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Faydor L. Litvin and Alfonso Fuentes

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1 Coordinate Transformation

vector form as

rm = Om M = xm im + ym jm + z m km (1.1.1)

where (im , jm , km ) are the unit vectors of coordinate axes, and (ii) by the column matrix

⎡ ⎤

xm

rm = ⎣ ym ⎦ . (1.1.2)

zm

The subscript “m” indicates that the position vector is represented in coordinate system

S m (xm , ym , z m ). To save space while designating a vector, we will also represent the

position vector by the row matrix,

rm = [xm ym z m ]T . (1.1.3)

The superscript “T” means that rTm is a transpose matrix with respect to rm .

A point – the end of the position vector – is determined in Cartesian coordinates with

three numbers: x, y, z. Generally, coordinate transformation in matrix operations

needs mixed matrix operations where both multiplication and addition of matrices

must be used. However, only multiplication of matrices is needed if position vectors are

represented with homogeneous coordinates. Application of such coordinates for

coordinate transformation in theory of mechanisms has been proposed by Denavit &

Hartenberg [1955] and by Litvin [1955]. Homogeneous coordinates of a point in a three-

dimensional space are determined by four numbers (x∗ , y ∗ , z ∗ , t ∗ ) which are not equal

to zero simultaneously and of which only three are independent. Assuming that t ∗ = 0,

ordinary coordinates and homogeneous coordinates may be related as follows:

x∗ y∗ z∗

x= y= z= . (1.1.4)

t∗ t∗ t∗

Cambridge University Press

0521815177 - Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, Second Edition

Faydor L. Litvin and Alfonso Fuentes

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2 Coordinate Transformation

nate system.

and a position vector may be represented by

⎡ ⎤

xm

⎢ ym ⎥

rm = ⎢ ⎥

⎣ z m ⎦ or

1

rm = [xm ym zm 1]T .

Consider two coordinate systems S m (xm , ym , z m ) and S n(xn, yn, z n) (Fig. 1.2.1). Point

M is represented in coordinate system S m by the position vector

The same point M can be determined in coordinate system S n by the position vector

rn = Mnm rm . (1.2.3)

Cambridge University Press

0521815177 - Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, Second Edition

Faydor L. Litvin and Alfonso Fuentes

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tion.

⎡ ⎤

a 11 a 12 a 13 a 14

⎢ ⎥

⎢ a 21 a 22 a 23 a 24 ⎥

Mnm =⎢

⎢a

⎥

⎣ 31 a 32 a 33 a 34 ⎥

⎦

0 0 0 1

⎡ ⎤

(in · im ) (in · jm ) (in · km ) (On Om · in)

⎢ ⎥

⎢ (jn · im ) (jn · jm ) (jn · km ) (On Om · jn) ⎥

=⎢

⎢ (k · i )

⎥

⎣ n m (kn · jm ) (kn · km ) (On Om · kn) ⎥

⎦

0 0 0 1

⎡ (Om ) ⎤

cos(xn

, xm ) cos(xn

, ym ) cos(xn

, zm) xn

⎢ (Om ) ⎥

⎢ cos( yn

, xm ) cos( yn

, ym ) cos( yn

, zm) yn ⎥

=⎢

⎢ (O )

⎥.

⎥ (1.2.4)

⎣ cos(z n

, xm ) cos(z n

, ym ) cos(z n

, zm) zn m ⎦

0 0 0 1

Here, (in, jn, kn) are the unit vectors of the axes of the “new” coordinate system;

(im , jm , km ) are the unit vectors of the axes of the “old” coordinate system; On and

Om are the origins of the “new” and “old” coordinate systems; subscript “nm” in the

designation Mnm indicates that the coordinate transformation is performed from S m to

Cambridge University Press

0521815177 - Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, Second Edition

Faydor L. Litvin and Alfonso Fuentes

Excerpt

More information

4 Coordinate Transformation

on the following rules:

(i) Elements of the 3 × 3 submatrix

⎡ ⎤

a 11 a 12 a 13

Lnm = ⎣ a 21 a 22 a 23 ⎦ (1.2.5)

a 31 a 32 a 33

represent the direction cosines of the “old” unit vectors (im , jm , km ) in the “new”

coordinate systems S n. For instance, a 21 = cos( yn, xm ), a 32 = cos(z n

, ym ), and so

on. The subscripts of elements a kl in matrix (1.2.5) indicate the number l of the

“old” coordinate axis and the number k of the “new” coordinate axis. Axes x, y, z

are given numbers 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

(O ) (O ) (O )

(ii) Elements a 14 , a 24 , and a 34 represent the “new” coordinates xn m , yn m , z n m of

the “old” origin Om .

Recall that nine elements of matrix Lnm are related by six equations that express the

following:

(1) Elements of each row (or column) are direction cosines of a unit vector. Thus,

2

a 11 + a 12

2

+ a 13

2

= 1, 2

a 11 + a 21

2

+ a 31

2

= 1, ··· . (1.2.6)

(2) Due to orthogonality of unit vectors of coordinate axes, we have

[a 11 a 12 a 13 ] [a 21 a 22 a 23 ]T = 0

[a 11 a 21 a 31 ] [a 12 a 22 a 32 ]T = 0. (1.2.7)

An element of matrix Lnm can be represented by a respective determinant of the second

order [Strang, 1988]. For instance,

a 22 a 23 a 11 a 12

a 11 =

, a 23 = (−1) . (1.2.8)

a 32 a 33 a 31 a 32

To determine the new coordinates (xn, yn, z n, 1) of point M, we have to use the rule

of multiplication of a square matrix (4 × 4) and a column matrix (4 × 1). (The number

of rows in the column matrix is equal to the number of columns in matrix M nm .)

Equation (1.2.3) yields

xn = a 11 xm + a 12 ym + a 13 z m + a 14

yn = a 21 xm + a 22 ym + a 23 z m + a 24 (1.2.9)

z n = a 31 xm + a 32 ym + a 33 z m + a 34 .

The purpose of the inverse coordinate transformation is to determine the coordinates

(xm , ym , z m ), taking as given coordinates (xn, yn, z n). The inverse coordinate transfor-

mation is represented by

rm = Mmnrn. (1.2.10)

The inverse matrix Mmn indeed exists if the determinant of matrix Mnm differs from

zero.

Cambridge University Press

0521815177 - Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, Second Edition

Faydor L. Litvin and Alfonso Fuentes

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There is a simple rule that allows the elements of the inverse matrix to be determined

in terms of elements of the direct matrix. Consider that matrix Mnm is given by

⎡ ⎤

a 11 a 12 a 13 a 14

⎢a ⎥

⎢ 21 a 22 a 23 a 24 ⎥

Mnm = ⎢ ⎥. (1.2.11)

⎣ a 31 a 32 a 33 a 34 ⎦

0 0 0 1

It is necessary to determine the elements of matrix Mmn represented by

⎡ ⎤

b11 b12 b13 b14

⎢ b21 b22 b23 b24 ⎥

Mmn = ⎢ ⎣ b31 b32 b33 b34 ⎦ .

⎥ (1.2.12)

0 0 0 1

Here,

Mmn = M−1

nm , MmnMnm = I

where I is the identity matrix.

The submatrix Lmn of the order (3 × 3) is determined as follows:

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

b11 b12 b13 a 11 a 21 a 31

Lmn = ⎣ b21 b22 b23 ⎦ = ⎣ a 12 a 22 a 32 ⎦ = LTnm . (1.2.13)

b31 b32 b33 a 13 a 23 a 33

The remaining elements (b14 , b24 , and b34 ) are determined with the following equations:

⎡ ⎤

: a 11 : a 12 a 13 : a 14 :

⎢: a : a ⎥

⎢ 21 22 a 23 : a 24 : ⎥

b14 = −(a 11 a 14 + a 21 a 24 + a 31 a 34 ) ⇒ − ⎢ ⎥

⎣ : a 31 : a 32 a 33 : a 34 : ⎦

:0: 0 0 :1:

⎡ ⎤

a 11 : a 12 : a 13 : a 14 :

⎢a ⎥

⎢ 21 : a 22 : a 23 : a 24 : ⎥

b24 = −(a 12 a 14 + a 22 a 24 + a 32 a 34 ) ⇒ − ⎢ ⎥

⎣ a 31 : a 32 : a 33 : a 34 : ⎦

0 :0: 0 :1:

⎡ ⎤

a 11 a 12 : a 13 : : a 14 :

⎢ a 21 a 22 : a 23 : : a 24 : ⎥

b34 = −(a 13 a 14 + a 23 a 24 + a 33 a 34 ) ⇒ − ⎢ ⎥

⎣ a 31 a 32 : a 33 : : a 34 : ⎦ . (1.2.14)

0 0 :0: :1:

The columns to be multiplied are marked.

To perform successive coordinate transformation, we need only to follow the product

rule of matrix algebra. For instance, the matrix equation

r p = M p( p−1) M( p−1)( p−2) · · · M32 M21 r1 (1.2.15)

represents successive coordinate transformation from S 1 to S 2 , from S 2 to S 3 , . . . , from

Sp−1 to Sp .

Cambridge University Press

0521815177 - Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, Second Edition

Faydor L. Litvin and Alfonso Fuentes

Excerpt

More information

6 Coordinate Transformation

3 × 3 submatrices L, which may be obtained by eliminating the last row and the last

column of the corresponding matrix M. This results from the fact that the free-vector

components (projections on coordinate axes) do not depend on the location of the origin

of the coordinate system.

The transformation of vector components of a free vector A from system S m to S n is

represented by the matrix equation

An = L nm Am (1.2.16)

where

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

Axn a 11 a 12 a 13 Axm

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

An = ⎣ Ayn ⎦ , Lnm = ⎣ a 21 a 22 a 23 ⎦ , Am = ⎣ Aym ⎦ . (1.2.17)

Azn a 31 a 32 a 33 Azm

A normal to the gear tooth surface is a sliding vector because it may be translated along

its line of action. However, we may transform the surface normal as a free vector if the

surface point where the surface normal is considered will be transferred simultaneously.

We consider a general case in which the rotation is performed about an axis that does

not coincide with any axis of the employed coordinate system. We designate the unit

vector of the axis of rotation by c (Fig. 1.3.1) and assume that the rotation about c may

be performed either counterclockwise or clockwise.

Henceforth we consider two coordinate systems: (i) the ﬁxed one, S a ; and (ii) the

movable one, S b . There are two typical problems related to rotation about c. The ﬁrst

one can be formulated as follows.

Consider that a position vector is rigidly connected to the movable body. The initial

position of the position vector is designated by OA = ρ (Fig. 1.3.1). After rotation

∗

through an angle φ about c, vector ρ will take a new position designated by OA = ρ∗ .

∗

Both vectors, ρ and ρ (Fig. 1.3.1), are considered to be in the same coordinate system,

say S a . Our goal is to develop an equation that relates components of vectors ρa and ρa∗ .

(The subscript “a” indicates that the two vectors are represented in the same coordinate

system S a .) Matrix equation

ρa∗ = La ρa (1.3.1)

describes the relation between the components of vectors ρ and ρ∗ that are represented

in the same coordinate system S a .

The other problem concerns representation of the same position vector in different

coordinate systems. Our goal is to derive matrix Lba in matrix equation

ρb = Lba ρa . (1.3.2)

Cambridge University Press

0521815177 - Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, Second Edition

Faydor L. Litvin and Alfonso Fuentes

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The designations ρa and ρb indicate that the same position vector ρ is represented

in coordinate systems S a and S b , respectively. Although the same position vector is

considered, the components of ρ in coordinate systems S a and S b are different and we

designate them by

ρa = a 1 ia + a 2 ja + a 3 ka (1.3.3)

and

ρb = b1 ib + b2 jb + b3 kb . (1.3.4)

[b1 b2 b3 ]T . It will be shown below that operators La and Lba are related.

Recall that ρa and ρa∗ are two position vectors that are represented in the same coordinate

system S a . Vector ρ represents the initial position of the position vector, before rotation,

and ρ∗ represents the position vector after rotation about c. The following derivations

are based on the assumption that rotation about c is performed counterclockwise. The

procedure of derivations (see also Suh & Radcliffe, 1978, Shabana, 1989, and others)

is as follows.

Step 1: We represent ρa∗ by the equation (Fig. 1.3.1)

Cambridge University Press

0521815177 - Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, Second Edition

Faydor L. Litvin and Alfonso Fuentes

Excerpt

More information

8 Coordinate Transformation

where

Step 2: Vector ρa is represented by the equation

that yields

We emphasize that a vector being rotated about c generates a cone with an apex

angle α. Thus, both vectors, ρ and ρ∗ , are the generatrices of the same cone, as shown in

Fig. 1.3.1.

Step 3: Vector MN has the same direction as MA and this yields

where α is the apex angle of the generated cone, |MA| = ρ sin α, and ρ is the magnitude

of ρ.

Equations (1.3.8) and (1.3.9) yield

MA

MN = |MN| = [ρa − (ca · ρa )ca ] cos φ. (1.3.10)

|MA|

Step 4: Vector NA∗ has the same direction as (ca × ρa ) and may be represented by

ca × ρa

NA∗ = |NA∗ | = sin φ(ca × ρa ). (1.3.11)

|ca × ρa |

Here,

because

by Cheng & Gupta [1989], this equation deserves to be called the Euler–Rodrigues,

formula.

Cambridge University Press

0521815177 - Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, Second Edition

Faydor L. Litvin and Alfonso Fuentes

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formula in matrix form.

The cross product (ca × ρa ) may be represented in matrix form by

ca × ρa = Cs ρa (1.3.15)

⎡ ⎤

0 −c 3 c 2

Cs = ⎣ c 3 0 −c 1 ⎦ . (1.3.16)

−c 2 c 1 0

Vector ca is represented by

ca = c 1 ia + c 2 ja + c 3 ka . (1.3.17)

Step 9: Equations (1.3.14), (1.3.15), and (1.3.16) yield the following matrix repre-

sentation of the Euler–Rodrigues formula:

where I is the 3 × 3 identity matrix. While deriving Eqs. (1.3.14) and (1.3.18), we

assumed that the rotation is performed counterclockwise. For the case of clockwise

rotation, it is necessary to change the sign preceding sin φ to its opposite. The expression

for matrix La that will cover two directions of rotation is

The upper sign preceding sin φ corresponds to counterclockwise rotation and the lower

sign corresponds to rotation in a clockwise direction. In both cases the unit vector c

must be expressed by the same Eq. (1.3.17) that determines the orientation of c but

not the direction of rotation. The direction of rotation is identiﬁed with the proper sign

preceding sin φ in Eq. (1.3.19).

Problem 2. Recall that our goal is to derive the operator Lba in matrix equation (1.3.2)

that transforms components of the same vector (see Eqs. (1.3.3) and (1.3.4)). It will be

shown below that the sought-for operator is represented as

Operator Lba can be obtained from operator La given by Eq. (1.3.19) by changing the

sign of the angle of rotation, φ. The upper and lower signs preceding sin φ in Eq. (1.3.20)

correspond to the cases where S a will coincide with S b by rotation counterclockwise

and clockwise, respectively. The proof is based on the determination of components of

the same vector, say vector OA shown in Fig. 1.3.1, in coordinate systems S a and S b .

Step 1: We consider initially that vector OA is represented in S a as

ρa = [a 1 a 2 a 3 ]T . (1.3.21)

system S b and the previously mentioned position vector are rotated as one rigid body

Cambridge University Press

0521815177 - Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, Second Edition

Faydor L. Litvin and Alfonso Fuentes

Excerpt

More information

10 Coordinate Transformation

∗

about c. After rotation through angle φ, position vector OA will take the position OA

and can be represented in S b as

∗

OA = a 1 ib + a 2 jb + a 3 kb . (1.3.22)

∗

It is obvious that vector OA has in S b the same components as vector OA has in S a .

∗ ∗

Step 3: We consider now in S b two vectors OA and OA. Vector OA will coincide

∗

with OA after clockwise rotation about c. The components of vectors OA and OA in

S b are related by an equation that is similar to Eq. (1.3.19). The difference is that we

∗

now have to consider that the rotation from OA to OA is performed clockwise. Then

we obtain

∗

∗

(OA)b = Lb (OA )b = I + (1 − cos φ)(Cs )2 − sin φCs (OA )b . (1.3.23)

systems S a and S b , respectively. The matrix equation that describes transformation of

components of OA is

obtained that

Similarly, for the case in which rotation from S a to S b is performed clockwise, we obtain

The general description of operator Lba and the respective coordinate transformation

are as follows:

The upper and lower signs preceding sin φ correspond to the cases in which rotation

from S a to S b is performed counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively.

In our identiﬁcation of coordinate systems S a and S b we do not use the terms ﬁxed

and movable. We just consider that S a is the previous coordinate system and S b is

the new one, and we take into account how the rotation from S a to S b is performed:

counterclockwise or clockwise.

Matrix L ba

Using Eqs. (1.3.26) and (1.3.27), we may represent elements of matrix Lba in terms of

components of unit vector c of the axis of rotation and the angle of rotation φ. Thus,

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