. producing a change of yaw. may tribute be paid to the Wright Brothers. and angular velocity. are indicated and named in Fig. uniform flight is closely approximated to for stability short periods under favourable atmospheric conditions. express a convenient and usual (though not the only) manner in which the principles established are given effect. Various assumptions are introduced in order to avoid detail. tending to conserve any of the various forms of flight to which it may be set. Control surfaces. however. Early study of the elements of flight is desirable. a characteristic that can hold exactly only in the . rolling the craft about A fourth control is provided by the engine its longitudinal axis. IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 119 control. in regard and positions of the stabilising surfaces considered in conjunction with the location of the centre of gravity and the moments of inertia about the three principal axes. perhaps. 43. Horizontal rudders. 68. and angular motion that varies pitch is called pitching: The ailerons move differentially. gives directional control in a familiar way. Study of an aircraft in these circumstances has for immediate objects the determination of equilibrium and control and the estimation of performance. The layouts of the craft illustrated. Disturbances arise from many causes and a continuous adjustment takes place through either its inherent stability or judicious use of controls by the pilot. This is termed pitch. to obtain a general view which will be a guide to the practical aims of the theories that follow in subsequent chapters. called elevators. were their experiences more valuable than in relation to means of and here especially. adjustable from the pilot's cockpit. It is assumed. There has long existed a successful Theory of Stability due to to the proportions Bryan and Bairstow. and only first principles will occupy us for the present. Safety in the air is a first consideration and depends notably on an inherent stability of the craft. attached to a fixed fin. An aircraft cannot maintain exactly a steady state of motion. Flight consequently proceeds in a series of oscillations or wide corrected curves. Nevertheless. for instance. The rudder. whether by or control. as yawing.CH. These enquiries can quickly assume a rather complicated character. It is assumed to persist in the present chapter. Orientation of the craft in plan to the flight path is known as yaw. and also on the provision of adequate means of control. that the aircraft in straight flight has a plane of symmetry.
120 .
~ a 121 .
unduly since the velocity of every head wind must be subtracted in full and it is also their prerogative. those of or equipment which depend little on aircraft size.122 AERODYNAMICS [CH. in more general terms introduces an alternative method. though in is considerably affected by variations in practice this relationship and let this W . rolling.e. Asymmetric flight. the other hand. lift is un69. can also be uniform. L oc /*. level flight. so Denote size by /. in straight that in every case L W. i. of airships and another of aeroplanes. and the transient air loads to which it gives rise. . and crosswind force must all be absent. assuming the same gas and a constant ceiling. which readily suffice to reveal the main features of and in aeroplane flight. Some simple unsteady motions are referred to briefly. Aerodynamic of their equilibrium necessary for airships. where S is the wing area and w the wingloading /L will be W/S = LjS in straight. but adequate study of manoeuvring. The lift of the aeroplanes depends on speed as well as size. The continuous on generation of Aerodynamic lift by aeroplanes and flyingboats. provided the true air speed V is not decreased. High speed is especially necessary for aircraft. which includes such common motions as turning and side slipping. The and the drag D should clearly be minimised in tare weight W t lift L. These characteristics are implied in the standard coefficients determined from experiments on models in wind tunnels. Since L/w oc l\ requisite structural strength ' ' W t t W t constant in their case only if w oc L 1/3 . the total weight. being most economically and safely attained in their case. and the investigation and performance is consequently straightforward. This slow increase of wing . The duty of an aircraft is to carry a large useful or disposable load from one place to another quickly and at low cost in fuel. which. whence /L is approximately constant. absence of airscrew torque. = and level flight. is postponed. Consider two series of geometrically similar aircraft. components For the airships. Flight in this plane is known as symmetric flight roll. though of less technical accuracy. but is equal to Sw. yawing. a sequence comparison with the . t be sufficiently large for the materials of construction to 3 oc / be used economically. and by fixed weights. has the advantage of explaining the reason for the above distinguishing features. Except for temporary purposes. Then approximately. and are used both in the present chapter But a preliminary discussion technical performance calculations. yaw. results in peculiarities which have no counterpart in other forms of transport.
cannot indefinitely increase Aeroplanes in size as. Thus it is reasonable to the two types on the basis of lift. Turning to aeroplanes for an answer. but the air flown through is affected unequally. This action communicates kinetic energy to the atmosphere at . are in use and f cwt. The fact tha^t small indicated air speeds give very small values of D/L is without interest because of head winds.. be seen by reference to an artificial system in which the action of the wings in generating lift is represented as imparting a uniform downward velocity v to all elements of a mass of air per second. theoretically. . Adequate investigation must be postbut the principle underlying its peculiar nature may readily poned. 50 tons in weight can realise as small values of as can airships of 23 times the weight. to the upper twothirds of their speed range owing to increased form drag at the large incidences necessary for lower speeds. per square foot are contemplated. but is evidently not an unreasonable requirement within limits. As a matter of experience. (the Wright by 19334 (the end of the biplane period) it had reached and a year or two later J cwt. But pF 2 oc p F. aeroplanes or flyingboats exceeding biplane). the induced Df (Article 59A). The remaining part of the drag. size arises geometrically from the linear reduction of the ratio of surface area to volume. (i) a nondimensional coefficient and constant for the shape 2 D\L oc pF /7. can airships. Thus 2 The evident advantage of increasing alternatively D/L oc F. This form is also restricted..IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 123 loading with lift entails faster landing speeds for big aircraft. 15 Ib. a Po being the standard density of the air at sealevel and V. so that L mv. the indicated air speed. lift is derived by the same principle. In the actual system. we have = m . compare Neglecting Aerodynamical scale effects. The question of interest is At what speed (if any) does concerned. as will be investigated later. : D/L become prohibitively large ? first to note that only part of their drag. whilst now wingloadings of about \ cwt. //. It may be mentioned at once that in 1903 the loading per square foot of wing area was 2 Ib. the drag of the airships W t is given by D = CpF where C is a a / . viz. called the total parasitic drag D P can be expressed in the form (i). as will be illustrated in due course. arises in a complicated manner and takes an drag entirely different form. but the disparity in gross WJL weight between practicable airships and the largest aeroplanes capable of realising acceptable values of /L is decreasing.
. Ignoring the effects of viscosity. to 4 V. the rate \mv* which must be equal to the rate of doing work against i. the formula for the total drag of each of these similar aeroplanes may be taken as D= where scale effects D< + DP =  + BpV#. w/p. . The ' alternative expression is _ = v' v v' = \v. Then another expression for the induced drag can be constructed from the reflection that it must be equal to the resolved part of the Aerodynamic force on the wings.e. starts the mass into motion some distance in front and leaves it with the Let v' be the uniform velocity v only at some distance behind. . and assume v'jV to be small. . the of air affected each second. the velocity v is essentially residual and cannot come into being suddenly at the wings we must assume that a pressure field. oc F7 f whence (ii) can be written 4 \k$v*l* and combining with (iii) gives . (ii) downward velocity of the mass m in the vicinity of the wings.124 t AERODYNAMICS [CH. . (v) A and B are constant coefficients in so far as Aerodynamical effects and incidence For any aeroplane of the on form drag can be neglected. becomes possible to take the unequal motion of the air Thus (iv) will be verified to have the correct form. series. / and L are constant in straight. . D = t v ~ A for 1/2&. which is sensibly equal to the lift. . viz. v' v mv ' Comparison with becomes (ii) gives = and the second expression A = i~ L volume ' ' ' ' (iii) Considering change of size and speed with constant shape. whence it D D D = ( ^v. travelling with the wings. Substituting in (iii) and writing When it into account.
4x1 //A 1/3 14 (B) . . but the aeroplanes have less values of DjL than would When V much is airships at such speeds because their surface area for a given lift further advantage to be derived from increasing smaller. (vii) (viii) 1 . or part. a p F^(22/15) (vi) gives very closely * = / 1/4 . and the speed at which far as F.. so long as i t0 a / is proportional to the wing area.h. This indicated air speed for minimum drag will be denoted by F0 Thus the essential peculiarity of an aeroplane or flyingboat as a means of transport is that minimum drag occurs at a certain in other words. V V < F 1/2 . and the drag of (v) aeroplanes tends to become more nearly expressible in the form (i). in the form . pF 1 gives the drag ( } and so that minimum D = 2L\^AB 2^/AB. no great difference exists between the coefficients B and C specified on the surface area.). t minimum D/L = It is useful to notice that.. but putting to use the whole. Aeroincurring considerably more than the planes fly faster than F.p. much to provide for doing altitude quickly work against gravity . Assuming clean cantilever wings and rigid airship hulls. . much greater than A wingloading is thus perceived. imposed on the increase of realised can be adjusted in so Subsequent calculations will show that w keep Fi0 too small for lowof aircraft flying.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 126 level flight. larger than the speed of a 200ton airship (about though 100 m. Thus we have that the shape. D when For a given shape of increases.oto minimum value it is (x) is of Z)/L a constant for that w limitations altitude can be varied. . = . that intermediate speed actually decreases . and to be a minimum differentiation with respect to for that aeroplane when . of a large margin of engine power which must in any case be carried in order . it is judged by modern standards speed. at a sufficient rate to gain Fio the first term on the right of is i becomes small in comparison with the second. when required. since pF . and (ix) can be written aeroplane. for which the value of D\L would be the same.. minimum drag.
p. (G) is low.p. Airship in Straight Horizontal Flight on Even Keel can be trimmed by movement of ballast or fuel. 44. if small airships are admitted for comparison). their drag would become prohibitively large. The reason is partly that already fly stated and partly due to B becoming greater than C when. ably below the centre of volume. the total b.p. gondolas. the C. 44). the total weight. Aeroplanes become inferior to airships on the present basis at speeds less than 100 m.h.e. T the resultant thrust of the airscrews. 70. but possibly above the sum of the drags of envelope. on the other hand. On an even keel there is least resistance to motion.h. The centre of buoyancy B. in order to economise in the weight of large lightly loaded wings. aeroplanes could be designed to really slowly. of volume of the envelope . (or 75 m. It is also required that no resultant efficiency act. [CH..G. W FIG. Let this drag at velocity V relative to the wind be D. of the engines x the of the airscrews. the clean cantilever design suitable for substantial wingloadings gives place first to external bracing and finally to biplane design. The first term on the right of when V is much less than Ft0 i if predominates. the line of action of T .126 AERODYNAMICS (v) . L f the gas lift. For steady rigid airship dirigible balloon A W rectilinear horizontal flight W =L' and t T =D T satisfies TV = H 550 i.. a by transference of air between forward and aft ballonets. and its line of action is appreciunit.p. tail and airscrew struts.h. D is . because the envelope and fin drag. is above the centre couple where H is the thrust h. (Fig.
T = D = when x = 179 ft. t + d 40 ft. when level and when 10. . D(t case. 7 (c). or 025 per cent. 46. perhaps.. showing Aerodynamic lift (L) in the latter case.000 lb. 45 gives the normal pressure difference O2 0J 2 pv (BOTTOM) 10(TOP) NOSE 01 TAIL FIG. constitutes only 80 per cent.h. of the total 15. From 15 to 25 b. might be 150 tons. 71. G is forward of B. along the top and bottom of the hull of Fig. pitched at a Associated with this is an Aerodynamic pitching moment Re = M . x has increased owing to the pitch. no tail lift. PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ALONG AIRSHIP. W length.. ferring to Fig.. An Aero . 46. Airship Pitched Now ship pitched nose up. per ton are usually supplied. but with the airFig.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 127 acting axially.p. but only slightly in a practical For example. The drag . consider steady straight horizontal flight. moments about G and using the notation of the figure Taking Dd or If there is L'x = + d) = Wx. coefficient varies in a complicated manner through the wide range of Reynolds number (7?) occurring in practice (from very at zero speed to 6 x 10 8 if length of hull be used in specifying R). Direct model experiment can give only a rough estimate of fullscale drag this is matter for semiempirical theory and fullscale experiment.. of the whole.
etc. the maximum Aerodynamic fly Airships cabrS (tail down) : o 10 20 so 4O commonly for three reasons lift. From Fig. 47. exceed 12 per cent.p. 1 (c) had L' of possible Aerodynamic lift against 4200 . available this maximum percentage would be less. 46. = = It appears that L may here 47. of '. for example. of lengths. onethird of lift. dynamic force / L it exerted by the horizontal fins and elevators. the curve b. on the other hand. at a small angle of pitch. (1) SPEED Loss (m.h.p. as The T equation as before. tends to increase. maintaining the pitch. but the decrease in speed will be large With less engine power noted. 46 T sin a L L L' D T cos a W= t Tt + Dd + M L'x. mum O15 157 tons and maxiThe airship illustrated in Fig.L D l ~ = 0. FIG. With increase of a. decreased gas resulting from loss of gas or considereither general . Little speed is lost.128 AERODYNAMICS [CH.h.) Fia. speed has been estimated as in Fig. acts : at a distance behind G. and a maximum value will evidently occur at some particular a and V. so that V must diminish. Thus L increases on account of a. denoted by these symbols must satisfy the same h. but course.p. giving. assuming the elevators to be sufficiently large to corresponding permit the last equation to be satisfied.. but decreases on account of 7. in the preceding article. + + t + are not the same.
IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 129 able and sharp change of temperature. the craft rises until the gasbags fill. The conditions for steady climb at any instant are simply stated. A. to prevent the elevators from holding the craft to the required pitch for equilibrium. when positive pitch to the upwardly inclined flight path provides Aerodynamic lift. In the last case the shift of the centre of buoyancy may be sufficient. 72. rapid climb to a given altitude by discharge of ballast entails subsequent slow Such waste is ascent. Temperature lag in the gas. and an equal mass of gas is valved. an airship can be If ballast is discharged during flight at steered to higher altitudes. zero pitch. inclined at 6 to the horizon L' cos 6 L' sin 6 since + L = W cos 6 + T = Wsin Q + > D.G. l ^' Aeroplane in Straight Level Flight > The vertical position of the C. supporting excess ballast until the gas has time to complete expansion appropriate to the new pressure and temperature. of a heavierthanair craft varies considerably with type.D. (3) failure of a gasbag. L is perpendicular to the direction of motion. described in Article 17. with a loss of gas that may be needless. to compensate for decreasing gas lift. depending upon the fore and aft position of the fault. full. Aerodynamic Climb of an Airship While the gasbags remain only partly results in slow attainment of ultimate altitude. 5 . During such a climb L must gradually be increased. Resolving along and perpendicular to the path. minimised by Aerodynamic climb. (2) transient overload at the beginning of a long flight due to fuel.. however. The engines now do work against gravity in respect of the excess ballast. 73. but longitudinal position is restricted by l ( *h ' ' 1 ^ FIG. Thus.
wing monoplane of weight W the resultant Aerodynamic force on the whole craft.. . In order to describe the primary characteristics of aeroplane we adopt these simplified expressions together with the further is : approximations W = const. parison with the lift L w of the wings..... L is the lift and clusions. .. but they are complicated by technical first approximation follows the assumptions detail. leads to unstable moments about the C. (82) (83) (84) .. .. 48 refers to a low. which require to be counteracted by the tail plane. r=550#/F ..ISO AERODYNAMICS [CH. . travel of the centre of pressure. as before.. It is assumed that crosswind force and couples about vertical and rectilinear longitudinal axes vanish..^V*S (86) (87) (88) where S flight. the area of the wings and CL their lift coefficient.. . The above equations present no : diffi culties given adequate data. f (89) Dw is the drag of the wings according to data appropriate to a Aerodynamic scale within the speed range of the craft. the drag apart from the wings.. . . Then for steady horizontal at velocity V. with leverages as indicated in the figure flight is t . First Approximation. It density and a particular speed V' preferably that we neglect scale effects through the flying range will be observed This applies also to the lift curve of the wings. DB is the 'extratowing' drag. and DB its value at standard within the range.. A D= T cos with p = D Aa=LJ + Tt W = L + L + T sin p t . with these exL tan y is the drag of the whole craft. (2) that the sum total of the lifts of all components of the craft other than the wings and tail plane can be neglected in comand t may be ignored. . acting at G. . where single . In the normal case. (3) that p is Then the equations become : T = D = 550 H)V Aa = L t W=LW =C l L .. (1) that a small compared with / and that Lt can be neglected in comparison with L. . i.. Fig. Aerodynamic conditions.. already described. but the of scale... .. (85) where H is A the total thrust h. .e.G. r is the liftdrag ratio of the wings only.p. excluding the airscrew thrust T and the tail lift L Thus. ..
IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 131 scale chosen in their case speed.e. according to the compressedair tunnel. i. the wingloading already introduced. Without special devices the value 15 for CL is not easily exceeded. speed. 10 7 at minimum even in the case of large monoplanes for which R In terms of w W/S. In (89) . which with present aircraft is imDB2 follows from Z)B1 by the relation plied conventionally in CL . following table gives. In (90) we also omit to take into account variation in airscrew slipstream effects these will be allowed for in estimating H. assuming maximum C L an aspect ratio of 7). The W= = . one flight. S. Cy  (92) These expressions are independent of the shape of the wings or constancy of that shape. . for 160. r is conveniently CL curve if it is continuously variable for changing read from an r r may be read from the evolute of a family of such curves. is at least that for the minimum flying we ignore loss of weight through consumption of fuel. W Typical examples are given in Fig. and span (on the basis of 10 tons. 74. approximate corresponding values of w. at low altitude when C L is a maximum. But resulting values of wing drag and incidence depend upon shape. Minimum (86) Flying Speed and Size of Wings of Fixed Shape While... Considerations affecting choice of area are discussed in the following three articles. it is necessary to know 5. If this is constant. Incidence is similarly determined. for each shape. 42 of fullscale maximum values of C L for wings of fixed shape. when CL p is a maximum. If at constant altitude V changes from V l to V tt the corresponding lift coefficients are related by : C La provided S remains constant. becomes (86) z0 = C L . minimum for a particular craft in steady level flight . ing speed further loss of speed leads to L w < . Before the performance of any given aeroplane is examined. as is from V is a either true or implied in C L S remains constant..J P F* (93) = = . for various speeds chosen as minima. but the result will express an ideal that the pilot may not quite realise in practice. The speed at which CL reaches its maximum value is called the stalland descent occurs.
chord) with low lower curve and for a larger craft of stalling speed (48 m. The lift coeffi: YH . therefore. a nosewheel exists undercarriage wheels must be located considerably in front of the C. or applying brakes.) At the greater Aerodynamic higher stalling speed upper curve. to have w > 20. approximately. seaplanes. of the craft.G. and often w exceeds 40 lb.G. unless Further. to prevent overturning on the ground.p. CL drops from 148 at 183 to 120 at 13. weight and for other reasons it is advisable. to land at 18 would mean a high and heavy under13 is often the economic limit. high speeds lead to danger in forced landings on unprepared ground. 34 (aspect ratio 6) for a small aeroplane (5ft. considerably This disadvantage may be offset by an increase that occurs in a wing is in motion only a few feet above the will be recalled that an aerofoil (It ground. 49 gives C L illustrated in Fig. carriage a curves for the wing Clark Fig. for high speeds. ft. On the other : minimum 75.132 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 42 shows that maximum C L may require the incidence a of the wing to exceed 18. apparently. indeed. Such comparisons lead to two general conclusions Really low stalling speeds cannot be designed for economically in aeroplanes. of the tail plane is usually distant 04 to 05 of the span behind the C. and flyingboats. Now a 0. The C. when the fuselage or body should be horizontal iii = level flight.) The tail plane may also contribute to lift. maximum C L when A further correction exists in the hands of experienced pilots who . usually gives an apmaximum lift coefficient between the walls of an preciably greater enclosedsection wind tunnel than in an open jet. per sq.h. Special devices to reduce such speeds by adapting wing shape are important. for low drag. Landing Conditions Reference to Fig.P. scale. due to running the engines at full power with wheels chocked. The smallest span given may be regarded as roughly the greatest for which a reasonably light wing structure of sufficient strength could be expected without external To economise on wing bracing. < cient available for landing less is than the maximum. Thus. hand.
IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 133 land aeroplanes with great skill in an unsteady motion.' pilot therefore ' brings an i. value. Moreover. it is essential with high landing speeds to make contact with the ground quickly after flattening out. so that the brakes can bring the craft to a standstill within the distance prescribed by the aerodrome. It is desirable to have large drag on landing. con20 siderably faster . re alising landing which are speeds often lower than designers have reason to expect and which 10 scarcely exceed the stalling speeds. together with reduction in speed of approach and a further advantage to ' CL would have 07 of its maximum corresponding to be described 76. as one and powerful means for restricting landing runs. and this. They commonly extend along the inner twothirds or so of the span and are retracted * The variablepitch airscrew also provides. or 2 less. At stalling speed the various Aerodynamic controls of a craft tend to become inefficient. so far removed from the stall. FIG.e. to proceed a considerable distance before actually landing. is per cent.e. aeroplane descends 10 15" 20 25 30 preparatory to landing. out the flight path to within a few feet above the flattening ground. is conveniently effected by use of flaps. 06 04 02 A in. the liftdrag ratio is high. additional . excess over stalling speed (91) less not uncommon. 08 One other point must be mentioned. 49. Flaps later. of its applications. when by than 11 incidence with the Clark YH wing. than the standing angle. Speed is still high after perhaps.* Wing flaps exist in many different forms. Little drag exists and the aeroplane tends to float/ Yet i. LIFT CURVES AT Two SCALES FOR CLARK YH AEROFOIL (ASPECT RATIO 6).
Size is specified by width expressed in terms of the wing chord. at 45. flap type 20 per cent. (1) WING FLAPS OF VARIOUS TYPES. Split flap with displacement . (5) Split type slotted . slow flying. Flaps should be located well aft. (6) Split with displacement and trailing edge slot.134 AERODYNAMICS [CH. In an early scheme for modifying wing sections during flight. (5) 8 10 12 14 16 18 INCIDENCE FIG. (3) . and angle by the downward rotation from the withdrawn position. increasing the wing area in such cases coefficients are reckoned on the original wing area. Original form CL and CD (a) (6) at R 17 x 10 6 : 20 per cent. or takeoff. flap type (Partial span. U\ Original form slotted . .) (6) (2) at 30. 50. into the wing section except when required for landing. the . Several forms move aft on opening. (2) Split flap.
flap type 10 per cent. Thus landing flaps been applied to improve highspeed performance. enabling high lift to be realised without a high CL YH (a) (b) FULLSPAN FLAPS ON CLARK AEROFOIL AT R = 39 x 10*. and depressed together to assist landing. (3) increase of CL beyond 40 per cent. 20 and heavy undercarriage. But the need to retain lateral control kept angles far too small for the attainment of large lift and drag coefficients. (1) of Fig.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 135 ailerons were rotated together to give maximum liftdrag ratio at each speed before differential use for control. The split flap was adopted generally in 1934 and enabled much of larger wingloadings to be employed without increase speeds. leaves the upper surface of the wing undisturbed. (3) little at all flying incidences. of the an unflapped to leading greater maximum speeds by skin friction reducing and the parasitic of external bracing (cf. flap type at 45. like most ensuing types. This original type. 51. (2) little effect on stalling angle. the stall. drag Article 69). and (4) a great in (2). The dotted curves (b) of Figs.at 90. wings of a With its aid. which was invented (Dayton Wright) in ' ' 1921 and. 50 and 51 relate to split flaps and show (1) a large and approximately crease of constant in 12 14 16 18 INCIDENCE FIG. could be employed at large angles between the ailerons but is less effective than the split flap (2) of the same figure. and development tends to continue on these lines. landing the two as monoplane give as lift much maximum four wings biplane. 50. crease of drag at large flap . but their reverse use is always far have so available to produce aero planes that will land especially slowly.
136 AERODYNAMICS ' [CH. limitation of landing speeds is chiefly with forced landings from low altitudes. important in normal circumstances weight is especially soon after takeoff much reduced by consumption of fuel before landing at the end of in connection . Again. Comparison with Air Brakes. ft. For this reason flaps are commonly lift and high drag for landing. 51 (b). a cut slot being fitted to the original form (1) and the hinge being displaced backward and downward so that the slot remains At (6) is shown another form closed when the flap is not in use. Since CL =156. a journey.h. CD = 19. a large area for so small a craft unless continuously as is possible with a flap. free along both edges. X sq. It is easily verified that this supported. incidence the wing shape gives r = 14. At (4) in natively fairly high Fig. drop of lift beyond the stall can be mitigated slot through the wing immediately in front of the flap. At 13 or. which depends upon the wing area S. and the span 39'4 1 11 = Ic* for chord c and aspect ratio 7. Choose an aeroplane of 5000 Ib. lift coefficients of adjustment for the two purposes capable 3 have been obtained with large flaps of this type extendexceeding ing over the full span. by a socalled cut ' operational difficulties. Before flaps came into general use. S=5000/(l564pF') still = D = D = = = 222 sq. Hence the very high wingloadings frequently employed for firstline aircraft present a more pressing problem in connection with takeoff than with landing. w 5000/14 With the flap. r 78 and 641 Ib. air brakes of various forms were employed in addition to the mechanical brakes fitted to undercarriage wheels. 50 is shown a type that is more useful for takeoff than for landing. area would not be reduced appreciably if the flap were separated from the wing in the form of a simple air brake. with alterwithout undue drag for takeoff. while the craft 357 Ib. with flap.. so that for the above area . weight with a flap as given by Fig. increase of width much beyond 20 per cent. With improved aerodromes. unless the highresistance area exposed is large. airborne just prior to landing. so that c = 563 = 394 The area of the flap = 01 x 5*63 X \ ft.. Fix this at 75 m. an increase of 284 Ib. of the wing chord is seldom justifiable in view of extra weight and The severe angles. For a long normal plate.p. and assumed to have onehalf the basic is effect. approximately. w This is independent of the speed. The extra drag is readily seen to be small. = ft. but larger angles may be used to augment drag. Little is to be gained in lift as a rule by increasing flap angles beyond 6070. ft. but extending over the inner half of the span adjustable to give high lift .
. craft is let down to the ground quickly. Tabs may be regarded as very narrow flaps which are fitted close to the trailing edges of control surfaces. Operated from the cockpit. causing the critical angle to occur Thus the early. and having a minimum flying speed of 60 m. Balance tabs are linked to control surfaces to reduce operational effort in another way. in position. at 75 m. in accordance with (90). servo tabs enable large control surfaces to be rotated (in the opposite sense) with little effort.p. readily will be assumed. 5* . 111 D = 095pF X = over the wing.. TABLE VI A.D.p. with reciprocating engines totalling 2000 b.h. an aeroplane weighing 10 tons.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 8 137 304 Ib. Tabs. Though themselves of small area. But they do not permit the craft they split the flow to be brought in slowly.h. Practical questions regarding aeroplane performance often lead through equations (86)(90) to cubic equations.h. to 110 Ib. forward part of the upper surface of the wings when the craft is close to the ground and ready to land. Power Curves preceding articles it appears that a maximum CL of 20 is This feasible with a large monoplane using a small flap. giving wheel brakes opportunity to shorten landing run. 77. little greater than the effective drag of 284 Ib. These consist of long narrow strips. at minimum speed. Graphical presenThe process will be illustrated in the case of tation avoids these.p. and trimming tabs alter the zero positions of controls. partly destroying lift and greatly increasing drag. Extratowing drag is assumed to be assessed at some high speed and to decrease. projected from the Spoilers. It also appears that minimum flying speed forms From a better gauge for wing area than landing speed.
except in locating the wings on the body and in assess FIG.p. at At 70 m. defining the characteristics of the wings. . sub sequently it increases. while speed increases from 70 to 128 m. 50 100 150 200 SPEED (m. it contributes 48 per cent.138 AERODYNAMICS of [CH.p. or afterwards. ing the available for landing. in the present example greater parasitic resistance would produce a . These results.h) FIG. 192 is beyond the critical angle. of wings (flaps closed). though special to 1500 the present example.h. subsequent columns are compiled from equations (89) to (92).p. the body contributes < 7 per cent. Given the first three columns Table VI. All quantities relate to altitude. and total drag are plotted against speed in Fig. mounting to high values at a comparatively early stage. decreases by more than w CL Drag D D 50 per cent. low may SPEED IN Columns 46 be evaluated before the m p h speed.h.h. The first column is of no interest.h. 220 m.p. are fairly typical of modern craft of medium speed and fine lines . 52. .p.p. of body. greater change. to 112 m. with lowin speed often craft body drag conciooo appears siderably greater proportion. 53. but at high speeds quickly. An effect of to adding decrease DB Dw is to 500 minimum drag the speed for from 128 m.h. to the total drag. but at first slowly. The variation of B is parabolic within the approximation contained in (90). as tabulated. 52.
h. 53. they will exert more power than is required for horizontal It flight and the craft will climb. It occurs at a small negative incidence of the wings. would have been for future reference. available from fixedpitch airscrews.. 07.p. remain practically unchanged from the value appropriate Speed to the tail lift. There is only 100 h.p. more Means for ensurgenerally. full power not being required. 53. ing place at top speed and tail lift to be changed so as to satisfy (84) only If steady conditions are to result. 126). let the craft be flying at some speed lower than its with engines throttled. and consequently the work done per second in over . airscrews in the h. of course. But to answer also applies. 79. required for horizontal flight is plotted as curve in Fig. maximum Alternatively. and then to solve graphically through a short range of speed. It will be seen that the power available at intermediate speeds is greatly reduced by a fixed pitch. the first four rows of the Table sufficient. will Now let the engines be opened fully out without modifying tail lift. If the engines are left at full throttle.p. applies m. only top speed been required. that (88) or. The liftdrag ratio of the wings is then 15 far less than the maxi Top Speed The h.p/s available and required maximum mum . in preparing Fig. (see p.p.h. speed must at some lower speed.p. (84) can be satisfied at all flight speeds. Now assume flight to be taking this will be described later. Complete curves have been obtained isolated questions it is economical to anticipate the result from inspection of the character of the craft. if it is exceeded the craft must descend. The curve (a') relates to constantspeed (b) The and assumes a continuously variable pitch. with a fixed pitch. to spare at 60 m. Curve (a) gives the thrust h. viz. It is by no means impossible for an aeroplane to have wings equal to a lower horizontal speed than the The dotted elbow power units can manage 78. which comes to the same thing. less losses through extra drag of aircraft parts within their slipstreams. decrease to an appropriate extent. to the further analysis below. required curve between 70 and 60 to flaps in use. Had in craft of larger speed range the difference is greater. Rate of Climb has been assumed. of lift coefficient.p.h.p.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 139 thrust h. are equal at 211 m. the that can be reached under standard conditions in speed straight horizontal flight . This remark or.
In Fig.h. and it is only assumed that weight. Correction for Speed With the forces acting simplifications already discussed. and the maximum rate of climb of the craft is 1104 ft. but it is zero at small at mini pitch airscrews. 80.p. 53. For steady climbing L* = Q. per min.no AERODYNAMICS [CH. coming drag will hardly change. be less than for horizontal flight at the This means a lower speed. Hence the additional power A close approximation to the rate of climb is often obtained from the assumption that speed is the same for given incidence. 95 ) c C C c (96) It is seen that lift requires to same incidence. The rate of climb is then a speed maximum. Climbing. %? V S = W cos 6 T = 550 H /V = D + W sin * ' ( . and may be (94) attains a large maximum at some intermediate with a craft of large speed range. when v climb is expressed in ft. whether climbing or flying horizontally. at 128 550 X 750/22400 184 ft.p. 54 shows the on an aeroplane whose flight path is inclined upwards at angle 6 to the horizon. but this is not the maximum angle. curve (c) gives the reserve power for fixed mum The reserve power speed. Rate of m. remain unchanged./W maximum.1 (184/187) = = = 56. The angle of climb is sin. flight Climbing conditions are distinguished by suffix c. the relation being 6 (97) . per min. per sec.p. : v = 550 H. H available at a given speed over and above that required for horizontal flight at that speed. and v is the rate of climb in ft. must produce climb. . together with the coefficients appropriate to the constant incidence. Comparison will be made with horizontal at the same angle of incidence of the wings. Fig. . attaining a maximum of 750 thrust h. per sec. Then if f is the excess thrust h.
of the type known as a helicopter. tiating [ ~ f sin m 6(cos + r" sin 9) + fj ' This is a maximum when sin 0(cos +r sin 0) == f ra or i. DifferenFig. and would be of different form. The errors in HC /H for 5. Hc jH = 2 and ra = The small angle refers 15. for ra = 15. and that C /H lies between 50 aeroplanes It will H . so that in climbing flight the thrust can be expressed as T =D c / c l 1 + W sin \ = D cos 6j 6(1 + ra tan 6) whence it immediately follows that TT = jf ra (1 + ra tan 0) Vcos 8 . respectively. Thus. and 15 climbing angles are 04. we find to flight of the kind under discussion. (98) being the liftdrag ratio of the complete aeroplane at the incidence considered. ~ when * tan be seen. . . The approximate estimate in the of the preceding article can be written form H =H+ c Wv/55Q or jl = + 1 y: y = +r 1 a sin 0. and 34 per cent. 55 gives the form of (98) for various values of ra . felt A difficulty is sometimes for a range of values of C /H there are there is. Hence it is a conservative estimate. that for all practical for maximum and 53. 12. writing H with the implications of (98).e. certain second angles given by the equation lack practical interest..no solution. and then practical difficulties in design would prevent its taking up the corresponding horizontal flight. 10. D /D C cos 6. from the figure or otherwise. J ra tan a + tan f ra = = . At the large angle the craft would be almost hovering. in that two values of 0.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 141 and we have LJL . while for others =4 or 89. approximately. Thus.
will enable large angles of climb to be attained by civil aircraft. the useful load of such a craft would be C fl maximum H /H = 0618r + feasible to construct .p. Referring to the example of Fig.p. very small. if it were not decreased. ANGLE OP CUlVfB NUMBERS ATTACHED TO CURVES GIVE OVERALL LIFTDRAG RATIOS. and taking Fig. the craft would result begin a loop.h. 97 and 132 m. there are two speeds at which ra = 15. the h. u FIG. 65. On the other hand. the restriction does not apply to military aeroplanes fitted with jet or rocket propulsion. ratios being 265 and 235. 53.. and onehalf of the supposed power equipment considerably exceeds the economic limit with presentday aeroplanes intended for highspeed transport.142 AERODYNAMICS [Of. 52 into account. viz. It would be 05. approximately. Gas turbines and jets. and the climbing angles . a craft with sufficient power to exceed this Incidence could not then be maintained and rectilinear climb ratio. With reciprocating engines. in course of development.
required curve (see Fig. 53 replotted for 20. But on the basis of that figure new curves for increasing altitudes can rapidly be derived.p. variablepitch 63 and 51. will always occur at the same C L and can be plotted .e.e. 81. i. at a given a.000 ft. Equation (86) then shows that horizontal flight at a given CL i. on the present basis at the lower speed.p.p. in the ratio h. With this proviso. however. 56. can only continue on increasing V. low altitude has been assumed.p.) separately against altitude if desired.p.p. Variation of performance with altitude depends more acutely. Examination for a given . ratio would be 34 and the angle of climb 89.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 143 In a favourable case.h. ignoring modifications in coefficients due to increased Aerodynamic scale. however. required curve would have sufficed for all altitudes. H. Part of the curve of Fig. Lwt w and B are independent of altitude. Minimum h.P. airscrews might be arranged to give 1300 effective thrust h. on any one such point. > plotted against F\X a i n Fig. respectively. available decreases for altitudes is higher than that for which the engines are supercharged more rapidly than the atmospheric pressure. so that pF* remains constant. as '\fljja. altitude in Fig. 16 O 160 V(m. Every point on a a particular incidence. when the h. H.. curve (a).p. Had H^/c been 700 THRUST H. where or is the density relative to that at ground level.53 one h. . If altitude be increased. 56. The direct importance of angle of climb to civil aviation is largely in connection with takeoff. density diminishes (Article 14). D D increases as V. Effects of Altitude So air far. 63) corresponds to Considering the effect of increased altitude its ordinate and abscissa are both increased Vlja. on the power units. (b) 500 120 14O FIG. Reciprocating engines are sometimes boosted for short periods to provide additional power for this purpose.
the craft will just fly horizontally at full power at this at any speed other it must descend. as illustrated in Fig. top speed decreased to 159 m.p.h. various altitudes less than the absolute ceiling.h. so that dh .p. . there is substantially a linear variation of v with A. in the example. ALTITUDE (FT) FIG.h. per min. But the rough formula thrust h. The altitude at which the rate of climb is zero is known as the absolute ceiling of the craft. 57.300 ft. can be worked out by the above method for is . or for a given type. at the chosen high altitude. available oc a1 4 is sufficiently representative. 57. per min. defined by the ^altitude at which the rate of climb falls to 100 ft. of normally aspirated engines developing full power at low altitude. 57 gives this variation without supercharging. The time required by an aeroplane to climb through a given change of altitude is 5 clearly given 1 by dh v LX where h denotes altitude. speed and rate increased to 129 m. and a curve giving rate of climb against altitude follows. The reserve h. This ' ' is 18. altitude in Fig. determined by plotting the reciprocal of v against h and measuring 5000 the area under the curve between KXOOO 15. and limits are inserted as The time may be given. For a normally aspirated however.p. * for present purposes.p. involves technical questions which will not be discussed at the present stage. At approximately 20. Since a craft approaches its absolute ceiling asymptotically. available curve of Fig. engine. the curves have a common tangent at 145 m.000 ft. curve (b) It will be seen that.p.. Time of Climb. Fig.p. The h.000 2QOOO the limits prescribed.500 ft. engine and airscrew.. 56. minimum flying .144 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 53 has been replotted on this assumption for 20. of climb decreased to 23 ft. a service ceiling is introduced.
p. whence an estimate follows of the probable h.p.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT H6 hi denoting the absolute ceiling level.p. required for horizontal flight at the assumed incidence and a second on the prescribed rate of climb. equation can then be framed in W. available curve. available is then by 50 per cent. enabling a h.p. since the rate of climb would be very small. by integra tion L rfA== z. The drag coefficient by CD reckoned on projected blade area may be as great as 0*75. An available and incidence required in the limiting condition. required curve at any of the greater speed neces Dw increases. Partial Engine Failure Multiengined aeroplanes must be designed to maintain altitude in the event of one engine failing. The practical case arising is concerned with the maximum permissible total weight for a minimum value of the maximum rate of climb. we have Consequently V* oc \/L*. having one term dependent on the h. 83. the first because sary at any incidence. required curve to be derived rapidly for any new total In the limit this curve will have a common tangent with weight. when the absolute ceiling of the craft will be at ground level. the and ordinates of points on the altitude both increase. the h. D oc Lac V* and H oc same reason and Keeping incidence constant.p. The worst case is that of the twinengined craft with fixedpitch airscrews. If t is and v the rate of climb at ground the time from ground level to altitude A'.. prescribed by local conditions or official regulations. A near approach to this condition would be dangerous.p. required and available curves are plotted.p. The solution can afterwards be improved if need be. whilst also the total drag is appreciably increased the head resistance of the useless airscrew. . maximum weight is The first A assumed from experience and parts of the h. but is cut usually somewhat less. Variation of Load aeroplane is When the disposable load carried by an abscissae increased. r lo gi L77T '  (") 82. method of solution will be obvious. The h. the second partly for the also because h.
AERODYNAMICS [CH. 84. Particular solutions follow readily from powercurve analysis. This form of flight is known as gliding. body drag being increased on account of the airscrew blades. = 550H. The case of engines off may r. Total drag may be forces is appreciably greater in the yawed attitude. in the example of Fig.p.. It is often deduced from the above that three engines provide an But it may be stated here that practical especially good layout. to the following consideration. Straight Descent at Moderate Angles If the flight path be inclined downward at to the horizon.146 . = and when the angle of descent is be included./F. be reduced owing . In very steep dives the above equations are insufficient this case is considered in a later article. cgnditions often dictate that there shall be an even number.e. the equations of Article 80 become (suffix e denoting descent) : !> = CL ip7/S = W cos 8 T. A as a power dive. 53. and throttle must be used for steeper angles until eventually the airscrews work as powerful windmills. i.W sin is 0. whence the speed of this flattest 6 is glide follows. required with one engine out of action is represented by curve (e) Curve (d) gives that available with only one engine. . The maximum reserve at low altitude is 107 h. = cot (101) a minimum when ra is a maximum.p. The resultant two craft flies inclined across the craft in plan. so that the crabwise at a small angle of yaw. when the engines are turning just sufficiently fast to prevent the airscrews from con. corresponding to a certain incidence for a particular craft. and (/) the reserve h. 52. small. Airscrew thrust that is asymmetrical in plan leads to a yawing moment on the craft. which is balanced by an equal moment arising chiefly of the from a crosswind force on the rudder and fin. however. and the equations give tributing either thrust or drag. For moderate airscrew drag the h. with a fixed pitch. = D. outboard engine failure must usually. Maximum permissible engine descent with engines on known revolutions are attained at a small angle of dive. indicating an absolute An estimate on these lines of performance with ceiling of 5000 ft. but reciprocating engines must be taken into account. finally contributing a considerable fraction of the whole drag. Thus.p. Twinengined layout has been assumed for the example of Fig. airscrew thrust being . There is a particular interest when T 0.
p. this purpose ra must be low and C L large at a moderate incidence.p. of the formula (v) of Article 69. flight. It is desirable to be able to approach a confined at a steep angle and a low speed while avoiding very landingground For large incidence in consideration of the comfort of passengers. and there are then two incidences from which to choose. Steeper descent is. 84A. It is not easy to ensure plane. Remembering that minimum V m.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 147 supposed zero.) : : 85 95 4 128 1 155 190 212 1 Error (%) :   + i  f   4 Discrepancies are seen to be small through the major part of the speed range. In case of complete engine failure at a given altitude. is = tanT* (1420/22400) = 3'65. it can be used to determine by observation in fullscale experiment the maximum liftdrag ratio of a complete aeroBut difficulties appear in practice. less than the speed of 112 m. but similar examples combine to . indicated in the figure for minimum drag in horizontal Two aspects of minimum gliding angle may be noticed. feasible. each part of the total drag is equal to 710 Ib. Theoretically. of course. CL =050 only J per cent. that T 0. small upward trend of = the wind introduces large error. and hence at any speed .p.h. corresponding to alternative speeds for a given 6. But for a given aeroplane in straight and level flight D< oc 1/F 1 and DP oc F 2 to the present approximation. and V. An isolated investigation of the present kind by no means establishes the method. minimum 6 approximately. conditions which are excellently realised by using flaps. Induceddrag Method The example of Article 77 may also be used to illustrate the utility drag occurs when the induced drag D% is equal to the total parasitic drag Z)P and using the data deduced in the preceding article from Table VI. while also. as we shall find later. This formula reproduces with the following errors various values of DT listed in Table VI V (m.p. at 112 m. minimum gliding angle determines the maximum area from which the pilot can select suitable ground for a forced landing.h.h.h.
. carry a minimum of planes. is of great importance and seldom holds in The practice. Applications of the complete formula (v) of Article 69 to matters such as those considered by other means in above articles will be evident. approximately. if . the aeroplane descending through the sphere. greater upwind means that the aeroplane would climb without airscrew thrust. For example. of course. and have comparatively large wings. verify that it can often be employed with fair accuracy except at large or negative incidences. The foregoing principle is put to use in the A Gliders have essentially the same form as aeroBut they are very lightly constructed. Effects of Wind the wind. in their case. (101) shows that an aeroplane will fly horizontally with zero thrust at an incidence such that ra The magnitude of v V/v. creased from l to for the same speed is W W 2 the total weight of an aeroplane is inthen the additional horsepower required V _ 550 constant provided no great increase of incidence is of at V with the weight equal to t l may be found as indicated above (methods of direct calculation are given in a later chapter). for sustentation can be deduced from the engine power required = calculated as necessary at that incidence and speed for level flight without upward wind. Aircraft speeds are always to be reckoned. DP remaining involved.148 AERODYNAMICS [CH. The value D W 85. presence of an upward wind inclines the lift in horizontal flight forward of the vertical. load. and any less upwind may be regarded as leaving a corresponding proportion of the power available for increase of speed. Another is as follows If v : denote the upward component of the wind velocity. relative to Ground speeds are obtained by adding vectorially the wind proviso The velocity. provided that it has no vertical component. Powerless Gliders. especially in view of the absence of engine nacelles. It is possible to realise high liftdrag ratios motorless glider. and increased speed results for the same engine atmo power towards whatever point of the compass the aeroplane flies. so that wing loading is small and speed low. One method of calculating the effect follows from Article 59.
and in many other circumstances.. It is evident that wings lift by virtue of downward momentum given at an appropriate rate to the air through which they fly. rate of climb. . to a first approximation. 1931. but they are especially strong and extensive through cumulus cloud. constant * Rolinson. however.R. The latter is called soaring in the present case. has now become a recognised sport. It will be appreciated that observations of top speed of engined aircraft require correction for upwind if representative performance Another assumption in foregoing articles. The form this superposed air flow takes is complicated and its study is deferred. tion at altitude is easily made in this case. the craft being regarded as stationary. a comparatively small headwind enables them to hover. & M. Downwash We proceed to study longitudinal balance. but the downwash is. which calls for prior consideration. which has so far been assumed. angular deflection of the air in Downwash is usually defined its by the undis a downward direction from turbed direction of flow. or even climbing. Although tailless aircraft exist. The effect is of importance in the study^* of the takeoff of aeroplanes. Again. Glidgained.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 149 Consequently. by repeating a climb downwind and taking a mean of the observed rates. a small value of v suffices for level. The craft loses kinetic energy. and is denoted by e. Correcrate. A. With constant air speed. figures are required. however.C. longitudinal balance is commonly secured by a tail plane fitted with elevators.R. . is that the horizontal wind remains peculiarly affecting constant in respect of altitude. These are essentially affected by downwash from the wings. permitting crosscountry glides exceeding 100 miles. by which intrepid pioneers explored the possibilities of flying before the introduction of the light petrol engine. ing. while its potential energy is increased by the wind at a like Thus the observed rate of climb is fictitiously great. horizontal speed relative to the ground becomes less with increasing altitude. 1406. and before the cold air fronts of linesqualls with their aid great altitudes may be flight. Suppose an aeroplane climbing against a headwind which increases (as is usual) with altitude. Rising currents sufficient for soaring are found to the windward side of rising ground. and may greatly increase rate of climb near the ground. 86.
and equal to that at its centre. CL = Numbers attached Numbers attached to curves give levels above trailing edge. if of small . through the region occupied by a particular span. (a) (b) O C 050. DISTANCE ABOVE AEROFOIL DOWNWASH BEHIND AN AEROFOIL IN A WIND TUNNEL. to curves give distances behind aerofoil. 2C 3C 4c DISTANCE BEHIND TRAILING EDGE (ce chord) 2C FIG.150 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 58. tail plane.
showing variation j FIG. Com. 58* gives the downwash as measured in a 4ft.. top wing applies to a monoplane aerofoil of different section (lift coefficient = C^) occupying the position of the top wing of the The other two of the three lower curves are derived by reducing the top triplane. enclosedsection wind tunnel in the median plane behind a thin aerofoil of 18in. Well downstream. developed by Praodtl and his colleagues. some of the earliest experimental corroborations advanced in support of the theory in this country.) . the distribution of e is little affected by minor * The reader already acquainted with Aerodynamics or Hydrodynamics will at once observe evidence in favour of the circulation theory of wing lift originally advanced by Lanchester. The observations recorded formed.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 151 Fig. Adv. for Aeronautics. DOWNWASH * 6 CHORDS BEHIND TRIPLANB * IN WIND TUNNEL. wing curve in proportion to the known distribution of lift between the planes of the triplane and displacing them to the levels of the appropriate planes. & M. 59. 578. and now in universal use. span set at 3 incidence (CL =050). The curve marked calculated is obtained by adding the ordinates of the three lower curves and reducing the sum by the factor Ci^/C^ = 076. perpendicular to the span at various distances behind. R. indeed. (Piercy. (a) (b) with distance downstream at various levels above the aerofoil. Ci* being the mean ' ' : The curve marked lift coefficient of the triplane. 1918.
Elevator Angle secure longitudinal equilibrium at wing incidence <x at a parpath to the horizon. though at a less rate. this law occurs near the critical and may also do so to a less angle. provided that the C L of each member is known.. but the above is an important condition to that end. It is not as a rule fixed to the of an aircraft at body the same incidence as the wings. parbalancing contrary moment The tail plane is at incidence a' a c ticularly the wings. & M. the tail plane and elevators provide a particular moment about the C. aspect ratio remaining constant.152 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 59* gives the results of superposition by the proportionality law. the righting moment towards Piercy. effects of downwash. dM/dtx.) to overcome Q and to In symbols. < dM jdy. extent close to the incidence for no lift. the downwash at any fixed point varies closely as C L through normal Deviation from flying angles. Stability in regard to flight at a does not necessarily follow. account of leverage about the C. 1919. Adv. for Aev. the section) changes.G. will be seen that no reasonable position can be found that is But it removed from the If at is e . provided incidence is adjusted for constant CL As incidence (or.. If oc is inadvertently changed to a. changes to cient area to provide a force at its new incidence sufficient a M = + + M M . M M t t (taking If it is desired to * change from a to a. to the local wind. e will same direction. Thus the effec change of incidence of a tail plane is less than the geometrical change. . of the craft. . a' becomes a e and but the tail plane has at least suffia. together with direct measurements made as a check. Given the downwash distribution for a monoplane at a known CL that for a biplane or multiplane wing system may be obtained by superposition. within limits. and the difference is termed the tail setting angle change in the tive and denoted by a. If wing incidence change. 634. a. . some wing incidence oc when the downwash at the tail plane no lift is required from a tail plane of symmetrical section.e. the minus right the craft to a being introduced because the moments are of opposite sign. The wake of a monoplane can sometimes be avoided by assigning a favourable . also desirable for other reasons. R. i. at a e to the wing. Fig. and area has to be increased on this account. changes in aerofoil section. 87. Increase of e occurs locally in reduced velocity wakes. position to the tail plane.. it . ticular angle 6 of the flight To that arises from other parts.G. Com. must be set at the angle e to the undisturbed flow.
descend. the complete tail plane will right the aeroplane back to a. Now 12 flight at particular values 75 100 125 150 175 200 223 Thus the foregoing argument may equally of 0. while it is the airscrews and vertical Y) wind which determine whether the craft shall fly level. It will be seen that the role of the elevators is to work against the fixed part of the tail plane when required. or climb or and unity. until eventually the tail plane stalls.G. The curves would be more openly spaced with larger elevators. By this means the tail lift. is reduced to precisely the amount required for the compensating If now a moment. both a and would be indeterminate. (measured between the centrelines of the fixed part of the tail plane and of the elevators) from Y) O say. 60. 60 gives (inset) the lift coefficient Cu of a tail plane of aspect ratio 3. Increase of either a' or Y] results in closer spacing. 10 new 2* 4 6 a correspond to particular speeds of a . Of course. change without change of Y). For small values of we may ignore the difference between cos In these circumstances we deduce that for a given craft determines the speed of flight. . SPEED FIG. free of downwash effects. 88. The 10ton aeroplane of Article 73 in horizontal flight with flaps closed is chosen to illustrate a usual method of investigating elevator angle. Lengths are referred to a plane parallel to the wing chord craft. (mph) ELEVATOR CURVE. positive or negative. well be expressed in terms of speed if remain constant. Example Fig. through a restricted range of incidence a' and elevator angle Y). and the maintenance of any average form of flight would depend upon the skill of the pilot.P. with an unstable aeroplane. to YJ. of the The C. travel in this . at this speed.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 153 a must be This is achieved by adjusting the elevator angle offset. and passing through the C.
whence column 4 of the Table.P. is assumed to be fixed and distant behind the C. of the craft measured in the plane. No righting moment is required at 128 m. is located at 03c behind the leading edge of the wings of chord c. TABLE VII The value ratio 6.G. is taken as 13 per cent.P. may be ignored.p. / cos a I .G. whence 035. a being the wing incidence. % denoting the distance of the C. St the tail plane area including elevators. whence a.1 54 AERODYNAMICS [CH . Its C.G. taking moments about the C.. applies to 58 2 the incidence 035 x 58 increase of incidence. when e a' a e of the tail plane to the direction of motion. measured in the plane in the upstream direction from the C. We then have. 2 28 08. To lift realise these. may plane avoids the wake of the wings be neglected in comparison with Lw the wing lift. x cos a =L t . ~W\ Lw or . follows the column of values of a' relative to the local stream. for zero occurs with the wings at a 3.. .G. The product of this length and S is called the tail volume. so that 128 m. plane for the complete craft less tailplane is given in the third column of Table VII.h.G. and it is chosen to have the elevators neutral at this speed. Further assumptions made in order to avoid unnecessary detail are that the of that of the wings.h. I = 2%c t tail that Ltt the tail lift. is a theoretical result for a monoplane of aspect assumed for dtjdcf. = = = = = = + = + . The C. W or'LI x L t P F* c' = 2W x c ^"c'lSt 2Wx (102) . the tail setting angle a. must be 08 .p. . the first two columns of which are copied from Table VI. so that LW and that moments of drags and of the airscrew thrust about the C.
p. This by righting moment comfort. which. . farther back by 2 per cent. which is to determine what displacement of the C. and should verify particularly that.p. engines off. together . corresponding elevator angles are found from Fig.. The curve is of typical shape. during flight or on changing disposable load. tabs from the cockpit to compensate for shift of the C.h. will not exactly vanish.G. But this affects only in a secondary way the problem before the designer. when \ movement of the T) elevators suffices to add 60 m.G.h. Values of W/pV* are calculated immediately from Table VI. a' and C u being now known.IV] if AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 155 m is the tail volume. although insufficient tail volume must be avoided. but the craft is very sensitive to longitudinal control at speeds > 150 m.. 60 gives the result of moving the C. Control is still satisfactory at 70 m. or Cu may be by the relation : calculated directly Cu = 308CL . from its chosen position can be tolerated for a given weight.G. Nose Dive of The circumstances tional. The broken line in Fig.G. so that the total drag is nearly equal to the weight. but a desired position cannot always be maintained under for instance. a condition known as the terminal nose dive. The same figure shows plotted against speed (fullline curve). and ease of control.p. 89. whilst structural difficulties might prevent balancing this bulk Tail lift may be adjusted by trimming precisely about a set C. an aeroplane is An interesting case in a very steep dive are excepthat in which the craft descends steadily at fastest speed. x/c. The student is recommended to work out further examples. wings are nearly at the incidence for no lift. For if it did so there would remain a pitching moment due to the wings. The flight path is then usually within 5 of the The vertical. The tail plane gives a righting moment against disturbance at all speeds investigated. and column 6 of Table VII follows. having regard to the safety of the craft here is . Finally. is the fore and nominally at the choice of the designer. another very important variable aft position of the C. Stability becomes neutral for represented V> 90. 2 tons of fuel might be varying conditions of loading consumed by the above craft during a nonstop flight of 1000 miles. 60 by interpolation. 150 m. whence a first approximation to the high speed attained readily follows.. but is tending to become sluggish.p.h.G. although 5 movement is necessary to decrease speed by the same amount. of the chord. But it is easily seen that L w the wing lift.h.
61. now no longer negligible. it must be remembered that they are composite. lift in a horizon tal circle of radius and airscrew thrust must FIG. a force With crosswind force due to Q */gR. and include the drag and moment body. by (i). must be balanced by a tail moment. the craft sideslipping. Let / be the leverage of Lit Dr the total drag. T the total pitching moment. determining its maximum value. and a practical plane. M excluding that of L t . centrifugal large. of drag of the 91.P. of the wings may be near or even behind the tail Tail lift. but and the WV R . but maximum . balance. and B form A + B/CL where between 002 and 010.= or. Calculations to determine the value proceed by assuming small increasing values for CL All the coefficients are expressed in terms of wing area and chord. flat yaw can be utilised for this purpose. in addition to W total drag Z) . of pressure coefficient for the wings may be expressed A often lies between 022 and 025 . W (A. Circling Flight For an weight at speed W to F aeroplane fly of uniformly R. L may reach considerable values. interest concerned with the strength of the structure centres in t. including the windmill resistance of the airscrews. Neglecting body lift.156 AERODYNAMICS [CH. the C. L w is consequently required in general to secure zero component force across the flight path. The centre in the For the very small lift coefficients concerned. with the moment of the body drag. we have (i) whence . dividing numerator and denominator by pFS (103) lie c being the wing chord.
on the other hand. (i) (ii) . required curve for a particular craft in straight level flight are to be increased in the ratio l/\/cos <f> and the ordinates in the cube of this ratio. the ratio (L^/W) 2 = DP a Assuming that the increase of remains constant while D i increases in is l/cos $. (iii) For the moment we assume the further conditions regarding couples to be satisfied. . . <f> . required curves are thus immediately constructed for increasing values of <. gives Incidence must be increased for CLO > CL . Comparing at constant speed. to the necessary increase of speed. Comparing with straight horizontal flight at the same incidence and altitude. such that no sideslipping occurs. .p.. as the equations show.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 167 at the normal course. New h. . . if (Fig. =W = WV^/gR sin = V^/gR. <f> . corresponding to decreasing values of R at constant speeds. not large.. 61). Hence the additional power VD i D is the induced drag in straight and level flight at the speed i concerned and may be found as already indicated. tan D F = 550 H cos <f> . L Q is the lift <f> L L so that But the equation must also be satisfied. necessary for smaller radii. since andThe '=' = VsecU .. (104) . .p. The increase of level to level power required on changing from straight and circling flight at constant speed V is most readily of found from incidence is (v) Article 69. (105) abscissae of points on a h. is to bank the craft an angle Then. this is due. Although h. required increases on turning into circling flight at the same incidence. .p.
and then R a minimum when <f> <f> = of speed and drag prevent (iii) from being satisfied at a much smaller angle of bank. the radius of the helix decreasing to a fraction of the span of the craft.W sin <{> W 6. respectively L cos ^ as cos L where R. receive an angular velocity p about its longitudinal axis. Thus powercurve analysis decides minimum radius of uniform turning subject to limitation of L /W. This form of is known as the spin. known as autorotation. 93. Following produce a stable rolling motion about a longitudinal axis. incidence exceeds the critical a slight initial disturbance. one wing tip is moving faster than the other and a yawing moment arises.158 AERODYNAMICS (i) [CH. the wings may then angle. requiring to be balanced by the rudder. k being a constant depending on wing loading and altitude. of curvaturfc of the path. very quickly by using vertical bank and large incidence. for instance. But increase stalling angle. so that the wing on . Compared with level circling. unsteady. Rewriting or and substituting from (104) gives CLoip(gU tan <f>)S <f> R sin = &/CLO W/cos . <f> . Helical Descent flying Direct descent preparatory to landing is conveniently effected by down in a more or less vertical helix. Again. the tendency to greater lift of the faster wing must be compensated by adjustment of the ailerons. and in certain circumstances flight may in Notable effects occur when the wing voluntarily result from stalling the wings at altitude. loss of altitude and speed taking place. we see that all the controls are put into use. For a given craft at constant altitude the equation may appear to suggest R sin to be a minimum when incidence increases on circling to the 90. angles of bank and descent being $ and 0. and and <f> may approach 70 or 80. Of course. Resolving along and perpendicular to the helical flight path. is but the motion 92. Rolling The matter is and Autorotation t Let a monoplane of constant chord c flying at speed V. exceeds the radius of the helix in the ratio I/cos1 0. the radius is sin = WV*/gR T = D . Since also incidence is increased. tan ^ increased by the factor sec 0. investigated further in the following article. the direction of motion of an aeroplane can be reversed. During circling.
originally the rise to a same. in radians in this and similar expressions. at a low speed and a large incidence QC O a small value of sp suffices to invalidate the above method of calculation. the monoplane is flying. 62). however. giving pV* (a T/i . c 8y .IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 159 one side. neglecting must be expressed This is seen to be of large magnitude on inserting some practical numbers. and we obtain a quite different result. Let us suppose the monoplane first to be accidentally stalled. 62. the constant incidence increasing to oi.) the body. and evidently tends to damp out the rolling motion very quickly. while on the other side incidence is decreased.y. prior to receiving the rolling disturbance. V . Then the : lift coefficients of the elements at i y. we can regard dCL /d& as constant along the span to a first approximation. . The change it a span of 2s the yP/V> and occur at the wing sp/V r F of incidence Aoc at these positions amounts to maximum values of this quantity are Provided the new incidence at tips. beating downward. FIG. . are changed couple by the amount * (dCJda) (yp/V). dC L yp ^ . distant y on opposite sides of the axis. we have for the whole span the couple Hence. If. experiences a graded increase of incidence.dcx. Consider a pair of wingelements (Fig. the downwardmoving tip is considerably less than the critical angle.
for increase of any further p would pro OO4 duce a damping couple. and the motion is evidently stable. the couple tends still further at first. downwardmoving elements will of lift. Let AC L be the whole difference of lift coefficient between them. 63. at V Aa oi 0? This corresponds to a particular angular velocity. Figs.1 60 AERODYNAMICS For a lift [CH . conin stant p and As p O40 08 10 15 CL creases for a given craft at a given speed. oosL suitably large incidence in such a way as to be free . ACL yp/V (Fig. 20 j 25 to increase p is 30 but a limit reached is when the couple zero. while along the upwardmoving wing curve of the type shown in now suffer decrease some elements will increase their lift. This striking result is readily demonstrated in a wind tunnel. An aerofoil. The expression for the rolling moment becomes which may be rewritten as : 018 a form suitable for graphical integration. 04* 042 63) as far as sp/V the is proportional to at rolling moment V. Considering again two elements distant y from the axis. their changes of lift will now be different. 49 or 63. Plotting 016 against yp/V. the area under the curve . or model of an aeroplane. the integral vanishing as is shown in the figure. is mounted at a FIG. and then to receive a small p.
This insuris admirably effected by the Handley Page slot. which. considerably are not here concerned with the delays the stall. Thus it is important to retain lateral control in case of inadvertent stalling near the ground. 64. and nose diving to recover speed. The Handley Page Slot Recovery from a spin can usually be effected by decreasing incidence. might necessitating compensation by use of the rudder. this disadvantage. 6 . EFFECT OF HANDLBY PAGE SLOT ON LIFT CURVE. is step in its development A.D. the next FIG. but at low altitudes there is no space for this manoeuvre. The to ordinary flap stall and induce autois liable To remove rotation. theory of the of the device. As a brief result of this investigation. on opening. the wing that is made to rise pushing forward relative to the other. though not of use in landing. we stall note that delay of is important. but Fig. which it will maintain indefinitely. 64 shows the effect in a particular working Associated case. This we shall find also to be a feature of efficient lateral control. the slot extending the whole length of the aerofoil. easily have been in the opposite direction. while retaining high drag when required. ance We with an increase of lift on opening the slot of a stalled wing there occurs also a decrease of drag. so that the craft direction turns in a to the bank natural the yawing moment . a false nose to the wing in front of the ailerons. Timing this and comparing with the value estimated as above usually shows good to rotate about agreement. Slight disturbance results in the model gathering angular velocity until a certain p is reached. 94.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 161 an axis parallel to the wind.
* Cf. Flight. Considering a pair of elements of span 8y distant longitudinal axis. y. the lower wing leading. 1936. owing to various neglected makes up for but a slight increase of p readily is any such deficiency. stability. cases by 30 per cent. sideslip occurs. The Dihedral Angle A damped roll by an aeroplane at normal incidence leaves the wings banked. The incidence of the trailing wing is similarly decreased. As will be of great importance in the study of anticipated. lift beinginclined away from the vertical.* One form of slotted flap has already been illustrated. excessive. and air passes the trailing edge of the lower wing nearer to the body than it passes the leading edge. Nazir. If. lift assuming incidence to be sufficiently small for the slope of the curve to be constant. We adjusting with some care too large a dihedral angle results in an unstable motion of the craft. . 31st. 61). in the yaw equivalent to the sideslip the incidence of the leading wing is increased approximately by the amount $(v/V). Let the velocity of sideslip be v. they give rise to a couple slC* y from the pF . called the dihedral angle of the wings. when span is horizontal. c8y . Inserting practical numbers into the expression shows the righting rolling moment to be powerful with the small (3 used (cf. shall note further here only that its magnitude requires it The angle 2p becomes . The wings may be regarded in the result as yawed at an angle sin~ l (v/V). . each wing is inclined upward towards the tip by a small angle p to the horizon. IV and may be achieved by a system. 95. the lower wing tip leading.. (109) The sense of this couple is clearly to right the aeroplane and stop the sideslipping. Hence the total rolling couple is ~ values of factors.182 AERODYNAMICS slot [CH. in some The above estimate tends to be Fig. ~~ Aoc dv. and. Dec.
. of the fluid is neglected. . transmitted through (a). but not so closely as to enter the boundary layer. a field of twodimensional For the present the region curve. 65 (a). then. simply that the velocity component normal to the surAttention is confined to twodimensional conditions. is A and B. so It that at any point the pressure acts equally in all directions. fluid is. The Velocitypotential Fig. dominated by viscosity and merging into in which viscous effects are the wake (b) an external motion. Write : assumed to be occupied wholly by fluid. account of the shape of immersed bodies. In (b) occur the important pressure changes scarcely measurable. will later be proved that if an undisturbed stream of this inviscid fluid is immersed body. and compressibility 97. Investigation will now be directed towards this external flow. irrotational. account for part of the Aerodynamic : . This is tantamount to assuming that the boundary In the limit layer is everywhere very thin and that no wake exists. Thus the total pressure head given by BerTo take noulli's equation remains constant throughout the flow. which. we must suppose that their surfaces are closely approached. (1 JO) . The fluid is assumed to be devoid of viscosity. force on the body.Chapter V FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 96. and let the velocity q this curve. In Chapter II we found from experiment that the flow past bodies shaped for low resistance comprises two dissimilar parts (a) a thin boundary layer. it will remain irrotational in flowing past an since no tractions come into play which could generate vorticity. Join the points by any make an angle a with the element 8s of <B ^A = TB COS a ds J A 163 . face vanishes. the fluid may be regarded as slipping with perfect ease over the surThe boundary condition for the idealised faces of immersed bodies. are two points in irrotational flow parallel to the #jyplane.
. Now let A and B be adjacent points not on the same ^contour. Let ACB be another curve joining the points. equipotentials. as a consequence oi the flow being irrotational. If the Hence B same whether <f> conversely. therefore. independent of the curve drawn. constant. or. so that the elementcirculations all vanish separately . and is called the change of velocitypotential. a numerical value follows for the velocitypotential along any other line. of flow can be mapped out with contours of ^. and ^A remains Thus the region If zero value of be assigned to one of these lines. The area enclosed may. = Now it is assumed the circulation round is ABCA is zero. 65. which are known as lines of equivelocitypotential. since it does not include the section of a body. the circuit equals. shortly. the sum of the circulaall common tions round all the elements enclosed. A be fixed and B moved in such a manner that ^B B will trace out a line of constant ^. in the end.16* AERODYNAMICS [CH This quantity will be shown to have a unique value. by a The fine network of circulatory velo round the elements of area so formed will cancel at cities Thereedges. Its value is therefore definite. ^A evaluated along AB or ACB. the circulation round fore. that (W FIG. or along any curve joining the points. everywhere. and consider the line integral of the tangential plete circuit velocity com ponent once round the com ABCA. be divided into a large number of small fluid parts lines.
. parallel by J Article 28. Viscous acting for a short time <f> : to the general hydrostatic pressure. or 1 _ "" dw dx p I dm Now The comparing these equations with to (111). These might be applied At the point (x y) in is suddenly set in motion. 65 (6). toy is pv8#8y. Physical Meaning of Any incompressible flow having a definite velocitypotential could be generated instantaneously from rest by a suitable system of from the surface of a impulsive pressures. of incompressible flow holds good. . we may calcu late = + But Hence 98. but This interpretation of the following may be noted (1) The equations for u and t. arbitrary constant refers if p is given its proper value. while that 8#8y. respectively. t the change of momentum produced. = p# + const. Considering the element to x is pw&*8y. ~ ex A A 8*8>y and 8#8y. above all forces which are small compared with the very large force neglect which constitutes an impulse. . Hence oy ^ex with a similar expression for v. rigid body which the fluid let to be the impulsive pressure and u. findinguSx s' vfy. (112) assumption will be of particular interest later on. we immediately find. may be neglected while the and. DB.V] If FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW ty be the change of velocitypotential from it along AD. Fig. v the velocity comAn impulse is measured by ponents immediately after the impulse. the change of momentum parallel The impulsive forces in these directions are. 165 A to B.
mapped over a is no flow along any part field of irrotational flow. (2) Rotational motion has no velocitypotential. the system of curves that cut orthogonally at all points of intersection will represent the streamlines.166 stresses AERODYNAMICS [CH. Irrotational flow 99. ioo. is known after Laplace. (65) gives must also For substituting from (113) in . 8n are elements of length of adjacent streamlines and equivelocitypotentials. o . inversely proportional to the distance apart of neighbouring streamlines. and could neither be generated nor brought to rest by impulsive pressures alone. . dy 9d> v = 3ib ". In Article 38 the velocity components were related to the stream function fy by the following : = . . right If the equi.velocitypotentials are closely angles. respectively. . Mathematically. . will also be inversely proportional to the distance apart of neighbouring equipotentials. For irrotational incompressible flow Laplace's equation be satisfied by the stream function. would be in this category. Since there is often called potential flow. which expresses the above If the spacing of the curves accords with equal intervals of and tf> the resultant velocity q at any point. VV=0 the symbol v* standing for d*/dx*  (115) + d*/dy*. ox (113) ' Hence U(b CW C(b UW "~~ ' dx dx dy dy result. seen in Article 36 to be fy. Thus the equations certainly apply momentarily to air. (no) . . of a line of constant streamlines cross that line everywhere at velocitypotential. if Ss. Substituting from (111) in (61) gives for the equation of continuity for incompressible flow which is also irrotational 9z A _L J a* a ^ a*0 L 3y This important equation. which occurs frequently in physics and It is written for short engineering.
m per unit length perpendicular to the xyplane. These are additive.v] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 167 It follows that either the Alines or the Alines may be chosen as streamlines. Its strength is defined by the volume of fluid. and </> hence more complicated motions can be built up. The and ^ in a complicated case where straightforward calculation of the boundary conditions are prescribed is beyond the scope of this book. The final result cannot as a rule be arranged exactly to comply with prescribed conditions. sent out per second. 1 01. any curve drawn from Ox will equal that across the arc of a circle of any radius this follows from subtending the same angle 6 at the centre there being no flow across a radial line (Fig. but may be regarded as a small circular area from which fluid flows out equally in all directions in the #yplane. Every solution of Laplace's equation may be taken as representing an irrotational motion. so that if the solution of one problem of irrotational flow is known. but for many purposes it will give a close sufficiently approximation. The FIG. The streamlines are obviously straight lines radiating from the centre of the source. 66. because the equations involved are linear. the solution of a complementary problem also exists. But to be of practical interest the solution is additionally required to satisfy certain boundary conditions. 66). and is Suppose the source to be situated at the origin and choose Ox streamline flux <J> for the = 0. (H7) . Source A source has no physical significance. and at radius wholly r the velocity q = m/2nr radial. But the solutions of several simple problems are easily found. Therefore across .
Sink Changing the sign of m in Article 101 makes the source into a sink.. except for the addition of a cyclic constant. 66) is evaluated from the flux across AB. A threedimensional sink is a point or small sphere.AERODYNAMICS Evaluating (110) along any radial streamline gives [CH. by Evidently the value of fy for any streamline may be increased or decreased by any multiple of m. as is otherwise obvious. the circle of radius unity Choosing for = m For equal intervals of fy tilt? streamlines are inclined to one another at equal angles. a point or small circular area towards which fluid is flowing equally in all radial directions in the #yplane and at which it is supposed to be disappearing. the value is unique. Away from the immediate vicinity of the source or sink. The flow across all surfaces completely surrounding the point will be the same. assuming the body to be situated at a large distance r from a sink. Bernoulli's equation applies in the simple form const. value of ^ (Fig. so that the equipotentials are concentric circles. <(. as here. Other cases will occur where. the centre of a symmetrical radial flow from all directions. Measurements of drag are often a stream of air which is slightly convergent in three dimenA close approximation to the conditions is obtained by sions. ' ' lie between and 2n and 102. If s denotes distance downstream measured from the position of the body towards the sink Application to in made . and the strength velocity at radius r is m/4nr*. m is the of the sink. where the large velocities attained would make untenable the assumption of incompressible flow. it from the value obtained from the curve ACD. It is easily found that the \9f P pressure drop varies as 1/r 1 for a twodimensional. The uncertainty is removed will differ If the m by agreeing that 6 shall between of <]* or of <f> consequently and m. and as 1/r4 for a threedimensional + = source or sink. Experiment. If this is denoted by m. and for equal intervals of the logs (to base e) of <f> the radii will increase by a constant.
of the type illustrated in Fig. Irrotational Circulation round a Circular Cylinder <f> <J> and in Article 101. i. circulation round all concentric circles being the same. r width of section. m t a const. of whatever shape. it can have nothing to do with Aerooo. so that the Interchanging the meanings of become the streamlines.D.. Since drag is inwardly directed. . differentiating __ _ ~~ s ' ds p^ ds' Hence dp ds _ r 2 P? . An = pressure gradient. and equivelocitypotentials ^ where m = logr. 26. . commonly amounts to 110 x apparent drag arises on a body in a convergent stream. Thus the q K round any K = 2nr The that the circulation A. *e. counterclockwise sense. gate. when the stream is dynamic force it vanishes when r Article 59 (3) shows how measurements of Aerodynamic parallel.^^ (rf _ ds r But since /> + ip# = const. 6* . . show dp Ids oc Experiments with tunnels of parallelwalled type ? giving rQ constant for a given tunnel. 1 AA 'J s r approximately. 103. whether the flow is assumed to be towards a sink or from a source. we have the case of fluid circulating irrotationaJly about a centre. it follows is the same round all circuits.V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 169 Therefore ^ W. m constant whose meaning it is required to investiTaken as positive in the velocity q is perpendicular to r. force in a convergent Or divergent stream require correction for this .e. With tunnels a . it is given by m is now a The 9 ^ __ ~~ ty Ijr _ ^ = m ~~2nr circulation and constant if r concentric circle is is is constant.
<j = ~~^ l S  . the centre about which the fluid is circulating. r dr = K/2nr. Then the const. because the flow Bernoulli's equation.. = P and . If the radius of the circle is a and this circle is chosen for to be isolated fy = 0. . by Bernoulli's equation.. and along the latter there is no flow. the trace of a circular cylinder. a (120) (K/2n) log first reading in seeing the necessity for irrotational circulation to have the above form. TjT If = 1. if V is its volume and r the radius of its path f v. An element of fluid circulating round the circular cylinder is in equilibrium under its centrifugal force and the radial pressure A difficulty is sometimes experienced on a gradient. is irrotational. of sufficient radius to prevent the velocity exceeding that which is consistent with the assumption of incompressible flow when the fluid is air. To the value of <f> for any radial line may be added a cyclic constant as for ty in mentioned is again adopted.fv%=o. this result r When = oo. both become great. Substitution leads to From (120) q = dfy/dr and on integrating Let p = P when r = oo. which may be drawn enclosing the centre. The condition for the centre to be formed of fluid will be dis cussed later under vortices. for any such circuit is equivalent to one made up of arcs of concentric circles and of radial elements. because the Article 101. q = 0. a then for a greater radius r ^ = r. must satisfy and we must have . but the convention there On general hydrostatic pressure would be insufficient to support the loss associated with the high velocity. Thus. a phenomenon known as cavitation. For the present we assume the centre by a concentric circle. Apart from other considerations we should expect to find eventually a hole in the fluid.170 AERODYNAMICS [Cfl. approaching the velocity. . which oc l/r. and the pressure drop. v (121) ' Now.
P is (3 const. A source A together with a sink B of equal strength provide an important combined motion.e. the circular arc joining Streamlines for half the field of flow are shown B = The equivelocitypotentials are the orthogonal of coaxial circles with A and as limiting points. The t (x. draw arcs y FIG. PQ PR from any point P t a streamline. be noted that (122) could have been obtained by simply adding together the functions for a separate source and sink. the form determined for the circulation. less the inward (122) The streamline through A in to B through P. 67.V] FUNDAMENTALS O* THE 1KROTATIONAL FLOW 171 On substitution this is seen to agree with the above result. be fy = 0. which is evidently flux across any line drawn from to P Ax will equal the flow across PR outward flow across due to B or PQ due to A. flow that is devoid of circulation is termed acyclic. the cyclicity occurring in the value of <f>. a 104. and let Ax.y) to Ox. 67). i. Conversely. With A B as centres. explaining The motion investigated is an example of what is often called cyclic flow. Let A and B be situated on the #axis at equal distances from the origin (Fig. Combination of Source and Sink The foregoing motions are supposed to be isolated. It will systems the figure. ..
71. The foregoing simple motions will now be combined with a uniform stream of velocity U in the direction Ox. + . y  0. when stream. 2U 2U . immediately obtained. so that in the Let A and J5 of definitely. for here the velocity due to the source cancels that due to the oncoming stream. when 8s becomes infinitely small and product w8s remains 6 finite and v (0 = m infinitely great.8s v (6  6') ' = /. the preceding article approach one another inthe streamlines become the family of circles touching the #axis at the origin. 106. 1 y* ( JSs) and as 8s vanishes ty Y = ^r27c. i. by adding together the stream functions of its component parts. as included in Fig. Thus this streamline consists of the #axis. ***** x. (124) Consider the streamline Either y a = . Let increase as AB. diminishes. When * is small  6' = tan  6') ' = x* . w m r sin 0. Flow over Symmetrically Faired Nose of Long Board or Plate. = t]/ ^ + = 0. (123) ' v A source and sink combined in this way known as a doublet of strength p. a stagnation point occurs. . . i. . say. . 68. or 6 = 2nUy/m. i. so that m limit. Where the curve crosses the #axis.e. as explained in Article 100. together with the curve 6 ^ TC _. Details of the motion may be investigated is either analytically or mostly by graphical means. Doublet AERODYNAMICS [CH. . (i) The curve is drawn in Fig.e. The stream function is <. .e.172 105.sin 2nr is 0. which we will now write 8s. Laplace's equation being linear. the (5 (x. . Consider a simple source at the origin added to the stream. It attains maximum values of y = = TC and r = oo. C7. and the examples given will illustrate both methods. at a large distance downm/2U. whose The stream function of a resultant flow stream function is Uy.
for the resultant velocity q at any point rt 6 w Substitute in Bernoulli's equation : f mUcos TC (ii) p where + i?? 1 P+ 2 cos 6 P is the undisturbed pressure. which give the inviscid flow towards and over the nose^ of the board. then cease to exist. part = and assume solid it to represent the shaped contour of a board or plate which extends infinitely in the direction Ox and also FIG. perpendicularly to the xyThe streamlines internal to the curve. and the source becomes an artifice used to calculate the external streamlines. Other streamlines are shown in the ing these graphically is The method of obtain* be described in Article 107.v] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 178 giving m figure. boundary in the position of the curved part of ^ 0. __ m . or in replaced wholly Any of them may by a rigid boundary the without modifying others. cos 6 r 2n 6 Hence. The maximum thickness of the board is seen to be 2n times the distance of the stagnation point from the imaginary source. 68. because the fluid is assumed to slip without friction along a material Let us choose a surface. and obtain (iii) . shown dotted. Differentiating (124) : u = 9y = a* TT U m 30 = msin 2n r U 4^ . of which four are plane.
i. differ little from those which would be transmitted through the boundary layer For a board of finite length. and with the real boundary condition of absence of slip a drag would exist. since skin friction is excluded. i. Half the field of flow would then approximnatively ate to the flow of a uniform wind from a plain or sea over a cliff of the The application of this interesting section bounded by the curve. The %axis beyond the stagnation point. when increases decreases shall now investigate the drag This will equal. might be chosen alterthe curve of fy as boundary. But on the boundary. of the board. enabling the pressure to be found at any point. By Article 44 : We D The pressure difference given by (iv) is plotted against y ym/2u and the area enclosed is seen Thus the drag is zero. P when 6 cot 6 = From these points it 2 p/ while downstream it . at least as far along the board as the points of minimum pressure. so that the fluid loses no mechanical energy. the total pressure exerted by the shaped nose on the remainder. if the external streamlines be ignored. But the of the nose of a board pressuredrag shaped in this way would be exos pu* (f>p)/ pected to be small with air as fluid FIG. 69. the presence of a tail would not greatly modify the ciently long. In the present example the pressures given by (iv) would.174 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Thus the distribution found approximates pressures near the nose. together with the part of to one side of the axis. 69.e. if the section were suffiin experiment. to motorless gliding is developed in the late Mr. we have the case of flow from a source / of Bernoulli's . sin 6/6 by (i) and m/27trU = <The pressure on the board equals 6 = 1166 radians = 668. at towards the extreme nose by first. Again.e. to that existing over the forepart of a symmetrical tail plane. but finally again approaches P. interpretation Glauert's Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory. to a consequence equation applying exactly throughout the fluid. over the surface of the board. = . but this would approximate to the skin friction. vanish. The result of zero drag is direct in Fig. .
The FIG. the maximum width of the barrier is m/U as before. the source at Combining with uniform flow in the direction Ox. ABOVE STREAMLINES FOR POTENTIAL FLOW PAST CYLINDER. attaching to each streamline its value of fy. 70. Superpose these as shown in the lower half of Fig. (125) This problem will be developed by the graphical method. controls the final form of choice. the flow far downstream must be uniform and of velocity U. the sink at x = fy s. 107. .V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 176 within a barrier. Since the expanse of fluid is infinite in the complete problem. 70. The streamlines of the combined source and sink and of the uniform flow are known. situated on the #axis. BELOW GRAPHICAL CONSTRUCTION. At any point of intersection the value of ^ equals <j* . . but. together the streamlines. . : : OVAL closeness of packing of either set for equal intervals of is open to with the distance 2s. circumscribing the whole flow from the source. Hence. we have = Uy + m p. Oval Cylinder Assume a source and sink x =+ s.
The condition Vi m fixes also a back stagnation point situated at an equal distance on the other side of the origin. and repeat the process for different constant values. The streamline fy = consists of the *axis. The flow past cylinders of different fineness ratios is obtained by varying the quantity m/Us. excluding the length of the 2$. The ratio of the length of the section to its maximum width across the stream is known as the fineness ratio. and sink vanishes. 108. i. say.e. Let this be a boundary and ignore the internal motion. Circular Cylinder doublet of strength \i fixed at the origin with its axis (the line joining the source to the sink) in the direction 0%. give in this way a constant resultant value of ^. together with uniform streaming of velocity [7. we have a const. source. gives for the combined motionsin 6 A _ / a \ (126) Putting r <J. Then the streamlines obtained from (126). together with the oval curve shown.176 the AERODYNAMICS [CH. sum A condition determining the position of the front stagnation point occurring on the axis Ox is that the sum of the velocities due to the stream. a rigid boundary for Substituting the oval. 0. give the . two values of 41 of the streamlines crossing at that Draw a smooth curve through all points of intersection that point. The case of a cylinder of oval section moving broadsideon appears in Article 149. Thus a circle of radius a with centre at the origin is a streamline. or by the graphical method of the preceding article. Cylinders of elliptic section are treated in Articles 117 and 125. Then the curves obtained are the resultant streamlines. for that streamline either y = or = /y/ f g^jrA = a. if it is distant x from the origin 2n x or s . it becomes the contour of the section of a The cylinder. set of streamlines internal to this oval are ignored. shown in the upper half of the figure.
where are also streamlines for the doublet alone.!L  = 2U sin L 8 . where the circle cuts giving stagnation points when the #axis. (129) The variation round the cylinder is plotted in Fig.6). 71). is 0=0 &W=i (14 sin. POTENTIAL FLOW PAST CIRCULAR CYLINDER. 72.U (r. To obtain the velocity qa round the periphery.~] sin si 9 (127) FIG. From Bernoulli's equation the difference between the pressure at any point on the surface of the cylinder and P. we have *[.e. Dotted : streamlines for doublet. (126) becomes shown the . 71. i. There is fair agreement over . the undisturbed pressure. . together with some experimental measurements.v] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 177 flow past a long circular cylinder (Fig. (128) and TT.
Thus the present theory gives no help in calculating the drag of acylinder. Nevertheless. . but Reynolds a real fluid breaks away. we shall find important uses for the above results. 4 (132) The stagnation points no longer lie on a diameter. part of the cylinder which may be at extended greater numbers. but approach one another. CYLINDER. NORMAL PRESSURE ROUND CIRCULAR 109. sin 6 . FIG.178 AERODYNAMICS the front [CH. Hatched area includes experiments with R ranging from 2 x 10* to 2 x 10 6 Original papers should . From considerations of it is symmetry apparent at once that the drag for irrotational flow is zero. Circular Cylinder with Circulation be consulted for variation in experimental data. 72. being situated (if they remain on the surface of the cylinder) at points given by qa = or sin 8 = K (133) . On adding a countercirculation clockwise K round the cylinder of the preceding (120) article we obtain from 2?r (130) The tangential velocity at r = a now comes to + 2 : and IX P 1 + $ / sin e ^L = 2K 2U sin e for the pressure on the surface .
sin 8 . value of It is FIG. 74. 73. (p 75) of the contour is r = a of the . 74. all integrals between the limits that derived from the third term except so that of the R. again obvious from symmetry that the drag is zero. that if pi be pressure at the top of the cylinder and p^ that at the bottom P. U denoting by q' the velocity at To Consequently.r. find this we note that the lift 8L of an element 8s (= a 80. contain sin 6 to an odd power. FIG. It mediately found from for is im (132). 73.S. POTENTIAL FLOW PAST CIRCULAR CYLINDER WITH STRONG CIRCULATION. coincide on the axis of y but occur in the fluid. a lift L arises. But the pressure is less on the upper half of the section than it is on the lower half. If be further increased. 76. example. failing to pass downstream. When 1 6 4naU. since they Hence r L : = pt/K f.y] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 179 an important result. (134) FIG. sin and they coincide on the K= K/U still t = bottom of the cylinder. of the equation vanish. :  2K POTENTIAL FLOW PAST CIRCULAR CYLINDER WITH WEAK CIRCULATION circulation alone. S being the stagnation point. they (133) does not apply . P) a8Q sin 8. . The streamlines in the latter case are shown in Fig. The fluid between the cylinder and the loop encircling from S circulates conit tinuously round the cylinder.H. 7C J . The streamlines for a much smaller K/U are given in Fig. P from on substituting forp and integrating with regard to 6 (132) and 2. Fig.
It will be noticed. (i) Then we have and ~~ 9y 3y " Hence. . which are ary parts. Therefore. a lift of this kind appears. that the method can be applied only to twodimensional problems. z For shortness it is usual to w =x + iy. where i denotes V(~~ 1)* * s called the potential function of the irrotational flow. The in principle finds practical expression in Flettner's sailless ship and ball games. any assumption made in accordance with write (i) : leads to an irrotational motion. = + <f> ify. although the flow is not wholly irrotational. (135) A circulation can be generated by rotating The lift is independent of a real circular cylinder in air. equating real and imaginary parts which. the size of the cylinder. however.180 AERODYNAMICS lift [CH. when. + t + so that # + **=/(* + *. Then from (i) we immediately obtain real functions of x and y. The function of z. This gives a coefficient : The above result is of great importance. . with the help of an analytical process to be explained later. if it also moves as a whole. <f> . are the relations requiring to be satisfied for irrotational flow. can always be separated into real and imaginand ^. and.f(z). no. Article 100. we shall be able to calculate the lift of wings with good accuracy from the basis provided by the foregoing results. Let us equate it to any analytical function of the complex variable x iy say/(# iy). The Potential Function <f> The complex function f fy. shall find that a cylinder of wingshaped section moving through a viscous fluid has the property of generating many We a circulation by other means.
Equating real and imaginary parts ^ fy and U=Z v = 3y = Both velocity components are constant for chosen values of A and B and the flow is therefore uniform. If B = the constant of (137) is wholly real and the flow is in the direction Ox with velocity U = A. covers all cases of uniform motion. As a where A and We have first .V] It is FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW shown in the theory of functions that d(<p ~~~ 181 if w ==/(*) . from (111) =uw in. It is often : convenient to express the complex variable z in the z polar form =x+ iy = f(cos + i sin cos 0). < f ty = A(x + iy) + iB(x + iy) = Ax By + i(Bx + Ay). . Generally. If A = 0. . (136) example it will be shown that =/(*) = (4 +iB)z (137) B are real constants. dw dz j ^T) *r ^T v(p dit> d(x : + iy) dw dx dx dx dy' Thus. the flow is inclined to the #axis 1 ( B/A). the velocity being equal to 1 VM + B by the angle 9 tan"" 1 ). = Ax By = Bx + Ay fa~ A B.. we note that cos cos + * sin sin i = = 0~* e** .. the flow is parallel to 0jy and of velocity V = B. 12. . Remembering that = =C  and sin ^ 2i ..
Hence. consider the function the vector OP. we have x in the form % + iy. 2 we find x r cos 0. i.e. 1 applied to 0% changes it to For the operator Ox. 113. turns 1 Since it through the angle TC. = + For. A/z represents a doublet at the origin. With this brief note on the complex variable. l/r) sin (127) or by considering the form of the streamline find that (138) gives the flow at velocity A past a circular fy It may be noted also that w cylinder of unit radius.H. Equating real =A(r =A(r + l/r) cos 0. so that r 3/2 )> of which the V(* = = positive root between or z . to plot x the point % iy x is measured along Ox and the increment y is measured at t + If is right angles thereto (Fig. represents steady By A. taken. z it can always be obtained in the form = re.182 If AERODYNAMICS [CH. and to this is added a second motion. (138) term on the R. its and the angle it makes we proceed . y r sin 6. 76).S. coordinate z can be represented geometrically. it will be seen that OP r and tan"" 1 (y/x) 0. as may be verified independently. writing out both sides and equating real and imaginary parts. Comparing with as 0. r is called the modulus of z and is written mod z is 6 is called the argument of z. the operator i turns a length through a right angle. we = . to w Article =/(*) = Az + A/z. . . the point represented by z. and these equations give a unique value of and 2n. P = = O FlG X 76 Thus z represents length being \z\ with Ox being 0. The complex = i i. streaming at velocity U The combination may be written in the polar form 111 the first = : w=A(re* and we have + "*) 0) ^ f ity = AY (cos + i sin and imaginary parts $ 4* f (cos i sin 0).
since dw ~dz W ] =A \ I I y1 (cos 26 t sin 26) 1/2 > .e. 76A. 1. J 1/2 As another example consider the function w c ~~z n t n which yields a variety of irrotational motions on ascribing different values choosing straight streamlines through the origin as boundaries. . = (' + v') 1 '2 . of <f> and the ty . e. and v' = 30 ^r> 3r whence q = ('* + t/ 1 (c) By (136). and interchanging if need be the meanings to n. of which the most useful are the following (a) : Directly from (111). the velocity is constant at a given radius from the origin.V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW for Velocity 183 H3A. for instance. 9= i.g. a doublet with n = 2. respectively. (b) Denoting the components of q along and perpendicular to the radius r from the origin by r u' and v'. 70A. FIG.. \dwjdzl  C*"   O" 1 . of (consisting in the vicinity with J n For all these. etc. ^5 . Formulae The velocity q at the general point in a twodimensional irrotational flow can be expressed in various ways. Hence q = (iii) For the potential function of the preceding (iii) article. since q* = w1 f v*. streamlines of rectangular hyperbolas) a stagnation point Fig. gives.
and so that (139) gives circulation with strength the expression for ^ is unchanged if the circulation is round a circle Hence. cylinder of unit radius with circulation be convenient to have the potential function for a U.. . we may have a function of w. (139) Now the Napierian logarithm of x + iy * and = re? 9 ) is log r + *6. : Consider = c cosh w . . . . . Instead z as of w being expressed as z a function of z. . finding alternatively cos 1 ^ 1/ Z c 1 sin 1 <j> = cosh 1 <k sinh 1 <A = 1.logr + e t .1 84 114. any one of these ellipses may be taken as . It will AERODYNAMICS [CH . . in a stream of velocity K Let w = * 2?u ~ log ( z. Hence K K + . (i) to eliminate obtaining 1 d/ f~ v1 j = cos ^ sin 1 cosh 2 ^ c 1 sinh 1 ^ = 1 (ii) or square and subtract c1 to eliminate <.(. .)]. i> i. (iii) Putting ellipses = a series of constants in = (Fig. hr K round the origin. from Article 113 US. 77). . of unit radius. Equating real and imaginary parts # = c cosh cos < y Square and add x* c2 = c sinh ^ sin <J>. the foci being at % <^ (ii) gives a family of confocal 0. for this circulation combined with translation we have.*. c> y Choosing ^ as = the stream function. (141) Writing out x f iy = c cosh ($ + *^) = c (cosh cosh + sinh ^ sinh i^) = c [cosh cos + sinh sin < *4> < fy < (i <{.
It will be noted that. they be Putting </ = same foci. The line joining the foci be taken as boundary. at a large distance from the plate or elliptic cylinder. to potential flow theory the nozzle may be made as sharp According as we please. IRROTATIONAL CIRCULATION ROUND PLATE. 77. but a real flow breaks away from the divergent lines for flow . and we shall frequently have to remark on artificiality on this score.V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW JL 185 FIG. Choosing two hyperbolas equidistant from the ^axis as boundaries. If. const. interpreted as the streamlines. we at once have the stream through a long twodimensional nozzle (Fig. when the ellipses become the streamlines may for circulation round a flat plate. boundary. the streamlines become the same as for circulation round a circular cylinder. 78). so that the ellipses become the equipotentials. It is readily seen by plotting or calculation that the velocity and the pressure reduction both become very large as the edges of the plate are closely approached. we shall have the case of fluid flowing through the whole or part of the #axis between c. and we then have the streamlines for irrotational circulation round a cylinder of elliptic section. in (iii) gives a family of hyperbolas having the These are everywhere orthogonal to the ellipses. however. and constitute the equipotentials of the circulation.
than if the tunnel were parallelwalled. 78. or again to is supply power. 44. of Re pressure covery energy at the outlet from the kinetic energy at the generated throat leads to higher resulting speed at for a efficiency (Article 51). it the divergent wall with some care. The inlet part is of less importance. with poor efficiency. if the divergence is other than small. so that it by no means runs full. this reduction follows at once from When the venturi forms part of a pipeline Bernoulli's equation. cit. But if is exposed in a stream. convergent inlet is forced to run full. and is often made of quite different form for other reasons. 1 1 6. cylindrical A outlet only. POTENTIAL FLOW THROUGH HYPERBOLIC CHANNEL. in greater FIG. Application to aircraft in the latter connection associated Motion of a Cylinder through Fluid So far the immersed body has been assumed to be held in a stream. Sometimes it is desirable to consider the body as moving. is efficiency are urgent. loc. The complete nozzle is known as a venturi or venturitube. .* Nevertheless. the is the venturi short and (after calibration) to measure velocity (Article 33). the flow ceasing fill the channel. if it is known in a given instance to what extent the space between the walls is filled with continuous flow. A pressure reduction obviously occurs at the throat. walls.. free to flow round it. With this restriction. tunnel is often fitted with a divergent ancient origin.186 AERODYNAMICS to [CH. Where smooth flow and high if advisable to shape. the throat given expendi The idea is of ture of power. in its threedimensional form. and. a pressure reduction still exists which can be used conveying liquid. p. has many practical applications. the three dimensional analogue is the applied in design of highspeed wind tunnels. the fluid * Piercy and Mines. and. possible. little fluid may pass through.
cos 0. OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 187 being stationary at large distances away. is X in the direction of 0.v] FUNDAMENTALS. sin + cos 0. round the boundary = Uy + const (142) from a <t ty satisfying Laplace's equation (Article 100) gives this expression a family of curves any one of which may become boundary and. The contour shown Fig. moved in the direction Ox. will give the pathlines similar expression is obtained for motion parallel constant. while the velocity component is v . + r u cos = U cos figure 9 0. If the solution be known in the former case. is dy ds ds decreasing at the element in the figure as s : is Hence dx ox Finally. Substituting for u and v. increasing as shown. O _ FIG. Udy. Distance measured round the curve sidering a small element Ss. that in the latter may readily be deduced by the superposition of an additional stream function as already explained. 79 section is in that of the cross of any cylinder supposed to move at uniform velocity U in the direction Ox. must be the same. Superposition of motions parallel to x and y enables to be obtained when the cylinder moves with its section pathlines . along a normal drawn from the element. denoted by s. Con along the normal from it is of the fluid there in the same direction Therefore v sin the velocity component of the cylinder f/. Any form of = A to the yaxis. integrating + TT~ dy = dk = dy 4. But the direct solution may be simpler and a method for this will now be described. The boundary condition can now be stated as parts of the velocities of an element of the contour of follows : the resolved the body and of the adjacent fluid. 79. and from the ' ds/ noticing that x increasing.
. . we find that 5 = const.e. = x Y]. (iii) .* + i*. say. x y in the same so that way called elliptic coordinates. are related to YJ. ( . (ii) The t coordinates 5. . (iv) semiaxes. shapes for ship It is tentative or inverse in the sense that the form selected for ^ (and there is an infinite number) may well lead to a possible variety of shapes for the boundary. making use Ae~*9 sin YJ of the second formula of = Uc sinh 5o sin YJ + const. The streamlines for the body at rest are immediately found by the addition of an appropriate stream function affecting the fluid as a whole. Roy. We have (cos Y) ^ and on separation f fy Ac~* t sin YJ) of real and imaginary parts <J> =<4*~ f sin Y) . as <f>. none of which has any bearing on Aerodynamics. (142) gives. in (iii) . Soc. b = c sinh 5o . = c cosh cos y = c sinh sin As in that article. Trem$. i. Assume where for the potential function the w A is = = Ac.188 inclined. Now putting (ii). 1864.. and should be studied carefully. as we shall use it later on as a key to a difficult problem of the greatest practical importance in our subject. z = c cosh (? + f>j) . Elliptic Cylinder and Plate in Motion form . . (i) a real constant. YJ. AERODYNAMICS [CH. fy were in Article 115. is the ellipse : which we shall write for short so that a are its = c cosh . 117. . The following classical example has a particular interest. The method was employed by Rankine * to find mathematical lines. with 5 = So so as to represent the boundary. . * Phil.
. n/lQ\ (I4o) and = Ub A/ r a _ . ^ _ .(a c f b) . A Hence. finally ' ^ . = Uce* = 9 sinh 5o (i) should represent the case of the ellipse Uce**~* sinh ^o sin YJ . immediately by J J But the StreamA Al _ . because. e~s sin v a 6 Y. The solution applies to all confocal ellipses. PATHLINES FOR PLATE IN BROADSJDBON MOTION. using cr* sinh o (iv) e) = bef* = b (cosh t + sinh 1 ft . rtxv 80. if or plate has and of velocity /^ ^N^ the line joining the foci. They come to cos 73. Superposition. . c~* cos These expressions are for motion parallel to the major axis. is the written new stream function down _. (144) ^ = Va /\A4. b = . Le.. ^ FIG. and a this important case c. . ty (v) This result can be simplified. \ >j (145) The pathlines are shown in Fig. and c 1 SB a1 Thus. 6=0 < = ^ as = U Vc t~* cos Vc e~* sin for >). . 80 If downward motion of the plate. we have the const.. be inclined to the direction of motion. or the plane of the plate. and so includes the In case of a plate of chord 2c (cf Article 1 15) moving broadside on. in order that = 0.V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW this 189 and since must be satisfied for all values of >). o **civ c sin Y) * .. . the cylinder components V. Corresponding results are similarly obtained for motion in the direction of the minor axis. and the last formulae become .
although. or transverse force of a would result this will appear as a special case more general investigation in the next chapter. which would clearly prevent the flow from running smoothly to the back of we might round the edges. But the flow would still break away. a value equal It may be remarked to 2. there is no component of force in any direction on the plate or cylinder. as was The subject of drag seen to occur even with the circular cylinder. and for these the Vx Uy. is complicated. The methods discussed will the plate. 81. and a lift article. must be superposed. in this case that high velocities are built up towards the edges which would invalidate the assumption of incompressible flow with air as force. It has been remarked several times that the only Aerodynamic force arising on a body in steady potential flow is that due to the superposition of circulation and translation. This further instance of absence of force in steady motion is reviewed in the next A circulation might be added from Article 115.100 lines are AERODYNAMICS more illustrative [CH. than the pathlines. if it be inclined. way the streamlines for any angle plate at of incidence a can be plotted they are shown a for a flat = 45 in Fig. a couple exists tending to produce broadsideon motion. fluid. But it should not be inferred that failure to indicate drag prevents the foregoing theory from being of practical use. and even with a liquid such pressure reductions would occur before the edges were reached as could not be supported by the general hydrostatic pressure. the oncoming stream being horizontal. supposed Another treatment is given in Article 124. in the example considered of a flat plate moving at right angles to its plane. To avoid these objections. . in experimental fact. From symmetry. Absence of drag is especially striking. perhaps. just when the drag coefficient C D has. 81. and is a transverse . as. 1 1 8. additional stream function (iii). whatever its inFIG. where x and y are given by In this . where further details are obtained. cidence. by substituting an elliptic cylinder. representing a particularly large force. for instance. and is postponed until later chapters.
when the impulsive force the motiop of the body and the fluid becomes steady. a drag. Consider a body at rest in an infinite bulk of stationary fluid. the impulse would be given by the momentum acquired by the body. will give a resultant force which must exactly balance that part X of the external force applied which is not absorbed in producing momentum in the body. provided generation from rest is almost instantaneous. for. form. Assuming that the body is of such a shape that the solution for irrotational flow exists.e. whose viscosity requires appreciable time to take effect and so modify the flow. . Article 44). and we shall denote it by /. the next chapter. Now. In vacuo. as will be described in more detail later on. and we have x = Tt At the end of the short is < 146> interval of time T. 119. Acceleration This is treated in from Rest one circumstance. let an it for The impulse is absorbed in generating momentum in the fluid. we can proceed directly to a very powerful process of solution that readily gives essentially practical forms of potential flow. and. the result can be verified by experiment with a real fluid. during the time of its generation. There is an indefinitely short is measured by the momentum produced. indefinitely large force act upon time T. we know from Article 98 the distribution over The its surface of the impulsive pressure which generates the flow. on integration over the body (cf. But part of the impulse i. in which potential flow yields viz. however. from the foregoing theory. to a reading of original papers. it known known for that pressure acts normally to the surface of the body at all points. then the flow actually set up will be of that We need not follow out the theoretical argument. regarding the flow generated in the fluid by the motion of the can be proved that if the acyclic potential flow is body. body under 7. Its weight will be assumed to be balanced by its buoyancy or by mechanical means. Thus. being withdrawn at the end of T. the present investigation relates to the initial motion of air. if removed. Let it be given an impulse in any direction. because. and They could But this will be left readily be developed to a more effective stage. This increment alone concerns us.V] FUNDAMENTALS OF TliE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 191 velocity often suffice to calculate approximately the streamlines and pressure distribution over the foreparts of bodies.
and that an impulsive wrench would sometimes be But the moment of the impulse may be found similarly. The flow might. E^toJJfdxdy case. Thus the work done by an impulse is equal to the (positive or negative) <f> increment of the kinetic energy. It is clear that a linear impulse would be insufficient to generate some motions. in general. the ' final velocity at 8s is dfydn. q denote the velocity at any point. into the fluid from an element 8s of the element of the normal drawn contour of the body. p. be calculated in suitable circumstances. in the twodimensional depth perpendicular to the ayplane. Now during T the impulse / does work on the fluid. as also we have obtained is whether the that during instantaneous generation of flow from rest. But E must equal the work done by the impulse during T. viscosity produces friction seen. But the important result now and soon modifies the friction. which would do work in destroying the kinetic energy of the fluid. half the final velocity of its point of continuous If 8n be an distribution of impulse which we have to consider. as well as skin noted. and the integration extend over the whole of the ayplane that is not occupied by the section of the body. difficult to carry out. leading to pressure drag. Denote the this property. With an inviscid fluid. evidenced by the appearance within the fluid of kinetic energy. however. while the im ' pulse pressure at 8s is. E remains constant after T. if E be reckoned . direction. [CH. fluid possess viscosity or be conceived to be destitute of be applied whose magnitude. It is given . by .192 AERODYNAMICS is inviscid. by Article 98. as we have and the pressures round the body indicate zero With air. Thus the kinetic energy at the end of T is at once calculated if be known. property shown by Kelvin to be characteristic of A all Dynamical . be brought instantaneously to rest by the application of a reverse impulsive wrench. required. provided it is irrotational. a force must and point of application can ' ' kinetic energy at the end of T by E. (147) for unit The above integration is. the latter resistance. Now a familiar theorem of Dynamics proves that the work done by a system of impulses operating from rest is equal to the finite sum of the products of each impulse and This theorem may be applied to the application. flow. S Hence ' ' ' (W8) where the integration is to extend round the contour of the body.
and let . from one edge along one face round the other edge and back again along the other face. where ^ . Half the final velocity of the impulse is constant across the plate < and is equal to \V.. From Article 117. 7 . The motions calculated in the present chapter have the least kinetic energy that could arise from the displacement of the body through the fluid. of the impulse is elliptic. . Hence (i) gives YJ dt\.V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 193 systems started instantaneously from rest is that the kinetic energy generated is a minimum. 1 20. we have Article 117 x =~c cos showing that the distribution across the plate of and. (ii) Also from that / = T2ir r>Vc* i sin 1 Writing from (ii) sin TJ = on the plate. __ . .e. For the impulse I per unit length perpendicular to the #yplane / = ds p J (i) . = and Y] ranges from article. (150) A. where cosh 5 .. on the plate. dx = c sin Vc sin Y] ^ = to 2n in the integration.. Hence. 2c be its width and V its final velocity. Impulse and Kinetic Energy of the Flow Generated by a Normal Plate The case of a plate set instantaneously from rest into motion at right angles to its plane provides an important example of the foregoing.D. therefore.. from (149) E= iTrpF'c* . ... Y] dr\ (149) i) = <f>/Vc and from 1. where the integration extends round the whole contour i. draw Ox in its plane. (f> .. Assume twodimensional conditions take the origin midway between the edges of the plate.
. instead of being x and y are $ and i/. In like manner w' may be regarded as the complex coordinate of the corresponding point in another plane. of course. Now. iy and of w The relationship between these is known at every point. the whole network can accordingly be replotted in the wplane.Chapter VI TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS The present chapter obtains the streamlines and other and aeroThe process employed is an applicafoil sections of practical forms. of the function of z. reversible transferred from the w. which will now be called the 2plane. respectively. in the simple transformation under discussion the network carried out . 194 . if by the methods of the preceding chapter we can construct the equation = + = </> /(*) . tion of the methods of conformal transformation.ify. called the wplane. The enables a network to be (i) equally process is. details of irrotational incompressible flow past streamline inferred from that in to enable the flow in analytically complicated circumstances to be some simple case whose solution either is known or can readily be obtained. Such an operation is called a transformation. A simple type of conformal transformation will first be described as an introduction. the aim of which is 121. whose rectangular coIf a region of the ordinates. We have seen how a particular point z' can immediately be plotted in the #yplane. Every point in a field of twodimensional irrotational flow has x attached to it a particular value of z f. ^ and fy are separately obtainable as the real and imaginary parts. It can only be by means of a formula connecting the coordinates in the two planes. : (i) for the flow in question . which is called the transformation formula.to the *plane. t flow in the 2plane be mapped with a network of equipotentials and streamlines. The method is applicable to twodimensional conditions only. so that the shapes derived must be regarded as the sections of long cylinders whose generating lines are perpendicular to the #yplane.
but is not so if finite. (ii) w Fig. 82. its size. as in Article 113 as follows from (iii) we .CH.plane and dis position geometrically relative to the axes are changed. w. that it is desired to transform the square in the ie>plane to the equipotentiafs and streamlines of the flow at unit velocity without circulation past a circular cylinder of radius a in the *plane. (iii) of part of the ze>plane above the axis of tf>. whether it be fine or coarse. for instance. On the other hand. 82 shows the results of the transformation = re* + V"*r. Another point in the present example easily obtain. A very small element of the will square te>plane evidently trans form to a small square element of the 2plane. We happen to know from Article 113 the form of (i). if zplane FIG. trates a characteristic transof conformal formation corresponding elements are geo: metrically infinitely similar small. a larger square element of the t^plane transforms to a disthe torted figure in illusThis 2plane. : w which can be written as z + a*/z . which will achieve the result it is mesh net . although orientation. vi] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS : 195 in the wplane can have only one form it must consist of one group of straight lines parallel to the ^axis and another group parallel to For equal intervals of and fy the mesh will be square. tjjaxis. the <f> Suppose. But this is not true of the corresponding network obtained by transformation to the zplane.
however. 6 . as will be described in the following article. however. however. Thus for the present we exclude transformation formulae . But in other cases of practical interest analytical treatment might be complicated. = 2a cos (151) < Since varies from circle are to 2n. The formula (ii) then relates at every point this simple flow to the Thus the flow past a circular cylinder of radius a. * maximum and minimum values of on the sides of a line of length 4a lying circle itself corresponds to both on the <axis and bisected by the fyaxis.1 96 < AERODYNAMICS [CH . where the cox ordinate of a point is z iy. (i) and assume that throughout the regions considered (i) leads to a unique relationship between z and t and that dtjdz has a definite value. the plot in the z#plane can be regarded as representing uniform flow parallel to 0$ past a tangential plate of length 4#. <=/(!) . Conformal Transformation Consider the transformation of part of the zplane. that the transformation (i) becomes of direct use when the real flow in the 2plane is known. while a solution might more readily be obtainable by graphical means. . . . An intermediate step is then required. fy and on the circle. Moreover. . Now. so rfplane. The transformation was so employed by the French engineer Boussinesq in his pioneering work on heat transfer. It may here be remarked. Let . and is often known after him. the 2a. Similar results are obtained in dealing with a cylinder of any other shape if circulation is excluded. we can find a means of opening out. But as a rule the form of (ij is not known. . 122. where fy = = = <f> f a*/r) cos 6 (r a*/r) sin (r and r = a. If. example given is fully known in analytical terms. the formula (151) relates each point on this line to a corresponding point on the circle. then a proper The generalisation of the process gives the flow past the section. as it were. = + = + that the coordinates in the Jplane are 5 and yj. but the is too complicated for the study of some added problem flow obtained by transformation to the z#plane may persimplified mit of a solution there which can be transformed back. a part of the <axis into some section that interests us. to the corresponding part of a where the complex coordinate of a point is t nj.
velocities at corresponding points are increased in that i. Elementary lengths in the zplane are = dt increased on transformation in the ratio 1. If when z is large that in the tfplane will immediately follow from (162). The same functions and ty then hold for the motion in the #~plane. at corresponding points dz To make such change in the increases in local velocity representative of the boundary shape. follows at once that angles between adjacent short lines are Further.to the plane. be the velocity potential and stream function of a motion in the From constant. As in Article 112 82. will be known. the transformation is sometimes known as onetoone. constant in In the same way we can find a new boundary f^x. ratio. element through an angle equal to the argument of dt/dz. Application . ctz Let Such a transformation is said to be conformal.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 197 such as t z*. Therefore.vector in the other. while also we assume that in the parts of the planes considered dt/dz has neither zero nor infinite values. so that ing areas are similar. and = two planes. 73) we can substitute for t in terms of z and obtain (i) = w =/(*). dt/dz but this term often signifies absence of double points. y) the 2plane corresponding to that in "the plane. the distances dz = separating streamlines or equipotentials diminish in the ratio j dl> : 1. say. The distribution of velocity in the 2plane. we must arrange that the same velocity exists at infinity in the 1. and fy. dz lines are rotated It Further. Applying the operator dt/dz to an elementvector in the one plane converts it to an element. it unchanged by the transformation. 8z may be interpreted as very small vectors. defined by < w=F(t). Considering a small area mapped with streamlines and equipotentials transformed by (i) from the z. and this transformation is independent of direction. 2plane and let the boundary there be F^Z. infinitesimal correspondfollows that the magnitudes of dt _ : very small corresponding areas are in the ratio 1.e.
if interpreted in this way. Transformation of Circular Cylinder into Normal Plate in will alternative solution of the case of Article 117 will now be described briefly. x = a. Flow past a circle of radius a at unit velocity parallel to Oy is . The remaining half of the first plane may then be mapped. It is seen at once that the transformation ceases to be conformal at these points for the angle between adjacent elements of the circle is everywhere TT. viz.e. A further example occurs in Article 1 17. onehalf of the one plane transforming to the whole of the other. and the transformation ceases to be conformal there they must either receive special investigation or be specifically excluded. article. . on a second sheet of the other. 123. where the whole of the *plane maps into a strip of the Jplane of width 2n. Such points are known as singular points. if it is required. = 0. while. Turning to the second assumption.198 AERODYNAMICS [CH. A singular point is seen to produce a discontinuity in the transformed contour. 82 becomes the tfplane. corresponds to two points in the *plane. An example occurs in Article 121. . as in the example mentioned. t=z + dt/dz a'/z . (i) so that the ie>plane of Fig. The article is of further interest in that in principle it forms a startingpoint for more difficult work than is attempted in a first reading of the subject. we shall always find on extending the region transformed to cover the whole of one of the planes that certain points occur where dt/dz becomes zero or infinite. z = a i. which were left over in anticipation. 124. Differentiating = I /** . . An motion investigated The opportunity be taken to effect certain calculations required later on. of Bernoulli's equation then gives the distribution of pressure in the /plane. and there are two singular points where dt/dz = 0. For clearness rewrite (ii) of that article as . In words. the circle of radius a x + iy = <* or y cuts the #axis in two singular points. Singular Points Reconsidering now the special assumptions made in the last we note first that the transformation formula may be of such a form that a point in the *plane. although this also holds for the line as a whole. at its ends the angle becomes 2?u.
(iii) the  and vjcomponents of velocity in the tplane from (136) dw = Hence (iii) . . '  '. gives u' w' = V{ ( it + ))' 4'}' (iv) In the plane of the plate ' ' 7] = and we have for 5 > 2a Hence beyond the edges u' of the plate. we require to eliminate we have seen. in its plane ' = 0. To obtain the potential function of the flow in the /plane. (ii) as of the flow (i) by this formula a normal plate. while over the surface of the plat v' = 0. Squaring both equations and adding w* + t* = 4a* a or w If u'. . (153) The is depends upon which side and which face of the plate but is obvious on inspection. . == ?/V4a f ' .VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 199 the coordinate obtained from that parallel to it Ox by multiplying a1 I by giving  *+ 5 ~ a*\ A* T> ' ' The circle itself is transformed into a line of length 4a on the 5axis of the /plane by the formula t = z + a*/z . . sign of ' . The expressions for u' considered. w' . . and transformation will give in the /plane the flow past z. v' are = *V/ 40 a .
For this purpose the direction of the flow in the 2plane to be trans formed. of flow without circulation past an inclined flat plate (cf. will be approximately on one of the streamlines of (iii) points The and a smooth curve may be drawn through them. instead of being rotated from the #axis through 90 as in is set at the appropriate angle. (153) indicates clearly that the velocity tends to infinity at the edges. Article 117). an approximate graphical method of general utility will be described. 84 shows in the plane the streamlines of (i) and. superposed. An alternative graphical method is based on the fact that circles . tfplane. The proof is left to the The graphical method can be used to find the streamlines reader. coordinates being suitable for this 117. P is the undisturbed pressure of the stream of velocity F. Fig. streamline of the flow by transforming Now follow any plotting being close. In 05  a permanent experiment. when has become established. Instead of as in Article deriving these. Berequation gives for the pressure noulli's p over 8 the plate PP __ P F' ~*L l fi (W 1 l(5/2a)J The elucidate remarks further details calculated above for the normal plate will made in Articles 117 to 119. being the same over both faces. 83. <f> The One of the points so transferred is shown encircled. 83 and. VI . For instance. (i). gives zero drag.and i[lines of w = + background the entirely square network obtained the latter potential function by the formula (ii). and regime the flow has broken away from the edges. leading to the large drag measured. The result (iii) is not in conPRESSURE DISTRIBU FIG. elliptic IN IRROTATIONAL FLOW. the streamline (i). and by their use plot points on the square network of the occurs. and for If have been obtained for unit velocity parallel to the ^/axis any velocity V the righthand sides are to be multiplied by V. z a 2 /zIn the /plane is shown as a the <. crosses at several points the intersection of a <f>.and a ^line nearly and fy where this Read off the pairs of values of of the #flow. the whole of the upstream face has an increased and the downstream face a decreased pressure. venient form for TION OVER A NORMAL PLATE plotting. The calculated pressure is as shown in Fig.200 AERODYNAMICS v' [CH.
201 7* . . 84.\ \ \ 7034321 01 2543 8780 10 II ia 2 il i \ O 9 8 5ti V / o \\ a 5 \\ 4 3 2 1 O I 2 3 4 3 / Q m tplane FIG.D. / 7 9 IO II 12 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR OBTAINING THE STREAMLINES PAST A NORMAL PLATE.
The tfplane is mapped for equal intervals of and n. . m and n are the elliptic coordinates already = employed in Article 117. FIG. therefore. the formula gives angles in) tfplane For substituting In the (m + = 2a cosh (m + in). 3. [CH. Values of m and n for points on this streamline are read off in the zplane and replotted in the /plane. Fig. Thus mapping the 2plane with a network of such circles and radial lines and the tfplane with the corresponding confocal ellipses and hyperbolas provides corresponding systems of coordinates which enable any curve drawn in the one plane to be transformed at once to the other plane. 84 A. plate is the straight line of length 4a joining the . when transformed to the m z ae + tn which = t radial lines making t m represents circles of radii ae together with n with the #axis. The streamlines leading to the stagnation points are radial for the circle and hyperbolic for the plate. + plane. 84A illustrates the method in application to the problem of finding the streamlines of irrotational flow past a plate inclined at an angle 0. 2. Hence any streamline may be drawn in the zplane by Article 108 or otherwise. and the The same .202 AERODYNAMICS become and hyperbolas. by formula (ii). where both sides of the straight line map into the circle of radius a. ALTERNATIVE GRAPHICAL METHOD. The transformation (ii) is such that the undisturbed streams are inclined at the same angle 6 to the real axes in both planes. . foci. . yielding the corresponding streamline past the inclined plate. m values of m and n yield the network shown in the *plane. with centres at the origin in the 3plane and the orthogonal system of radial lines ellipses respectively. represented by the proportional numbers 1.
singular points at x a. 85. Q and but displaccentre a little ing its upstream leads to a section of the streamline form found in to give experiment small flow drag. To avoid discontinuities in the /plane contour. We have for the coordinate of P z = re" and for that of P' of two vectors.. Fig. a* is clearly necessary. 162.. Let P. as has been noted. giving P lt while the argument Thus the coordinate is of P' is the sum which identical with the vector * The relation OP OPl . Dealing with the second * component vector. become P' in the /plane. = (154) R achieved by applying the formula to a circle of radius > a R. any point on the 6circle. to be will The trans formed now be FIG. 85. of centre B and radius b. Joukowski Sections The transformation formula t=z + a*/z involves. Cf also Art. marked and Q in Fig. This is .VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 203 SYMMETRICAL STREAMLINE SECTIONS 125. which will be called the 6circle to distinguish it from the acircle that yields Q and R. The form of (154) permits the contour in the /plane to be found by a simple construction. 85.. . the modulus a*/r means that P is to be reflected means that OP l in the acircle. that past this greater circle. these points must be excluded from the area transformed. Describing such a circle with as centre results in an enclosing ellipse. the first of OP. .
86. strut. such as might be adopted for an aeroplane fin or tailplane. OB/a its = = = FIG. to points outside the 6circle. BOTH POLES EXCLUDED. 86 b/a The transformed section 105. giving OP 2 found by completing the parallelogram POP ZP'.204 so obtained AERODYNAMICS . The vector is to be reflected in the #axis. THIN JOUKOWSKI SECTION. The . passing through Q. is In Fig. Half the contour is also plotted with thickness magnified ten times to show the slight rounding achieved at the trailing edge which is necessary for practical conAnother point of practical interest is that an appreciable struction. drawn by the same method. 87 shows the streamlines round a thick section suitable for a Here b/a 01 86. OB/a =0035. 88. its OP' is radius / being written for r. FIG. This graphical method can be applied. of course. STREAMLINES PAST A JOUKOWSKI STRUT. length Fig. of thin symmetrical streamline form. as illustrated in Fig. so that any point on any streamline past the circle can immediately be transformed to the /plane in the same way. of the rear part of the contour is very nearly straight. [CH. 87. If the icircle be so drawn as to enclose R only. is Onehalf of the section magnified transversely in the lower diagram to show details. 124. a sharp trailing edge is obtained.
Neglecting the terms (am)* because r* Zram cos m is small. Thickness ratio is accordingly defined as the ratio of the maximum thickness of the section to the chord. a common the while rear parts of the contour are concave SECTION. + 2m) . is then introduced. to as a Joukowski symmetrical aerofoil. the section is analytically may be substituted for a more A theoretical interest complicated shape without serious error. simple. 89 sin 0) a + (r cos 6 am)* = b* = a* (I + m)*. outwards.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS both surfaces having tangent there. For small is little thickness ratios b than a. 89. Considering the point (r P (r. (i) with a. On some calculations the other hand. 88. 6). . FIG. b=a(l+m) where m is small compared . symmetrical LetFIG. applications of the foregoing the lines of Article 107) and the reciprocal of the fineness ratio. STANDARD JOUKOWSKI SYMMETRICAL ONE POLE ONLY EXCLUDED. Fig. 126. this gives = a* (1 + 2m) (1 or 2m cos 6 . greater certain dimensions for be evaluated and may the Joukowski aerofoil. and making in an unpractical shape. called the thick ness ratio. Unless otherwise will also appear later in the sharp trailing edge. 205 trailing edge is infinitely thin. it is this particular type of section which will be referred stated. Approximate Dimensions In many Aerodynamic ' ' sections are fine (cf.
as in Fig. (156) Roundedtail Aerofoils. . when a.= 2a cos r/ ) 8 (iv) = a sin /r I a\ 1 \a = 2am sin 0(1+ cos 0) when r/ The t first of these formulae states that m is small compared with a the chord of the section is 4a to the first order. (165) i. Hence. of order Now Again neglecting terms  m* a = m cos 6 + \/(\ + 2m) = + m + cos 6) 1 (1 and a r = i _. m (i + cos 6) . the gives second of (iv) y = 1 = mx sin 4a = 2mX* *(l !  X) 1/3 . be the distance from the trailing edge of a point on the Let chordline. 88 can be plotted directly. Eliminating leads to a simple formula by which narrow aerofoils . Hence if Y denotes the ordinate at X.e. . and differentiating and the righthand side of the second formula with respect to equating to zero gives cos Thickness ratio = =m . Narrow sections derived by the Joukowski transformation from an eccentric circle enclosing both singular points. [CH. similarly expressed. thickness. so that sin (1 = \/3. . Hence : + 13 ) = The maximum is ^ m= m. of the cusped X Then the first of (iv) gives 2 x = 1U = 4# K! + cos m. can be treated similarly. in the *plane we have for P'.206 AERODYNAMICS r/a is positive. the thickness ratio is the maximum value of 2y]/4a. Again. 85. approximately. . the point corresponding to P. remembering (154) r E= a Y) cos ( \a + . expressed nondimensionally in terms of the chord.  . (iii) approximately. = = form shown in Fig. occurring when cos situated at onequarter of the chord from the leading edge.
depending upon the for maximum thickness. (b) K&rmdnTrefftz. Let = + = where'/ < m. = . but the second Y) becomes (v) Q(m + cos 6). ellipse. Introducing y = {i _ (2X ~ !)}{ w + l(2X . . Hence the roundedtail Joukowski symmetrical section can be described as a cusped aerofoil of reduced thickness enveloping.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS b a(l m) as before. a core consisting of an ellipse of the same chord. or built round. (vi) The The last expression can be rearranged as 3 /2 Y = 2/X first (1 . (a) Joukowski. 90 is the halfprofile of a symmetrical Joukowski 1. THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION OF SYMMETRICAL AEROFOILS WITH MAXIMUM THICKNESS AT 0'4 CHORD FROM NOSE. value soon causes mil to increase rapidly. = 1/3 1/ 3 /) . = X = 1 JTICK 9o.1)} . aerofoil of having a thickness ratio of (H5 and the position f maximum in 06) thickness located at 04 of the chord from the nose (X The curves (b) and (c) will be described later.X) 1 /3 1 1 '3 . ratio m/l.X) + (m . The position of maximum thickness no longer occurs at onequarter of the chord from the nose but farther back. Let X' denote the value of Then by differentiating (157) and 'equating to zero.X (1 . (c) Piercy. leading to predominance of the elliptic term in (157) and consequently to a notably blunt tail.X) 2a sin . in (156) term on the right has the same form as X 1 _ gx'(i  X') f i~2X' For mil 7' * ' (vn) Reducing X' from this f. r Thus the first of (iv) remains unchanged.(2/X + m .QX ^! . 46. The f ~ CL m+ / cos = I m / I cos 6. and let OB following expressions result in place of (iii) 207 a/. The curve (a) of Fig. (157) and thus The second term is an represents a thinnercusped aerofoil. X and Y as defined above and substituting. as already found. this case m\l = .
208 AERODYNAMICS [CH. . The the potential function of the flow past ty circle is then w  < + = U(z l + 6V*i). found from the first of (iii) and then r from the second. m is no longer connected with the Velocity and Pressure t velocity q at any point in the flow past a symmetrical Joukowski section at zero incidence is calculated as follows in the zplane of The first step is to determine the point (r. 1 26 A. be noted that thickness ratio by (155). Oy. U and the The undisturbed velocity in the 2plane is taken as circle as of radius b. (ii) and combining these leads to sin*0 (iii) cos is + r^ = sin 2r. i . the complex coordinate of a B being the . = (r + a*/r) = a*/r) sin 6 . of course. T) in the 2plane of the = cos I + *V) = TJ z + (r a*/z . 0) : The P the circle corresponding to the given point The transformation formula aerofoil. in which zl = xl + iy l = B ^d ^ 1 is point referred to axes with as origin parallel to Ox. It will. (i) gives on separation of 5 real and imaginary parts 6. 90A. ( iv ) FIG.
Fig. a feature of the Joukowski transformation. Bernoulli's equation gives u (ix) . in the figure. being due to the similarity between (i) and (iv). = + the given point. 2m(l Finally. i. dz (viii) the similarity to (vi). A 6. and the velocity at the general point of Article 122. .VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 209 centre of the circle.e. The velocity qn at P can now be obtained from (iv) by (iii) of Article 113A dw  U(l b* 4 4 sm . if P is the undisturbed pressure and pt the pressure at circular boundary. (vii) U Hence the undisturbed velocity is the 2plane. Considering the "projections of OP. ft in the ^plane as well as in is given by (152) = (vi) it is dt dz In the same manner as for dt found that . But an important special case arises when the given point is on the profile of an aerofoil of normal thickness with a cusped tail and the corresponding point on the 2 17 sin Q v and 1 Then (vi) reduces to qu cos 0) can be substituted for a*/r*. cos sin BP r cos r sin =r =r  OB so that tan X = r r sin r sin cos OB' ] sin "07 (v) These together with (ii) enable the coordinate z l corresponding to the point given in the aerofoilplane to be found. These formulae are general. 90A. (vi) The transformation dt/dz gives = 1 a*/z* = 1 when z is large.
defined as the angle at which the two sides of the section meet at the tail. and the shape of the profile viz. briefly as follows. (ii) maximum thickness can be adjusted while FIG. Admitting a rounded tail is ineffectual because the tail becomes blunt. If is the tail is sharp it is controlled . 01. KARMANTREFFTZ SECTIONS. To overcome these and other drawbacks calls for more elaborate transformations . The angle is secured by choosing for n a value less than 2 according to the relation ' ' n Again. . retaining a tail angle by suitably relating b[a to n . An The formula (154) is identical with _ (z + ~V7 which is a special case of the transformation t na z a whose singular points are at z = _ a as before. as shown in Fig. 127. K4rm4nTrefftz Symmetrical Sections It has been seen that Joukowski sections suffer limitations.210 AERODYNAMICS [CH. enables the aerofoil to be given a tail angle T. m. from practical also cusped. by only one parameter. or after K4rm&n and Trefftz. early improvement provided profiles which are known as extended or generalised Joukowski aerofoils. the position of = 2 T/TT. causing much form drag. which varies the thickness ratio the position along the chord at which the maximum thickness of the section occurs is invariable and too far forward. 89. when the position of maximum thickness is moved back appreciably. 2n 5 bja locates this position at onethird of the chord from = . for example. Using (158) to transform a &circle drawn through one of the singular points and enclosing the other. . .
But modern conditions usually require the maximum thickness to be located still farther back. & M. in conjunction with (169).* detailed treatment of these sections is left can be shown. better tailplane described as having a fineness ratio of 25. A.R. t No. The result is a flattening of the front part of the profile as illustrated by the halfprofile (b) of Fig. indeed. however.. & M. the simplicity distinguishing the Joukowski transformation is lost (158) is best dealt with.R. Thus the section can be described as a cusped Joukowski aerofoil built round a core of the same chord formed by two segments of a The nondimensional distance X' of the position of maximum circle. In these circumstances. 911 . The . The transformation (158) is insufficiently elastic from this point of view. 1241. that the circular arc then tends to control the shape except close to the nose. and the second term is a circular arc. is rather thicker than would be used for a strut. as a special case of a more general transformation whose discussion . 90.R. Falkner and Walker. No.R. Moreover. Page.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 211 the nose. as will be illustrated. the to further reading. for which the maximum thickness is located at 04 of the chord from the nose 0544). that narrow KdrmdnTrefftz sections accord closely with the formula y = where s are + sx(i (159) X and Y have the meanings defined in Article 126 and c and two parameters. The first term on the right is seen to have the same form as in (156).C. showing. 91 have the following characteristics first might be suitable for a the second.C. A. . c/s decreases. thickness from the tail is given by As the position of maximum thickness is moved backward. Two : sections shown in Fig. is beyond the scope It of this book. (c/s = * Glauert.
whilst v = = * 425 (1937). but it will purpose the complex coordinate transformed into a circle and for this operation the complex also be = pi + iv by the formula z cosh coordinate is changed to are readily found as in Articles 115 and 117 between x 0t Relations y and p. ^/cos The righthand branch will be transformed into an aerofoil. = = = . The shape is controlled by two independent parameters which may be arranged to secure a prescribed tail angle and position The latter can usefully be of maximum thickness of the section. vol. Mag. conwithin the range O to TU. varied between 03 and 045 of the chord from the nose (for farther back positions the nose sharpens rapidly). Aircraft Engineering. It follows that v is of a system of confocal hyperbolas. in that (j. restricted to lie may assume any real value. 1114 (1937). p. ' shows the two branches of an hyperbola whose centre is lies on the origin of a z plane and whose transverse axis at the # axis. v. Phil. Piper and Preston. Piper and Whitehead. later publications by Piercy and Whitehead (when released). Phil. 7. 2 1 and therefore OA 1 OFA cos <r/2. FIG. xxiv. more amenable family * of aerofoils avoiding the defects of the Joukowski system is obtained by inverting one branch of an hyperbola. vol. and that constant gives the upper or lower half of one of a system of y.. where the number of parameters is further increased. 92 ' AB . Piercy. Ser. 7.212 128. November. . Piercy. THEZ O PLANE. p. yll&rffa Fig. . positive or negative. Piper. for which 2 == XQ + iy is suitable. 1938 For further generalisation and applications see Ser. The foci are jFA FB and the angle between the asympIt is one of the family represented by the equation totes is T. A description of the A articles symmetrical form of this family is given in the following advanced and provides an introduction to 'methods used in more work. 92.. the constant stant gives one being equal to onehalf the angle between the asymptotes. but the new coordinates differ from those of Article 117 ^ = . Aerofoils inverted AERODYNAMICS from Hyperbolas [CH. Mag. xxiv.
VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 213 confocal ellipses. . iyi 1. Thus with l = the complex coordinate in this plane would be z = % + = s + cosh ^. but a change of scale is made below to O^A = marked 92A is shown a symmetrical from the hyperbola by the formula in the figure. the the origin in the of figure. . . in the ^plane of Fig. are distinguished by suffix < 1. and the part of the hyperbola in yield . . Some other values of the coordinates are indicated in the figure. cosh in. sign of p is indeterminate from jF B to Along to oo fyo> v */ 2 and P1 increases from along Oy v Tc/2 and (A decreases from to oo. In the plane of Fig. zl l/r lt tz l = 1. . C lies since . = r^i leads at once . v and the sign of is indeterminate from Along the #o axis FA to infinity. giving and this t plane z.8 V 6. as aerofoil obtained Substituting t rt =  re t ie t. . pi tine determinate alquantity itself is rendered though uncertain by the change of sign on crossing the # axis beyond the focus. : = IJL = F . If e Coordinates C c. between pc and in e = ir/2 If 0. according to whether the latter constant is positive or negative. v increases from to K and \L == from jp A to B v 7i and the oo. (i) Thus points remote from the origin in the ^plane are close to the remote parts of the hyperbola origin in the tfplane. 92A. (160) to . 92A. where the origin O l is coinci z 2 plane dent with the centre of TO CIRCLE inversion C. = . 1. The righthand branch the of hyperbola is replotted 2 plane FIG. and vice versa the back part of the aerofoil. the neighbourhood of its vertex provides the rounded nose of the . > = is z 0c = (ji [i c + (JL C . 1. = The hyperbola of inversion v = C located on the # reckoned positive if C is to left of T/2 will be inverted with respect to a centre axis at a suitable distance e from 0. respectively.
by Xl X = XJRf where parts.214 aerofoil.i)^ + x == (v) tan T/2 1 and b = ^^ C T e + cos T/2 { . Thus jx is negative on the axis. and this is made equal to unity by multiplying cos T/2). and YI * = sinh e LL sin T/2  . Aerofoil Profile. .e. but an approximate formula which more direct can usually be employed instead. and vice versa. i. The above method is exact. Y have the same meanings as in Articles 126 and 127. With this notation. Xi and Y! where. AERODYNAMICS The inversion [CH. The chord c of the aerofoil is equal to the inverse of the #r axis beyond A. and the complex coordinate of the general point in the zr plane + + becomes ^ 1 e e + ^ . + cos T/2 (iv) v ' for a chosen position of the centre of inversion the aerofoil.(161) ' It will be seen that the tail angle T of the aerofoil is equal to the angle T between the asymptotes of the hyperbola. . cos T/2 v . (ii) i. . Y in terms of the chord. and to map the aerofoil we have only to determine X and Y r (161) gives. (vi) v . (160) gives Plotting the will X . X+ iY = l/(X l + y * x) . Any point on the hyperbolic be denoted by Yl and any point on the aerofoil boundary v the coordinates are nondimensionally expressed profile by X. on separating real and imaginary s X = + e cosh cos T/2 + cos T/2 __ LL _ 1 l . (iii) R^ = X^ + Y^. is accompanied by reflection in the real upper side of the aerofoil corresponds to the lower side of the hyperbola.. l and Y = YJRf . 1/0^4. : y t = x^ . .. T and e comprise the two independent parameters of the family. so that the upper side of the aerofoil profile. Then the distance of C lengths in the ^plane by l/(e to the left of the centre of the hyperbola becomes e/(s cos T/2). on rationalising the denominator on the right by multiplying iYl and separating real and imaginary parts. and X. Eliminating  \i and tail angle T of the following relations between yields &) . is .e.
for differentiating both sides of that equation with respect to X^ and dividing by ZYf * (X. 90 is the halfprofile of an aerofoil of the with the position of maximum thickness located at present family 04 of the chord from the nose. giving X X&=3XJ=Y{ X l/X approximately. (c) The curve ..l^X. . etc. i. Y' of the aerofoil profile at its position of maximum thickness. dY/dX 0. It is usually required to determine the parameters x and ft. so that y= But (162) should xX(l  X)W(I + bX) 112 . respectively. and substituting. The condition for a maximum ordinate. = For an aerofoil so thin that Y^ may be neglected. But it contains terms in Y4 which may usually be neglected. whence T and e follow. may be expressed as1 dY _ 2Xl Y^'dX. which have already been described. and may be compared with the corresponding profiles (a) and (b) for the Joukowski and Krm4nTrefftz families. for an aerofoil of chosen thickness ratio and position of maximum thickness. for which the denominator will differ little from unity. (188) V bX)}' Further approximation is permissible in the case of very thin aerofoils. + 1) b) Equating the two expressions leads to _ ^'(2^  + X '(2X 1 1  3) where the point v Y l corresponds to the chosen coordinates X'. l (ix) reduces further to 2  3X' of Fig. leading to the approximate formula .Vl] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS if 215 Noting that R* = X> + Y (ii) equally gives X = l X//?. *(*)(*+') <> This expression also is exact.A gives Xf^Tj second expression is obtained from (v). Parameters and Shape. (viii) be employed for aerofoils having thickness ratios within the range 012 to 020 common in practice.e.
and then into the circle in a 2plane. straight line into one branch of hyperbola into the aerofoil. 92A. in the 2 2plane it is defined by v r/2. (164) inverts a circle of unit radius with centre at the origin in the zplane into the straight line of the z 2 plane. and then the centre of inversion is at the point on the circle which corresponds to the origin in the tfplane. (163) where iv in which has already been defined. . Hence. putting z^ = when z2 = 0. which is changed first into an infinite straight line in a z 2plane. To enable the be inferred from the above process must conformally the circle into the region exterior must be excluded from these two regions except only the singularity yielding the sharp tail of the aerofoil. The first step is accomplished by the formula . and the formula z 2 (z + 1)  2 . the simple transform the region exterior to all singularities to the aerofoil . 92. being the complex p between O and TC. Completion of the Transformation cannot be transformed into a circle directly but only through the hyperbola. as marked in Fig. This completes the transformation of the aerofoil of unit chord In the reverse order. (164) transforms the region exterior to the circle into the region to the left of the infinite straight line in the * 2 plane. Fig. and aerofoil to (160) inverts the flow past the flow past the circle. However. e" is a constant such as to ensure that the origins in the 2 r and z 2planes shall be corresponding % v is restricted to lie + points. (163) and (161) giving a singularity at the origin in the z 2plane. 92A. (163) and (161) turn the into the circle of unit radius.  This transformation may be regarded as changing the given hyperbola into the hyperbola which coincides with the jy axis in the 2 plane.216 AERODYNAMICS [CH. (164) opens out the circle into an infinite straight line. = and the formula (163) arranges that the origin in this plane is at unit distance to the left of the straight line. aerofoil The Fig. . . 129. an hyperbola. A circle inverts into a straight line if the centre of inversion lies upon the circle. .
(ji . The foregoing may "be illustrated by considering the nature of The uniform flow at a large distance the flow in each plane. from dz. expressing z 2 in terms of = (x + n/2 from (163). The change of velocity between the circle and aerofoil planes must be allowed for but is easily determined. and z 2planes occurs at correspondtwo planes and at infinity in the z. The final inversion into the aerofoil plane reconverts the doublet into a uniform flow at infinity in that plane. and this boundary pi value of \i is related as follows to the corresponding angle 6 in the ie 1 on the circle) in e circle plane. can be found from (iii) and (iv) of Article 128. (since r Substituting z = = (164) and.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 217 transform this region into the entire region to the left of (or outside) the righthand branch of the hyperbola. (ii) fa dz 9 dz dt The transformation formulae give Edz * +  '>' cosh T/7C) ft/2 T/7T C'(2 2  . I2QA. as in the next article. from the boundary in the zplane becomes on inversion a doublet at the origin in the z 2 plane. introducing no further The singularity in the region considered not on the boundary.and ^planes and at infinity in the singularity at the origin in the z r ing points in those others. in the same equation.and 2planes. (i) 2 t" T/7C The next step is to evaluate mod. For any point on the aerofoil boundary. e  tan = i smh 2 dz/dt . though not of the same velocity as the uniform flow in the 2plane. while the singularity on the circle and aerofoil boundaries occurs at corresponding points in the z. . The transformation from the 2 2plane to the ^plane carries over this doublet to the origin in the 2 r plane. Velocity on the Aerofoil Boundary Calculation of the velocity in the plane from that in the zplane requires in the first place a relationship between the positions of corresponding points. only its strength being changed.
218 AERODYNAMICS cos T/2 sinh [CH. 00 2 T/7C (vi) sinh But from (v) we can owing to the large values of t and z. . whence (ii) yields after reduction cos' A cosh coefficient 4& *l' (iii) where the constant has the value _ 2(e + ~ e*(2  cos T/2) ' . [1 oo L<&J and substituting z z t +1 in (vi) gives oo which reduces to dz dt oo  . at the point t corresponding to the speed point z in the circleplane where the ratio qx f U' is known. (iv) T/TT) is The velocity the velocity at infinity in the aerofoil plane U' at infinity in the circle plane by U derived from U For z = U' dt 00 z% are (v) and t large. and gives cosh 00 V write. is given by Thus the proportionate increase U (165) where the modulus on the right is given by (iii) and A by (iv). z l (ii) and the coordinates of the centre of inversion. (vii) I of velocity from the undisturbed in the aerofoil plane.
sure theoretical presdistribution. Preston and Whitehead. 92B . lations to methods enable reliable calcube made. A comparison between theory and experiment has been made* at the National Physical Laboratory in the case of the very thick Kdrm&nTrefftz aerofoil B of Fig. ignoring the The boundary layer and wake. t . except near the trailing edge. 7. vol. PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS Reynolds number of 6 x 10 gave the broken line. B ment 80 per cent. Phil. cit. for this Experimental observations section obtained at a 5 FIG. 91. xxvi. in which the back of the section is replaced by a narrow extension to infinity. 802 (1938). f * Loc. f In these circumstances the finds many Aerodyt page 211. approximate allowance can be made for the wake by determining the potential function as for an imaginary elongated boundary.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 219 1296. Mag. 92c. 92s. Agreement is seen to be close over OF THEORY AND EXPERIMENT COMPARED FOR THE SECTION OF FIG. but to a much less extent than in the extreme case Equally successful comparisons have also been made with symmetrical sections of the simple Joukowski type. Comparison with Experiment and Example Question arises as to how far calculations of velocity based upon the assumption of wholly irrotational flow agree with experiment in the case of streamline sections. and of the velocity FIG. With a small thickness ratio experistill diverges from the present theory as the tailing edge is approached. 91. of a bluff section p. boundary theory layers. field outside their PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR MAXIMUM THICKNESS LOCATED AT (a) 035 CHORD AND (b) 0425 CHORD FROM NOSE. According to Piercy. of the contour. Ser. The important conclusion is that for the Reynolds numbers Aeronautics the present of illustrated. is shown as the fullline in Fig. of the pressure round derived shapes of streamline form. representing the wake.
one of which is indicated in Fig. The boundaries distribution of the theoretical pressure distribution round the two is also shown and can be relied upon to agree fairly with tail. 93).a. (ii) . In the namical applications. figure there have been drawn two examples of the family of aerofoils inverted from hyperbolas. Circular Arc Skeletons sections given by these formulae when applied to a circle of greater radius b with centre on the #axis.220 AERODYNAMICS [CH. This decrease and the the backward displacement the maximum of the position round the profile at which velocity occurs are of importance in designing sections for low drag and high speeds. Both have a thickness ratio of 015. in the plane ordinates of the corresponding point r a */r) cos ( TJ P r = = + . we have as before for the co = t FIG. . Dealing first with formula (154). but for (a) the position of maximum thickness is at 035 chord from the nose. experiment except in the region of the a decrease in the position of The difference illustrates maximum velocity ratio achieved by displacing maximum thickness backward. 92c. 93. while for (b) it is at 0*425 chord from the nose. . (i) (r a*/r) sin 0. Skeletons of arched form are obtained by locating the centre B of the 6circle on the 3/axis and drawing the 6circle through both the singular points Q and R. DERIVED WING SECTIONS Joukowski Transformations The straight lines to which the circle of radius a transforms by formulae (154) or (158) are known as the skeletons of the symmetrical 130. x j. and applying it to any point P (r 0) on the 6circle so drawn (Fig.
93). We now consider in some detail wing sections of a certain type introduced by Joukowski in 1910. which intersect at Q' R' 9 n at the tail angle T TT (2 n). OBP with (i as shown 2ra tan p sin 6 8 =a a see p r 1 = ?* + a* tan* p a*/r = 2a tan p sin Hence from (ii) : T) = 2a tan 6 transform to a single showing that two points on point in the plane. however.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS the triangles 6a 221 From or OQB. Detailed investigation of this and other shapes is given in a paper by Mrs. formula (158) transforms it into two circular arcs (Fig. the methods of Article 127. giving Q'R' = 40. The ratio of the maximum ordinate of the arch to its chord is called the camber and from tan p. The modulus is not then known. Whilst the formula (154) thus transforms the 6circle passing through Q and R to both sides of a circular arc. July 1923. as seen from (i) and (ii). ju/2) and equals 2 Q and R transform to Q and R' (Fig. 94). The tangent at Q' is inclined at the angle 2p to the axis. (iii) = . which should be read._ sin 2 _ cos 8 and eliminating 2 by (iii) + (T) + is gives for the equation of the arch 2a cot 2(3)* == (2a cosec 2p) . a circle whose centre on the vjaxis at 73 = (iv) 2a cot 2p. Jour.. which are susceptible to simple To obtain these the formula (154) is applied to a 6circle passing * The transformation is known after Kutta.Ae. 131. R. .* aerofoil sections into = The figure is readily obtained by These and other arched skeletons may be used to bend symmetrical cambered wing shapes.S. and that the maximum ordinate of the transformed curve is situated on the yjaxis (6 OB. (iii) equals Squaring (i) and (ii) and by subtraction we find 2 p sin the 6circle at . Joukowski Wing Sections analysis. Glauert. f _ .
is small we have approximately (i) . . 0) on the 6circle in the 2plane exactly as described in Article 125. CONSTRUCTION FOR JOUKOWSKI CAMBERED WING. Joukowski wing sections are infinitely thin at the trailing edge. and enclosing the other.e. is plotted rapidly. It may be noted that the locus of P t9 the reflexion of P in the acircle as it moves round the 6circle. 95. with centre B slightly displaced from both axes. latter circle. i. OB make equal With the help of the auxiliary circle. FIG. is the centre of the equal circular The circle with locus of P 2 the reflexion of PI in the #axis. Q say. centre A is called the auxiliary circle. the locus of angles with Oy. since 6fl(l+m). A preceding article. 5. Approximate formulae for the coordinates P' on the wing are found as follows : of any point (3 Let m be the small fraction that EB is of a. is another circle of radius < a whose centre The image in the #axis of the centre of this lies on BO produced.222 AERODYNAMICS [CH. and has a common tangent with the 6circle at Q. It is easily found that OA. . >) 132. the aerofoil contour in the /plane. like the corresponding symmetrical sections. through one of the singular points. A point P' on it is found from the corresponding point P (r. the point A on QB. For a section of normal proportions to result. . as is evident from the . transformed profile of this class is shown in the figure. P'. so that. the angle (3 which QB makes with Ox requires to be small and EB (Fig. 96) a small fraction of a.
since (PN)* r a of m and (3 = (BP)*. Hence. 96 and (i) a a 1 (3 (J3iV) (BP)* = (r sin 8 ma sin a tan p) = r sin 8 = (r cos 8 ma cos = r cos 6 = 6 = ((XB) = (a sec p + ma) = a + 2wa a a 2 (i) 2ra$ sin 8 2ram cos 8 a . (166) .VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 223 P FIG. = 1 p sin 6 m (1 f cos 8) Finally = a{. = a /> 8 r/ \a sn + cos . From (PN)* a Fig. 2ra (p sin 8 + m cos 6) = a* (I + 2m) + (BN)* 2 r ((J or ( /r\ a ) sin 8 + m cos 8) 1 2m = 0.+ ~) cos 6 = 2a cos 6 r/ \a (ii) \ sin . a a a 1 The righthand members are obtained by taking account being small and neglecting terms of smaller order. 96. This gives :  = + p sin 6 + m (1 + cos 1 6) to the first order. ( 1 si 8) sn in 8}.
224
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
These formulae may be compared with those of Article 126 for a symmetrical Joukowski section. The first shows that the ordinate is the same to the approximation considered and the chord equal to 4a as before. The Yjordinate is increased by the term 2#p sin* 6.
133.
Shape of Joukowski Wings The shape depends upon the particular values assumed
for
m and
may
P.
Provided always that these are small, certain characteristics
It is first seen that the thickness ratio is still
be conveniently expressed.
if
v], T)'
any
given by (155). For, are the ordinates of points on the upper and lower surfaces at distance along the chord specified by the thickness T at that
,
position
is
given by
r = ,,v
and if is transformed from a point on the ftcircle whose radius makes an angle with 0%, the corresponding angle leading to 7)' will be 0. Hence from (166) of the preceding article
TJ
:
T = 4am
sin
(1
+ cos
0)
and, on comparison with Article 126 (iv), the result follows. The maximum thickness again occurs at onequarter of the chord from the leading edge.
The mean camber is defined by the maximum value of (7) f 73') divided by the chord, or (YJ V)/8# for m, (1 small, and from the article preceding
+
:
T)
+
7)'
= 40p sin
2
0.
The maximum value of
this,
occurring
when
=
TT, is 4a(3.
. .
.
Hence
:
Mean camber
as
is
=
(3
(167)
seen alternatively from Article 130.
KarmanTrefftz Aerofoils
Wing sections of the generalised Joukowski type with finite tail angle result from transforming a 6circle whose centre is offset from both axes in the zplane by the formula (158). The process is facilitated by the formulae developed in the papers to which
reference has already been made.
foils
K&rmdnTrefftz cambered aerohave recently been developed further by introducing an addi*
tional parameter.*
Betz and Keune, Jahrbuch
d.
LFF., 1937.
VI]
1
TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS
225
33 A. Cambered Aerofoils Inverted from Hyperbolas
Cambered
wings result
aerofoils closely resembling the sections of
modern
from inverting hyperbolas with respect to a centre of inversion which is displaced from the axis of symmetry. The
transformation into a circle requires only slight modification of the formulae given in Articles 1289 for symmetrical aerofoils of the
family.
FIG. 96A.
Referring to the ^plane of Fig. 92A, let the axis of symmetry of the righthand branch of the chosen hyperbola be displaced parallel to itself through a distance Ay x =* 8 such that the origin in this plane may still coincide with the centre of inversion. Fig. 96A illustrates the modification. The complex z l is then related to by
e
1
MS +
coshi;
V
f COS T/2
'
in place of (161). An aerofoil of zero thickness is obtained in the ^plane when the hyperbola degenerates into both sides of the part of the axis of
(cf. Article 128). symmetry beyond the focus, i.e. the line v This straight line inverts into a circular arc in the ^plane. A cambered aerofoil of small thickness results from v T/2 where T is small, and the above circular arc approximates closely to the median line of its section and is therefore called its camberline. The camberline may be slightly extended to intersect the aerofoil profile at the nose, the extension representing the inversion of the short length Fh A of the # r axis, and then the coordinate of the front end of the camberline, called the nose of the aerofoil, is fT /2. The part of the line O t A beyond the vertex A of the
=
=
=
A.D.
8
226
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
hyperbola inverts into the chordline of the cambered aerofoil, and the angle 2(3 between this line and FA A remains unchanged by the transformation close to the nose of the aerofoil. Hence, at the nose the camberline makes with the chordline the angle 2(3 defined by
(see Fig. 96A)
8
e
~
mean camber,
is
+
cos T/2
and
it
follows that the
amount
of camber, or the
p as in (167). For constant values of the parameters e and T, the maximum thickness and its position along the chord of an aerofoil are only
slightly
affected
by camber.
for
Thus appropriate values
the parameters
may be
deter
mined by means
of the formulae
already given for symmetrical sections of the family whence 8 follows on choosing the camber. If a biconvex section
,
is
desired, the camber must be so restricted that the centre
(b)
between the asymptotes produced of the hyperbola, i.e. 8 must be less than e tan T/2.
of inversion lies of scale
f
FIG. 96B.
of 5
EXAMPLES OF CAMBERED
SECTIONS.
is
Retaining the same change between the zQ  and z r planes, as adopted for the
The value
greater for (a) than for
(b).
symmetrical sections results in
,
the distance between the centre of inversion and the vertex of the hyperbola being no
longer equal to unity. The inversion formula (160) modified for cambered aerofoils to
tz l
is
accordingly
=
1
+
i
tan
2(3
.
.
.
(160A)
in order that they shall have unit chord. The change also rotates the aerofoil through the angle 2(3 so that the real axis of the tfplane contains its chordline, which would otherwise be inclined thereto.
With
this
for points
change the formulae (ii) and (iii) of Article 128 become on the boundaries of cambered aerofoils
X + iY =
(1
+
i
tan 2(J)/(X1
+
iYJ
.
(iiA)
VI]
TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS
.
227
and
X = (X + Y tan Y   (Y  X tan 2P)//?/
l
l
'
(iiiA)
l
l
whilst to relate
X Y
lt
l
to
(ji
for points
on the hyperbolic boundary
we now have
in place of (iv) of Article 128
e
+
cosh
(ji
cos T/2
(ivA)
=
tan
cos
Thus the only modification of the values of X v Y l for points on the hyperbolic boundary is the inclusion of tan 2(3 in the expression
for
Y and Y
1
is
the relation (v) of Article 128 between be applicable to cambered aerofoils of the family if tan 2(3. replaced by Y l Fig. 96B shows two cambered aerofoils of this family.
.
It follows that
X
Y
l l
l
will
LIFT OF WINGS OF INFINITE SPAN
134. Joukowski's Hypothesis
Suitable values being chosen for parameters and a definite aerofoil shape obtained in the tfplane, the same transformation process converts the streamlines past the circle to the corresponding streamlines past the aerofoil. Now when this process is applied to flow
without circulation in the zplane, results follow of which Fig. 97
FIG. 97.
STREAMLINES PAST JOUKOWSKI AEROFOIL WITHOUT CIRCULATION.
the back stagnation point, 5, on the circle transforms typical to the back stagnation point S' lying on the upper surface of the aerofoil some distance in front of its trailing edge. As with the thin
is
;
normal or inclined to a stream, fluid is asked to whip round a sharp edge, attaining an infinite velocity in the process.
plate,
228
AERODYNAMICS
[CH
It is easily proved, as follows, that for all conformal transformations the circulation round the aerofoil is the same as the circulation
circle. Construct any two corresponding circuits enclosing the circle and aerofoil respectively. Then, since is the same at <f> corresponding points (Article 122), the interval of ^ round each circuit will be the same. But the circulation is the interval of <f> round a complete circuit. It is important to note that this result
is
round the
independent of the relationship between the undisturbed velocities
in the
two
planes.
In Fig. 97, therefore, there is no circulation round the aerofoil, and it will shortly be proved generally that no force arises on the aerofoil in these circumstances. Now, the criticism that fluid cannot turn round the sharp trailing edge might be met by rounding that edge, which could be achieved by enclosing all singular points within the aerofoil, as we have seen. But the result of zero lift, incompatible with experiment, would still suggest the streamlines to be discordant with fact.
Modifying the streamlines past the circle by adding a small displaces the point S' backward, and a particular between and the undisturbed velocity makes S' relationship coincide with the sharp trailing edge, so that the velocity there
circulation
K
K
becomes
finite.
is
Joukowski's hypothesis
that
K
is
correctly
and uniquely
deter
the point on the circle which transforms to Q' the trailing edge of the aerofoil. Since dt/dz == O at Q and
Briefly, let
mined by the above
consideration.
Q be
dz
clearly only one condition permits of a finite velocity at Q', viz. when q at Q, i.e. the value of to be added to the flow past
=
K
the circle must be such as to make S coincide with Q. It is applicable only to wings with a sharp trailing edge, although a tail angle for may exist. But it may be supposed that if we determine such a wing, and then slightly round the trailing edge for ease of construction, the effect of the modification will be small.
K
135. Calculation of
K
Denote the undisturbed velocity by qot and let it be inclined at an angle a to the #axis. With K = 0, the stagnation points on the circle are S lt S (Fig. 98). These approach one another in that half
VI]
TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS
229
FIG. 98.
of the circle
when
K
is
which transforms to the lower surface added in the direction shown.
of the aerofoil
Referred to axes
Bx By
lt
l
through
B
as origin parallel
is
and per
pendicular to q 0t the flow past the circle
given
by
(i)
whence
<!
=  J.
(r
')
sin 6

^
+
log
r.
.
.
(168)
If qb
denote the peripheral velocity round the
circle
[3tin
giving
qb
(Cf.
L
K
 "ft
8
K
.
=o
when
471^0 sin 6
Article 109).
Hence, for the stagnation points to recede to Q, S,
from the
The
figure, figure refers particularly to the
is
K = 4nbq s n Y = 4nbq sin (a + p) determining K in the zplane.
9 Q
i
.
.
.
(169)
Joukowski transformation,
When less simple transformations are general. care must be taken to note that the velocity employed, however,
but the theorem
230
AERODYNAMICS
of (169) refer to the circleplane
[CH.
and angles
and
may
be changed
in passing to
the aerofoilplane.
136.
The Streamlines
lines
Plotting (168) with the prescribed value of K/q gives the streamappropriate to a chosen value of a in the 2plane (cf. Article 109). Transforming these gives the flow past the aerofoil. An
is
example
shown
in Fig. 99.
The value
of
K/q and,
therefore, the
FIG. 99.
STREAMLINES PAST THE AEROFOIL OF FIG. 97 WITH CIRCULATION ACCORDING TO JOUKOWSKl'S HYPOTHESIS.
streamlines past the aerofoil, will change if a be varied. Thus the method is generalised as regards angle of incidence of the aerofoil. In the 2plane there is a lift L per unit length of the circular
cylinder given
by
L
This force
is
=
pj^
.
....
.
(170)
perpendicular to the direction of q
The velocity round the profile of the aerofoil may be obtained by the methods already described, and hence, from Bernoulli's
Finally, the lift may be graphical integration (cf. Article 44), and will be found to be the same as L for the same undisturbed velocity.
equation,
the variation of pressure.
evaluated
by a
Analytical investigation
is
given in the following
articles.
137.
The
Lift
In the *plane draw a circle of large radius R enclosing the aeroat its centre (Fig. 100), and take axes 05', OTJ' parallel and perpendicular to q<>. Since R is great, the circulation velocity comfoil
ponent at the
Article 115).
circle is unaffected It equals K/2xR,
it
point
P
(R, 0)
by the shape of the aerofoil (cf. and is perpendicular to R. At any has components cos 8 K/2rcR perpendicular to q<>
.
VI]
TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS
231
FIG. 100.
and
is
sin 6
.
K/2nR
parallel to q
.
Thus the resultant velocity
/
q at
P
given by
K
V
We
pg
.
K
P, and
0.
Consider an element of the mass crossing it per second.
circle J?.S0 at
let
m
be the
fluid
have
m=
R8Q
.
cos
.
.
When P
(ii)
is
on the upstream side
of the aerofoil, the streamlines
having an upward trend, passage across the element communicates
circle.
at the rate cos Q.K/2nR to the fluid within the This calculation is correct wherever the element is situated. Hence the fluid within the circle will, on account of the flux of fluid
its
upward momentum
m
across its whole contour, have increased at the rate
momentum
in the direction OY)'
""* we
We have omitted to attach a sign to q and it is evident that this should be negative, since the velocity is in the direction 0%'. Hence the last member of (iii) when essentially positive gives the rate at which the fluid within the circle is receiving momentum from the aerofoil in a downward direction, i.e. in the direction This
,
OT\
'.
232
is
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
checked by the fact that the aerofoil bends the streamlines downward. The fluid outside the circle exerts, we shall also find, an upward force on the fluid within by virtue of the pressure p acting radially inward. This must also be taken into account. Considering again the contourelement R8Q, the upward force on it is p sin 6 R8Q. Integrating round the circle we find the whole
.
force to
amount
to
f2T
Now
related to q by Bernoulli's equation. turbed pressure of the stream, using (i)
p
is
If
pQ
is
the undis
the velocity term in I/R* with that in l/R, so that
and
since
R is large,
is
negligible
compared
K
Substituting in the circle
(iv)
we
find for the
upward
force
on the
fluid within
P;r
(
(v)
Summing up, we find downward momentum at
the rate
fluid
that the fluid within the circle receives %pKq Q while also it presses down,
wardly on the surrounding
with a force of the same magnitude.
'
Hence the upward reaction L on the aerofoil in the tfplane is given by It is important to remember that by upward is meant (170).
'
the direction 07]' which is perpendicular to that of q Q The equality of the momentum and pressure integrals in the fore.
going has no physical significance, following only from choosing a Variations are dealt with in Tietjen's circle for ease of integration. and Aeromechanics. A wing flying through the Applied Hydroatmosphere must derive its lift eventually from a pressure integral over the ground or sea. This must amount to the same as the lift
calculated above.
The important result of the preceding article does not depend upon the precise shape of the aerofoil. For aerofoils of the in (170), simple Joukowski type we may substitute from (169)
138.
obtaining
L
= 4p
*
.
7c6
sin (a
+
P)
.
.
(171)
VI]
TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS
lift
233
that
Introducing the
coefficient
C L and remembering
,
b/a~l+m
f
CL
5
= 2w(a + p)
approximately, when
a, p,
.
.
.
.
and
1
m are small.
(172)
Tsr
i.e. if
.....
C"
In these circumstances
<>">
increase, the
the angle of incidence of a Joukowski aerofoil of infinite span lift coefficient C L increases at the rate 2n per radian, or
degree.
(HI per
139. Pitching
Moment
The most
type
aerofoil shapes
general transformation formula by which the flow past may be derived from that past the circle is of the
*
=z+
C'

, z
+^+ z
......
This gives
where the
coefficients are
complex numbers.
all the zeros, except that yielding the sharp trailing edge of the aerofoil, must be enclosed within the circle. The origin is situated at the centroid of the zeros. Different sets of poles and circles may be chosen to give an infinite variety of aerofoil shapes. Further development of this wider view of a subject of considerable
and
practical importance
is left
to subsequent reading
and research.
the pressures on a given aerofoil can be determined as an application of the process described in Article 136. General analytical investigation may
The pitching moment about any point exerted by
proceed as follows Consider a great
fluid within.
:
circle of radius
R with centre at 0.
round it are everywhere from the rate
of
radially directed
The pitching moment
change
If
M
The pressures and exert no moment on the
about
of
9
can be calculated
of the fluid the resultant velocity q at the point R, 8 is passing through. inclined at e to 0%, the mass of fluid crossing the element RSQ per second is p<? cos(e 0)jRS6, while its velocity perpendicular to R is q. sin(e and the moment of its momentum is accordingly 0),
.
of the
moment
momentum
sin 2(e
2 6)J? 80.
Integrating round the circle
r*
J
A.D.
o
sin 2(c
eye
= o.
8*
234
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
Now from
(136), Article 110, if in the /plane of the aerofoil
u and v are the velocity components
/
\
dw
whence
=u
= foR*
is
iv
= #(cos e
f
i
sin e)
= qe
6)^8
*
*
Mo
and the problem
(
^)
^
sin 2(e
.
(ii)
with reference to the axes 0%,
resolved into finding a tractable expression for q Ot] of the great circle.
The flow round the 6circle is given in Article 135 (i), referred to a Zjplane, whose origin is at JS, and whose axes are at the inclination This is transferred to axes through a. parallel to 0, OTJ by the
substitution
*i
=
(z
z)
e**
.
.
.
(iii)
where
z
is
the coordinate of B, and becomes
^
=
?c
whence
dw
Nowrfze^
rf^
~~~~dz
dz
~dt
'Tt
and on expanding
(i)
(iv)
in descending
powers of
z
and making use of
we
find
The
integral in
the result that
M
(ii)
Q
can be solved * after substitution from
(v),
with
comes to the imaginary part
of the expression
The second term represents the moment of the about the origin 0. Omitting this, and writing ipgft for C', we obtain for the moment B about B
is
where L
lift
the
lift.
acting at
B
M
MB = 27rp
This result
is
*A sin 2(oc
2
+ y)
.
.
.
(175)
it quite general. for zero travel of the centre of pressure, a problem of practical importance, particularly in connection with the structural design of
As an example,
may be shown that
* Mrs. Glauert, loc.
ment
is
This proof is due to v. Mises. A different treatcit., p. 184. given by H. Glauert, The Elements of Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory, Chap. VII.
from measurements of the line integral of the tangential velocity circuit enclosing the aerofoil and cutting the wake For circuits that approach the aerofoil at right angles. 2 P ~4 CL ' Comparison with Experiment Comparisons with experiment of practical engineering interest will occur in Chapter VIII. and that the latter wings. so that the velocity at a single point in the stream can be measured in direction and magnitude with the aerofoil in various relative positions. Since the leading edge is then given closely by M = M . at the present stage have been devised.2aL from (172). 140. roughly K per unit of span.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 236 which circumscribes the form of C' in we must have y To see this. MB = 27cpj f a sin 2a. If we now restrict the result to the simple Joukowski transformaa f y vanishes and tion formula. 5 being the area. so that C' = . after extension of the theory to threedimenNumerous successful checks on the theory sional aeroplane wings. Such investigations are easily carried out and form interesting laboratory work. A long aerofoil is made to a Joukowski section which has been worked out in detail on the drawing board. we note that for a fixed C. (176) M about the leading edge of the distant 2a from B. its median section. it is The moment coefficient Cm is sometimes defined from the moment aerofoil. Preferably it is carried on traversing gear. occurs at the incidence p. or sections close thereto.P. It is also fitted for measurements of normal pressure round lift. when drag is nil. the moment must vanish when the lift vanishes. Hence. where c is the chord = 40. = p. by experiments arranged to imitate twodimensional conditions of flow. however. (174). 2oc = c per unit of span * 2 8 = approximately. and is mounted to stretch between the walls of an enclosedtype tunnel or right through an open jet. The fundamental conception that is by graphical determination closely realised on assessing velocity. = $K x round any wide .
K On examination. than the theoretical. VI may closely (without. to lie within the calculated diagram. The value 6 is . it will be found that the slope of the lift coefficient curve is less than 2?r. Typical pressure diagrams are not illustrated. The essential difference is that. often used instead. as already described.236 AERODYNAMICS [CH. differences occurring chiefly near the crest and tail Thus the experimental lift is less of the upper surface of the section. although even this value is too generous and 5 For incidences approaching the critical is much closer to fact. unless the incidence is such that the lift is also small. the pressure diagram will be found to conform reasonably closely with that determined theoretically for the section and incidence. owing to neglect of frictional effects. whilst in the case of the median or other planes of a threedimensional aerofoil it does not do so. of course. The lift is determined for purposes of comparison from the experimental pressure diagram. although it is in agreement with the observed circulation the theory overestimates what a given shape can do. the pressure drag becomes small at moderately high Reynolds numbers. angle the theory completely breaks down. since they resemble those already given for the median sections of aerofoils of considerable aspect ratio. cutting the boundary layer) decrease by some 10 per cent. however. . If the pressures be observed at various small incidences and suitably integrated. in the case of two dimensional aerofoils whose camber and thickness ratio are small. though the section be the same. Observations tend.
There is no analytical need for this restriction. Arbitrary shapes can also be dealt with by an approximate method due to Theodorsen. and therefore this line of approach is followed book only in the present chapter. and development of the system of conformal transformation described in Articles 128129A and 133A enables the camberline to be varied in shape as desired without loss of ultimate accuracy. Again. an integral equation whose solution is laborious without special calculating machines. . (177). for example. 214. a shape that is unfavourable for practical use since it entails a large moment coefficient. 6th 237 Ed. in this cf. the potential flow problem could be solved otherwise by determining an appropriate distribution of vorticity round the given boundary. the moment at zero lift almost vanishes and the centre of pressure remains almost stationary at the quarterchord So far forward a position for the crest of the camberline is point. Consideration of cambered aerofoils has so far been limited to those whose camberline is a circular arc. For it can be proved * that every continuous irrotational motion of an incompressible fluid that extends to infinity and is at rest there may be regarded as due to a certain distribution of vorticity round the surface of the body producing the motion. The preceding chapter gives an introductory account of a method by which the potential flow of an incompressible fluid past aerofoil sections resembling those of aeroplane wings can be obtained accurately and without difficulty.. * Lamb. so that given wing sections can if desired be fitted closely.Chapter VI A THIN AEROFOILS AT ORDINARY SPEEDS 1 40 A. The fully developed theory provides for some 9 parameters controlling the shape of the profile. Such variation has several applications and particularly to the reduction of the pitching moment coefficient. Hydrodynamics. the crest of an unreflexed camberline is advanced from the midchord point characterising the circular arc to a position onesixth of the chord behind the nose. further developed by Goldstein. however. When. The determination of the said distribution in a given case involves in general. p.
The bent line to which the aerofoil section is reduced may be regarded as the trace of a surface of discontinuity in the sense that the velocity of the differs in fluid. 1042. Garrard. ' skeleton ' ' is intended (in the present connection only) by the circular arc of Fig.e. t cit. the median line of its upper and lower surfaces. be regarded as distributed along the chord. since the front stagnation point is under the sharp nose. but evidently some advance from the midchord point is important. thesis.238 AERODYNAMICS [CH. p.. These and similar precise calculations accord with experimental results known for some time previously. constitutes the thin aerofoil (in the present connection) for all the transformations considered in detail in term thin aerofoil/ Thus the Chapter VI. 212. for purposes of calculation. * Loc. i. Piper* has extended the simple profiles of Article 133A so that a stationary centre of pressure is secured by reflexing the camberline towards the tail and displacing its crest upstream. and the moment at zero lift will be different in the two cases but negligibly so. is also introduced at the outset. Hence a serviceable approximation to the moment should be obtainable in such cases by neglecting thickness altogether and regarding the aerofoil simply as a bent Such a line. often unacceptable for other reasons. A further approximation. compared with the difference that would result from changing the camberline if both thickness and camber are small. it is assumed that the vorticity may. Determining this by K Joukbwski's Hypothesis secures a finite velocity at the trailing edge but. magnitude This difference is determined by a distribution along the line of ' ' log r sources/ or point vortices/ i. London. But they also show f that for small cambers and thickness ratios the effect of the distribution of thickness of the section on the pitching moment is small compared with that of the shape of the camberline. to small deviations of the camberline from the chordline of the section. Ph. . at adjacent points on the two sides of the line. 93. Investigation being limited to small cambers. The total circulation circuit enclosing the line is equal to the sum of the circulations of all these elements (Article 97). the velocity is infinite at the leading edge. This may be thickened into a Joukowski section or into one whose profile is inverted from an hyperbola. the simple elementmotion described in Article 103 without restriction as to the minimum round a value of r except as stated in Article 39. if restricted to a small camber. though tangential to it at all points.D. Similarly.e. as follows.
(iii) Kdx The contribution. (i) L per unit of span is L = kdx the and. so that the normal component of F at P is F(a dy/dx).VIA] THIN AEROFOILS AT ORDINARY SPEEDS 239 1406. the local contribution to lift being proportional to k moment about the midchord point is given by M t M= P F kxdx. 8^. though determined for the point x on the chord. so that K= The lift f MX. Let k be the local intensity of the circulatory function forming the velocity t let it = = + surface of discontinuity. . . The Equations Choose the origin midway along the chord draw Ox along the chordline in the upstream direction and let the undisturbed . I . Denote the chord by c and be understood that the following integrations with respect to x are to extend from x \c to x \c. will be approximately the same at the corresponding point P on the But the resultant of v l and V must be parallel to thin aerofoil. Now this tangent is inclined to V at the angle a __ dyfdx. whence __L _ Vl ~~ f J kdx 2n X X* (iv) This velocity. . of the element kdx to the normal velocity v 1 at x (see Fig. the tangent at P. V make an angle a with Ox. Thus the boundary condition requires + F(a + dy/dx) + v = 0. 100A) component = kdx/2n(x x^.
= (r sin 6 a$)/b = sin 6 p cos = (r cos 8)/6 = cos + p sin 6 cos gives Substituting in ft (i) = 2F[sin 6(1 + P sin 0) + a(l + cos 6)]. to the first order. where 6 t is the angle that mately. ?I BP makes with the xaxis. Or approxi. for the case chosen. in the present connection. for a 1 of vanishing thickness r/b p sin 6 r/a = = + Joukowski and x/c = % cos 1 aerofoil 6. since other elements produce only normal velocities Hence k is proportional to this velocity difference. the circulararc thin aerofoil of Article 130. In the nomenclature of the figure. for a and p small. 0. (ii) . (i) Now by Articles 1323. and from the sin G! cos 6 X figure. 6. 93 the circle with centre at B and passing through the two singular points Q and R is transformed by Joukowski's formula into the two sides of a circular arc of camber jp. . which is there. by f 7 MX = x ft j xl  dy dxt ^ ^ (y) and this equation is to be satisfied for all points on the thin aerofoil. 2F[sin 6 X + oc(cos 8 t + 1) + p]. With a circulation appropriate to Joukowski's Hypothesis. the velocity at any point Pon the circular boundary is obtained from Article 135 as ft = = 2F[sin (G! + a) + sin (a + P)]. viz. by the chord. Generally. Hence. as follows. variation of the slope dy/dx of the camberline along the I40C. Application to Circular Arc Before attacking directly the problem presented by (v) of the preceding article. the assumption of small camber implies that the difference in the tangential velocities at the upper and lower surfaces of the thin aerofoil at a given point can arise only from the vorticity at that point. readily evaluated. it is useful to investigate a case for which the solution is already known. Thus the complete solution of the problem follows the determination of the distribution of k along the chord which will satisfy (v) in respect of a specified thin aerofoil defined.240 or AERODYNAMICS (iv) [CH. let the chord Q'R' be at a positive incidence a to a stream of velocity V coming from the right. Referring to Fig.
VIA] THIN AEROFOILS AT ORDINARY SPEEDS 241 squares and products of the small quantities a and p being neglected. for any point on the upper surface of the circulararc aerofoil the corresponding point in the circle plane subtends the the adjacent point on the lower surface has a corresponding 0. . now the chord from its a variable related to the distance x measured along midpoint by X = \C COS 9. p small. . arising from the application of Joukowski's Hypothesis. (iii) and if Now angle 0. the value of k is zero. The first term arises from the camber and the second from the incidence. "^ sin 6(1 6 + cos e . Hence the difference between the point subtending the angle increased velocity at the first point on the aerofoil and the reduced velocity at the second point is equal to 2F[2p sin to which k 8 + a cot (6/2)]. defined by 6 == n. and the last term can be reduced. This result is quite general. .p sin . . It will be noticed that at the trailing edge. so that the velocity on the boundary in the aerofoil plane is given byQ* q = ~J^ = vril!E . i 6)J V for a \ L I + 2p sin 6 + a AJ^L ] sm 6 J . To the same order the modulus of the transformation simplifies to dt = dz 2 sin 6(1 p sin 6). The Genera] Case The above result suggests that for more complicated thin aerofoils than the circular arc a suitable assumption regarding the variation of k along the chord is k where 6 is = 2tcF L4 cot  + ItA n sin w8j.P sin 6 L! dt/dz I  i . for the velocity could not otherwise remain finite at the trailing edge. 1400. Only the second would be present in the case of an inclined flat plate. (iv) is proportional.
= Substituting this assumed form for k in equation (v) of Article 140B gives the following expression for the slope dy/dx of the thin aerofoil. so that the condition k at the trailing edge remains satisfied however many terms are included. * sum of cosines in they may be found by the usual pro Cl. .242 AERODYNAMICS [CH. and only integral values of n are considered in the summation. The principal values of the integral + are* With the help follows : of these.. have to obtain the socalled principal value by evaluating the to e and e integral in two parts. . for instance... (i) can be reexpressed and reduced as A Q (l + cos 0) + $XA n [cos (n cos cos 1)0! X 1)0 . or camberline i\ AQ COt  + Cos sn sin 0^0. Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory. Glauert.cos (n + 1)0] M sin (n + sin (n 8^ J sin Ui = The this form. TU {A TtA n cos nOj}. (i) T + f dx Jo = We cos 6 The evaluation of the integral gives rise to some difficulty owing to the singularity at 6 P where the denominator vanishes. (ii) values of the coefficients may be evaluated directly if the slope of the thin aerofoil can be expressed as a Alternatively. and then evaluating the limit as e becomes vanishingly small. between the limits X X to TT.
The value of C M is a measure of the centre of pressure travel sine the distance of the centre of pressure from the quarterchord point is C M /C L It will also be noticed from centre of pressure requires that A 2 Av .. Q]dQ (i) CM ' 27u'(.. + i^ f ) + cos 6) + 5L4 n sin nQ sin cos 6 dQ (ii) JCL (iii) The last result is independent of incidence since only A Q involves a.VI A] THIN AEROFOILS AT ORDINARY SPEEDS suffix 1 as 243 cedure employed in the calculation of the coefficients of a Fourier series. . ^(4. terms of coefficients. cos 6) + 2AM sin nQ sin . they give the following Expressed CL = 2/^ VC = ' f 77 2n\ [A Jo (l + . 6] =7c [A Jo accent denotes the moment coefficient about a point onequarter of the chord from the leading edge. Example Let us assume for the camberline a cubic curve of the form lc = (J  #!<*) (A + BXJC).. The quarterchord point is therefore called the Aerodynamic centre.^) . . If C M without an CM = = CM .. iB ~B 8 1 2Ax/c terms of cos 0. 8 . = (iii) that a fixed i4oF. so that ^ or. The Aerodynamical Coefficients and Centre in Equations (ii) and (iii) of Article 140B are now solved. Dropping no longer necessary and integrating cos J4oE.4 + (l i^).. .. in == *(*lc)(A + Bxfc) 3Bx*/c*. Denoting by CM the moment coefficient about the midchord point.... dv f dx = ^ cos 3 B cos 29..
showing the magnitude of the reflexure towards the tail. . 100B. conclude that a camberline of the type concerned will secure zero travel of the centre of pressure for a thin aerofoil provided its equation is =  + S> where C is a small coefficient.244 This gives AERODYNAMICS [Cn. 100B. This shape of camberline is illustrated in Fig. vi A A. = Sn . The condition for a fixed centre of pressure is thus B We 8/4/3. FIG.
. Sy. v. Oz. making rapid progress possible. in the direction of which the velocity components any instant are u. Fixing attention on a boxlike element of space. by which is meant generally a sudden large increase of density and decrease of velocity associated with a production of vorticity and other phenomena. or when threedimensional concentrations of vorticity exist in otherwise irrotational flow in the latter case there is no stationary streamline state. and at the end of a brief interval at . with establishing a broader basis of fundamentals for guidance in later investigations. I40H. of sides 8#. w. and the assumptions will often be reintroduced to obtain approximate solutions to practical problems. Generalised Equation of Continuity Threedimensional motions will be referred to fixed coordinate axes Ox. . VI. The equation of continuity for unsteady compressible flow depends on little more than the conservation of matter no special form is obtained for an inviscid fluid. ' ' . of time $t this mass is increased by (i) 246 . therefore. The present chapter is concerned in the first place. It is also assumed that the flow proceeds isentropically without shock (Chapter III). 8z. The fluid is still regarded as inviscid. so that the pressure acts equally in all directions at any point and there is no diffusion of any vorticity present. the mass enclosed at any instant is p 8#8y8z. and VI A. The velocity potential that exists under these conditions satisfies Laplace's equation. But in 1406.Chapter VI B COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW In Chapters V. Oy. steady and twodimensional. fluid considered some circumstances they are inadmissible examples occur when high speeds cause appreciable variations of density. and we have to face unsteady as well as threedimensional conditions. In the succeeding chapter the general theory will be applied to twodimensional aerofoils at high speeds. the motion of the inviscid was assumed to be irrotational and incompressible.
y. z) where. It is frequently required to know the component accelera140!. If at time t a particle occupies the position (x. z) t at time . Simplified for steady twodimensional flow to compare with (61). f(x. the mass of the box increases during 8t by the amount dx faces. an instant along can be constructed only by following the element its path a simple example has already arisen . varies for a moving element. through the ^> Let the centre of the box be at the point y. (in) v ' dyJ showing a great change from the equation for incompressible flow. t). The same position arises if it is desired to calculate the rate at which some property of the element other than its We therefore examine the rate at which any velocity is varying. v The mass entering the box during the time t instant. function of position and time. the total increase of Extending the calculation to include also the other two pairs of mass during the time is But this must be equal to (i). at any the density is p. tions of a fluid element. and brief consideration shows that formulae for this purpose for in Article 29.246 AERODYNAMICS (x. Hence <> !+++du dv This general equation of continuity for compressible flow can take various equivalent forms. [CH. components are u. . it gives = I I I u dx dy p\ dp 3p\ ~ + v~ dx } . therefore. z. the velocity w and & nearer to the origin is while the mass leaving the box through the opposite face is fluid within In respect of flow through this pair of faces. y.
y + 8y. only of two kinds. following the motion of the fluid. 140). z + J dx dy dz dt Writing the new value of the function in the form _ a/ Di~dt + Df The operator Z>/Dtf. the component accelerations of an element are The force components producing these accelerations are. and often more convenient. and its use is called a differentiation It is worth remembering. as described for onedimensional motion in . in the absence of viscosity. u a/ d~ x + v a/ ty + w a/ dz defined by is sometimes known after Stokes. The first arise from the pressure gradients. form of the general equation of continuity. For example.VI B] t COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW (x ( 247 n + 8t it will have moved to the position and the function will have increased to + 8x. Euler's From Dynamical Equations the preceding article. the rate at which the density of a moving element increasing is is Dp ~W+ Dt == 3p dt 3p zt+ u dx z+ v 9p Sp ^ + w ~^' dz dy d Substituting in (ii) of the preceding article gives Dp fdu dv providing an alternative.
conditions e. wind tunnels. The above conditions are as follows is : of (a) The fluid inviscid. and consider an element of volume V with its centre at this point. is twodimensional. The second are due to extraneous causes. z). It is B outstanding importance in Aerodynamics.248 Article 28. and those involving w if it . pF Du/Dt pF . Du ~Dt ^X^P pdx = Y . Resolving in the ^direction. the only restriction being Substitutions for the lefthand sides will be made from (i) in accordance with given. dp/dx and similar expressions result from resolving in the y and zdirections. Hence finally. have any distribution of vorticity and is not constrained to be in steady motion (b) There exists an integrable functional relation between the . Kelvin's (or Thomson's) Theorem It will now be shown that under certain conditions the circulation round any circuit moving at every point with the fluid does not vary with time. though it may FIG. I40K. This theorem was enunciated by Lord Kelvin when Sir William Thomson and is known under both names. looc. At any instant let p be the pressure. exercising a directive influence on the theory and design of wings.i^ I (ii) Dv Dt Dw dp p dz' to an in viscid fluid. X V .g. the terms in d/dt will be omitted if the flow is steady. airscrews. and X. . p the density. such as gravity. etc. y. AERODYNAMICS and are proportional to the volume [CH. = . of the element. These equations of motion are general. Y Z t the components of extraneous force per unit mass at the point (x.
and density . i. however its shape may vary with time. etc. ' . rate at which the flow along the fluid line increases is given by The from A to B D Considering the first r I B (udx + vdy + wdz).VI B] COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW 249 forces pressure servative. components a of extraneous force valued potential function single and w$z are similarly is assumed that the unit mass are derivable from per ii._. equal to Su. it is Hence ~ t (u$x) =D ~** + Sw =D + !(). themselves moving with the fluid and connected by any fluid thus line/ i. or. . adding the three equations together.. this expression. . lOOc. *x t the rate at which the projection of an element 8s of is the line on the #axis elongating.e. (c) The extraneous are con Consider first any two separated points. substituting from the equations of motion. so that X= dl/dx. a line of which every point is moving with the fluid the line selected will always consist of the same fluid particles. . (i) term of . D J dy t/ p \ dx dz f /) = 80 P + Integrating along the entire fluid line gives finally [cdfi I ft + i? 1 j p . Fig. Differentiations following the motion of vlly It expressed. A and J3.e. D _ But (D/Dt)(8x) is l _ = Du . yielding three such equations. Hence.
and it follows immediately dv ~~ dw dv = __ Su ' " dw = __ (x. If at any instant then u that = udx + vdy d<f>/dx. I40M. . i. but the If the motion of a bulk of inviscid following may be noted at once. every closed circuit that can be drawn in the region occupied has But the argument can be shortened to the following. provided as assumed. Applications of this result will be discussed in place. irrespective of compressibility.e. Integration of the Equations of Motion Euler's dynamical equations can be integrated through any part of a fluid in which a velocity potential exists.e. The theorem of the preceding article then enables us to say that the bulk of fluid considered will continue to possess a velocity potential. The lefthand side of (ii) then round this circuit varies gives the rate at which the circulation with time. that the state of irrotational motion is maintained in that bulk of fluid. Hence B p is an integrable function of p. (ni) the circulation round a loop of fluid particles remains constant provided it does not enter a rotational field of extraneous force and the chain remains unbroken. an exact differential d<f>. (or of a given part of a fluid in motion. i. The need for this . The theorem then asserts that these circulations remain zero under the conditions assumed. A B becoming adjacent points. But the value of the righthand side must be zero K when coincides with A. fluid is at any instant irrotational. w + = wdz is d<j>/dz. steady or not) are devoid of vorticity. . components of Assuming (i) in the first instance establishes the existence of a velocity potential at the given instant. since zero circulation. du dy ty~dz The lefthand vorticity of dz Tx ' = ' dx W sides of these expressions are the an element situated at y t z). IRROTATIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW If at any instant all elements of the fluid i4oL. then the circulations round all fluid loops that can be drawn within the bulk vanish for the reason discussed in Article 97. DK ^=0. v d(f>/dy. .250 AERODYNAMICS [CH. and Now let the fluid line be elongated to form a closed circuit. it can be shown as before that a velocity potential then exists.
streamlines in the sense implied do not in general exist. the first of the equations of motion. etc. whilst in potential motions surrounding concentrations of vorticity. the second and third of the equations of motion can be rearranged to involve partial differentiations with regard to only y and z. Multiplying the first of these rearranged expressions by 8x... the third by 8z. the second by Sy. step first not always apparent on a of Articles 29 and 40. By virtue of (i) of the preceding article. is therefore more accurately written as F(t). such as a pump. so that becomes equation Z X Hence. du ot a7 + u a" ox du + du V Tdy + w dz X + a dw du " p 1 3/> *' dx = can be changed to d26 a75 cxct + u^ + dx du dv v *dx + w dx X + ~ a 1 p /= dx df>  Similarly. when C becomes a constant. . changing the pressure throughout the bulk of fluid by extraneous means. Y. etc. and u* + v* + w* = q 2 . or absorbed into d</)/dt with this understanding and the lefthand side of the expression then equated to zero. for example. say. In this strict sense the lefthand side of (i) is constant for is In general C an arbitrary function of time. last ).VI B] COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW is 2fil reading of the subject in view be reflected that Bernoulli's equation was derived by integrating along a streamline. the Integrating. assuming dd/dx. . viz. for only at any instant example. have a potential Q. and adding gives 8 ( & 8(^ a But u8u that X. and all particles its value can be altered by. But Aerodynamical calculations usually suppose an unrestricted expanse of fluid and exclude such external actions. But it will but only pathlines. respectively.
For steady flow in the absence of extraneous forces the equation (i). found by integrating along a streamline. . the pressure is assumed to be related to the density by y the adiabatic law p kp and expressions obtained in Articles 31 = t and 32 are applicable under steady conditions. air in the If and in which the pressure sound a then by Article 31 . Steady Irrotational Flow in Two Dimensions The equation of continuity for steady compressible flow in two dimensions is.252 AERODYNAMICS [CH. region where the velocity is q. from Article 140H. .e. reduces to  P i. As before. + %q* = constant. where a is the local velocity of sound i. but it is more general in to the same form showing that with that type of compressible steady motion Bernoulli's constant has a single value for all particles. (ii) as Bernoulli's equation. Article 29. _ 2 dp 9p 3# 9p * __ 2a* p 3p 3^' 3^ a? a p rfp _ 2a a p 8y dy' . obtained by integrating Euler's equations of motion. this becomes on substituting for u and v in terms of where y1 Differentiating that dpjd? = y^/p = dq* (ii) of the preceding article and remembering aa . . that for the Substituting in (ii). I40N. The new result is less general in that it is restricted to potential flow. U the disturbed motion arises from a uniform stream of velocity is p Q the density p and the speed of .e. 1 / dv du 9p\ 3p __ If the flow is <f> irrotational.
a stage As . . !)(. 8. Hence while formerly. Let Ss. the streamlines close stagnation point. Jour. Aero. when the variation of density is no longer The streamlines for incompressible flow are by then negligible.C. but variation of p must now be taken into account = = by defining 8fy aq oX where a denotes the density relative to that of the undisturbed stream. vol. = in. Imai and Aihara. 1940. of (115). with the density constant. And others. 1684. 1916. appreciably distorted. <f> and ^ varied equally through any small region. vol. A hodograph method. As may be verified directly or inferred from the preliminary discussion of a general nature given in Chapter II. a Joukowski aerofoil and the sphere. . Mag. Phil. 1936.VI B] COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW 253 in (iii) This expression enables substitution to be variable local speed of sound.. Hooker. Set. respectively. their variations are now inversely proportional to a. No.. is usually expanded in a series of terms of even powers of M. see the references are also given.. $n be elements of length of adjacent streamlines and equipotentials. 32. 1940.C. Near the where the density increases.R. convergence becomes slow as q approaches a solutions * have been published only for the circular and elliptic cylinders. 1941. q d(f>/ds d^ldn. The value former. Karman and Tsien.R. M= . & M. No.  No.N. (iv) approximates closely to (115) for The moderately small values of the Mach number U/a Q range depends upon the section of the body since the criterion is associated with the maximum value of q/a attained by the fluid in thus it may be more than twice as great for a wing flowing past it section as it is for a circular cylinder.M)]V* = (O + W. N. M is reached. Tokyo Univ. introduced by Tchapliguine in Russia (1904) has recently been developed f in the hope of enabling higher local speeds to be dealt with. A. the counterpart. 199.T. for compressible no general solution and is laborious to handle. is increased. there is no difficulty in appreciating qualitatively the effect of compressibility on the streamlines. (iv) where qa written for the velocity ratio q/a Q and M for the Mach number U/aQ flow. has <f> This differential equation for ^.A. The first of these still holds for compressible flow.. early or late. For incompressible flow. Whilst the exact calculation of compressible flow in two dimensions for given boundary conditions is intricate even under favourable conditions. giving [2 made for the  (Y is . * whilst near the shoulder of the bodysection they separate Rayleigh (Lord). Rept. 762. but .' .A. where further of 7 is changed by this method.. Kaplan.
layer of electrolytically conducting liquid contained in a bath having an insulating bottom. Jour. with a free surface along an open channel having vertical sides. No.. Let x be measured in the direction of mean flow in the channel and y perpendicular thereto and * . the pressure changes round the profile of the body are augmented so long as the flow remains irrotational. and so the main effect of compressibility is sometimes said to be an expansion of scale across the stream. Associated with the distortion of the streamlines. A. and consider a et rectTech. " all points along any one Thus. Math. say water. horizontally._ and horizontal. The water is assumed :  to flow irrotationally and its velocity to be constant at vertical line.264 AERODYNAMICS [CH. an analogy will be found to exist between the variation of the density p within the compressible flow and the variation of the height h of the liquid surface above the floor of the channel. Roy. There has also been suggested an incomplete analogy with the flow of water through an open channel.. Sci. Pub. if w is the com ponent of the (horizontal) velocity in an y direction across a vertical line whose FIG IOOD total height above the channel floor is h' then the flux across a vertical strip of width b perpendicular to the t direction of w is w.* A trial exploration of the distribution of electrical potential (which is proportional to <f>) enables the distribution of a in the compressible flow to be assessed. which can be shaped to represent effects of compressibility ments the electrical the boundary condition in the flow case. which is assumed to be flat . In comparing the twodimensional flow of a gas and the flow of an incompressible fluid. In an an alternating current is passed through a analogy. des. see also Riaboushinsky.  Jouguet.! as follows Hydraulic Analogy. Taylor (Sir Geoffrey) and Sharman. . farther from each other in order to accommodate between them the same mass flow with a reduced density.h' b. 121.. but this statement is incomplete. 108. The latter change is usually the more important in Aerodynamical applications. 1920 Miaistre de Fair. vol. 1937. 1400. 1928. Proc. Soc. and the bottom of the bath is then reshaped to make the thickness of the electrolyte proportional to <r and the experiment repeated. Analogies These and similar considerations have led to the suggestion of certain analogies with a view to inferring from convenient experi on irrotational flow.
CD. across the pair of faces fact that the volume of the incompressible liquid within the space BC element cannot vary. are h ^ components perpendicular to these faces at their middle points are is u T Su 1 TT SAC. . we have finally u i. and expressing the calculated. Adding the rate of outward flow. on will denote undisturbed conditions. with the relation of the density p to the resultant velocity in the corresponding compressible flow. on the one hand. similarly and DA.y. dh ox + h ox T du + v ~~ dh oy + h~ . Relations derived by virtue of the absence of vorticity are identical for the two cases of motion and. respectively.4 3* *+ + ( + 9 *f (*+ *!) * dx to the first order. its heights at the middle dh 8x. the other hand. ( i) This result is identical with the equation of continuity for twodimensional compressible flow if p replaces h. Bernoulli's equation gives in the usual form employed in hydraulics and which is easily deduced from Article 140M: . AB and CD is. whose centre is at #. 100D. If the height of the layer of water is h at x. whilst the velocity % points of AB.e.. (  &*} (".VI B] COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW 255 angular spaceelement A BCD. y. Hence the rate at which fluid leaving the spaceelement in respect of flow across the faces by the foregoing. dv =:Q oy Iw + ^wo. Fig. to establish the analogy. it remains only to compare the relation of h to the resultant velocity q in the channel. Suffix For the channel. respectively.
where the pressures p and p are identical. so that putting ghQ c* is But gA = The corresponding expressed in (47) as result for compressible flow has already been is the velocity of sound in the gas where the temperature corresponds to p Thus (ii) is identical to (iii) if h is substituted for p. a is small ^o If 2a<*~~ is . close in the case of thin aerofoils and other slender bodies. The flux per unit width of the The formula quoted above channel is then chQ Let h denote the height of any point P on the surface of the wave above the bottom of the channel and q the fluid velocity at P. . The value required for y is substantially different from and the analogy is therefore incomplete in this connection. we observe that the incompleteness is negligible if q* compared with 20 *. for then (iii) can be expanded as ~~ Moreover. for air.256 AERODYNAMICS [CH. so that the wave becomes stationary and the entire motion steady. the horizontal component of velocity u is sensibly the same at all points of the vertical line drawn from P into the fluid and equal to q. c for a Q and if where a . where pw is the density of the water. Thus the flux across the transverse . for the velocity c of propagation of shallow gravitywaves is easily derived as follows. 1405. [2_ \ 2a 2 the density ratio f the term omitted in the analogy amounts Thus the analogy is in this case only to about 2 per cent. however. its qualitative use. yields equal to the square of the velocity of long waves of small amplitude in a channel. and qh = ch Q. y = 2. Applying this equation to the free surface. plane through P is qh per unit width. long Imagine such a wave travelling upstream and adjust the speed of flow through the channel to c. Under the conditions postulated. <? This does not invalidate.
or soundwaves in air can be seen as follows. viz. all other terms can be neglected in comparison with dujdt and dp fix consequently . so that every particle in a vertical line is displaced (*o + *i z) = equally. whence dp fix g^. Taking % in the direction of motion and assuming the disturbance to be given. follows at once from the equation of continuity for incompressible flow and the result that du/dx is the same for all values of z since every particle on a vertical line moves equally. = The culated in this sions. This independent of z.dz^Jdx. dzjdt. the Bernoulli's equation gives for pressure being constant. Turning now to a plane wave of pressure disturbance moving normal to itself in the ^direction through the atmosphere. 2$h * This reduces approximately to the result stated. 9 . c a ghQt on the height ti of the crest of the wave so that A'//*o 1 is restricting small. the pressure increase at the level z gfw is is approximately equal to the static value. fc* any streamline on the a + gho = k + gh> a Substituting for q. Referring to the equations of motion given in Article 140J. small. du dt dp p w dx 1 dz l dx The upward velocity at P. write h + z l for h and let z denote height above the channel floor. we is restrict investigation to the case of a small disturbance so that 1 p/p small. by A D.VI B] COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW 257 surface. viz. We have 3*. this quantity is known as the condensation and denoted s. Considering first a gravitywave in slightly more detail. velocity a of pressurewaves in the atmosphere cannot be calway without large error owing to the variation of temperature consequent upon adiabatic expansions and compresThis matter has already been discussed and a reliable formula The correspondence between the gravitywaves in a channel and pressure.
If the disturbance in pressure is other than small. more complicated considerations set out for a plane shock The present simplification will be found to possess. and surface configurations being used to estimate density ratios in the corresponding compressible flows. the equation of motion . since the total variation in p is small (for which reason also a suffix to distinguish undisturbed conditions is unnecessary). the method is convenient to demonstrate changes in flow which occur as the velocity is increased from well below that of propagation of small waves in the medium to well above this speed. especially of surface waves graphs being above the critical speed c forces on models being measured. the floor of the channel will. VI B is With E written for the bulk elasticity pdpjdp and with udu/dx neglected in comparison with Su/dt as before. Apart from these important quantitative applications. corresponding to change from subsonic to supersonic flow. phototaken of flow patterns. t .258 AERODYNAMICS [CH. effect of friction. establishing the analogy. however. For example. the flow in a convergentdivergent channel can be examined in this way and some aspects of the supersonic tunnel revealed. this gives approximately 1 . ' ' ' . du dt I 9 dp * dx E dp \_ * i P *a* v vi i ' The equation of continuity for compressible flow must be employed but.. v P 8i ai (V11) Now equations (vi) and (vii) can be reproduced from (iv) and (v) by substituting JE/p for gh and s for z^/h. In application to experiment. slope slightly downward to counteract approximately the The method has been widely employed. we have to return to the wave in Article 66D.9p = du . of course. a surprising degree of utility.
I (P) + I aw . the way of obtaining even an approximate solution of the exact equation for is avoided by deriving in the first instance an approximate form of that equation suitable for thin aerofoils. Aerodynamic Theory. and Glauert's Theory* is directed towards The theorem establishing the basis for these. Roy. Subsonic Speeds Glauert's Theory high speeds that account must be taken of the compressibility of the air. A. vol.  Investigation is restricted to thin aerofoils at small incidences and having profiles that are everywhere inclined at only small angles to the ^direction of motion. dx . 1928. (i) dv if p \ do P i. so that the ^component u of the disturbed velocity is little greater than U and the ^component v is of the same order as u U. dx dy dx dy may then be written approximately ox + dy + p _ o. The primary aim is to avoid the formation of shock waves by restricting the maximum velocity ratio (cf. and now written for convenience as L ^KU. as is assumed in the present Article. Article 129B) for a given lift coefficient. Soc. Div. modifications are required to formulae (169)(173) of Articles 136138. H. vol. . The flow outside the boundary layer then remains The difficulty in irrotational.. . still holds when the undisturbed < application of conformal methods is found in the design of sections for wings and airscrew blades intended for such One = the air stream is sufficiently high as to involve p in the neighbourhood of the aerofoil This generalisation is assumed below.Chapter VI C THIN AEROFOILS AT HIGH SPEEDS I40P. ap P . . 250 Ill. 118..e. v ' (U) * Pvoc. The equation of continuity velocity of U appreciable variation of from its initial value p . f Proof is indicated by Taylor and Maccoll. Owing to the augmentation of pressure changes. (P*) = o. proved in Article 137 for incompressible flow.
and the form remains identically the same. (ii) for the Mach number U/a Q and substituting in Writing gives approximately for the equation of continuity M Substitution in v' (iii) of = v/(l  M 2 1/s ) and 9 y == y(l  M') 1 '2 reduces that expression to du dx + W_ ~ dy' which has identically the same form as the equation of continuity for incompressible flow. viz. if the undisturbed stream. Pressure and density variations are appropriately assumed to be is the velocity of sound in governed by the adiabatic law and. whether compressible expressing or incompressible. The circulation round the aerofoil K= Jc (udx vdy) . The same substitution in the equation the condition for irrotational flow. (47) of Article 30 gives with the present notation Differentiating with respect to x. Now (y l)/2 = 1/5 and 1 <5p 2 (u C/ 8 )/a 2 is always small. u du I 3p __ aj dx 2a ' ^ V .260 AERODYNAMICS [CH. dv  vorhcity gives du = 0. Therefore __ _ u du __ __ U a<f du p dx aj dx dx closely.
being equal to p Q UK. Since v/u in the compressible flow is everywhere less than v'fu. the incidence of the aerofoil section must be reduced in the same Afa ) 1/2 1. Comparison with experiment. appreciable camber and thickness would usually involve as a secondary effect a change in the shape of the profile in the neighbourhood of the nose but the analogy breaks down for another reason near the nose. Between 05 seen between M= and 07 the slope of the experimental liftcurve * still increased Stanton. 025 and 05. viz. and this is compatible with the reduction of incidence of the aerofoil because points on the profile. remains unaltered. U can be regarded as small in this region. This mathematical analogy between compressible and incompressible flow at the same undisturbed speed past a thin aerofoil having the same circulation implies an important difference in order that the boundary condition may be satisfied in both cases. It follows that the liftcurve slope. (1 satisfied with vanishing camber and thickness. according Close agreement is to the above theory is indicated by the fullline. dC L /d<x. consistently is approximation. IOOE relates to some wellknown * experiments at high speeds carried out at the National Physical Laboratory on an aerofoil having the section inset. No. Thus the at (1 effect of compressibility. 1928. or on any other streamline. while the increase of dCL /da..R. & M. linear scale appropriate to the incompressible flow. : with the present to enable a thin aerofoil to generate a given lift ratio inci an incidence reduced in the Afa ) 1/3 1 compared with the dence required with incompressible flow of the same speed.VIC] THIN AEROFOILS AT HIGH SPEEDS 261 remains unaltered by the substitution since v and y are changed in reciprocal ratios whilst u and x remain unchanged Hence the lift of the aerofoil per unit of its length. viz. A.C. FIG. The observations are shown as encircled points. that neither v nor u The analogy also requires an expansion in the jydirection of the . 1130. IOOE.R. Fig. is increased by a 1/3 ) compressibility in the ratio 1 (1 t : M . in the incompressible flow case do not correspond to points on a streamline in the compressible flow case. : . dc "Ha This result is usually stated as an increase in the same ratio of the lift coefficient for a given incidence. I40Q. . and the flow adjacent to the aerofoil profile must be tangential thereto. Whilst this requirement can evidently be ratio.
it has recently been questioned f whether a shock wave necessarily forms at this stage. Supersonic Speeds The Mach Angle a body moves through air at a velocity than that of sound a shock wave pregreater cedes it in the form of a bow wave.A.. p. to a much reduced value at The section of the above aerofoil may be regarded as favourable to the conditions postulated in the theory except that the thickness M= ratio was necessarily too large (0*1). and velocity change with pressure. very great rapidity. 100F IOOF. M attached to the aerofoil at or near the position of maximum velocity round the profile.g. I4OR. but no more. of more normal section. Lindsey and 263. N.. Stack. of the effects of compressibility on the lift of aerofoils up to moderate Mach numbers. experimental curve.262 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Imagining the air to flow through a stationary shock wave. 1938.R. which show that the disSHOCK turbance is confined to a thin sheet. . Such bow waves are familiar in photographs of fastmoving bullets. BY Within the sheet. loc. Another aerofoil. as indicated schematically by the dotted extension to the M 17. its velocity is suddenly decreased and its density * When E. shock stall (Article 66C). Thus experiments so far published suggest that the theory provides a fair indication. density. showed a less increase of dCL /d<x.C.A. (cf. In any case there appears no reason for supposing that the shock stall must occur at 060'7. t K&rman. No. as so often observed. notably. However. also Article 66C). . Littell.T. Fig. in order to divide the air and deflect it round the nose. FIG. At some undetermined in the neighbourhood of 07 the liftcurve slope began to value of decrease. cit. and an earlier maximum others have shown in more recent tests * a substantially greater rate of increase of liftcurve slope than the theory predicts. but rather that aerofoil sections can be designed M= to delay this stall appreciably. 040. The critical Mach number is sometimes described as that at which this maximum velocity attains to the local velocity of sound. but at less than the predicted rate. at which dCL /d& changes sign is called the critical The value of Mach number for the aerofoil and the phenomenon is known as the It marks the formation of a shock wave.
the disturbance and it becomes small and is propagated at the velocity of sound. let it steadily in the direction PP' at a supersonic speed C7. as illustrated in the case of the pitot tube. be any point on a body FIG. whilst air passing through can satisfy Bernoulli's equation. for the body continually overtakes the wave it Behind the generates except for a central region of percussion. Fig. and so on. which known as the Mach angle and denoted . Thus no disturbance can have been propagated during the time t beyond the pair of planes through P' tangential to all such circular front will = t cylinders. At some distance from the body. propagating at the speed of sound. halfway through the interval of time when through P has reached a point P" such that PP" \Ut the wave front will lie on a circular cylinder of radius \at and axis at P". THIN AEROFOILS AT HIGH SPEEDS 263 part of its mechanical energy is converted into heat Bernoulli's equation can only be acquires vorticity. that PP' A small disturbance of pressure starting from P will in the same interval of time travel a distance at.VIC] increased. Let P. Similarly. so that in the twodimensional case the wave moving = lie on a circular cylinder of radius at whose axis passes P. and reach the position P' at the end of an interval of time t. It is then easily seen that the waves are inclined to the flight path at a definite angle. Investigation of the complete problem is somewhat complicated. and effecting only small changes. Each sin"" 1 of these planes is is inclined to the flight path at the angle (a/U). employed in these circumstances by introducing suitable changes in the constant. central region an additional wake is formed. and the streamlines are parallel to the surface. But there is no preparatory formation of streamlines ahead such as characterises subsonic flow. THE MACH ANGLE. 100G. but progress can readily be made in the case of a thin aerofoil at small incidence by assuming that the disturbance consists only of a pressure wave. Article 66D. a being the velocity of sound. however. lOOo. so Ut.
16. 1925. where lines have been drawn at the Mach angle from the Fig. aerofoil is similarly treated. vol. . by m. a writing n for and substitution 2 in M (iii) of Article 140P gives. ^tf^O dy* dx* This equation has the general solution The ny\ ny) fi(* solution over the upper surface of the aerofoil may be regarded as that for a uniform flow plus a function of the type/x whence it is < .. the straight lines y == %/n is constant flow along lines are inclined to the direction of motion of the aerofoil These <f> + at the angle i. readily modified to apply to three dimensions. but since expected a large disturbance tends to die away as the wave proceeds. obliquely through the oncoming stream. 1408.264 AERODYNAMICS The above argument is [CH. in the immediate vicinity of a fastmoving body.e. the wave front then becoming a cone of angle 2m at the vertex. Ackeret's Theory The simplifying assumption above mentioned. on 1.M. i. It loss of velocity must be observed that the foregoing result depends upon the normal to the wave suffered by the oncoming stream being small. The velocity potential is related in the same way to the relative motion as for incom M pressible flow. at the Mach angle m. The wave fronts are propagated normally to themselves. and pitching approximate aerofoils moment at supersonic speeds.F. =  + MX + to be added to that for the uniform seen that the increment of constant. viz. the Mach angle will still characterise the outer parts of the wave. Let the relative velocity U now exceed the velocity of sound a Q in the undisturbed fluid. so that the wave The latter condition may be front is much more steeply inclined. so that > 1. nose and tail of the aerofoil. drag. was introduced by Ackeret advancing the following method of calculating the lift.e. In the case of a large disturbance the velocity of propagation may greatly exceed that of sound. Each pair of lines contains between * The wave under the Z. leading to 100H. that for thin such as those examined in Article 140P the disturbance be regarded as everywhere small and the aerofoil flow as nearly may * in uniform.
p Since u is p = Q 1 Ipoff/ [([/. the component along the of fluid velocity is normal to the element u cos (m component is of the velocity of the element itself in the e) and the same direction t/e.VIC] THIN AEROFOILS AT HIGH SPEEDS 265 them a soundwave propagating obliquely upward from the upper surface and downward from the lower surface. u in this equation from (ii). 1 '2 ' (iii) I) Ufa as before.D. and sub(u cos stituting. at a small angle z to the relative motion. = (M . = Us sec m. But by (i) tan m= p p L a Q l(U* J Po t/  2 p C7 e tan m. (ii) Assuming now the air to be flowing past the stationary aerofoil. all U aerofoil profile. the Mach number. . These must be equal. a 2 l/2 ) . The increment of additional to that for a superposed uniform flow is constant along the wave front and along any line parallel thereto within the wave. / / FIG. Hence rk _ finally ' . \ "lie as in the figure. of u appropriate to magnitude any such line is determined by the boundary condition and so depends upon the shape of the stant along. A. where M . The mally to. Hence the additional velocity u is con<f> and directed norsuch lines. . little from [7. the pressure p within the standing soundwave is related to the undisturbed pressure p by (52) 'of Article 31. giving approximately u Now q has the components U its u sin m and u cos m. giving C7w sin m. Considering an element of the profile inclined. small. terms involving p Substituting for p = = p square may be neglected. . whence u provided e is small. 9* . since increase of and p p Q may be expanded as described in that p is small article since the resultant fluid velocity q within the wave differs .u sin mY + m) 9 ]}. . IOOH.
f from which Fig. The maximum experimental L/D is only 3^. the agreement between prediction and experiment is seen to be good. in the manner described in Article 44. in a paper by Hooker.CR & M. the calculated value of dCJdat. It is clear that the assumption of soundwaves cannot be justified in OO FIG. No. from this point of view the biconvex circulararc aerofoil of Fig. . &C 02 I40T. More accurate methods due to Prandtl and Busemann are also The matter available for determining the flow over the profile. achieving success in favourable circumstances.R. M= * and obtained good agreement with Stanton's experiments. Considering that skin friction is neglected. per cent. M = 05 Comparison with the experimental value of 4*85 for illustrates the loss At an incidence of 7 \ Q caused by the compressibility stall. to yield estimations of the lift. 1001 has is developed further been prepared with reference to the above biconvex aerofoil and Mach number. Article 66D. less.R. Taylor coefficients. 1036. f A. No. VI C The pressure coefficient. is 285 and the observed value 3. 1721. Ackeret's theory for the higher range 01 regarded as an interesting and simple approach to a difficult matter. * A. Theory (Hooker) Experiment (Stanton) the region of the nose of the aerofoil at a very high speed. the drag coefficeint (CD ) was observed to be nearly 01 and the calculated value. given by (iii). lOOi. ignoring skin friction. considerations of the kind investi gated for the pitot tube.R. may be integrated round the profile of a given aerofoil section. Like Glauert's theory for thin aerofoils at subsonic speeds. 100E.C. is about 7 data have yet been published regarding tests on aerofoils of other sections at super neglecting skin friction. and that the BICONVEX AEROFOIL AT shock wave there formed will involve M= 17. and likely to be improved is or adapted as more experience is 6 INCIDENCE 01 4 gained in this comparatively new but important branch of our subject. 1932.266 AERODYNAMICS [CH. but would be greater for a thinner section. Approximately. & M. Few 03 sonic speeds. and pitchingmoment examined For 17. drag. 1467.
we have from Article 39 that co. While again assuming in viscid incompressible flow. or else abut on a bounThe line (in general curved) to which the axis of rotation of dary. its 267 . because the tangible evidence of a real vortex in a . Isolated Rectilinear Vortex of Circular Section and Uniform Vorticity The vortex is assumed to be straight and infinitely long. If every vortex lines be drawn through every point of the periphery of a very small area. though not where vorticity exists through the latter there will be a variation of pitot head. cutting the section at the point. they form a vortex tube.Chapter VII VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 141. element of the string is tangential is called a vortex line. forming a ring or loop. But in theory. begin by considering in detail a simple type of theoretical vortex which long. straight parts of practical vortex loops resemble. of which the small area is a crosssection. and the fluid. or simply a vortex. If a is its radius and its uniform vorticity. but experiment shows motions of practical interest to comprise rotational and irrotational parts (Chapters II and VI B). we shall find. we now extend its nature to this composite structure. is called a vortex filament. approximates under aeronautical conditions. Such a string cannot terminate in the fluid. usually a widespread swirl of air. a condition to wind is . as in fact. It will be proved that elements of fluid possessing vorticity are axially continuous with elements similarly characterised vorticity at a point in a crosssection of a bulk of fluid implies the existence of a string of rotating elements. A difficulty is sometimes experienced at the outset with the foregoing definitions. but must either be reentrant. which air flow We 142. known as Rankine's vortex. GENERAL THEOREMS AND FORMULAE In Chapters V and VI the motion of the fluid was assumed to be wholly irrotational. vortex has inseparably associated with it an external motion every for an inviscid fluid this is an irrotational circulation. . In general the fluid motions will be unsteady but Bernoulli's equation will apply to irrotational regions.
(178) writing a for the area of crosssection. TT for r > a. AERODYNAMICS [CH. = J. Outside the vortex the flow is irrotational. assumed constant angular velocity. for r < a as was shown in Article 103 dp Tr Integrating and substituting for o> from (178) P = *&** + 2 .. however. pK* * (i) Now this must the constant =P give the same pressure as when r = a. and this definition is carried over cr which are not straight. and the velocity is assumed to be continuous at r a.. Any of these quantities defines the strength of the vortex. 00. 103. but Bernoulli's equation does not apply.. Therefore pK*/4n*a Hence. 101 shows the variation of velocity and pressure through the vortex of the diameter shown. = >a (179) Let P noulli's be the pressure at r oo when q 0. size to investigate A practical vortex of sufficient experimentally differs in that its spin is not is less constant and its periphery sharply defined. equilibrium Within the vortex there is.. of course. the same condition for equiSince we have librium. is 2na . we have for r < a q t = wr = K~r 8 . its periphery . =& . : The circulation 7ra a K round . q = &TW . If q is the to vortices of crosssectional area = K velocity at any radius r. showing the simplest condition under which irrotational circulation can occur round a The foregoing supplements Article . an irrotational circulation of strength must surround the vortex. within the vortex (I80) Fig. Hence K = 2w . Therefore.268 angular velocity. the outer flow gives for r equation through = Applying Ber '>to be consistent with the element being in under the pressure gradient and the centrifugal force.
over the free liquid surface the pressure must be constant. Article 6) To P P r K 47U 2 * gz> f for r >a t Lri = J 8 d\ r *} for Pl 2a*J depth below the general level of the surface. the negative Sign following from choice of counterclockwise sense for r a. of liquid on whose take account of the weight of the liquid. of density p lf equations (i) and (180) of the preceding article become (cf. K the constant = K/4n and positive. If z' denotes the depression of the where z is the surface through the dimple z f ==  r. DISTRIBUTION OF VELOCITY AND PRESSURE THROUGH A RANKINE VORTEX.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 269 fluid core. and hence a dimple is formed. which amounts to pJt a/47rta 1 For the outer flow have. To prevent cavi tation. L for r < a. for r > a. pressure drop at the centre. from Article 103 we The stream function inner flow is for the obtained at once as FIG. The maximum depth of the dimple is K*/4gn*a* . A interest. slight generalisation of the above has an experimental In this the vortex is assumed to be vertical. 101. and in a bulk free surface it terminates. For (iii) (iii) to agree with (ii) when becomes 143. P must exceed the . Now.
so that ABCD and A'B'C'D' enclose two sections of the vortex. If the vortices are in the atmosphere above the tank and terminate on the water When surface. 102 shows part of a vortex filament. the circuit ABCDD'C' The lines AA'. DD' are adjacent. 144. one way of making them visible is by introducing watervapour.270 AERODYNAMICS [CH. further developed by Kelvin. K' are the same as if evaluated round normal . whilst the vortex is free to move. It is clear that K. liquid is pressed a short distance up into their cores. in the first place. at the centre of an isolated rectilinear vortex in an infinite velocity fluid. but their direct application to air flow is remarkably fruitful in practical results. which reveals the streamlines and facilitates photographs. due to Helmholtz. although it is usually more convenient to sprinkle aluminium dust on the surface. Aerodynamical calculations are chiefly concerned with the velocity field. The theory of inviscid vortices was. and it is nearly always permissible to neglect the effects of a vortex diameter and of the particular In the following distribution of vorticity within a given vortex. proceed to prove a number of theorems. By observing dimples on the surface of water contained in a tank. which is stationary at a large distance from the or within a concentric cylindrical boundary. An essential difference circulation around a solid core between a complete vortex and that the latter may be fixed or constrained to a certain path. or when one rectilinear vortex near another or approaches a boundary. example. We These are rigidly true only for the inviscid fluid assumed. The is outer irrotational flow associated with a vortex is called its velocity The field. But this is not expanse of the case with a vortex ring or loop. although 145. and the vortex remains stationary. they form loops within an air stream. to take another vortex. is Although requiring a knowledge of the strengths and instantaneous disposition of the vortices. and the velocity at any point the induced velocity. second K'. articles the vortex filaments are assumed to be thin and of uniform vorticity throughout any crosssection. The Strength of a Vortex is Constant throughout its Length Fig. is zero. which tends to condense in the interior of the filaments. Let the circulation round the first section be K and that round the B'A'A being drawn on its surface. the positions of the ends of vortices within the tank terminating on the surface can be found with some accuracy.
cr. described. Then by the above and Kelvin's 140K) the strength of the vortex is constant with Since also the strength of a vortex is constant along its length. which applies to a curved as well as to a straight vortex. .VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 271 crosssections in the positions A. and boundary will equal the round the elements enclosed. K' give Now. for instance. Other Vortex Laws : theorem given in Article 97 can now be restated as follows The circulation round any circuit is equal to the sum of the strengths It should also be noted that this of the vortices it encloses. theorem is not restricted to two dimensions. Let a wide circuit move at every point with the fluid and enclose a single isolated vortex section. 146. the cylindrical surface having ABCDD'C'B'A'A as boundary may be split up into a large number of elements of area by a fine network of lines drawn in the surface. if a denote the normal crosssectional area and the vorticity at A. because. cancels the flow along D'D. i. will Hence K. as was done in Article 97. the circulation round ABCD equals that round A'B'C'D'. A'. as in that article the circulation round the of the circulations sum K = K' or fr = If V. the crosssection also varies. Therefore. a vortex cannot come to an end in a perfect fluid. and if the actual section be inclined at a small angle to the normal. But the surface does not penetrate into the vortex. the strengths of the vortex at A. so that the product cr remains independent of the angle. the component of spin will be reduced below by the same factor as that by which the area be increased above cr. in Article 143). the flow along AA' circulation round the boundary is zero. but must either be reentrant (like a smokering) or abut on a boundary (as A Theorem (Article respect to time. the angular velocity within a vortex filament varies along its length. by K= (178). or vice versa.e. Also. A' along the vortex. in such a way that the product of the angular velocity and the crosssection remains constant. and consequently the Hence the circulations round its elements are all separately zero.
because of the real boundary condition of absence of slip and the action of viscosity in making the velocity of the fluid adjacent to the vortex line almost equal to that of the body. Now reduce the circuit to a loop which at some instant encircles the isolated vortex section closely. like heat. On the other hand. . enclosed. 8s of a curved vortex filament of element of the at fluid mass. it is . Formulae for Induced Velocity of Short Straight Vortices The derivation of formulae for the velocity components at a point due to one or more vortex loops is beyond the scope of this book. while ignoring viscosity and the real boundary The vortex line is then said to be bound.e. The is distant r from P. sinks. It is seen that the motion of a vortex arises. from the surfaces of moving bodies by the action of viscosity in the presence of intense velocity gradients. including that a vortex cannot originate or terminVortices may be built up slowly but originate ate within the fluid. It will occasionally be convenient to treat of a vortex line constrained to move with a body. deviation from Kelvin's Theorem is negligible. also very close to the surface of a body in motion through air actually moves with the fluid. concentrations of vorticity diffuse outward. Thus a real vortex tends to remain of constant strength but to increase in diameter. and other vortices. a vortex moves with the fluid. and strength found that K the angle between r and 8s. not from itself. condition. The laws for a perfect fluid are effectual in air away from boundaries. 147. but from the general field of flow. which may be due to a number of A vortex line causes. The above laws are of such outstanding importance in Aero dynamics that brief comment on their modification for a viscous In ordinary circumstances fluid such as air may be interpolated here. If 8q denote the increment at P due to a small length. 148. It is shown in Hydrodynamics that each element of fluid possessing vorticity implies an associated increment of velocity in every other direction of this velocity increment to the plane which contains the point any point perpendicular and the axis of rotation of the vortex element. such as sources. But this circulation is equal to the strength of the vortex originally Hence the vortex remains enclosed i.272 AERODYNAMICS [CH. and let the loop subsequently move with the fluid so that the circulation round it remains constant. itself constant.
whose other end is a long distance P away. measured along the vortex.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 273 The total velocity q at due to the whole filament is obtained by integrating along the filament. 149. In the case of a straight finite length QR of a vortex. We then have lAll + If 77/IiVlsl ' ' ' < 183 ) P is opposite the end of a semiinfinite straight length. the velocity at a point distant h from its axis (see Fig. Hence . 103) is perpendicular to P P the plane PQR and from (181) amounts ds __ to : _# R f sinjh Q r* Kh 4:71 C R ds 4?u J J Q r*' Changing the variable from 5 to y. We now consider some twodimensional vortex fields and vortex motions of importance as leading. since ds/dy = h sec 1 y sec 2 K where the limits are now from ( r cos a )* to p. onehalf the induced velocity for a rectilinear vortex. K An . to approximations to those . (182) application of this formula occurring frequently in aerofoil is at a distance x. from theory is when one end of a straight vortex length.e. K (184) i.
occurring in aerofoil theory. those relative to the fixed axes of reference and those relative to the vortices. Thus the (185) vortices move in the direction Oz. figure. in the direction and the third component u = 0. given itself. FIG. distant Construction for the resultant induced velocity.274 AERODYNAMICS [CH. downward in the at this constant velocity. Two sets of streamlines arise. 104. since for A and B alone log =_ respectively. But directly. equidistant origin INSTANTANEOUS STREAMLINES OF A from the / VORTEX Below : PAIR.e. remaining a constant distance apart. The first are identical with the equipotentials of a source and sink occupying the positions of the vortices. the vortex filaments are assumed to extend indefinitely in both directions parallel to the axis Ox. dicular to In the jtfplane perpenthem v is the velocity component in the direction Oy> w that Oz. their strengths be as shown. i. Vortex Pair The combination of two parallel rectilinear vortices of equal and opposite called strengths is a vortex pair. For ease of future reference. and and let apart. Let them be situated instantaneously on the at 104). we have for the combination . but each has a velocity induced by the by . viz. Neither has ^K any motion due to other. (186) . and might be inferred from Article 104. jyaxis A and B (Fig.
. and it is w = . w is posisize have been neglected. the velocity is four times as great as the velocity of the vortices.. I 1/17 Vy ^f . downwardly directed in the figure midway between them tive.\ (188) Along the yaxis the formula for the true instantaneous velocity. the component w at The For P W = w represents . i. The dimensions of the oval are 105/ by fluid 087/. just as the speed of a star makes no difference to the speed of the light it emits. velocity rela The instantaneous at tive to the fixed axes of reference P (y z) in the field is obtained by the construcreadily any point t tion shown in Fig. where the vortices have been given an appreciable size. In accordance with Article 21 they are more appropriately called pathlines. Careful note should be made that the veFIG 105. particles contained within a certain oval accompany the vortex The streamlines pair in its career. we add to the field of flow a velocity w' or to fy the increment t w'y = Kyfiid. but subsidiary effects of this When P lies between A and B. 104. is given by example. obtaining [ g ? + f)' ' ' (187) These streamlines are shown in Fig. but represent only an instantaneous plotting. It will be noticed that approximately.e. Vy\ (189) The distribution of w along Oy is shown in Fig. 104. external to the oval represent the flow past a cylinder of this section broadside on to the stream.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 275 The streamlines are shown in Fig. . velocity is equally simply found in analytical terms. locity of the vortices does not affect this velocity. STEADY STREAMLINES RELATIVE TO A VORTEX PAIR. 105. 106. for A and B immediately move away from the ^/axis. To obtain the steady streamlines relative to the vortex pair.
is Beyond A or B. There exists another analogy. B distant / apart have both of z lt strengths the same sign. be per DISTRIBUTION OF VELOCITY PAIR. 905. but in opposite directions. parallel to Ox. The analogy can be applied to more complicated dispositions of vortices. & M. and so an axis. which is easily found. that between a vortex filament and a wire conducting an electric The lines of magnetic force surrounding a current.z /2nl. of the two vortices if each is imagined to be a gravitating line of mass equal to its strength. . Both velocities will THROUGH A VORTEX pendicular to the line AB. viz. Applications of the Method of Images When axial with a vortex approaches a parallel boundary which is not coit. which can readily be mapped out by experimental means. and a motion is * Relf. while K K will . The fixed point in the last example corresponds to the C. B be K^nl. the velocity of A will be K. of currents. that of FIG. The instantaneous velocity at any point due to any number of parallel vortices may be found by the superposition of the velocities induced by the several filaments. of considerable experimental use. the axis is at infinity. Thus the line AB has a steady angular velocity and one point on it. for a group of vortex pairs. A.276 AERODYNAMICS [CH. But in the important case when the algebraic sum of the strengths vanishes.e.' * EFFECT OF WALLS 151.. 106.C. remains fixed if a velocity is not induced there by other causes. can be found for the system which remains fixed (in the absence of other disturbances) as the vortices move. The analogy finds practical expression in an apparatus called the ' electric tank. w The special tive. 1924.G. the streamlines become distorted. or group current.R. of this nega interest example in connec tion with aeroplane wings will be described later. If two vortices A. 150. correspond exactly to the streamlines of the vortex case.R. i.
and P any point on the boundary. 104. be the real and B the imaginary vortex. is EC CA Thus C and BD = yr = rB = const. and whatever its position is that the locus of const. determined one of outstanding because Aerodynamical measurements of flow involving of images. is provided by a rectilinear vortex eccentrically situated within a long tunnel of circular section. let a single rectilinear vortex of strength distant \l from a plane rigid wall parallel to its axis. Another example. then divided internally at C and externally at D. Let A. The boundary takes the place of one of the coaxial circles of Fig. The streamlines are determined by the two. for this. which form the instantaneous streamlines of a vortex pair. may sometimes be is The question made in the presence of walls. vortices are usually As a first K K 152. 107. and PD BA . by the method interest. opposite to the real vortex. and the motion of. for clearly the plane xOz in Article 149 might have been made rigid without effect. The effects of the tunnel are reproduced by introducing the image of the vortex in the circular wall. The presence of a rigid boundary requires that at every point on it the normal component of velocity shall vanish. point. be example. rA /rB P Bisect the L BPA internally and externally by PC. an / / / " A \ ^\^^ B imaginary vortex of strength K situated at the inverse FIG. CD as diameter. Fig. i. DA rA D traces a circle on are fixed points and. In the present case this is to obviously satisfied by imagining a second vortex of strength be situated at a distance %l beyond the boundary. The solution is otherwise evident. by introducing the image of the vortex in the wall. 107. the real vortex will be exactly those that would obtain if it formed one member of a vortex pair. Let the radius of this circle CPD = P .e.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT These effects 277 induced in the vortex. The condition that the P radial velocity component shall vanish at be a streamline. The flow round. which leads to an important case. since the L re/2.
shown each of the two images being situated on the radial plane containing the corresponding FIG. for example. chief interest attaches to the effect of the tunnel on the velocity field. when . t . 108. the decrease amounts to onequarter. w at ^ w = 2n ( I a* (191) Without a boundary we should have at K / /4 Thus the tunnel wall considerably reduces this velocity as a for example. tant frQm Q Each vortex describes But in general a Dshaped path in its half of the tunnel section.BC CA a + r) (OB r . 104. if their distance apart is then /. [CH. 108. the particular case where the vortices lie on a is given by diameter. In.278 be a and figure its AERODYNAMICS centre 0. The image system for a vortex pair.a) a giving (190) Thus a vortex of strength K distant r from the centre of a tunnel of radius a moves in a concentric circular path with the constant velocity _ K ~~ ' J_ a __ ~~ ___ # " _r_ fl " 2w a / y r 2?c 1 r2 The instantaneous streamlines within the tunnel follow from Fig. each of whose members is distant r from the centre is of the tunnel in Fig. Then from the above equation and the a OB = = DA (a . IMAGE SYSTEM FOR A VORTEX PAIR real vortex and disIN A CIRCULAR TUNNEL.
shown FIG. IMAGE SYSTEM FOR A RECTILINEAR VORTEX BETWEEN PARALLEL WALLS (THE Row OF IMAGES EXTENDS TO INFINITY). when the subject will be systematised in connection with Windtunnel In & ^ terference. Reference will be made case. as shown in later to this Fig. 109. it is often sufficient to substitute for the actual FIG. briefly. 111. Of*^ Y Sides. 111. . IN A IMAGE SYSTEM FOR A VORTEX PAIR RECTANGULAR WIND TUNNEL OF ENCLOSED TYPE (THE COLUMNS AND Rows OF IMAGES EXTEND INFINITELY). (3) The important case of a vortex pair contained within a rectangular tunnel leads to a complicated arrangement of images IMAGE SYSTEM FOR A RECTI'" A RlGHT . 109). Some further examples of image systems will be referred to FIG. But when the sides of the rectangle are equal. boundary an approximation consisting of a rirrl^ drawn fairltr C rC1C lairl through the J . A vortex in the corner between two plane walls which meet at right angles calls for three images situated at the I corners of a rectangle. the vortices are separated alternately by the distances 2z (1) A infinite and2(A (2) z). 110. or nearly so.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 279 153. If h is the distance apart doubly of the walls and z the distance of the vortex from one of them. 110.ANGLED in doubly infinite columns and rows. vortex parallel to two parallel plane walls gives rise to a row of images (Fig. as in Fig.
where the coordinate of a point is z iy. Proc. the image of strength y lt and K K the stream function of the velocity field is obtained from (186) as * Routh.* in applying conformal transformation is to the configuration of the real system. <f> that. i. that <j> has < the same value at corresponding points in the two planes and so. . so that one can be drawn from the other.. The two paths can be related. . instant there is a vortex at the point z l in the real plane. an image system cannot be found. and transforma = + tion will be If at any the same to a tfplane where the coordinate is t ir\. is at the point with the #axis and the real vortex of strength will be at the point x l} x l9 3/1. if the interval of be evaluated round corresponding circuits in the two But it will be seen planes. The general aim The potential flow. t. XII. so that a convenient simplify arrangement of images can be used the difficulty.280 AERODYNAMICS [CH. An alternative method of solution is The sum slowly as to make in others.yplane. the transformation having changed the boundaries and the geometrical dispositions of other vortices that may be present. Lond. Application of Conformal Transformation It will be apparent that the method of images is convenient in some cases of vortices near boundaries but total effect of cumbersome an infinite series of images may be while the stepbystep increments may converge so approximate calculation laborious.e. our real plane will be the zplane of Article x 122. The most direct is to note that outside the vortex a velocity potential <f> exists . the vortex particularly considered will not move along a path in the t plane which corresponds to its path in the zplane. Soc. that the strength is equal to the interval in once round a circuit embracing the vortex . difficult to provided by the use of conformal transformation which applied to parallel rectilinear vortices. There are several ways of proving this. this development will be left to subsequent reading. it will clearly come to the same thing. since in Aerodynamics we are chiefly concerned with instantaneous induced velocities. again. lies in finding the transformation formula. as in problems of . is that appropriate to a single vortex near a simplest image system If in the 2plane the trace of the wall coincides parallel plane wall. at instant a vortex of equal strength will exist at the corres made = + ponding point ti in the transformed plane. but. In some cases. Math. 154. 1881. For ease of reference the vortices are may be now assumed to be perpendic ular to the A.
. but we shall ignore this and solve the problem by the method of the preceding article. the stream function of the velocity field in this plane is given by (192). in the /plane.Y + (y+ yj* (x In the same way the identical system in the /plane (not that obtained by transformation) gives . for instance. ^ = 0. (193) or = c** __ gKX' (cos Try' Separating real and imaginary parts CQS ^yt ^ __ ^ !* g^ ^y^ 73 Corresponding toy toy %' H we have = . using = 0. = YJ = 0. + i sin Try'). Consider the transformation formula log t = Ttz/H . y = H represent the Let %' = x/H. the problem in the zplane is at once solved. to a vortex of 73 1.. and corresponding ^ ^ transform to the = 0. Therefore. = strength K in the /plane at the point J. in the /plane we have a vortex on the Y)axis at unit distance single wall coinciding with the axis. substitute for x' t y' (cf. v^. axis in the /plane. Assume that the distance apart of the walls is H.* W lini'^HlH^ log 8 * ' (192) (192) the real vortex being situated at the point ^. we have e n* '. and from a comes to + f = K P + to s^5TRnir'l i )' To terms of find the stream function in the 2plane. y' ~ y/H... J 55* Vortex Midway between Parallel Walls The image system for this case follows from Article 153 (I). so that y = 0. Thus. Choose Ox in the plane. walls and Oy passes through the vortex. TJ in . Thus both walls in the zplane The vortex of strength K at (i). to convert whatever configuration exists in the zplane to this configuration.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 281 K 47r g (xxp + byp .x. =0.* *. y' = ^ in the 2:plane transforms. e"*'. and the wall coIf a transformation formula can be found inciding with the axis. Article 122) from (i) obtaining i.
is given by K f sinh TixjH H/2~ 2 ^ Lcosh nx/H sin icy/H ^ 2H "" X sinh /J? . the velocity along this line would be apart. if at distance the velocity midway between them in the ratio sinh . over 30 per cent. 2 This velocity ... 112. FIG. the reduction is from either wall. ity' ~ _^ 4w g f #** cos* re/ ' e2 d 2 "*' cos a _ Try' 71 K 4?r 20 *' Jog 6 *** + 24"* + (e** sin + (^ sin sin Tty' + sin + Try' 1) Try' + 1)' 1 1 This expression reduces on dividing the numerator and denominator of the logarithm by 2e**' to 4^ The pathlines are shown * ="K cosh nx/H 7rA. H KX/H sin 2 1 ny/H J y . A particular interest centres in the effect of the walls on the velocity midway between them._ 1/2 (195) } ( In the absence of the walls. reduce equal to Kftnx. its distance v (196) ' At a distance behind the vortex equal to for example..282 AERODYNAMICS * ~~ [CH... Hence the walls./ff sin ny/H ' g cosh + ' ( sin ' ny/H' in Fig..... . 112. STREAMLINES FOR A RECTILINEAR VORTEX MIDWAY BETWEEN PARALLEL WALLS.
Further investigation in the present article will be directed more particularly to this question under the conditions stated and assuming the aerofoil to be small in chord. The are. Now. poo pjdx = oKU AGO J. the lift per unit length will equal H x the pressure difference recorded. the lift of vortex.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 283 155 A. one in the floor immediately below the lifting vortex and the other in the roof immediately above it. velocities along the floor (194). (ii) where the distinguish the floor and roof. L = (p JCO .i K Adding a uniform stream lift of velocity unit length of the per resultant velocity along these walls L = $KU ?o U to produce an upward bound vortex gives for the = U+ and UQ 1 and ql = U + uv . so that it may be replaced by a simple article. the flow being irrotational and incompressible. ___ ~~ and roof due I" to the vortex alone from K cosh rex' cos ny' " [3^1 3yJ^o. Bound Vortex in Stream between Walls The necessary modification of (194) to give the stream function for incompressible and irrotational flow past a bound vortex midway between parallel walls will be evident from the preceding Mention was made in Article 66A of a method of obtaining an aerofoil in a wind tunnel by integrating the changes of static pressure on the floor and roof of the tunnel. Bernoulli's equation gives suffixes u =: ( \U _ K _____ \2Wcosh^r#' by (i) K _ ^ V ~~ \2UH coslTTu*' ~ y V nx' and (ii).pKU. respectively. or UH cosh ~ L H cosh TT*' ^ We also verify that Thus if a gauge be connected between two static pressure holes at x = 0.a .
1*' (iv) L J_^' This result is plotted in Fig. 6 = 27cy'. of the r I when x = 0. #axis 112c). the obtained by integra tion will be dx' FIG. 2plane corresponds to a circle of unit when also 6 radius in the /plane . 1558. midway between edges (Fig. tunnel provided the corresponding flow in the /plane makes the negative half of the real A uniform axis a streamline.  2f . lift A ROOF greater fraction of the will be supported by the roof than by the floor. 1 12s.e. y = 0. 112B. It follows that the whole of the /plane yields in the 2plane an infinite strip of width H t as before. 112A.284 AERODYNAMICS [CH. half of These edges are derived from the two sides of the negative the real axis strip in the /plane. thejyaxis log r i. 112A. 27uz'. if are polar coordinates in the /plane. Hence the may be wind H t plane I regarded as the section of a i 2 plane FIG. and the ratio of the two clearly contributions to the total reaction is The two pressure readily determined.tan" 1 TU ?* . but with the its FIG. (193) to log which may + i0 = 2(nx' + try'). Thus giving log r = 2nx'. 112c. = sometimes advantageous to modify r. INTEGRATED WALL PRESSURE. If the experimental exploration of PQ 0 10 pl extends only to a distance X' lift on each side of the small fraction of the x/H LIFTING VORTEX aerofoil. distributions are plotted in Fig. _ nx . flow between the parallel walls origin transform corresponds to a source radiating at equal at the origin in the /plane since lines angleincrements from that . BETWEEN PARALLEL WALLS. Other Applications of the Transformation In applying this method to other problems of flow between parallel walls t it is be written. and = ^ when y = = \H.
If the uniform flow has a velocity corresponds to x = U t = the strength of the source is clearly UH. = t = . parallel (2) more rapidly.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 285 to equally spaced lines parallel to the walls in the 2plane. point t The potential function in the tfplane is UH. of strength first m be located in the stream at the origin z = example. m ~ log (*  1). fy will differ from that found Article becoming Uniform FIG. the velocity = U. The corresponding disturbance in the plane is an equal source at the I. . 112D. . as assumed. z = u % iH/2 giving t = U+ H eM + 1 = U + iw(l + tanh m Tix')jH t from which and Bernoulli's equation may be obtained the pressure distribution along the walls. . 112D. Doublet in Let the source at z now be replaced by a Then doublet of strength (i r a doublet of strength ^ appears at Stream. and r oo. illustrated in Fig. Substituting gives for the 2plane so that the complex velocity u iv between the **' parallel walls is dw ~dz _ = m +H ?^=T When when z is large z is large and negative. and LL in that plane UH. 1. in The streamline 106. a source which is not a singular point. let 0. On the walls. and and positive the velocity = U + m/H. As a (1) Source in Uniform Stream.
not situated at a singular point. Article 66A). of a doublet since the strength of a doublet is proportional to the product of that of a source and an infinitesimal length. Hydrodynamics. 6th method of images. t may be proved dt 27C dz Investigations of the kind considered in this and the preceding article become of interest in the estimation of tunnel constraint on large twodimensional models in comparatively small streams. y Thus the deformation of a circle whose 0254/f.* = It is assumed in the foregoing that the strength of a source. q oc l/r* for a doublet. 72.. H T (*"  1)*' On into real fy = 47cC7 and imaginary parts given it is easily found is ~~ ' cosh 27r#' cos 2TC/ This deformed circular boundary intersects the jyaxis at points to be obtained from " *y tan ?y __ "" and the #axis at the points sinh 'f = = TC// and. Proof follows immediately from that for a vortex (Article 154) on substituting fy for <. by (iii). in other ways. \H in (ii) gives ^/U Substituting. as In the above example. and u separating (i) that the streamline iv = dw dz = U by y.286 so that AERODYNAMICS [CH. Thus whilst q oc l/r It follows that for a source as for a vortex. f p. however. for illustration. remains unchanged on transformation. ~~ e*"' ' . ^ diameter is so great as onehalf the height of the tunnel is small. the strength [x in the *plane is equal to p\dt/dz\. where the problem is solved by the . * Lamb. The same is not true. the use of adjustable walls to compensate (cf. and ed.
but they are less easy to secure in air. arranged distribution of impulsive pressure. attains the air flow induced past its various components appreciable speed. as might have been anticipated on theoretical It may The motions finally established from those of an inviscid fluid round considerably may the same shapes. becomes of the general nature described in Chapter II. even for bluff bodies. and could be generated instantaneously from rest by an artificially calculated. starting from rest. differ little or the change. be stated at once as a general result that photographs to a very early stage of motion accelerated from rest show relating pathlines which. and let it bend transversely in the process in such a way that its final velocity at every point. Articles 98 and 119). 157. because it is difficult to calculate precisely how the vortices are formed. Under similar circumstances the same sequence of photographs will apply equally to air as fluid. Imagine a very long straight elastic membrane of width / immersed in stationary fluid.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 287 GENERATION OF VORTICES aeroplane. wheel fairings. Impulse We shall have occasion to refer to the impulse of vortex loops. The external flow associated with an inviscid vortex loop is irrotational. This information rests principally on observation. Such films show vortices in various stages of growth. But the wakes behind some of its parts e. however.g. say. but viscosity requires time in which to bring about grounds (cf. as will be described in the following articles. attained at the end * For rigorous mathematical investigation see Lamb's Hydrodynamics. . approximate closely to those of potential flow. which can be The matter will be illustrated * with reference to the vortex pair. By starting a body of simple shape from rest in a tank of water. though it has been seen that they result from viscosity. As soon as an of the preceding articles then has a practical utility. upon a knowledge of the vortex distribution and strength. or thick exposed struts are found to contain discrete vortices. The theory 156. a cinema film can be taken of the accelerated motion. and sprinkling the water surface with aluminium dust. wings. which depends. Let it be acted upon by a distribution of impulsive pressure.
containing a not necessarily uniform. Hence. Vortex Sheets a fluid layer. when the sheet is formed simply It is then sometimes called a surface of a single layer of vortex lines. Considering any pair of adjacent points. A and 5. with the long edges Hence. however. but in Chapter II we saw that a boundary layer of small but measurable thickness represents of irrotational flow thickness 8w . The term is more particularly reserved. Impulse = ?Kl . continuous. The be considered to become indefinitely small while may the product 2to $n remains finite. in general curved. per unit length .288 of the impulse. exactly that appropriate to the fluid velocity field of a vortex pair situated along its edges. if q q' denote the local velocities on the (q two surfaces of the sheet. but will locally have the velocity \(q have seen (Chapter II) an example of vortex sheet structure in + We the boundary layer. . . . is AERODYNAMICS [CH. The irrotational motion of a vortex pair results. . 8n =q the 1 q '. the sheet will not be <?') stationary. on opposite faces of the membrane. Now K constant. distribution of vorticity. (197) More generally it can be shown that the component in any direction of the impulse which would generate the velocity field of a vortex loop from rest is equal to pXS where 5 (198) is by the projection in that direction of any area that the vortex loop. let the membrane vanish at the end of the impulse. are formed of vortex lines. the stream were surfaces of discontinuity. apart. The circulation SK round the element SnSs q') 8s. is bounded 158. Finally. for there is no flow along either of the 8wsides. . Consider a small length 8s of the sheet perpendicular to the vortex lines. the difference of impulsive pressure between them is p(( B be the magnitude A ). say. In Chapter V the surfaces of bodies immersed in of discontinuity. if < K of the eventual circulation of the round is lines coincident membrane. writing 2ca for the vorticity vortex sheet is A = t 2co . a small but variable distance $n. though Its two surfaces. separating two regions which have different adjacent velocities. The impulsive pressure was identified in Article 98 with p^. for a sheet of vorticity out in the fluid. and this again is equal to p/. (199) Since the vortex lines move with fluid.
159. would 10 . But their persistence at the back of the plate calls for very high velocities near the edges. giving rise to surfaces of discontinuity which spring from the edges and separate flow from the front of the plate from fluid in the wake. the element enters and proceeds within the boundary layer. The phenomenon is not. the pathlines at an initial stage closely accord with those of potential flow (Fig. Kinetic energy gathered in the first part of its passage soon flags.D. an element (2) In potential flow completely surrounding close to the front stagnation point arrives near to the of fluid passing its discontinuity as viscosity makes back stagnation point with unimpaired energy. but occurs whenever flow is asked to turn round a sharp edge. A. and gathers additional kinetic energy. kind. has likened the circumstances to those of a ball rolling in a smooth guide of vertical wave shape. a flat plate started from rest into (1) Considering. however. broadsideon motion. which is converted without loss into pressure energy the again during the second part of its transit. Thus the flow must break away. Production may be in respect of and Disintegration of Vortex Sheets Three ways may be distinguished in which vortex sheets are commonly produced. starting from rest at one wave crest. This conception led Helmholtz and Kirchhoff to a theory of drag in We inviscid flow. and the viscous tractions prevent its motion from obeying Bernoulli's equation. For this reason alone the streamlines of Figs. in an analogy. for example.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 289 experimental conditions. a body. 80). of course. Prandtl. would accumulate sufficient kinetic energy in the trough just to reach the next But the slightest dissipation of mechanical energy crest. the element is accelerated during the first part of its transit by decreasing pressure. 81 and 97 could not persist. the ball. The jump in velocity magnitude or direction. when it is moving against a rising pressure. and a vortex sheet of finite thickness as the practical accompaniment of a sharp lateral change in velocity. In a real case. we shall not attempt to follow. confined to the normal plate. result in the ball turning back. note that vortex sheets must be expected to replace the surfaces of presence felt. A surface of discontinuity out in the fluid may be regarded as the ideally simplified. and the rising pressure of the second part eventually turns the element back. successive With no frictional resistance of any crests being horizontally level. If the contour of body is convex to the fluid. such as would lead to cavitation there. which.
Such a flow would smooth out considerably * Piercy and Richardson. A.) (Reproduced by permission of the Aeronautical becomes a vortex sheet in the from the upper surface of an fluid. back appreciably. a return flow near the rear part of the surface of a body wedges the boundary layer away. Fig. & M. when it may move except perhaps at very high Reynolds numbers. ISOVELOCITY 21 LINES 10* FOR THE FLOW PAST AN AEROFOIL AT THE REYNOLDS NUMBER x AND INCIDENCE 96.. segregated part of the boundary layer. Research Committee.290 AERODYNAMICS [CH. It is a film of intense vorticity. is Linear scale normal to the aerofoil magnified 8 times. The position round the contour where this occurs is called the point of breakaway. 1224 (1928). . 113 shows the breakaway aerofoil * at a low Reynolds number.R. the vortex sheet being easily recognised by the packing together of the velocity contours. in the case of a thick strut it may be situated at only a comparatively short distance in front The of the trailing edge at ordinarily high Reynolds numbers. 113. 025 0.C. SHOWING BREAKAWAY AND THE VORTEX SHEET. always found near the shoulder of a circular cylinder.R.2 FIG. Reverting to the fluid motion. No. On the other hand.
also K&rman and Rubach. The effect of development of disturbance is to make the initially thin even spread of vorticity form marked in other words. Kirmdn * Gdtt. dividing the upper and lower parts of the flow where behind the wing. at low Reynolds numAt first sight it would seem plausible to expect the vortices to be disposed opposite to one * showed another. the same. is never actually arrested. described in Chapter II. infinitely small distur bance instead of being damped out in course of time tend.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 291 with increase of Reynolds number. The following articles examine in some detail two arrangements which are common and important. Discontinuity in respect of direction of flow occurs in a sheet stretching downstream from the trailing edge. 114) of a moving avenue of evenly spaced staggered vortices. Nachrichten. Viewed in plan the streamlines will be inclined inwardly to a greater extent above the aerofoil than below it. towards the edges of the sheet on either side. as (3) Consider a wing that has a lift. for given cases of motion 1 60. Cf. 1911. those of streamline cylinders. therefore. on the In practice. it characterises the wakes of all long The most familiar arrangement of vortices street. A By characteristic of all vortex sheets is this is meant that the effects of even an their essential instability. As the production Their eventual disposition varies greatly. of vorticity into hoards continues. so the gatherway. increasing in strength. manufactured vortex sheet can ever be found except in newly peculiar circumstances. The flat lower surface inclined positively to the stream is free from the phenomenon. bers. t 1912. but to opposite hand. Zeits. the sheet tends to roll up in some of the vortex sheet goes on. This crowding together of ing vortex lines in patches describes in a qualitative way the formation accumulations . Karman Trail is the procession usually Consisting (Fig. although moving unequally and doing work in the boundary layer. but such an arrangement is unstable. the pressure gradient not reversing here. although not always. of discrete vortices. Viscosity ensures that this surface they merge becomes a vortex sheet. known as the vortex cylinders of bluff section. so that the element. the two rows being of equal strength but to opposite hand. The vorticity is zero behind the centre of span. to develop. but it is usually. Lift can only arise. from (upon the whole) a greater reduction of pressure on the upper surface than on the lower surface. and occasionally. only a short length of contrary. Phys. .
successfully calculating the layout of the procession necessary for stability. and also other matters to which reference will be made. is given by and. the eddy system left behind rest at a is not stationary. or a little upstream of the tail of a cylinder of streamline section while a fullygrown and long vortex is detaching itself from the other side of the cylinder be drawn round the median beginning to be left behind.292 AERODYNAMICS [CH. this theoretically. if K u = K (201) . Therefore. all closed in a zigzag fashion across the avenue behind the extremities of the cylinder causing them.. 1H. One long vortex length matures during the short time l/~ near to the surface of the body behind the shoulder of a circular cylinder. conceived as having just been left in the wake.. for each has a forward velocity induced in it by all the vortices in the vortex other row. a . His results state first that if h is the distance between the rows and / that between successive vortices of the same row A// =0281 . one vortex in ~= clearly V ' ' W The K4rmn trail may be regarded as the central region of a large number of very elongated loops. If a circuit section of the cylinder in such a way as to include the bound vortex while excluding the free vortex. we find a circulation round the circuit. Therefore.. behind one of the sharp edges of a normal plate. is ~ of generation of each pair of vortices. V The frequency each row.. U through fluid at (200) Imagining the body to move at velocity distance.. FIG. This comparatively small velocity u is the same for all is the numerical strength of each vortex.PATHLINES OF THE VORTEX STREET BEHIND A CIRCULAR CYLINDER. the motion is alternatively called the Kdrmdn trail.
Finally. since the next vortex to mature will be situated on the opposite side of the cylinder. 20 per cent.. The periodic force experiment and. Reynolds the exists in for. b denoting the diameter) of about 2000 gave approximately: b/U = 02 and /E7=014. as usual. the approximation to the drag is obtained as follows of impulse parallel to the direction of motion mean rate of change required to create the vortex loops from rest at the observed rate is.. It will be noted that the above equations do not provide a solution of the problem for any particular Reynolds number. but f(R) remains to be determined experimentally for each shape. ~ 161. (203) for From this we can deduce the variation of for a given shape.. bodies of different sizes and the same shape at constant /?. wider than the cylinder. on substituting the above measurements = 43. if b is maximum width of section. by the method of Article 47. that ~=^/(/J) . we easily find. change in sign periodically. from (201) giving the strength of the vortices for a given speed and size of cylinder. From (202) u ~j> _6/ ~ ~U~~l\ lfb U and. in the case of fine wires. observation of the tone of which provides one method of finding the frequency of the eddies. leads to singing. Application to the Circular Cylinder Some observations with a long circular cylinder at a Reynolds number (= f/6/v. 121 b is From (200) h = 0281 = / showing that the track of the established vortex street was.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT is 293 This transverse force on the cylinder will expected from Article 109. from (198) first : A = 02 x p X 17 Ub x 121 b . Moreover. the number R as well as the shape of the body affect the trail.
(206) which yields the value 090 from the above measurements. At R 2 x 10*. per unit length. Equation (204) =i . greater drag coefficient. 72 and 92B. part may be due to a different cause. approximately. given byCD  1588 O . ul X 0281 /) Rigorous examination by Kdrmdn takes account of factors neglected above. Fig. The drag coefficient obtained by direct weighing at this Reynolds number the circular cylinder for R > 100.. being associated with the production of lift. the whole difference between weighed drag and skin friction. The corresponding decrease in is 096. Thus vortex production accounts for nearly the whole of the drag in the case considered. illustrated in Figs. a 10 per cent. which arises from a modification sometimes a great change of the pressure distribution pertaining to irrotational flow. as will shortly appear. 162. Form Drag That part of the total drag on a body which can be traced to the shedding of a vortex street is an important instance of form drag.. to form drag . i. . and investigation at other Reynolds numbers suggests this to be generally true for ~ = U drag would be consistent with the vortex street becoming narrower by some 50 per cent. giving a drag coefficient c ~Kh = ~b K h Juubb = 082. Article 44). frequency begins to increase much more rapidly with for constant diameter and fluid. It is not always correct to ascribe the whole of the pressure drag integral (cf. 25 shows the variation of b/U with Ub/v for this shape. and he shows that the cylinder experiences...294 AERODYNAMICS [CH. ==() '* xl lxl ' ' 21 may alternatively be arranged in the form CD = ( ^" X 2V2 . ..e. still on account of the vortex street only.
convenient to leave open the question of vortex arrangement form drag as that part which is not due APPLICATION TO WINGS 163. 106 gives the velocity distribution through a crosssection of the wake far behind a wing. But at a greater Aerodynamic scale the vortices consist of narrow loops in spiral arrangement. and of velocity of confluent streams each half rolls up about a roughly foreandaft axis to form downstream one member of a vortex pair. the wake arising from its boundary layer being The vortex sheet stretching downstream from its trailing neglected. for example. but it has a different form. But when required for landing and slow diving it can be obtained measure by exposing a long normal plate (Article 76). It is in the wake. Remembering that vortex lines cannot terminate or originate away . when it is entirely parasitic in nature. Again. and these are observed at low velocities behind small spheres in air. splits into two halves along the centreline. We turn now to the important case of Article of finite wing span is edge. = . greater than for circular cylinders for R between 10* and For the finer strut illustrated in Fig. it is 10*. breakaway may be prevented by turbulence and a wake of vorticity formed without discrete vortices. We might have in large expected the elongated loops of the vortex street to shrink to a succession of vortex rings. and are then called wingtip vortices. Their presence was inferred on theoretical grounds by Lanchester in the course of his pioneering work on Aerodynamic lift. and to define to skin friction or lift. less at R lo 6 Thus form drag. the whole system spinning about a central axis. 95 per cent. such as a sphere or an airship envelope wake may be produced. where the vorticity vanishes. Lanchester's Trailing Vortices 159 (3). The lifting assumed to be of thin streamline section set at a small angle of incidence to the undisturbed wind. They often partly form close behind the wingtips. associated with the difference existing in lateral components from above and below. where the distance between these long eddies is much less than the span of the wing. but the fully developed motion is a trailing vortex pair. If the body is of short length across the stream a body of revolua vortex tion. 91. on the other hand. To a first approximation Fig.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 295 The form drag of long flat plates normal to the stream is nearly 60 per cent. can be reduced greatly by suitable streamlining. It is assumed to have no form drag.
start from a position of rest A in stationary air and. as at ently behind at the position A. we are faced with a question as to what may be the complete configuration of which the vortex pair forms part. . 97. be moved at constant small incidence in a straight line. at a velocity U of considerable It is assumed that the time to a position H such that AH is large compared with 2s is sufficiently short for diffusive action of viscosity on the vortices formed to be neglected this is consistent with the long persistence of vortices observed in a fluid of such small magnitude. show that as soon as acceleraas the starting vortex.296 AERODYNAMICS [CH. the back stagnation line being situated on the upper surface of the aerofoil well in front of the velocity gradients caused near the trailing a vortex sheet which begins at once to roll up in edge the manner shown at (a) Fig. and is left perman The foregoing description applies to the vertical plane of sym s o (c) (b) (a) Q T FIG. During the period of acceleration from rest. R FORMATION OF "THE STARTING VORTEX. . viscosity as that of air. from the vicinity of the wing. after a brief period of rapid acceleration. why 164. of span 2s. Moreover. A pack of vortex lines (b) This is known parallel to the trailing edge begins to appear near A. The high give rise to vortex becomes detached. (c) in the figure. again with the help of photographs of the formation of the vortex system. the flow closely approximates at first to potential acyclic motion and is momentarily of the type illustrated in Fig. 115. it is not clear without further examination the wing should exert the lift on which the vortices depend. assumed for convenience to be horizontal. Generation of Circulation and Lift Let the aerofoil. These interrelated questions are clarified by following the motion of an aerofoil from rest. Photographs tion ends the vortex sheet ceases to be formed and the starting trailing edge. 115.
Let the circuits shown in Fig. 116.10* . or any other in the plane embracing the aerofoil but not the vortex. now receives experimental support since the starting vortex ceases to form only when this coincidence is attained. although this would be difficult to imagine. Since the trailing edge of the aerofoil was to the left of ST in the figure on But a circuit starting from rest. and still remains so. it will have locally a lift equal to pKU per unit of span. The circulation round it was originally zero. Elsewhere along the span there will be a lift of intensity decreasing outwards because vortex lines leave K before the tips are reached. Therefore. introduced by Joukowski (Article 134). assumed sharp.D. as indicated in Fig.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 297 metry. 116. must be equal to K. The foregoing proves. VORTEX PAIR OF A LIFTING WING. the circulation round the circuit OSTRO. such as OSPQTRO may comprise the same fluid particles. Circulation applied a twodimensional aerofoil FORMATION OF THE TRAILING FIG. their K loops being closed surface. that they must be reentrant. that for a steady state the back stagnation line recedes exactly to the trailing edge. was shown in Article 135 to cause the back stagnaThe hypothesis tion line to be displaced towards the trailing edge. K round the median section It follows that the magnitude of the circulation round the member of each vortex to pair is also equal to K. The vortex lines of the starting vortex cannot terminate in the We might perhaps conceive of their turning at each end and fluid. manner shown diagrammatically in Fig. 116. The aerofoil now having a circulation midway along its span combined with a steady forward velocity 17. abutting on the aerofoil. in the by lengths which are ' bound ' to the aerofoil moving with it. The strength of the starting vortex is measured by the circulation round any circuit SPQTS which encloses the vortex only. all the vortex lines being required to induce a circulation equal to of the aerofoil. ST has been cut by the aerofoil. 115 be in this plane. however. The tangential 159 (3) is now identified with the sheet trailing vortex sheet of Article of escaping vortex lines which continue to accumulate into further A.
In calculating lift we neglect the substance of the vortices. Thus Fig. The vortex sheet wa $ found in this case to be nearly rolled UD. 118. of the order of 1 in a practical case. It is easily verified that. Roy.298 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Consider a region far from the start of the flight that is crossed by the lifting aerofoil. 303. v. angle. Trans. the . 117 shows. experimen tally determined. From Article 157 the impulse is $Kl per unit length or. Again. Distance from the startingpoint of the flight and from the aerofoil permits the flow to be regarded as twodimensional. lengths of trailing vortex as the aerofoil proceeds along its path. that vorticity is uniform through the vortex and zero in the surrounding flow. picture of the vortex A system anywhere between A and H is merely an extension of Fig. When the latter has progressed a further distance. . as an example. t A. the residual flow in the region due to the passage of the aerofoil \ FIG. 225. drag this simplified system entails at the aerofoil. 165. the * expathlines determined perimentally 13 chords behind the wingtip of an aerofoil of aspect ratio 6 set at 8. p. approximates to a length of vortex pair. Phil. Let / be the distance apart of the vortices and 2a the diameter of each. mean variation. We ignore this FIG. 117. No further starting vortex is formed. but cannot do so in calculating drag. 118 gives the ' _ . owing to their generation by successive elements. full line of Fig. . The dotted line illustrates the made assumption as an approximation. the vortices are inclined downward by a small angle. ./ . Soc. L_ rr: and. enquire what lift and THROUGH A TRAILING VORTEX. 116 to include a period of uniform motion. viz. since a * Fage and Simmons. the flight path being horizontal. of the vorticity through a wingtip vortex well behind an aerofoil.~. . 1925. assuming a horizontal EXPERIMENTAL DIS OF VORTICITY TRIBUTION vortex pair. EXPERIMENTAL STREAMLINES 13 CHORDS BEHIND AN AEROFOIL (THE AEROFOIL is SHOWN DOTTED AND ITS SPAN = 3 x WIDTH OF FIGURE).
vanishing for aerofoils of infinite span. the impulse being constant between the vortices.. given by JL re = 9 KIU . action U is generated per second. and is derived * from the original irrotational motion generated. D% is called the induced drag. p . Hence / . co a r 2 dr = o> For continuity of velocity at the periphery of the cores = K/2na* a result which is independent of a. We have. . It appears on * The vortex sheet behind the aerofoil cannot contain the kinetic energy in the cores of the developed vortex pair. Let DI denote the contribution to aerofoil drag associated with the continuous production of the kinetic energy of the complete residual vortex system. There is thus an upward L on the aerofoil. balancing the external force. It is important to note that K is we find E=foK \wciy.. Calculating it on the assumption of uniform angular velocity =2 giving . kinetic energy E per unit length has been generated in the region. (207) here the strength of the vortices. (208) where w is the velocity of the points of application of the distributed impulse and the integration is to extend between the vortices. Associated with the impulse. From Article 119 by way of the artifice of Article 157.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 299 is length pX/Z7. pK>p< ^L \+y a i i \ y/ y (209) The kinetic energy Ec of the substance of the two vortex cores is not negligible. . .. 2n\ r . since work is done at the rate D^U and kinetic energy appears at the rate (E + EJU (211) Induced drag is due essentially to the threedimensional character of the flow. the rate of change of impulse and is directed downward..
weakened vortex sheet remains between to roll up farther down A stream. 1931. p. 1935. the strength of each wingtip vortex. no second term appearing in the log of (211). close behind the wingtips. size is considerable. These must not be confused with the residual vortex from the centre of span. To carry the foregoing expressions further and calculate the co: induced drag for the wing. The distribution of impulse along the wing will in general be quite different from that which would efficient of t generate the irrotational part of the above residual motion from rest. a and U. gives I/a obtains the value 92. part of the lift is uniformly distributed along the span. f II. 119 (&)). It will be shown that most practical wings have induced 2 drags a little greater than npK /S. which are usual rather than exceptional. In pair. wholly or in part. This we leave to the special investigations of the next chapter. Ing. we should require to know its dimensions besides K. with a Although vortex trailing vortex sheet similar feature at the other wingtip. Another definition will become apparent in the next chapter. is that part of the pressure drag of a wing that is caused by its lift. the vortices being spread. Uniform Lift lines leave the wing along its span. the wing as a modification of the pressure distribution appropriate to twodimensional flow past the wing sections at their effective inciHence a simpler but superficial definition is induced drag dences. when they turn a corner and crowd together suddenly to form.Arch. 118). II. 119 (a) illustrates the system diagrainmatically.. however. more physical enquiry by Kaden f suggests a mean value of 017 X the span of the minimum Prandtl's result makes 2a 88. 329. Let * { Tragfugeltheorie. Aerodynamic Theory. We now treat Fig.300 AERODYNAMICS [CH. ignoring the remaining part and its associated vortex sheet (Fig. forming a and decreasing the circulation round outboard sections. J These calculations give a fair idea of the more comdrag wing. Equating this minimum to (21 1) In the course of a rigorous investigation Prandtl * 102. an appropriate number of vortex lines remaining bound until the tips are nearly reached. . on the other hand. as a sheet at the wing. of this uniform part of the lift as if it alone existed. A first approximation to the size of the vortices may be noted. The circulation K' round the wing is then constant along the span and equal to K. I. a developed vortex pair. being smaller and situated farther such cases. Fig. strong vortices often exist. and it will be = = observed that their 1 66. plicated vortices found in experiment (cf. A later.
and as before let / be = the distance apart of the vortices. Then we have and for the for the on the wing . Roy. but little difference resulted from considerably reducing or increasing this distance. K' = K and 2s = expressing equality dl/dt if FIG.A.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 301 2s be the span. .2s (212) rate of change of impulse required to generate the vortex pair continuously : = KpUl. 120 gives the results of experiment * with a thin aerofoil of the section known as R. 15 AEROFOIL AND THE IMPULSE OF THE VORTEX PAIR EXISTING 2 CHORDS BEHIND IT. c the chord.. in calculating the vortex lift . We assume that the pair the accent in (212) as no Omitting /. 15 and A = 6 at a Reynolds number of 63 X 10*. but for simplicity we ignore the lift. past the thick aerofoil of EXPERIMENTAL RELATIONSHIP this percentage increased at BETWEEN THE LlFT OF A R. 120. difference.F. . longer necessary r C and then from (211) L = L 2K Uc (213) 2sc (214) Fig. October 1923. of lift was uniform. Aero. 119. At flying incidences ap08 the FIG. A deep camber and the same * Piercy. larger critical. and also. According to experiment I is (a) slightly less than 2s. L =K'pU . The measurements were made at a distance of 2c behind the aerofoil. and A the aspect ratio 2s/c. of vortices remains at 2s apart.A. diameters. proximately 75 per cent.F. while incidence. Soc. each of diameter 2a. Jouv.
of the lift is uniform. but small areas of Centre of ntre Span w&ng Wing tip * FIG. 121). insufficient to keep the back stagnation line on the and trailing a new starting vortex is thrown off edge during the time of acceleration. Aerodynamic calculations involving a knowledge of the degree to which the vortex sheet has rolled up. is Alternatively we may assume that the residual vortex pair incidences. If.g. the original circulation becomes motion. and since 2s =/ and the vortex pair forms immediately. e. on tailsetting angle. . after a period of steady the velocity is increased. = . (216) in the The induced drag for uniform lift is distributed between the vortices same way as the induced velocity of the vortex pair (Fig. . take 2s /a I/a =78. developed quickly. we find from (214) CDi For future reference form it is = 0061 CL . (215) convenient to express this result in the (1+015). as tends to occur at large 167. are complicated. . and the assumption is sometimes adopted that the whole part of the upper surface of an aerofoil. It is a minimum at the centre of span. or we may If C L C D> refer to the uniform part of the lift. we infer the same distribution along the aerofoil. DISTRIBUTION OF INDUCED LIFT. of the lift to be of this kind at 8 incidence.302 AERODYNAMICS [CH. where the pressure distribution will most nearly ap Induced Dra9 ' flow. proach that for twodimensional and increases rapidly towards 1   Lack of knowledge of the tips. lift increases without increase of K. aspect ratio showed 5060 per cent. . A slightly weighted mean of c/a was 13. for greater span. DRAG FOR UNIFORM highly reduced pressure are commonly found here on the back A great advantage of aspect ratio in reducing induced drag becomes evident when it is reflected that. 121. Variation of Circulation in Free Flight The argument of Article 164 is readily elaborated to include variation in the velocity of the aerofoil. the curl and spread of the vortices at the tips prevents completion of the figure.
. of course. = U/U' (i) variation of speed requires inversely proportional variation of circulation. to the wings of an aeroplane in horizontal flight. Taking for simplicity the case of uniform distribution of span and constant chord. vortex pair far behind the aeroplane will similarly diffuse. since this constant (ii) Q//CL (U/Uy. the vorticity of the action of original starting vortex will have diffused. for steady horizontal flight CL 'ipt/"S where S is = CL iptfS = = ' W. K'jK i. length after length of the trailing viscosity. but the argument needs modification to take account of the fact that the downward component of the constrain The same ing force applied to the wings is weight and any downward air loads approximately constant ( = equal to the sum of the total flying on other parts of the craft.e. This is secured (considering increase of speed) by such a decrease of angle of incidence as will. from (213) lift along the K . and is is /) W. and increases the circulaA decrease of velocity produces the opposite tion round the aerofoil. When flight . in order that flight may remain horizontal r ~ pK'U'l = ?KUl =W . or. we have. tend to move the back stagnation line rearwards to a greater extent than the acceleration tends to move it forwards. Such a sequence of events requires suitable variation of the external force which constrains the aerofoil. When we the velocity of an aeroplane must have (neglecting variation of increased from U to [/'. so that the vortex thrown off from the trailing edge is opposite in hand to a starting vortex. through the and as time proceeds. to move in a straight path in spite of variation of lift.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 303 This joins together additional vortex lines packed into the trailing vortices.CL/[// 'K~~Cjf i agreeing with (ii) on substitution from (i). has lasted for an appreciable time. result. say). which are strengthened thereby. . . principles apply. a retardation vortex leaving the aerofoil to close vortex lines no longer required in the weakened trailing vortices appropriate to the reduced circulation. during the change. whose incidence is assumed constant. is the projected area of the wings. we have. In terms of the lift coefficient. .
was suspended symmetrically at 8 incidence in an enclosedtype tunnel 4 31'3 ft. ft. aerofoil. mouths touching. per sec. 2 ft. the undisturbed air speed being Downwash angle was explored by means of the meter shown in Fig. consisting of two fine tubes inclined at 46 30 20 u. chord. Thus. cit. 227. This was mounted on a cranked arm turned by a micrometer wheel outside the tunnel about a centreline passing through the point of contact. The instrument could be traversed parallel to the trailing edge of the The aerofoil could be traversed parallel to its lift. 122. AERODYNAMICS Example from Experiment [CH. The following analysis of some experiments * with an aerofoil in a wind tunnel illustrates (1) approximate allowance for wall constraint (technical conversion formulae are developed in the next chapter). 10 O a o *CENTRE OF SPAN ~3c 2c DISTANCE c BEYOND WIND Tip FIG.304 1 68. square in section. t p. The deeply cambered rectangular aerofoil. (3) the Rankine vortex assumption. 122. MAXIMUM DOWNWASH ANGLBS OBSERVED 2 CHORDS BEHIND AN AEROFOIL BY MEANS OF THE METER SHOWN INSET. (2) application of the simplified vortex configuration. . with their open * Piercy. he. span and 0*33 ft. to the stream.
but adjusted to give maximum slope to JM. and lie in the plane containing the real vortices. so that precision is unneces but this correction Thus. 123) will be calculated from Article 155. of that for the side walls and only 1 per cent. lift. being chosen for reasonable coincidence with the square wall The two imaged vortices AD'. 123. Thus. + cos = x being distance behind AB. aerofoil at P distant y from if w BC l : is the downwash v/j. behind the centre of pressure of through which the bound vortex lines are assumed. is only 10 per cent. aerofoil. 122 for a line nearly level with the trailing edge. the constraint will be less owing to the short length of the aerofoil. diameter with centre at J and of approximThe distance / ately uniform angular velocity is clearly indicated. A vortex of 005 ft. from the centre of the tunnel. a radius of 21 ft. of the mean downwash. in the subsequent analysis. to be concentrated. between this and the corresponding vortex behind the other wingtip was found to be 189 ft. sary. Constraint by the floor and roof on the downwash from the bound vortex AB (Fig. the FIG. Allowance for constraint on the wingtip vortices will be made by substituting a tunnel wall of circular section. downwash angle could be measured by orienting the meter to give equal pressures in the two tubes at any point at a set distance behind the This distance was 0*9 ft. = there (a) is at P An upwash : velocity w . from the figure.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 305 after calibration of the tunnel with the model removed. B'C' are distant (2l)*/i(l'89) 467 ft. velocity from the w l = K (cos a . Observed downwash angles are given in Fig. Actually. t due to BC K given by . on account of the trailing vortex system. The last factor 092.
124. . (c) = K (cos S + 1) An upwash velocity wt due to the image B'C' given by (d) An upwash velocity w 6 due to A'D' given by The total downwash velocity l is given by w =w DISTANCE OUTBOARD FROM \MWOTIP FIG.306 (b) AERODYNAMICS [CH. A downwash velocity wa due to AD given by w.
In round vortices trailing . These are shown as points in Fig. and K = 40 is justified. measurements were made of the pressure within the vortex at a number of radii. assumed constant and and the third that from their images. which the value 40 has been chosen for K. behind the centre of pressure of BF by the expression is the aerofoil. the circles are observations. The fit of the ' curve to the observations is better near to and far from the vortex than it is at intermediate positions. 122 by assuming the horizontal component of velocity to be unchanged beyond the wingtip. 124. Let us now calculate the down wash velocity w' at the point F midway between the vortices and 09 ft. The points marked about the theoretical curve are experimental. The curve is theoretical. 125. To obtain an independent check on this value. numbers this reduces to . and are derived from ' the readings of Fig. 125. together with the theoretical curve FIG. as obtained from (179) and (180) with measured. It will be seen that the check was successful.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 307 for Evaluating w for a series of values of y gives the curve of Fig. VARIATION OF STATIC PRESSURE THROUGH A TRAILING VORTEX. but upon the whole it is fair. . 4 and a 0025 ft. Denoting AF K= = = m t K =K (467)*} where the first term gives the contribution from the circulation round the second that from the the aerofoil.
A considerably greater value than this is expected owing to the reduction of the horizontal component in the wake. wake had . the angle of downwash there would be 27. Hence. 4?r (148 f 358 051) =K 4rc X 455 = If 145 ft. of the vortex lines escaping into the not yet rolled up into the vortex pair. This was immediately evident on weighing the lift came to 1*61 KpUl.. per sec. The conclusion is that of the aerofoil. clearly. all factors have not been taken into account. which so close behind this aerofoil 40 per cent. viz.308 AERODYNAMICS w' [CH. per sec. 61. the horizontal component at F were 31'3 ft. VII = K. but not nearly so great a value as measured.
distribution of the vorticity than is available. This parallel formation cannot extend indefinitely. Introductory articles We flow close to the wing with a view to investigating wing forms. critical angle. necessitatnow proceed to examine the ing uniform lift along the span. will be affected much On apart from discrete vortices immediately formed. The present chapter studies in more detail wings of the strictly limited span practicable for sustaining heavy flying loads. to calculations in the vicinity of the wing. Consequently. the aerofoil has been found in some cases to roll up only slowly. The monoplane wing is completely represented in the present investigations by its span. the vortex sheet spreading behind parts. but the form of (182) permits us nevertheless to regard without important error the straight vortex lines as being of semiinfinite length. Chapter VII clearly indicates that at a point close to a system of vorticity the velocity less by distant parts of the system than by near the experimental side. is at once appropriate suggested. as we have seen. calculation of the second component would be complicated. part of which is bound Exact to the aerofoil and produces circulation round its sections. and would involve more precise knowledge of the threedimensional An approximation. Fluid velocities are compounded of the translational velocity and a component due to the complete vortex loop. by theory and experiment. however. assumed to be zero and the incidence It follows that form sufficiently removed from the on the theory of the lifting monoplane have described the residual flow caused in a region of the atmosphere far behind the wing as consisting of a vortex pair. and skin friction drag is and the viscous wake are neglected.Chapter VIII WING THEORY 169. and some detailed investigation has been given to a simplified vortex configuration in which vortices are conceived to spring from the wingtips. aspect ratio and the spanwise distribu309 . The boundary layer is supposed everywhere to be very thin. a reasonable approximation for present purposes is to regard the free vortex lines as trailing behind the aerofoil perpendicular to its span.
It is assumed centre of span. w vortex lines not passing through that point.e. 170. from (i) l at y l we have. whose construction will now give no difficulty. The circulation at y + 8y is K+ 8y. 126. 126). that the circulation diminishes outwards from a maximum J at the Hence. over the element of span Sy. which is in general Its value at any point is due to all the variable along the span. but whose solution in a given case may be attended with analytical complication. The peculiar nature of the results will fortunately enable us to avoid much of the latter when small errors can be limits. General Equations of Monoplane Theory Take the origin at the centre of span (Fig. Denoting the velocity of this downwash at y l along the aerofoil by 8wlf we have from (184) and by Article 169 sheet. J TS wingtip. i. To calculate the value .310 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Trailing vortex lines arise in this way all along the span. the grading of lift intensity. tion of circulation round its sections. The scope of the enquiries is expressed in the following set of general equations. vortex lines to the strength Sy leave the aerofoil to form part of the vortex ay and the direction of rotation is such as to cause a downwash nearer the centre of span. and denote by the circulation round the wing at a distance y towards the starboard K o FIG. Both these quantities are at the choice of the designer within certain Good approximations to a desired lift distribution can be obtained with different shapes of wing to meet other requirements. tolerated. and produce a component of the downwash velocity.
(See also Article 140D. be the distance apart of these vortices and 2a the diameter of At any position y along the span of the aerofoil *( l .. can usually be met by considering elements close to y l on either side in pairs. be increased to a according its . .e. by the angle w/U.. a component parallel to SA = ?Kw For the whole aerofoil . to a = a + w/U .VIII] WING THEORY 311 2s being the span. 8y. assuming this to be small. q being the resultant of w and the translational velocity U. (ii) There is also C7. Sy w = ~ 81 .e. (220) alternative theory of induced drag must give the 171. must. . 8L therefore inclined backwards from the perpendicular from the direction of lift. 1 . I K is indefinite. (iii) L = p7 J Kdy s (218) Kwdy (219) Again referring to the element at y.. and to of lift is is U and to the span. . measured from the angle for no lift. motion. Hence. its incidence. The integrand approaches oo as y approaches y lt so that integration must be stopped short of y l and the limit investiThis kind of difficulty occurs frequently in our subject it gated. compared with twodimensional conditions. i. to realise the lift (ii). This reaction is perpendicular to the local relative . This is readily lift.) Consider the circumstances of the element at y. The element SL = by ?Kq Sy . U/q = ?KU . i. another effect of w is to reduce incidence from a the incidence it would have consistent with its lift if it formed part of a wing of infinite span so that w vanished. when the whole of the trailing at the wingtips as a vortex pair. . an element given SZ)^ of induced drag. gathered together vorticity provided we exclude a region at each tip where w cannot be deter The above verified in the case of is uniform mined and Let each. . Its reaction amounts to pKq Sy. same results as that described in the last chapter.
. m m of two impulses I lt / 2 regarded as acting and changing their velocities from lt t W W w w lt t. It is = m. impulse imparted per A wing traversing a region and small positive incidence of the L=IU . from (219) = p *27u .. To introduce the method developed below. Distribution of Given Impulse for Minimum . This problem is atmosphere at constant speed U say horizontally exerts on the air a Let / be the rate of change of impulse in a downward direction. say. The whole flow is regarded as irrotational.log 6 1 ' (  1 1 \a agreeing with the induced drag evaluated over a corresponding length of the aerofoil by the method of Article 165. assumed that the sum 7 t Js C = m w + m^w l = m (w.312 t AERODYNAMICS [CH. (221) In the process.  WJ. = C. l (w. By Article 119 I.. = const. Dv E. Investigation is possible in several ways. as in Article 165. a say.). and we have is given by the change E of . the problem may be restated as follows. kinetic energy is communicated to the air at the rate E per unit length of the path. Hence.W. = EU will realise these conditions ? 173. the substance of the vortices formed being neglected work is done by the impulsive action at the rate and. (m^Wi + m^W n t ). The ' Second Problem of Aerofoil Theory We now approach the lift over a given span evidently of the greatest engineering interest. 172. if any.. We have unit length of the flight path. Kinetic Energy on to Consider first the fluid masses lt sum a. or The work done by the total impulse kinetic energy. f 2 /. where a is the extent inwards from each provided y <\l vortex centre of each of the excluded regions. question of the distribution of a given total for minimum induced drag. provided that the distribution found can be realised in a wing which is structurally economical in weight. .. what conwe find ditions will make E a minimum ? What form of wing. Total lift and span being fixed.
174. . The foregoing condition for minimum work done is realised when the impulse is applied through a rigid plate accelerated normally to its plane. . w 2 i. . . Therefore is a minimum under this condition. .) 2 l . Hence. and.. when.) .. .Wi) + m> (w. .VIII] WING THEORY  313 Therefore (C =mm l + m W + m*W ww (m w + w l l 2 )* 2 2 2 ) l l a ze> 8 ) a 2 2 (z>! + z0 a a 2wjW 2 ) being necessarily positive or zero. the left.W + m (w . . masses . . the kinetic energy in unit length parallel to the flight path will be a minimum for a given lift and span. the final velocities are equal. therefore. w w 11 proved in exactly the same way. velocities. . W )+ l) 2 9 . W W 2 m m lf 2. if the flow . Let these act on 2t W% lt s . to w w lt 9 . and let + We 2E 12 +h+ =w t (w 1 = C. . . . have . has a w 2 Now all the terms on the lefthand side of the equation are known and prescribed except 2E. whatever the initial is a minimum when w l last expression. . The corresponding is result for a number of impulses I lt I 2 7 8 . * =m l (wf  Wf) +m 2 (w 2 PF 22) +m s (w^  WJ) + . wf . a constant. writing E Q for the original kinetic energy and the original momentum M for (Lm) (2E + 2E ) (C +M )' =m (m w + m w w + m (m + m* + +m + (m wj + + w (w! + m + m< + m w w + m^m^w{w + 2(m = m m (wt w + w^s w + l l 2 2 l 2 n . changing their velocities from . .. = . . We does tion is minimum work when conclude that a distributed impulse of given total magnitude the final velocity of its point of applica everywhere the same.) a t 2 2 )* (te^! 8) The righthand side being necessarily positive or z# 8 = hand side is a minimum when w l = w 2 . .) 1 2 1 2 z . ... Considering a region of initially stationary air which has been traversed by a wing. 2. zero.e. 3 2 . The minimum value when w t = . . .
the wing having passed ahead. < ... Hence the central intensity of the lift is pKQ U. must also be the circulation round the median section of the aerofoil... Now actually. / and E are obtained immediately from Article 120.... when the motion is generated by a wing of lift L and span 2s.' 175... it might have been generated from rest by the normal direction of unit length of a long plate of width equal to the wing span. and this interval of is the circulation round any circuit passing through the centre line and embracing onehalf of the sheet. consisting of a vortex sheet.. the plate so far imagined is fluid. Considering two adjacent points A and B. midway between the edges and on opposite sides of the plate... Twodimensional conditions are appropriate. (222) (223) (224) Wingloading In applying this important result to the actual case. 1 ^Trpw's is (ii) The distribution of / across the plate shown in Article 120 to be elliptic. we note the following : being the circulation round each half of the vortex sheet. *Pg*.sin 37T\ (iv) 2ws . . K . At outer sections . ws sin 7) . (iii) ranging from to 2?r round the surface. Denote this circulation Q by K = 2ws K From (iv) or w Substituting in (i) = K /2s and (ii) I = PK. . On the plate <f> is given by ^ 7) = . the interval of </> between them is == . Elliptic . If w is the final velocity of the plate and 2s its width 1 / TTpte'S (i) acceleration in a = E= . .314 there is AERODYNAMICS such that [CH...
dK y . . = Ko  w is constant along the span ^ T TC_ (229) from (226) and E =D (227).VIII] WING THEORY 316 the lift this is required to fall away elliptically. o (225) We note = pK. in t . Other planforms can be arranged to give approximately elliptic loading by suitably gradating camber and incidence along the span. This shape is quite practicable in modern wing construction. applying (217) to y l = 5 w Again.T^= K. Substituting for agreement with (224). we can readily recalculate its value from (217). .s gives Di = 2XV7ip?7 a . i. set at constant incidence along the span. itself.e. <') Hence. at the aerofoil its w Knowing this velocity to = K /4s From (225)  (227) be constant along the span. The velocity w has. since = K. intensity at y is given by . so that camber is constant. i. at the aerofoil. from Article 148. having geometrically similar sections. (229a) The best wing shape which.f ~ dy J . . onehalf value far downstream given by (222). remembering that from (226) and writing X for the K spanloading L/2. but these may hold only for a single value of the central incidence.e. according required uniform induced velocity at to theory. is should give the of elliptic planform.U 2* (226) agreeing with (223) from (221).
. (228) shows that dK/dy tends to oo at the wingEssentially the same result follows alternatively from Article tips.316 AERODYNAMICS [CH. = 2K/Uc. For this purpose we have . 2 (230) L U * 2s* This may be compared with the result (213). a critical minimum. (153) gives the spanwise components of velocity over the faces of the sheet.ior uniform 1 From (229) D A _2D. A _n ~ '~~''"~~* X ^ _ ' L ' by (231). having area S and mean chord c' planform x From (226) 2s 4s f 4s 1 ?iT?=T ~i P C7'S~pC7* 4s . ..C L lift and constant chord. be shaped. Considering again the thin flat vortex sheet. . A 2s/c. 124 on analogy with a plate in broadsideon motion. Criticism of the feasibility of realising the minimum of induced drag arises actually on the theoretical side. small departures from the conditions required cause increases which for some practical purposes are not important. Similarly for the k system of coefficients Formulae (227) and (231) yield w TT ~~~~ I _JL_ A rL * * * * * (9w\ ^*iOOy Substituting in (220) a =a + ~C L . . 176. The form of vortex sheet calculated could not persist at its edges and modifications are to be expected near the On the other hand. while the minimum induced drag may be regarded as an ideal impossible to realise exactly. we shall see shortly that (229) is not wingtips. Minimum Drag Aerofoil Formulae Let A be the aspect ratio of the wing giving elliptic spanloading... which tend to oo at the edges. (234) These formulae are often employed to calculate changes consequent upon modification of aspect ratio. If the For a rectangular planform of constant chord c. Hence.
rest certain assumptions . cit. Jones. Then dCJdcx. at a fullscale Reynolds number for a rectangular wing of aspect ratio 6 and of * Experimental data in this article are based on Relf. 91.27r. illustrating many upon e.Q 1'X~ I ( l l \r C differentiation of (234) I ~ jt I ft if the theoretical slope Then accepted. A I tc\ A I 177. from = I dC L jd<x. 2?r for thin aerofoils of Joukowski shape be "+: An to . Loc. (1) The extended curves of Fig.VIII] WING THEORY 317 1/1 1 .g. the difference between rectangular planforms is for the time being regarded as negligible. Examples foregoing simple are of outstanding The results practical importance. These are discussed after further development of the elliptical and theory. . applications. experiment. ~ ' 1 =(AA') d<x. 127 give the experimental * lift and drag coefficients O 10 FIG. 127.Q f\ = /. (236) empirical correction is r put where / f\ = 087 approx. t p. (235) By da. They ' are often known as reduc tion formulae/ The follow ing their examples. and Bell.
Im mediately from (235) AC^.p.h. the section shown in Fig.. Aoc = CJl2n.p. 42. Of this.. But at CL 02 the induced drag is only 20 per cent. induced drag is much greater than the AND sum of form drag and FIG. at C =10 in the present example. skin friction. Consider a monoplane using this wing. of the whole drag. 38 (thickness ratio == 0127).h.h. of C D and increase of A from 6 to 9 would save 25 per cent. about 180 b. and the possible saving would amount to only 7 per cent. C^. shows CD$ CL for elliptic wings of aspect ratios 6 and and total also the minimum C D that can be expected for a rectangular wing shape of aspect ratio 6 and thick ness ratio = 012. forms nearly 80 per cent. = by wing alone.318 AERODYNAMICS [Cfi. but appreciably below the OO4 Cj) 008 016 maximum lift stage. But a speed of 180 m.h. could be achieved. 128.F.A. within certain limits the large decrease in drag at appreciable lift coefficients due to doubling the aspect ratio would be realised for . A = in practice. questions qualify Full cantilever construction would . for the wing. of 5 tons total weight and having a minimum flying speed of 60 m. would require 450 b. At moderately large lift coefficients and incidences.p. 128 plotted against 9. are left unchanged.p. The advantage of high aspect ratio diminishes. At a cruising speed of 110 m. with small lift coefficients.p. = C L*/l2n. Adding these increments to the experimental values of C^ and a corresponding to any value of C L gives one point on each of the derived curves 12 shown. Consider the effects of increasing A from 6 to 12. 18 per cent. and a decrease of only 4 per cent. and increase of aspect ratio produces L marked improvement. would be absorbed the .h. (2) Fig. necessarily included in the experimental This will be shown to be justifiable values. For instance. assuming an airscrew efficiency of 80 per cent. could be saved by increasing A from 6 to 9. known as R. It must be borne in mind that structural the advantage of high aspect ratio. however. It will be noted that contributions to C D of form drag and skin friction.
and is 1080 ft. relate to a modern craft with a usual minimum with split flaps fitted to the wings.h.h. Determine the aspect ratio for new wings. At 5000 ft.p.p. and that it regard to rate of climb benefits aeroplanes of large speed range chiefly in and ability to maintain altitude when only part of their power equipment is functioning.VIU] WING THEORY 319 be too heavy. area. to 100 m. pl7* = 1003 and U = 2053/^0862 which will lead to A is the new aspect ratio = 2212 ft. to increase the rate of climb by = 5 per cent. speed would be about 200 m. per sec. and whose cruising flying speed. It is only necessary to change the speed at which maximum rate of climb occurs from 140 m. A thick wing may be substituted to overcome this difficulty though form drag increases. neglecting their increase in weight. U 4 MO' 6 or 1 ) X i X 1003 X 2212 X 780 = 33 X 550 A The above data = 803. for so thin a wing as that considered with 4=9. and the smaller induced drag would be offset by the added drag of external bracing.. Let us change them to apply to a slow craft. The additional thrust h. The required increase of aspect ratio is then found to be from 7 to 108.h. ft. that must be made available for climbing is 005 X 20160 X 1080 33 ' = 33000 At 5000 If ft. (3) A monoplane weighing 9 tons has wings of aspect ratio 7 and 780 sq. which has the effect of increasing incidence suddenly and thus momentarily increasing lift. altitude its maximum rate of climb occurs at an indicated airspeed of 140 m. But a point appears in favour of tapered planform which reduces the bending moment at the root of the wings. owing simply to the reduction of speed. a saving of 33 thrust h. per min. with the materials at present available.h. lift coefficient being supposed constant by reduction of minimum speed.p. The following . kept The foregoing examples illustrate that high aspect ratio substantially improves the speed or economy of aeroplanes of restricted speed range.p.p.p. (4) A disadvantage of high aspect ratio arises in some cases as follows : Wings must be made sufficiently strong to withstand the shock of flying into an upward gust. when C L 06.
incidence a and chord c is somewhat complicated. i. alternatively dCJdv. circulation of Fourier type = s. Thus until incidence and speed have time to change.h. Let us diminish the minimum flying speed to 50 m. 178. approximately. see Shenstone. Ae. according to y Then The = = s.e. .4=6 and 0740 for A = for. Then 478 . S. becoming 0990 or 1064. 6=0 when y = TT centre of span..h. is then either 4712 . =0114 and C L becomes 0680 for The transient load factors are now ' ' and 520. s cos 6.h. or 5236. sec. expressed in a series K = 4sC7SQ sin nQ * (237) An alternative method is due to Lotz . Change the variable so far employed to denote position along the span from y to 6. for the upward velocity of the Assume the wings to have an effective maximum CL of 128 and to be of aspect ratio 6 or 10. The Arbitrary Monoplane Wing The problem of the wing of nonelliptic form. Aoc 10.p. initially C L =0142. minimum flying speed encountering the gust at 120 m.320 calculations are based gust. Consider first a craft of 60 m. so that initially C L 128(60/120)*= 032.. on 25 ft. t The Elements of Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory. the area of the wing is written S and its span 2s.p. brief description is given below of a t A convenient method * of solution developed by Glauert. varying along the span. whose book f should be consulted for further details. theoretically. defined by a given variation along the span of shape of section. is = n/2 at the K. As before. The sharp increase of incidence comes to 25/176=0142 radian = and C L increases by 0'670 for A = 6 or by 0744 for A = 10. The wing of the higher aspect ratio is the more severely stressed by the gust. R. AERODYNAMICS which is [CH. at the port wingtip. when y and dy = s sin 0^0. which would therefore be heavier with the larger aspect ratio on a score additional to that mentioned in (2). A factor of safety of 2 is usually called and this excessive loading might provide an overriding condition for the structural design of the wings.p. May 11)34. respectively. and advance the speed range to 3. per not excessive. Jour. the lift of the wings is increased in the ratio 310 or 333.
C 5. i. only the semispan need be considered. manner lift coefficient. .. the distribution of lift along the span. its theoretical value for thin Joukowski shapes. but in a modify which leaves C L constant. if cL Qe is the incidence measured from the angle of no It is convenient to ignore for the moment variation of the slope of the twodimensional lift curve from one section to another and to write for this 2?r. now also variable. according to the fundamental laws developed in Article 170 and Chapter VI. . We have to find an equation for Cn which will be satisfied everywhere along the span. But the particular outboard position. five and usually four or K At any position 29 KU =C L6 pcU>. to a particular value of 0. This distribution depends upon .. 2K or = C L9 cU.VIII] WING THEORY for 321 integral in which symmetry about the median plane only odd Since from (218) values of n appear. In framing the equation we have to relate to the induced velocity w. Fourier series often gives a good approximation when only few terms are used the practical feasibility of the method depends upon this.. For an exact solution the summation should be from 1 to oo or at least include a considerable number of terms. .e. Then . from symmetry. (238) means that the first coefficient of the Fourier series determines the total C 8. substituting from (237) and remembering (230) gives CL where = 2A p (EC rt sin n8) sin is MQ. This easily evaluated. although in practice it will be satisfied at a few chosen positions only. It does not mean that C L oc A. A is the aspect ratio. each relating to a . under twodimensional conditions lift Also. terms are sufficient when. giving 1 C L ==nAC The result . their sizes and attitudes all along the span. the shapes of the sections.
and Therefore. . . dropping the or from (220) K= Ttt/coco K . More accurate values of 2:r will be known for the sections under twodimensional conditions at the chosen points. 179. then . . and these should be substituted in 27c.rct/c (a Now. But we shall retain the approximation. . Article 140D) to .) Substituting this expression for A vr 4sSC w and also for K in [ (239) rt sin Q n6 = nc / a \ . K and w. With it. for a given lift when all The sum will vanish. the induced drag is a coefficients subsequent to the minimum first C L is specified by d. . . This is sin nQ =~ (~ + sin 6/4s 4s \ sin 6 .^ nC* sin n 7 sin 6 ) oc \ ). We are now in a position to calculate the total induced drag. and hence. .322 AERODYNAMICS suffix [CH. results are obtained in terms of the general variable. on (237). / or EC. but which is which is in constant and equal to 1/2. <*. . After substituting for y. rectangular wing. (241) dCJda. . ~). (219) leads to sin = 2A and this reduces to (SnC* n6 sc sin n d ' C w =7i4SnC/. . (239) substituting the new variable and taking account of (217) can be reduced (cf.4 for a given parameter c/4s. than practice for the general equation required. (242) The ElHptically (238) Loaded Wing Compared with Others By squaring and substituting in (242) we find < 243> Now the sum is obviously positive.
when lift the span. 129 for equal total lift . and others. and the rectangular shape by Some load distributions different methods. MATHEMATICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF LIFT FOR VARIOUS PLANFORMS. *Loc. cit. nor a desirable. With rectangular square tips. and thus the minimum possible drag coefficient for varies any wing is given by (232). 320. 129.* Betz f using the method just described. case. from the elliptic considered from a structural point of view. elliptically along The formula (243) is conveniently written  (244) 0. Both these loadings differ widely but in the opposite way. either Aeroplane wings are commonly. but the question remains as to how different they may be as regards induced drag. are illustrated in Fig. these planforms have been investigated by Glauert. The halftaper wing has a tip chord equal to onehalf its central chord. except for rounded tips. for constructional reasons. The distribution for a much sharper taper differs much as does that for the rectangular shape from the ideal. t p. 1919. but for other distributions it has a positive loading 8 a small fraction in practical cases. although this is not a practical. and its loading approximates to elliptic as loading. results relate to constant shape of section and geometrical incidence along the span. or straighttapered. as will be illustrated.VIII] WING THEORY 323 reduce to unity. t Dissertation. as already proved. . G6ttingcn. employing FIG. uniform loading is The included. 8 then gives the proportionate increase of induced drag above the For elliptic = value minimum theoretically possible.
and a theoretical result a pointed wing. 2 RECTANGULAR 132 gives the Fig. 131. i. at A 67. variation of 8 with taper for A 67. t quickly as for the elliptic wing. SHARP TAPER often employed for tailplanes. 130. to 5 per cent. at is The A = 10. theoretical error in estimating induced drag for rectangular wings by (232). Structural (* FIG. has a tip chord somewhat less than onehalf 002 the this central chord ratio. INDUCED DRAG AND ASPECT RATIO.e. This is illustrated in Fig. O02 8 FIG. decreases from 8 per cent. aspect ratio should be proportionately increased. at the aspect ratio 4 = 006 . The slope of the twodimensional lift curve is assumed to be 2n if it is less. where for also are shown the uniform result estimated lift with ^4 = from experiment in Article 166 for 6. 10 loading. but This point estimated from experiment. from the present point of view. and to 3 per cent. is questions may suggest a sharper taper. 10 showing good agreement. OO8 130 indicates the Fig. The best L 004 = taper.) . which 008 a large aspect ratio for aeroplane wings. by assuming elliptic loading. Induced drag decreases with increase of A but not so . at aspect is Induced drag 1 then only per greater than for elliptic cent. 131. theoretical variation of 8 with A for OO6 rectangular wings according to Glauert (full line) and Betz (broken line).324 AERODYNAMICS [CH.
the lift curve of sional flow. If. can be ratio first assessed to a good the formapproximation by ulae OO4 OO2 O OZ 04 CK> of Article 176. dimensional slope 27i is 604 x 6/8 = 0453 per radian = 0079 per . checks of different kinds have been obtained. a +  CL (1 + T). the effect 302 for 7t in (236). since aerofoils of this shape can easily be made with accuracy. A number of good = YH aerofoils give a slope rather less than 0076 at this aspect ratio and The theoretical slope for a twoat fairly large Reynolds numbers. (216)]. is OO6 that the The conclusion induced drag of normal types of wing. modifications of aspect ratio provided the type of loading More accurate reduction formulae than (235) however. (245) T increases approximately linearly for rectangular wings from 01 at A 3 to 023 at A =10. of moderate aspect and taper. to secure a specified lift coefficient. on analogy with (244).VIII] WING THEORY 325 8 then increases until. Associated with this change is a decrease = in the slope of the lift curve. 132. whose section has a slope 2n in twodimenis calculated in is approximately allowed for by substituting Comparison with Experiment The for solution for the rectangular wing provides convenient means comparing the results of aerofoil theory with experiment. For a full discussion of this question reference should be made to the original papers. 38 and Clark 6 are 00752 and 00742 per degree.A.F. and to O8 1 especially changes due TIP CHORD+CENTRAI CHORD FIG. Increased induced drag implies that. and many The with A aerofoils slope of the lift curves for R. easily deduced by precisely the same method. with 01 pointed wing. incidence must be increased more than is provided for by (234). 1 80. as conditions. we write remains the same. induced drag becomes as great as has been estimated for uni a 008 form lift [cf. are. greater than aerofoils. compared with twodimensional For rectangular (236).
. broken (Similar differences between theoretical^ theory and experiment are also found on tapered wings. as illustrated in Article 177. as described in Chapter VII. to calculate relatively small differences between wings of much the same type. . The . Wings can be designed to eliminate this feature at cruising or climbing incidence. drag appropriate to uniform Effects of the foregoing and other discrepancies are minimised in the principal use that is made of the theory in design. a . _ DISTRIBUTION OF LIFT experimental . but the agreement is nevertheless quite good. so that they lead to a large increase in drag over small The theoretical induced drags areas. and occurs also on tapered aerofoils.. a knuckle of hoarded yortex lines in Other words. It appears that at full scale a less factor than 302 should be used in place of n in (236). wings apply only the remaining part would appear to have a lift. Comparisons between load grading curves are less satisfactory except at very small incidences. full scale. AERODYNAMICS [CH. ALONG RECTANGULAR WING. of inci dence was 6 typical for the difference is incidences greater FIG. than about 1. and as a dotted line the theoretical result. Plotting CL against CD for each results in a series of very dissimilar curves.) edge in this region (cf. ' was anticipated on theoretical grounds in Article 175. A marked difference The angle . surface. The peaks of pressure reduction are situated on the rear part of the upper . 100 133. viz. Such a departure from theory line nalises . 133 shows as a full line the experimental distribution along the span of a rectangular aerofoil obtained by integrating the pressures over the surface. discrete trailing vortex of some strength exists near the trailing Article 166). . . The feasibility of this use rests upon experiment. will be seen to occur towards the wingtips. Full line : pressure peak near the tip sig: .326 degree... as will be appreciated. Observations of lift and total drag coefficients are obtained on a series of aerofoils based on the same section. but the form of wingtip required is less easy to construct and with most wings the feature is present it has been found at and the closeup vortices must occasionally be taken into account in connection with the controls of aircraft. and in actual to part of the lift . Fig. for given shapes are ideal minima. but of widely different aspect ratios.
h is the +he Aerodynamic gap and B are fixed points. of a biplane are variously arranged as illusDistance between the planes is called gap (see NEGATIVE STAGGER FIG. The limitations are. alternatively. and all to lie within a narrow band through which a single curve may be drawn for practical purposes. . angle. 134. firstly. however. cona region of the atmosphere traversed a little time previously sidering by a biplane. there is said to be the amount being expressed as an In a positive stagger.VIII] WING THEORY 327 When. when the biplane is sai4 to have note to figure). ful in some cases up to 15. and even in an orthogonal biplane at have different lifts. but the region of maximum lift should be avoided. <f> geometric stagger. Secondly. the lower wing is of reduced span and usually of reduced sesquiplane chord. within certain limits. Thus. If the upper wing leads. h BEING < are the centres of pressure. If THE LEFTHAND FIGURE ILLUSTRATES POSITIVE STAGGER. we expect to find two vortex pairs of unequal strengths. When the upper wing is immediately above the and has the same dimensions. to agree with one another substantially. . A. THE GEOMETRIC GAP. the originally divergent observations are found. incidence must in any case be restricted the check has been success. the arrangement is called orthogonal. With positive stagger the upper wing is occasionally set at the greater incidence by 23. 134. The two wings interfere with one another in various ways. chosen as standard. The induced drags of the wings differ from one another and from that of a similar monoplane. that the aspect ratio must be greater than a minimum depending upon section and incidence the minimum varies between 2 and 4. B Aerodynamic stagger. the reduction formulae are used to correct every point on all the curves to some common aspect ratio. usually If. BIPLANE WINGS 181. lower wing at ddcalage. The two wings trated in Fig. A and located at onequarter of the chords from the leading is the edges.
drag This important theorem is known as Hunk's equivalence. at the same time will. 182. theorem. but with drag distributed between the planes in accordance with the degree of stagger. the kinetic energy generated within it by the biplane is clearly seen to be independent of the degree of stagger. be assumed to extend downstream parallel to the direction of motion. of either plane is unaffected. remains unchanged. restrictions on span. By considering a region of the atmosphere lately traversed. Introduce stagger. for As modifying the incidence of every section of either plane in such a way as to ensure that the distribution of lift throughout the system. an effect on 1 due to the vortex system of 2 by the suffix 12. with the proviso It does not follow that the induced stated. A*a + Aii + Aii (246) two terms on the righthand side are calculated as for the last two represent the effects of interseparate monoplanes ference. in fact the contrary will be found. Thinner wing sections can be used for biplanes. by an equivalent system of zero stagger. Thus the total induced drag is. or stagger. partly on account of decrease in span for a given lift. pilot's view. The drag and weight of the interplane bracing tend to offset this advantage. Some General Theorems for the monoplane. but it should be remembered that a particular layout may be adopted for ease of construction. the trailing vortex lines behind each member purposes of calculation at the wings. and also to limit the amount of stagger and gap that can usefully be employed. however. unchanged by stagger. for purposes of investigation. A slight extension of Articles 1734 leads to the result that minimum drag occurs for a given lift when both wings are elliptically loaded and the induced velocity is the same at each. Changes of Aerodynamic efficiency from one arrangement to another and in comparison with the monoplane will be studied. Elliptic lift distribution will be assumed. having the same total lift and drag. It enables a staggered biplane to be replaced. but more importantly by virtue of the external bracing so readily introduced. either positive or negative. whatever it may be. the circumstances of either wing Regarding . mutual effect.328 AERODYNAMICS [Cfi. The total induced drag of the biplane is f An = An + The first . Distinguish the upper wing by suffix 1 and the lower by suffix 2 and denote an effect on 1 by its own vortex system by the suffix 11. and so on. and similar practical considerations.
. . we can then calculate for zero stagger 1 f An = Fr *. Therefore. the induced velocity at any point some distance downstream due to wing 2. can be calculated on the analogy between its vortex sheet and a flat plate in broadsideon motion by the methods of Article 117 or 124. With the aid of Hunk's equivalence theorem it becomes of general utility.. (249) and (248) can finally formulae. If w' represents the induced velocity at the one element due to the trailing vorticity behind the other w" This XT 1== 8L w" XT 8I 2. and ADt21 be that part of the induced drag of the whole of wing 2 due to the effects on all its elements of the single chosen element of wing 1 AZ). is true of any pair of elements. lt = AA. + 2A. Consider a single pair of elements. The point can be moved upstream to the vertical plane containing both wings by introducing the factor ^..I. Writing 2$ for the span as before. be evaluated with the help of the monoplane . and intro number of elements having equal small will Divide the span of each wing of a biplane of zero stagger into a lifts. (248) important to remember that this result is for zero stagger. since elliptic loading is assumed. by summation for all elements Ai2=A Substituting in (246) . which. (247) we find AB = An + It is Ai. We only. appropriate to its span. to which the above result may be applied.VHI] are modified other. WiJL UJ * l9 . for by this we can replace a staggered biplane by a particular unstaggered system. . though unequal in spacing and strength. Hence. Now. Each separate element produce trailing vortices. say. WING THEORY 329 by (a) the bound. . if AAn be the whole induced drag of a chosen element of wing 1 as due not to other elements of the same wing but to the effects of all the elements of wing 2. and (b) the free vortex system of the (6) investigate the mutual effect as for duce a correction for (a) later. induce equal velocities at distant corresponding points owing to the equality of the lifts. one on each wing.
so that ..330 AERODYNAMICS form . 183. [CH. O4 FIG. 136. Prandtl writes (249) in the (250) where a depends on Sj/s.. and the ratio of gap to 135 gives his values for a through a useful range. (250) takes the Denote the quantity form lift/span for each wing by \i or X. Fig. mean span. 05 PRANDTL'S FACTOR FOR BIPLANES.
. the wings have equal this is not true if the total lift is differently divided between them. . whose upper and lower To wings are 30 ft. with a gap of 5 ft. span. This result neglects. The factor to be applied to DiM is always < 1. per sec. i.) = on substituting lift/drag ratios.VHI] WING THEORY 331 Since for a monoplane 2/nA plane with elliptic loading is obtained in the same terms as = S/2ns*. at 150 ft. and 24 ft. But from (253).). . respectively. (252) This is a minimum for a given total lift when Aj oj QTo ^ The value of the minimum is (2H) where the monoplane drag is for equal lift. the parasitic of the longer drag of interplane bracing. and a span equal to that wing (1) of the biplane. Examples illustrate the significance of the foregoing results. since the longer wing advantageous The disposition of is much the more heavily loaded. we consider a biplane lifting 2700 Ib. for AJ or X. lift required for minimum drag is usually disfrom a structural point of view. and we find (/A)i (LJD. It is therefore useful to is for practical variations the above minimum not critical note that but flat/ ' 184. so that a biplane has less drag than a monoplane of equal lift and span.) aX. of course. the divided equally between the wings. + aX. = Si/(Xi + si/(X.e. the induced drag of a mono < 261 > Hence the induced drag (248) to be given by of the complete biplane is found from t ). In the biplane of minimum induced drag and is mutually induced drag zero stagger.
.. X t practical to make X a f X lf so that Xj = = should then have 86*9 follows : Ib.. It might be more 422. for the total induced drag. occurs for a given the wings have equal span and X is the same for both. gap <r = 048. The loss associated with the new loading could be recovered by a small increase of gap. We then have for the complete system minimum induced drag when I + CT) ' (255) where XB is the total lift per unit span of the biplane. per _ ' == Tip ft.576 720 = ia = L> X 24 30 a La X tl whence L l = D tl 1907 La > == 48 Ib. and L a Since now L l = = 1013 Ib. gap of 5 ft..332 For a monoplane of the same D since XM == 90 Ib. lift AERODYNAMICS and 30 ft. cr must be reduced to the value corresponding to a Equal Wing Biplane Comparison with Monoplane Article 183 shows that lift i. = Ib. Ib. It is easily found that. D aa == 212 D + D2l = 271 ia showing 13 per cent. The only drag then affected is that mutually induced.e. = 25 Ib. . Since Xj = 636. 1687 Ib. 185. upper wing total induced drag. their lifts are equal. and the minimum drag 963 (1 023) T~ 096 15 12 X 08 + 064 __ 85 ^ * ' We also have Xa X. span 2 x 8100 X 22500 = M Ib.. made up Ib. as D n = 376 Ib. We 562. stagger. but that the difference in loading is rather excessive.. and that of the lower decreased by 8 per cent. approximately. D + D = 24 Ib.. aa = 793 Ib. 4 in. but 1 per cent. = We note a reason for diminishing the chord of the lower wing. 963 is For 6ft. only in the whole. and as the biplane has zero total induced drag. . X = 330 = 13 Ib. lower wing = 60 Ib. increase in the drag due to interference. [CH. to decrease this by the small required amount. it is found that for zero stagger the lift/drag (induced) ratio of the upper wing would be increased by 4 per cent.
. 1 + a" A M = 0663 A B . is greater It will be noted a)/l. Evidently we must have ^M^^L. writing h for the gap i 1 1 + cr when Si =s =s a is. 4s = 0653 x 8s whence . lift = *r TC/IB C LB (1 + <r) . . of the monoplane must be doubled. for equal span. the spangrading of lift must be reduced for the monoplane by the factor 0875. (257) Example. A* Example. where S the aspect ratio of the biplane being defined by A B is the total area. 8s*JS.WING THEORY 333 An approximate expression for Prandtl. The results may be expressed in terms of aspect ratio as follows. then 1/V^ times that of that the monoplane the biplane. . the same. Let us determine the aspect ratio of the monoplane which will lead to the same induced drag at the same lift and lift than that of the monoplane in the ratio (1 spangrading of lift is + coefficient. If the gap is onesixth of the span of the biplane. .  (268) coefficient and aspect coefficient of a biplane is greater than that of a ratio the induced drag monoplane in the ratio The the lifts make lifts To are then different. supporting the same load at the same lift coefficient and having the same aspect ratio. however. so that for wings of the same dimensions A s equals = the aspect ratio of either. the area whence we find that the drag of the biplane. From Hence CD* For the same (256). since the areas are equal. be written. For a gapspan ratio of 1/6. This can . from f L^ = G 2065 + 152 (h/s) *  /LJ'~\ (^5oj The spangrading of a monoplane carrying the same load as a biplane and having the same induced drag is immediately obtained as AM xB /Y/ii*.
. incidence increase depends essentially upon the square of the ratio of the chord to the gap. due to the bound vortex system of the other. General Remarks The form of (260) shows that the secondary. a = 0053 CL (in radians) for a monoplane with an equal wing biplane of gapspan C L at the lower estimate (259). as is usual. . If both wings of a staggered biplane are of equal span and carry an equal load. f. is easily shown to have less induced drag than the The comparisons which have been made with the monoplane neglect increase of form drag of the biplane wings due to their * Bose and Prandtl. however A is increased. Incidence. Mech. But the reverse is sometimes adopted. Zeits. . is = 1143 x 2s B . A = 6. to take account of the neglected 1 86. ang.. shows that the forward wing should have the smaller geometrical incidence. For biplane wings to achieve a given coefficient their incidence (a) must be increased from that appropriate to their sections under twodimensional conditions (oc ) to a greater extent than monoplane wings of the same section and aspect On account of the double trailing vortex system a increased to ratio. and improves the shape of the lift curve past the stall. elliptic For loading ratio 1/6 it is 0082 increasing by factor (260). This development is left to further reading. the slope of the lift curve of a biplane is considerably reduced from the twodimensional value. 1927.334 2s M AERODYNAMICS [CH. Math. which requires . some 30 per cent. is evidently a a + CL (I + a) .c L < (260) v ' Example. have positive stagger.* An approximate formula is Aa (A 0025  X gap/span) 2 a for . but important. Formula (259) can be amended on the lines of (245) for lift distributions other than elliptic. u. The chord of the monoplane the greater lift by 75 per cent. (259) A further increase is required on account of the curvature of the streamlines in which each wing operates. the forward wing other. vii. Applying the same reasoning as to mutual effect to biplanes which. Thus.
. . the images are distant a*\\l The upward velocity at the centre due to these where C is = 4?c .. If the aerofoil has the same aspect ratio as the wing it represents.. observations of drag and incidence must be suitably increased to apply to free air conditions. Assuming the aerofoil to be located centrally. replacing the trailing vortex sheet by a vortex pair. = tf ' (261) Let the radius. The distance apart of the aerofoil. or IK. Enclosed Tunnel Constraint at the Aerofoil When an aerofoil is tested in a wind tunnel of the kind in which the stream is enclosed within walls. and the actual tunnel wall by a circular one. and is then easier to make accurately for small tunnels. / of these vortices is determined from the lift For example if elliptic loading is assumed. which consequently experiences a fictitious reduction of induced drag and incidence..VIII] WING THEORY 335 greater incidence for a given lift coefficient. the walls diminish the induced velocity at the aerofoil. of the tunnel be a. They also neglect the experimental value of the maximum lift coefficient. The advantage of the latter method is that the aerofoil may have a larger chord. Whence in this case '=? from the centre. Alternatively. 1 4C But the crosssectional area of the tunnel. the measurements might be made on a model of appropriately smaller aspect ratio. WINDTUNNEL CORRECTIONS ON AEROFOIL TESTS 187. This course of correction is that usually followed. which is the lower for the biplane and affects choice between the two in practice. or effective radius. The constraint is often calculated with sufficient accuracy by the approximation mentioned at the end of Article 166. = SC7CL .
CL is the lift coefficient and S the area of the aerofoil. the numerical factor 0125 for the of Article tunnels of circular section alone being 1 H. . comes to less than 1 per cent.. Thus they apply even to a O6 biplane or triplane model. i. the sections. of when S becomes the sum the aerofoil areas. of the final estimatesBut where the clearance between the aerofoil tips and the tunnel walls becomes less than onefifth of the span. which is denoted by \T for 9 rectangular tunnels. and that the corrections are B O8 H > proportional to lift only. 136. H 4 /B changed. Tokyo Repts.. We then have finally Similarly l ~C I .W C L U. assumption of elliptic loading is unnecessary in the present connection. 136 shows the variation of this factor.* The whole when this variation * Terazawa. S . any It is usually sufficiently accurate to increase w uniformly along the span by this amount to obtain free air conditions.. It will be noticed that the distance / has vanished. FIG.336 if AERODYNAMICS [CH. (263) for a tunnel of circular sec10 tion. Fig. It will be seen that the variation from 0125 is only 10 per cent. 1 Substituting (262) This result has been obtained without use of (261) and applies to aerofoil.e. for open correction is usually less than 10 per cent. 44. Expressions of the same form are obtained by the T oz method 153 for square or rectangular section. 1928.
in practice. 137. 137 would be expected from an aerofoil of R. at CL 10. Thus an aerofoil of 2. c 1/3. diameter. _ ~" I 6* 54.A. . in a closedsection wind tunnel of 4ft.VIII] WING THEORY 337 foregoing approximate method begins to be insufficient and the form of the distribution of w f ao to have an appreciable effect. upper curve of Fig. More exact conversion formulae may be developed to take account But the changes of the actual lift distribution of the model tested. S/C = 02 0*0133. disfree air conditions by the accent tinguishing is_i/a _JA 8C~7cU A') or. Hence.g. gives A chord and 216in. per sec. aspect ratio would a model of the same chord require for the to coincide ? Comparing (263) with (235). span in a circularsection tunnel of 4ft. while 4s = A*c* 2 c denoting the constant chord. . at a speed of 150 ft. = Aa= 00066 What two curves radian =038. span. diameter would give through a limited range of incidence the same lift and drag coefficients as an aerofoil of the same section but aspect = = = same Reynolds number in free air. 38 section.F. and multiplying by half the square of lift coefficients gives increments of 04 06 08 10 FIG. we have. since 9 C = TOI* and A' = 6 !_ 8a ~A i ~ 6* a t By (230) S = 4s /4. ratio 6 at the following this refinement are of the order of 10 per cent. or more directly 1 ~~ Ac* *8o A Substituting a 4in. drag coefficient leading to the lower curve for free air conditions. Incidence would also be increased for a given C L e. of 4in. VD 10 T . chord and 24in. The Examples.
from symmetry. With The conformal transformation . radius a. as already mentioned. corrections are required to allow for its limited section. so that the surface is slightly bent. Take next the important case of a vortex pair symmetrically situated in a jet of circular section. Take first the case of a twodimensional aerofoil situated near a parallel flat fluid surface of infinite extent. with the open jet it is that the pressure at the surface of the jet shall be constant and equal to the pressure of the surrounding air at a distance. so that for the pressure to remain the same as outside the jet. The new requirement entails that the tangential velocity at the surface of the jet be reduced to its value in the absence of the aerofoil. The normal velocity component there is doubled. instead of normal.338 AERODYNAMICS 1 [CH. 138. u must vanish. at an equal distance beyond the is surface. The tangential velocity component due the combination evidently. but not easily. neglecting squares of small quantities. Openjet Tunnel aerofoils are tested in a free jet. beyond which the air is at rest. let p be the pressure and the jet velocity u. reversing the sign of the single image in the transformed plane. Locate the image as for a wall. Reversing the sign of the images at the inverse points gives the system of Fig. 188. To verify this.e. a final variation of usually than per cent. of Article 155 may be applied to a twodimensional aerofoil in a twodimensional jet. Whereas in the latter case the criterion determining the image system is cancellation of velocity components normal to the walls. which differs essentially. These are obtained from the appropri When ate image system. Thus tangential. By Bernoulli's equation Hence po p = $>Uu. however. so that circulation round it in the same direction as round the aerofoil and the two form a to biplane of zero stagger. but reverse the sign of the image. from that for an enclosed tunnel of the same section. U the velocity just within before introducing the model. velocity components due to the aerofoil are to be cancelled by the image system. i. which adds small increments of w there. but this effect is often neglected. vanishes at the surface. v. less representing. An approximate solution is easily seen in simple cases.
G. Thus the artifice of changing the signs of the reflected vortices again succeeds in regard to the tangential velocity. is not well founded in their case. such as or rectangular. & M. For general treatment reference should be elliptic made to a paper by Glauert.vni] WING THEORY 339 FIG. But the step is tentative and rests is upon experimental justification. and also that the aerofoil is rotated through a right angle.L I  ] j B a*/< V fi 2 r a2 r 32 The expression within the brackets vanishes. zero pitching moment about the C..R. The tors neutral. with the last proviso. being based on ignoring the distortion of jets. the mean results should give the free air coefficients and incidence. If. also used for jets of elongated section. provided the sign is apply changed.C. : It must be confessed.. In practice. but the normal component is again varied. that the theory of the correction for constraint.R. the notation of the figure it is easily verified that the tangential velocity at the general point P is proportional to sin v s B + s B + a*/s (B . plane of . however. with eleva189.. 138. the correction formulae of the preceding article are applied to an open jet with their signs changed.* simple rule appears from this and This method A other investigations The correction formulae for enclosed tunnels to open jets of the same sections. DOWNWASH AT tail TAIL PLANE an aeroplane is required to exert. 1470. No. of the craft at some * A. a small aerofoil is tested in an openjet tunnel and also in an enclosed tunnel of the same size and section.
Unfortunately. while from (226) s/s' = 4/w. pair.K \  47cC7 term in the curly brackets is the contribution from the the remainder that from the fully developed vortex wing.340 AERODYNAMICS . expression reduces to first The K XL. This is achieved (or may be adjusted by trimming tabs). rough estimate is obtained by substituting for the actual wing a hypothetical one of equal lift distributed uniformly along a suitably reduced span 2s' (cf. the downwash angle is given by A . then have alternatively elliptic loading along We for the factor ~ n*A ' L s' from (231). We then easily find that at the level of the aerofoil and at a distance x downstream from its C. The vortex sheet will have but not partly. giving for the factor Then using (236) Put. v (264) This result is readily expressed in more practical terms. arranged speed and wing lift coefficient (Article 88) by a suitable tailsetting angle.g.P. = s to represent a possible position of the tail Then we have for that position . while the existence of any wingtip vortices close to the wing will affect the calculations. the magnitude of the downwash affecting the tail plane is difficult to calculate owing to the lack of precise knowledge of the trailing vortex configuration at this intermediate position behind the wing. for example. For uniform loading $' = 5. but it is desirable to form a close estimate at the design stage of the required tailsetting angle. A/(s'' + *n . [CH. Tail planes their lift. which depends upon the downwash at the tail position (Article 86). % plane. rolled up. completely. Assume = CJZnA. while is the uniform circulation of the The simplified vortex system. Let the actual wing be of span 2s and aspect ratio A and let C be its lift L coefficient and a its incidence. Article 166). e. and the factor K/2nUs 2s.
P. symmetrically in the tunnel and restrict attention to the constraining velocity w along the tunnel axis at distance x behind the C. 947. and those observed in an open jet reduced. and it is more reliable to determine e by model experiment Observations of down wash require correction for wind(Article 86) tunnel constraint. However. 1924. we then calculate only a small . of the aerofoil through which the bound vortex lines are supposed to be velocity W Q> say. Kdrmdn and Burgers f have calculated by * A. f Aerodynamic Theory. ii. it must not be applied to greater values of x. (266) for section C. . correction.R. while its value w^ far downstream == 2w (Article 148) the present problem is to determine intermediate values. for the reasons stated. and the same difficulty arises in determining the amount of this. the approximation being linear. at the tail plane differs from that in free air. but. substitute for the aerofoil one of appro priately shortened span and uniform lift with a fully developed vortex Assume this to be arranged pair springing from the wingtips. Results for other lift distributions along the actual wing are obtained in a similar way.C. and error is of far less significance. 1935. & M. The formula is especially arranged to hold up to distances downstream representative of normal tailplane positions. . concentrated. In the above form the formula may be applied also to biplane an enclosed tunnel H models. for instance.. Tailsetting angles observed in an enclosedtype tunnel must be increased. de/da = 046. at the aerofoil has already received discussion. to allow for the limited the When a complete model of an downwash expanse of the stream. of side and area of crossS being the area of the aerofoil and C L its lift coefficient. lift But it should be remembered that such values assume a coefficient slope of 2n in twodimensional flow. Even with the plicated. On the other hand.R. simplifications adopted analysis tends to be com: Glauert and Hartshorn * have obtained 024 CL . The constraining . 190.VIII] WING THEORY 341 giving for 4=6. As in the preceding article. (264) cannot be regarded as adequate. and modifications of the numbers may be introduced for sections other than square. of square section. Tunnel Constraint at Tail Plane aeroplane is tested in a wind tunnel.
w =w +w v a. where wa vanishes.342 AERODYNAMICS of Bessel functions the constraint in [CH. which is to be subtracted from observation in a jet or added to that in a walled tunnel. omitting sign. Then^y a f/s' and = =* K From Fig. we shall estimate in an approximate way the constraint for a circular section. 139 K 2=. wv the velocity at x due to the images of the K FIG. Estimate for Circular Section means Let a be the radius of the jet or enclosed tunnel. 191. 2s' the span of the equivalent aerofoil of uniform lift. vortex pair. open and enclosed Instead of reproducing these investigations. . *' rca* . Let the distance of the image of each trailing vortex from the axis. circulation wa the velocity at % due to the image system of the aerofoil. be^. 139. we have. which passes through the centre of span. Thus (I) w W/WK =J at the aerofoil and = 1 far downstream. round the For the total constraining velocity w at x. tunnels of circular section. the circulation round the simplified vortex system. using the methods of Chapter VII. (u) . It is convenient to express velocity contributions in terms of w>.
HO.. i nxHJ * _ ^ w = j + cos Y + 2 cos p 1 I ~ Lx^n/a f sinh (xi/n/a) 1 J 1. If the _ sinh (nxjH)' Since an image of length 2s' occupies each length of the rows. Article 155) held.. due to the real vortex would be decreased by the walls in the ratio (cf. finitely.+ +. both columns and rows extending images in the rows were continuous and twodimensional conditions the velocity at x FIG. v . AB indicated in Fig. an enclosed 140 for tunnel (cf.+ (iv)  boundary a square .+ an equal area. Applying the approximation gives = and since w* ^^^^ = n K Ks'/H*  Hence. substitute for the actual circular contour of side H enclosing . using (iv) and by (i) nx/H and (iii) sinh (nx/H). J (267) . in . The image system aerofoil of the 139) is . H The velocity at x due to AB in free air is K47T* (Fig. 4 H* = Tea or H = ai/n (Fig. ^ . so that 1 . 139) 2 cos p 1 2 where cos p s'/Vfc' + x ). we assume as an approximation that this constraint is to be reduced by the factor 2s' /H.4 + 4 4 Article 153)...VIII] WING THEORY 343 and therefore ^=1(1+ cos Y where cos Y Turning to ) (iii) = %IV(X + y * 1 ) wa .
the curves the approxiThe upper curves show mation (267). a good approximation. Denote by B the R.S. give open 1 91 A. Then (ii) of the preceding article can be expressed in the form ^_ ~U as ~~ 5 * C Ll may be written down alternatively from (262). = and de fa de Wa n + 4C (i) don .H. = . of (267). . 141. and let the area of the aerofoil be S. A of the tail plane and a the inciusual problem is to determine rfe/^a from an estimate of rf /rfa the corresponding quantity measured in a windtunnel experiment with a model. which will be known from the conditions of the Then e experiment. 141. A model tail plane will seldom be farther downstream than \a in an enclosed tunnel or \a in an FIG. let e be the angle of downwash in the neighbourhood dence of the wings. Application Referring to a monoplane in free flight. Thus (267) appears to jet. The curves are obtained from (267) with s'/# \ and f The curves in the upper half of the figure for an enclosed stream are reflected in the #axis to apply to a jet.NAMICS [CH. The circles represent Karman and Burgers' results. the upper half of the figure applying to an enclosed stream and the lower to a jet. Kdrmdn and Burgers' results are given as suitable for s'/# n t much exceeding they are . Let the working section of the tunnel be enclosed and have a crosssectional area C. corrections to be added to velocities observed in an enclosed tunnel. shown as circles in Fig. the lower curves those to be subtracted from observations in an open jet. CONSTRAINT WITH A CIRCULAR STREAM.
.. (i) can evidently be written from ds dy. da.. Q da. It must be remembered. however. that dCL jdu. The factor 08 may be applied for aspect ratios in the neighbourhood of 6. is less than double its value for the monoplane. is less for a biplane than for one of its wings separated as a monoplane. the slope of the a suitable form the monoplane in free flight. Alternatively. Tail Planes of Biplanes curve is known accurately for Superposition of monoplane results to obtain those for multiplane wing systems has already been discussed in Article 86. (263) ' by 8C and substitution error for dC^/da. de/da. BS rfCL 4C lift ' . . 192. 8C rfa can be made without much resulting (236) or a modification of that formula. Accordingly.VIII] WING THEORY 345 of the This expression gives a close estimate of de/da provided the slope For lift curve of the model in the tunnel is also measured. if ds Q d&Q d(x.
tion of form drag and the small lift coefficients normally in use. the present we assume sufficient smoothness to avoid the second component. however. aircraft of large speed range. corresponding boundary layers of experiment may be largely steady. skin friction is of paramount importance. independent of one If the surface of the body is Aerodynamically smooth in a another. is now turned to the force arising within the boundary as distinct from that due to pressures transmitted through it. although the whole friction of a body can be measured with comparative ease. except 193. On cult. and some of the problems studied are selected for convenience and simplicity rather than on account of their direct application to 346 . in accounting for the production of vorticityin the simplified distributions assumed. owing to eliminautility. of course.Chapter IX VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG In Chapters VVIII the viscosity of air was ignored. On the other hand. of surface of many aircraft bodies is not and negligible. surface distributions of pressure for slim shapes. the determination of its distribution even round a model in a wind tunnel is by no means simple. Again. and other results of common (Article modern The artificiality of infinitely thin boundary layers With 43) prevented any investigation of skin friction. the lift and induced drag of wings. as introduced in Chapter II. calculation immediately becomes diffiof our new study is that analysis alone cannot go very far. These and other difficulties necessitate oblique attack from several angles. Mathematical complexity arises essentially from the fact that the flow within long boundary layers at aircraft speeds is for the most part turbulent (Article 21). layer although these two forces are not. introduces additional drag of the nature of a finely divided form The two components together constitute skin drag. Neglect was justified by the successful calculation of practical velocity fields. For drag. and a feature reinstating viscosity. the force arising is a pure skin But the slight roughness friction. Attention sense that will be explained later.
transition length the boundary layer fills the whole of the section and. and Oy perpendicular to them. flow obtains nowhere past an does the special type of turbulent flow occurring in pipes at large Reynolds numbers. laminar flow becomes established. P. 142. fluid is commonly supplied to the mouth or inlet in an agitated state. The form of the laminar flow can be calculated by a development of the method tunnel . The run of pipe required to achieve damping. but in some circumstances they are damped out.e. aircraft. and this variation is a constant i.e. FLOW strictly laminar. ^dx dz oy sure p . however. = = = . partly as an introduction and also in view of a practical use to be deduced by semiempirical reasoning. j*. is distance from the inlet is called the stilling length. gradient OA ^ oj% {jp Cj) i~ x= ofi ~a constant 0. accelerates by its obstruction a central stream whose After a pressure diminishes according to Bernoulli's equation. assuming damping. the streamlines are everyis where parallel to Ox there no variation of the pres. VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 347 than is Such application demands greater intuition and empiricism usually called for in Aerodynamics. increasing in thickness along the pipe. PIPE 194. except in the direction Ox. 142) in the direction of motion midway between the plates. 1 ' of Article 24. Flow for the same as that in an enclosedtype some wind a boundary layer lines the wall. and. If the flow is steady. FIG. In experiments with long pipes. neither is of interest. The plates are supposed so large compared with their 9 distance apart h that edge effects may be neglected.CH. Steady Flow between two Fixed Parallel Plates. This is the simplest problem after that of uniform rate of shearing (Article 24). subject when this is possible. which is constrained by the long The parallel wall to a uniform profile of timeaverage velocity. Draw Ox ~ (Fig. i. say. Initial disturbances usually develop along the pipe into turbulent flow. Parallel. IX] aircraft.
A1 12 p. Suffix for the boundary value is omitted where no misconception can arise. 2r PA = or T Alternatively. and must be balanced by the traction on the two plates. (4y . . if T * is the intensity of skin friction on either plate. Hence. . = iPA . . . (i) The condition of no slip at the boundaries (Article 22) states that when y = i^> giving two equations for determining the constants of integration A and B u = : From these 4 = 0. Hy. . (iii) we can calculate T from the formula (cf Article 24) . .A'). or there is a resultant traction is  9y direction s 8y. Substituting in (i) = 8{j. Consider unit length and depth of a stratum of fluid parallel to the In the direction Ox the traction on the lower plates of thickness Sy. The force exerted in this is P . . (268) The For its distribution of velocity is parabolic.348 AERODYNAMICS [CH. v . P . obtaining the same result if in this case we draw y from the * It was not possible to use this symbol for the friction per unit area in Chapter II. B = u PAa /8ji. while that on the upper face 32w LL is ^ (u + 8y). On integration u = fy* + Ay + B Z\L . _ A ^S face is \i . mean value u we have U 1 = T f* /3 AJ W^V == J rr. since the motion d a steady r i dy* ^ . Hence.P = 0. as shown in the figure. but the change is now made to a nomenclature which is international. (U) A/2 The propulsive force on the whole mass of fluid per unit length and breadth of the plates is PA. .
of a thin concentric cylindrical shell of internal and external length radii r and r + Sr. with fluid in an irrotational state. plate is The friction coefficient of either pfi 2p where the Reynolds number R = wA/v. Steady ' ' ' (270) If. is The propulsive pressure gradient of the internal and external tractions comes to . ' ' (1V) being zero along Ox. vorticity is seen to be generated by the action of the boundaries and viscosity. its gradient in the Consider unit direction of flow (Ox) is an absolute constant. of the moving plate were selected to specify R. force on the shell due to the In the direction Ox the resultant Therefore. du The vorticity (Article 39) reduces to < * away from the Py 1? axis. (i) .IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 349 surface concerned into the fluid. P. with the uniform rate of shearing there examined. tional to distance If having values propor it. from rising to the maxima i be compared with those of Article 24. the friction coefficient would be l/R. which is a velocity matter of choice. The assumption of steadiness clearly means that the pressure is constant over each section of the pipe . on the other hand. %Ph/y. . the defining R in the same way as for (269). since the flow is steady Integrating u==~r* p + Alogr +B . Flow through Straight Pipe of Circular Section The pipe is supposed to be very long and only a central length is considered. but. . since u \U results should coefficient associated The above For the same = "51 U 195. we have. P 2nr 8r. at the the channel formed between the plates be supposed fed plates.
At greater scales the colouring matter could not be followed. so A = 0. the speed at the centre being twice the mean. and equals the retarding traction 7 Hence. whilst at the critical it oscillated between these two states in a stage periodic manner. Well below the critical Reynolds number it was crystal clear ' . Along the axis of the pipe. which is given by 4 D/3 The propulsive force on the whole mass filling the pipe is . becoming mixed with the stream. p 37. 4 PD 1 per unit length. well above. if wD/v. the friction coefficient is R= nD at the wall. Couette examined the jet of water issuing from the outlet end of a pipe. approximately. Later on. whence (i) gives = PD 1 Hence the expression for the velocity reduces to 0) The . steady a nipple at each end of a central length of a long pipe and connecting to a pressure gauge. . fluid at inlet is in a disturbed state. it presented a frosted appearance. When Y *= \D the boundary condition of no slip states that u 0. < 272 > Comparison with Experiment The laws demonstrated in the preceding article were first found to hold for small Reynolds numbers nearly a century ago by Poiseuille and Hagen experimenting independently. (271) velocity profile is a paraboloid. which developed a turbulent motion. u cannot be infinite. Applied Hydro and Aeromechanics.350 AERODYNAMICS . ^=1 196. he showed that a little critical colouring liquid introduced at inlet formed. accurate measurements are easily By fitting * Tietjens. . Denote the bore of the pipe by D. . Experimenting with water in a glass pipe. This early success furnished a valuable proof of the conception of zero slip at the Some fifty years later Reynolds established that if the boundary. . below the Reynolds number/ a steady line parallel to the axis. where r = 0.* Simultaneous changes in the trajectory of the jet showed a greater resistance of the pipe to turbulent than to flow. [CH. laminar flow can only result when the Reynolds number (uD/v) is less than 2300.
The dots given in Fig. It should be constrained. is The result (272) exactly fits these friction coefficient at the critical Reynolds number coefficient is increased greatly if vague. the centrifugal pressures introduced giving rise to a double corkscrew motion.000. but for the turbulent flow thereafter the above its value for laminar flow. and by supplying the pipe with an extremely smooth flow the critical stage has been advanced to R 20. number 143 are mean values obtained from the tests of Stanton and Pannell. to straightness considerable curvature of the axis produces a steady streamline flow of dissimilar form. when kinetic energy must be progressively added to the . but errors on this score are less important than those due to taper. diameter and fluid being varied. and readings as far others.(273) 3 (272T 4 25 FIG. laminar flow can be established at still higher Reynolds numbers. 143. by A of such investigations has been carried out with smooth pipes. The pipe should be fitted with a bellmouth at inlet and a stilling length of at least 60 diameters allowed. Commercial tubes are seldom round. Experiments of the above kind are frequently undertaken as providing valuable laboratory work. and some precautions against error may be noted. The R 2000. Saph and Schoder. 2 . and they provide an excellent check on Rayleigh's formula (Article 47). with a liquid. FRICTION IN STRAIGHT PIPES OF CIRCULAR SECTION WITH INITIAL TURBULENCE.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG of the resistance of the length through a 351 made wide range in rate of flow. if necessary. . Numerous investigators have demonstrated more recently that the disturbances at inlet be reduced below a certain small maximum. increasing resistance. the latter being measured by weighing. or feeding the fluid through a calibrated orifice in the case of air.
(iii) assumed. The simplest empirical formula for the friction coefficient (Blasius) is ~ pw 2 =00395 tf~ 1/4 shown . the surface of an aerofoil. v. (273) v ' and holds as far as jR = 10* as in Fig.362 stream. Pipe flow is often employed to calibrate anemometers intended for use very close to a boundary. far from the inlet the profile across the section of the timeaverage velocity remains constant along the pipe it is much flatter than for laminar flow. AERODYNAMICS [Cfi. but at greater scales divergence again occurs. The orifice box surrounding the inlet should then be of ample proportions and the gauge recording intake pressure difference should be calibrated for low speeds by an aspirator method. ally. Turbulent Flow in Pipes the Seventhroot Law The unsteady flow beyond the critical Reynolds number Sufficiently is not When referring to the velocity at any susceptible to calculation. A. and the gradient at the wall being steep. times the mean. e.* extends agreement to R= A 5 more general x 10 6 . when n in (ii) will be a constant. due to Lees.g. . we find n/4 1/4 . the radius of the pipe. 91. that as u increases the velocity profile retains its shape. if T denote the skin friction at the wall T If = 00395 a p jR~ 1/4 = 00395 = /4 pfi'/V' /) 4 1'4 (i) that the timeaverage velocity u distant y from the wall can be related to the axial value um by the simple formula we assume =u where a (yl*Y 1' l24fi (y/a) . (ii) = JD. . caused by an insufficient transition The laminar velocity profile is approached only asymptoticlength.. great care must be exercised to free entering fluid from even such small disturbances as convection currents. and meanwhile kinetic energy is added near the axis. when a very generous transition length is required. In some Aerodynamic laboratories air will be used as the fluid. Now it may be Roy. Soc. the maximum velocity at the axis being approximately 124 . 143. If large critical Reynolds numbers are desired. as an approximation. and substitute in ~ T = 00228 pv V y /V 7 (i). On the basis of (273). . 1015. 197. In such cases it is important to approximate closely to the calculated velocity profile. radius we mean the timeaverage value there. * Proc. increasing similar error is A pressure drop. formula.
. .IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG close to the wall 353 a. 1932. due to Prandtl. Roy. This is not the case near to the wall. to the same range as (273). 12 . To * Fage and Townend. The thin film to the wall through which viscosity predominates is known adjacent as the laminar sublayer. of course. approximation The great increase of resistance to turbulent as compared with laminar flow shows that molecular motion can no longer account for the transverse transport of momentum through the bulk of the stream.D. for we on differentiating (ii) that T becomes infinite as y vanishes. v.lt up by the same mechanism as for steady flow. VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR STREAMLINE AND TURBULENT FLOW THROUGH PIPES. find Through this layer the seventhroot law evidently fails. 144. but at greater Reynolds numbers the index may be progressively decreased as an at about 10 7 it becomes 010. compared with the resulting tractional stresses in the fluid. is (rather surprisingly) found to hold closely throughout the greater part of the section of the pipe. Thus the skin friction is ultimately bu. A. Soc. A. O FIG. Past the critical Reynolds number molar masses of fluid penetrate from one radius to another and. 136. on which it depends. but observations with the ultramicroscope* prevent its being regarded as in a steady state. Proc. where molar movements must eventually cease. breaking down only near the axis and the wall. however. It is restricted. laminar friction is small. it If we further assume that must follow that u is independent of in and J= n =\ (274) This law.
The core may be so small compared with a pipe of convenient diameter as to represent. for parallel flow is actually (The subsequent and Winny. The solution for laminar flow through a circular pipe with a concentric circular core is easily deduced from Article 195. i. and to be joined to the wall by a straight line having a slope dictated by the known value of T (Fig. if required. tunnel. by small cores. by considering flow through a long pipe fitted with a core that extends through its entire length. 15f 1633. both analytically and experimentally. WITH CORES Annular Channel of practical Aerodynamic interest are conveniently studied in a qualitative manner. According to some systematic experiments * the critical value of Z)/v at which turbulence develops is delayed 16 per cent. Some problems geometrically. If the core is of diameter d the constants in (i) of that article are now to be determined with the additional boundary condition u when t : r = \d. considerably. v. Hooper. a very narrow body in. effects of the core on the resistance of the pipe wall and of the general velocity profile on that of the core. to that for flow between parallel planes. . a 5ft.) Mag. wind In these circumstances it is possible to neglect. as an approximation. = To evaluate A and B we have and a similar equation with d written for D t whence and for the mean 4 velocity f D/a P Comparison with Article 195 (ii) shows that a central core of diameter only a few thousandths of that of the pipe suffices to decrease the flux for a given pressure gradient. avoid the anomaly we suppose the velocity profile drawn in accordance with (274) to hold only from near the axis to the edge of the laminar sublayer.e. to increase With large cores the friction approximates resistance. 7. But the range Phil. 144). for example.354 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Piercy. t Ser. 50 per cent. PIPES 198. article is based on the same paper. and increasingly = for * narrower annuli. where d/D 015 05.
which increases resistance (such secondary motions often occur in flow through other than straight circular pipes. Ray.g. Soc. The in this figure illustrates a basis of ap shown 2000 1000 line proximation used when. 1929. This that is often o FIG. Thus critical upper and lower as speeds occur broken in Fig. O2 04 06 d/D 145.) 5 curve derives the critical values of wD/v on the assumption that they will (By permission of the Phil.) vary as the hydraulic mean depth. but some results of interest will be described briefly. The value for the For all annular channels this 0004. According to the author's experiments. defined as the ratio of the crosssection of a stream to its wetted perimeter. as in some applications to Aerodynamics. . Mag. * Proc. and must be left to further reading. a more or ' less periodic ' motion of swaying type setting in. 199. A.. d). where R' applies to the Attempts have often been made to relate the incidence of turbu lence in various cases to a common value of the skin friction coefficient. (The broken line gives an approximation based on hydraulic mean depth. and are not 5OOO 4000 V to be confused with turbulence). 00045 applied approximately in this connection to pipes of various curvatures. straight pipe 8/2000 coefficient lies between 00045 and 00074.CRITICAL REYNOLDS NUMBERS FOR PIPES WITH CORES. turbulence is developed through wide annuli (djD < with a given fluid and pipe that are pro05) at mean velocities to the ratio of the whole friction to that on the pipe wall portional White * found that T/pw2 = = = only. 145. For annular sections this ratio is evidently (D for a pipe it is Z)/4 so that the d)j . 123. Eccentric and Flat Cores The analytical problem of eccentric cores and of cores of other than circular section is a little complicated. curve gives appropriately R'D/(D pipe without a core.. it is sought to correlate results for pipes and channels of different sections. owing probably to small variable eccentricity. in curved pipes.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 355 greatly reduced by small cores. v. . e.
ISOVELOCITY LINES FOR A PIPE WITH AN ECCENTRIC CORE. (By permission of the Phil. A similar obstruction to flow through the passage between two bodies is often encountered in Aerodynamic circumstances beyond means of calculation. less than with the core centrally situated. much less deep than the boundary layer and parallel to the flow. its maximum velocity being only 30 per cent. and the gap is filled in when small. The flow is notably reduced through the constricted side of the channel. Fig. introduced for constructional reasons along a more or less flat surface. in which is a core of onehundredth part its diameter. In contrast. When eccentricity is a maximum and the core extends as a single corrugation along the pipe wall. 146 gives the velocity contours for steady flow in a typical case of eccentricity.356 AERODYNAMICS [CH. for varying eccentricity of the core. Fig. 147 shows the percentage increase of resistance to flow there through a long pipe. In the absence of direct experiments. the increase with steady flow is negligible. 147.) Fig. the result reassuring as to the drag of a very shallow ridge. 148 indicates the theoretical laminar flow friction variation across a flat core as a central is extending strip . The resistance is 12 per cent. Mag. marked in turbulent than in streamline flow.Pipe FIG. 146. Experiments show the effect of cores to be less Eccentricityi. FIG. of that on the open side.
y \ 8y) are : du _ Bv . ACROSS A THIN FLAT STRIP WITHIN A PIPE OF CONFOCAL ELLIPTIC SECTION (LAMINAR FLOW). GENERAL EQUATIONS FOR STEADY VISCOUS FLOW 200. du (i) dv oy ox Of the terms on the righthand sides the first represent translation of the element as a whole. t at an adjacent point Q (x + 8x. Let u. the flow is When compound motion to the simplest terms necessary for framing equations of motion. obtained by Lees. they come to the same in laminar flow if the diameter VARIATION OF FRICTION 148. The rapid increase in friction as the sharp edges are approached will be seen. General Motion of the Element steady but nonlaminar in the strict sense of the word (Article 21). the element is subject to acceleration.. and such edges along the flow should clearly be avoided.* considering the resistance to motion of a long plate through fluid contained in a wide stationary cylinder of it obtains also for the corresponding case confocal elliptic section of pipe flow. v be the velocity components parallel to Ox. provided the cores are very small. it is also subject to variation of vorticity and to a We first reduce this certain stretching under the viscous stresses. . Oy of the The component velocities centre G (x y) of any small fluid element. although the velocity at any point in the field is constant. which can give rise to no internal friction. Roy. 92. 1916. As the element proceeds on its path.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 357 within an elliptic pipe. Comparing the total friction FIG. . The remaining terms express the velocities of Q relative to those of We have to deal only with these relative velocities. Soc. A. The matter is illustrated for steady twodimensional flow. Proc. v. of the cylinder first This result was is onehalf the width of the plate. parallel to the Ayplane. of a long flat strip with that along the exterior of a circular cylinder. and may G.
149.. If $u l9 Sv l denote components ' along Gx. oc and let them If a'. b t c. angle a with O the original axes.. with angular velocity . to be . with the help of Fig. (n) equations (i) give 8v = (iii) and we note that the last terms express rotations such as a rigid body might possess. It appears. Let these axes be Gx'. 149. dv fdv . in these directions V are component rates of strain while Sw/. therefore. . The last two terms of the expressions include in general rotation of the element as a whole about an instantaneous axis through G. the above condition for principal axes is expressed as Sw/ == a'S*'.358 shift the origin AERODYNAMICS to [CH. Gy of this motion of distortion rS' It is H i. which again cannot affect internal friction. directions y at right all angles such that 8x \ lines drawn parallel to \ them within the element will be subject \ only to simple elonga V \ 1 tion or contraction. G and imagine it to move with the centre of the element. Gy'. now required to find the principal axes of this motion.. where the vorticity =^ ex . that the stresses due to viscosity are associated solely with that part of the motion which is expressed by the terms in (iii) involving ' a. make an FIG. Introducing for shortness the symbols du .e. (v) Formulae of transformation from the old to the new systems of axes are readily found. 8w/ are components of the motion of distortion. ~ cy du\ (Article 39). 8v/ = 6'Sy .
sin 2a. Application to Laminar Flow As an important example. in turn from these equations gives f 2 8 Wl 8^ ( a cos a 6' sin a) 8y (a V) sin a cos 8w t sin a 6' cos 8^ (a 8y (a' a) 6') sin a cos = = + + + + 8 1 f  r a. a sin a.] . sin a. Eliminating 8v lf 8^. consider the simple type of steady motion consisting of flow in layers everywhere parallel to the plane xOz and in the direction Ox. Finally. cos .Ix] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 8*' 359 ' 8/ and 8w/ 8v/ Substituting for = 8* = 8y . cos a . a *= 45 and the principal axes lie along the diagonals of an originally square element (Fig. Since _ a' = 6' =c drawn within the element parallel to Gx* elongate at the rate J(3w/8y). acting parallel to the lines . ' . sin a. making use of the equation of continuity a b =a' a c = 0' = a' +V cos 2a. ^ V1 ' = 8i = 8^ 8*' .. and 8v/. whJe lines drawn parallel to Gy' contract at this rate. . ^^ a.8* oc . 150). 8* sin a). sin 2a. sin . we have. Since a' is not zero. cos a + 8y . cos a +  8v t 8*! . cos 1 a. . principal axes (cf. (lx ^ Comparison of (ix) with (iv) shows that a a b sin c == i (' = a' = a' + cos 8 a + + *') 6' J' sin 1 a. (275) J 20 1. These rates of strain result from the stresses whose effects upon the element are fully represented by those of principal component stresses p lt p t tensile and compressive. (VU) 8/. being Reference to Articles 24 or 194 shows that y 60. Article 26). 8/ in (v) from (vi) and 8! cos a + 8v t sin a 8v l cos a 8u t sin a = a' =V (vii) (8* cos a (8y cos a + 8y sin a). a =a 1 cos 2oc = 0. the velocity u a function of only. =0.
It will be found that the definition of requires us to write pl from (275). . By the end of the time bodily through the angle $ St. dy Thus the true orientation and shape of the element after 8* is as shown at C and.?. First ignoring rotation. so that = 2jjui' p Using (34). and subsequent formulae P*y of Article 26 2{jic. diminishing 8* indefinitely. we then sin 1 a find pxx = \(Pi . 150. a positive sign is taken to indicate tension and a negative fx sign compression. Let us follow what happens to the element during a short time 8*. But dy simultaneously with the motion of distortion. With the help of Article 26 we can now write down convenient formulae for the stresses.360 AERODYNAMICS FIG. the element has possessed an angular velocity interval this has rotated it = . Expressions for the Stresses The foregoing analysis removes a difficulty that is sometimes felt with alternative arrangements of the proofs of Articles 24 and 194. we see that the #sides of the element remain parallel to Ox consistently with the type of motion assumed in the first place. As before. and justifies our definition of viscosity.. 202. it is calculated that the #sides of the readily r\ element at A become sloped as at B ^ at an angle 4 . St.P*) sin 2<x = = (2(za' p) cos a (2[jia' + p) .
the forces due to the the two jysides give a difference normal stresses on 3px . while * the tractions on of these the two #sides give a difference Q? 8y dy . The sum is the force on the element in the xdirection. element is Oy t which become apparent when the motion of the followed. and must equal the product of its mass and acceleration in this direction. 8x. (276) dv The 203. If Du/Dt. first of these verifies consistency with the definition of (A. or Du dx Similarly (ii) Dv l)t A.D. from Article 200 obtaining . then for steady flow (Article 140i) Du Dt __ du dx du l)y' Dv Dt ~~ _ dv dv (i) U dy l)x Resolving parallel to Ox. whose centre parallel to Ox. dy. Dv/Dt denote component accelerations. _ 9p^ ~~~dy 12* .e. the component velocities u and v of G will change as it moves. (ii). The remaining jycomponent for a. b t c of stress similarly dealt with. The Equations of Motion The general equations for steady viscous flow in two dimensions are now easily constructed. Fixing attention on a rectangular element of fluid of sides &x.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 361 = Now substitute 2{ju*' cos 2<x p = is 2{jia p. 8y is at G. i.
p 8y These equations eliminating p by use of (61) and vorticity may be recast in various forms.. Jan. p M3t . from (276) Du Dv p _ 3*w dp /31 ?. + q cos 0. Mag. 1933. For example. ~ + wq_ ~ T 7r ye ^+v (280) / 9 r Vq +f 2 3te. . Another proof on similar article by the author in Aircraft Engineering. in generalised threedimensional form.7 ^ 8^ \ and . _'_2 ^v' rt r M( 9q\ .362 Substituting for AERODYNAMICS [CH. and subtracting. Phil. * ** 1 _ =~ a* ^ ~~ a^> + a*w \ Making use of the equation of continuity (61) to reduce the righthand sides and substituting from (i) for the lefthand sides. The Dynamical Theory of Gases. Thus if w q denote the velocity components in the directions r 0. . etc. de The simplified demonstration given is taken from an Saint. derive them in terms of molecular motion. so that u = w cos t t the equations transform to Dm Dq __ q*_ 13* 1 V +v /. we have finally " du du dp = VV w . are fundamental to the theory of motion of real fluids and were evolved by Navier. cross differentiation (65). March 1932. 80 .. v a* = . as discussed by Jeans. and making combines them into the single equation for I +!"* Or again they yield a single expression for the stream function (278) : <> They may also be expressed in terms of cylindrical coordinates.7T' I .Venant and Stokes. q sin 6. Poisson. (277) ' dp where v 1 v = . v == w sin respectively. It is also of interest to lines has been given by Prescott.\ ae/ * The equations (277)..
from which the angle 6 of the normal drawn outwards from the element 8s is measured. to infer the intensity of skin friction at all points from the velocity gradients. and the boundary condition of absence of slip. 151. 8s cos 6 + pyy + sin . however. v . from suitable integrations round the contour as explained in Article 44. For this purpose it is required. while the only formula we have (Articles 23. 363 These alternative forms are of course. T 8s = cos 6 (pxy . . . The curve in relative in Fig. . 6 (p xx 8s sin 6) 8s cos 6 . acting in the direction upper surface. as shown. 151 represents part of the contour of a cylinder motion without rotation parallel to Ox. we have from the figure . the velocities and pressures adjacent to central parts of the surface of a long body such as a wing. which will be known. and n outward along the normal. FIG. Substituting for pxy . +p yx . Formula 204. which will not Aerodynamic force follows exist.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG all. Distance s round the contour is positive in the sense of 6 The force on the increasing. If TO is the element is due to the stresses pxx s. 8s sin 6).cos 0) 21 i ^ p . exactly equivalent and no simplification exists in one as compared with another. on the intensity of skin friction at 8s. Extension of Skin Friction Assuming that we can calculate from the viscous equations. 24) relates to strictly laminar flow. from (276) ^ oy/ (sin* 6 . . (i) 8y> .
Sub or the skin friction is obtained from the boundary value of the velocity gradient along the normal. Now adjacent = cos n a. This formula is equally significant as giving the skin friction from measurements of resultant velocity. may be left as an exercise. . cos h sin dn .cos 3 0) ' / 2 ( cos 67. Complete expressions for the drag and lift. It is easily verified that the boundary value of the vorticity at the position considered.364 AERODYNAMICS to the boundary a [CH. It must be observed that if on the boundary du/ds.sin 0r I sin 6 cos \ dn . corresponding to those of Article 44. for example. as. though we shall find later on that in experiment a different method is often more convenient. dn/ . 8 Hence (i) becomes 5 = (cos 6 ~ + sin 6 V dn ^ dn/ 4 8 (sin 6 v . a*A . . a > dx a 5 dn ds = a sin 6 oy on a + cos 6 os and on the boundary 3/3s = dv/ds = 0. in the case of a rotating cylinder. v dn But adjacent to the boundary u stituting in (ii) =q = g' cos 0. Differentiating ^udu q dn vdv q dn sin 0. dn (ii) Let q = \/( w2 + v *) ^ e th e dq resultant velocity.sin 8 . dv/ds fail to vanish. . the formula does not hold. . They come X to V ' the suffix indicating that the integrals are to extend completely round the contour.
. Since w of the terms of (280) vanish and the equations finally reduce to . Since q is a function of r only. = f d*q I 1 *P ' ' ~r=?tr da W (n)  q ^+.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 365 VISCOUS CIRCULATION AND CURVED FLOW 205. Suppose a long circular cylinder of diameter d.^5r the first expressing the requirement that centrifugal force per unit volume must be balanced by the pressure gradient. we have v <oy (taking the origin at the centre of round a = the cylinder) and since o = = q/r = B/r* Bx \ d i ( By Hence the viscous flow is indeed irrotational. will generate a motion of the fluid round with the action If this becomes steady. assume as a solution q Substituting in (ii) = Ar*. We will first solve the problem as an application of the general and q is independent of 6. u fluid. together angular velocity to of viscosity. or the product qr It will be seen that the flow tion = is identical with irrotational circula circular cylinder in an inviscid fluid. n(n  1) Ar"~* + n.rn ~ l r" = Hence the general solution is are constants to be determined by the boundary which are q = \u> Q d. Thus A =0 and B = Jco ^ a so that finally where A and B : . must evidently be perpendicular to the radius r. constant. when r = \d. the velocity q at any point in the fluid it. to be given a steady The boundary condition of no slip. q = when r = oo. pivoted axially in an unlimited expanse of still air. Denoting by &> the angular velocity of any concentric cylindrical surface of the c>#. conditions. most equations of motion.
of fluid would gain or lose angular momentum. and on integrating Applying the boundary conditions evaluates C and E. Let the outer cylinder be of diameter D. which would be contrary to the assumption of steadiness. since this is constant = = . . a moment per unit length must be applied to the cylinder to maintain the motion. 206. u ovy.366 AERODYNAMICS [CH. M dv du\ = For the torque 2fjto) . do* ^C r* dr where C is a constant. . Hence A >' _ rfi 1 . coefficient The above result may be more simply obtained from the considera tion that the moment just calculated must be the same for all coIf this were not so. With the viscous fluid. Rotating Cylinder within Fixed Concentric Cylinder This case is readily deduced from the preceding article. (Hi) M= If q is (27cfT . the peripheral speed of the cylinder and R is specified by we find the following convenient formula for the moment q d/v. The traction is constant round the cylinder. eo#. r) f _ rf/2 2 7tpia>o^ . and we may choose to evaluate it on the jyaxis where the tractional stress in the fluid is pyK Hence from (276) . Then the boundary conditions now determining A and B are the same at the inner radius but q = when r = \D. however. some shell axial cylindrical surfaces in the fluid. and substitution gives (283). it is found that the tractional stress Putting v round a coaxial surface of radius r is pr du>/dr. . Hence the moment is (Jt^Ttr* d<A/dr and.
that a similar to that calculated in Article 205 can circulatory flow very When the fluid is contained between two concentric exist in air. the element will be forced back. . exceeds centrifugal force at the new m ~ ( Vt <7i ) . which that on the outer one.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG of these values in the expression 367 q = Ar + and substitution gives Bjr ? ~~ _ co <ft />* \ 4y\ IT ><?/ is The torque on the inner cylinder. The stability of this more general case was first examined be assumed that an element of mass m and volume V. cylinders of different sizes. viz. from Article 205 (i) Let it by Rayleigh. 207. qr need not be constant. ignoring viscosity. Curved Flow in Experiment in examining vortices. We have already seen. is acting inwardly. Thus the motion / if Y* stable or f if . its V~ radius. is equal and opposite to M= giving a 1 moment coefficient on the same basis as before The rotates case of the inner cylinder being fixed while the outer one is solved similarly. is displaced by a initially circulating at radius r 1 with velocity q lt disturbance to a greater radius r a without change of its moment of momentum. For either radius the condition for equilibrium is. revolving at different rates. If the force on the element due to the pressure gradient. Chapter VII.
A. find themselves with insufficient centrifugal force to oppose to the pressure gradient. v. Rayleigh's investigation may also be applied in principle to explain a striking phenomenon that is observed in front of stagnation Turbulence WIND. at least when the oncoming stream is not specially smooth. Rotation of the inner cylinder. if displaced outwards by a disturbance. produces eddying at a comparatively low speed. TURBULENCE SURROUNDING THE FRONT STAGNATION POINT OF A STRUT. 223. A similar phenomenon : is lower diagram give observed with wings. Roy. Soc.e. is unstable. not familiar. If this decrease the motion the square of the circulation increase outwards.. AERODYNAMICS if [CH. although viscosity advantageously modifies the foregoing criterion. Low Velocity 10 f i FIG. It is found in experiment that an outer cylinder may be revolved rapidly round a fixed one before eddying occurs in fluid contained between them. The contours in the enlarged mean velocity.* Steady flow may be realised in a wellknown type of if it is rational viscometer the construction of which will be evident. velocity amplitude . points. Trans. . and so are forced * Taylor (Sir Geoffrey).368 i. 1923. maintaining its path against a pressure drop outwards from the stagnation point (or line). on the other hand. Phil. 152. the outer one being fixed. Particles approaching the surface of the body closely have their energy reduced by viscosity and. Fluid approaching a body exerts centrifugal force towards the surface.
6. t Cf. Bairstow. and others. 9. 1928 (aerofoil). may be neglected. difficulty.* undisturbed flow in the wind tunnel. and various curtailed forms been suggested as appropriate to different circumstances. taking considerable though incomwas introduced more recently by Oseen it is vv 4 <J> = t/v* (m*x)   (287) where is the undisturbed velocity. Soc. If the velocity be very small and the viscosity large. that of timeaverage velocity reduction in front of a strut. 1930. so that we should expect stability. and.C. as determined by a hot wire connected with a vibration galvanometer. the turbulence out there. 1923. in which the experiments were conducted. however. also the & same authors. reducing the equation to V 4^ This approximation is = (286) due to Stokes.. plete account of the inertia terms. t Phi*. for comparison. The and also contours of timeaverage velocity (R 21 x 10 5 ). The enlarged view gives contours of mean amplitude of velocity variation. = APPROXIMATIONS TO THE VISCOUS EQUATIONS 208.f * Piercy and Richardson. all the terms on the lefthand side of (279). Phil. Such motions are minute.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 369 out farther. v. v. Farther round the contour of the body the product qr increases outwards. is damped Fig. has developed integral equations for application to symmetrical cylinders. Another approximate form. and the range of Reynolds number to which it may be applied is known after him. Phil. 223. . 152 shows the region of instability and. Roy. 1224. 1928 /circular cylinder). even from an experimental point of view. in fact. M. Thus the stagnation point becomes the centre of a region of weak turbulence extending in front of the body.R. A. was known to be rather turbulent. 203 are formidable. Mag. though steadiness be use of assumed. with Misses Cave and Lang. Trans. having to do with the inertia of the fluid and not its viscosity. . v.R. and A. presents considerable To make them have drastic simplification is required. Mag.. The general equations obtained in Article and their solution for flow past a given body.. Bairstow has also suggested its U value for obtaining rough approximations at somewhat higher Reynolds numbers and. This equation is appropriate to the Reynolds numbers of anemometry and has been so employed by Lamb.
370
209. Prandtl's
AERODYNAMICS
Boundary Layer Equations
[CH.
The approximation of greatest interest in Aerodynamics is that due to Prandtl, and depends upon the assumption that viscous effects are
confined to a boundary layer, Article 43, a feature that is characterThe process of simplification istic of most Aerodynamic motions. consists of examining the relative orders of magnitude of the various terms of (277) when a thin boundary layer exists, and will be ex
plained for the case of flow along a flat plate. Ox is taken in the plane of the plate parallel to the undisturbed flow and Oy perpendicular to the plate, the origin being at the nose. On account of the thinness assumed for the boundary layer, y and v
are small compared with x and Since v to be of normal order.
,
is
small,
which, together with p, are taken it follows that in the second
equation of (277) all other terms may be neglected in comparison with the ^term. Hence this equation reduces to
we found, as a matter of experiment, that the generated just outside the boundary layer is transmitted pressure through it to the surface of the body without change. The result
In Article 42
flow. (288) follows equally for curvilinear and unsteady theoretical justification exists for the experimental result. Turning to the first equation of (277), we find that the first
Thus
term comparison with the second v This is the only simplification that can be made in term 9*w/3y*. usual circumstances, and the first equation therefore reduces to I dp d*u du du /^v 289 v "^r + v ^r ^~ a dx dx
of
a
w, viz.
:
9 a /9#a , is negligible in
=
dy
3y
/p
account of the smallness of y, d*u/dy* is large and, if the order of 1 For all the magnitude of y be denoted by z, it will be of order 1/e terms of the equation to be of the same order, v requires to be of order eV The thickness of the boundary layer in the jydirection is
.
On
then proportional to
V
v or >
more
generally, to
FLAT PLATE SKIN FRICTION WITH STEADY FLOW
210. Application of Oseen's Approximation
or tangential plate of limited chord (c) provides the easiest problem of direct Aerodynamic interest. Breakaway (Article 159) does not occur, and the flow is found experimentally to remain steady
The flat
IX]
VISCOUS
to
FLOW AND SKIN DRAG
371
up
Reynolds numbers (Uc/v) exceeding 5
x
10*
even in moder
ately turbulent tunnels.
The problem has been solved
general way.
approximation in a Although, for reasons stated in Article 208, this
* to Oseen's
FIG. 153.
(Figs
STREAMLINES TO OSEEN'S APPROXIMATION FOR A FLAT PLATE AT R = 4.
1535 are reproduced by permission of the Royal
Society.)
FIG. 154.
AT
R=
4,
VORTICITY CONTOURS TO OSEEN'S APPROXIMATION FOR A FLAT PLATE SHOWING THE WIDESPREAD DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTIC OF LOW
REYNOLDS NUMBERS.
interest to notice
must diverge from fact at the larger scales, it is of some of the results, particularly as they describe in an approximate manner how a boundary layer comes into being as Reynolds number increases.
solution
*
Piercy and Winny, Proc. Roy. Soc., A,
v. 140,
1933
372
AERODYNAMICS
coefficient is
[Cn.
The drag
found to be given by4
~y
\t\,j.\.i
14839
.
(290)
z\.
Thus the coefficient is large at anemometric scales. Fig. 153 shows the streamlines and Fig. 154 the vorticity contours for R 4, and evidently no boundary layer has begun to form at this small scale. 4 x 10* Fig. 155 shows in contrast the vorticity contours for R the linear scale perpendicular to the plate is magnified in the
=
=
;
figure
FIG. 155.
VORTICITY CONTOURS TO OSEEN'S APPROXIMATION FOR A FLAT PLATE AT R = 4 x 10*.
number.
The linear scale perpendicular to the plate is magnified ten times. Comparison with Fig. 154 illustrates the growth of a boundary layer with increase of Reynolds
ten times, so that the boundary layer that
now
exists
is
very thin.
close to its asymptotic value, the second term of (290) almost vanishing ; this value exceeds that of mean experiment by 60 per cent.
coefficient is
The drag
now
At
large Reynolds
numbers the velocity u at any point
the formula
x, y, is
given theoretically
by
u
=
~
V7TJI
e~**dz
.
(291)
whose values
integral.
be written down from tables of the probability Thus the velocity is then a function of y/Vvx/U only.
may
If we agree to mark the edge of the boundary layer by 1 per cent, decrease in velocity and denote its thickness on either side of the plate by A, then at distance x from the nose
A,
= 364Vv*/t7
A
c
(292)
and
at the trailing edge of the plate
364
(293)
This result
probably within 30 per cent, of the thickness of the experimental boundary layer, which is rather thicker. A point of particular interest may be noted at the trailing edge of
is
IX]
VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG
373
the plate in Fig. 155. The concentration of vorticity there may herald the production of an eddy at larger Reynolds numbers.
211. Application of PrandtPs Approximation
The flat plate problem has been solved to Prandtl's approximation by Blasius.* This solution, as will be anticipated, is essentially
boundary layer to The drag range. Topfer) comes to
asymptotic, applying only to Reynolds numbers sufficient for a thin exist, and cannot be used in the anemometer coefficient (after very slight modification by
CD
= 2656/Vfl
.
....
(294)
and is only some 6 per cent, less than mean experiment through the range R 10* 5 x 10 5 On the same basis as (293) the thickness at the trailing edge of the
=
boundary layer
is
given
by
It thickens It
along the plate in the same parabolic
way
as in (292).
may be remarked that the convention adopted above for markthe edge of the boundary layer is arbitrary, and different writers ing use different systems. If a greater percentage drop in velocity is
adopted, the factors in (295) and (293) are smaller. Instead of discussing Blasius's solution, which is somewhat complex, the problem will be solved approximately by a shorter
method
212.
f
which
is
of use in
some more
difficult cases.
Method
is
of Successive
Approximation
of undisturbed velocity U, and the chord of the plate) sufficiently large for a thin ( being boundary layer to exist. The pressure is then nearly constant throughout the flow, ignoring the edges of the plate, so that PrandtFs equations reduce to
The flow
R =
assumed to be steady,
C7c/v, c
u The boundary conditions
i)
du
+v dx
are
Su
dy
=v
3a
.
.
.
.
(296) v '
dy*
=
u
=v =
on the plate and u
=
U,
at oo.
* Zeits. f.
I
Math.
u. Phys., 1908.
7, v.
Piercy and Preston, Phil. Mag., Ser.
21, 1936.
374
If
AERODYNAMICS
u lt
v l are
[CH.
v,
known
as
first
approximations to u and
3w 2
l
the
equation
3# a
i
^c#
+v
=v
d*u.

dy
3y*
tion u t A corresponding second approximation to v, viz. v a can then be obtained from the equation of continuity and the boundary conditions. Repeating the process gives a third approximation. Successive approximations will not in all problems exhibit the convergence necessary for success, so that application of the method is tentative. But if they do, a sufficient number of reiterations secures what degree of accuracy may be desired in the solution of
.
may be regarded as an equation for determining a second approxima,
(296).
213. Transformation of the Equation
We now make
boundary conditions become u u 1, V = 0.
=
Y)
the substitutions u U
=
= u/U, V = v/U,
on the
so that the
plate, while at oo
Also,
,
we transform the equations from the given by
coordinates x,
y
to
For
this
purpose we note that
^ 8*
?*
dy
a
=
3%
c
.
'
= =
3y
and, since it will be found that du/dr^ gives a solution satisfying the boundary conditions, that with this simplification du __ 3 3i; 3 5 3w STQ
=
3*
3l dx
+
__ " =
3
3i
3Y]
"~"
3w
3y
_
""*
3w 3
35 3^
+
3w
_
/'R
3^ 3^
v
4
whence
also
IX]
VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG can write down from the preceding
article the
376
We
and y
for determining the nth approximation. dimensional velocities it is
equation in % In terms of the non
a
'
8*
,
+
v)
it
<.
1
=v
**,
3y
8y
and on transformation to
becomes
tinuity,
It is required to substitute for vn which in terms of x and y is
^ l from the equation of con
3*
dy
and transforms to
=0.
Hence
.
.
(298)
on integration by parts, the constant evidently vanishing by the boundary condition on the plate. For convenience write
Wni^Substituting for v n _
1
.
.
(299)
reduces (297) to the simple form
~j?
= /_!
(5)
~/
.
.
.
(300)
Integrating once
or
Integrating again

+
C.
.
(301)
376
Since un
since
H
=
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
=
1
at oo
on the plate, where we have
5=0,
evidently
C
= 0,
and
An
if
J
>*>
,t
.
.
.
(302)
Formulae for the Skin Friction
Denoting by
over the plate
Fn
the nth approximation to the total skin friction
In terms of the
new
coordinates this becomes
or from (301)
^n
rrA/ = VV
V
C Jo \
7o
Hence
(3 4)
214. Evaluation
We have to
assume a
first
take those of inviscid flow, so that u l 2. From (299) we then have/! ()
approximation to the velocities and we 1, v l everywhere.
=
=
=
(302) gives
Then from
(301)
and
(304)
1
S.^fV* ^ V^Jo = 4l(nR) == 2257 I?^C D1
1'2
....
1/2
.
(306)
Comparing with Article
tion
is
2 10, it appears that the second approximathe asymptotic solution to Oseen's equation. Tables exist
IX]
VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG
,
377
w s but we shall approximate by expanding e~^ and retaining only the first term, so that
for the integral in the expression for
Then turning to the calculation of the next approximation w 8
gives
,
(299)
and from
(302) again
*
f
A*
'
'
Jo
a known integral whose value is (3\Ar/2)* F (\), where F () is the gamma function whose value is 0894, which we denote for short
by*.
Proceeding in this way, we find that we can summarise the results
of successive calculations as follows
:
A
*

2
'
~
1/: ' ) "
1
/'_Y
/^
1
AVT/
of the geometric series
\3fc
The ultimate approximation obtainable by the present analytical method is found by putting n = oo, which gives, since the sum to oc
=$
Writing
C D for the ultimate
we
find,
total skin friction,
approximation to the coefficient from (304)
of the
44
a result which
for
*
2734
'
' '
'
(3
6)
is
only 3 per cent, in error.
little
most practical purposes, but a
Reference should be
Such an error is negligible numerical work serves * to
(p.
made
to the paper cited
373) for a convenient
method.
378
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
take into account the neglected terms of (305), when successive approximations are evaluated as given in Fig. 156 and agreement is reached at the eighth approximation with the elaborate solution of
Blasius. Fig. 157 shows dotted the second approximation (305) to the velocity through the boundary layer and also the ultimate result.
The ordinate used permits the one
curve
all
(full
line)
to be
positions
along
given for the plate.
Agreement with experiment at high
12
N? OP Approximation
BIG. 156.
is quite close, although mean results suggest a curve. At small Reynolds numbers, or close to the slightly steeper nose in any case, the dotted line will represent fact. At the nose
Reynolds numbers
itself
the distribution of velocity
is
complicated.
EXPERIMENT AND KARMAN'S INTEGRATION
215. Methods
of
Measurement
of finding the skin friction at a point on the surface is, from Article 204, to estimate the velocity
The direct way
of a plate or cylinder
gradient along the normal. Numerical examples worked out from the foregoing results indicate that the boundary layers of experiment are very thin thus at onetenth of the way along a plate of
;
IX]
VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG
379
1ft. chord in a stream of 100 ft. per sec. threequarters of the entire It is seen that, velocity change occurs within a film 0012 in. thick. to estimate the boundary value of the gradient directly, measurements require to be made within one or two thousandths of an inch
from the surface. Two methods exist for such fine work. In one a wire, of about onethousandth inch diameter, and heated by an electric current, is held parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the stream by a rigid fork. The fork is fitted with micrometer screws enabling the clearance between surface and wire to be adjusted accurately. Velocity A serious is estimated from the convection of heat from the wire. arises from the cooling effect of the experimental surface difficulty when the clearance is small and the velocity low, and a special * technique is required to determine rather large corrections on this
score.
The alternative method uses the fractional pitot tube introduced by Stanton. The specialised form is flat and sunk beneath the
surface, so that only a very narrow louvre with a thin lip projects into the stream. Photographs and examples of use are given in a
paper by Page, Falkner, and Walker.f Again a difficulty arises, in that, without special calibration, it is impossible to connect the it projection of the lip with effective distance from the surface cannot be assumed that the pressure observed with a given setting refers, for example, to a distance from the wall equal to half the
;
projection. Calibration
may be effected by mounting the pitot tube with the to be used in a long smooth pipe whose velocity profile is projection
known.
pitot tube 04 mm. diameter is calibrated in a of 024 in. bore delivering 033 cu. ft. of air per min. straight pipe When the mouth of the tube touches the pipe wall, the pressure
Example.
A
observed within it is 0143 in. water head below the static pressure at a section 18 in. upstream. Show that the velocity indicated to a position midway between the centre of the pitot tube applies
and
its
outer
lip. is
Since the internal radius of the pipe 0'33
001
ft.,
the
mean
velocity
15
C.,
w==
60
R =
X
TC
175
X x
*
001
X
=175
ft.
001
per ^
sec.
Assuming 6
is
002/0000159
=
2200 and the flow
2
.
laminar.
centre
So from Article 195, u]u
=2
8r*/D
Midway between the
&
M., 1224, 1928.
Piercy and Richardson, A.R.C.R.
t loc. cit., p. 211.
380
AERODYNAMICS
i.e.
[CH.
ft.
per the pressure in the tube corresponds to this position, a that pressure 00101 in. pw \ x 0105 Ib. per sq. ft. water head above the static pressure across that section of the pipe.
sec.
If
of the pitot tube and its outer lip, at 0*3 mm. = 0001 the wall, r = 0009 and u/u comes to 038, whence u = 665
ft.
from
ft.
=
=
=
Now
from
= 053 Ib.
sq. ft.
(272) T per cu. ft.
in.
=
8pw'//? Hence at
=
PD/4. Thus
15 ft.
is
P =32pw /&
a
a distance
upstream from the
pitot tube section the static pressure
= 0153
is
increased
by 0795
Ib.
per
water.
The
static pressure is
determined
in this
position,
and the pressure
0153
stream,
difficult
00101
= 0143 in. water head less, as
in the pitot tube, situated 15 ft. downstated.
of skin friction remains a experiment in which to achieve accuracy. The following theorem has a particular significance as suggesting a method by which errors can be minimised, although it also has a wider interest.
With every precaution measurement
216.
Karman's Theorem
let
Without making any assumption as to constancy of the pressure, us write down Prandtl's equation (289) in the form
3aw
p
9y
2
dp dx
du
pw
dx
f pv
du
.
(i)
dy
for
and integrate with respect to y through the boundary layer any fixed position x. First assuming A const., we have
the last term of (i) being integrated by parts. expression, on the righthand side the last term first since by the equation of continuity dv/dy
is
Considering this the same as the
regarding the middle term, u
v
=v=
= VA> say, when y = A. term = when y A and
when y
= =
du/dx while u
side,
;
= U,
first
also,
Turning to the lefthand
is
the
equal to the skin friction T
when y
= 0.
Putting in these limiting values,
we have
(ii)
It is readily
velocity across the edge of the
shown from the equation of continuity that the boundary layer is evaluated by
= ^z\
udy
(
iu ')
But when the velocity (Q itself varies t with x. figure) Sx A and dx equal the rate of 7 . o . (307) is simpler than (289) and allows of plausible assumptions being safely introduced regarding the velocity profile calculate approximate results. and are but little affected by errors in u close to the plate. the foregoing . when it is desired to Like Prandtl's equation from which it is derived. we have 8 say) just outside the boundary layer in place of the integral in (307) : A f Pv ^" This CXjv udy ~~ 3 p *r f \ A OX J u*dy. (307) is correct for with x additional terms arising on this score finally t A varying cancelling out. such as would lead to large deviations in the boundary values of the velocity gradient. (3070) result important be established in may another way by considering ^ t the conditions for equilibrium of a short length $x of the boundary layer (Fig. increase of ^momentum is This rate D (see c f p J A u*dy + r p u*dy J B + r c pi/ J VA D Hence * ~"~^ *~" A f A " ~ ~~~ fH ^ (308) which comes to the same thing as (307) on use of (iii). Similar remarks may be made from an analytical point of view. The force acting on this section in the direction Ox is t8x must within. 158). Thus by exploring round a transverse slice Now of the boundary layer perpendicular to the plate we can estimate closely the mean skin friction on the plate in this region. if 8* be small. the integrals in (308) are very suitable for experimental determination.IX] VISCOUS finally FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 381 Hence T if = I (Uu  ) dy A^ 3* (307) also [7 may be regarded as const. .
Now p is independent of n through the boundary layer. Plotting shows the data to be inadequate for the method of Article 215 and Krm4n's theorem will therefore be employed.382 AERODYNAMICS [CH.lu u U 000032. per ft. taking Q = 123 U. give (n being distance from the surface in thousandths inch and U the undisturbed : velocity) : Estimate* the mean coefficient of friction between A and B. . the first two integrals come to 000020 =0 and 9 where p is the undisturbed pressure. method may also be applied to the boundary layers of cylinders provided the curvature is not great. just outside it Some assumption must be made regarding velocities very close to the surface.J_ 0049 r2 tU* ). applying Bernoulli's equation. there being 00006 ft. Then integrating graphically.. assume q oc n from n to 0001 in. measured round the contour farther downstream. For simplicity. Write 8(q/U). T * = 10* [020 032 f (0493 X is ^5)] = 00026. whence Hence the value Finally of the last integral is 0493 X 00005 Ib. approximately. and. and Q' for the layer. Examples. evidently a boundary layer of thickness (A) 0006 in. etc. Measurements of velocity (q) across normals drawn from two points on the upper surface of an aerofoil in its median plane A. It should be noted that the estimate obtained approximate only. although what form this takes makes little difference in the end. for increases ot quantities between A and B at = constant n. mean A f velocity just outside the boundary (307a) leads to * _ . 217. 0049 ft. and B. a short distance behind the nose.
. (307) W . giving B in terms of so that. one possessing a nose but no tail.. which can be written Cn = ? [ ^U dx = 2656 and ( ^ i.e. substituting in ' = (ii) and writing L* Rx x for 7#/v.. A . Assume that the velocity profile can be represented with sufficient accuracy by When y whenjy = 0. dufdy = T A. since Blasius's solution is for a semiinfinite flat plate. in terms of A and A. differentiating /2 .1P t/ = d dx w \u Substituting from (i) and integrating gives where f(A) = 01071 + 013574 007624*.. . and A pt77'~A Since the pressure is . constant for a reduces to . . (vii) ... flat plate.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 383 The second example given below illustrates the calculation of approximate values for the skin friction and boundary layer thickness along a flat plate from assumed velocity profiles. (iv) Combining this second expression for the intensity of skin with (ii) gives the following equation for A v 4 MA x 7iA\'u V J\/i) friction dx 3 ' Integrating A Finally. u/U 1 =A v 4C7/A __ B.. * r7o oU === J\ )J * \) The correct immediately from value for the intensity of skin friction follows (294).
it is a value for A which will make (vi) agree but the value involving least error is readily ascertain A = 1J. conditions at large . Curve (2) is excessive for 6 Evidence so far avail30 (1) underestimates for R < 10 * to the able points formula empirical R> . The foregoing method may easily be formulated in general terms. (vii). .C. 1933. though the corresponding skin friction is A = 1^ in greater error.. of a single experienced investigator may vary by as much as 7 per cent. * = 280 #~ & M. 159. and there compared with the foregoing theoretical solutions. but. giving B =  and T/pt/* is = 0324/f. roughly averaged. are given as three experimental curves in Fig. It is not possible to find with able . The nature of the approximation further illustrated by cal culating the thickness A of the boundary layer either directly from (v) or by combining (v) and (vi). not unexpectedly. Transition Reynolds Number A number of experimental investigations has been carried out on the skin friction of flat plates in steady flow. y is written for jy/A . = But evidently the boundary layer for too thin. which yields With A = is 1J this gives A/* roughly be compared with the accurate profile.R. 1/a The result can only 464J?7 with (295). 1508. 1' 2 . The table below gives the results of evaluating by the above method some suggested alternatives to (i). A. since u/U tends to 1 asymptotically .384 AERODYNAMICS [CH. (309) mean experiment under steady Page.R. CD as representing scales. Some different sets of observations. the mean observations these fail to agree closely with one another . an error of 2\ per cent. 218.. and a somewhat larger value secures better agreement in this respect.. f 1/2 .
the flow within the boundary layer becomes unsteady near the The Reynolds number. Prandtl (Blasius's solution) (2) Oseen (Piercy and Winny's solution). 160. perimental : (3) Fage. depending on initial turbulence (large for a thin flat a smooth stream) and shape of nose (large for a sharp leading edge) SL . the flow within the boundary layer is at first steady. varies from 10* to 5 x 10 8 A. if atmospheric steadiness be included. the plate. . but at some scale.D. DC/C PASSAGE TO TURBULENCE IN THE BOUNDARY LAYER OF A FLAT PLATE.. (1) THE FLAT PLATE WITH STEADY FLOW. If Ex plate be held tangentially in a wind tunnel and the speed increased. vV o FIG. based on the length c of trailing edge. at which turbulence just sets in. 159. ... As speed is further 13 . Miss Marshall.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 385 log R OK> FIG. Hansen.
Delft. . Thus at higher Reynolds numbers a front part of the boundary layer is steady (or laminar in the accepted sense of the word) and the remaining back part turbulent. Detection of Transition of the plate.R. avoiding all disturbance of the flow. The transition point fluctuates slightly. increased in a given case. since criticisms can Dissertation. Report Ae. 1031. showing a rise of pressure. 160 has been prepared. J A. Uxjv not easy to obtain is called the transition Reynolds number. the tube emerges from the boundary layer at the transition point into potential flow. It is The above method of measuring transition Reynolds numbers is laborious and others are in use as follows. But it may be assumed that under constant conditions the transition Reynolds number would be constant for wide variation of x/c. The passage from laminar to turbulent flow in the boundary layer is called transition and the position at which it occurs the transition point. 2608. If a suitable clearance has been chosen. Error in this position is corrected for by adjusting the tunnel speed or other means.D. . depends upon the great increase which transition causes in the thickness of the layer. In the form developed at the N. large increase in friction occurs there. f and consists of burying a very small microphone beneath the friction surface. A boundary fine pitot tube boundary layer and moved from the friction surface.P. effect is well shown by measurements of Burgers and Zijnen * from A which Fig. f Winny.A. 1944. Ph. for use in tunnels. developed at Cambridge. for flight tests. 2i8A. communicating with the boundary layer through a small hole drilled in the position where transition is likely to occur. has been developed at Queen Mary College. located in the turbulent part of the gradually upstream at a constant distance is (2) Another method. causing rapid pressure changes which become audible on suitably connecting the microphone to an amplifying set. The same phenomenon occurs in the curved boundary layer of a thick body and the same definitions apply. London. x being measured round the profile. 1924 be directed against the numerical accuracy of these early results.L. aerofoils are coated with an emulsion containing china clay and sprayed before a test * scales are not given in the figure.386 AERODYNAMICS [Cfi. thesis.E.C. the position at which streamline flow fails This creeps forward. (3) The foregoing have recently been superseded by a visual method devised by Gray J at the R. If this point is distant x from the nose measurements that are quantitatively consistent or to explain completely such variations as occur. (1) One method.
The velocity u within the boundary layer will mean The underlying assumption the timeaverage value at any point. and examination depends ultimately upon experiment. On analogy with Article 197 it is further assumed that. Article 197 (iii) gives T =:<. the local skin friction on one side only of the At large Reynolds numbers plate at distance % from the nose by T. Krmdn established semiempirical laws. which are easily carried out with great accuracy. FLAT PLATE FRICTION. (310) where A is the thickness of the boundary layer and n a constant. n = 1/7. The nitrobenzine evaporates more quickly in turbulent than in laminar flow. the radius of the pipe (as originally assumed) and substituting from (310) reduces it to . is that u is expressible in the form . through a We adopt this index with the undercertain range of R. unfortunately.1/4 for the pipe friction in turbulent flow at Reynolds numbers such that This is independent of the seventhroot velocity formula holds. we choose the origin at the nose of the plate. TURBULENT FLOW 219. Prandtl and v. Thickness of Turbulent Boundary Layer Although turbulent boundary layer flow is familiar in Aeronautics. Thus in (307) the last term can be dropped and substitution from (310) gives Now on substitution from 274).IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 387 with nitrobenzine. which has much the same refractive index and makes the white coating temporarily invisible. first reappears under turbulent parts of the Other expressions of the device are also employed. As before. Independently of one another. it is not. Oy perpendicular to the plate and Ox in the direction of the undisturbed velocity [7. with turbulent as with streamline flow to the pressure p is constant a high approximation. that it can be varied afterwards. amenable to analytical treatment. standing Denote. known as the power formulae. as before.0228 P v 1/4 w 7/4y. and thus the white coloration boundary layer. expressing the application to plates of experiments in pipes.
j (313) and speed. coefficient of the total skin friction. This drag coefficient is much greater than that for streamline flow at the same Reynolds number. R 1374. ^/R 00038 in the 700.388 AERODYNAMICS [CH. while the = . . as we have seen. Equating the two expressions for A'^. we double T. . The turbulent part of the boundary layer increases in thickness much more rapidly along the plate than the streamline part. and integrate from nose to trailing edge. In the general case. To obtain the Using (313). Total We first Drag Coefficient assume the boundary layer to be turbulent throughout. 49 x 10 6 Taking for example R when different conditions would make the boundary layer laminar l! * or turbulent. ' ' = = = = remaining back part is exposed to turbulence giving a high drag. 220. (312) becomes Now integrating l 'xf 0144 where R= Uc/v. the front part of the plate has a streamline boundary layer with a low mean drag.0*86 Integrating /4 A J A =0235 /* 8 or A for constant fluid = 0375 /VY'B = kx\ x' 1 f * . This result should be compared with (295). in order to take both sides of the plate into account. which may similarly be written A = k'x*. and C D former case and 00104 in the latter.
The value 3400 is appropriate to transition at 6 5 X 10 5 it becomes 28. Since this is a pw instrument it is quite clear that the pressure within the tube will be greater than that appropriate to the timeaverage velocity. . the fluctuations 5 per cent. Measurements will 1 usually be made with a pitot tube. 161. Regarding experimental determinations of skin friction in turbuit may be noted first that v. 221.000 for 5 X 10 . as is usual.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG ' ' 389 To apply through this transition range the drag coefficient of the whole plate Prandtl has suggested for 0148 3400 R where again R 1/5 R (315) of the calculated coefficient in (314) This formula contains an empirical increase from 0144 to 0148 to secure better agreement with experiment. . of 0012 (314 0008 0004 FIG. The other coefficient is determined by the transition Reynolds number. at which (315) must i7c/v. THE FRAMEWORK OF FLAT PLATE DRAG AT AERODYNAMIC REYNOLDS NUMBERS. Check from Direct Experiment lent flow. but this evidently vanishes). = agree with (294). Kdrman's theorem will apply when u is the timeaverage velocity (we have also to include an integral for the time change of momentum within the slice of boundary layer. but examples show that the increase is velocity are of the order of 0016 small when.
Phys. especially in the shape of the nose of the plate and the degree of turbulence in the oncoming stream. Ergebnisse.390 AERODYNAMICS (294). blunt nose.. Werft Reederei v. The (315) are plotted other curves will careful investigations. These checks are successful to at compared. Much larger transition numbers could be secured in the absence of initial turbuReynolds lence by means of a decreasing pressure along the plate. least 10 6 provided the coefficient in (314) is slightly increased as described. Gebers. 1908 (late transitional range) . The four formulae through be described shortly. I. a practical range of : [CH. v. 1916 (entire transitional range) . Kempf. Beyond the above range. u. (314). and others have therefore been suggested for high Reynolds numbers. some of which are listed * below. Wieselsberger. finished nose or a very turbulent tunnel . Karm&a's formula is most frequently adopted in elementary calculations as it is also successful at lower Reynolds numbers if the flow is turbulent.. Baker...P. 1943. as described. have been carried out with which the foregoing results be Numerous may Variations in the conditions of the experiments. It is desirable to assumed. Coll. 6. f Aircraft Engineering.. (Falkner)t ^ CD  00612 ^ . /. 66. This starts at about the extremity of the range for the simple formula (314). the accurate application of which therefore tends to be restricted to wind tunnels and crudely designed or manufactured wings and other aircraft surfaces. the formula (314) would require still further adjustment to accord approximately with experiment for completely turbulent boundary layers. Res. The dotted line to the right in the figure is appropriate to the exceptionally high transition numbers exposed to the turbulent slipstreams of airscrews. viz. 161. A second term may be added for the transiReynolds obtaining under favourable conditions with smoothly constructed and finished wings in flight. v.L. Gdtt. 1908 (laminar and early transitional range. (309). enable comparisons to be made with the several formulae. N. 1925 (high Reynolds numbers). *Blasius. Hafen. and R in Fig. v. smooth . Ziets. flow) . Math. n? 11 X4. v. 9. for example. 13. March. The dotted curve to the left illustrates the 5 R = up x change of (315) caused by. an unsuitably shaped or it is obtained simply by adjusting the second coefficient in (315). especially those recall that constant pressure is tional range. (316 A ) Of these. Schiffbau. 1921 (plates covered with fabric. turbulent) .
is is . to distance say. (iii) is called the momentum thickness. In this case it comes to where the integration 8 / v \ 1/2 where x 8 the distance from the nose. it is often convenient to introduce two thicknesses. of momentum crossing the normal at x can be measured in terms of another length 8 by The equating it to pt/ 8 0. 157. = loss. and it is thus of the order A/3. which are measures of particular properties of the velocity profile through the boundary layer. 8 and 6. Displacement and Momentum Thicknesses In approximate investigations of skin friction. Consider a particular position x along the boundary layer. One effect of retardation near the u be the surface is 8. 8 is called the displacement thickness. particularly with turbulent flow. Then by Article 216 y.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 391 221 A. 8 may be evaluated from the curve of Fig. . and let U be the velocity at the same point with potential flow. o is to extend from the surface sufficiently deeply into the fluid as to make the remainder negligible. easily estimated closely from a plausible assumption for the velocity profile thus the profile (i) of Article 217 changes the constant coefficient of (ii) only to 174 with A 1J. Let velocity (or its timeaverage) at a distance y measured normally from the surface. Need for the step arises in the first place from the fact that. the corresponding analytical definition is rather uncertain since the loss of velocity caused by friction vanishes only asymptotically. though the edge of the boundary layer is readily located in experiment by the method of Article 42. due to frictional effects. For a flat plate with a laminar boundary layer. i.e. push out the streamlines of the potential flow by a and we have E78  \Udy  JWy.
. is written for U. The definitions of 8 and given by (i) and (iii) of the preceding article apply in these changed circumstances provided Q. of Article 216 can then be arranged in the Kdrman's equation form* 9 U* ' ' dx Qdx* " ' w where H= 8/0. Ill.D. 1929. is readily made Form of Karman's Equation In the case of a flat plate with turbulent or laminar boundary layers along which there exists a pressure gradient. V. (vi) The numerical factor. with reference to laminar flow along the flat plate with constant pressure. . approximated more accurate if desired. a pC/ 3 \Ux/' 2 Combining with (iv) and integrating e = 2 / v x v/ (~r 3\Ux) 2> ' ' ' (v) () and eliminating x gives finally . though Now Nikuradse the profiles vary greatly little among paratively noticed that this value for turbulent flow is much smaller. approximately. . The momentum thickness may also be illustrated. p. there occurs comIt will be 14. the asymptotic but may be calculated from the velocity Q at x will differ from U normal pressures by Bernoulli's equation.I. Prandtl. 22iB. vol. as follows. which will be a function of x. as would be anticipated from the change in shape of the velocity profile. Analysis of these results shows that. than * f variation of H from the value themselves. Aerodynamic Theory. Alternative for clearness.392 AERODYNAMICS [CH. f and others have explored experimentally the for turbulent flow through slightly convergent and velocity profiles divergent channels. 108. (307) gives T dQ W^'d* and (vii) H of Article 217 gives. Heft 289..
R. A. owing * to the thick wake.D. This development of boundary tions for breakaway are reached. by the methods of Chapter VI. assuming constant pressure. As already illustrated. Mag. Differences become large. 72) It has been suggested! that.13* . on integration  l/ 00131 L x = 00153 / v \ 1/7 ( \Ux/) and of Article 219 8 follows immediately. A. be left to further reading. APPLICATION TO CYLINDRICAL SURFACES We could now proceed to calculate from Prandtl's equations the skin friction with laminar flow round cylinders of aerodynamicSuch calculations stop at breakaway ally interesting sections. No. as an alternative to the experimental pressures. and M. 1938. = whence. or approximated to as closely as is possible in experiment. We may conclude with an illustrative calculation based on Falkner's drag coefficient for turbulent flow along a flat plate with l/7 constant pressure. viz. and other Adoption of an appropriate constant value for assumptions enable (i) to be employed in an approximate manner to to obtain estimations of practical utility.C. 7.R. 1934 Whitehead and Tyler (being published). Piercy. xxvi. these differ little from those of potential flow in the case of thin streamline cylinders. an assumption must be made as to the Skin distribution of pressure. or at transition should the latter occur before condi(Article 159). Phil. and three alternatives are available. C D We have 00612//? H = . No. which may layer theory begin with the references given below *. Howarth. friction will be most reliably estimated from pressures that have been determined experimentally. Preston Falkner. and Whitehead. those of potential flow 1884.R. 1937. In the solution of the boundary layer equations for laminar flow over curved surfaces. 222.. however. 1632. however. and only a few brief remarks will be made in this book. Fig. It will be observed that the procedure is here inverted. must.R. vol.C. Ser. the literature is compendious and specialised. which can always be obtained. . f Piercy. A. and M. which is found to be 2*59 from the preceding article.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 393 that for laminar flow. for bluff shapes (cf. as wiU be described later.
p. BlasuisHeimenz solution with potential flow pressures .C. The fullline friction along the dicated Breakaway or separation is inby the position at which the skin friction becomes zero. On * t Loc From experiment by Fage and cit. curves of Fig.C. The dotted curve refers to the circular cylinder with the poNOSE FIG. the modification consisting of an extension of the cylindrical profile backwards from the points of breakaway in order to represent the presence of the wake. the rapid decrease of skin friction in front of this point can be estimated fairly reliably. No. but. (e) Piercy. as described. 393 . an artifically modified boundary might be used in such cases. One of the more modern approximate solutions is is due to Falkner. Circular cylinder. to take some account of the wake. The chainline curve indicates. The dotted curve represents the wellknown BlasiusHeimenz solution and is exact (in accordance with the pressure assumption) through the range where the dotting is close farther away from the nose it becomes increasingly unreliable. (a) BREAKAWAY FRICTION.R.* and the elliptic cylinder of fineness ratio 3. Elliptic cylinder Circular cylinder. Fairly close agreement with experiment is then secured. As the fineness ratio of the cylindrical section increases. 1369. with allowance for wake. 1941. Circular experimental (d) cylinder. (c) solution for potential flow pressures appropriate to a boundary modified. determination of the separation point but in its immediate vicinity the of technical importance. 1930. Over almost the whole profile of an aerofoil.f The boundary layer equations become the other hand. 1896. though still in use. therefore. A.R. the range of an exact solution of the curtailed. an already tedious calculation becomes still more involved. and M. Flat plate. Preston and Whitehead solution .R. see also Falkner. the theoretical of fineness ratio 3 . and it cannot be used to . 162 give the distribution of skin laminar boundary layers of the flat plate. TAIL INTENSITY OF SKIN (6) tential flow pressures assumed. and M. .394 for AERODYNAMICS [CH. in themselves unsuitable. the circular cylinder.. only approximate solutions of the equations can be found. No. determine the point of breakaway. this has been superseded for some time where accuracy is required.R. boundary layer equations becomes increasingly until soon it extends only a short distance from the nose. A. approximately. 162. Falkner. On the other hand. Of these the oldest and best known is that due to Pohlhausen.
1838. Q and 6 will approximate to that for a flat plate with Piercy and Richardson. connected to an amplifier. p. 369.. in the shaded wedge of large velocity amplitude made easily audible the passage of vortices into the Kdrman trail (Article 160)._ AUDIBLE MAX WIND FIG. so that the relationship between local values of T. p. A. reference may be made to an article by Prandtl. the rearranged Kdrmdn equation there given is suitable for wide employment in an approximate manner. % Aerodynamic Theory. loc cit. Ill.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 395 and extrapolation leaves of breakaway. For further remarks on the assumptions involved in such applications of this equation. 162 A. . 156 et seq. and M. Fig. The numbers are proportional to the amplitude of the velocity fluctuation are roughly proportional to the velocity amplitude. 162 A reproduces the results of an experiment* to investigate the fluctuation of The cylinder was velocity in the neighbourhood of separation. TURBULENCE IN FLOW PAST A CIRCULAR CYLINDER. circular and the numbers attached to the contour lines in the figure AUDIBLE LIMIT> ( OVER 60 . vol. 1938. * t assuming that the small pressure gradients along their boundary layers at small incidences will not affect appreciably the shape of the velocity profile. It has been so used by Squire and Young f to estimate the skin friction of aerofoils with turbulent boundary layers. 222 A. ties little doubt as to the approximate location In illustration of the physical nature of the difficulconfronting calculation in this region.R. completely turbulent flow and a constant pressure. Exposing a fine hot wire.R.J The method will be explained in application to laminar flow. As mentioned in Article 22 IB.C.
which the above first approximation fails to predict. to whence or * 2 = 4 v U W^ 1 . the pressures for potential flow being implied in the simple formula for Q/U taken from Article 108. The curve (a) deduced by (ii) from the very dissimilar one for the flat plate is seen to have the correct form over the front part of the Greater accuracy cannot be expected without elaboration cylinder. The curve The (b) represents the most recent solution for these pressures.396 AERODYNAMICS [CH. duly yield a position of laminar separation. into solutions. as given by Young and Winterbottom in an unpublished paper. 6 is readily ascertainable function of evaluated. Whitehead and Tyler (in the Press). the rearranged equation becomes for laminar flow dQ 6 d 2 v where point. in view of the large variation of dpjdx in the example chosen. Although a known constant and Q/U an applicability is restricted to small pressure gradients. it is nevertheless of interest to employ the method to estimate the distribution of skin friction round the circular The result is shown as cylinder. * . whence T/pC/ 2 follows from (vi) of Article in accordance with what assumptions are made. taking variation of account. curve (a) in Fig. r= v) H= 259 at a distance and Q is the velocity appropriate to potential flow x measured round the profile from the front stagnation This equation can be integrated by means of the substitution H 2 which leads 60 ' .f BlasiusHeimenz solution is reproduced as a dotted curve. 162B. Aircraft Engineering.  Piercy. This phenomenon occurs in a region of rising pressure and retarded flow. f* / 0\ 2[i f 8 T 2) dX ' ' Jo \u) (il) H being 221 A x. where More elaborate approximate H An equation of this form with different indices is quoted by Holt. 1943. Kdrmdn Substituting for T from (vi) of Article 221 A.
A. particularly as the conditions for breakaway are approached. defined by CF ' = ' 1 Frictional drag/lpt/'E .R.R.. 1931. Tech. 3. approximate methods tend to lose accuracy. . chord or length.* from which Fig. results are expressed in terms of a coefficient given CF . of the .R. N.. * Gdtt. Many investigations have been carried out by this means to compare the frictional drag of aerofoils and streamline bodies of revolution with that of the To take into account variation of surface area for a flat plate. 1937.A.R. Relf and Lavender.R. Jones and Williams. 1929.C..R. A. & M.R.C. where E is the wetted be based on the length made Reynolds number continues to body.C. A.. Kept. . 597. (a) First approximation deduced from flat plate . 1928 Page. 162s.C. & M. 163 has been prepared. Falkner. Primary reference may be to the papers cited.C.R. Although the local intensity of skin friction is not easy to measure accurately. APPLICATION OF APPROXIMATE METHOD TO CIRCULAR CYLINDER WITH POTENTIAL PRESSURES. 223. Ergebn. 394.. 1804.. & M.A.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 397 4 2Vft (bl 2 90 30 120 60 ANGLE FROM FRONT STAGNATION POINT FIG. and Walker. no difficulty arises in determining the frictional drag of a body since it is only required to subtract from the weighed drag the drag due to the normal pressures. 1241. (b) Correct solution. & M. A. surface. 1 199. Lfg. 1926 Jones (Sir Melvill).
P. 0006 0004 0002 FIG. representing ordinary symmetrical aerofoils of 56 per cent.398 0008 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Still thinner aerofoils show a smaller friction. .P. thick sections R . to streamline bodies of revolution. thickness (N. The hatched area 2 includes strut sections of 2740 per cent. follow fairly well the transitional drag curve for the flat plate realised experimentally by Gebers.P. friction and the N. IN RELATION TO THE FLAT PLATE FRAMEWORK. thickness ratio. 163. It is seen that the frictional of aerofoils is greater than that of the flat plate. obtained in this way. (4) and airships (6) thick wings and struts (3) flat plate by extrapolation airship with wholly turbulent boundary layer. These wellknown investigations were carried out before the advent of low turbulence wind tunnels or laminar flow wings. (1) EXPERIMENTAL FRICTION . and curve 5 to the airship These suggest remarkably little change of C F but a greater 101. (b) average wing construction falls rather short theoretical requirements for maximum delay of transition.L.L. and Gottingen). Thin wings (5) (2) . the hatched area 4 Turning refers to a model of fineness ratio 5. of Curves 1 (N.L. but remain worthy of consideration both for their various aspects of permanent interest and also because (a) most wind tunnels are still fairly turbulent. but not drag greatly so if allowance is made for earlier transition with thick The extension of laminar flow in the boundary layers of sections. is is discussed in the next chapter. .). tendency under threedimensional conditions to maintain steady flow. experiments allow of the prediction of flat plate by extrapolation on the assumption that it will be the same as for a symmetrical aerofoil of zero thickness the curve 3 .
DEVELOPED TURBULENCE AND ROUGHNESS 224. towards exceptionally This matter is returned if necessary. this stage is approached with modern aircraft. 219. The same change can be effected for any streamline body by means of a turbulenceproducing screen located upstream.A.) with turbulent boundary layer. though the increase of total friction may be considerable. if similar effect is caused by sharp longitudinal edges or ridges .IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 399 On looping a thin string round the nose of the model giving curves 4. a notable increase of friction occurs. the edges are widely spaced. smooth streams. which at much larger scales is less marked. the strips of turbulence will have limited lateral spread. with large Reynolds secured.* It will be appreciated that through a very wide range of R tests on the same model in different wind tunnels with different degrees t of initial turbulence will disagree. the entire boundary layer becoming turbulent.A. Another matter of importance emerges from the many experiments of the above kind that have been carried out in various If a model is suspended by a wire attached in a laboratories. . Moreover. whilst the latter depends acutely on initial turbulence. Since a curve of type 6 is easier to extrapolate to full scale than a transitional curve. while A at laterally displaced positions the flow remains streamline. Tests in a given tunnel usefully compare one model with another. laminar flow region. to later on. C F changed to curve 6. Curve 6 agrees in an average way with tests on another model (N. though We insufficient to accord with a wholly turbulent boundary layer. The semiempirical formulae and 220 have been noted to be subject to rather rapid change with increase of Reynolds number. conclude that a wedge of turbulence exists behind the wire. The following articles merely introduce what is a wide and difficult subject whose threshold has scarcely yet been * These and similar effects can now be demonstrated visually by method (3) of Article 2 ISA. some designers having access to only small wind tunnels have in the past But the modern trend is deliberately increased their turbulence. and cannot be avoided with an airscrew in front of the surface. but can be applied to design only when the effective turbulence is known.C. by twodimensional testing. Reynolds Equations of Mean Motion of Articles 197. The turbulence is then said to be more fully developed and may be expected to be a little easier to analyse.
where viscosity predominates. We begin with an extract from a notable pioneering paper by Reynolds. Using the equation of continuity. term in each of the brackets. values of u v at any point and #'. the mean fluctuations be reckoned in the same way and indicated by a tions bar. Roy. 225. but rather with inferring from observation approximate laws of sufficient generality for use beyond the realm of the original experiments. These equations are exact. then necessary that. uv Substituting in (317) = uv 4 **'*>' we find equations of mean motion. the first of equations (ii) can then be written as p = (pxx pUu) 4" ^~ (Pyx P uv ) (317) and the second similarly. u' = =v = w* For rapid fluctua uu Similarly. any instant there t Now let added u. Article 197) but further development is hardly concerned with establishing a mathematical theory.400 AERODYNAMICS [CH. It is also assumed that the turbulent additions to the normal stresses * Phil. Trans. which has proved a difficult task. Eddy Viscosity and PrandtPs Mixing Length Although found. are caused by the turbulence. This has the disadvantage that we cannot approach the boundary. represented by the last (317). = v + v' f .u'u'. t. f be the mean v' the fluctuations. passed by research. viscous stresses coexist with the turbulent stresses just assumed from experiments with pipes (cf. so that at u It is = u 4" if '. the first being 3w p Ji = 3 ai $" ~ p" f ~ ' ptt w/) + 9 8>i ~P m ~ P M/U  ') ( 318 ) Comparing these approximate equations it is for turbulent flow with seen that additions to the stresses.* Referring to Article 203. = u* 4" 2S' f u'u' 4. it is that through the bulk of the flow the former are comparatively unimportant and may be neglected. we must add for unsteady flow to the righthand side of the first of equations (i) the term du/dt and to that of the second dv/dt. Soc. . t 1894 (see Lamb's Hydrodynamics).
say. with u a function of y only the turbulent analogue of twodimensional laminar flow. (iii) Now Prandtl assumes that i/ is induced by opposite values of u portionately great. of momentum while viscosity the molecules clearly suffer no change describing their paths. . efficients arising . assumed that ^momentum is conserved during the time of transference and I is regarded as a mean path consistent with this is indicates mean absolute values. V=^e is called  . choosing mean motion parallel to Ox. Suffix Then a particle penetrating a transverse distance / causes a change of velocity u' at the new position and this is equal to l(du/dy) if / be small. This point will be returned to. assumption. motion compared with those to the shearing write approximately ryx Thus we (i) = pV and investigate in the simplest possible circumstances. (u) the eddy. and does not . viscosity. the following formula may be framed on analogy with the definition of the physically constant viscosity pi : du . Prandtl has drawn a parallel between the interchanges from one flow layer to another of the molar masses (or particles) in turbulent and those of molecules in laminar flow. and not a physical constant.IX] Px*> Pyy> VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 401 are of small account in determining the character of the stresses. or sometimes the mechanical. but that a corresponding immunity cannot be Meanwhile. . its is necessary. as expected. though actually an originally twodimensional steady flow becomes threedimensional on developing turbulence. / . supposed it for particles. Hence ryx = pvV = du pi/. (cf. if magnitude remain constant under given physical conditions. pro whence the mixing length being adjusted. substituting a mixing length I free path of the molecules (in the jydirection) in place of the mean It must be observed that in the kinetic theory of Article 23). Calculation from experimental data shows e to be much greater than jx. to absorb any conot determined. After Boussinesq. 1 . The fluctuations are treated as if they were twodimensional.
. Con. publication was in 1930. giving approximately tt = ^llog  . f. is often referred to as the friction velocity. (Cambridge). < M2 v > A bar) more convenient form of this result is (dropping the suffix and r *i* =  (duldyY **$> < 828 > The quantity on the lefthand side has the dimensions of a velocity. 1932. . 226. G. A. I. ' v 321) ' a number. Kdrmin has introduced the hypothesis that in every region of the turbulent motion the local flow patterns are statistically similar.402 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Internat. their vorticity will remain constant. f These results are taken for the most part from a paper in the Proc. Then a first approximation to / is obtained as r=7i where x is *u/dy* . In this case T is proportional and replacing it by the skin friction enables (323) to be integrated. to which reference should be made original . App. 1934. VWp). y dz u ji. / . =  . known how far the similarity assumption can be K&rm&n f has applied it to the case of turbulent to radius. Exchange between the layers of the mean flow of vorticity rather than of momentum leads to a different scheme for determining a mixing length from experimental data. . Kdrman's Theory In order to carry (319) further v. v (320) ' dy* in favour of the one easy to decide from experimental evidence completely scheme or the other.. Its boundary value. Mech... v. if in fact viscous effects are negligible as assumed. Roy. Sac. scales of time and length only varying. Substituting in (319) . . pu'. while the ^momentum of the particles may change during transference. viz. 135.. Returning now to the question raised in the preceding * has article. He obtains the equation do dx It is not yet . (324) * Proc. flow through pipes of circular section. It is not yet but v. . Similarity 227. justified. Taylor suggested that.
put another way. KclrmAn finds the approximate V(2/C F ) Making use where C F of experiment =x log (7?C F ) + const. The value of x deduced from observation appears MAXIMUM FOR to vary between 036 and 041 the value used in (327) is 039. and may be replaced by the quantity . (326) This logarithmic formula is suggested in place of the corresponding power formula already considered when very high Reynolds numbers are concerned. Some other results that can be deduced are in good agreement with recent experiment at great Reynolds numbers. a rough pipe exerts the same resistance T O as a smooth one of the same diameter when the O FIG. The above as VELOCITY PROFILES (EXAGGERATED) FOR SMOOTH AND ROUGH WALLS OF EQUAL RESISTANCE. ( \ 10 g  + . Carrying over to flat plates with the help of a further assumption explained in the next formula : article. or. 228. Experiments with rough pipes give greater resistance for a given flux than with smooth pipes. (326) 1/VC F is = 415 log lo (RC ) (327) defined in Article 223. v. a denoting the radius of the pipe. const. 1 . . . 164.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 403 where 8 is a constant of dimensions L. mean velocity (at the mean velocity the axis) and u at radius r. : const. 05 mean velocities at the same radii are much smaller. Skin Drag An assumption involved in the : preceding article is that for turbulent flow through pipes the quantity um ~ u t where um is the maximum . x V/>V/(T O /P). is a function of v\a only. With a smooth wall 8 depends on T O p and v. whence u /(Wp) X /. .
more or slightly rough. The gradient in the vicinity of a sufficiently rough wall is much less for the same value of T O the remaining part of the resistance being due to form drag arising on the protuberances that project beyond the viscous film. the grains lying wholly within the viscous film. 164). for equal resistance the u is the same through the bulk of the stream velocity defect um for equal values of r/a.404 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Increasing the grain size causes earlier departure and a higher final C F . used TO to denote this resistance however it arises. . specifying the degree of roughness.e. this state appears Roy. . less uniformly covered with very fine grains. i.* show this to be approximately true except near the walls . has a drag coefficient which at first follows the smoothturbulent variation. This sum is termed skin drag. or may be regarded as. Blasius's and similar approximate laws for smooth surA pipe that is faces may now be distinguished as smoothturbulent. With perfect smoothness TO is determined by the boundary value of the velocity gradient through the viscous film lining the walls. Yet the mechanism of the transverse transport of momentum appears to remain approximately the same through the bulk of the flow and independent of the mechanism We have by which resistance is communicated to the surface. clear. A quite different variation of TO with R is found for rough pipes. A number of experiments with pipes and channels of different roughness. finally approximating closely to a velocitysquared law. T O will depend on both v and k * Proc. being nearly independent of v.. 1911. v. 85. beginning with those of Stanton. as expected. . Reynolds number it begins to depart from this law. for geometrically similar roughness the formula Formula (325) is inappropriate for is . but with sufficient roughness it is no longer a pure skin friction but the sum of frictional and form drag components. sumption requires the profile across the section of the mean velocity to be exactly the same even in two such dissimilar cases. and is evidently determined by some parameter k Karm&n suggests. (328) But what precisely is meant by k is not yet quite More generally. though near the walls it be greatly may different (Fig. resistance asymptotic conditions when almost wholly comprised of form drag. But at some considerable . whose surface is. therefore. A. Soc.
1933 J Abbot. Investigations are not sufficiently advanced to take account of several factors For instance. 394. if skin friction aerodynamically it exerts a pure . 1931. 165.L.e. A is smooth. at low speeds.A. the velocitysquared range so far explored. Application to Aircraft Surfaces Prandtl and Schlichting * have applied tests on rough pipes to flat Similar effects have also been found in direct plates. 1934. r turbulent friction law) (2) ugh. James Forrest Lec. Aerodynamically smooth surface (smooth. V. highspeed aircraft this entails a lacquer finish.} and on aeroplane surf aces flight. likely to affect the practical case. Although TO may then be much flow. Thus a grain size amounting to no more than 0005 in.D. R. Aerodynamic smoothness is not easy to secure at the Reynolds numbers of highspeed aircraft or compressedair tunnels. Schrenk. according to the explanation given. roughness might be expected to have greater significance towards the front than towards the back of the upper surface of a wing. or partly (4) very rough.. doped fabric be regarded as smooth.IX1 VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 405 to be realised with wellseparated grains or a waviness of surface. (1) meaning divorced from the thickness Of the boundary layer. 467.. Reed. on highspeed craft.. (3) completely rough wavy . and the increases of drag at stake are important.. Waviness effects may be due. or. Relf. experiment in compressedair wind tunnels on aerofoils f and airship models. Tech. but a thin boundary layer makes it Aerodynamically coarsely rough.A. may Thus. Hocker. in Fig. Hafen. but roughness has little With QUALITATIVE ILLUSTRATION OF ROUGHNESS EFFECTS. greater than for smoothturbulent law need not be approached within the 229. N. if its resistance coefficient follows a smoothturbulent law. N. more explicitly. t 1936.C. to such sparsely distributed roughness as the remaining projections of countersunk rivet heads. Inst.  .C.A.A.C. N.E. 15. that of the viscous sublayer. Jahrb.  165 gives of view qualitative general results of a the experi ments so surface far published. increases drag by onehalf for R = * f Werft. FIG. 1929. i. Tech.
kfc is the ' relative roughness number/ thereafter and Rk = t/Jb/v is the roughness Reynolds According to some experiments the drag ceases to be a ' ' 100 to a first approximation. on which proper analysis depends. but it may be noted that Aerodynamic smoothness 5 R< x 10 6 > 7 . / . and it is frequently necessary to add conwings siderably to extrapolated tunnel measurements of the drag coefficient easily ensured culties now on the aircraft. According to the above.406 5 AERODYNAMICS 1C 6 7 . or. the following provisional empirical formula has been suggested as fitting some experiments within the range of Aerodynamic interest : = logio iC F = 0188 / Iog ( k 10 f \ \ c 10). . for special care in manufacture. approximately. More frequently tunnel tests on model wings are carried out at and applied at full scale with R 10 The question of geometrical similarity is not so urgent. (329) R Jc/c provided k/c > 100/R. Assuming this quite practical limit to be realised. of chord c. could be tested in a compressedair tunnel under dynamic similar conditions. are . essential experiments. ' x in the for 10 At about these Reynolds numbers with speeds neighbourhood of 200 m. is on the model. of a small aeroplane wing. If k is the size of each of the granules which may be regarded as constituting a completely rough surface. [CH. of course. since dynamical similarity is not attained. provided Rk > 100. Application to Model Experiment A per ally model sec. since Rk These results are given as indicating in a roughly approximate way the great importance of the effects concerned in connection with Aerodynamic calculations and must be regarded as of temporary value . the permissible roughness at full scale would be O'OOl in. the necessity for geometrical similarity would entail reduction on the model to about 000013 in.h. 230.p. The requirement of smoothness of this high order is faced regarding models for compressedair tunnels. . for a craft capable of 200 ft. ~ still in progress. R would be 63 x 10 8 . but calls. Since pure skin friction at R k C F depends little on /?. the permissible roughness the drag to be a pure skin friction is so small a grain size as ' 00005 in.. in order to take account of greater effective roughness at full scale. but is beginning to present diffiAt small lift coefficients the induced drag of tends to vanish.
assuming Aerodynamic smoothness. Model experiments are frequently corrected. of course. Determine the normal pressures through a similar range of scale. laborious. the effective initial turbulence of the tunnel stream. Natural turbulence in the atmosphere. together with the actual values obtained for this coefficient. 163 shows that at R = be wholly streamline or almost wholly turbulent extrapolation of the friction would be along the transition curve in the first case and . 5 x 10 5 the model boundary layer might Fig. whether C F is greater or less for the model or the fullscale wing. will show whether the boundary layer is in a streamline. until roughness supervened. permits of delay. The investigations of the present chapter suggest the following method of estimating the fullscale C D of a wing at zero C L from smallscale measurements. or turbulent state in the given tunnel. the assumption being that increase of the * The turbulence on especially apt in the oncoming streams of wind tunnels is finely grained and this score to hasten transition in boundary layers. allowance must be made for It is seen to be a question of circumstances fullscale roughness. or more chord in the tunnel. but the scale effect estimated for the friction may be applied to the original measurements of C D . taking two extreme cases. the estimate of scale effect may be regarded as conservative . check this prediction by direct experimental evidence from largescale tests at zero incidence. it is necessary to know.* If the form drag is left unchanged. Subtracting the proper integration of these enables C F to be determined. Inspection of the C F variation with R. The investigation outlined is. therefore. in comparison with the various laws described above. Collection of such data constitutes what is meant by quent intimate acquaintance with a particular tunnel. Thus. But it is advisable to 161. Finally. but when a few examples have been worked out in a given tunnel. With this information it is possible to construct a special extrapolation curve on the framework provided . in addition to fullscale roughness. evidence regarding the implied decrease may be sought by again experimenting under twodimensional conditions with a slice of the wing of 5ft.by Fig. . transitional. Measure C D through a range of R including the highest value obtainable. along the smoothturbulent curve in the second. gaining Comparisons of observations in a given tunnel with experiments in fullscale flight suggest the possibility of a socalled turbulence factor for that tunnel. inspection of the CD R curve alone will often give sufficient information in subsecases. being characterised by a much larger scale. in anticipation of a larger transition Reynolds number being realised in free flight.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 407 Before smallscale measurements can be extrapolated.
IX ' number by this factor will number at which agreement with Reynolds It is also effective tests can be critical hoped to determine the factor by some such as that on a sphere described in Article 65.408 tunnel Reynolds expected. . of which the most important is whether a single factor could apply to phenomena of different kinds. AERODYNAMICS give an flight ' [CH. Many questions arise. test. and the conception remains tentative.
and results in a At higher Reynolds numbers transition to turbularge form drag. There was apparently no breakaway but only a for a sphere are given Experimental details by Page.R. 409 . on the other hand. Normal Profile Drag Profile drag is defined as the The term is reserved to aerofoils sum of skin friction and form drag. though the considerations of this chapter apply in principle to all streamlined bodies.P. but breakaway occurs at certain positions round the section. is much increased by transition. Breakaway may still occur but at least is delayed. A. approximately independent of aspect ratio provided very small.Chapter IX A REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 230 A.L. and determinable directly under twodimenthis is not ' The result is sional conditions. Fig. The corresponding coefficient CDO is expressed on wing area and may be estimated for a threedimensional aerofoil by subtracting a calculated coefficient of induced drag from the total drag coefficient. and wings. Skin friction. for aerofoil sections of the type universally employed until recently. depending upon shape and incidence. it is approximately independent of the lift coefficient provided this is not large. through a fairly wide range of flying incidences. of laminar lence usually takes place in the boundary layer before the positions breakaway can be reached. At low Reynolds numbers the boundary layer of an aerofoil is entirely laminar. No. 165A. 1766. Such sections are likely to be superseded in the near future but are meanwhile distinguished by the term normal/ Thus each normal aerofoil can be regarded without much error as having. 1937. indicates the relative magnitudes of skin friction and form drag at Reynolds numbers in the neighbour hood * of 1 million.C. Again. In any case form drag is reduced. based on the results of experiments at the N.R. with a series of KirmdnTrefftz sections.* and is commonly prevented altogether at small incidences by turbulent mixing. a particular value of C DO appropriate to the Reynolds number. and M.
1937. 1852. . 04 FORM DRAG FRICTION 0004 C D (FORM) 0002 02 10 15 5 THICKNESS (PER CENT CHORD) 20 25 FIG. 1838. gated by Squire and Young.f Considering normal sections at a lift coefficient. No. & M No.R.P. 165A and may be regarded as representative of good normal aerofoils in tunnels of R10 Ot)06 7 moderate turbulence.C.R. A. 165B. 1804. 0004 LAMINAR FIAT PLATt OtK)2 Flight experiments on normal wings show that turbulence 005 010 015 0*20 "025 THICKNESS RATIO boundary layer sets in more sharply and at a rather transition larger Reynolds number than in the case of a model in a wind tunnel.R. respectively.L. The reduction of C DO to be expected on this score has been investi in the FlG. R. 165B for CDO at Reynolds numbers of 1.R. 166A. A. thickened diffusion of vorticity towards the tail. They agree fairly well with Fig. British and American.R. 1938. these authors assumed transition to occur at various distances up to 038 chord behind the nose and estimated by small approximate calculation the consequent variation of * t profile drag.R. 1938 see also Page. The curves would be modified by increase of scale.410 AERODYNAMICS [CH.C. tested * by the pitot traverse method at zero lift incidence in the com0012 tunnel at the pressedair aoio N. 10 and 20 million. but not very rapidly. and are fairly typical of normal aerofoils in wind tunnels except at small scales. . The curves of Fig. in 2xl07 PIERCY AEROFOIL The enclosed points figure will the be referred to later.C. & M. Jones and Williams. are averaged results for various aerofoils. No. & M. A. FORM DRAG OF JOUKOWSKI SYMMETRICAL AEROFOILS 6 AT R= 10 .
Curve (1) refers to a thickness ratio of 014. The Problem of Reduction Until recently there appeared little promise of substantially less values of C DO than those recorded in the preceding article. later. according upper to these calculations. (a) mathematical studies aimed at determining the optimum shape for a wing section of given thickness. These two methods are outlined separately below. (b) improvement of the boundary layer flow by operating directly large upon it. In addition to testing numbers of different aerofoil sections in the hope of discovering an abnormally good one. from close behind O O2c nose in a very turbulent wind tunnel or airscrew slipstream (dotted line) to 04 chord behind the nose in free flight under favourable conditions (full <Mc O6c DISTANCE OF TRANSITION POINT FROM NOSE 0008 line). curve to a thickness ratio of 025. more scientific methods have also been employed for some years. a diminution of form drag with backward displacement of transition. 2308. but the principle primarily involved is the same. mechanically or otherwise. with the fixed profiles investigated. 165c (a) give the coefficient of (single surface) frictional drag for the surface only. The authors also found. 165c. A change of about half this 0006 amount can often be anticipated.IX A] REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 411 The front parts of the two curves in Fig. improvement. in the frictional drag. viz. Neveris of such importance that research theless. increasing the OO04 0002 02c DISTANCE 04c O6c 03 c FROM MOSE above FIG. and the Reynolds number is The extension of these curves for transition points at greater distances than 038 chord behind the nose is referred to (2) 10 million. At 0012 (b) the change in the figure is shown in the distribution of skin friction following an extreme displacement of the transition point for the upper surface of a normal the aerofoil. We have seen in the last article . and then the curves at (a) suggest a decrease of about 20 per cent. minimising profile drag into the problem has never been interrupted.
removed without undue increase of form drag. A flat . Moreover. as already described. Displacing the transition point from 02 to 06 chord behind the nose. in minimising profile drag at high This rather different problem is briefly discussed LAMINAR FLOW WINGS 2300.412 AERODYNAMICS [CH. subsonic speeds. or other means. though the process rather beyond the scope of this book and the conformal methods introduced in Chapter VI. Transition. methods will eventually be used in conjunction with one another. and an important instance is the maintenance Its effect on laminar separation of a negative pressure gradient. Early Example (a) In applying method to delay both laminar separation to the present problem the primary aim is and transition so that the latter only just anticipates the former and occurs as far back from the nose as is possible without incurring penalties in matters other than drag. can be employed to shape wing profiles in such a way as to yield farback positions of this breakaway. Method (a) finds further application. however. may be expected to halve the skin friction. Laminar separation can be calculated from . however. arise. Compressibility is neglected in the following articles. at the end of the chapter. the profile for minimum drag cannot be carried to excess Reshaping without introducing other disadvantages. The curves of Fig. first principles is approximately. in applying the principle. has already been mentioned (Article 159). the practical standard in feasibility of the method calls for an exceptionally high the construction and surface finish of wings. 165c (a) have been extended to illustrate this. stood. is less perfectly under Some factors tending to delay both phenomena are easily seen to be of the same nature. that a restricted displacement of the transition point effects a If the restriction can be considerable saving in frictional drag. while the following experiment by Dryden illustrates its effect on transition. The most promising form of method (b) incurs pump and duct losses which have to be minimised. and depends in the end upon the mechanical reliability Various difficulties In all probability the two of plant installed in the aeroplane. for instance. on the other hand. the saving in profile drag is likely to be large.
than for aerofoils or the flat plate under the given conditions. will depend upon their magnitude and nature and probably upon whether laminar separation or transition would otherwise result. the improvement was too great to be accounted for even the total elimination of form drag. or may be expected in prevent them developing. Aerofoils of To measure *Relf. stream or flight experiments.S.* The measured value of C DO being less than that for a flat (thickness ratio zero in the figure) at the same Reynolds number plate in the same tunnel.P. and the transition Reynolds number much greater. normal is This the type thus introduced are called laminar flow their values of C DO may require an exceptionaerofoils. 92c). and gave. see Fig. small irregularities of the wing surface taking the place of the initial turbulence of the windtunnel stream in producing disturbances. not less in the stream.L. therefore. . whilst by actually the form drag could not have been less than about onethird normal. A qualitatively similar flight. the result shown in Fig. R. either this value of C DO should be increased slightly or the values for the three curves in the figure reduced As the point stands slightly. at a Reynolds of 1 million. The magnitude of the negative pressure gradient necessary to damp out such disturbances. Owing testing.Ae. 165B as an encircled to differences arising from the method of point. that the skin friction was much less. and eliminating this pressure gradient decreased the transiReynolds number of plate tested in a moderately turbulent x tion Reynolds effect number by 40 per cent. Wind tunnels specialised ally steady to the purpose are often called laminar flow tunnels and were introduced in America. with the maximum thickness of its section located at 04 chord behind the nose (see Fig.IX A] REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 18 413 wind tunnel gave a transition 10 8 in the presence of the small negative pressure gradient caused by the thickening boundary layers of the tunnel. In 1939 a Piercy aerofoil of the simple family described in Article 128. 1946. The advantage disappeared at large scales but this is known to have been due to initial turbulence square. Wilbur Wright Lecture. the lowest recorded value of C for a normal aerofoil DO with which it can be compared is shown as the point enclosed in a number The improvement achieved by the Piercy aerofoil is thus than some 35 per cent.. 92c. explained by the exposure of a greater length of profile to a sufficiently falling pressure. was tested at zero incidence in the compressedair tunnel at the N. in the figure. It immediately became apparent.
preservation of maximum lift and of control. if suitable tunnels are availmay able. facilitates these calculations whilst protecting the profile from sudden changes of curvature. yielding an exact method for extending potential flow calculations to extreme variations of profile shape. e. Additional parameters are necessary to remove this and other A generalisation to provide nine restrictions to shape variation. The simple family of aerofoils inverted from the hyperbola has deficiencies. But the family is insufficient for the full development of the laminar flow wing. and potential flow theory finds an important application in enabling the effects of shape variations. which may require its maximum thickness to be located nearer to the tail than the nose. The process of design is intimate.g. whilst the original Piercy is profiles become sharp at the nose when the maximum thickness located midway along the chord. the problem of finding the optimum shape for given conditions is widened. Modi shape for examination by potential flow calculations be suggested by experiment. . upon the maximum lift coefficient and form drag. . fications of Experiment to determine is in effects any case necessary in some connections. or more parameters. if necessary. are specified by practical needs or exigencies. has been effected by the author and Whitehead. however small or large. Conformal transformation. which include : restriction coefficient of pitching moment. The laminar flow wing is not a particular design but a concept exerting a directive influence on the problem of shaping the The conditions profile for minimum drag under given conditions. or as a result of collateral boundary layer investigations. structural requirements and constructional Waviness or roughness of surface must not be very laminar flow sections serve no useful purpose for unfavourable made wings or in the slipstreams of airscrews and the roughly surface must be kept clean.414 AERODYNAMICS [CH. which in its highly developed modern form can encompass even such cases as the flapped wing. . to be determined with accuracy except towards the tail. the advantage of reproducing at once a generally satisfactory section provided the position of maximum thickness is not set back farther than 042 chord from the nose Adjustment of the position within this practical limit is rendered possible by the fact that the family has two shape parameters in place of the single parameter of the Joukowski family. With the profile thus made indefinitely variable. 2300.
the development of laminar flow aerofoils during the war was pursued (i) at the National Physical Laboratory. the mean value of CL in the favourable range can be displaced from zero.R. In the symmetrical case it is restricted to small lift coefficients.C. 1889.A. boundary layer flow. where it appears that Goldstein evolved an approximate method. N. p.A. of these various methods.IX A] REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 416 will In the following brief introduction. though very extensive. Fig. 23 oE. 2246. and at (b) the modification produced by a laminar flow The interval of CL through which C DO is symmetrical section. 413) may be consulted for a description of (i). Reports and Piercy and Whitehead. by the addition of suitable * So far as is yet generally known. reduced is often called the favourable range of lift coefficient. 1941 Garrard. based on Thin Aerofoil Theory. Ae.* the above generalisation be assumed. 1890. 165D applies to ordinary flying (a) lift coefficients and shows at the approximately constant profile drag coefficient of normal wings. The procedure in (iii) was to employ the exact method 1943 mentioned in the text above for the potential flow calculations. cit. as shown at camber. It is too early to compare the advantages and disadvantages. : . Preliminary Piercy. 2266. and only the barest introduction can be given in this book to a development which is prominent amongst those likely to improve aviation appreciably. 1942 Ae. Whitehead and descriptions of (iii) are contained in the A. Report No. reference may be made to Theodorsen and It is understood that (ii) relied to a Garrick. Ae. Incidence Effect Casual inspection of pressure diagrams shows an acute dependence upon lift coefficient and the new aerofoils are not exceptional in this Yet to be of practical interest laminar flow wings must respect. the achievements and shortcomings. family shape variation were derived largely from mathematical investigations of the . the potential theory of the arbitrary profile. so that all the wing and suggestions for profiles belonged to a single. 452. or simply the favourable range. positive and negative. The paper by Relf (loc. maintain a long negative pressure gradient through a sufficient range of lift coefficient to cover ordinary variations of speed. but can be sufficiently widened. (ii) in America. considerable extent upon experiment in laminar flow wind tunnels. 1933. 1943. Ae. as shown dotted. (c) in the figure. altitude and wingloading.C. and (iii) in the author's temporary research school at Cambridge. for application to fin and rudder design. of calculating profiles which would reproduce pressure distributions specified beforehand from experimental or analogous considerations for the reverse process. . : : . Again.
Curve d in the lower part of the figure refers to the undersurface of a laminar flow section and again differs essentially from the corresponding curve / for a normal section. Thus the favourable range is determined by the interval between the values of the lift coefficient at which the reversals shown near c and e first become appreciable. As the 08 1 lift coefficient is TAIL FIG. the velocity curves on both surfaces should be of the type b and d. This system is adopted in the following figures. Outside this range the profile drag reverts rapidly to normal. The The differ A// ^/<^\ ence bet ween these two curves is characteristic. both at favourable q I // U ro /f"\^ ' lift coefficients. 165E.e. as indicated at c. the velocity at the edge of the boundary layer expressed in terms of the undisturbed velocity. Curve 12 ' ^ typical of normal sections and curve b of laminar flow sections. For skin friction to be a minimum. The three curves a. Laminar flow can survive a small localised reversal of a strongly negative gradient. c. posi tions of the marking letters throughout the figure indicate where transition is to be expected.416 Characteristics of the of AERODYNAMICS [CH. i. forwardly peaked form. But the lift coefficient for the unsatisfactory curve e is now less than that for the satisfactory curve d. 165E refer to the upper surfaces of cambered a is aerofoils. . the former as incidence is increased and the latter as it is decreased. new aerofoils are often exhibited by means diagrams of the velocity ratio q/U. and in practice there would be little to choose between the two sections at the higher lift coefficient. b. the negative pressure gradient implied by curve b is progressively reduced and ultimately suffers a reversal near the nose. but in such circumstances as are depicted by curve c laminar flow is impossible over the major Curve a would also become modified to a part of the profile. the boundary layer reattaching itself to the aerofoil surf ace after brief separation. Curve e applies to the laminar flow section at an unfavourable lift coefficient. in the upper part of Fig. NOSE increased further.
diagram. (1) The sharp knee probably signifies can be investigated by calculating parts of the velocity curves in the velocity curve close behind the nose an unduly small favourable range. becomes too weak. 23oF. It is therefore decided to locate the .IX A] REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 417 magnitude of the negative pressure gradient must be sufficient not only to overcome disturbances caused by slight roughness or inequalities of the wing surface but also to provide for change of incidence. resulting in the section and velocity curve shown by thick fulllines. that on front and rear thirdchord points. this expedient the favourable pressure gradient. but we may suppose that excellence of construction demands a further reduction of CD0 The position of maximum velocity could be set considerably farther back by thickening the section a little in the regions of its We assume. position of maximum thickness considerably farther back. though trying extended. however. this is already a laminar flow section. It follows that to be effective in flight the Examples of Shape Effects illustrate preliminary steps in the design of a successful laminar flow profile. Three instances will be given of Is the new section satisfactory ? further modifications worth consideration. 165F. a matter which . The negative pressure gradient is extended without unduly decreasing its magnitude. As will be seen from the corresponding velocity FIG. we consider in the first place the typical problem To may of improving the symmetrical section distinguished by the thin fullline in Fig. 165F.
418 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Proper parts investigation other than by experiment is complicated. as shown by the dotted lines near the nose. but there is easily seen to be a risk of unstable flow arising. Camber and Pitching Moment The amount of camber has a special significance in the case of laminar flow aerofoils. (2) The tail of the new section is blunt. Will the back part of the boundary layer. The loss of maximum lift coefficient associated with this reflexure may lead to designs in which the crest of the camberline is edged so far forward as to cause a flat on the front part of the undersurface. raising two associated questions. Assuming that the knee develops rapidly. return rather unfavourable replies to these questions. . There is a consequent loss of maximum lift coefficient. (3) Assuming that the improvement expected under (2) is realised. The new velocity curve is likely to be the whole by this change. and part of the stabilisation must be effected by reflexure of the camberline towards the tail. from the streamlines becoming convex towards layers in which energy has been dissipated through friction. it must be rounded at zero incidence. centres rather in adjusting the shape of the camberline to reduce the moment coefficient whilst preserving a sufficient favourable range. as in Fig. as illustrated by the improved upon dotted lines towards the tail. however. would it be suitable to carry the modification further by making the back part of the profile strongly concave ? This question may be concave back considered apart from awkwardness of manufacture have often been suggested for laminar flow aerofoils. . Geometrically. and this may be achieved by sharpening the nose a little. Interest there is usually little choice as to the camber to employ. in this region for a few small angles of incidence. which must be verified to be negligible or of acceptable amount. The mean lift coefficient for the favourable range and other common requirements being specified in advance. the section must be slightly thinned between the trailing edge and the position of maximum thickness. though will the power of turbulent. as described in Article 207. the crest of the camberline cannot be advanced as far towards the nose as considerations of pitching moment would suggest without introducing a concavity. break away and increase form drag the ailerons decrease ? Assuming that special tests or calculations . if a fairly thin section requires appreciable camber whilst its maximum thickness is located nearer to the tail than the nose.
lift is added forward of the quarterchord point and subtracted aft of that point. 165G. the deenergised air is removed by sucking it into ducts within the wing. and their exhausting action. The method control. REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 419 increase of curvature along the front half magnitude of the negative pressure gradient along that surface. curve b the same pressure gradient. Fig. 165E illustrates the effect conservatively. The same process serves to prevent transition to turbulence. but such jets tend to break up. and the lift would be more or less evenly distributed over a large part of the chord. both the aerofoil surfaces would be given surface is increased. sections are included since their development is otherwise limited by bluntness of tail boundary layer control can prevent consequent breakaway.IX A] 165o. therefore. It would appear feasible to reenergise such air by means of backwardly directed jets under pressure. Apart from considerations of pitching moment. but the gradient along the underof the uppersurface reduces the The consequent FIG. is . concerned with improving the operation of existing Laminar flow aerofoils without necessarily modifying their shape. ailerons. as shown m . More usually. thorough scavenging appears to be necessary order that the following boundary layer shall be laminar. Breakaway results from ' ' tired The strong suction required to remove an entire boundary layer implies large pumping and duct losses. if necessary. a new boundary layer being started when transition becomes imminent. a less slope than curve d. air in the boundary layer being unable to proceed very far against a rising pressure. if sufficiently strong brings air unaffected by viscosity towards the surface to begin <* new boundary The action can be repeated farther downstream. restricting form drag and conserving the efficiency of 2300. BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL known as boundary layer (b) of Article 230B. In order to minimise the moment. a change that clearly requires much the velocity curves to be adjusted in the manner described. having The argument may be put another way. layer. If local suction is used to prevent transition. Long narrow apertures or slits may be located for the purpose close behind regions of expected breakaway.
the difficulty lies in markable results are easy to produce . establishing the economy they are obtained. p. it has often been proposed to maintain an exhausting action upon the whole of the boundary Prandtl * considers the case layer through a porous wingcovering. The conception leads to a succession of small wings forming a kind of cascade. FIG. 165i. vol. Subsequent reading must be relied upon for further information. This aspect comes within the purview of the present chapter since stalling usually results from a rapid forward movement of breakaway.420 AERODYNAMICS [CH. figure). . provided the general flow closes in fairly satisfactorily. * Aerodynamic Theory. schematically for the upper surface of the aerofoil in Fig. The result may be achieved by suction methods or. 'In all by the use cases it can be proved that an of suitable suction methods/ . preventing which not only maintains lift but also avoids large increase of profile drag. It has often been proposed to apply slots to small incidences in the case of large wings. and reliability of the methods by which 230!!. that publications on boundary layer control cover only a very small it is But fraction of the work that has been carried out on this subject in many Reaeronautical laboratories during the past twentyfive years. 117 arbitrary potential flow can be generated . by slots. 165H. Ill. as we have already seen. in which the distributed action is sufficiently powerful over regions of increasing pressure as to keep the boundary layer to a constant thickness and indicates how design calculations may proceed on this basis. and the profile drag is the sum of the skin frictions and form drags of the component members In a modern form each resolved parallel to the direction of motion. 165H. Many practical applications of boundary layer control have been concerned with the delay of stalling. Alternatively to the use of isolated slits. as well to realise. particularly before starting a research. Fig. and this may be achieved without dealing with so large a flux (lower surface in the Slits have also been tried in the neighbourhood of the nose. But if most of the wing profile is already under laminar flow and only breakaway is to be prevented. the condition of the boundary layer behind the slits may be of small importance.
IX A]
REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG
421
member would be
first
designed for laminar flow with due regard, in the to the resultant velocity and pressure fields caused by the place, other members. The schematic figure indicates that the wake of
each component aerofoil is carried clear above following aerofoils. Air of undiminished energy is brought to each aerofoil by a process reverse to that described in the preceding article, avoiding the need
FIG. I65i.
for
pumps and ducts. For small profile drag, the complete wing should comprise a sequence of long laminar boundary layers interrupted by short lengths of turbulent boundary layers, and a series of small form drags. The external flow is not entirely irrotational but contains turbulent layers of vorticity, one of the effects of which may be to produce fluctuations in the boundary layers, calling for
stronger negative pressure gradients.
230!.
Prediction of Lift
of
The advent
circulation.
wing sections with blunt
tails
renews interest in
of predicting the
alternatives to Joukowski's hypothesis as a
means
Eventual breakaway may be permitted with some laminar flow wings, and cannot be prevented if the pumping installation should fail with wings depending upon some types of boundary In such circumstances Joukowski's hypothesis canlayer control. not be applied to a thick section with confidence. The problem is in general difficult but progress becomes possible if laminar separation can be assumed, a condition formerly realised only at small Reynolds numbers but which may now be approached in some fullscale cases. Betz showed that the flux of vorticity across any normal section of the boundary layer is proportional to the square of the velocity From this theorem and the reflection that in a steady at its edge. state vorticity must be transported into the wake equally from the
two
be
sides of the aerofoil, Howarth * proposed that the circulation so determined as to make the velocities just outside the boundary
K
layer equal at the two points of breakaway. So far, this criterion has not proved very successful, owing possibly to the necessary
*
Proc, Roy. Soc., A, vol. 149, 1935.
422
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
breakaway and unequally on the two sides of the aerofoil. Another method has accordingly been proposed * which is founded upon considerations affecting the wake only, so that all the vorticity from the aerofoil is included, and is related to the requirement f that the circulation round any circuit enclosing part of the wake only and cutting through it at rightangles must be zero. The application of this method to an elliptic cylinder of fineness ratio
neglect of production of vorticity behind the points of
c:
64 will be briefly indicated, leaving the original paper to be consulted for further details.
Fig. 165j shows at (a) the approximate positions of laminar separation at various incidences a. The wake behind these points varies in thickness, finally gradually expanding by the diffusion of Small variations in the vorticity .so that streamlines cross into it.
shape and thickness of the wake are found to affect the problem only negligibly and, as an approximation, the thickness is assumed to be
approximately equal to the projected distance between the points of
*
t
Piercy, Preston and Whitehead, loc. cit., p. 219. Taylor*(Sir Geoffrey) Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., A, vol. 225, 1&25.
IX A]
separation,
lines.
REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG
423
and the edges of the wake to be parallel to the streamThis involves that, along the wake, the velocities at its edges
are equal at opposite points, leading to an unique value for K. The method is essentially one of successive approximation since the
positions of laminar separation themselves
depend upon K.
the figure the fullline reproduces the lift curve so calculated and comparison is made with a windtunnel experiment on the cylinder by Page * at a Reynolds number of 017 million. It will be seen that the stalling angle is predicted with some accuracy. Again, the difference at smaller incidences is partly due to initial
(b) in
At
turbulence in the tunnel and the approximate nature of the calculations. Whiteheadf has reexamined the method in relation to a cambered aerofoil of the family described in Article 133A and found
good agreement with experiment until past the stall at a sufficiently low Reynolds number as to ensure laminar flow in the tunnel used.
HIGH SPEEDS
230}. Compressibility effects at subsonic speeds have already been discussed. Experimental evidence suggests a progressive increase of C DO but also that the increment is small until the critical Mach
,
is approached. Minimising the increment is of little importance compared with that of delaying the occurrence of shock. The shock wave forms near the position of maximum velocity, before moving backwards with an accompanying change of the pressure distribution over the profile.
number
principal consideration in profile design for high speeds is to maximum velocity ratio, which compressibility itself If the assumption is made that the shock wave forms increases.
The
reduce the
velocity attains to the local velocity of sound, the maximum permissible velocity ratio appropriate to incompressible flow for shock to be avoided at a given Mach number is caleasily
when the maximum
thus an incompressible flow velocity ratio of 120 involves on this basis a critical Mach number of only 073. The following maximum velocity ratios are typical of laminar flow sections having a thickness ratio of 015 chord
result is rather
;
:
culated.
The
low
Camber
Maximum
position of
*
(per cent, of chord) velocity ratio ..
.
.
1
2
128
3
..
118
123
133
These figures can be improved upon with a less backwardly displaced maximum thickness or a less pressure gradient, and
A.R.C.R.
&
M. 1097, 1927.
f
Ph.D.
thesis,
London, 1939.
424
AERODYNAMICS
But
[CH. IX
A
laminar flow sections restricted in this
speeds than are normal sections.
way are more suitable for high
for the
is
above thickness the
maximum
theoretical
velocity ratio even for an ellipse
115,
and the absolute
urgent need for
minimum
is
about 114.*
a drastic reduction of
Thus there thickness and camber.
is
The thin wing
sections required entail the use of small aspect ratios. 23oK. An aeroplane fitted with wings of a given section having a sweepback 6, Fig, 165K (a), can attain without shock a larger Mach
number V/a than the critical Mach number Uja without sweepback.
The
effect
is
explained
qualitatively as follows.
long straight wing in flight at velocity and angle of yaw
A
V
Fig.l65K (&), may be compared with the same wing flying without
<];,
yaw
(6)
at a velocity velocity of sideslip
ty
U
v.
and with a We have
cos
<I*
FIG. 165K.

sin* (v/7),
U=V
and, away from the wingtips, distribution will be that appropriate to the velocity U. the pressure In so far as 6 can be identified with fy, we should expect the critical
Mach number
in the ratio
of the wings as fitted to the aeroplane to
be increased
is
V/U
=
I/cos
0.
However, the correspondence
very
side
rough.
In applying this method to estimate the rolling
moment on a
slipping aeroplane equipped with a lateral dihedral, we noted that the calculated moment might be expected to prove excessive by
about onethird, owing to wingtip and body effects. Additional cause of error arises with the sweptback aeroplane since the substitution of sideslip for yaw becomes progressively untenable as the centreline is approached ; near the body the streamlines, though
convergent, cannot be deflected appreciably by sweepback. When also the restricted aspect ratio imposed by the use of thin wingsections is taken into account, little of the above advantage, perhaps only onethird, may remain. This can still be made considerable,
however,
6
=
by the use
*
of
exaggerated sweepback.
Thus with
45, VjU would be
114
on
this basis.
Whitehead, A.R.C. Report Ae. 2073, 1942.
Chapter
X
AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO
231.
The
Ideal Propeller
Airscrew principles find many useful applications, but for brevity for the most part on propulsion, recognising a need for modification of treatment in widely different circumstances. First, following Rankine and the Froudes, we investigate the characteristics of an ideal propeller of the kind which, like an airscrew, produces axial thrust by acting on the air passing through its disc. By what means this action is effected is for the moment of machines that may be employed for the different no concern purpose will have different efficiencies and to eliminate such variaThus the tion the mechanical process is assumed to be perfect. propeller is represented vaguely as an actuator disc of diameter D, over which a thrust T is distributed. The disc will have a velocity V relative to the undisturbed air (of pressure p) consistent with the We also rate at which work is being done in propelling the craft. the entire flow to be steady and irrotational (though these assume conditions would not be satisfied with an actual airscrew).
we concentrate
'
'
;
;
The actuator imparts motion impulsively to the air passing through its disc, and increases its kinetic energy at a certain rate, which measures the work done  by the impulse, and which for efficiency should be a minimum.
We then argue, from Article 173, that the final velocity through the stream affected should be the same at all points. The flow takes the form of a jet (Fig. 166), the part behind the disc, called the
,
y
h
h h2
;
_
FlG
160
slipstream, attaining a minimum Consider any small section, where the velocity is Vs a maximum. area SS, of this minimum section. corresponding element of from the rate of change caused by the thrust ST can be calculated or propeller of the momentum of the air crossing it,
A
8T
A.D.
=
P 8S,K,(F,

V).
H*
425
426
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
The condition for minimum kinetic energy then leads to ST oc SS, independently of the position of the element. Consequently, for maximum efficiency the thrust must be uniformly distributed, which we assume to be the case. Let F be the velocity at the actuator disc, and write S for its
area.
Then, on
momentum
considerations, since
pSF
.
is
the mass
flow per second
T = pSF
(F5

V).
.
(i)
back.
Let p l be the pressure on the face of the disc, and p z that on Then an alternative expression for the thrust is
its
T^Sfapi).
.
.
(ii)
Now Bernoulli's equation applies with one constant outside the slipstream and with another within it. Also the velocity V must be continuous through the disc, so that energy put into the stream immediately at the actuator is in the form of pressure. Therefore,
applying Bernoulli's equation outside and inside the slipstream,
we
have
P
+
IfV*
=*
p
l
being regarded as the equal velocity at two adjacent points on opposite faces of the disc and suffix s denoting the vena contracta of the slipstream as before. Here, the streamlines being parallel, the
pressure has again
F
Remembering
this
become equal to that and subtracting
in the undisturbed stream.
Substituting in
(ii)
T
Comparing
result
this expression
i P S(7f
(i),
F').
.
.
(iii)
with
we obtain the important
F
i.e.,
==
\(V9
+ +
V)
...
. .
.
(330)
of the total velocity added, onehalf appears at the actuator.
It is usual to write
7(1 a) (331) a being called the inflow factor. The addition to velocity at the disc is aV and that at the vena contracta 2aV.
.
Fo
=
232. Ideal Efficiency of Propulsion
Useful work
craft, together
is
done by the actuator at the rate TV, the drag of the
its
with any parallel component of
weight, being equal
X]
to
AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO
427
r for steady motion. But
which kinetic energy is increased steady speeds, and this is
the rate
E at
the actual rate of doing work equals in the fluid, assuming
E
by
(i).
= ipSFo (Vf efficiency
y)
F')
= \T (V +
s
V)
Hence the
is
given by
_
~V)
^ ~lTa'
'
'
(332)
The result shows that, other things being equal, efficiency decreases becomes concentrated. To express this conveniently, define a thrust coefficient Tc by T/pF 2D 2 when (iii) becomes
as thrust
,
and
(332) gives
1
Y]
2
^T=It is
T
c
....
(333)
important to bear in mind that the ideal propeller should be not only uniformly loaded but as large as possible for a given thrust. Examples. A slow aeroplane weighing 2 tons has an overall
What is the ideal efficiency of its lift/drag ratio of 8 at 100 m.p.h. airscrew, of 10 ft. diameter, at this speed ?
The drag
0109, whence a (1 939 per cent. 7]
This efficiency could not be surpassed undei the conditions an airscrew for this duty might have an efficiency given of 82 per cent., but the further loss would be due to its own character;
=
= T = 4480/8 = 560 Ib. + a) = 00695 or
and pF2
a
= 512, giving T = = 0065. Then (332) gives
c
istics.
It may further be noticed that since F /F, 1065/113, the jet contracts to a diameter 097 and again that, since (F,/F) a 1277, an aircraft part exposed in the slipstream may have its drag increased thereby in this ratio.
=
=
D
;
=
233.
The Airscrew
familiar airscrew imitates the action of the foregoing hypo
The
thetical propeller by means of blades whirled round by an engine. Considerations of efficiency and weight economy limit their number to two, three, or at most four. The ratio of the total area of the
blades, counting one side only, to that of the disc of revolution swept out is known as the solidity of the airscrew, and is usually a small fraction. The blades support, of course, the whole thrust, in
428
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
producing which outer parts are more effective than inner, owing to their greater speeds over an appreciable area surrouiiding the boss the thrust will, in fact, be zero. Thus we now have to take into account variation of the intensity of thrust with radius, called thrust grading. Considering any concentric annulus of the disc, of small solidity, the distribution of thrust round it is periodic, being concentrated only over the blade dements, and the flow through any part
;
it pulsates. For the purpose of calculating the flow, we assume, however, that the thrusts of the several blade elements included in the annulus may be regarded as distributed uniformly round it, and deal with a mean flow at the given radius. This is equivalent to assuming a large number of very narrow blades. Let the airscrew make n revolutions per second, or its angular Each element at radius r (Fig. 167), traces a helical velocity be fi.
of
path of pitch V/n relative to the undisturbed air.
But the
subject
air at
the disc
is
to
inflow,
and
pIG
1(i7
also has a slight spin in the same sense as the
airscrew,
certain rotational factor
just behind
is 26fi.
6,
defined
by a
air
such that the angular velocity of the
due to vortices from the blades, so that the element has a forward velocity V(l + a) and which the helix makes The angle an angular velocity Q (1 b). with the plane of revolution is then given by
Of
this onehalf is
<f>
The
thrust of a blade element
is
derived from
its lift,
exerted
perpendicularly to its path, while torque arises partly from lift and partly from drag, which acts parallel to its path. High lift/drag ratio makes for efficiency, and blade sections are shaped like those of wings and set at suitable incidences a to their helical paths. increases rapidly towards the boss, and the whole blade forms a
<
twisted aerofoil. The angle 6 between the plane of revolution and the chord of the blade at any radius, viz.
6
is
= +a
<f>
.
.
.
.
(336)
called the blade angle. The axial advance per revolution
r,
on
for so
do a and
in (334).
when a = 0, i.e. = 6, depends But we define the geometric pitch P
<f>
AIRSCREWS AND .THE AUTOGYRO
of
429
an airscrew as
this
advance at a radius of 035
D
t
where
D is its
diameter.
By varying the throttle opening of the central unit of a threeengined craft, we could clearly vary the effective pitch of the central airscrew through a wide range, and in fact geometric pitch has no Aerodynamic significance. Such variation is readily carried out on a model airscrew in a wind tunnel, and thrust measured for all values of V/n. It is then found that thrust vanishes for one particular value of V/n for a given airscrew, no matter what V or n may be. This unique advance per revolution is called the experimental mean It is greater than P, because a will be pitch. negative, assuming cambered blade sections. The airscrew must advance a less distance
per revolution, and the difference is called slip, although sometimes slip is reckoned from P. It is convenient to define The nonpitch, etc., in terms of D. dimensional parameter V/nD is denoted by /.
The thrust of the whole airscrew will be denoted by T, and the torque required to maintain its rotation by Q. Then the efficiency, expressing the ratio of the rate of useful work done to power supplied,
is
TV
.
(336)
and takes into account
peculiar airscrew.
to
all losses,
whether inherent
in
propulsion or
the
234. Modified
Blade Element
Theory
Fig. 168 shows the circumstances
of a blade element
of
chord c and span 8r at radius
r.
Its
resultant
velocity
W
is
ex
pressible in alter
ttr(lb)
FIG. 168.
native
e.g.
ways,
W = V(l + a]
Let
cosec
it
<
= rii
(1
b)
sec
<f>.
.
(337)
$R be the
resultant force
exerts, inclined
backwards from the
430
direction of its
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
1
lift 8L (SD/SL), 8Z> being the Writing 8T', 8Q' for the thrust and torque of the single element, from the figure
by the angle y = tan""
drag.
XT'
= Sfi cos
r
j
(<
+ y),
W=
'
's
#
sin
(<
+ Y)>
"
(i)
whence at radius
V*T
QS<?'
* for
lb 1 + a
tan
(<
+Y
)'
Now Lanchester and Drzewiecki introduced the
justified by experiment effects of one element on
assumption, since
important parts of the blade, that another at different radius (and having in
This enables us to write for etc., where the coany element SL in the wind tunnel on aerofoils of the efficients are obtained by tests same section as that of the blade considered and at the same incidence. All induced velocities are included in a and 6, so that tests
general a different
= CLipPF (c8r),
lift)
can be ignored. 2 tan y
= C D /C L
,
should be
made under twodimensional
conditions
;
it
is
in this
respect that original blade element theories have been modified. Since tests are usually made at aspect ratio 6, conversion to infinite
required before application to airscrews, and accurate scale and formulae should be used for the purpose (cf. Article 179) roughness corrections should be applied to the profile drag coefficients so obtained in accordance with the concluding articles of
span
is
;
Chapter IX.
With
screw
this understanding we proceed as follows. elements at any radius and, if 8T, has
A .Bbladed air&Q denote
their
B
combined thrust and torque, from equations
(i)
or Fig. 168
ST
$Q
= B (8L cos SD sin <), = rB (8L sin + 8D cos
<
</>
<ji).
Substituting coefficients and
*jdr
diminishing 8r indefinitely
=B
(C L cos
<j> <f>
CD
sin <pftpW*c
.
.
(339)
d
^ = rB (C L sin + CD cos
<f>)
\$W*c.
.
(340)
is given by (337), but it will be observed that knowledge of a and With this knowledge, thrust and b is necessary to determine <. torque grading can be calculated at a series of radii having known
W
sections set at definite incidences.
Fig.
169 illustrates practical
rt
thrust
and torque grading curves, showing values increasing with * Lock, A.R.C.R. & M., 953, 1924.
AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO
431
01
FIG. 169.
02
O3
05
r/D
TYPICAL THRUST, TORQUE AND EFFICIENCY GRADING CURVES FOR AN AIRSCREW.
narrowed to form a tip. Such curves can be integrated graphically from boss to tip to give T and Q. Subject to two corrections for tip losses and the drag of the boss, depending on the type of spinner used the efficiency of the whole airscrew then follows from (336). Variation of efficiency along the blade is also shown. Before proceeding to the calculation of a and b, some points of interest in (338) may be noted. Ignoring a and 6, it is found by
i.e.
with
W,
until c
is
is a maximum when 45, approximately, YJ then being negligible in comparison with whence maximum y the blade occurs at r/D In fixedpitch efficiency along J/2n. r is small for this condition, e.g. taking V 250 ft. per practice 25 r.p.s. and D and little of the n 10 ft., r/D 016, sec., thrust occurs there. The efficiency of the complete airscrew is increased by decrease of n, or increase of V, keeping n constant, i.e. by increase of pitch well towards TC. Practical disadvantages exist
differentiation that
<f>
=
=
</>,
=
=
=
=
while interference at the disc is due wholly to the trailing vorticity. but the principle still decrease of efficiency with large values of lr/V is fundaapplies . Irrespective of this assumption. a large number of blades with suitably weakened circulation is again assumed. it in the weight of the airscrew and the gearing interposed between engine.e. 170* . it is clear that the flow far downstream cannot be affected appreciably by the circulation round the blades. but meanwhile extends downstream as a screw surface which is at first not quite regular owing to contraction of the slipstream. slipstream. where thickening is required for strength and stiffness. mental to the existence of y. To simplify consideration. and this calculation would yield a and b. of form drag and skin friction. Simplified Vortex Theory is due to circulation round its sections whose variation with radius casts a vortex sheet from the trailing This tends to roll up towards the axis and periphery of the edge. if known. i. but these tend to become less important with large These results are modified by a and b (which make fast craft. That the lift/drag ratio of sections should be high is asserted directly by Provided tip speeds do not approach the velocity of sound. is 235.432 AERODYNAMICS [CH. (338). slipstream from the distribution of vorticity within it and the circulation round the blades. \ FIG. however. These quantities are now appropriately called interference lift The force on each blade factors. and the general investigation of the maximum possible efficiency of a practical airscrew more complicated). Thus the flow approaching the airscrew ceases to be wholly It must be possible to calculate the irrotational on crossing its disc. this only difficult to secure near the root of the blade.
+ the velocities of the blades relative to the air they V then the velocities finally added a) and &(1 . we remember from twodimensional conditions is due solely to the trailing vorticity. if we follow a narrow loop B this spin is (Fig. the airscrew. Thus. round this loop of particles cannot change as it passes along the slipstream. however. ' ' resolved into vortex rings and longitudinal vortex lines. trailing system is then a shell of spiral vortices marking the boundary of the slipstream together with an axial shaft of vorticity . showing that rotation is confined to the slipstream. by the trailing vortices only. the blades induce rotation about the axis in the circulations round the opposite sense. amounts to onehalf downstream. by Article 14QK. so that. clear. Just behind the disc. Radial velocities are dealt with later on.X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 433 For clearness. and this remains true. as the influence of the blades decreases. that the velocity at any point in the disc will downstream. so that circulation is constant along them. 170). Again. its circulation is zero to accord with the irrotational flow. and the second rotation in the slipstream. formed always of the same particles of air. Summing up. 231. the first producing axial velocity. With nonuniform circulation along the blades. Now the circulations of the whirling blades are obviously trying to cause circulation in front of the disc and. when at the disc. and deduce that the rotation interfering with the blade incidence is onehalf of that at the of that induced by them far from aerofoil theory that modification vena contracta. it is set spinning at the disc. the whole slipstream will be a pack of such systems. the tendency must be exactly balanced by an equal and opposite induction there by the trailing system. for this to be zero. Finally. as it threads over the slipstream. it is from the theory of Chapter VII. it is This system can be illustrated for two blades only in Fig 170. first imagine that rolling up is complete at the The simple blades. 170). if engage are V(l are 2aV and 2&Q. and this is therefore added to the equal rotation induced by the trailing system. by Article 140K. Now for a lightly loaded airscrew disc we may neglect the contraction of the slipstream. Then regarding the axial disturbance. let us first follow a wide loop A Upstream of (Fig. so must that Hence the spin caused in the loop of the trailing vortices increase. and exactly half the circulation due to the trailing system. amount to onehalf of that at the same radius far This agrees with and extends the result of Article Considering next the rotation.
the that. a)b. . . = fat cosec f 2 . p m= . . and graphical or trial and methods . whence =m angular velocity finally given to change of angular m is 26fi. (i) Again. convenient to introduce symbols for the resolved force coefficients and the solidity of the annulus at radius r of Article 234. considering the rate of 26fl r2 . the interference error q and <. . at least. (341) j Then equating Substituting for (i) to (339) gives 4rcrF 2 (l + a)a = BtcW*. + to thrust is 2aV. Then it is at once found that 1  = Gq cosec 2<b. . . W from (337) ^ In similarly equating 2 (ii) (342) to (340) note that PP 2 can be written a) W =V + (I cosec <f> . For ordinary airscrews.(ii) Expressions for the Interference Factors We must be able to equate the foregoing to the alternative formulae whence a and b can be evaluated in a given case.434 236. Equating thrust to rate of change of dr a)a. Approximate AERODYNAMICS [CH. . . these assumptions appear to involve little error. Momentum Equations The following treatment proceeds on the assumptions that the slipstream is sensibly parallel. so momentum. The rate at which fluid mass crosses the airscrew disc at radius r The velocity finally added in reaction is 2nr8r V(l a). (343) These formulae are somewhat awkward to use factors appear in /. . . It is : 2t 2q a == Bc/27ir. = CL cos C D sin = C L sin< + C D cos<V < <f>\ . that rotation is insufficient (as is known) to cause appreciable variation of pressure. and that averaging round annuli is permissible. 8Q . Or (1 b) sec <. momentum . .
Practical Formulae article. Substitute (339) and (340) after using (337) to express W in terms of Q. . . J for the airscrew is connected with and the interference factors <f> for the element by the relationship : from Fig. be written may = 2t cos y = CL y 2t (cos <f> cos y sin < sin y).X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 435 is are needed to determine them. cot (# + TC r Y). Defining thrust and torque coefficients for the complete airscrew in the usual form : thrust grading is expressed nondimensionally as dkT d(r/D) __dT = ~dr I ' _dT ~" ~dr 47r ' a pnf& plSD 8 ' and torque grading similarly. These approximations fail when a for the blade section is near the .  for dT/dr.. . 168. (348) Simpler expressions for t and q than those so far given are suffiC D /C L the first Since tan y ciently accurate for most purposes. pressed in terms of The / given by (338). A suitable method described immediately after the next 237. Similarly . (349) 2q (<f> + y). efficiency of the element as follows. Hence for small values of = CL cos . dQ/dr from Then (345) and die / r\ 4 =87*1 jl (^J? (16)' sec* #.CL sin (^ + y). but may be exmaking use of the last formula is 1 =. (346) Alternative formulae are obtainable in terms of a.
The particular case relates to twothirds radius of a 2bladed airscrew of 9 ft. m. A fair degree of accuracy and provision for checking is required. TABLE VIII It has been chosen here to illustrate the efficiency of the element. so that a 008. The force coefficients will be known for each incidence and t q follow. is 0754 ft. The chord at r 3 ft.TU. or (2n JZ)) D(P/D) 356. nothing else being changed. i. while its lift coefficient slope is 010 per degree. Representative columns and rows are illustrated in Table VIII (an additional significant figure is usually attempted). blade angle. and other quantities are at once calculated and the results give curves of variation against /. 1 1*2. so that tan 15 f. subtract from the blade angle a series of values of a for the blade section. .. the airscrew then turning at 1200 r. Finally. Zero lift for the section occurs at 2. collects the necessary data while meeting the inconvenience of (342) It is usually and (343). giving a number of <'s. y Up to C L subject to a minimum C D =0*010.p. t Then a> b. These aerofoil figures have already been duly corrected = = = ~ . Having selected a radius. Method and Example required in practice to analyse an airscrew for several The following procedure flight conditions. = = = = to infinite span. and which are too thick for high lift/drag ratios.m. for root sections or the stall.e. through a range of J. diameter used on an aeroplane whose top speed is 160 The pitch/diam. The process is repeated with a number of other radii.h. variation against r/D is read from the curves at the constant values of J that are of interest and integration is effected by a planimeter or other means. ratio is 15.p. and it will be found convenient to work out tables of 25 or 30 columns for each radius.. 238.436 incidence for either zero AERODYNAMICS lift [CH. taking 10 less The third row of the table is added for comparison.
x] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 437 The at / Zero thrust occurs larger value of 8 gives curve (A) of Fig. so that efficiency falls steeply. 171. = O03 04 16 O FIG. TYPICAL EXPERIMENTAL CURVES FOR AIRSCREWS. Curve 16. approximately. The numbers 25'6 and shows the loss in maximum (B) relates to due to the correspondingly smaller value of /. Increase of = efficiency efficiency . 171. in brackets give pitch/ diameter ratios.
but with J might correspond to maximum climb. nonwavy surface. 239. just as with the original pitch it would be too great to allow the engine to attain its revolutions and develop full power. the column of Table VIII shows that the torque coefficient would not full blades. it may approximately double thrust during the early stages of takeoff. However. and enable full power to be used with increase of efficiency at heights where decrease of density would variable pitch . The dotted increase to curves (A) and (B) indicates the greater efficiency that would follow a reduction of C D by 20 per cent. which by Fig. Principle of Variable Pitch (V. above example from 080 to 0877 at J = 08. which 13). In a V. either automatically Decreasing 6 by 10 increases the local efficiency be sufficient to absorb the power of the engine at its maximum permissible revolutions. is critically important. which (15).P. airscrew the blades are socketed into the boss. the lift coefficient for the section is then about 128 and it is approach = = ing stall. But with highduty commercial craft. the element practically attains maximum efficiency at top speed flight (/ 08. = . at the Reynolds number for the flight condition (R 21 x 10 e ) three times this reduction is achieved by using laminar flow sections. which are usually fitted with supercharged engines for flying at considerable altitudes. 165s is feasible for normal sections with a smooth. may sometimes be neglected. there still remains an important increase in the power available for climb.P. bearing in mind the Reynolds number. and of course military aeroplanes. That arrest of thrust and fall in efficiency are imminent are confirmed by the experimental curves for a complete airscrew of the same P/D ratio The table also shows that a is more important than 6. efficiency is much reduced .) In the preceding article it has been seen that the representative blade element (and we may infer the whole airscrew) designed for top speed is in a poor position to produce climb. When the requisite adjustment is made. Referring to curve (A). though with a light aeroplane of small power it usually requires to be verified that the rate of climb is appreciably improved after taking into account the additional weight of the apparatus.438 AERODYNAMICS [CH. to 0008. thus adjusting pitch. Apart from climb and maintenance of altitude with substantially improving partial engine failure. and is increased or decreased uniformly along in the last all or under control. with pitch is further illustrated by the group of experimental curves obtained with a family of airscrews.
L.p.p.000 ft.S. would produce the same level A. = altitude. We shall assume the possible variation b. this gives possible torque coefficients for the airscrew of 00117 at G.h. It is verified from the torque curves of Fig.s. pZ) 4 = 6260/w Ib. is available during lowlevel climbing and 688 at high speed at 11. climb and 00166 at altitude.p.p. so : that still Q = 550 . at 25 r. Static Thrust illustrate numerically the advantage of variable pitch at the of takeoff requires knowledge of the variation of beginning To engine power with rotational speed information supplied by the makers from bench tests for each engine.p.p. 171. however. at low altitude would be used and the engine would slow down a little and give pitch less power.L Provision of a third pitch would improve maximum speed at low . At J with the larger pitch is only 67 per cent.h.I. 640 thrust h.p. airscrew. respectively.) up to 11. where.). The efficiency at high altitude is 86 per cent.ft. per sec. The two values of J are 073 and 130. 580 thrust the larger h. the supercharged engine giving P/D of 800 b. taking account of the variation of p (the relative approximately. An airscrew of 11 ft.ft.h./27m with an 11ft.000 ft. =715 w3/4 which accords with 800 b.S. 073 the during climb at the smaller pitch it is 80 per cent.I. altitude. For simplicity. These do not quite accord with constant variations of blade angle. Again taking account of the density.P. but the difference is ignored. Assuming 1/4 8 . As an example. = 348 and pD = 383. is assumed to maintain its power at constant revolutions (25 r. The most important = considerations are taken to be speed at this altitude and climb at ground level. shall illustrate the use of variable pitch by reference to the efficient We experimental curves of Fig. diameter with a twoposition hub is assumed..h. 10 or 15. x b.. are 300 and 200 ft.S. Now at ground level. for which first estimates of A. but probably more than sufficient to maintain the A. From the engine data we find that the constant torque exerted by it and.X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 439 otherwise require the engines to be throttled to prevent racing.000 ft. 171 that the two pitches comply with these conditions. the estimated velocity is 356 ft. but the torque efficiency coefficient required would be more than the engine can manage. and Ib.p. per is sec. at 11. than with fixedpitch airscrews.s. it may be mentioned that the convenient and twinengined aircraft design can be carried to considerably greater allup weights with V. 2800 density = 071.
second case. we have for the representative element is When a blade = <f> = = = If 2nr sin 0/P 80' 27C/P. Neither but the first is the 240. 166 11 (350) for a completely stalled airscrew. blades. This may be shown in an approximate manner as follows instance.. T = =00151. . since P f y equations (i) of Article 234. 171. the number Looked a of at momentum equations require factor. Ordinary Tip Losses and Solidity No mention has yet been made of radial components of velocity these attain con in the slipstream. 1935. or y 2nr tan 6. 261. in the is completely stalled. T = 27U0/P . Then = 0133 from the 1388 fc Ib. P/D (fc figure. and a 4bladed airscrew has an . appreciable advantage in this respect over one of two blades. but part is due to the blades not being so badly stalled. or 8 and. expressing that the annulus does not take up momentum the number The effect decreases as quite so efficiently as supposed. = 15) we have kQ = = 00269 at J = from whence n giving n = 00269 since A^ = 173. we find n Repeating the calculation for = 10 Q = 223 and T = 2077 Ib. Theoretical investigation must be left to further reading approxi mate treatment has been given by Prandtl * See * and a closer solution by Glauert in Aerodynamic Theory. 8r'= SR = .. cos 2nr sin 0/P. Thus the finer pitch gives nearly 50 per cent. Application to the foregoing example gives P(ft. slightly differently.) T(lb.) 3070 1169 showing an improvement of the original airscrews nearer to that state. greater static thrust in this Most of the improvement is inherent in the smaller pitch. depending on radius. T = 0120 at J = 0). approximately at rightangles to the chord. v. IV. p. Though its small in its interior. we assume constant pitch we can sum for all elements.) approximately 2880 1644 Q (Ib. obtaining . [CH.ft. of 41 per cent. : completely stalled the Aerodynamic force acts Thus in a.440 first AERODYNAMICS the larger pitch (P/D Fig. of blades increases.. siderable values towards boundary owing to the small whose circulation diminishes towards the tips.
may which through greater skin efficiency. and will be found that. large loss from greater solidity following change from two to three blades is less than onehalf the gain in respect of effective diameter. v. the correction diminishes at It may well result in a given highspeed example that ratios. however. Thus pitch. 172 for two. so that coefficients. . three.. Soc. J = 13 the loss in ideal efficiency of is a 2bladed airscrew on this score 4 per cent. The numbers refer to 2. 172. A. friction This question it is easily and form drag again decreases investigated by the methods is already established. by Article 231 efficiency is decreased at given thrust The fallowing approximate formula results from the theory to determine D et the effective diameter J D showing that the effect B becomes important for large . 123.* The simplest way of viewing the results is to conceive that the diameter of the airscrew is effectively diminished by tip losses. much reduced at low P/D * Proc. P/D ratios .or 4bladed airscrews. EFFECT OF TIP LOSSES. at O4 1O1 08 12 16 D 08 07 FIG. Roy.X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 441 Goldstein. (351) This gives the curves in Fig. although efficiency ratios. 1929. tip losses make at least three blades desirable with high It then be necessary. or four blades. to increase solidity. 3.
N. 1928 . and this variation is . Douglas and Perring. given in Article 239. C. .R. A. 1931. 072 and. realised by some aerofoils aerofoil section . 1927.C. and there is an increase of thrust and torque.R. & M. 1256.R. & M. 06 FIG..* tests on model airscrews rotated realised. 1438. at fast rates in standard wind tunnels. 241. sets in. N. T. The theory of compressible flow introduced in earlier chapters is supplemented by tests on aerofoils in highspeed tunnels. As M increases. would not be to estimate force coefficients At the compressibility stall.C. than with their computation. several J See Chapters III and VI B. Jennings. description based on these published The symbol M will denote the ratio of the speed of a blade section at large radius to that of sound. Hartshorn and Douglas. per sec. The is following data.R. Study is more usefully concerned with avoiding such effects when tip speeds must be high. & M. . Weick. screws in special tunnels J and in flight.A. A.C.R. W = ..C.R.T. 375.A. Compressibility and High Speed Tip Losses Losses of a different kind are caused on the outer parts of blades by the compressibility of air when tip speeds approach the velocity In the example of flight at 11. neglecting inflow the ratio of this to the velocity of sound at the altitude is of sound. camber (2) 10 per cent. E. it is difficult and equally doubtful how they may be applied to airscrew design as radial flow occurs. thick symmetrical Joukowski .A. 173.R. without specially suitable blade sections from this radius to the tip.R. but with * f little change of stall compressibility When efficiency.C. 1929.. 1928.A. A. as illustrated M = 07 to 08 the in Fig.. 173. Glauert's theory suggests that for moderately high THE COMPRESSIBILITY speeds C L should increase in the ratio I/ <\/(l Af 1 ). 1086. thickness and 10 per cent...R. the resultant velocity at r 04D is 777 ft. A.000 ft. (0) M 07 STALL. f on air. Jones. 302.442 AERODYNAMICS [CH.C. (3) Glauert's formula : C\ Drag also gradually rises. 1173.T. 1931. Wood. & M.R. efficiency forecast from experiments at lower tip speeds . Incompressible flow lift coefficient (1) 10 per cent.
solidity may be than for an airscrew working at greater lower speeds. At M = 0*8. thus (Chapter VI) should be employed a 10 per cent. bad case . of very small camber and profiles minimum ' maximum ' velocity ratio . CD approaching 02 y passing through perhaps by onethird thrust diminished by 10 per cent. 173A. . but . and before the velocity of sound is reached by the tips the following results are not impossible in a C L down well below the incompressible flow value. Then in any case.. and pitch large. such thin blades tend to flutter. In spite of these alarming figures airscrews can be designed to attain 09 at the maximum radius without loss of thrust and The first possibly also with little loss in efficiency. Finally. section having a flat undersurface. in the case of fast aeroplanes at high altitudes when clearly rotational speeds should be low 05 M at FlG . kf may be falling and Y) still more quickly. but especially to permit increase of mathematical thickness. gives a great improvement. . see Fig. The education of an Aeronautical Engineer commonly includes the working out of * Douglas. of course. while decrease to 7 per cent. Aircraft Engineering. M= precaution is to restrict thickness ratios 8 per cent.x] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 443 reasonable sections falling within the hatched areas. : . 242. With greater speeds these effects are accelerated. Investigation on the lines described above then determines whether the family shape can be varied advantageously in view of special conditions. but these may be so exceptional as to demand complete departure. tip 17 3A. March 1936. Joukowski section has been found * to give as good results as an 8 per cent. Note on Preliminary Design Systematic test results exist for families of airscrews of different P/D ratios from which may be obtained by interpolation approximate figures for a projected design. and efficiency by more 20 than 20 per cent. The problem becomes most urgent. is a for outer sections desirable limit.
T is determined from the b. D may be limited by ground clearance going craft large clearance is necessary on account of waves. but as a rule is resorted to only as a palliative. various duties required of a fixedpitch 2bladed airscrew. . and.444 AERODYNAMICS [CH. . and the disc area) and then to is assumed to be constant from the linearly to zero at r fall = tip \D. Forward tilt relieves from the plane of radial stress. A formula in general use. An inflow factor a is calculated from the formula : 2a) =  12 a pF S (where S is circle to r = JZ). and : though gearing is used. the blade being set parallel to the disc. ( ~ 10 per cent. Fig. first principles. Shape. is D = 43 This diameter may be decreased per cent. . the plan form of the blade is often made symmetrical about a radial line joining the axis of rotation to the tip (cf. An empirical method often employed to allow roughly for inflow is as follows. . Rotational interference is ignored. as likely to lead to good performance in the . Highly loaded blades deflect forward appreciably. strains and oscillations. approximate analysis should precede detailed work on a proposed design. of the engine by interpolating from systematic tests an efficiency appropriate to the chosen values of J and P/D ratio. The exercise loses part of its engineering value unless an attempt is made to fulfil a prescribed specification. but this usually makes for safety. but limitation arises as follows (a) Aero engines turn at a fast rate. so that restriction is more severe on highflying craft) (b) long narrow blades of sufficient strength and stiffness have a disadvantage in weight (c) with small lowwing monoplanes having in seaoutrigged engines. an airscrew from Diameter. To minimise torsional stresses. to avoid disappointment. its ratio is limited by weight economy thus airscrews have a fairly high angular velocity. for four blades. Article 231 suggests a large diameter for efficiency. tilt This leaves open the question of forward or backward revolution. and diameter must be restricted to avoid the velocity of sound (low temperature cuts down this velocity.p. 167). for three by and by 15 Approximate Allowance for Inflow.h.
Sections should be as thin . (b) added together (taking the A first selfevident. is of the section is used to determine the fibre stresses. for obtain thrust there are worth while.X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO Although flatbacked airscrews still 445 occur. ing). (c) bending due to centrifugal These are calculated separately for a number of radii and (b) the Aerodynamic force. of course. . towards but unavoidable close it 0032 1 thickness to the 0024 boss makes doubtful to whether attempts Fig. from the radius r considered to the tip. 174. If they are transformed shapes (Chapter VI). transverse sections should be designed from a suitable mathematical formula to keep y and compressibility effects small. Stresses. from leading edge (a considerably farther back position is preferable). force. incidences for zero lift will be known. It is essential from practical and Aerodynamic points of view that the blade be smooth and nonwavy as a whole as well as locally. about the major and minor axes of the section. Radial stresses in a blade result from (a) bending due to centrifugal force. as is consistent with stiff ness. gives the at 174 0016 R= minimum C D mathe0008 10* matically designed symmetrical sections at zero incidence through a range of thickness ratio. the element moment C L %pW*c$r(r The least second moment of area r ). In a particular design this is verified by plotting geometric contours over the blade these should be smooth curves and show absence of flats and concavities. Eventual contours so disappointing as to necessitate reare insured against by relating sections and incidences design along the blade in some systematic manner. at rQ only if the centroids of sections (c) arises nearer the tip are displaced from a radial line parallel to the The moment is resolved into components disc of revolution. and only the first is considered. maxi mum thickness occurring at onethird of the chord 01 02 03 04 Thickness Ratio FIG. especially the tips. from the bendapproximation to (a) is found by neglecting twist and integrating. fibre stresses.
Helicopters may have two concentric airscrews revolving in opposite directions. at first nearly vertically. neglecting flapping in the somewhat complicated. The blades of the windmill have very small pitch. <& M. that is slightly Aerodynamically but much simpler mechanically. roll could be avoided by increasing 243. 1927. APPLICATION TO THE AUTOGYRO a craft whose lift is derived from one or more enginedriven airscrews with axes approximately vertical. like that of flapping wings. A. Tilt of the axis may be controlled from the cockpit. 1926. but automatically rotates by virtue of the relative wind caused by forward or downward motion. To produce forward motion the airscrew axis may be tilted slightly from the vertical.. and they flap as above described. by a vertically upward velocity component until its rise is checked by a centrifugal moment about the flapping axis adjustable by stops and springs. 1127. Lift is said to be direct. Meanwhile. we investigate its appear first and drag. The autogyro has reached a hands of its mance rotor practical stage of development in the Remarks on perforinventor. which propels the craft way.R. inferior A method of achieving the and decreasing that of advancing same end. In the jumping autogyro. on suddenly increasing pitch and returning the engine to its normal duty. in the usual ' ' . the craft leaps off. Singlerotor helicopters may have a small antispin airscrew at the tail of the fuselage or an exhaustgas jet. is backward from the normal to the direction of motion. Evidently an advancing blade will then have greater lift than a retreating one. A M.R. has always attracted considerable notice.C. is to allow the blades to flap up and down about axes near their roots as they go round then the blade of greater lift reduces its incidence . The lift of an autogyro is derived from a windmill whose axis inclined flight. helicopter is A incidence along retreating blades blades. since the is 244. Lock.C. the late J. analysis lift instance.. rolling the craft unless combated.R.R. since the craft can rise vertically. . in the next chapter. 1111. pitch can be reduced and the engine connected to the rotor high rotational speed is obtained on the ground in this way and. de la Cierva. A. Fixedblade Inclined Windmill are to be In the theory * of the autogyro the lift Z and drag obtained from the axial thrust T and a component of Aerodynamic * X Glauert.446 AERODYNAMICS [CH. The idea. In the rotor is not driven by the engine. Alternatively.
175 (a). and (W * v = V sin u. X sin i = T + X cos1 (i) t) . between blade and direction of motion viewed in T or H = T or c plan .x] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 447 force which acts in the plane of the rotor away from the wind. the broken line represents the inclined windmill in side view. <= blade fy constant) . u being V assumed constant over the disc. : H = : R = radius i of tip circle and 5 = nR* = incidence of disc to relative wind (of velocity V) Q = angular velocity of blades X = 7/Q/e = U/Q. but.R. and is the resultant of u and Fcos i as shown. this is the the in the opposite direction. on analogy with airscrews and aerofoils. . k. C. . These are determined by the necessary condition for autorotation The following usual nomenclature is adopted the torque Q 0. [A 6. or kx = Z or Cx X/pF'S = . It should be noted that u is in the direction of T as the wind is driving the rotor. = angle angles as before B. and helical . where u = axial velocity through disc (assumed . FlG  m  on account of the deflection of the slipstream. or Z or In Fig. If v is axial velocity induced by thrust. it seems plausible to determine v by Difficulty arises T = 2pSvV = This gives 2pS(7 sin i u)\f(u* + i V* cos 1 i). .
(a being its incidence) as 6 (cf. Chapter VI). since a =6 t = 3(0  $. and. let From Fig. clearly the terms with sin ^ as factor will give zero mean torque. by . is a small angle over important parts of the blade. be the velocity normal to the blade of the element As before. requiring knowledge of Tc and JJL. Then integrating with respect to r gives for one whole blade in a particular rotational position ^ : Q' = pcn 2 7? 4 [ (i0(l + X cos sin ^) + iC D (i + f X cos t f i (JL sin <j + 8 iX cos i sin' <!/)]. W . but the . is given approxiwhich is a plan view in the direction of the axis.CL + <f> CD . the torque grading along one blade becomes < Now <t> = dO' JL = ypcQ 2 [3jLl?e(r + R\ cos i sin ^) 2 3[x ^ a COS ^* Sil1 ^ + ^'^ COS * No great error is introduced by assuming c and 6 constant along the blade. 2q . q = 3<(0 . of + V cos i sin (ii) chord ^= ' rpW'cq . As a further simplification we define 6 as for zero lift of the element and take dCJdv. 175 (i). Hence the second of equations (iii) can be eliminated by the relation w/W which follows and the definitions of X from <^ being small. which is conveniently regarded as an equation for i. Now as the blade swings round and 4 varies through TC.448 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 2 . Now an autogyro rotor is of very fine pitch and. Treating it as small throughout gives the approximations where / and q </> : 2t = CL . W= For a single element. (iii) have the meanings defined by (341). on neglecting u* in comparison with lr W fy. though untrue at small radii. W mately. Then.$ + reduces to JC D . at radius r (a radial component is neglected). remembering (ii) and [A.
175 work. The modification due to flapping is O ' 1 40 AUTOGYRO CURVES. helicopter). 176 indicating that A.D 15 cient to avoid rolling means increase in c for (NOTE : A. left to further reading. craft.) maximum CL first occurs at a little short of 40 incidence while the drag. i*(CD (354) The dition essential con Q c = : gives the following equation for a (355) Thus the problem determinate by the tabular method is of stepbystep calculation familiar in airscrew Fig. k t f = JCf .  JC. kz and kx follow from (a).f + and for a solidity = BcR/S Q or JC D (1 + X* cos* i)] cos* (352) (353) T = Similarly cr(8 + f (i + 6X* cos* as approximations. Typical curves are shown in Fig. at low. 245. 176. Glauert shows first that a trimming of suffi H an autogyro (though this is not true of a and that the alternative flapping must be rather worse. Thus for the as factor will give a mean torque represented whole rotor of B blades in rotation (* by = B 9 c&R*[. FIG. These are typical only and do not refer to a parThe broken line represents a complete ticular rotor. equals the lift at 45.X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO sin* <* 449 term with factor .^6 . Experi . The analysis indicates on this account rather better performance than is to be expected in practice.
wind tunnel indicated a maximum L/D of about 6. 552. N. X mental results of reliability are scarce because scale effect is great under windtunnel conditions. in regard to the latter. pitch must remain comparatively small to secure autorotation * at all. Some tests in America * on 10ft. Decrease of solidity is compensated for by greater rotational speeds and pitch.R. solidity. Limitations arise through centrifugal stresses becoming great with the former variation while. Wheatley and Bioletti.. in contrast to an aeroplane .450 AERODYNAMICS [CH. modern trend seeks which is to augment its value by reduction of already considerably smaller than for an airscrew.C. 1936. Maximum LjD occurs at a very small incidence corresponding practically to top speed of the craft. diameter rotors in a 20ft.A T. .A.
e. 451 and the first step is from model tests and proceed giving zero thrust. improvement by 1 per cent. of which a brief outline is given in following articles. so that The resistance of a complete craft when its airscrews are working at their experimental its glider drag. to length estimate data there assumed. calculating such scale effects as we can. and estimatThis method is ing others from experiment and experience. We are now in a position. Critical appreciation of values helps the designer to frame a suitable craft for a specific duty. But with a more normal aircraft we can make much greater use of experience. Form drag and interference. has been introduced already at some in Chapter IV. approximate allowance being made essentially by calculation or in experiment for the velocity field in which each In the case of a new type no other course is open part works. however. In the present chapter aircraft are regarded essentially as competitive engineering products. directing theory and experiment to assessing differences from a nearly similar craft of known performance. is worth considerable endeavour. to verify that it will be successful. airscrew. of the power at top speed. unless a compressedair or giant tunnel is available for tests. and skin may friction theory. dealing with steady The subject motion character istics of particular aircraft.Chapter XI PERFQRMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 246. mean pitch. over and above that which can be allowed for by taking velocity fields into account. and to detect and locate by fullscale trials minor deficiencies in the craft built. is known as to assess this correctly. i. apart from airscrew effects. Uncertainty arises chiefly from scale effects on the form of separate component parts and the interference between one drags part and another. The General Problem of performance. so that resulting errors may be appreciable. aerofoil. whence engineering development follows. Much organised experimental work has been carried out in aid of the first method. and to criticise results. may readily absorb 26 per cent. We . one of summation.
6th Int. t Cf.g. this is not always the case. Fairly similar aeroplanes may be grouped and each category assigned Otten a gross drag coefficient. COMPUTATION OF GLIDER DRAG 247.R. Con.R. The advent of jet propulsion promises some simplification of the jected. and other aerofoil surfaces usually written CD = the first Cpf f CDO> term on the right being the induced and the second the This form is suitable when tests have been coefficient. particular flight tests must be reduced to standard atmospheric conditions and the chapter concludes with a note on a suitable procedure to adopt.. With glider drag known. (356) The advantage and purpose the skin friction of (356) is to isolate the part of the drag scale effect is easily predicted. Exceptions include the Handley Page wing slot at large incidences and the Townend * ring for radial engines (cf. 1267. Roy. their rotational speed becomes a significant variable. Soc. Particular idiosyncrasies are met by adjusting the coefficient. Aero. measurements are available and the craft is small and slow. November 1934.T. e. Although interference usually increases drag. April 1930. The second method of assessing glider drag is largely individual to the designer. a paper by f and several others { on fullscale tests). a matter that is studied in a specialsection. or socalled ' present calculations and also justifies consideration of performance and operational of view. etc. Van der Maas. or engine nacelles. Important interference occurs between airscrews and fuselages. Assuming reciprocating engines..A. . which is often based on the frontally proflat plate/ area. & M. Except in such circumstances. made at flight Reynolds numbers.C. 1929 .452 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Aircraft Engineering. The experimental drag is coefficient of wings. the performance of an aeroplane in a standard atmosphere is readily forecast by taking due account of its airscrews and engines.. . being founded upon experience with different types. when C. This term can be obtained by subtracting from the gross drag an experi* A. tail planes. t Jour. The Hague. however. a more useful subdivision is profile drag CD = C m + CD whose (friction) + CD (form) . 1930. efficiency from a comparatively unhampered point To be representatively intelligible.
It will be assumed that only the friction is subject to increase by roughness. M L t jL l Dividing (1 x)/x.<S{3P(\* . 248. tail plane. With bluff components such as wheels. Induced Drag Induced drag can be neglected except on the wings. (357) Writing the R. the data do not exist. JJL X =V+ X. as is usual. as l[K. but the area finally chosen will be the wing area. but in the summation a common area is more convenient. Let L^ Z. and finrudder unit. . Each exposed component of the craft will first be assigned a drag coefficient based on an area peculiar to itself. . and an The formula is experimental CD is used and scale effect is neglected except in cases where it has been especially determined.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 453 mental form drag (Article 230). For the purpose of comparing with other aircraft or checking against experience the flat plate area of the preceding article may be used.2a[x + \L 1) + 2#(<ifjL  1) + 1} . to determine the equivalratio. ing It is convenient. and L/2s by X to distinguish the equivalent monoplane. although with a very large body this may not be Its calculation is treated in Chapter VIII. (i) (i) through by since L^ 1 X^ and substitut + = ing or i* % = . although for others the first term will probably be negligible. . in the case of a biplane. . = + 2orX X = xLH Then. but the followjustified. and 1 the longer and 2 for s t /Si. 1 1 t . .S. an estimate can be made of one or other of the two components of profile drag. Hence from (251) and (252) ent monoplane aspect as having the . Now and write the shorter of the biplane wings Dm = DiEt the induced drag of the whole biplane. Denote use suffix M lift and drag by L and D. a being Prandtl's factor. but when. Usually this area is taken to include parts of the body and engine nacelles intercepted between the leading and trailing edges. the equivalent monoplane being defined same lift and induced drag as the biplane. 2Ks l = 2sM is the span required. additional remarks are made. Airscrew effects are reserved for the next section. span by 2s.H. the last term swamps the others. not confined to aerofoil surfaces.
added. a first approximation to the crosswind force being that required to balance the moment about the C. 135. however. The induced drag of a tail plane is assessed from the lift it must Induced drag arises particularly on exert to preserve equilibrium. N. Fig.! = lift 1 (Arti cles 183. Of course. of and lift FIG. which revolve same hand. 177. partly to allow for irregularities distribution arising from practical causes.C.A. the drag so calculated is regarded as a lower estimate and up to 8 percent. induced however. Form Drag Chapter IX A provides data for directly estimating the profile drag of smooth normal wings at small incidences and of laminar flow wings except through the favourable range.G.454 AERODYNAMICS [Cn. the correction would not be needed. of the asymmetrical thrust. EQUIVALENT MONOPLANE ASPECT RATIO. A small increment is due. unless contrapropellers are used. should the theory be used only to assess differences between two rather similar wing arrangements. 177 which exhibits. that the biplane efficient is most s 2 /s 1 when = . Within this range the skin friction may be calculated approximately for laminar flow wings but the question arises as to what form drag to add. Once the tion of distribu between the wings has been estimated by direct experiment or otherwise. This result can be plotted in several useful ways with the help of One of these is shown in Fig.T.* cal the theoreti follows drag immediately from Chapter VIII. Partly for reasons discussed in Article 180.A. the fin and rudder when the craft is flying yawed owing to partial engine failure. amongst other matters. a matter on * Diehl. to the fin being set slightly all to the askew to balance the torque of the airscrews. 249./!. 468 and 501 . This remark applies equally to monoplanes.R/s. 185).
and the whole drag then measured will be an upper limit to the skin friction.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 455 Q2c 04C 02c 04c DISTANCE OF TRANSITION POINT FROM NOSE FIG. but form drag is fuselages. but few of these tunnels exist. a repeat test may be carried out after fairing in the wind screen. elevator and rudder angles. 178 summarises results of Squire and Young's calculations of the form drag of normal wings. 5 X 10 7 . in case of engine failure. the second only at zero incidence. the twodimensional conditions required enabling good Reynolds numbers to be reached. Wing roots. 178. a small and a very unit. THICKNESS: (a) 014. tail unit. estimates slipstream effects). These data can also be applied to tailunit sections with the same but allowances necessary for aileron. Special tests can easily be made in a laminar flow tunnel. by yaw (postponing discussion of C. and a model tail wheel may be offered up in the second case to give some idea of the interference drag on the body. the tail restrictions. which the experimental data generally available are not yet sufficient. It will be realised that wings. excrescences and roughness are commonly considerable and should be determined by test. crescences.A. and. (b) 025. : .* If the shape is a very good one and free of exdifficult to infer. R: 10 7 . and fuselage all have * Some recent tests of streamline bodies of revolution at Reynolds numbers 6 (reckoned on length) between 2 and 3 X 10 gave for the ratio of form drag to skin friction 008 with streamline. The first is tested principally for pitch and yaw inlarge one. Failing may be based on measurements with two models. Fig. . and 014 with turbulent oncoming flow. which may be used for laminar flow wings provided maximum thicknesses are only moderately displaced backward evidently the . curves cannot be extrapolated indefinitely owing to increasing bluntness of tail. Form drag is otherwise caused by wing roots. or giant tunnel tests. which commonly has a large form drag. What has been said of aerofoil surfaces applies in principle to With these a tunnel test is usual. tail creases surfaces. the downwash field.T.
. to min. area of tyre. Equivalent to 7 per cent. of the engine. ..... 30 Ib.. Ditto Add 15 per cent. maximum sectional area across stream. : . 10 Ib.... Ditto 40 Ib. fin...... to min. small craft Lowpressure tail wheel and scantlings for mediumsize craft.. ditto engine Radial engine cooling drag with ordinary External oilcooler. engines in body or wings Ditto. Ditto Ditto 00701 P. faired rim to hub .. 6 1114 Non retractable undercarriage Singleengined craft. best Seaplane floats.......) 14 Ib. contribute to parasite drag. ..... Parasite Drag is The term parasitic usually applied to the drag of all parts of an aircraft except its lifting surfaces. Mediumpressure wheels. though part TABLE IX Component Drag at optimum incidence referred to 100 m. Add 12 per cent. .h. . Aero.. . Fuselages Best.. of the b. inefficient craft Highspeed craft Tailunit hinge breaks . (Note.. drag of wing span affected.. . 007 P... (6) reducing the beam of the hull while lengthening the forebody to maintain planing surface (Gouge. . Soc. good shapes Biplane bracing Single bay.. Reynolds numbers on the craft. Ib.456 different little AERODYNAMICS [CH. 16 per cent. Ib..... . 20 Ib. December 1936). without cabane panels Two bay. which often contribute 013 P.. with engines between wings Tail plane... ft.. : *2J~4 46 Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto 01 P. etc.. tail planes. including interferences.. ft. Thus the interplane bracing of biplanes. 016 P.) * Remarkably low drag of this order appears to be realised in some recent flying boats by (a) very careful shaping. (small craft. . Shrouded aileron slot Tail skids. per sq. cowling.. lifting rotors.p. . of projected 018 P. .. 15 Ib.. including interference. Ditto 02 P. . Such losses are greatly reduced with ducted cooling.. . 4 7 Flyingboat hull. but wings.. cantilever .. drag. 250. . and rudder Slow. and gas envelopes do not.. lecture before the Roy. aileron control horns. high speed : Exceptionally good Average Square section with protuberances .. It is profitable and entails complication to take this into account. per sq. Twinengined biplane Small craft.p h. of whole. tripod inferior mediumsize engine Exhaust pipes. : 2J 3 Ib. .. . . .
fuselages.g. Reference must be made to Handbooks and Laboratory Reports for design data.D. larger Reynolds numbers permil a slightly greater thickness. section) for struts of approximately minimum drag at Iog 10 (FT/v) 5*4. Table IX is intended to indicate merely the of an adequate list of notes that should be beginnings prepared and constantly revised to facilitate and check estimations. DRAG OF STRUTS AND WIRES. where T denotes the maximum thickness of the 010 O05 44 46 48* 50 52 54 2 4 6 log* (VT/V) 2 Fineness r . 179. (The term total parasitic drag is reserved to include the profile drag of wings. 4 6 Angle of Yaw FIG. 179) shows the variation of C D (= drag per unit p^*r. smaller A. drag the mutual interference of the wings of a biplane. even though it appear as an increase in the form drag of lifting members. engine nacelles. and it is not implied that scale effect is to be allowed on either side of this speed. is used only as a convenient reference.) 251.h. In this table 100 m.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY is 457 of the resistance be form drag and perhaps reducible. Interference reckoned parasitic if due to struts. Struts and Streamline Wires Curve length f (1) (Fig. Drags are sometimes expressed as fractions of the sum of parasite drags. = Reynolds numbers require it to be 15* . Optimum fineness is 4 . e.. etc. but it is excluded if arising between lifting surfaces.p. which is denoted by P.
rather a small fineness ratio. Although the section figured does not accord with minimum drag.458 less. but the advantage is limited with r large. interest is also illustrated in the figure give Their drag at the smaller Reynolds numbers of usual given by : log w l? . may be allowed. 42 43 CD X 10 . With double wires a short distance apart.41 . say of L\D ratio r and D D+ weight is saved quickly by increasing thickness for given Note that any strength. one directly behind the other. w must be supported by the wings. for a large. To secure such small values the contour must be Aerodynamically smooth and mathematically designed. which has a fineness ratio of 4. is to be avoided. rough rule to allow for interference drag in the bracing of a biplane is to add 50 per cent. . wasteful. wing area being fixed. because. . The Its strut of weight causes an additional drag w/r. it is a very good one carelessly designed sections are often 20 per cent. Lenticular wires show little increase of drag for yaw of their sections up to 10. AERODYNAMICS [CH. Considerable saving results inertia . the craft having to fly slightly faster to carry additional weight at the same incidence. yaw at Iog 10 R approximately 47 is shown by curve (4). the criterion for is that be a minimum. Such calculations sometimes indicate. The central crosssection efficiency w/r of the strut will be required to have a given minimum moment of t minimum drag may not be quite the most efficient. . Wires of the lenticular section curve (5). it may act in the direction of the sideslip. slow biplane. but interference increases the drag of each with yaw > 8. This minimum drag is plotted against R in curve (2). . If is its drag. but whose section is Variation of the drag of this strut with slightly thicker at the back. 300 258 214 44 172 45 134 46 102 R and C D being defined as for struts. of changing the struts on an existing craft would be differquestion ently decided. although slight rounding may be introduced at the trailing edge. : from tapering struts. Curve (3) relates to the strut illustrated. i. .e. shielding to the extent of 15 per cent. and the uncertainty slightly affects lateral stability. the crosswhich. r would then be the overall L/D ratio. to the drag calculated for the interplane A struts and wires. for a curious reason wind force arising on the struts in yaw becomes uncertain in direction. however.
Sir Melvill).p. is defined as follows : ' where H = horsepower absorbed by induced drag. Analysis of a fine lines number of firstclass monoplanes of exceptionally and smooth tons.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY The Jones Efficiency 459 252. and a applies of 123 Ib. power loading Drags are expressed in roundnumber percentages of total drag.h. of course.p. Top speeds vary ' ' surface. the present idealisation leaving only induced drag and pure skin friction. nonducted cooling of reciprocating engines. the Table to 220 m. = efficiency of the airscrews.p. which will be distinguished as the Jones efficiency. at cruising speed or with a heavier wingloading). is expended on the wings. Aero. Soc. from 200 to 250 m.h. with a wing loading of 21 Ib. May 1929. : that onehalf of the thrust h.h. depends on the valuable conception of the streamline aeroplane* and friction . varying in allup weight from 2 to 8 results of Table X. again. the induced drag is It will * Jones (Prof. Jour. HF = horsepower absorbed by pure skin friction. and airscrew interference. efficiency. Roy. per b. The large allowance under the last item includes a nonretracted tail wheel or skid. gives the mean included. TABLE x Points to notice in these small and lightly loaded craft are . . i Y] be seen that lack of an allowance for form drag tends to low values.p. ft.. in spite of the fair speed that good shaping and smoothness make pure skin account for more than onehalf power and that induced drag is very small at top speed (it would be substantially increased. Various different meanings are commonly attached to the term One. whilst. per sq. Single and twin engines are . Usually the convention is to calculate the skin friction from flat plate theory.
cruising. and best examples show a slightly higher efficiency. ceiling. Subdivision of Parasite Drag of flight conditions at which drag must be estimated are few. for these conditions separately. Analysis shows that variation of the first : group. we note that the following steps promise immediate profit (a) minielimination of roughness drag (b) reduction to a very small of eradicable parasite drags (expressively called Christmastree drags). . but. From Table X we at once find.460 AERODYNAMICS [CH. however. Aeroplanes having an efficiency > 60 per cent. comprising a host of parasitic resistances whose scale variations are quite unknown. need by no means be considered the maximum that can be attained. With an efficient aircraft it is best to estimate The number Reynolds numbers and various small corrections are then usefully taken into account. in the case of craft of small . Normally they are : top speed. and rough made plainly evident. and does succeed in segregating good classes of aircraft from bad. . and penalties incurred by excessive form drag. designing wings to approximate more closely to elliptic span distribution of lift. on this basis are ness are considered satisfactory at the present time the slow. . labour is saved by assembling the drags in two groups those dependent on incidence and those which are not. Considering the possibility of substantial improvement of efficiency. . as by retracting the tail wheel and closing all slots when : . of course. this figure is easily calculated. However. and the present best efficiency of 65 per cent. may usually be . since variation of or when the type is inefficient. speed range. The above method can be applied to airships. at so low a speed that comparison with aeroplanes is not justifiable. is reduced on both these scores through lack of sufficient knowledge. mum not in use (d) mathe(c) reducing engine losses by ducted cooling matical design of every contour to reduce form drag to a minimum of the manner of joining one part to another to decrease (e) study interference increments and finally (/). multistrutted biplanes of prior to 1930 often had an efficiency of only 30 per cent. since (358) is the same as the ratio of the sum of induced drag and pure skin friction to total drag. which includes the fuselage and tail plane. When a large number of rather similar craft are dealt with. nose dive or fast glide. ceiling with engine failure. merit The resulting figure of assessed from the theory of Chapter VIII. that the monoplanes investigated have the mean efficiency of 64 per cent. climb at low altitude. slipstream effects. 253. comingin incidence. All these steps are in progress.
and in some flyingboat arrangements particularly.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 461 expressed as a function of efficient ACJA^Ci. Thus. however. 1935. usually drag is decreased on this score by a small fraction. unless directly calculated for a given type. Theory and experiment show that the pitch of the airscrew and therefore its efficiency are apparently increased owing to the slowing up of the stream by the body. but certain simple factors have outstanding importion. by the boss and blade roots in the former case or vice versa in the latter. with engines carried high in separate eggs.* AIRSCREW INTERFERENCE the airscrew was regarded as isolated. is * Aerodynamic Theory. Whether the body is behind or in front. must be suggested from experience. Experiment shows that the form of the results obtained in these simplified circumstances is retained with the complete craft. case where the boss forms an flush with the body. V. we shall denote by kb The special either of the nacelle . while the drag of the body is increased by the acceleration of air through the disc. if determination of coefficients is not Alternatively. the increase of drag of the body be subtracted from the apparent thrust. to give a useful thrust. unless the spinner appreciably improves a bad body shape. of whose shape the spinner integral part. v. tance. Detailed investigation in practical circumstances. It will be seen that the mutual interferences are to some extent compensating. we shall be able to supplement the results by additional calculations. modification of blade angles will be necessary to allow the engine to develop full power. A large 254. though possible. and. and consideration performance calculations. the effective efficiency is found to be less than for the isolated airscrew. The form of this function depends on the type of craft. If. some shielding takes place. the difference in lift cobeing reckoned from that for top speed. of these alone is usually sufficient for However. it may be convenient to deal with an overall correc X But more frequently we have to determine with some care increments of wing and parasite drag additional to effects on the engine housing. experimental available. is very intricate. unless the airscrew is designed to conform with the actual velocity field in which it works.. We first neglect all aircraft parts other than the nacelle or body. . In Chapter engine nacelle or body in front of or behind the airscrew modifies its torque and thrust. which. will be referred to later. Examples are given by Kerber.
produces important mutual effects. Again. with both tractor and pusher type airscrews. the decrease produced in its indicated weight on immersing it in a beaker of water is equal to the apparent increase in weight of the beaker of water due to the rise of water level. the airscrew. in the case of a tractor airscrew. It is If for no energy loss could be caused by the body. the sudden increase of pressure at the back of the disc. Tractor Arrangement convenient to begin with the pressure drag last mentioned. . and the increase of hydrostatic pressure integrated over the base of the beaker to the increase in drag of the streamline body. Let Ta be the apparent thrust of the airscrew and Se its effective disc area (Article 240) Da D the drag of the body with and without . a being the axial with a shall associate the resulting increase of drag certain coefficient kv This acceleration is accompanied by We pressure variations which again increase drag. depending on the shape of the nose of the body and the position of the airscrew. Supposing a plumbbob to hang from a spring balance. the body is situated in a field of augmented velocity. to be affected by this pressure. It is assumed a sufficient approximation for present purposes to regard Ta as uniformly distributed over Set so that pressure is proportional to Ta/Se Considering a proportion of S. connected with a coefficient kp . Pressure drag increases will be 255. We infer that the thrust of the airscrew must introduced. the flow were inviscid. and on this score only . f). . a small streamline body close behind the airscrew would experience this drag in full. and S its maximum crosssectional area. The upthrust on the plumbbob is analogous to the increase of propeller thrust in the original case.462 AERODYNAMICS [CH. increased by from aV to 2aV in the first inflow factor. increase to compensate exactly for the pressure drag Experiment bears out the practical value of this Displacing an airscrew upstream from a body.* conclusion. Finally. . yet clearly the efficiency of the combination would be the same as that of the isolated airscrew. by virtue of which thrust arises. case and from . as if it were driven through an extension shaft.kp (S/S = _ T I kp (S/S * ' (359) (i) e) . and the residual slipstream would be unchanged by it. decreases apparent thrust. The argument may be illustrated by an analogy. the interference thrust and drag increments can be expressed as equal to Ta kp (S/Se). but also decreases the drag of the body equally. . to a V in the second. so that effective or net thrust remains unchanged. originally high owing to interference. T* * Da D=Ta .
. Alternatively  . absence of a propelled behind means that inbody crease of thrust is no longer compensated for by increased pressure These changes promise advantage to the pusher arrangement. Hence : Da/D = To take section of the (1 + .. .. but to a On fully effective pressure gradient. (iii) and (iii). .XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY if 463 Next. 2aV 2a + 2a* =T V*Se 2a) . by the appreciable we write this : >. (360) where C D for the body is specified on S. 256. (ii) into account throttling of the slipstream body and other neglected factors.) say. collecting from (i) shielding reduces drag by kb D.h..+ 2TJ 9 V*S 1 e .p. The case of an airscrew working behind a body differs only in The body is subject to less increase of speed. and remembering that we have = D(lk + b) 2v ^e (kt + #. of of airscrew It the engine. which is con fined to its back part. (36. Pusher Airscrew detail. slipstream velocity we the body were effectively wholly exposed to the ultimate Vs and S were sufficiently small compared with should have on this particular score Da But _ Ta or P F (1 + a/9 a) 5. S. form to ensure from experiment appears .) . Finally. but this tends to be lost in practice by poor streamline shape for the body and by necessary adjustment realising the full b. drag.. the other hand.
tests on a biplane of in very poor Aerodynamic shape gave. the streamline housing of. pusher naceUes have given A 083 for a poor 097. part of . 257. Considering one of the inner engines. Values are not yet systematised. if nonretracted. so that special investigation is unnecessary except to note that B will be smaller owing to the relative unimportance of kv . B = 093. we have behind its airscrew a long nacelle followed by Some = B= = = a strip of wing of approximately maximum chord and. without the wings position. so that with C D 02. owing to deterioration of flow. shape. With a singleengined aeroplane. B = A = In a more recent analysis kv was found to be 24 (rather greater. as expected. With highspeed monoplanes having two or four radial engines. the nacelles project for efficiency about onequarter chord in front of the leading edge of the wings. fin. Ta //>V 2 Se FIG. as in (ii). Article 255) and kp J. with suitable adjustment of the coefficients. besides the the fuselage. B 18 for a somewhat better one. = = Whilst this A is found to be < 1 for bluntnosed nacelles as predicted. = 086.464 AERODYNAMICS [CH. than 2. a liquidcooled engine. its With this un derstanding. 083. so that the actual airscrew disc area can be used in place of effective area. and rudder and. no longer holds when the boss and spinner complete the lines of . A 104. Comparison with Experiment The simple linear relationship (362) (see Fig. with fine bodies. that (362) still applies. vanish or it may change sign. and it has been found to hold 2 Da for complete aeroplanes as well as in the simplified circumstances assumed for its derivation. and with the wings. 180) has been realised experimentally on many occasions during the past thirty years. tail plane. for example. possibly onethird of the tail plane area. at a little distance. wing roots. B would be 49. 180. kb may then say. the slipstream affects. Definition of the coefficients is slightly modified in experimental work. and A 258. and considerable positive drag then result. 105.
and a 9ft. ft. are washed by the slipstream... we should find and since T= 240 + 2) = r/1'2 x 115 X 64 x 550/220 = 600 this would give D (1 + 20) = 1273.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 466 the undercarriage. so that in the present instance little difference would result. we applied the approximate method a(l of Article 242. (1 + 2a) = 1272. We take an ordinary small biplane with a single engine of 300 b.p. In order to use J for kpt we substitute Sa for S. obtain = = Thus thrust is increased by 40 lb.. Alternathe method indicated in Article 242 may be applied. (pF a = 115). It is usually sufficient to jection downstream of the effective disc area. so that C D 0*18. airscrew giving 240 effective thrust h. Actually.. and the body drag by an equal amount through pressure interference. drag concerned becomes 114 lb. which provides a top speed of 150 m.h. (362) gives for the fuselage on assuming A = 086 : or the drag of the body alone increases by 51 lb. For the complete aircraft at top speed =217 (body) 270 (parts + out of slipstream) 114 (other parts within slipstream) and the total increase due to airscrew interference is (51 + = 601 lb. contracts appreciably. the question of precisely what components of the afterpart of a craft are affected is somewhat doubtful. when slipstream effects are most important on the other. 90 lb. ft.p. on the one hand. some distension is that of it . taking Sa 64 sq.h. in (359) and. for slipstreams are found to wander. parison is made in the following example Example. alternatively. If. especially at maximum climb.. By (351) and particulars of the airscrew. caused by the blanketing of the central part by a large bluff nacelle. Associated with this question is what diameter to ascribe to a slipstream . assume that parts affected lie in the proand that the additional is 2aV spread uniformly across the slipstream. and its drag without airscrew 166 lb. The maxi velocity : mum crosssectional area of the body is 16 sq.. the effective disc area is found From Article 255 (ii).p. ft. + 24)/(166 . The glider drag of the remainder of the craft at top speed is estimated to be 360 lb. and the to be 41 sq. of which parts contributing 90 lb. Comtively. together with certain struts and wires in the case of a biplane.
p. 181. on the and a maker's curve to position the (e. Suffix to sealevel. = .. SOME PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS 259. of course.g. The curve (a) is an example only of variation of power with engine speed. a for relative air density. r\ (i) when r C = . 81) for n^a (cf. often called the standard b. The airscrew efficiency. against = = V/nD J of for the propeller diameter D cor working rected craft . Much greater airscrew interference would occur. is increased from 240/300 85 per cent. the additional thrust being to 640 x 220/550 X 300 = = = balanced by extra pressure drag. THOUSANDS OF F\/o. of the engine against n at sealevel. To prepare for change of altitude we sub5 10 IN 15 20 FT 25 stitute ALTITUDE FIG. to absorb 300 b.. all lifts and drags being referred to the wing area S curves of variation of &T thrust/ 4 B a 2 pn D and kQ torque/ pw jD . at 80 per cent. at n r. and v for rate of climb in feet refers per second.p.h. T for thrust.466 AERODYNAMICS [CH. at maximum climb. Fig. : H W lift and weight. The following ' ' are polar of CL ~ CD assumed : a for the 10 complete aeroplane whose performance is required.s. Prediction of Speed and Climb in the account taken of engine is The only development now introduced compared with Chapter IV and airscrew characteristics. V and w. Article VARIATION OF ENGINE POWER WITH ALTITUDE. 181 (a) ) of b. without further loss.p. 360) angles can be adjusted. 4. provided the blade 14 per cent.h. the designed engine speed. Other for total symbols are L. and must not be taken as representative.p.h.
For any altitude h we write H=H for the b.. Choose a value of K\/cr and obtain CL from (i) and C D from the polar.XIJ PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 467 = and indicated to hold. whatever C L or C D may be knowing /(A) for a particular engine. one curve for each altitude.. p of course denotes the pressure and T the absolute temperature of the atmoThe torque coefficient is readily expressed in terms of sphere. This curve is (363) : ner 275 (365) (366 ) These last formulae depend only on the engine and airscrew.. (367) CL (368) Thus the next step is to plot a curve of k^/}* against /.h. 181. which will represent the best that the engine and airscrew can do. W or in terms of coefficients * : .f(h) . W written for L. Jfc * Modification for more than one airscrew will be apparent. which follows immediately from the airscrew data. and hence corresponding values of n and V are known. . turning to the aircraft.p. In the formula. Find a Read T // from (368) and then / from the data curve mentioned. with in level T (ii) similarly for other coefficients. Now. in use for (363) Different forms occur for f(ti). available .. One formula __ supercharged engines is < 364 ) shown dotted together with another mean curve for normally aspirated engines in Fig. unless the angle of climb is steep . The formulae may be used as follows. . . as a sufficient approximation Equation (i) is assumed as and climbing flight. we can construct for a given airscrew a family of curves of V against n or /. Level Flight.
32 20. power of the gives the total two engines. EXAMPLE OF PERFORMANCE PREDICTION. 181 (a). AT G. S/2D 50 40 DHIFT.16 12 08 CL 04 CHM O08 CD 012 (M6 O2 05 (W 07 J 08 09 POLAR FOR COMPLETE CRAFT AIRSCREW CURVES (P/D10) 64 ENGINE CURVES: SEA LEVEL OTHER DATA>56 TOTAL WEIGHT. 468 .p. fiT. ENGINES: 2800 BHP.m.L. 1700 r..000 FT' 24 14 18 22 26 30 FIG. 182. / H MAX~ "/"MAX 48 AS IN 2 FIG. (NORMALLY ASPIRATED).10 TONS.
required. Since are flight values of corresponding V and n now known.p. where also the It marked.000 FT.)A/cr marked in Fig. Also. PLOTTED FROM FIG. unique curve of n^a F\/cr. Examples are (r. 182.. from the family of curves mentioned under (366) we can plot a family of curves of the same quantities n^/a. 182. Thus we have a single curve of n/a for the aircraft f(h)/n . each point on it representing a particular altitude an example ~ E 100 .000 FT. 10. These intersections = 200 5. But the value of V gives definite values of C D and Hence v is calculated from (367) rewritten in the form : _ ~ This calculation 2kT (369) and assumption is. These details relate to flaps in The minimum flying speed with flaps out at low altitude is 60 m. 183. instance. and finally plot the last quantity against n VCT the curve obtained is unique for the aircraft in level flight at all altitudes an example is given in Fig. as already traced.500 FT 50 is given in Fig. 150 may be 200 plotted in several ways. . for the f(h)/n : H & i engine. CL and thence k^.CH. and airscrew. enables maximum climb at that of other values of V . appropriate to a particular altitude. . Repeat the process. CEILING 20. we can IVcr ct for a find. and represent top speeds at various altitudes. xi] off PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY .p. noticed that n as ceiling is will be falls away 14 h increases. 469 Thence obtain H f(h)]n from (366). 183. approximately. 182. corresponding value of / follows from ^365) or (366). . kQ from the curve kQ ~ /. On assuming a value of V the 9 FIG. 18 22 30 Climbing. Intersections satisfy : 900 300 1 100 1300 i 1500 1700 fry : the requirement Hf\ thrust h.h.p. H ~ . of course.m.
. coefficient c ) 550 #/pw8D 6 Both these must be plotted against J for the H airscrew concerned. 2 (cf. (370) ~ ship n^/a^V^/G/DJ.T.470 AERODYNAMICS [CH. knowing /(A). . as Now for any assumed value of n we can find &HO with the help of the maker's engine test sheet.. find for each altitude a curve of n\Sc V\/a. =tC^ . .m. Another arrangement * of the foregoing process will be 2 described briefly. Climbing. altitudes. ~ V . whence time of climb is estimated as in Chapter IV.p. To find these we write for altitude h : and. which holds for Intersections of the engineairscrew curves with this aircraft curve give values of V<\/G for various altitudes. approximation. and thence J from the curve of &HO J. clearly T t A unique curve of n^/a V CT is determined by assuming first some value of V \/G.A. so that repetition gives a curve of V sealevel.. Applied Aerodynamics) and the present as the LesleyReid.N. Repetition with other densities gives the maximum rate of climb as a function of altitude. 260. 302. since TF/550 = TJ# or T c pF 8 D = 7jfc H pw*D 5 . 1929. which gives immediately C L and thence from the polar for the complete craft C D and Tc from (370).A. or in using the geometrical pitch in place of J. Instead of k^ and &Q we employ Tc T/pF /)* = Article 232 and note that and a b. n for finally obtaining V. Jc = T = &T // 2 . * . There having may sometimes be m. (371) all Repeating this process gives the curve required. : Turning to the sufficient and putting T . . N.p. V in n slight advantage in this analysis in in r. in place of (369) (T>drag)  (372) The method of the preceding article is known as Bairstow's (cf. From (367) we obtain. The new thrust coefficient can be written. These curves define the revolutions available for the given engine ~ and airscrew.h. altitude to be found by plotting. aircraft in level flight.h. Different curves are required for other altitudes of ~ ~ interest. = drag as a . . then reading off / from the curve Tc / and calculating n<\/a from the obvious relation.C.p.
. : . row 10 CD row 11 . : . If test figures are available for the wings.. last For the we = . information as to the fraction of the total glider parasitic = W : . the span (2s).p.h. 26oA. The refers for clearness to a singleengined aeroplane. To obtain these it is often possible to express the engine data in the form b. whilst C L and C D are known. V= Then row JnD. row 7 may Y] (//27c) record for future use the values of pF*. = . we must estimate the . if the airscrew efficiency yj is not supplied. that kT /kQ To conclude this part of the table. row 8 12 Z) CDO pF 2 S. = . D = Z)w D C DO and row it Alternatively.p. If test figures are not quoted for the wings.h. : . = may give . ff . diameter (Z>). The data provided commonly comprise. probably in the neighbourhood of 11. available at 6 the corresponding thrust horsepower (T. row 11 to their total glider drags (W L/DW ). The usual procedure is to work out a long table of calculations.) is ignored. where X W/2s for straight level . More elastic methods suffice to solve isolated questions relating to the performance of an aeroplane driven by airscrews.). kn* for constant altitude. and row 12 to their profile drags Q Cp. and possibly a polar curve of CL plotted against C D extratowing drag an estimate of the and glider drag apart from the wings at some intermediate speed lastly. row 10 to the lift/drag ratios of the ~wings. and row 5 the full b. besides the allup weight airscrews the number. In the absence of a constantspeed airscrew. It is now to calculate D = is necessary to arrive at Z> P and the first step (row 8) is a k X 2 /(?r i pF ). is a known constant coefficient for the chosen altitude.H. = a coefficient. row 3 lists the corresponding values of n. drag (Dp) that is affected by slipstreams. of which the first two rows comprise the given values of / and k Q so that each column of the table relates to a particular value of J.P. row note. and kn*to 2nn &Q pw 2D 5 /550 gives n k' (k )~ lK *~*\ where k' equating Q . . 4 of the table gives each speed. flight which is estimated from Chapters VII and VIII in consideration of the planform of the wings and what allowance should be made for k" and wingtip vortices. row 9 will be devoted to the CL 's. following discussion and the effect of the slipstream on the induced drag (/). Tc will follow. A series of values of v/V so obtained enables maximum v to be determined at the chosen altitude. .XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY t 471 So if we assume a value of V\/a and find the engineairscrew \/ a and thence / from (371). because we are taking as a sufficient approximation that lift weight during climbing flight. and &r k Q at various values of / such particulars as enable AQ to be related engines to n. the airscrew revolutions per second the planform wings together with the area (5).
since accurately oc L* oc cos 2 6. the actual slipstream drag in level flight with the engine throttled back must be obtained. after deciding upon the probable transition Reynolds number from the wing profile and surface in order to fix the second coefficient in (315). If the enquiry relates to cruising. available and H' plotted against V. Whether windtunnel results or calculations are resorted to. and profile drags by direct calculation.472 AERODYNAMICS For [Cfl.P. speed at lower speeds it is the thrust H. + = = row 18 gives Dc = Di + D Pl + D P2 '. the values ' of which may be entered in row 16. and some experience is necessary to forecast its effects (Article 229).) for the thickness effect on skin friction with a like increment for the form drag of normal wings..P. Row 13 records the part D P1 of the total glider parasitic drag which is not affected by the slipstream. Row 15 accordingly tabulates the maximum thrust T 550 x for each speed. . Further description assumes the latter alternative. suffice to employ a constant profile then adding a judicious increment (of the order of 25 per cent. the question of surface roughness must be faced. for tractor airscrews. range.P. which may be solved by successive approximation. The top speed is determined accurately by the intersection of curves of maximum T.H. where a is an average is.H. endurance. necessary to overcome the drag c when climbing. and row 14 the remaining part D pa which is to be increased on this account. But interest in preliminary calculations centres more frequently. this purpose it will often drag coefficient obtained for some Reynolds number intermediate between those for climb and maximum speed. If is required for cruising conditions. t 4(a inflow factor appropriate to T uniformly distributed over an effective airscrew disc area Se a8 ) 4(a r/pF2S. perhaps. for which the engine will be at full throttle. The factor by which > P2 must be increased T. H' is not the power required for straight level flight except at top . Row 17 then gives D P2 tD P2 = = + + . D The angle of climb D 6 is given approximately by sin 6 C )/W (T the approximation is involved in row 8 of the table. between cos 1 6 and unity will usually be small but entails correction for large angles of climb. or the like. and row 19 gives H' = D C F/550. An isolated enquiry calls at this stage for choice to be exercised as to further procedure. . in top speed and climb. the only a should be calculated for a thrust H T = D = D + D P1 + i change is that Z) P2 [1 + 4(a + ')]. A first estimate results from calculating the coefficient of flat plate skin friction by Article 220. The error resulting from neglecting the difference % = D ./F I a 2 ).
. November 1927. Handbook of . but we shall find that they are too great). Jet propulsion involves so great a change that methods described in a later section of this chapter are preferable. Takeoff and Landing Runs * With the notation : W = weight of aeroplane. A unique curve against V can therefore be plotted and values of D read off to suit new calculations of V from / and kQ which take account of ipF*. we have. The procedure can evidently be varied. we notice that for the same values of i. during the run prior to takeoff L). so that arithmetical errors are easily detected. or Liptrot. .XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 473 changing the altitude. Aeronautics. W dV (i) Write as an approximation. . . a and b being constants Now assume as a sufficient approximation that the tail is up during the whole run to give topspeed incidence (error here would make our estimates too small. IJL . But it is typical and generally useful. and that described will not always be the shortest. and has the advantage of tabulating familiar quantities.IW) For flying boats see Gouge. * VL. the supercharging of the engine and change of airscrew pitch.airscrew combinations. On D % . and (i) becomes : ldF_FW_2 ~~ g dt g dx ~~V Introducing the constants A and B defined as \L A = a(T /W) B = (1 + b) (T. Flight. 261. L its and D its drag T = airscrew thrust and T that at top speed V = velocity at any instant and F top speed x = distance along the ground = coefficient of friction with ground lift. this is also true of airscrews driven by gas turbines To some extent and jet. . the same indicated air speeds Vit D (but not Dc ) will remain constant if further scale effects be neglected.e.
474 (ii) AERODYNAMICS simplifies to [CH. 0. up have been recorded that exceed normal rates by onethird. 1935. and Takenouti. Tokyo Repts. incidence near the ground than in free air. 15 may lift coefficients and liftdrag ratios are so much larger at. over rough ground to avoid risk of overturning. being of course to base e. [i smooth. to find the length of run = V= to oc = x' ' < at ' ' 374 > the logs. and the initial rate of climb to be calculable by the methods of the preceding articles. These simple formulae are very difficult to apply reliably. cit. of the wing chord may increase takeoff run by 25 per cent. 97. loc. effects in different different aircraft evince these noncalculable variation in pilots' * measure.. . Tests f But * of a number of aeroplanes have shown takingoff airspeeds to be less than threequarters that for maximum climb rates of climb at 30 ft. . Unfortunately. out by Tomotika.G. the time from a standing start to take. A ' ' (373) the integral being a standard form. such as the deck of an aircraft carrier (a : = = greater value is allowed over bumpy ground. speed V . Nagamiya. hard surfaces. when Integrating alternatively from x takeoff velocity F. t Mathematical investigations relating to this important problem have been carried Rolinson. for the energy then dissipated in the shock absorbers is supplied from the engine) . though a considerable part of this increase is due to wind gradient and other retardation. due allowance being made for wind gradient (Article 85). Another factor of remarkable importance is the distance of the C. 122. and to this uncertainty must be added The specification of an aeroplane includes skill. 1933 and 120. . Integrating off at first to find t'. of the craft behind its front wheels adding to this distance by only 2 per cent. that an aircraft be well clear before reaching its normal stalling speed. p. The following values for coefficients are in general use a 15. The takeoff speed would appear to be the speed for maximum climb. say. This is probably due to excessive a similar disadvantage resulting from keeping the tail low incidence. b 005 for average aerodrome surfaces and 003 for very 08.
In a difficult highspeed case the angular and vertical motions of the craft after first touching must be worked out from instant to instant in connection with the proper design of the shock absorbers. All highspeed wheel brakes.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY it 475 that shall clear Where there is little an obstacle height at a given distance from rest. retardation is undercarriages permit greater on slightly rough ground. and is assumed for present purposes to include lubricant.h. is kept * * = 8635 log loF .p. Jour. margin to spare. Their maximum retardation is usually of the order of 4 ft. Range* and Endurance The practical problem of how much fuel and aeroplane class must carry for a given length usually sufficient. This seems to imply least work done. and on this C. and with normal craft about half speed but the engines will be throttled well back. while the C is defined as the efficiency vj of the airscrews is also concerned. from base e W . smooth ground being assumed but variations . (375) (Sir An Richard). . so that x will be in miles. Soc. Thus We reckon V = WV CW Integrating on the assumption that the coefficient of constant. 8 With a skid and no brakes the over. The rate of variation of the gross weight in regard to distance % flown through the air is dW/dx CH/V.376(1/0). the specific fuel consumption. and changing the log. Aero.all coefficient of friction is about 0*1. interesting discussion of extreme range has been given March 1930. depends acutely. (H) per hour.. or drag a minimum. are high when force being taken into account. (in this article only) and then v)H 4. by Fairey .p. of Aerodynamic craft require 262. designing for this requirement Force co calls for experience. leading to less run. LjD being the liftdrag ratio for the complete craft. provided the wheels hold the surface. per sec. W = in m.h. approximate analysis being understood that important factors will be introduced subsequently. which halve the landing run necessary when a wheel replaces a skid at the tail. of fuel per b. Ib. We first investigate minimum fuel for a given range. is Consequently. Many efficients of the above remarks apply to landing runs. it oil an aircraft of the is of nonstop flight beset with uncertain factors. Roy.
However. it must be understood for a flight of x* miles.R/NQRMAL THE AVERAGE ALTITUDE VARIATION is FOR NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINES AT CONSTANT R. THROTTLED B. and that w requires to be increased very considerably for safety.H.M.476 AERODYNAMICS is [CH. .P. although it can be evaluated at the beginning and end of the flight. w a minimum when mum. Hence : = *<# 550 Integrating on a similar assumption to that used above giving for maximum maximum. the factor 60/88 taking account of 88 in m. which is supposed into account in # To calculate roughly the minimum fuel required for a time < . Again we note When this is endurance the condition y(LID)<\/^C L jC a that average values must be taken. The equation CW ' 60 W V being where S is 376Y}(L/D) the wing area. this quantity that under practical conditions of operation (376) is far too optimistic. and the mean used. dWjdt ~*~CH leads to dt we may proceed : as follows.) 10 08 06 0*4 02 ALTITUDE (THOUSANDS OF FIG. where Wi the initial gross weight and is w the weight of fuel required 7](L/D)/C is a maxicannot be regarded as constant as assumed. to be taken quite apart from risk of head winds. done and allowance made for operational difficulties. * 5 10 15 20 25 FT.pJh. 184. (hours) in the air. Unfortunately.
. Regarding The work done result achieved is expressed by the product Wx. and % the distance traversed horizontally through a still atmosphere at and % as of equal value. Hence. Article 69). = L the lift. and true air speed for ground speed.f(h) must be substituted for H.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 477 may amount to little more than onehalf what it would be if optimum values could be maintained. defining the Aerodynamic efficiency very closely. being the aeronautical adaptation of 262A. specific AERODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY efficiency now to be discussed differs in nature from that described in Article 262. the useful a true air speed V.h.p/ may stand for the power of the propelling device apart from specifically Aerodynamical application. gross weight or total lift is substituted for useful or disposable load. having assessed. . W 71 L . only the useful or disposable load would be considered and the speed would be reckoned But the term Aerodynamic implies that relative to the ground.p. the drag D is Dx but Aerodynamical losses are incurred in against D. To include this.e. first Altitude comes into both the above questions through C in the and \/P/C in the second.WV ~~ ~ D TT/ij 6 W (tons) x V (m.h. Fig.g. Now clearly in the case Z)#/Y]. e. 1  W . including its load. These steps can be justified from a general point of view.h. to Y)L/Z). Let be the total weight of an aircraft.) ' b. i. due regard to the speed achieved. The a universal basis on which the economy of transportation may be The load carried is compared with the work done. and with jet or of an aircraft by L n*ii. Introducing x as an altitude factor for the H consumption. provided aircraft of abnormal tare weights and exceptionally low speeds are excluded (cf. .p. the total work done is separate W W t = and the Aerodynamic efficiency is proportional to yjJF/Z). it is required that f(h)/xC be a maximum. and they separate Aerodynamical from structural and mechanical considerations. other propulsion b. For general purposes. If the propulsive efficiency YJ takes providing a thrust T account of these additional losses.. since for straight and level flight of propulsion by engines and airscrews. 184 gives some average values for normally aspirated engines. comparison between aerial and surface transport.
" Thus the maximum L/D is 1 l/2^/AB and f at L ___ __ any other speed 2(L/D) max.h. 1/3 /Ft 2 . The family of curves for various sizes has been prepared by scaling down known data for large airships. 1/2 (m. 184A in order to penalise low speeds adopted and give weight to high speeds. and then adding 8 per cent. per sq. the wingloading in Ib. having values usually instance. = 246^ F = 1300 w/a per sec.) .p. It follows immediately from that article that for geometrically similar airships of size / and using the same gas. Article 69 will be further developed in terms of efficiency and with the detail now possible. density The straight line (a) of Fig. 184A represents the constant is w .h. Thus plotting This basis is V? gives an hyperbola for each size. considering a series of geometrically similar aeroplanes of span I in straight and level flight. A = 216/w F. These data are used for illustration below.478 AERODYNAMICS ' ' [CH. 8. which occurs at an indicated speed given approximately '. to the theoretical minimum for the induced drag leads to the following (AB)W= where 1/36.p. TQ A provided a target of 100 per cent. TJ A /Y) against in Fig. and cr the relative of the air.hour is seen to be closely equal to y) A proportional to 'tonmiles per gallon/ In early days of heavierthanair flying. For cantilever monoplanes having normal wings of aspect ratio a maximum L/D of at least 18 can be expected with airscrews : * * feathered to give zero thrust. * (ft. first figure of merit. . L/D oc Z. between In the and V) A has become a 1 and 4. ft. which was difficult for aeroplanes to surpass. But this position has long ceased to hold. and tonmiles per b. It has also been seen that.) 2 . their drag through the major part of the speed range can be expressed approxi mately as and is a minimum when each of the terms on the right air is equal to L \^AB.
and 50 speeds Improvement of aeroplanes by this means is restricted by takeoff and forced landing conditions (minimum flying speeds for full load vary from 56 to 88 m. The curves so far described apply to all altitudes if abscissae are taken as indicated air speeds. Thus doubling the wingloading from 20 . 2628. With airscrew effects excluded. these rates will differ little from maximum rates of climb. and 2000 ft. 30. The expression the above numbers lead to the curves given for w 20. assuming a maximum C L of 2J). the efficiency Considering the example of Fig. of aeroplanes F . The above are restricted to true air speeds and cannot be interpreted as indicated air speeds. Then approximately W if f V_ __ ~~ by (ii) VQ 1 ~~ Wv 33000* 550 LZ/D (LfD) max. 1500. per sq.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 479 maximum efficiency for aeroplanes of the given shape loaded between 20 and 50 Ib. through the above range of wingloading. as previously noted. or of the preceding article Writing k for V */w results in the following equation for V which is in suitable form for solution by successive approximation. showing the drop in efficiency at higher with these wingloadings. ft. 184A with cr curves (b)(e) are obtained for full speeds at low altitudes corresponding to initial rates of climb of 500.J V is the top speed. The optimum true air speeds are unduly small at low altitudes even with heavy wingloadings and. It is of interest to trace the effect of wingloading on the efficiency. at values of F appropriate to the wingloading. == 1. Improvement of airships by natural saving of surface area with increase of size is seen to become slow at the 200ton stage.. per sq. p. in straight and level flight at full having specified initial rates of climb at power. per min. Other conclusions arrived at in Article 69 may be verified from the figure. h. ft. These curves are not operational but indicate the advantage of designing for high wingloadings. losing efficiency but putting to use engine power provided for climbing. aeroplanes fly faster. Let v be the rate in feet per minute. 1000. The advantage achieved by decreasing the size of an aeroplane for a given total weight may be compared with that secured by increasing the size of an airship. 40. (ii) and = Ib.
increases the tonmiles per gallon by about 16 per cent. From the known powerloading (123 lb."4fe/j of YJ ' TJ 73 x b. for example.PH. for slipstream effects or airscrew efficiencies. the known speed of 220 m. = W= to 40 lb. Gross weight of airship. ft. AERODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY OF AIRSHIPS AND AEROPLANES. ft. Airscrew Effects A close network of curves of Y)A/Y) against F a for constant wingloadings and initial rates of climb provides a chart which may be used to criticise a given design or aid in a proposed one. per sq.p. but may equally CL be plotted from an experimental curve of L/D against geometrical shape.h. in spite of the top speed being increased by some 30 per cent. They follow directly from these by ignoring Aerodynamical scale effects.p. and wingloading of 21 lb.h.480 AERODYNAMICS [CH. for the same initial rate of climb.) ~ == ~" '^ r J.p. Allowances have not been made. Thus taking. v (INDICATED EXCEPT FOR CURVES (bjie)j FIG. w Wing loading. 50 100 150 200 250 300 AIR SPEED 1NM. 262C. the average lightly loaded aeroplane of merit described in Article 252. 184A include allowances form drag and wingtip vortices in the values assumed for the glider maximum values L/D and A. for the given however.h. per sq. tonmiles per hour TQ A __ per b. indicate on the chart a value A /Y] of about 148. Initial rate of climb. which reduce Aerodynamic efficiencies and rates of climb. The few for curves for constant wingloading in Fig. . 184 A.
a fraction / of the total 4 (a + a 2 )... ft. by Article 262 A. For a given aeroplane and load. per min. rate of climb is seen to be more than 1600 ft.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 481 on giving the reasonable value 0*82. to 80 sq. (i) discontinuous and complicated. . this typical meritorious aeroplane satisfies the chart in But respect of efficiency at top speed in spite of slipstream drag. a oc w and the second term in the brackets of metrical shape. Such examples verify that the effect on fS/Sg by small in straight efficiency of slipstream variations is comparatively level flight. the idealised whilst the actual rate would be 300400 ft.. to > a + Wv/QOVQt where 16 Z) a the large thrust is approximately equal W7(L/Z) a) and is obtained from the = A. y+ ~~7~7y + \v) \yj Lf /F 2} w plv fW where L/D is the glider lift/drag ratio given by (ii) of Article 2 62 A.D. Slipstream Drag. lift/drag ratio. We first determine the decreased lift /drag ratio. The large deficit will now be investigated. less. = . weight and a .. by the factor 1 + 2fT/ L Z>! ^ __ 2(LfD) max. ll Hence the total parasitic drag is increased pF'S. where a is parasitic drag is increased by the factor 1 the inflow factor determined from the thrust T on an effective airFrom airscrew theory. when /might become and Sf 160 sq. per sq. the percentage reduction of the For a constant geoglider lift/drag is the same for all speeds. / might be equal with to i and S. pF The variation is obviously oc fS/Set where 5 is the wing area. W Halving the wing area with the single engine might increase / to f but reduce original 25 per cent. Turning to climb at V . Neglecting change of induced drag. denoted by LJD V for straight and level flight at the general speed V. ft. So far as may be deterYJ mined. For the singleengined aeroplane = 10. per min. 4(a + # 2 ) screw disc area Se 2T/pV*S + . and w = 20 Ib. and. Doubling the weight without changing the size would have no effect unless a second engine were added.000 Ib./Z>). but it is worth remarking again that the absence of tractor airscrews altogether might improve efficiency considerably such improvement by increasing transition Reynolds numbers would appear in the present calculations as a greater maximum giving L/D! = 0972(L/Z)). ft. giving LjD t = 0946(Z.
= maximum to 0944 X 17. and/ = min. 2 lift/drag in level flight is reduced by slipstream drag easily found that the increase of slipstream drag from top speed to F reduces the rate of climb in this case by about 90 ft. gives L/D = 147.) for a given aeroplane in straight and level flight is plotted by reducing the corresponding glider curve by a factor to allow for slipstream drag. per min. 2620. Application to Prediction A curve of Y) A /TQ ^LjD l against the indicated air speed Vi 1/2 (= a F m. per operative = By Article 262A the conditions L == W. 10. the wingloading . . by (ii) of Article 262 A and (i) of Article 262C.000lb. 184B and. it is independent of altitude. per min. drag by "*" J!_\ 60 F / Thus. for straight level flight are satisfied if w ( tons > x v Yj\/a X i b. aeroplane of the series and with w = 20 Putting v 18 = 1500 ft. D at that speed by increasing the total parasitic . Such a corrected curve for an aeroplane is shown in Fig. Let P be the actual powerloading in Ib.p. Then the value of C required angle by the and speed specified by A is equal to (tan 6) xfy. 184A 2. by airscrews and is minimised by use of variable pitch.p.h. whilst the entire slipstream drag accounts for a loss of about 120 ft. we from Article 2 62 A that readily find 2LD max  60 F For a applies.p. closely.p.h. to which Fig. per F= per sq. whence it is as already described.. PV Let any point A on the efficiency curve subtend at the origin the with the Fr axis. The Ib. T * =D l b. The remaining part of the decrease in rate of climb from the ideal value is to be traced to the loss of thrust h. writing F for the factor outside the brackets.482 glider drag the factor AERODYNAMICS [CH.h. ft.
Writing k4 for air speed in feet per second gives the i for the indicated vVffjw and in place of (iii) of Article 262B following equation V so whence the rate of climb at ViQ can be calculated at which the top speed in level flight is known.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 483 FIG. 7) and a can be == from the origin at the angle known and the intersections A. scale of 7) A /Y) being % units of length and that of Vy t units of length. information regarding the power units enables CV to be plotted against Vi in Fig. Thus the indicated found by drawing tan" 1 Cy/x to intersect the efficiency curve. A v A& give the efficiencies and speeds of flight for those altitudes.p. tangential to the efficiency curve. for any altitude A correction for . Increase of P (reduction of b. . and the absolute ceiling occurs. one for each 4 speed for a radial line air values of P.) and decrease of <r both increase 6. . . 184B as a sequence of curves. as illustrated. the slipstream can be effected as already discussed.h. when the radial line is altitude. 184s. More generally.
. Wingloading and Highaltitude Flying Referring again to Fig. /~ l~\ 17 4^o^ ft L = tan 6. 184B. only up to the supercharged height. rocket. and a convenient construction gives the true air speed.484 AERODYNAMICS [CH.p. even representative approximately. WThe 7) Hence as Bv the point on OA produced which has the same value of ^i gi yes the true air speed V l on the scale of F. Turbine. assumption will now be extended to a large increase of altitude and a considerable range of of speed. 184c. and use suffix 1 to distinguish flight at a higher altitude. 262E.h. Then if Vl is the true air speed in m. or composite power units may make the assumption more widely representative. Let the point A in the figure represent lowaltitude flight. In Fig. 184c. if P and YJ can be regarded as constant up to a certain altitude. jet. 400 500 . In this form it will be reciprocating engine and airscrew. marked KK) 200 300 MILES PER HOUR FIG. the pencil of lines radiating from the origin. C oc I/ \Ai through the range. but super the charging to a high altitude will also be assumed.
of the maximum possible efficiency and at twice the true air speed for the same efficiency at low altitude.000 ft. is appropriate to a powerloading of 10 Ib. by the construction just = described. Associated changes in the altitudespeed curves between 30. illustrates the advantage of jet or other propulsions in which the difficulty of maintaining power at high It altitudes largely disappears. ft. with the assumption that power is provided by reciprocating engines supercharged to rather below 30.h. and this altitude is often regarded as suitable for longdistance flying with pressure cabins. Skin friction will be estimated by (315). to fly within 15 per cent. To the present approximation. the aim being to assess by simple means only the order of gains in efficiency up to the laminar flow stage.000 ft.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 486 sealevel to 40. with an allowance of 25 per cent. of a general kind we may consider briefly the of the prewar type of monoplane used above for Technical accuracy will not be attempted. as indicated air speeds. to the true air speeds inset as fullline curves at the bottom of the figure. per sq. per sq. ft.000 ft. ft. Corrections have not been made for slipstream drag.000 ft. for thickness and a like addition for form drag in the case of normal wings. Laminar Flow Effect As an example improvement illustration. as suggested in Article 200A. at the same time. a wingloading of 20 Ib. per b. in respect of the upper and lefthand part of the and as true air speeds in respect of the lower and righthand part. are shown dotted. a large increase of true air speed. gives at 28.000 and 40.000 ft. The main feature evinced is the large increase of efficiency achieved at high altitudes with. per sq. per sq. 262F. Thus the speeds marked on the scale are to be interpreted. lead. permits an aeroplane with a wingloading of 50 Ib. the relative density of the air is . and the serious loss of speed ensuing at 40. but previous discussion has shown that they would affect the results only in degree.000 ft. at sealevel.000 ft.. altitude the same efficiency and speed as a wingloading of 50 Ib. figure.p. A Reynolds number of 15 million will be assumed for calculations and scale effects through the upper speed range neglected. The dotted radial beyond the pencil of related lines applies to 40. At 40. ft. The loss of power brings the aeroplane with the heavier wingloading close to its ceiling. The . Intersections with the ideal efficiency curves given for w 20 and 50 Ib.
p. per sq.e. and an suggests a reduction of exposed tail wheel. The transition Reynolds number is low gives (i) on account of roughness and slipstreams. (ii) gives Fi0 = 148. 3 million. without increase for roughness drag. (L/D)max. (L/D)max. becomes 00136 and. Contributions to C DB are assumed to be distributed as indicated in A total parasitic drag. nonducted reciprocating engine cooling. = 165 (L/D) max. Then C DO FIG. i. and the assumption above will still be made. to 00072. and the assumption of 1 million leads to the estimate Cpo^ 0008. consist of eliminating roughness. including roughness wherever occurring. are adopted from Elementary Aerodynamics 35' F.. say. = Assuming further a wingloading of 36 Ib. only an outline of the calculations will be given and round numbers used wherever possible. = = . for (1). (3) Hence Let the second improvebe the substitution of laminar flow wings with transition at f chord behind the nose. ft.. (2) and (3). by (i). neglecting scale effects. 18 and in its original state. 158 and approximately for the most efficient speeds 169 m.. cent. : . following approximate formulae. = 205. = 00032 and CDP = (i) 00104. gives (L/D)max.486 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Whether the form drag is greatly less on increasing the transition ment Reynolds number from 3 to 10 million cannot be decided without 300 Vv mph special data. (1) For the aeroplane CDP 00176. Table X.p. which can easily be verified. ~~~A w (ii) denoting the aspect ratio (taken as 8) and C DP the coefficient of The method being suitable for no more than a first approximation. whence 234. (2) Let the first improvement tractor airscrews. 184D. to increase the transition Reynolds number Another consequence is for the normal wings ' ' C DP The revised estimate of CDO is 00064. Inspection of Table X CDB by about 25 per to. 459. This leaves the value 00096 for C DB the coefficient of extratowing drag.h.
as described. at a gliding angle of 16 normal rotor speed 180 r. not only in regard to change of speed and altitude but also as involved in the sweeping alteration introduced between cases (1) and (2). 263.h.p. Further development is still in progress. more effective To derive corresponding curves of Y) A we should require to take account of the variation of propulsive efficiency.p. In Fig. The Autogyro and Helicopter is earlier a sketch of a recent autogyro (Articles 2434).p.p..h. diminutive wings type with ailerons totalling some 5 per cent. and two alternative locations are shown for the local increase of efficiency due to laminar flow wings. . minimum . gave approximately: top speed 97 m. .. 185. as is otherwise evident. downward component of speed 10 m. One Fig. of the rotor disc area.h. of 07 ton allup weight example of with a disc area of FIG. The extent of the alternative favourable ranges is conjectural and remains matter for design. 900 sq. 184D the percentage increase of TQ A /TQ for the two improvements is plotted against the indicated air speed.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 487 Efficiency curves for the three cases can be constructed from these data very rapidly. Normal wings are retained for the dotted curve. the one to the left in the figure being suitable for high altitude flying. 185 this kind. An of these small craft has. and these figures cannot be taken as indicating either best ft. The figure illustrates that laminar flow wings are the at small lift coefficients.p. WINGLESS DIRECTCONTROL AUTOGYRO.h. . with 110 horizontal speed 40 m. . minimum vertically b.m. additionally.
But speed of descent. X from model experiment freed from scale effect. these features form the distinguishing advantages of the type. Success with direct control tends to eliminate the auxiliary wing. is found to be 042 at 40 m. and minimum horizontal speed is determined by engine power. At present.p.h. as the stall is not catastrophic. corresponding to 13 incidence Ct /Cx would then be about 37. with a quite feasible undercarriage. it can land safely in an extremely confined minimum Together with use of impulsive helicopter lift as already described. It is only necessary to discuss in general terms the main differences to be expected. One condition could be a vertical path. C t /C xt is then very small. about 12. The L/D of a complete autogyro is then little more than 5.488 AERODYNAMICS [CH. approaching 10 could be expected. We can verify this roughly for the above example by neglecting all parasite drag and auxiliary lift. then 007. That available would be about 50. as with aeroplanes. = in descent. Turning to rate of climb.h.14. but its lift/drag ratio. about 40. space. Maximum climb will be found to occur at about twothirds speed. and consequently even an inefficient aeroplane of the same weight and power climbs twice as fast. attaining a maximum (say 8) just before top speed is reached. But a maximum C. the resulting decrease of rotor drag approximately offsets increase of parasite drag. 420 lb. owing to very poor efficiency at the forward speed giving maximum reserve power for climbing. The craft could realise such low speeds stalling speed = . At greater speeds the L/D of the rotor rises.p. The stalling disc incidence of a rotor is large. leaving little margin. while the autogyro has a large reserve. their wings are then about to stall. It is seen that the autogyro can use increase of power to increase its speed range by decreasing minimum sgeed. Though this condition occasionally applies to aeroplanes (Article 77). gravity supplying the power required. the type is greatly inferior to the aeroplane class. performance follows lines already established for the aeroplane. would correspond to a higher forward speed and a moderately flat gliding angle..p. to give direct takeoff. as mentioned above. worked out as described in Chapter IV. and is still decreasing. giving drag of 45. so that 26 m. Rotor solidity used to be as high as 0. results or ultimate scope. Also.. C. which would require an effective thrust h. though the combination has modern Preliminary prediction of autogyro once rotor characteristics are available from the theory of or Chapter points of Aerodynamic interest. so that overall L/D is ultimately little less than at maximum .
1500) and has been the last to receive practical form. In this duty we have seen that the airship cannot compete. and some standard atmosphere is chosen. it is further developed and performance data become can not be concluded whether this small advantage will be realised. circa A. The performance of a given aeroplane depends acutely upon the state of the atmosphere at the time of the test. 43. CORRECTION OF FLIGHT OBSERVATIONS 263A. observations have therefore to be reduced to a common basis.D. the penalty of deriving sustentation from a screw motion of the lifting surface must remain fundamental. vide the most efficient and the safest means of highspeed transport that at present it is possible to conceive. controls orientation of the body. the former so successfully as alone to justify this remarkable invention.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 489 climb. a peculiar disadvantage which the autogyro and airship both avoid. but until the type available. The same need to increase loading exists with aeroplanes. Theoretically. is easy to fly in a straightforward way. This essential difference from the aeroplane. leading to less efficiency and high minimum vertical velocity. A sketch of a helicopter is included in Fig. In another type this control is obtained from a small jet utilising the exhaust gases of the engine. A similar already disability arises with the autogyro from the fact that disc loading must increase than between the airship and Multiple powerunit aeroplanes unquestionably projustifiable no more rapidly with increase of speed. the helicopter is slightly Additionally. the autogyro. but a subsidiary rotor. prepared aerodromes. These comparisons between the autogyro and aeroplane are in evitable. but aeroplanes also have greater declines from in prospect. but not with the same consequences. but aeroplane. enables the autogyro to bear comparison somewhat better at full speed. whose efficiency maximum climb onward. such as that defined by Table III. p. It is of interest that this type of aircraft was the first to be invented (Leonardo da Vinci. Methods of reducA. Top speed L/D can doubtless be increased. 17. The example illustrated has only one lifting rotor. The highspeed aeroplane demands large.D. owing chiefly to nonstalling properties. a step partly due to the success of the autogyro. In order to assess the capabilities of the aircraft. working in a vertical plane at the tail. efficiency Eventually. but the low LjD of about 5 still remains as an important disadvantage. more efficient than the autogyro. le* . although safety in manoeuvres remains a matter for investigation.
.p. density. and by y'a in accordance with Article 259. pilot. For instance.h. tion are easily devised. and the actual b. and the other columns record averaged data for flight at each of these reputed altitudes. a new table with headings as follows results from Table A in ' ' N : TABLE B PlPo ff Vt N\/G b.. and level flight. These can always be found from records of bench tests carried out on the power units at various air pressures.h.p. The last The column will be omitted in case of be assumed for greater generality. The true values of the relative density are obtained from 288 p III.m. identifying Po written down from Table 273 + ' p which the suffix refers to conditions at the foot of the standard atmosphere. knowing the pressure. jet propulsion. reciprocating engines often give.p.h. and the variable ^/(^p/p Q ) at constant r. and the following indicates will often be found suitable. can be read by interpolation from charts prepared on this basis. a linear relationship between the b. It is necessary to determine the brake horsepowers actually expended at the various aneroid heights. Data from speed tests in straight whether automatically recorded or observed by the can be tabulated under the following headings : first column of the table consists of a number of selected altitudes as given by the altimeter. where 6 = 15 C. y/a. and the pressures are hA with the true altitude for that purpose. for normal aspiration or above the rated altitude.h. one procedure that Maximum Speed in Level Flight.p.p. but airscrews will correctly The altimeter is a pressure gauge. But the corresponding densities would be incorrect unless the second column of Table A happened to accord with the standard atmosphere.490 AERODYNAMICS [CH. and temperature during flight. On multiplying the b.
density. and 6 appropriate to the standard atmosphere are written down from Table III. . p. with the actual horsepowers added. Through a restricted change of height. and the solution gives the corresponding indicated air speeds without further work. or required to traverse a given change of altitude. The nature of the correction required may be visualised are related by the hydrostatic equation (2). p.h.m. and then the true time to a given altitude. \/a and N\/G required to with the new values of a and are then found by plotting. t have now been expressed and temperature during in terms of the actual diately follows. and we have. i. Let any true altitude h be chosen. The calculations are repeated for other true altitudes. otherwise the records may be plotted and small changes read from the curves.) The aneroid rate of climb is p. true rates of climb at true altitudes. The mean value of p during a short interval of time is readily deduced from changes in the altimeter and thermometer readings. whence the true rate of climb is given by dh dt a' dhA dt a This equation may be used to correct the recorded time intervals to standard atmospheric conditions. satisfy Table B The values of b. the pressure and density the altimeter. if or' is the standard relative density used in calibrating from the reflection that an aneroid rate of climb would be registered for level flight if the density decreased at the altitude concerned. 13.e. Flight records regarding climb are presented in the foim : TABLE C hA V.p. by use of the equation of state (9). available at any r.h. Corresponding values of p p. immeflight. for heights above the rated altitude. po = A/*A <r'. Maximum Climb. Hence the actual climb AA follows. N Time t to hA (min.p. 5. with the help of (99) It is required to deduce that the rows of Table C differ by assumed in the following short intervals of hA and t only . It is readily found.XlJ PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY original data 491 The pressure. 145. and the b.p. AA = A^>/pg.
h. In Fig.492 follows AERODYNAMICS by summation. is [CH. standardises maximum Simple development . for other altitudes Repetition speed performance. 186A. the calculations being the same as for maximum speed in level flight. N*\/a and the rate of climb x\/<J. A graphical solution for the new values of a gives corresponding values of V.. also The remaining data of Table C can now be used to reduce the corrected rates of climb to standard atmospheric conditions by obtaining the horsepowers available at various true altitudes under those conditions. required for straight and level flight at maximum speed under standard conditions. whilst curve 2 is obtained from the engine data for any chosen altitude in the standard atmosphere by assuming some likely values of N.p. whence Table C may be standardised. (a) Fig. curve 1 is plotted from the last two Plotting. The speed is read from which is also plotted from Table B. The intersection determines the b. The graphical representation of altitude often called the climb diagram (cf. 185A (a). XI plotted against time Article 81). (6) in the figure. columns of Table B. extends the method to climb.
when the craft is But we shall study only the case said to be automatically stable. and depends upon the provision of controls which The third will remain adequate in rather extreme circumstances.R. structural design. After introductory articles.P. to Bryan. without further assistance from the pilot. for which its controls have been arranged. we shall proceed. safety against disturbance lies in the an inherent stability mass. 1927. life of materials. 1920. Adv. The theory and application of the method are due.Chapter XII SAFETY IN FLIGHT 264. and during manoeuvres.R. But. 191213 For the most recent general account see B. in the first place. v. Aerodynamic Theory. to rigorous study of inherent stability in straight flight.  A. vol. the theory one of the oldest of Aerodynamics. the subject is very complicated. Aerodynamics is concerned mainly with three other factors. and the direction of flying routes. consideration is concerned with specifying what Aerodynamic accelerations are to be expected from the response of a craft to disturbances (such as gusts) or the reasonable exercise of its controls. following pioneering work by Lanchester and others. though not difficult mathematically.. and only recently has it been recast into a form suitable for discussion and use by the This step is due to Glauert. J designer. the craft possessing where no by virtue of judicious shaping and distribution Inherent stability in aeroplanes must be limited by of its both flight variation and violence of disturbance. Aeroplanes are examined theoretically for response to very small * f also Applied Aerodynamics. so that the structure may be designed to have sufficient strength. 1093. M. Complete discussion of aerial safety would involve such matters as engine reliability. as will be described. 493 . substitution for the pilot is necessary. hands of the pilot. . Beyond this range. Jones.* and to Bairstow f and his is collaborators at the N.L.C. Com. 1935. As shown by the dates given. A craft should be capable of flying itself. in the sense of maintaining a particular mode of flight. 1911. for Aeronautics. & M. This faculty might be secured by a mechanical or robot pilot. Stability in Aviation.
265.494 disturbances. This assumption is sanctioned by fullit fails in some cases. is often a poor guide to the possession of the dynamic stability stability with which we are now concerned. but usually for specific scale experience reasons that are apparent on inspection. itself to the . and practical utility depends on the assumption that behave similarly in face of the disturbances encountered in they normally bumpy weather.G. Axes and Notation of the C. variable linear and angular velocities being superposed. : : large number of any. will AERODYNAMICS [CH. and all must be retained in the examination But several are of little importance. Damping out the effects of disturbance may occupy a fraction of a second or more than a minute. such as of pitch or air speed movements. such as roll or sideslip. control in regard to another. of The motion resultant force an aeroplane is determined by the and the rotation by the resultant couple about the : C. as on landing. We do not attempt to follow the complicated motion that would develop in an unstable craft without we are concerned only with the way in which instability. designing for stability does not lend employment of large margins to cover error. Great simplificaasymmetric tion follows mathematically from the assumption of initially straight longitudinal and lateral stability do not affect one another. it is essential for a pilot to be able to supersede stability by control. and may of a borderline case. stability moments should be light and easily overstage. Thus. in which the C. first occurs and from what causes. with the Oz lies in the plane of symmetry and is directed in approximately downwards normal flight . a stable craft requiring time to recover from disturbance.G. a tedious response by a stable aeroplane will usually be corrected by control at an early Thus. Ox points forward and . Longitudinal stability deals with changes in the plane of symlateral stability includes all metry. We origin at the C. flight and may be discussed separately. 186). a response to one kind of disturbance may involve instability strong . Space is required and. But this requirement follows also from the fact that too ridden. Recovery is achieved by a natural manoeuvre. but calls for Evidence of static careful compromise between conflicting factors. factors affect stability.G. Maintenance of flight is not continuous. if A be omitted from the approximate solutions that often suffice in practice.G. is displaced from the course of mean motion. Even with no restriction on freedom of movement. when this is lacking. use a righthanded system of axes (Fig.
w/V. log == M. Ox may be chosen (whence the others follow) as a principal axis of inertia. is denoted by A. a small positive angle value of a disturbance w. a. and Z per unit mass of the craft. Factor. These axes are fixed relative to the craft and move with it. (<\>) are those for a righthand turn. these angular L about Ox (rolling). parallel to the wing chord The or the airscrew axis). the longitudinal by B. and the corresponding angular velocities by p. approximately about Ox. the real part of X must be negative. v. . V represents the resultant velocity of the aeroplane and U or u v. is but 8(7. Oy to starboard. and then the time to halfdisturbance varies inversely as the damping factor. or parallel to the undisturbed motion. called the factor. also used for the weight of the aeroplane. last choice is usually most convenient.g. positive as wind axes. JV Oz (yawing). The transverse moment of inertia. and positive Moments are about Oy (pitching). and the directional by C. If the motion is unstable. q. of yaw = Damping is A small increase of incidence v/V. = real part) Assuming the motion to be damping us calculate the time at which w will have decayed to damped. and r The components of Aerodynamic force in the directions of the axes are X Y. bank (<) and yaw moments increase denoted by . w^*. let \ii. or arbitrarily (e. and the axes are then known Positive pitch increases angle of incidence. Taking logarithms. 186. w are always or w velocity components along the axes. M about displacements. small. W t t W arise. or 069 For the disturbance to be damped. X (or its Writing w Let w l be the initial which varies exponentially with time.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 495 FIG. but no confusion will t . 8w may be used for infinitesimal increments. the time to double disturbance follows in a similar way.
k = Radius of gyration about transverse axis through C. a' = Slope of curve (dk'Jda?) for tail. the time required to halve the increases. called the relative density of the aeroplane. let X =A is + iB.G. condition : for longitudinal the rate of increase of stability has been described in Article 87 due to the tail must exceed that of due to wings. . Immediate Notation. but Aerodynarnically it is more M M = complicated. body. c). 4* A positive value of A indicates increas069/^4.e. the amplitude of successive oscillations decreases. but the following are required for immediate use . between wings and tail. etc. respectively. is called a subsidence or a divergence. and de/doL remain It constant. we regard this case also as indicating instability in connection with flight. Neglecting all forces other than the lifts of wings and tail. and the motion If X be wholly real. = Area of tail plane. the disturbance decays or grows continuously. X be complex.496 If AERODYNAMICS [CH. or longitudinal dihedral. S jx = Area of wings (of chord = Effective leverarm of tail plane about C. I t lift Jc : INTRODUCTION TO LONGITUDINAL STABILITY 266. Geometrically this a. its real part is the damping factor.G. concerns the upward vee. the real part of X 2n/B be negative. and considering only normal incidences for which a. The disturbance is then damped. amplitude being ing amplitude and an unstable motion. when the oscillation maintains constant amplitude in accordance with the preceding article. a'. the argument may be arranged in convenient terms. : W = Weight of aeroplane. Oj e = Angle of downwash. 5' T = S'l/Sc called the tail volume ratio. Thus if X be complex. as t = e (* + iB = e"(cos Bt + i sin Bt) seen to oscillate in value with a period and an amplitude e**. It is possible for A to be zero. = W jgpSl. = Tail setting angle (angle between wing and tail chords). Numerous symbols will be defined later as they arise. The Longitudinal Dihedral necessary. Then p and.. Thus if A i. a = Slope of lift curve (dkjda) for wings. A though insufficient. m = Pitching moment coefficient M/pF*Sc.
' negative) and then by to <*t THE LONGITUDINAL AERODYNAMIC the effective give for only when dihedral. i. so that its lift vanishes at zero local incidence.H.H.G. of (i) to increase more rapidly with a than the R.e.bk*. is QC O apparent dihedral first geometric increased (<x by being e. ) (i) Existence of a righting moment requires the L. O 4. 187. The or a.S. . is 497 distant be behind the quarterchord point (the of the wings and km0 is the wing moment ') coefficient at the incidence <x of zero lift. km0 can additional angle e of the tail plane. . this expression leads at once to Article 87) ra' (a + a. > oc + e. Equilibrium^ (iii) In Fig. c *) = ba(<x.S.. transference to the L. so that intersection with the wing curve represents zero resultant moment and on this equilibrium account. a. + a. giving T#' (a On be represented by an .S. On assuming (cf. a symmetrical section for the tail plane.e. we can write for the wings ' Aerodynamic centre only For equilibrium at Tail V and lift a X ^=pF*5c = AL. e FIG.H. the wings are at incidence a e will their moment vanish. 187 the tail moment curve is plotted with its sign changed.XII] If the SAFETY IN FLIGHT C. e) = + km0 + ba(a a a ). differentiating with respect to a '(^ l \ or from (i) ~Tj >ba ds \ * ' ' t^ (11) again i.. .
when U w are the velocity components along Ox. 192).G. in which the unstable moment of body and engine nacelles alone may easily exceed that of the wings.G. We now remove these restrictions. Aircraft Engineering. Lachmann. constant. cannot be applied directly to modern highspeed monoplanes. Oz to Ox'. but their ' forward stabilisers work in an upwash which. is independent of downwash. the C. Shortly after the impulse. 1936. f 267. being constrained and angular velocity zero. the directions of the t Oz' . while there also occur changes both . let the craft pitch through the small angle Soc in the short time 82. The Short Oscillation The foregoing considerations are static. axes changing from Ox. * components increase to and w + 8w. J Bryant. Ae. into the relative wind. The approximate treatment in this article is based on a paper by Munk. while the velocity z' FIG. July 1933. so that S' must be ' increased on this score. together with any other pitching moments arising on the craft. in contrast with downwash. The two moments of the last article. . from the righting moment is propor tional to and the factor within the brackets is about 065 for normal monoplanes and 05 for biplanes (Articles 189. l of pitch and pitching. The same principle holds for tailfirst aeroplanes. and examine in a preliminary manner J the initial response of a stable aeroplane in straight horizontal flight to a transient vertical gust. are assumed added algebraically to It give a resultant static moment M.* It is to be noted that the simple idea developed in this article. increases efficiency (usually by some 7 per cent. (Fig.). R. Resolving f U+ in the t Cf. of which the coefficient is km is clear that the craft will nose The C.498 It will AERODYNAMICS be seen that (iii) [CH. receives a vertical acceleration. 188). though useful in connection with certain compact types of craft. an old type recently revived and improved. Oz. 188. S. However. assuming (ii) de/dv.
^^_ ^^m\ ! A similar differential equation may be obtained for q. Differentiate and substitute * for dq/dt obtaining (378) dP where __ ' A #\ // (vi) a 1 (x /T0'c \ C Au v\ I /T<W' . One moment in this direction pF Sc(rf&m/da)Aoc. + = U . but the most important of these is due to the increase of incidence of the tail . # Aa. Others arise in a complicated way. w The angular is 2 acceleration is rf?/^. of downward force is 2 pF S . (U 8C7) sin 8oc Hence the acceleration in the direction Oz comes to dw/dt dafdt. " g dt (i) The two equations and (ii) are conveniently written iik 2 da vci From these follow = w dkm for q : T"" yjtf w 9 two expressions q ~~Vdt + (iii) _ 1 dw a ~yl W __ ~~' 1 /w dkm \l T* dq\ (V) Vc from dt) (v). when the acceleration becomes dw The increase Therefore . V and q can be written without serious error for U and du/dt.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 499 original direction Oz. 2 plane by IqfV. the increase of velocity in 8* is Sw cos 8oc $w 78a to the first order of small quantities. . . while Aa = w/V. and amounts to pF S'/ a'(lq/V) in the sense of a Hence to the present approximation increasing.
p. t of a complete oscillation = The time to halfdisturbance = 069/277 = 026 Thus the oscillation is very heavily damped. The following c SIS' klc He T a a' dk m !da 6 5ft. or the craft travels 183 ft. described. increase of wing loading . at a still lower speed. YJ 0.tf if. = 27c/(00162 x 1467) 277. one root is zero and the other The form = = The motion is then not an oscillation. The time 264 sees. 4v) which indicates an oscillation. Let us next suppose that at 50 m. Examples : particulars relate to a small. in short. Usually. is the damping factor and 2n/(}V the periodic time. however. but a stable subsidence or an . slow. Substituting from w = w^in for the (378) gives the following equation damping factor : whence of the roots follows for a given craft at a particular speed. biplane M. while city X is reduced by 90 per cent.e. nearly half a complete oscillation is If. shows. = 000062. X 1467 X/F = 00189 00162*.500 AERODYNAMICS [CH. or < 01 t. for instance. both wings and tail arrived at a flat stall. a damping factor would cease to exist. The damping factor = 00189 = sec. will be kept the same. decrease in damping are : increase of (JL. that causes of . enabling stability in the present connection to be examined. 10 10 28 028 2 16 012 73 From Hence (vi) of the preceding article we find = 00378. If.h.p. its stall. lightly loaded at 100 m. a' are then reduced by 80 per cent.. The formula for J. i. for simplidkm /d(x. X/F = . We find that t is doubled. the aeroplane is approaching and that a. is JF 268. unstable divergence according to the sign of 2 when a pair of complex roots results..h. Writing these roots > . so that before 50 per cent. of the initial disturbance is damped out.
269.. of period usually less than 5 sees. eventually wind stopping the axis. But the angle between the vertical and the normal to the flight path is assumed to be sufficiently small for the difference between cos 6 and unity to be neglected. We must not strain this approximate analysis too far in seeking to apply it to practical flight. recovers and sloping the path upwards and passes through its original inclination to the horizon. fall again. It is implied that the oscillation is of small amplitude. the craft. a propeller thrust that always exactly balances drag. In this historic work Lanchester etc. moment of inertia.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT . or (after Lanchester) the phugoid oscillation. 501 or altitude. so that the vertical component of the and Aerodynamic force is sensibly equal to the lift. Speed decreases and. decrease of tail volume decrease of liftangle slopes. damping becomes light at low speed near the stall. : Then the Aerodynamic force is negligible moment of inertia. Considering the effect of a transient upgust on initially steady horizontal flight. The airscrew which at first dipped. and it follows that squares of velocity increments are negligible. This is called the long. The simplifying assumptions are constant incidence to instantaneous flight path. The resulting increase of lift provides an upward acceleration. or too short a fuselage increase of moment of inertia . But the following conclusions which . turning almost instantly into the relative as described in the preceding article. slow. v. perpendicular to the path. so that the aeroplane must dive again to recover speed. proceeded to introduce corrections for will be approached in another way. For the present we shall be content to examine a greatly simplified. or idealised form of the phugoid oscillation. The immediate response of a stable aeroplane at high speed to a vertical gust or like disturbance is an exceedingly rapid dead beat adjustment into the wind . it demonstrates are well established. proceeds to fall and gather speed. and an oscillation may develop." 1908. but such development . Lanchester's Phugoid Oscillation In this article we assume the short oscillation to be damped. becomes low. Unless damped out or corrected by the pilot. 2 Aerodonetics. following closely Lanchester's * original demonstration. the cycle of changes repeats itself with a period seldom less than 15 sees. as the craft completes its small climb. small size of craft compared with the minimum radius of curvature of the flight path. and varies with the square of the speed. The motion is governed by an alternating exchange of potential " : * Aerial Flight.
damping of speed . enables a phugoid oscillation of chosen length and vertical amplitude to be traced an example is shown in Fig. Wh + WVu/g = Owing to constancy Lift (L) (i) or = W(V + w)VF = W + W 8L = L~W=W. by WVu/g.502 AERODYNAMICS kinetic energy. 121 sees. of low minimum flying speed.G. the oscillation is simpleharmonic with period F*\ on substituting for u from . out of phase with the vertical displacement. by u. for the time of a complete oscillation and 02 mile for its The simple formula This estimate would not be widely wrong for an aeroplane length. 189. increases Let the altitude of the increases craft increase by h while speed from WV'ftg to W(V + of kL u)*/2g. 90 ^ = = Thus the superimposed motion amplitude being V2 times of the C. (ii) Hence the vertical force increment (i). The K. 189. i. twice the above speed. is elliptical. for example. . propeller thrust oc IjV and drag oc Fa at constant incidence.G. when the oscillation may exceed a mile in length. 2gh/V* . . in a real aeroplane. But (380) would normally give much too small values at. We have xl 1*^/27* or.e. and 0.p. Since.= 0138 g (i).__) 2g/ V = 7^2 . EXAMPLE OF PHUGOID OSCILLATION.. since n x gh^V and from (380) whence the velocity variation also simpleharmonic. This result FIG.E. . . From is u/h = g/V = constant. . (380) indicates at 60 m.h. [CH. V. Let u t be the maximum the semiamplitudes of the motion of the velocity variation and x lt C. and which is conservative. 2u/V . say. varies (sensibly) as the vertical displacement of the craft from a mean level .. (380) ' v Form of the Oscillation. of the craft relative to axes moving uniformly with velocity V and periodically coinciding with axes fixed in the craft. the vertical the horizontal amplitude.
+ X. dq/dt. The Classical Equations As already mentioned. . q increase by the Resulting from disturbance let U 0t and small quantities u. velocity components U. for the increase of to the X order we have X Also the gravity components receive small increments. = 0. with Ox in the direction of motion. Other damping arises from incidence changes. Each by u first f of the air forces. = +Z = M. and These are found.g sin + X. M along Ox.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 503 changes would evidently occur. Thus we are able to consider longitudinal stability without reference to lateral stability. Equations appearing along Ox. becomes 6. and so on. THEORY OF LONGITUDINAL STABILITY 270. for example. and 9. to the Considering an aeroplane climbing steadily at angle horizon. w for dM/dW. and let q appear as variable. . to be satisfied. (i) the components of Aerodynamic force being reckoned per unit mass. vestigation to straight flight. W = W . We write In this notation the force u for dX/dU. accelerations dU/dt + Wq = duldt + Wq. here excluded. It is not necessary for the phugoid oscillation to exist . as well as the pitching moment. w. two subsidences may take its place at high speed. the theory of stability is founded on the assumption that it is sufficient to examine the response of the craft to small disturbances only from restrict insteady flight. . Obviously. Oz. The latter are different functions of U 0f the steady values of the 0. as in Article 267. the conditions for equilibrium are . is affected w. dW/dt  Uq.g sin g cos 0. . . (i) are no longer about Oy.g cos 6 + uXu + wXw + qX q . and q t unless shown otherwise . W. . and in this case it was first remarked by Bryan and can readily be verified that a generalised disturbance may be resolved into components which affect the symmetric and We asym metric stability of the craft quite separately.
called the stability coefficients. w. The response of the aeroplane to small disturbance is investigated from the nature of the * For a more detailed demonstration see Cowley and Levy. are the roots of the equation /(X) 0... . We also and an appropriate add to the last equation a f(D) . Hence we have the following equations + Wq+gcos8 .. are constant coefficients derived from initial values. viz. . where f(D) contains powers up to the fourth of the differential The solution of this equation is known to be of the operator. 1918. (u. Any two variables may be eliminated in turn in the usual manner. +U 9) XM. this assumption has been found to be insufficient for a peculiar reason in regard to the last equation. "ku = X2 ^'.. w. and the addition of the term wM^ to be necessary. in detail later might term representing an instantaneous movement of the elevator a fourth equation might be framed for the propeller thrust.. gcosd a l(Xq g sin 8  W a) = (382) u Ma Q X5 may CX +D 2 X(Z. = be substituted for du/dt. q (381) .Z. . (383) X coefficients of X. from (381) we find * for/(X) the equation D*e^* etc. are func. and X lf etc. Recently. or q.504 AERODYNAMICS first [CH. and the two terms vanish by Q (i). w. M given aeroplane under particular conditions. or q} = 0. all of which can be ascertained for a u. This will be discussed correction introduced. and a differential equation of the same form results for u.6 = uZu + wZw + qZ dwjdt B dq/dt = uMu + wMw + qM du/dt q Q . whence . : expansion equation be arranged as Q A^ + B K + where the tions of \ +E = .Uq + g sin . may = etc. are founded on the assumption that They u. where w=dw/dt. Since D^'ke*. q as functions of /. q It is to be noticed that we can substitute \qdi for 9 in these linear differential equations. . q .B^ uXH + wXw + qX . w. On X M u \Za this X. form u = f + + w4 v u^ u^ u^ 1 . where u lt etc. Equations (381) determine u. q are so small after the impulsive disturbance that second order terms may be neglected. B. etc. Aeronautics in Theory and Experiment.
. if iD is calculated to include parasitic drag. first named .* are called resistance derivatives the u quantities q etc. is further distinguished as a forcevelocity derivative. 271. Glauert's Nondimensional System It will be seen that the stability equations are rather complicated.. Stability The algebraic if. Consider. The X M .w %X ? UQ  It is evidently suitable. it is inconsistent to reckon forces per unit mass of the craft. the second as a momentrotary derivative to take another example. to delay these until the equations are expressed in more convenient units. completed with expressions for the stability however. . and to change their signs. The demonstration coefficients. which may be real or complex. mXu . therefore. (385) Now time / Xu has the dimensions l/7\ Hence an appropriate unit is of in the nondimensional tg system =. 381 . . X is called a forcerotary derivative. most of the old derivatives are negative. Inspection at once shows that the derivatives depend on pFS (not on pF 2 S). . to replace u by the nondirnenis the weight) by sional coefficient xu defined (if X W CD). condition for this result is that all the stability coefficients together with Routh's discriminant Z~> : ___ 75 /"* T"\ _ A T~\ J _ T^ 271^ /QQ*A\ are required to be positive. (386) * Loc. and yet to leave moments as actual moments. and we accordingly divide by this quantity. W/gpVS. q . cit. . the force derivative u ^Q changes to to f/ as given by it makes for clearness X + > X u . for example. But. When U Q changes X=A m t is the mass of the aeroplane. Their discussion is greatly facilitated by adoption at once of the dimensionless system of units due to Glauert. is It is convenient. S being taken for convenience as the wing area. as before.. p. their real parts are negative. mX = 2fcD p[7 Jc D pU 2 S provided f Hence S..XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 605 occurs roots of this equation. Finally.. Again.
. Recast Stability Equation In terms of the nondimensional system the equation (382) becomes ~~ JI W = ^' (391) . of size. (388) For small values of cos OQ = Qt kR closely equals the lift coefficient. coefficient. = p^W/gpSl as in Article 267. effective leverarm / of the tail plane from the C. the relative density of the aeroplane. will already have partly appeared it collects the effects and altitude. moments of inertia are expressed in the B= velocity are kBml*.H. wing loading. = _ mXJpVSl. Let us define & R the coefficient 2 jfc of resultant air reaction. if Lengths must be expressed in terms of some representative length.g. and the sec.. form Finally. is chosen. if 1 F*S W F ' ' ' ( } The quantity on the R. . e. It follows that the unit of velocity is l/t and this F/fi ft. *. and. .G. .506 AERODYNAMICS [CH. and changing sign. . (387) The significance of (z. multiplying by m. parameter gravity. R pF S = W cos : . per . by . (cf.. the coefficient being called an inertia and the moment and momentrotary derivatives of longitudinal stability 272.S. will be recognised as the appropriate Article 66) for similar motions that are affected by A nondimensional forcerotary derivative is obtained by dividing that of the old system by pFS/. But the following is of interest.
. (392) + Expansion gives K + Bjt + Cjf + D^ + Ei^O in . . (397) .] = *. (b) neglecting the derivatives xg zq which are always small. .. instability must first appear (in a nearly stable aeroplane) through E l becoming To oscillations. . (395) The first 267). 273. are still It is C lt But the following may be noted at once..xw tan )} = V>kL (zumw zwmu approx. Article phugoid oscillation or the subsidences which its may negative. These criteria for stability. take E l and (C 1D 1 B^E^) both positive. .. The result is . . (396) The first of these conditions means and so refers to the investigation of It is w positive. the approximation in (395) the conditions for stability are Now. l and E l are small compared with J5 X and generally true that enabling (393) to be factorised approximately as rather involved. (393) which m (xu + zw + \unw == V^ + pmw approx. Routh's discriminant has to do with place. ~ ll X For stability.. always associated with w or u in which it This usefully localises effects of wing loading and . all the coefficients and Routh's discriminant must be positive. the second the factor equated to zero gives the short oscillation (cf. m seen that [JL is might be included. in horizontal flight.ll + ~ . the new damping factor and the (if the accent refers to the old) t X=X'* pf = f/t. m m Since the scale of time is new period of oscillation are changed. though greatly simplified. . ** >u X + ** mw fife tan X *mq = X) .XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 507 This is simplified further by (a) introducing wind axes.mu (xw + kR D )} E = H'M^fo ^u tan mu (zw . Article 266.* ^) + ^{^K ~ ^R tan 6 . I ) I ff ) [ ). altitude.] (394) q ) [ .(*A . Unless an oscillation increases in amplitude through the discriminant becoming negative. . D (XB + lX + CJ X" + . .
(ii) normal and longitudinal forces. Articles 176. lift. 247) 2kJc L a. a denoting dkjda as before.mZ .. Force Derivatives Certain practically useful formulae will now be obtained that are restricted to normal flight incidences with engines off (often known mX = D. k will by the : = + Proceeding in this way we 2k D find *) ) #u = .2(fc + kJcL (=CL (398) while it = a + & + &1&L = a approx. as glider stability). is the relative density of the air = 0637 ENGINEOFF STABILITY 274. called the  IS) D. By differentiation ~~ of (i) ~~" 8w\ whence V ) V\da / simplified ately small incidences This result is giving dkD /d<z include parasite drag.508 AERODYNAMICS if or [CH. and In steady flight with wind axes _ mZ = L. But we can calculate approximately as follows. zw 1 > q t . . . can be plotted from lift and drag data. . ze> . respectively.L + Z and X. . the total drag. approximately. and we have. the But angle disturbance causes the directions If incidence of X and Z to cease to coincide with those of D and L. increase by the small angle w\V we have '.. will be remembered that x = z = 0. and slopes at the unevidently disturbed incidence measured. appropriate to moder* kJcL t &<> D (cf.. = substitution.
basic data for less The m q are obtained a more or transverse its complete model by oscillating in a wind tunnel of the aeroplane concerned about the axis through C. on lines indicated by Article 266. we have clearly. forced oscillation method.G. 190. 190) the frequency of the applied oscillation is . Moment Derivatives One moment. but is allowed for by repeating the experiment in still air. unless correction factors are available from experience. mgt must be obtained from experiment. as anticipated in Article 270. m^. in favourable circumstances. These are discussed in the next article. 276. If Tcm is the coefficient of resultant moment. or can be __ and now if Mw kB pVSl __ 1 9M 3oc __ c dkm ' AB pF2 5/ kB l do. and presents a difficulty which leads to the introduction of another derivative. mw . we have by experiment. mq and m^. The remaining derivative. this formula suffers from the restriction mentioned at the end of Article 266. from Article 266 m = Fz T I 1 x ~~ d~) ~~ ba \ ' ' * ( 40 ) But in regard to modern highspeed monoplanes. Mechanical friction accounts for some of the observed damping.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 509 275. the model is oscillated through a spring and wire by a crank (Fig. . AN ARRANGEMENT FOR MEASURING AIR DAMPING. m ut vanishes in gliding flight. Another. In the alternative FIG. in Two methods use. are The model be oscillated freely means of a spring and by the logarithmic decrement may of the damping estimated by measuring the amplitudes of successive swings. is easily determined calculated roughly. only wings and tail contribute.
are essentially different from one another. = * ^ i Aerodynamic Theory. and can introduce a We have factor / for interference. which is increased. Moreover. If v denote the damping due to the wind. as before. and 0! the amplitude of the forcing oscillation. we calculate as follows. the time 8t taken by a change of downwash 8s due to change of wing incidence to travel from wings to tail is so considerable that the tail meanwhile changes its incidence appreciNow q results almost entirely from the tail. Experiment aifords support of this conclusion. gradually increased until the model attains a maximum synchronous vibration.* (403) Experimental determination takes account of interference from the wings (due to wake velocity reduction) and from the body. If we neglect small contributions. 51. p. v. During $t let incidence increase by Soc. the amplitude (0J and period (t) of which are observed. and includes damping from parts other than the tail represented in the model. . M M &= decreases tail incidence. two quantities reason is with other variables kept constant. v it is nearly true that . by the lag. therefore. (401) by repeating without the wind. Either of these methods determines v satisfactorily. . must be evaluated q. like other derivatives. The as follows.e. Vj that due to friction.. these q v x is extracted. I I Thus the efficiency of the tail is increased since q da/dl. vol. M . the measured airdamping is to be decreased by about Finally. .510 AERODYNAMICS [CH. and downwash ably. But in the experiment a varies as well as q. + vt = A. With the approximation ljV t we Iq find Sa = a (l/V) and dz tail incidence is increased from Iq/V to ds Iq . But it does not follow that the airdamping is the same as in fact. and approximately = by the i. ' onethird. factor within the brackets.
.. at 150 ft. i. provided a" substituted for a' .klmw = 032. It because incidence is assumed constant...2^(2^ E = 2i>. per sec. = 02 m = &R tan .e.. C D = m {2ka . this additional 277. de Hence =m The effect is . q =l. v the last term of = M + M (de/d) q which follows from a = w/V and (402). per sq. (405) derivative to on the stability equation of including add the term 'hm^ to mw in (392)... = am + \wiw = 44. B = l 1 2kD + a + m = 305. q (404) No downwash factor appears. v. Since q 1 = d and a (when q 1 = 0) = w/V.. q (rfe/rfa) . X 065 015) also have to a &D while mu = t Neglecting of (394) : m^ kL kD /kL == approximation in gliding flight. Hence 3(0333 close mw = We . ft. q q l q 1)} + 3jxfcD ww == 036. we find for the approximate stability coefficients . l . Example of Further discussion will be illustrated by reference to a monoplane wing loading 138 Ib. to which the following particulars apply : H 12 dkj 3 r a a" 1 b k^ *D *t J 2 0075 0258 0025 01 035 It is assumed for simplicity in this example that formulae (400) and is (404) without an interference factor are suitable. remains to deal with the remainder of the airdamping.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 511 whence <m q =/ rrTfl 1 .
) = 247tV'44/032 = 28. . . The time to % sec.J_ 12 X 4X ~ 305 XOJ2 = X is 1936 069/00131 and the time to halfdisturbance = 53 sees. It is of interest. The period t (sec. For the example t this gives (sec. All the coefficients are positive. To the approximation of t (395) the period of the phugoid . 2CV 036 2 evaluating to . is (set.612 AERODYNAMICS Routh's discriminant 013 298 [Cfi.) = 27tf VC 1/ 1 . 278. (408) that simple and preThis result should be compared with (380) estimate of the period is to be increased by the factor under liminary the radical. the damping factor in Li~ii to'  ^407) . Substituting in (406) Luw ^Y g . . A rough formula for the second term of this factor in the case of a monoplane having unimportant pitching moments from the body and engine nacelles is easily obtained from (400) and . and the craft is stable. common units is Similarly. to develop approximate formulae in terms of the derivatives for gliding flight. however. halfdisturbance is because tQ = 138/^pF = 12. From (395) this is given X* by + 305X + 44=0 176 or X = is 1525 \ A/930 1525 144*. The Long Oscillation. Short Oscillation.) v ' = 144 tQ = 52. B^CiPi is ZV BI*EI = 483 also positive. . . (406) nearly.
but errors then begin to become apprecimethod ceases to be useful near the stall. first loss except by tailfirst several degrees earlier than the incidence for maximum lift. Nothing serious happens to the phugoid.G. large while (owing to small tail volume) mq becomes small.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 613 Thus. effects are illustrated in Fig. Down wash then decreases at the tail plane. A. EFFECTS OF TAIL LEVEL ON ix$ EFFICIENCY. divergence. fib). Tail Level. on reaching the stall. The second may involve a factor so low as 075 through decreased air speed if the tail plane is directly in the wake. If w vanish. Some notes are given below on other effects. will easily be followed out.G. may become unstable through a narrow range Effects primarily resulting from large decreases in a and a'. but the short oscillation of speed. while the wake thickens and lifts two changes which are tail conflicting in regard to The high tail efficiency. 17 . 191. the C. becomes poorly plane suddenly large incidences through passing into the wake. moving the C. These . 10 20 Incidence FIG. and the motion is a weak on the other hand. but can be avoided at small incidences by carrying the tail plane either high or low. a large occur. Now wings which approach a rectangle in planform stall first near the centre of span. is far forward and ntw If. SOME STALLING AND ENGINEON EFFECTS The foregoing analysis may be employed for gliding 8 flight up to able. 191. (404) as (0/(ji)/(065 a craft of given weight and shape. back considering may soon produce a long period. 279.D. where /3 will be of the order 6. Then E is no longer moment of inertia is likely to make the oscillation increase in amplitude. as a rule. and from reversal of sign of the former. It is not feasible to ' ' layout. or 10 The incidence. no oscillation will m positive. on account obviate the The efficiency of a tail plane is reduced by the wings of their downwash and wake. decrease of downwash failing situated at to compensate for loss of speed the tail plane which is normally level with the wings may run through the wake and become more efficient.
stall. result First approximations factors of damping and long oscillations are. 38 1. i. It will be deduced that a rather low position for the tail plane is usually preferable from the present point of view. on the violence of the stall. m + m^. the 192. Sharp taper is also associated with a concentration of downwash behind the central part of the span. Variation of or qt q m m normally takes trated in Fig. 192. Tail location for biplanes is governed by the fact that the lower wing usually stalls late. 280.. August 1935. Jour. . R. to the the short m K+ q and a becoming small 3 *W 2  a) and The large increase of drag at stall tends to keep the phugoid stable. Effects of Stalling on Moment Derivatives In regard to m iv . The question is intimately concerned with the shape of the lift curve at the critical angle. which has but little is to do with the tail. respectively. form illusNear the damping passes through a sharply defined minimum. as happens with some aerofoil shapes. Instability may Incidence FIG. from the it trailing edge This is less severe if burbling creeps forward than if. VARIATION OF m q WITH INCIDENCE (TYPICAL). due essentially to rapid changes in the pitching 10 moment 20 of the wings.S. sets in near the nose. stall may set in from the * and the above transition be delayed. Level Flight It is by no means certain that an aeroplane which is satisfactory when gliding will maintain stability when the engines are opened out * Nasir.614 AERODYNAMICS [CH. this frequently tends to increase parasite drag and to introduce landing difficulties.Ac. However. most aeroplanes have such strong static stability at large incidences that elevators of normal size soon fail to be able to depress the tail further. and the trouble is seen to be concerned with the short oscillation. tips With wings having very sharp taper. from this cause through a narrow range of low speeds. normally so strongly damped.e.
vanishes. from the present point of view. dT/dV directly modifies the jp ' ' gliding formula for xu to (410) It should be observed that & D is not the same in this formula as in that for gliding. This at once damping however. end of Article 269. assumed to lie in the slipstream. because of the elimination of the idle airscrew drag For this reason. a formula for mu is the speed at the tail plane increase *72P* Besides its ' ' ' (4 8) effect on mu . graphical analysis ~ tan l (&D/&L) during The first change to note is that 0t . (the cautionary note may be made that increases are often surprisThe ingly larger than would be indicated by simplified theories). Damping is then found efficient. further study = t gliding. and has the effect of increasing Thirdly. m . thereby reducing the stability coefficient Several important changes affect the tail plane. The first is an increase of downwash. we note that the slipstream will q with small changes of V due to variation of propeller thrust T. constant engine torque being if asstimed for this purpose. may be calculated by the methods of Chapter XI. two 282. corresponding to high simplifies. Putting a = 2. if kL become very small. D difficult to calculate as local changes of trailing vorticity are inat present this is best estimated from special experiments . But from V to V\/r. It is somewhat unfortunate that stability. It is not difficult . vary and that u will take up values in consequence. m to estimate dT/dV from Chapter X. cases. decreases as the craft becomes more speeds. the approximate expression for E l is . a long expression results factor of the phugoid oscillation. the tail plane is subjected to an increase of speed. for the On resolving to be proportional to kD as a first a result that may be compared with a remark at the approximation. The chief differences that occur are summarised below may conveniently proceed by a method of which will be described later.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 516 for level flight. which is . chief result is a decrease of static stability through modification of volved mw which Secondly. High Speeds (407) in terms of derivatives. xu is often much the same in the of the latter case.
R. Xo^W /* 1 . Possession of static stability does not guard against this eventuality.c//i . or even to increase stability with free elevators by causing them to move through a This is greater angle than the craft on disturbance.* we / define . climbing positive is seen to diminish DI and result is E t . X (JL : = = * A. The foregoing methods allowance less angle suffice to investigate this question in a given case. 1 * y = . for example. The is to decrease the the decrease usually negligible. decreasing. for craft to be stable when elevators are released. The amount of approximately [Mnw kL tan 00/CV latter effect is 285. The loss in tail efficiency may be as great as onethird. 284. 1118. kL and being Routh's discriminant supposed constant. a principal consideration in favour of minimising the chord of elevators.&M.R. depending upon the sign of l9 becomes more and On kL E by that of mu mu may change sign as . (412) is the Aerodynamic where k is the radius of gyration. If.C. Following disturbance. The composite curve jR t o and E 1 0. Climbing Referring to (394). we find that mw and mq will depend on Q and Y The question of stability can be exhibited other derivatives on kL by plotting curves against Qt Y as coordinates.616 AERODYNAMICS [CH. However.. 283. will represent a dividing line or boundary between stability and instability. and hence the damping of the phugoid. moving relative to the fixed part of the tail plane until the moment about their hinges again vanishes. chiefly in order to reduce fatigue during long flights. Free Elevators It is desirable. 1921 . as more determined speed attains high values and so produce instability. so that but the centre. Graphical Analysis An ingenious and rapid means of examining stability by graphical If o means has been devised by Gates. provided is made for loss of efficiency by the tail plane. the first term loses importance. and stability. free elevators will normally change their incidence by a than if they were fixed. suitable balancing or springs can obviously be arranged to prevent the loss. we assume (400) and (404) to hold without an X X .
during gliding mw = 065 Y . = TYPICAL STABILITY CHART. as varying with form of the boundary curve for gliding kL The broken line indicates the approxima. Fig. kL and JA. 193. * This and some other writers on stability employ k to denote the radius of gyration about the transverse axis. tion to R! = given in \ Crossing (396).X. . vergence = shaded curves being towards the stable region. : A. tit. and and both C 1 X FIG. parallel downwards Crossing R l negative need not be considered. 193 illustrates the flight.D. p. towards the right in the figure means that a dithe occurs.. Rt g . figure. 194 shows the effects of increasing ^ l D F= E = B = X = FIG. he. l l lying to the right of and the possibility of #! becoming to the axis. instead of k as in the above. 194. has been adopted in this chapter for ease of reference to Jones's account of the subject. El ditions for stability. we have.* who also obtains typical boundary curves for level flight. Fig. given by Gates. m =Y = 065 Y independent of and #! = gives X = o clearly depends on &L and p. lies far below the 0. constant and fairly large) at great altitude. with a high wing loading. Reservation of this symbol for the inertia coefficient jfca//2. 493. 17* . especially approximates to the complete conThese illustrations are based on diagrams = . that an oscillation increases in amplitude. It will be seen signifies that this eventuality is much less probable at high speeds than at at a low speed (kL low. showing in particular a restriction of the stable region for highpowered craft.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT monoplane : 517 in interference factor for a particular lie which a = 25 = But and de/d* = 035.
it may diminish to halfamplitude in about double this time. . with a stable craft. being found to It is formed the subject of investigation in have a large magnitude except near or associated with the derivative Lp Thus. and. especially in the case of highspeed monoplanes of types. Since the rolling subsidence is inherent in all aeroplanes at normal asymmetric stability is concerned with the oscillation spiral motion. (b) significance of the latter as a fin (or otherwise) will the transverse dihedral angle of the wings. If a vertical gust strike a wingtip a rolling about Ox will first occur. and these depend largely on the disposition of the vertical fins. The quite different relationships between corresponding derivatives. These are by np means negligible. It is modern important to realise that foreandaft balancing of fins. motion. this Article 93. which develop at such very different rates that we can follow them in turn. with little error in normal flight. the rolling subsides extremely rapidly. which is slow to develop or to decay. The was seen in Article 95. The asymmetric motion that results comprises three responses. formally the same as those for longitudinal stability. from which be apparent that fins in general lead to both roll and yaw. the conditions for asymmetric stability are. however. are at the designer's in regard to stability .518 AERODYNAMICS [CH. The craft is then left with a sluggish spiral . engine nacelles and airscrews. The effective fins of primary importance are (a) the actual fin together with the rudder. (a) and (b) alone. The sideslip that ensues generates a rather complicated lateral oscillation the only oscillation that arises from asymmetric disturbance its period may be 5 or 6 sees. LATERAL STABILITY 286. however. A craft left with positive roll sideslips to the right.. Thus arise the derivatives Lv and N v. Introduction From a mathematical point of view. The aeroplane is conceived to be flying straight in its plane of geometric symmetry when lateral balance is disturbed. Secondary fins include the body. usually situated above the incidences. associated with sideslip and yawing. and the tail plane. fin surface is critical. they are adjusted to take secondary disposal fin effects into account and the latter will be omitted from discussion for clearness. change the physical aspect completely. and the yaw produces lateral forces on the That on the rear equivalent . normally. The moment damping past the stall. leaving the craft with slight roll (list) and yaw.
however. dr/dt E dr/dt . The resulting spiral flight is seen to follow too strong a directional stability in the static sense. the product of inertia along Oy. can be drawn from these simple it is not clear that any static directional righting couple is desirable. E dp/dt + U. in the direction Oy and amounts to g cos per unit mass. a dihedral rolls a craft away from the The outer wingtip of the turn thus comes to be sideslip and turn. of the lateral forces strong directional instability spinning dive. dp/dt in which.r W pg . when sufficient (though not too great) static instability exists. and may. Construction of the classical equations for small oscillations follows precisely the lines explained in Article 270 for longitudinal disturbances. The latter defect being. sin p = d<f>/dt we can substitute for $ from = vY + pYp + rY. . this as factor is include E. $ C . since d<f>/dt = X<. at thq lower level. slight directional instability of the static kind often proving an advantage dynamically. dihedral. . though terms containing may be neglected in normal flight. A (414) Treating these equations in the same damping factor X the equation way as (381) gives for the . dfy/dt and r = cos dfy/dt while v 9 f . uncommon. . Reversal of the sideslip leads to the lateral oscillation. cos 0.XII] fin SAFETY IN FLIGHT 519 (comprising the actual fin and the rudder) turns the craft into a righthand turn suitable for the existing bank. though its greater speed soon raises it again. the transverse and directional moments of inertia. and the reader will have no difficulty in verifying the following (f> group in place of (381) dv/dt : A ' . On the other hand. much too far forward a position for the C. = vL + pLp + rL (413) = vN + pNp + rN. The gravity force . on occasion. together with an exaggerated dihedral. definite result leads rapidly to a fast. become noticeable. This would not occur in a craft that was prone to spin. considerations No . the oscillation is usually present. The above illustrations tacitly assume a weak or absent transverse As we have seen. < = <h cos A + y r sin . The lefthand wingtip now moves with excess speed.P. The Asymmetric Equations Mass distribution is now defined by A and C. v cos . and asymmetric lift may increase both bank and sideslip. For precision we have also to 287.
. and taking approximately E and W yp = y = 0. Comparison with (391) then shows formal agreement to exist according to the scheme : W n z m by which is y. X2V XlE XL.4^) . = P*L{ft*r l r v pt (/^fir ) v (l r) (419) W w These expressions should be compared with * (394). XnA which expands to X4 + 2 X3 + l C t X' + where. ) xy. yv of zw9 meant that nr takes the place yp that of xqt etc. *V (Jt* R / .iL tan . Glauert.520 AERODYNAMICS [CH. terms containing E as factor may be neglected. so that C7 Introducing wind axes as in the longitudinal = 0. = = %(/A . this equation can be * arranged in the form E z.. writing kL as an approximation to k R Bt C. (415) N. .C7 XM KE XL./ X _ f ^ + W x (i .tin.\ x'K Away from the nf AR tan X (^f ^ (416) stall. loc. Expressed in the nondimensional system. Solution with Wind Axes case.)}.tan (/^ . X*C>JV.) . f =V (416) reduces to I.np + y p + n . cit. p. 493. 288.^.jin (^ . r **v sin0 X(Y. >t = p + n +y (= approx.l.
 l p tan f) .e. More generally. That it should have a pair of complex roots will be found to depend on nvt if positive. Approximate Factorisation normal Arising from the overwhelming rolling subsidence there B2 flight always one large root of (418). If the quadratic has real roots.nv . This value must be reduced considerably if the oscillation is to decay quickly. though it need not become negative. 290. which can also be extracted. is + Xi + 7? #2 x + 7r #2 i=s0  (420) The magnitude of the damping factor calculated from this approximation errs on the wrong side for safety.np tan ) >n is 9 (l. The quadratic (420) is easily investigated once the stability coefficients have been evaluated in a given case. Discussion in Terms of the Derivatives The condition for E t to be positive in level flight lv n. to be divided out. *l p near the stall has consequences traced in .. . not exceeding a small fraction of /. 289. approximately. closely of value EifDi. representing in usual circumstances the To a first and rather rough approximation this lateral oscillation. so that av if negative..>l. . enabling the factor (X lp) Associated with the spiral disturbance a small root occurs. i. is (421) and instability is usually traced to a failure here. must be small. the third considerably larger and negative.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT aircraft is stable if 521 The the stability coefficients and /? = Bf D t t ZV BfE* are all positive.. The first two derivatives are usually positive. is in l = p. it represents the spinning divergence. though it is to be remarked that increase of nv is accompanied by increase of nf . (422) which intimates that stability a little more difficult to secure during climbing. the above condition lv is (nr . static directional stability may not be necessary. viz. There is left a quadratic. This means that static directional stability must be limited. Change of sign of Article 93.
646 579 1538 067 The craft is spirally unstable.522 291. /. Owing to change of .fy) (F } = 4 9 VrkL cy*ty. there arises an element rolling 1 moment : 8L If c (f) = p<%fcLy {(V + ryY may the semispan and . Inserting values in (420) 24 we have approximately Xa or + 09X + = 145*. and & L s is be assumed constant.. is easily deduced from a tunnel experiment in which a complete model is yawed at a succession of small angles to the wind. This is best seen from an example. ** nr Vv I 1 Va i These give for level J5. AERODYNAMICS Example plausible numerical values are *L 1' [CH. introduced in Article 93 and employed in the Theory of Airscrews. X = 045 The true damping would be appreciably 292. consider two wing strips of chord c distant y from the longitudinal axis. consider ing the integral we note that = 2 ^Jo c P M . %. Routh's discriminant is 646 X 579 X is 1538 2 (1538) + (646)' X 067. Some ^ 8 lp lr v t 6 2 C. to correct which a larger dihedral would be required. It is readily arranged to take account of nonuniform grading of air load along the span in steady flight. this integrates at once to =f where S the total area. flight *. The strip method. The only effective force derivative. local speed only. Otherwise. Evaluation of Derivatives less than as here estimated. Let lr be required at a mean lift coefficient kLQ Neglecting contribution from a possibly high fin. is available for the approximate calculation of moment derivatives which depend largely on the wings. so that the oscillation damped.
Such a policy has adherents on the Continent. Several preliminary considerations are first grouped together in this article. The functions of Aerodynamic controls in steady flight under various conditions have already been described. Use of ordinary ailerons induces an adverse yawing moment. The subject of aerobatics is beyond our scope. i. must be many times as powerful as the rudder. A. analogous to m q . nf depends principally on the fin and rudder and is . but synchronous rudder movement appears * to have become instinctive with pilots.. we note first maximum that the size of elevators. determines the angle of incidence of flight. but opposed to it is the consideration that small elevators deprive the pilot of the means of quick recovery from accidental stall. The necessity for this correction may be overcome by a spoiler operating on the depressed wing. ~ ~~ ~~ ~~"W Wfe^ In the absence of precise data. given the leverage. These might be so dimin ished as to render impossible the deliberate stalling of the craft. for little resistance opposes yawing.R. L Finally (r) = 2pFri LO Sy. since the wing with the . having a strong adverse rolling moment to overcome at normal speeds. & M. in the case of lp and np by measurements during continuous rotation of the model about the wind direction. examining the principles of their design in connection with the dynamic features of the craft.e. greater lift exerts the greater drag. The ailerons. 809. and Ower. CONTROLS 293. Lavender. The yawing is corrected by use of the rudder. Power. . for example. Rotary derivatives can be determined experimentally by the oscillation method (Article 276)* or. if yQ be the radius of gyration of the liftgrading diagram appropriate to the plan form and sections in steady flight. one which turns the craft to the wrong hand for the imposed bank this is natural.R.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 523 whence. which y = elliptic loading may be assumed.C. caused. Relf. by the sudden failure of an engine with a high thrust line. 1921. In deciding the power for an Aerodynamic control. We now discuss the requirements and limitations of controls during disturbed flight. for s.
as one of many I (c) FIG. intro The hinge moment duced to prevent hinge is elastic flutter.524 AERODYNAMICS [CH.is proportional to that applied. in the wrong direction. the case of an aeroplane which is approaching a confined landing space steeply with its wings at large incidence a wingtip that suddenly rotates downwards through a . Slots should be closed when not in use. ' strength. (b) HORN AILERON . It is Controls. from the point of view of usually able. and the tab generates sufficient (b) the real control. control surfaces of heavy aeroplanes are often servo operated. which usually means that the control column moves a tab. of a control surface should be reduced by to small magnitude. of clearly for controls to stall later than important the wing. or diminutive surface attached to a control. variables. examples that might be chosen. (c) OUTRIGGED SERVO (S) OPERATING THE PARTLY BALANCED RUDDER OF A LARGE CRAFT. 195. Stalling of a control is also delayed by the socalled cut slot/ which may be arranged to open between a deflected control and the fixed member to which it is attached. Handley Page slots both in delaying aileron stall and in curing adverse yawing moment at high incidences has been described in Article 94. CURTAIN OR SHROUD. line well aft of the effective It is achieved by locating the nose of the control surface. THE NOSE ACTS AS A SPOILER ON THE DEPRESSED WING C. balancing commonly fails at some control angle. Stalling to operate controls quickly through wide angles. determined by the force a pilot can balancing exert on the control column without fatigue. gust is ' . (a) FRISE TYPE momentarily at still greater incidence and yet must be lifted by its The remarkable efficiency of aileron. For these and other reasons. This balancing is Aerodynamic and will not be confused with mass balancing. There some danger of overbalancing when fine limits are attempted for a very large craft moreover. Aerodynamic moment to operate There are two general 1 points to notice. . Aeroplane controls are reversible/ the pilot feeling a moment He. . slot and also its shaping need care but experience is necessary to allow for scale effect on both BALANCED AILERON. Foreandaft location of a cut this is work for the wind tunnel. the moderately large . Consider.
damped a chief reason for limiting longitudinal static stability.* The sluggish phugoid can be corrected at an early stage. But it is doubtful whether a pilot can act the spinning divergence. whilst spiral instability. making steady flight difficult or impossible. & M. due to too great static righting moments. though safe. it were turned into horizontal circling flight. The investigation of this chapter is restricted to symmetric flight.C. divergence may aeroplanes are so characterised. Possession of too powerful a rudder prevents flying with all controls released. controls are used to correct a tedious. and this will not be necessary during manoeuvring. fairweather flying greatly increases. Shadowing by the wings may be so marked during a spin that the is rudder commonly set as high as structural considerations allow. 1028. Special modifications to controls have been suggested. Relation to Stability In normal disturbed flight. response of a stable its stability if this be restricted. 1193. develops only very slowly. In favourable circumstances. a stable aeroplane will fly itself just as steadily as a pilot can contrive it is equally true that an unstable .R. provided it is not wilfully unstable.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT ' 625 ' Rudder and elevators lose efficiency when the wings stall. if especially as the cause is likely sufficiently rapidly to prevent failure this supersedes the lateral oscillation. An important aspect of stability is to provide relief for the pilot.. when the damping is redistributed between the short * Garner and Wright.R. 294. there exists a mathematical explanation of the pilot's wellknown distrust of a weak rudder. yet nearly all to be too small a rudder. there results a lag in the response of the craft to the elevators. aeroplane can be flown satisfactorily with skill and good controls. for example. there is power of the ample correct by control slow spiral movements both the lateral oscillation and the motion. Thus a craft may be stabilised for level and gliding flight. excess creating a discomfort in bumpy weather which is beyond the oscillation If the oscillation becomes unstable near pilot to ease. by It is noteworthy that since the spinning double disturbance every two seconds. the stall (Article 280). aeroplane and also to supplement Elevator control cannot vie with the speed of the short. time to Turning to asymmetric disturbances. and an aeroplane designed in accordance with the theory given might become unstable if. but left to control during climb. and stability will it is probable that spiral in remain a general feature until amateur. A. .
disturbances. but has not yet proceeded very far.528 AERODYNAMICS oscillations. Large Disturbances and long Experience has shown that most craft. When this ordinary spin speeds up and narrows. but the rate of spin increases from perhaps 20 r.p. The rate of descent then decreases. 295. [CH. and the only chance of control lies in the rudder. An overall factor of safety. the elevators may not be able to check this tendency. but simplicity is lost through coupling of longitudinal and lateral effects. large centrifugal couples tend to lift the nose of the craft. such as is commonly used in engineering design. although the usual difficulties exist in carrying over such smallscale experiments to full scale.p. Article 66). known The as the flat spin. and in some cases to increase the rate of spin rapidly. Aerowhat load each member of the craft specifies largely should be able to withstand. flat spin may arise as a development of the slower spin described in Articles 9294. would obviously be wasteful. the maximum load that each part of a craft is likely . The distribution of mass in the craft appears to be of great importance. behave in when subjected to common much the theory of small oscillations. disturbances must be left to the pilot it is just in these circumstances that he stands most in need of unfailing controls and the obvious deduction is that their efficiency should be ensured under extreme conditions. same way as calculated by the But guidance through very large . 296.m. Extension of the theory is possible. At a large incidence.. Aeroplanes are controllably safe in this wider view except as regards recovery from a possible type of motion .m. An excellent experimental method of investigation is provided by the free spinning of light models in a vertical tunnel (cf. but the imperative need to save weight must narrow this down to the safe minimum. The possibility of large transient accelerations makes a wide margin of strength especially desirable in aircraft. in the neighbourhood of 45. as a rule. Whilst structural design dynamics and. Detailed analysis must be left to further reading. it should also be realised that knowledge of a craft's symmetric stability will often suggest a modification to correct faulty behaviour in a manoeuvre. to 60 r. If it be thought that so restricted a study of the subject loses practical utility. THE LOAD FACTOR is no part of our subject.
during steady or unsteady turning. .. i. due to the acceleration g. e. intervals A. who therefore straightens out much more gradually. record for acrobatic flight. where clearly the wings support a load equal to several times the dead weight of the craft.g. material. A. its beam The wire bends under deflection is own weight and centrifugal force. Thus the pilot acts as a safety valve against excessive load factors. we easily find that the load factor is the ratio of the abnormal to the normal lift coefficients.G. B. and workmanship. when kL is initially very small. the pilot kept C. and the a typical A'B'C'D Time FIG. and simple calculations show that the load factor might then exceed 50 if the elevators were suddenly operated by radio from a distance. supported in straight level flight is called the load Considering all cases that may be specified by the acceleration of the C. with the added zest of mock fighting unit spacing in the vertical scale represents the maximum deflection of the wire under its own weight.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 527 to be called upon to withstand is carefully assessed before applying an overriding factor to allow for defects in design.e. C. This instrument consist of a short fine wire clamped at the ends may like a to a frame secured to the aeroplane and with its length perpendicular to the direction of the acceleration to be measured. But a personal load factor of 5 would cause acute physical discomfort to a pilot. dive and flatten out E and F. . It is unnecessary to consider the matter in detail.. change of speed being neglected. . since rules are laid down by the competent Government authority. The ratio of this load to that factor. The accelerometer records the variation of load factor during flight. Even in this fairly severe test. 196. 196 is photographed on a moving film. which take account of the duties which a given craft will normally discharge. is 30 sec. B.. accelerations . Instances have appeared in Chapter IV and elsewhere. spin VARIATION OF LOAD FACTOR DURING FLIGHT. Fig. bad atmospheric bumps D.G. . I E I F Each of the loop . mock fighting. . The critical condition arises in pulling out from a steep dive. and we shall consider only some principles. and that its maximum value is the ratio of the maximum lift coefficient to the normal.
will generate excess and this will be all the more marked relative wind.R. Jour. The labour of solution is use of the method of operators introduced by Heaviside. for example. & Methods in Mathematical Physics. over a comparatively brief interval of time.* greatly reduced by the theory of which has been given by Jeffreys.C.R. Soc. of forces and moments suddenly applied. e. by firing a gun of considerable calibre. vary through a wider range. A specially trained pilot may nerve himself to 7g in cornering during a race. 1346. XII and 4g.528 AERODYNAMICS [CH. May 1936. by or. * Proc. arising are concerned with the effects. the craft noses away from the * * * trace reliably the load factors arising from a gust of given structure. be unstable. is much less than might be expected. Roy. we require Problems frequently to follow the disturbed motion of the craft. Representation of the general motion of an aeroplane following small disturbances leads to eight simultaneous linear differential equations. though in some instances a smaller To dropping a load by parachute. as also to investigate many problems of control. t Applications of operational methods to aircraft have been described by Bryant and Williams. as the analysis of spinning. t Operational J M. A. should be noticed that the accelerometer can be arranged to measure and also the component acceleration in any desired direction. 1930. Aeronautical Sciences. involve longer periods Such studies call for wider reading than the foregoing treatment. upgust.. The acceleraIt tions of parts far from the C. and it appears that in ordinary flight the variation of load factor.. but the uncontrollable load factors may be more severe if the craft these. The response of a stable aeroplane to disturbance creates stresses. and others. lift if A growing * * as indicated in Article 177. .. number will suffice. J Klemin. Others. but such occasions are very exceptional.G. 18934. A. as between due to control.g. in military aeronautics. 1927.
. 270. Dryden. W. 253 refer to pages. E.. 65. Sir J. G.. 238.. W. N. Miss F. L. Sir B. 87. 192. 228 K Fage. R. H. 412 S. 350 Handley Page. W. A.. 88.. L. 211. 473 Beavan... L. 253 Karden. Gray. 341. 454 443 Douglas. 6 Howarth. 386 Blasius.. S. 425 Kaplan.. J.. 300 Karman.. 397. 102 Bernoulli. L. W. 410.. Miss B. 456.. 221... 528 Burgers.. 423 Fairey. 430 Jeans. 266 Hooper. 234.. 415 Garner... 493 Baker. 470.. 442 Helmholtz. D. 89 Cope.. F. A. 504 Houghton. C. 102. 119. 334 Boussinesq. S.. 369. 394. 263.. C. P. W. N.. 88 Goldstein. S. 446. 384. 390.. K 394 Hocker. G. 450 Garrard... J. 390 Kerber. 459.... Drzewieki. M. H. 211. J. A. 270 Keinpf. J.. L.. B. 234 Goett. 393.. 116 Hyde.. 339. A. A... 516 Gebers. M. 203. S. A. 415. 373. 35. 387. 441 Gouge. E. K. 108. 323 Bioletti.AUTHOR INDEX The numbers Abbot. A. W. 405 Hooker. 106 Bairstow. M. M. S. 89 Bryan. E. H.. v. Sir Hansen. Bailey. C. R. 289 Hiemenz. 106 Bell. Lord.. 89 Falkner. 394 H Hagen. 394. 493 Glauert. R.. 409... 390. 397.. 362 Jeffreys. 422 Jones. 298. 524 Gates. 421 Hugoniot. 385 F. H. 248.. 211. S... H.. 174. 68 Euler.. 354 . 253. S. 493 Jones. 461 629 . G. G. 106 253 Imai. 291. A. 440. E.. C. 401 Bradfield. 379... de la. W. G. 242. 493 Bryant. 341. 397 Farren. 476 Fairthorne. S. 6 Cowley. H.. H. M. v. Sir R. V. 266 Hartshorn. 320. 386 161 Busemann. Mrs... 498.. L.. 247 Jouguet. 446 Clark. D Diehl. 422 Jones. 369 Cierva. H. 196. 402 Kelvin. H. L.. H. G. 528 Jennings. 352. 119. M. B. T. T. 353. Th. I. 341. 252 Betz. 390 Glauert.. 341... V. 224. 237.. A... 390. 406 Ackeret. 264 Aihara.. 390 J. Boss. 410 Eiffel. W. 354. K. Cave.. W. 210. 259. G. 442. 397. M. G. G. A. 393.. H. and R. W. 264 Joukowski. 82 Froude..
119 Wright. 334.. 262 Lock. 415.. N. 336 Sir W. M. 397 Weick. 118 Piercy. 351 Sharman. 424 Wieselsberger. 422 Wright Brothers. 623 Lees... 352... 401... Y. 498 237. 211. 68 Lavender. J. 254. O Oseen. 267. T.. E.. 523 W Walker. G. T. v. Sir T. 44 Mises. 369 623 Reynolds... J. 261. 221 AUTHOR INDEX Relf. 108. E. Pannell. D. 370 M Maas. W. 330. 386 Wood. 353.. 300. H. 399 Riaboushinsky. 415 W. 254 Richardson.. V. 413. H. W. H. R. O.. 395.. Van der. 404 Stokes. 367 Reid. 470 Levy. 393 R W.. 423.. G. H. Poiseuille. E. 289. 263 Maccoll. G. 426 Rayleigh... Perring. 474 Townend. J. 354. 116. 106.. 32. 263 Tyler. A. 29. R.. 470 Rankine.. Terazawa. H.. Miss. 118.. F. 350 Prandtl. 357 Lesley. 460 White.. C. R. A.. C. 394 Piper. 232. 328. 68. 286. 301. A.. C. see Kelvin Theodorsen.. 351... 219. 259.. R. L. E. 362. 498 N 474 Nazir. A. 410. A. 354. R.. B. 390 Williams. 350. Lamb. W. M. 370. A. D. 373. 32 Mines.. 397. S. 393 Thomson. H. 266. 442 Phillips.... 60. L. 135 Wright. D. 298 Squire.. 501 Lang. 290. N. 224 Klemin. 422 Wheatley. 118. 89. R. 528 Winny.. 452 Trefftz. 262 Stanton. J. 151. 369. V. 402. S. 373. 440 Prescott. Lord. J. J. 162. F. G. G. 254 Simmons. 212. P. 405.. E.. H. H.. W. K. 362 Preston. Sir G.. G. 395 Rolinson. C.. 420. 392... A. 386 ... 280... Lachmann. E. 88. 269 Marshall. 505 Rubach.. 212 Pohlhausen.. S. H. 395. R. 188. 397. W. 370 Otten.. O. C. 397.. 396 Zijnen. 188.. 219. 387. T..530 Keune. H. Young. 452 Ower. K. 493.. E. 68 Liptrot. Sir H. 237 Tietjens. V. 102. J.. G. Miss D. 276.. J. W. R. 266. M. 410 Stack. 422 Tchapliguine. 44. 53. H. 212. 287 Lanchester.. 395. 371. 395... 524 351 G. 528 Kutta. 219.. 473 Littell. 149 Routh. 262 Lilienthal. 405. 514 Nikuradse. F.. 210 Tsien.. O. J. F. 430. 430. K. 392 Nagamiya. E. 379. 604 Lindsey. 368. 351 Schlichting. R. 452 Takenouti.. 350 Tomotika. J.. 291 Langley. 290. 58. N. 234 Munk... 117. 371.. 385 Maxwell. W. L. P. D.. 106 Wood. 405 Schoder. D. P. L. C. 393. 393. M. 253. 474 Taylor. 355 Whitehead. C. Sir G. 212. E.. C. F. 446 Saph.
Atmosphere. see flat plate laminar flow. 1 Aircraft. 418. 412. 319. 92. 327 factor. 413 rectangular and tapered. approximations for. 43 Altimeter. 236. 259. 237. 22. 316. 139. 413 theory. 221. 443 Cascade wing.SUBJECT INDEX The numbers refer to pages. 425 Acyclic flow. 370 et seq. 126. 418 of aeroplane. 434 interference. 186. 219. 486 Chattock gauge. 11 tip losses. 440 variable pitch. control. 265. 219. 412 Piercy. 337. 264 Actuator. 212. Breakaway. 484 Arbitrary wing. 129 efficiency. 80 static thrust. 176. 426. 167 Bernoulli's equation. 225. 18. 203. 226. 207. tail planes of. Camber. 178. 17. 471. 156 Circular arc skeleton. 429 compressibility losses. 179. 330. 414. 428 Blockage. 61. 333. 248 631 . of. smoothness. 136 Air. generation persistence of. angle of. 419. 243. 461 slipstream effects. 435. aerodynamic. 224 Biplanes. 97 Balance. 170. 423 testing. 90. 444 Speed. Biplane. 76 scale. properties of. 144. 123 definitions. of flow. standard. 442 practical formulae. 302. 187. 210. 438 stationary. 309. 527 Ackeret's theory. 190. 335. 9. 220. 477 force. 290. types of. Joukowski. 158. etc. 397 Circulation and lift. 624 Air brakes. 396. 119. 466. 443 blade element theory. 228. 6 Circling flight. 418. 160 Accelerometer. 16 isothermal. 171 Adiabatic flow. 421 Cavitation. 67. 331 40. preliminary. 194. 106. 345 theorems relating to. 237. 240 cylinder. 364 26. 432 9. 422 8. 143. 215. 230. 195. 416 Aerofoils. 163. 237. 328 Blade angle. 17. 412. 122. 54. 8. 454 of least drag. 296 366 irrotational. 394. 243. 251. 191 of aerofoil. 478 Airspeed indicator. 37 Aerodynamic centre. 409. 210. 269 Ceiling. 82 Balloons. 439 of aerofoil. 219. 89. 260. 497 climb of airship. 486 Airscrews. 234. 50. 419 theory. 91 vortex theory. 244 travel. 446 layer. 80. 161. 75 coefficient. 404 Aerofoil characteristics. 52. 71 Autogyro. 424 velocity curves. 49 Airships. 18 Airscrew factors. 154 of bulkhead. 481. 221 KarmanTrefftz. 471 . 89 shaping. 320 Aspect ratio. 219. 35. 261. 108 Boundary. 469. 490 Altitude effects. 263. 393. 219. 225. 237. 118. 323 Ailerons. 423. 296 Atmospheric tunnel. 465. 417. 13 Acceleration from rest. 163. 259 definition of. 446. 19. 18 Bank. 483 Centre of pressure coefficient. 226. Buoyancy. 476. 487 Autorotation. 67. 292. 224. 169.
452 Flat plate boundary layer. 66. 367 Cyclic flow. 459. 126. 365. 105 Compressible flow. 119. 300. 285 wing. 61. aircraft parts. 623 Convergent flow. 350. airship. of. 2 of hydrogen and helium. 169. 194 applied to aerofoils. 410. 609. Eddy viscosity. 210. 158 Dihedral. 228. 257 Conformal transformation. 492 Complex variable. 103 Experimental mean pitch. 135. 423 Reynolds number. 299. 491 slipstream. 116. 407. 115 Dynamica