The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base


The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base Presented by: John Nelson SLC 7331 ± Sports Promotional Culture Dr. Sally Ross Final Project Portfolio

The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base


Abstract It is largely assumed that males consume sport at higher rates than females despite increasing trends in female involvement (Acosta, 2). Evaluation of collegiate and professional sponsorships will assist in determining the implications of male-based marketing strategies and the perceived value lost by negating the female demographic. The following research will take a look into the current trends of female involvement in collegiate athletics; evaluate the University of Memphis athletic sponsorship department; and assist in providing methods to reach a growing female demographic in collegiate sports, placing an emphasis on the University of Memphis fan-base.

2). However. Some of the most impressive statistics include the following: y y y 12.741 new women s teams were created between the years of 1998-201 .087 women¶s intercollegiate teams in 2010** Average of roughly 8. **Near Record High (Acosta. 7).from both a participation and attendance standpoint .and is slowly revolutionizing the world of college athletics (Acosta.64 women¶s teams per school** *Record High. The following chart reveals the extent to which women¶s athletics has growth as recently as 1998. 2). and increasing rapidly (Acosta. women¶s athletics is on the rise. 3) The following graph shows the growing trend in women¶s athletics since 1998.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 3 Perceptions of masculine domination and female exclusion in athletics have dominated western culture for many years (Burgess. female involvement in athletics has rapidly increased in the last forty years . Women s Teams Created 2. Their research ± as recent as 2010 ± indicates that females are taking part in collegiate athletics in near record numbers. Acosta and Carpenter cite the inception of Title XI as the spark that ignited the beginning of increased female participation in college sports (Acosta. 199). Without a doubt.* There were 9.702 females are employed in intercollegiate athletics.

Women not only have a significant present with NASCAR and the NFL. 2010): y Major League Soccer: 47. 2010).2% of fans are women. NBC¶s Sunday Night Football was the third most watched program in America among women between the ages of 18-49 (Baker. a sport that is predominately assumed to be followed by males due toits automotive nature and masculinity based ties. During the 2010-11 NFL season. it has been reported that women comprise roughly one-third (34%) of the adult audience for ESPN televised sport event programs each year (Holland. Women also have significant fan bases in the following sports (Holland. Research indicates that attendance and overall interest in sports among the female demographic is a growing trend in both collegiate and professional athletics. To accompany NASCAR. However. but are heavily involved with other sports as well.6 million women attend the Winston Cup races each year. they are consuming their sports on a regular basis. 2010). 2011). 2. . One of the most astonishing female-based attendance statistics involves NASCAR. 2011).The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 4 The female demographic has not only seen an increase in participation. but in overall consumption as well. and in record numbers. Women aren¶t simply considering themselves fans of a sport. CNBS reports that more than 40% of NFL fans are female as well (Rovell. Not only has Sunday Night Football seen an increase in female viewership. 2011). Studies also indicate the overall percentage of women watching Sunday Night Football has increased 23% since 2009 (Baker. These numbers conclude roughly 40% of NASCAR¶s total attendees for these races are in fact females (Holland.

3 billion (Anonymous.000 fans on Facebook. National Basketball Association: 37% of fans are women. 2011). Alex Holmes. The female fan-base comprised nearly 46% of all official NFL merchandise sales during the 2010 season(Holland. . understand the significance of women in sports and are quoted as saying: ³having women fans is a big boost to any player¶s marketing (Rovell.5%. the U. 2009 ). and adjusted their products accordingly. Experts estimate projected growth to be another 8. In addition.1 billion. Polamalu and his business partner/brother-in-law. women are heavily involved with sport through jersey and apparel purchases as well as social media networks.´ Alongside the NFL.S.5% of fans are women. they are actually following players not endorsed by other high-end media personalities. the athletic apparel industry has learned the importance of women in the marketplace. athletic apparel market to $15.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 5 y y y Major League Baseball: 46.5% by 2014. but that it was the leader in jersey sales among females as well (Rovell. starting at $13 billion and reaching $14. Polamalu has more than 875. National Hockey League: 40. thus increasing the U. Recent sales records show that Troy Polamalu¶s 2010 jersey was not only the most purchased jersey by the male market. Between the years of 2003-2008. In addition to regular consumption of sport through attendance and normative media vehicles such as television. 2010).8% of fans in attendance at games are women.S. 2011))! These numbers indicate that women aren¶t just following in the footsteps of Jessica Simpson and other female celebrities. athletic apparel market grew an estimated 8. 49% of them being females.

yet it is still evident that little is being done in college sponsorship divisions to advance in this market. y More than 1. women will control two-thirds of consumer wealth in the United States and be the beneficiaries of the largest transference of wealth in our country¶s history.000 annually.000 in assets are female. Estimates range from $12 to $40 trillion.S. particularly with the University of Memphis Tigers. Over the next decade.3 million women professionals and executives earn in excess of $100. Women influence $90 billion dollars worth of consumer electronic purchases in 2007 y 61% of women influence household consumer electronic buying decisions. . The evidence is indicative that women are a new and powerful segment in the sporting landscape. As additional research shows. y y Women make 95% of the purchasing decisions for their households. 2010). Women have also been found to spend 80% of all sport apparel dollars (family related) and control 60% of all money spent on men¶s clothing (Holland. 2010). women have money and have a significant presence in how it¶s spent (Holland. y y 43% of Americans with more than $500. is directly correlated to increases in women¶s sports.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 6 It makes logical sense to believe that the increase in athletic apparel sales in the U. y Senior women age 50+ control net worth of $19 trillion and own more than three-fourths of the nation¶s financial wealth.

business owner and supporter of the Tigers. One Memphis Tiger season ticket holder stated the following in regards to lack of female based marketing: There seems to be an inherent lack of female-based marketing strategies present at Tiger games. 2011).The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 7 Currently. 2011). Not only arethe number of female fans in attendance visible to the naked eye. and is looking to market their business to a select demographic. Looking at the crowd a relatively large amount of the fans are women. there are only two current partners are marketing directly to women.000 Memphis women ± 35 years of age or older ± that consider themselves Tiger fans (Scarborough. which indicates there are over 210. These include: Palm Beach Tan and Plaza Beauty School (Scarborough. Despite the relatively large accumulation of sponsors. 2011). but they¶re supporting the Tigers in their everyday lives! As a female fan. Each sponsoring company has a different aim in their partnership with the Tigers. Scarborough Research proves ± with factual evidence ± that a vast majority of fans attending games are in fact females! Scarborough Research provides the graph shown below. I would absolutely support a business if their product was appropriate for me. the Memphis Tigers athletic sponsorship division (under contract with Learfield Sports until 2022) is comprised of 82 companies in and around the city of Memphis (Scarborough. . Not only are these women at the games.

The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 8 Scarborough Research considers a ³Tiger Fan´ anyone who consumed/viewed Tiger sports in any of the following ways: attendance. 2008). television. and 42% of them have children between the ages of 1-3 (Scarborough. additional research shows that 50. So how could sponsorship properties (particularly the U of M) and local businesses not understand the implications of neglecting such as large market? What other marketing outlet provides the opportunity for a company to solely market their product to thousands of individuals in their target market at one particular time? Considering the amount of variables utilized in the evaluation process of a sports sponsorship. radio or internet. it is difficult to determine the lost opportunity cost incurred by neglecting this particular demographic (Wilson. 1997). This is relevant to Tiger sponsorships as women are reportedly more motivated to attend sports when they provide opportunities to spend time with their families (Mewett. 2011).3% of women Tiger fan are married. . In addition to the amount of women who consider themselves Tiger fans.

from a hypothetical standpoint. it is the responsibility of the sponsorship property. There were roughly 71.Men¶s Basketball (Anonymous.080 business transactions for an 18 game athletic sponsorship! (2% of 3. 2011).400 fans per game. Sponsorship properties (U of M and others) . any given female-based company is looking at a potential increase of 1. Of these 71.000 females attended each Men¶s Basketball game during the 2009-10 season (18 total home games) Assuming that the industry¶s average ROI for sport marketing is 2-7%.080 business transaction impressions) Unfortunately it is not the job of the business to understand this.000 women that attended Tiger Sports events in 2009 (Scarborough. Assuming these numbers are consistent. It should be noted that this encompasses all Memphis Tiger sports in 2009 (Scarborough. the Memphis Tigers Men¶s Basketball team averaged 16. placing them among the top ten teams in attendance in NCAA Division I. the following scenario could be considered a rational assumption for the above mentioned dilemma: Currently.000 of them attended at least one Memphis Tigers Men¶s Basketball game (Scarborough. A reasonable average would indicate that roughly 3. During the 2009-10 season. 59.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 9 However.000 women. 2011). it is logical to begin the development of an opportunity cost model for a neglected demographic based on current ROI percentages and attendance figures. 2010). 2011).000 = 60 impressions per game X 18 games = 1. industry standards ± as well as recommendations from sports marketers in the field ± believe a sponsorship ±with goals exceeding singular branding initiatives ± average between 2-7% ROI per activation.

It is important for a sport marketer to understand how to properly market products to women and understand the marketing psychology of the female attendee.relative to hegemonic masculinity . 66% feel misunderstood by health care marketers. differentiate female and male-based prospecting tactics. and begin . These steps accomplish the following: denounce hegemonic-masculinity beliefs. The sooner sport marketers understand this concept. Step one begins with understandingthat female involvement in sports has increased and will continue to increase in the future! Research indicates recent growth in North American sports leagues is evidenced not only by men¶s sports growth. In fact. Sports¶ marketing already has a storied past . but by the rapid growth of women¶s professional sports such as the WNBA and WUSA (James. 2002).and thus it¶s important to understand methods of breaking down those barriers. 84% feel misunderstood by investment marketers. and implore properly developed marketing programs for selected demographics. Further information indicates that: y y y y 59% of women feel misunderstood by food marketers.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 10 are doing a severe injustice to themselves and local businesses by not provided an accurate description on the potential for female-based businesses to succeed by allowing ³old-school´ hegemonic masculinity beliefs to continue to live on. it was reported that 91% of women felt they were misunderstood by marketers and advertising campaigns (Holland. I propose a three-step plan in order to sufficiently lay the ground work for a successful female-based marketing program. 74% feel misunderstood by automotive marketers. 2010). in one particular survey.

. It is essential that sport marketers (particularly males) understand that women have different thought processes than men. Bush¶s research indicated thatfemales tend to spread more positive word-of-mouth information (WOM) about a brandthat is endorsed by their favorite celebrity or athlete thanmales. Bush et al. however this situation is an exact reflection of an improper understanding of a new and unique demographic. and how it applies to prospecting businesses¶ marketing efforts. (2004) discovered that females were moreinfluenced by sports celebrities than their male counterparts. This process begins by learning about purchasing habits of female fans. There is currently a female-based business partner who wants to restructure their agreement with the Tigers because their promotional plan was not activated upon the needs and wants of the female Tiger fans coming to their stores. It is essential that marketing efforts be directly related to the needs and wants accompanied with female fan purchases. 257). a male sport manager must have a clear understanding of the client. In order to properly understand the needs of a prospect. the sooner hegemonic-masculinity based beliefs will begin to deteriorate and this vast demographic of fans can be reached successfully. The property is lucky this sponsor understood the mistake and was willing to invest additional dollars to fix it. Females were also more apt than males to recommendproducts and services to their friends that were endorsed bytheir favorite athlete (Bush. The second step in proper marketing to the female demographic is to understand the psychology of a female consumer. For example.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 11 utilizing it to their advantage. The final step involves the sport manager¶s understandingof their female fans needs and purchasing decisions.

like this.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 12 Scarborough Research has the ability to provide this information and assist the preventative measures to ensure potentially devastating errors.´ Gary Crawford ± in Consuming Sport: Fans. The graph below ± provided by Scarborough Research ± shows what women Tiger fans plan to purchase within the next 12 months (Scarborough. Sport and Culture ± quotes Delaney as saying: ³individuals want to experience a sense of unity with their followers«and sport offers this sense of belonging and community to its followers (Crawford. don¶t occur. Not only could a more female driven marketing campaign provide a sponsorship property financial success. it has the opportunity to help the ³game as a whole. 2011). I feel the properties that understand the significance of what this demographic can provide ± from both a support model to a revenue generating model ± will ultimately be . 2004).

6 million per year ( further supported by James and Ridinger¶s study in 2002 which indicated that ³men tend to have a stronger connection to sport in general. aligns their ³Pink´ brand with 44 universities around the country (nine of them are Learfield properties) (Anonymous. Inc. 2011). 2002). 2011). has a controlling stake in. Victoria¶s Secret operates with an income of over $1 billion a year and with an annual revenue exceeding $5. who are looking to work with this new demographic. With nearly 32% of Tiger Fans between the ages of 18-34.. Currently the Victoria Secret branch of Limited Brands Inc.´ Although marketing specifically for Victoria¶s Secret during in-venue collegiate events might be frowned upon. the ability to tie the Victoria Secret brand with The Limited could prove to be a very viable option. fan support and overall competitive advantage in collegiate athletic sponsorship.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 13 the ones that have the highest rates of financial security. whereas women tend to have a stronger connection to a specific team (James. This is just one of many ways in which properties can begin to develop their models of reaching out to the female demographic. there is a vast opportunity for potential revenue growth in this market. In conclusion. The Limited is a female-demographic focused company. 2011 ). but Learfield Sports as a . is that of The Limited Inc. A good model for properties to examine. publicly traded on the NYSE and sustains an annual value of roughly $40 per share (Anonymous. I firmly believe that not only should Tiger Sports Properties begin taking steps forward to reach their female demographic. Victoria¶s Secret is one of the many companies Limited Brands. This type of marketing venture ± which brands a female company with a specific team . and their current partners.

Maryland. 2011). With IMG¶s recent acquisition of Collegiate Licensing Co. as a means of additional revenue generation. There are plenty of opportunities for TSP to grow with this demographic. Marquette. Utah) and Nelligan Sports (Louisville. Virginia.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 14 company should begin to evaluate this demographics¶ potential.. Host Communications and ISP Sports. as well as a community relations standpoint. and I believe that the rewards have the potential to far outweigh the risks. . Learfield Sports now stands alone as the only major competitor to IMG College in the collegiate sponsorship division. from both an advertising. Rutgers) (Smith. The only remaining businesses left are CBS Collegiate Sports Properties (LSU.

Retrieved from: http://finance.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=875382004 2742b01b8b6be967b4a3893 Anonymous. Retrieved from: 3893/ A. (2011).com/2011/01/30/magazine/'s_Secret. (2010). Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal. Retrieved from: http://www. Retrieved from: http://www.acostacarpenter. NCAA. The New York Times. (2011). Baker. Burgess.wikipedia. (2009). Cotton LifeStyle Monitor Inc.nytimes. Retrieved from: http://www.html?_r=2&ref=magazine. J (2003) Football Culture in an Australian . Victoria Secret. (2011).pdf Anonymous (2009). Wikipedia. Retrieved from: http://lifestylemonitor. National Study Thirty Three Year Update. The Limited Brand Inc. Volume 33. Supply Chain Insight: Athletic Apparel: A Market Opportunity. Edwards. I. Anonymous. Grid Iron 2011.cottoninc. and Skinner.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 15 References Acosta and Carpenter (2010). Anonymous.1-40. (2010) National College Basketball Attendance: For all NCAA Men¶s Varsity Lynn L. Bush. Sport and Recreation.. Jeffery D. Holland Advertising. Gary. Vol. Wann et al (Wann 2001).arasite. No. Page 59. (2005) "Girl power and word-of-mouth behavior in the flourishing sports market". (2004). Education and Society. Consuming Sport: Fan¶s.. and Ridinger. Paul. Retrieved from: http://www. 25. (2010). pp. A Comparison of Sport Consumption Motives.html Bush. Journal of Sport Alan.257 ± 264 Crawford. Clark. Peter. Holland. 22 Iss: 5.%20Tour . (2002) Female and Male Sport Fans. 2004. 2002. Vol 8. Stephanie. (2008) The Strength of Strong Ties: How Women Become Supporters of Australian Rules Football..The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 16 School Setting: The Construction of Masculine Identity. Retrieved from: http://she-conomy.. and Toffoletti. Robert. Sport and Culture. Journal of Consumer 57&dq=are+women+consuming+sport+more&source=bl&ots=4R_GX0P T1v&sig=iVKpHYcqS8azE7JjFwdv9LP0IU8&hl=en&ei=MhGzTcTeNs6 4tge8w8HpDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved =0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false.2: 199 ± 212. Sport.tasa. Psychology Press. Victoria. Retrieved from: http://books. She Economy Sport and Jersey Facts Newsletter. Bush. Mewett. Retrieved from: http://www.

cnbc. Issn: 1327-6816.pdf Rovell. Retrieved from: Wilson.%20Travel%20and%20Sport/Mewett. Whose NFL Jersey Score the Most with Women? CNBC Sports t_With_Women. Retrieved from: http://fulltext.sportsbusinessdaily. Glenn A.%20Peter. Griffith University. Michael. Darren. Page 1.%20Session%2055% 20PDF. earfield.aspx. Sports Business Journal.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 17 ism. (2011) Learfield looks at its growth options. April 25.htm . Retrieved from: http://www. Scarborough Research.ausport. (2011). (1997) Does Sport Sponsorship Have a Direct Effect on Product Sales? Cyber-Journal of Sport Marketing. (2011).

and how it shapes the identity of youth males. Whose NFL Jersey Score the Most with Women? CNBC Sports Business. This source was utilized as a foundational structure in the following essay as female marketing efforts must overcome hegemonic masculinity ties associated with college athletics. This article retrieved information from the NFL regarding television ratings for CBS¶s Sunday Night Football. The New York Times. (2011). Volume 33. Katie. 3) Baker. No. Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal. Darren. Retrieved from: http://www. Vol 8. J (2003) Football Culture in an Australian School Setting: The Construction of Masculine Identity. Retrieved from: http://www.html?_r=2&ref=magazine. Sport. it shows readers that they are increasing in employment as well.html a. Grid Iron _Women. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www. Retrieved from: and assisted in providing research to validate females increased consumption of sports. This reference was utilized as a foundational element to prove that there has been an increase in female involvement in college sport since the inception of Title XI. 2) Acosta and Carpenter (2010).arasite. This media article provided information about the increasing fan involvement from females in regards to the NFL. 4) Rovell.acostacarpenter.cnbc.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 18 In-Depth Annotated Bibliography ± Sources In Usage Order 1) . p.. I. A.1-40.2: 199 ± 212. Not only does this article provide vital information to support the claim that females are increasing in participation. a. Edwards. National Study Thirty Three Year Update. Education and Society.pdf a. This reference provides insight into the male-hegemonic structure in athletics. and Skinner.

com and records in his article the top selling jersey¶s of the 2010 season. This poplar news source provided information on recent jersey sales in the NFL. 5) Holland. Retrieved from: http://she-conomy. (1997)Does Sport Sponsorship Have a Direct Effect on Product Sales? Cyber-Journal of Sport This article provided information on the growing marketing in apparel sales. All Scarborough Research is accounted for an approved by Learfield Sports. in accompaniment with NFL jersey sales. a. In addition. helps support the notion that females are heavily involved in clothing Scarborough is an independent research agency. and bases research information off survey questionnaires completed every six months in selected markets. (2010). Glenn A. Retrieved from: http://lifestylemonitor. She Economy Sport and Jersey Facts Newsletter. The article took a look the current trends in apparel purchases.cottoninc. Supply Chain Insight: Athletic Apparel: A Market Opportunity. 6) Anonymous (2009). (2009). The emphasis of the article in on the popularity of players with the female market and their current trends of consumption.ausport. a. Griffith Issn: 1327-6816. especially among women. and the demographics and activities for which they are purchases for. Holland Advertising.htm . Author Darren Rovell pulls his information from NFLSHOP. 8) Cotton LifeStyle Monitor Inc. This particular research slide reveals the amount of women in Memphis whom consider themselves Memphis Tiger fans. Stephanie. it provided great information into the growth of the female demographic from a financial standpoint as well as sport consumption standpoint. 7) Scarborough Research a. This. Retrieved from: http://fulltext. This newsletter provided the following research paper information on women¶s financial position in American society.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 19 a.

11) Smith.%2 0Travel%20and%20Sport/Mewett.tasa. 2010 National College Basketball Attendance: For all NCAA Men¶s Varsity Teams. Due to it¶s vast array of These figures were utilized. April 25.%20Peter.%20Tourism.ncaa. and Toffoletti. while others involve strictly branding efforts. Retrieved from: http://www.pdf a. Michael. This research article was utilized more as a reference point along with other research to gain a comparative analysis on women as supporters in d. This research outlet provided information onto the difficulty in the evaluation process of athletic sponsorships.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 20 a. Retrieved from: http://www. This article. gives insight into the changing landscape that is collegiate sport Retrieved from: http://www.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=8753820042742b01b8b6b e967b4a3893 a. in addition to Scarborough Research. This research forum provided attendance figures for the University of Memphis Tigers Men¶s Basketball team. (2011) Learfield looks at its growth options.%20Session%2055%20PDF. to determine the amount of female fans in attendance during each regular season home Men¶s Basketball game for the University of Memphis Tigers. This journal article provided an in-depth look into the recent acquisitions IMG has made into the college sports landscape. 10) Mewett. NCAA. . (2008) The Strength of Strong Ties: How Women Become Supporters of Australian Rules Football. and how it is affecting Learfield Sports.. Wann et al (Wann 2001).org/wps/wcm/connect/8753820042742b01b8b6be967b4a3893/A wide_Mbkbattlists. (2010). a. Page 1.aspx. Sports Business Journal. Peter. obtained from Sports Business Journal. sport sponsorships are very difficult to evaluate because some many include traffic driving initiatives. Kim. 9) Unknown.

and that female athletics is a major reason for the increase in sport growth. and Ridinger. Victoria Secret. Overall. This resource provided financial insight. This research article provided information into the sustainability of female sport growth.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 21 12)'s_Secret. Retrieved from: and assisted in developing supporting information for Victoria Secret¶s Pink Brand sponsorships with various collegiate athletic teams. 15) Crawford. 2004. Consuming Sport: Fan¶s. as well as transactional history for the development and target market of the brand. Psychology the stock has remained relatively stable despite and unstable economy. a.. 2002. This particular except directs it¶s studies towards the psychology of a .com/books?id=GvKeSK093mgC&pg=PA57&lpg=PA57&dq =are+women+consuming+sport+more&source=bl&ots=4R_GX0PT1v&sig=iVK pHYcqS8azE7JjFwdv9LP0IU8&hl=en&ei=MhGzTcTeNs64tge8w8HpDg&sa=X &oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepa ge&q&f=false. 25. Sport and Culture. This book excerpt provided information to assist in the backing that women are heavily involved with sport on a regularly consuming basis. 14) James. (2002) Female and Male Sport Fans. Retrieved from: http://en. Jeffery D. (2011). Information on Victoria Secret. The Limited Brand Vol. Page 59. a. Overall indications point to the Limited¶s partnership with colleges across the country have assisted in the sustained growth of the company. a. 13) Unknown. was obtained from WikiPedia. A Comparison of Sport Consumption Motives. Journal of Sport Behavior. (2004).yahoo. Retrieved from: http://finance. a. Lynn L. The Yahoo stock finance sheet simply gave information as to the recent trends in the Limited Stock. Sport and Recreation. (2011). Gary. This article gave research indications that female athletics is not something that is going away in the near future.

Bush. and when they are more likely to attend. Robert P. (2005) "Girl power and word-of-mouth behavior in the flourishing sports market". Alan J. .257 ± 264 a. this piece of research played a fundamental role in the foundational elements for this project. This article was one of the best supporting pieces of information for this paper.The Missing Link in Collegiate Athletic Sponsorship: Marketing to a Growing Fan Base 22 female and provides reasons for why they attend events. Bush. Paul Clark. 22 Iss: 5. Vol. pp. This essay really took an in-depth look into the behaviors of females in the sports market. and why they occur. Although not a majority of information was officially quoted or utilized for this research project. Bush. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 16) Victoria D.

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