California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Electrical Engineering Department
Memorandum To: Professor R. Frank Smith Group Members: Joseph Arias Jordan Quintana Sergio L. Zaragoza III Subject: Ohm’s Law The objective of this laboratory experiment was to verify Ohm’s law. In so doing learning the tools electrical engineers use to analyze basic circuits, such as reading resistor color codes and the use of ohmmeters, voltmeters, and ammeters. In evaluating the data we learned to calculate the power loss in resistors using Ohm’s law: P = V2/I = I2R. A wide range of resistors with variable resistance, wattage and tolerances are available for applications on current carrying devices used in virtually every system with electrical components such as a coffee machine or the F-22 Raptor. The resistance and tolerance of a resistor is determined by observation of the color code. The color code consists of a series of four to five transverse colored stripes that translate to a value of resistance and tolerance. The wattage of a resistor can vary based on different parameters such as the size, cooling and mounting. In the first part of the experiment color codes were taken from source 1 (reference to appendix on page 5) to determine the resistance of 7 resistors on the board provided. A voltage was applied across each resistor and an experimental value was obtained. By referencing the color code, the theoretical resistances for the 7 resistors were 330Ω, 100Ω, 10000Ω, 4700Ω, 3010Ω, 2000Ω and 1000Ω. The experimental resistances as well as the errors were calculated and tabulated on table 1 shown below. By observation, the errors yielded ranged from 0% to 16.27% for the theoretically 10000Ω resister and theoretically 4700Ω resistor, respectively. Generally, the percent error for measured resistance vs. theoretical resistance could be explained by the tolerance of the resistor, which is determined by the last band in the resistor 1 Date: April 12, 2011
2nd Orange Black Black Purple Black Black Brown
3rd Brown Brown Yellow Red Brown Black Black
Orange Brown Brown Yellow Orange Red Black
In the second part of the experiment a variable voltage supply was connected to an 1134.1 10000.27%. By observation.27 3.0 2024. The voltage was varied from 0 to 10 volts and the results were plotted on a current versus voltage graph (Figure 1. the last band was determined by the experimenters to be silver.3 1133.82 1. the percent error of the experimental resistance is not within the tolerance of the resistor by 6.color code.00 16. page 3). and 3125 ohm resistor. 2025. all resistors are not within the specified tolerance.23 11.11 0.
.0 5464.1 111.5 3125.10%.
Color Code Resistor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1
Theoretical Resistance Experimental Resistance (Ω) 357.8 4th Gold Gold Gold Silver Brown Brown Red 5th Yellow Yellow N/A N/A Brown Brown Silver (Ω) 330 100 10000 4700 3010 2000 1000
% error Experimental Discrepancy 8. which translates to a tolerance of +/. With an exception to resistor 3. For the theoretically 4700Ω resistor.21 13.
From the graph. the color code would be used to find the theoretical resistance of the resistor and divide the voltage by the resistance to get the current through the resistance.
0. The values of amps should come out to be in mA. connect the other end of the resistor and the negative terminal to the ammeter in series with the circuit. therefore. However. which means that the resistance will be measured by 1/R. Since [Rexp]7 is less than [Rexp]5. we can verify Ohm’s Law from the plot because the slope of the graph is measured as I/V. the value for the current will differ by a percentage value marked on the resistor.0035
. this would mean that a smaller resistance would be shown with a higher slope on the graph. To measure the current through the resistor with an ammeter. the graph will show that [Rexp]7 will have a higher current flowing through it at the fixed value of voltage that [Rexp]5.0045 0. because there is an uncertainty value with every resistor.004
0. and a bigger resistance would be shown as a line with a lower slope.0. the plot verifies Ohm’s Law. To calculate the resistance without the use of an ammeter. Following these formulas.
25 watts were dissipated at 4. The voltage and resistance was measured at three different noticeable temperature differences.946 4. A ¼ watt loss was observed at a voltage of 4.946 Ω.807 7.In the third part of the experiment an 82 ohm (theoretical resistance) resistor was connected to the variable power supply. In this report we refer to this transfer as a loss of wattage.82%. 1. The voltage was gradually increased and using our finger to feel an increase in temperature. 0. Ohms law was demonstrated by calculating the experimental resistance using the currents going through each resistor at a constant voltage.566 4. The results are as follows in table 2 below: Measured Voltage Resistance. 2024Ω and 1134Ω ultimately resulting in errors of 3.Ohm .4%. The resistor was described as too hot to touch when . The measured resistance rendered a percent error of 2.189 0. respectively.53Volts and the 82Ω resistor’s temperature was described as warm.605 Table 2 Temperature Non e X X X War m Ho t
A resistor receives electrical energy and transforms it into heat. Watts W 0. Volts sΩ V 84.34 V and a measured resistance of 83.21% and 13. The resistor became too hot to touch at approximately 7. The voltage was to be increased so that the wattage loss in the resistor was less than ¼ watt.605 watts were dissipated.
.34 82. The resistor felt warm when it dissipated ¼ watts. The resistors with theoretical resistances of 3010Ω. The maximum allowed power of an 82Ω resistor was exceeded by means of varying the voltage until the resistor burned out. This difference in the measured resistance to the theoretical resistance read off the color/number code can be justified assuming the prescribed tolerance each resistor comes with. In conclusion.08 Calculated Wattage.08 V. 0.00 83. Technically electrical energy is not lost but transformed into heat. 2000Ω and 1000Ω yielded experimental resistances of 2125Ω.605 watts.224 0. The experiment demonstrated proper usage of the power source and ohmmeter in the electrical engineering laboratory by means of validating ohms law and calculating powers using a plethora of resistors with known resistance. the experiment objectives were met.4%.