John Milton

Paradise Lost
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Anton Lesser

John Milton

Paradise Lost
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1 Book I: The Argument This first Book proposes, first in brief, the whole Subject, Mans disobedience, and the loss thereupon of Paradise wherein he was plac’t: Then touches the prime cause of his fall, the Serpent, or rather Satan in the Serpent; who revolting from God, and drawing to his side many Legions of Angels, was by the command of God driven out of Heaven with all his Crew into the great Deep. Which action past over, the Poem hasts into the midst of things, presenting Satan with his Angels now fallen into Hell, describ’d here, not in the Center (for Heaven and Earth may be suppos’d as yet not made, certainly not yet accurst) but in a place of utter darkness, fitliest call’d Chaos: Here Satan with his Angels lying on the burning Lake, thunder-struck and astonisht, after a certain space recovers, as from confusion, calls up him who next in Order and Dignity lay by him; they confer of thir miserable fall. Satan awakens all his Legions, who lay till then in the same manner confounded; They rise, thir Numbers, array of Battel, thir chief Leaders nam’d, according to the Idols known afterwards in Canaan and the Countries adjoyning. To these Satan directs his Speech, comforts them with hope yet of regaining Heaven, but tells them lastly of a new World and new kind of Creature to be created, according to an ancient Prophesie or report in Heaven; for that Angels were long before this visible Creation, was the opinion of many ancient Fathers. To find out the truth of this Prophesie, and what to determin thereon he refers to a full Councel. What his Associates thence attempt. Pandemonium the Palace of Satan rises, suddenly built out of the Deep: The infernal Peers there sit in Councel.



Book I Of Man’s first disobedience, and the fruit Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste Brought death into the World, and all our woe, With loss of Eden, till one greater Man Restore us, and regain the blissful seat, Sing, Heavenly Muse, that, on the secret top Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire That shepherd who first taught the chosen seed In the beginning how the heavens and earth Rose out of Chaos: or, if Sion hill Delight thee more, and Siloa’s brook that flowed Fast by the oracle of God, I thence Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song, That with no middle flight intends to soar Above th’ Aonian mount, while it pursues Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme. And chiefly thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer Before all temples th’ upright heart and pure, Instruct me, for thou know’st; thou from the first Wast present, and, with mighty wings outspread, Dove-like sat’st brooding on the vast Abyss, And mad’st it pregnant: what in me is dark Illumine, what is low raise and support; That, to the height of this great argument, I may assert Eternal Providence, And justify the ways of God to men. Say first – for Heaven hides nothing from thy view, Nor the deep tract of Hell – say first what cause Moved our grand parents, in that happy state, Favoured of Heaven so highly, to fall off

From their Creator, and transgress his will For one restraint, lords of the World besides. Who first seduced them to that foul revolt? Th’ infernal Serpent; he it was whose guile, Stirred up with envy and revenge, deceived The mother of mankind, what time his pride Had cast him out from Heaven, with all his host Of rebel Angels, by whose aid, aspiring To set himself in glory above his peers, He trusted to have equalled the Most High, If he opposed, and with ambitious aim Against the throne and monarchy of God, Raised impious war in Heaven and battle proud, With vain attempt. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong flaming from th’ ethereal sky, With hideous ruin and combustion, down To bottomless perdition, there to dwell In adamantine chains and penal fire, Who durst defy th’ Omnipotent to arms. Nine times the space that measures day and night To mortal men, he, with his horrid crew, Lay vanquished, rolling in the fiery gulf, Confounded, though immortal. But his doom Reserved him to more wrath; for now the thought Both of lost happiness and lasting pain Torments him: round he throws his baleful eyes, That witnessed huge affliction and dismay, Mixed with obdurate pride and steadfast hate. At once, as far as Angels ken, he views The dismal situation waste and wild. A dungeon horrible, on all sides round, As one great furnace flamed; yet from those flames

No light; but rather darkness visible Served only to discover sights of woe, Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace And rest can never dwell, hope never comes That comes to all, but torture without end Still urges, and a fiery deluge, fed With ever-burning sulphur unconsumed. Such place Eternal Justice has prepared For those rebellious; here their prison ordained In utter darkness, and their portion set, As far removed from God and light of Heaven As from the centre thrice to th’ utmost pole. Oh how unlike the place from whence they fell!

There the companions of his fall, o’erwhelmed With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire, He soon discerns; and, weltering by his side, One next himself in power, and next in crime, Long after known in Palestine, and named Beelzebub. To whom th’ Arch-Enemy, And thence in Heaven called Satan, with bold words Breaking the horrid silence, thus began: – If thou beest he – but O how fallen! how changed From him who, in the happy realms of light Clothed with transcendent brightness, didst outshine Myriads, though bright! – if he whom mutual league, United thoughts and counsels, equal hope And hazard in the glorious enterprise Joined with me once, now misery hath joined In equal ruin; into what pit thou seest

From what height fallen: so much the stronger proved He with his thunder; and till then who knew The force of those dire arms? Yet not for those, Nor what the potent Victor in his rage Can else inflict, do I repent, or change, Though changed in outward lustre, that fixed mind, And high disdain from sense of injured merit, That with the Mightiest raised me to contend, And to the fierce contentions brought along Innumerable force of Spirits armed, That durst dislike his reign, and, me preferring, His utmost power with adverse power opposed In dubious battle on the plains of Heaven, And shook his throne. What though the field be lost? All is not lost – the unconquerable will, And study of revenge, immortal hate, And courage never to submit or yield: And what is else not to be overcome? That glory never shall his wrath or might Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace With suppliant knee, and deify his power Who, from the terror of this arm, so late Doubted his empire – that were low indeed; That were an ignominy and shame beneath This downfall; since, by fate, the strength of Gods, And this empyreal substance, cannot fail; Since, through experience of this great event, In arms not worse, in foresight much advanced, We may with more successful hope resolve To wage by force or guile eternal war, Irreconcilable to our grand Foe, Who now triumphs, and in th’ excess of joy

or fate. Whether upheld by strength. though in pain. Though all our glory extinct. Hath lost us Heaven. endangered Heaven’s perpetual King. in dreadful deeds Fearless. So spake th’ apostate Angel. and all this mighty host In horrible destruction laid thus low. but racked with deep despair. As far as Gods and heavenly Essences Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains Invincible. But what if he our Conqueror (whom I now Of force believe almighty. and happy state Here swallowed up in endless misery. since no less Than such could have o’erpowered such force as ours) Have left us this our spirit and strength entire. Here in the heart of Hell to work in fire. Strongly to suffer and support our pains. and. Vaunting aloud. whate’er his business be. with sad overthrow and foul defeat. And him thus answered soon his bold compeer: – O Prince.Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heaven. or chance. Or do him mightier service as his thralls By right of war. And put to proof his high supremacy. O Chief of many throned Powers That led th’ embattled Seraphim to war Under thy conduct. That we may so suffice his vengeful ire. and vigour soon returns. Too well I see and rue the dire event That. Or do his errands in the gloomy Deep? What can it us avail though yet we feel 8 .

But ever to do ill our sole delight. As being the contrary to his high will Whom we resist. to be weak is miserable. But see! the angry Victor hath recalled His ministers of vengeance and pursuit Back to the gates of Heaven: the sulphurous hail. void of light. Save what the glimmering of these livid flames Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us tend 9 . and ceases now To bellow through the vast and boundless Deep. Which ofttimes may succeed so as perhaps Shall grieve him. Winged with red lightning and impetuous rage. whether scorn Or satiate fury yield it from our Foe. If then his providence Out of our evil seek to bring forth good. forlorn and wild. Seest thou yon dreary plain. The seat of desolation.Strength undiminished. or eternal being To undergo eternal punishment? 4 Whereto with speedy words th’ Arch-Fiend replied: – Fallen Cherub. Shot after us in storm. and the thunder. Perhaps hath spent his shafts. Our labour must be to pervert that end. Doing or suffering: but of this be sure – To do aught good never will be our task. And out of good still to find means of evil. and disturb His inmost counsels from their destined aim. Let us not slip th’ occasion. if I fail not. o’erblown hath laid The fiery surge that from the precipice Of Heaven received us falling.

How overcome this dire calamity. talking to his nearest mate. whom the den By ancient Tarsus held. Lay floating many a rood. Deeming some island. our own loss how repair. oft. Briareos or Typhon. his other parts besides Prone on the flood.From off the tossing of these fiery waves. And. what resolution from despair. in bulk as huge As whom the fables name of monstrous size. So stretched out huge in length the Arch-fiend lay. and wished morn delays. With head uplift above the wave. That with reiterated crimes he might 10 . Consult how we may henceforth most offend Our enemy. The pilot of some small night-foundered skiff. Titanian or Earth-born.’ Thus Satan. What reinforcement we may gain from hope. or heaved his head. extended long and large. and eyes That sparkling blazed. which God of all his works Created hugest that swim th’ ocean-stream. re-assembling our afflicted powers. as seamen tell. or that sea-beast Leviathan. while night Invests the sea. if any rest can harbour there. nor ever thence Had risen. that warred on Jove. haply slumbering on the Norway foam. Chained on the burning lake. With fixed anchor in his scaly rind. but that the will And high permission of all-ruling Heaven Left him at large to his own dark designs. If not. Moors by his side under the lee. Him. There rest.

whose combustible And fuelled entrails. Both glorying to have scaped the Stygian flood As gods. while he sought Evil to others. and by their own recovered strength. and. and enraged might see How all his malice served but to bring forth Infinite goodness. and mercy. And leave a singed bottom all involved With stench and smoke. leave i’ th’ midst a horrid vale. but on himself Treble confusion. as the lake with liquid fire. till on dry land He lights – if it were land that ever burned With solid. That felt unusual weight. And such appeared in hue as when the force Of subterranean wind transports a hill Torn from Pelorus. the clime. aid the winds. this the soil. on each hand the flames Driven backward slope their pointing spires. or the shattered side Of thundering Etna. incumbent on the dusky air. Sublimed with mineral fury.Heap on himself damnation. Is this the region. grace. Not by the sufferance of supernal Power. rolled In billows. Him followed his next mate. this the seat 11 . Then with expanded wings he steers his flight Aloft. and vengeance poured. shewn On Man by him seduced. Said then the lost Archangel. Such resting found the sole Of unblest feet. wrath. 5 Forthwith upright he rears from off the pool His mighty stature. thence conceiving fire.

but th’ Omnipotent. Lie thus astonished on th’ oblivious pool. a Hell of Heaven. none could have foiled! If once they hear that voice. And what I should be. and him Beelzebub Thus answered: – Leader of those armies bright Which. Th’ associates and co-partners of our loss. But wherefore let we then our faithful friends. profoundest Hell. To reign is worth ambition. Receive thy new possessor – one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. will not drive us hence: Here we may reign secure.That we must change for Heaven? – this mournful gloom For that celestial light? Be it so. The mind is its own place. or what more lost in Hell? So Satan spake. force hath made supreme Above his equals. And call them not to share with us their part In this unhappy mansion. horrors! hail. Farewell. Where joy for ever dwells! Hail. all but less than he Whom thunder hath made greater? Here at least We shall be free. What matter where. in my choice. since he Who now is sovereign can dispose and bid What shall be right: farthest from him is best Whom reason hath equalled. if I be still the same. though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven. or once more With rallied arms to try what may be yet Regained in Heaven. their liveliest pledge 12 . and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell. th’ Almighty hath not built Here for his envy. and. Infernal world! and thou. happy fields.

Or in Valdarno. and on the perilous edge Of battle. massy. Rivers. or mountains. when it raged. or scattered sedge 13 . and round. who lay entranced Thick as autumnal leaves that strow the brooks In Vallombrosa. large. were but a wand – He walked with. Nathless he so endured. His spear – to equal which the tallest pine Hewn on Norwegian hills. and the torrid clime Smote on him sore besides. to support uneasy steps Over the burning marl. Behind him cast. his ponderous shield. in all assaults Their surest signal – they will soon resume New courage and revive. vaulted with fire. No wonder. The broad circumference Hung on his shoulders like the moon. fallen such a pernicious height! 6 He scarce had ceased when the superior Fiend Was moving toward the shore. astounded and amazed. till on the beach Of that inflamed sea he stood.Of hope in fears and dangers – heard so oft In worst extremes. Ethereal temper. where th’ Etrurian shades High over-arched embower. As we erewhile. and called His legions – Angel Forms. to descry new lands. whose orb Through optic glass the Tuscan artist views At evening. to be the mast Of some great admiral. from the top of Fesole. though now they lie Grovelling and prostrate on yon lake of fire. in her spotty globe. not like those steps On Heaven’s azure.

Nor did they not perceive the evil plight 14 . Abject and lost. lay these. or be for ever fallen! They heard. who beheld From the safe shore their floating carcases And broken chariot-wheels. He called so loud that all the hollow deep Of Hell resounded: – ‘Princes. whose waves o’erthrew Busiris and his Memphian chivalry. as in the vales of Heaven? Or in this abject posture have ye sworn To adore the Conqueror. arise. Under amazement of their hideous change. and up they sprung Upon the wing. the Flower of Heaven – once yours. Warriors. While with perfidious hatred they pursued The sojourners of Goshen. So thick bestrown. and were abashed. till anon His swift pursuers from Heaven-gates discern Th’ advantage. Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake. covering the flood. and. sleeping found by whom they dread. now lost. for the ease you find To slumber here. If such astonishment as this can seize Eternal Spirits! Or have ye chosen this place After the toil of battle to repose Your wearied virtue. who now beholds Cherub and Seraph rolling in the flood With scattered arms and ensigns. tread us down Thus drooping. or with linked thunderbolts Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf? Awake. when with fierce winds Orion armed Hath vexed the Red-Sea coast.Afloat. descending. as when men wont to watch On duty. Potentates.

The heads and leaders thither haste where stood Their great Commander – godlike Shapes. in Egypt’s evil day. Though of their names in Heavenly records now Be no memorial. and darkened all the land of Nile. As when the potent rod Of Amram’s son. till. And Powers that erst in Heaven sat on thrones. ‘Twixt upper. Nor had they yet among the sons of Eve Got them new names. nether. as a signal given. from every squadron and each band. and spread Beneath Gibraltar to the Libyan sands. By falsities and lies the greatest part 15 . up-called a pitchy cloud Of locusts. blotted out and rased By their rebellion from the Books of Life. th’ uplifted spear Of their great Sultan waving to direct Their course. in even balance down they light On the firm brimstone. or the fierce pains not feel. princely Dignities. Till. when her barbarous sons Came like a deluge on the South. That o’er the realm of impious Pharaoh hung Like Night. warping on the eastern wind. Yet to their General’s voice they soon obeyed Innumerable. So numberless were those bad Angels seen Hovering on wing under the cope of Hell. Through God’s high sufferance for the trial of man. and fill all the plain: A multitude like which the populous North Poured never from her frozen loins to pass Rhene or Danaw. and Forms Excelling human. Waved round the coast. Forthwith.In which they were. wandering o’er the earth. and surrounding fires.

Hovering on wing. under the cope of Hell” (Book I. 345) 16 .“So numberless were those bad Angels. lines 344.

Of mankind they corrupted to forsake God their Creator. First. and durst abide Jehovah thundering out of Sion. from the pit of Hell Roaming to seek their prey on Earth. horrid king. Their altars by his altar. gods adored Among the nations round. Abominations. And with their darkness durst affront his light. Roused from the slumber on that fiery couch. throned Between the Cherubim. durst fix Their seats. At their great Emperor’s call. Muse. for the noise of drums and timbrels loud. And various idols through the heathen world. Say. as next in worth Came singly where he stood on the bare strand. often placed Within his sanctuary itself their shrines. who last. and parents’ tears. Though. yea. While the promiscuous crowd stood yet aloof? 7 The chief were those who. and with cursed things His holy rites and solemn feasts profaned. and th’ invisible Glory of him that made them to transform Oft to the image of a brute. besmeared with blood Of human sacrifice. long after. adorned With gay religions full of pomp and gold. Their children’s cries unheard that passed through fire To his grim idol. Him the Ammonite Worshiped in Rabba and her watery plain. 17 . Moloch. who first. next the seat of God. And devils to adore for deities: Then were they known to men by various names. their names then known.

In Argob and in Basan. Nor content with such Audacious neighbourhood. Like cumbrous flesh. Can either sex assume. th’ obscene dread of Moab’s sons. when he enticed Israel in Sittim. from the bordering flood Of old Euphrates to the brook that parts Egypt from Syrian ground. And Eleale to th’ Asphaltic Pool: Peor his other name. Tophet thence And black Gehenna called. in what shape they choose. but. the type of Hell. To do him wanton rites. Till good Josiah drove them thence to Hell. when they please. bright or obscure. to the stream Of utmost Arnon. Seon’s realm. For Spirits. had general names Of Baalim and Ashtaroth – those male. and made his grove The pleasant valley of Hinnom. which cost them woe. so soft And uncompounded is their essence pure. These feminine. on their march from Nile. Nor founded on the brittle strength of bones. beyond The flowery dale of Sibma clad with vines. Yet thence his lustful orgies he enlarged Even to that hill of scandal. Not tied or manacled with joint or limb. With these came they who. in Hesebon And Horonaim. Next Chemos. lust hard by hate. the wisest heart Of Solomon he led by fraud to build His temple right against the temple of God On that opprobrious hill. Dilated or condensed. From Aroar to Nebo and the wild Of southmost Abarim. 18 . or both. by the grove Of Moloch homicide.

sunk before the spear Of despicable foes. Thammuz came next behind. for which their heads as low Bowed down in battle. His eye surveyed the dark idolatries Of alienated Judah. with crescent horns. Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured The Syrian damsels to lament his fate In amorous ditties all a summer’s day. bowing lowly down To bestial gods. though large. when the captive ark 19 . fell To idols foul. While smooth Adonis from his native rock Ran purple to the sea. To whose bright image nightly by the moon Sidonian virgins paid their vows and songs. by the vision led. and unfrequented left His righteous altar. supposed with blood Of Thammuz yearly wounded: the love-tale Infected Sion’s daughters with like heat. In Sion also not unsung. where stood Her temple on th’ offensive mountain. whom the Phoenicians called Astarte. 8 Next came one Who mourned in earnest. built By that uxorious king whose heart. And works of love or enmity fulfil. queen of heaven. With these in troop Came Astoreth. Whose wanton passions in the sacred porch Ezekiel saw.Can execute their airy purposes. Beguiled by fair idolatresses. when. For those the race of Israel oft forsook Their Living Strength.

Likening his Maker to the grazed ox – Jehovah. than whom a Spirit more lewd 20 . upward man And downward fish. sea-monster. whereon to burn His odious offerings. and their train – With monstrous shapes and sorceries abused Fanatic Egypt and her priests to seek Their wandering gods disguised in brutish forms Rather than human. After these appeared A crew who. whom he drew God’s altar to disparage and displace For one of Syrian mode. whose delightful seat Was fair Damascus. He also against the house of God was bold: A leper once he lost. Isis. and the rebel king Doubled that sin in Bethel and in Dan. equalled with one stroke Both her first-born and all her bleating gods. head and hands lopt off. on the fertile banks Of Abbana and Pharphar. Belial came last. his sottish conqueror. and adore the gods Whom he had vanquished. Where he fell flat and shamed his worshippers: Dagon his name. And Accaron and Gaza’s frontier bounds. lucid streams. in Gath and Ascalon. when their borrowed gold composed The calf in Oreb. yet had his temple high Reared in Azotus. In his own temple. Orus.Maimed his brute image. when he passed From Egypt marching. who. in one night. Nor did Israel scape Th’ infection. dreaded through the coast Of Palestine. and gained a king – Ahaz. Him followed Rimmon. on the grunsel-edge. under names of old renown – Osiris.

These were the prime in order and in might: The rest were long to tell. Or in Dodona. – Titan. And injury and outrage. To him no temple stood Or altar smoked. to avoid worse rape. His own and Rhea’s son. With his enormous brood. first in Crete And Ida known. So Jove usurping reigned. as did Eli’s sons.Fell not from Heaven. where the noise Of riot ascends above their loftiest towers. when night Darkens the streets. thence on the snowy top Of cold Olympus ruled the middle air. like measure found. or who with Saturn old Fled over Adria to th’ Hesperian fields. and that night In Gibeah. yet who more oft than he In temples and at altars. and birthright seized By younger Saturn: he from mightier Jove. or more gross to love Vice for itself. and. and through all the bounds Of Doric land. when the hospitable door Exposed a matron. Witness the streets of Sodom. Their highest heaven. Their boasted parents. or on the Delphian cliff. when the priest Turns atheist. And in luxurious cities. then wander forth the sons Of Belial. These. 21 . flown with insolence and wine. who filled With lust and violence the house of God? In courts and palaces he also reigns. though far renowned Th’ Ionian gods – of Javan’s issue held Gods. yet confessed later than Heaven and Earth. And o’er the Celtic roamed the utmost Isles. Heaven’s first-born.

which. his wonted pride Soon recollecting. full high advanced. and instead of rage 22 . all the while Sonorous metal blowing martial sounds: At which the universal host up-sent A shout that tore Hell’s concave. Anon they move In perfect phalanx to the Dorian mood Of flutes and soft recorders – such as raised To height of noblest temper heroes old Arming to battle. With orient colours waving: with them rose A forest huge of spears. Seraphic arms and trophies. gently raised Their fainted courage. but with looks Downcast and damp. which on his countenance cast Like doubtful hue. at the warlike sound Of trumpets loud and clarions. But he. with high words. and thronging helms Appeared.9 All these and more came flocking. that bore Semblance of worth. With gems and golden lustre rich emblazed. to have found themselves not lost In loss itself. be upreared His mighty standard. Shone like a meteor streaming to the wind. All in a moment through the gloom were seen Ten thousand banners rise into the air. a Cherub tall: Who forthwith from the glittering staff unfurled Th’ imperial ensign. and beyond Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night. That proud honour claimed Azazel as his right. and dispelled their fears. and serried shields in thick array Of depth immeasurable. Then straight commands that. not substance. yet such wherein appeared Obscure some glimpse of joy to have found their Chief Not in despair.

Nor wanting power to mitigate and swage With solemn touches troubled thoughts. firm. or Montalban.Deliberate valour breathed. Glories: for never. And now his heart Distends with pride. and chase Anguish and doubt and fear and sorrow and pain From mortal or immortal minds. And all who since. or Trebisond. on each side Mixed with auxiliar gods. named with these. Begirt with British and Armoric knights. Met such embodied force as. Awaiting what command their mighty Chief Had to impose. Their number last he sums. And now Advanced in view they stand – a horrid front Of dreadful length and dazzling arms. or Marocco. with ordered spear and shield. Or whom Biserta sent from Afric shore 23 . Damasco. and what resounds In fable or romance of Uther’s son. and. Moved on in silence to soft pipes that charmed Their painful steps o’er the burnt soil. He through the armed files Darts his experienced eye. Jousted in Aspramont. and unmoved With dread of death to flight or foul retreat. Breathing united force with fixed thought. and soon traverse The whole battalion views – their order due. baptized or infidel. Their visages and stature as of gods. Thus they. since created Man. Could merit more than that small infantry Warred on by cranes – though all the giant brood Of Phlegra with th’ heroic race were joined That fought at Thebes and Ilium. hardening in his strength. in guise Of warriors old.

When Charlemain with all his peerage fell By Fontarabbia. Stood like a tower. Cruel his eye. condemned For ever now to have their lot in pain – Millions of Spirits for his fault amerced Of Heaven. or. His form had yet not lost All her original brightness. nor appeared Less than Archangel ruined. Darkened so. though bare. and th’ excess Of glory obscured: as when the sun new-risen Looks through the horizontal misty air Shorn of his beams. and from eternal splendours flung For his revolt – yet faithful how they stood. 24 . In dim eclipse. yet observed Their dread Commander. when heaven’s fire Hath scathed the forest oaks or mountain pines. disastrous twilight sheds On half the nations. Their glory withered. and care Sat on his faded cheek. to behold The fellows of his crime. yet shone Above them all th’ Archangel: but his face Deep scars of thunder had intrenched. and with fear of change Perplexes monarchs. from behind the moon. but under brows Of dauntless courage. and considerate pride Waiting revenge. the followers rather (Far other once beheld in bliss). He. as. above the rest In shape and gesture proudly eminent. With singed top their stately growth. but cast Signs of remorse and passion. 10 Thus far these beyond Compare of mortal prowess.

If counsels different. but with th’ Almighty! – and that strife Was not inglorious. though after loss. and know our own. how such As stood like these. and thrice. and this dire change. He now prepared To speak. shall fail to re-ascend. have lost our hopes. and half enclose him round With all his peers: attention held them mute. could ever know repulse? For who can yet believe. or dread New war provoked: our better part remains 25 . Self-raised. Hateful to utter. from the depth Of knowledge past or present. upheld by old repute. though th’ event was dire.Stands on the blasted heath. That all these puissant legions. Henceforth his might we know. and wrought our fall. Tears. be witness all the host of Heaven. and repossess their native seat? For me. But what power of mind. or danger shunned By me. burst forth: at last Words interwove with sighs found out their way: – O myriads of immortal Spirits! O Powers Matchless. As this place testifies. But he who reigns Monarch in Heaven till then as one secure Sat on his throne. So as not either to provoke. but still his strength concealed – Which tempted our attempt. could have feared How such united force of gods. and his regal state Put forth at full. whereat their doubled ranks they bend From wing to wing. whose exile Hath emptied Heaven. Forseeing or presaging. such as Angels weep. Consent or custom. Thrice he assayed. in spite of scorn.

Space may produce new Worlds. outflew Millions of flaming swords. Highly they raged Against the Highest. 26 . winged with speed. war Open or understood. But these thoughts Full counsel must mature. What force effected not. whereof so rife There went a fame in Heaven that he ere long Intended to create. nor th’ Abyss Long under darkness cover. and fierce with grasped arms Clashed on their sounding shields the din of war. shall be perhaps Our first eruption – thither. who overcomes By force hath overcome but half his foe. whose grisly top Belched fire and rolling smoke. the sudden blaze Far round illumined Hell. to confirm his words. Thither. Hurling defiance toward the vault of Heaven. then. 11 There stood a hill not far. by fraud or guile. Peace is despaired. and. For this infernal pit shall never hold Celestial Spirits in bondage. The work of sulphur.To work in close design. drawn from the thighs Of mighty Cherubim. Thither. must be resolved. the rest entire Shone with a glossy scurf – undoubted sign That in his womb was hid metallic ore. and therein plant A generation whom his choice regard Should favour equal to the Sons of Heaven. He spake. if but to pry. that he no less At length from us may find. or elsewhere. For who can think submission? War.

Soon had his crew Opened into the hill a spacious wound. are easily outdone By Spirits reprobate. a second multitude With wondrous art founded the massy ore. And digged out ribs of gold. That underneath had veins of liquid fire Sluiced from the lake. trodden gold. and with impious hands Rifled the bowels of their mother Earth For treasures better hid. Than aught divine or holy else enjoyed In vision beatific. and wondering tell Of Babel. and by his suggestion taught. scarce perform. and from the boiling cells 27 . and the works of Memphian kings.A numerous brigade hastened: as when bands Of pioneers. that soil may best Deserve the precious bane. and art. for even in Heaven his looks and thoughts Were always downward bent. Forerun the royal camp. Learn how their greatest monuments of fame And strength. A third as soon had formed within the ground A various mould. and scummed the bullion-dross. the least erected Spirit that fell From Heaven. in many cells prepared. admiring more The riches of heaven’s pavement. Let none admire That riches grow in Hell. to trench a field. Mammon led them on – Mammon. Or cast a rampart. and in an hour What in an age they. Nigh on the plain. with incessant toil And hands innumerable. Severing each kind. And here let those Who boast in mortal things. By him first Men also. Ransacked the centre. with spade and pickaxe armed.

Each in his Hierarchy. fed With naptha and asphaltus. wide Within. the Orders bright. or seat Their kings. when Egypt with Assyria strove In wealth and luxury. And some the architect. from one blast of wind. with a sound Of dulcet symphonies and voices sweet – Built like a temple. As in an organ. many a row Of starry lamps and blazing cressets. Pendent by subtle magic. and Doric pillars overlaid With golden architrave. nor did there want Cornice or frieze. to enshrine Belus or Serapis their gods. Not Babylon Nor great Alcairo such magnificence Equalled in all their glories. Nor was his name unheard or unadored 28 . His hand was known In Heaven by many a towered structured high. and straight the doors. Anon out of the earth a fabric huge Rose like an exhalation. Opening their brazen folds. Th’ ascending pile Stood fixed her stately height. whom the supreme King Exalted to such power. her ample spaces o’er the smooth And level pavement: from the arched roof. and the work some praise. Where sceptred Angels held their residence. And sat as Princes. discover. and gave to rule. where pilasters round Were set. yielded light As from a sky. The roof was fretted gold.By strange conveyance filled each hollow nook. The hasty multitude Admiring entered. with bossy sculptures graven. To many a row of pipes the sound-board breathes.

where champions bold Wont ride in armed. with awful ceremony And trumpet’s sound. to build in Hell. the gates And porches wide. but was headlong sent. As bees 29 .In ancient Greece. On Lemnos. Brushed with the hiss of rustling wings. Their summons called From every band and squared regiment By place or choice the worthiest: they anon With hundreds and with thousands trooping came Attended. both on the ground and in the air. Erring. With his industrious crew. and in Ausonian land Men called him Mulciber. Thus they relate. like a falling star. nor aught availed him now To have built in Heaven high towers. throughout the host proclaim A solemn council forthwith to be held At Pandemonium. and at the Soldan’s chair Defied the best of Paynim chivalry To mortal combat. Thick swarmed. thrown by angry Jove Sheer o’er the crystal battlements: from morn To noon he fell. 12 Meanwhile the winged Heralds. All access was thronged. from noon to dewy eve. A summer’s day. or career with lance). and with the setting sun Dropt from the zenith. for he with this rebellious rout Fell long before. and how he fell From Heaven they fabled. the high capital Of Satan and his peers. th’ Aegaean isle. nor did he scape By all his engines. by command Of sovereign power. but chief the spacious hall (Though like a covered field.

till. the signal given. But far within. The suburb of their straw-built citadel. the great consult began. while overhead the Moon Sits arbitress. by a forest-side Or fountain. and were at large. when the Sun with Taurus rides. And in their own dimensions like themselves. At once with joy and fear his heart rebounds. Though without number still. And summons read. 30 . A thousand demi-gods on golden seats. Thus incorporeal Spirits to smallest forms Reduced their shapes immense. or faery elves. and confer Their state-affairs: so thick the airy crowd Swarmed and were straitened. Behold a wonder! They but now who seemed In bigness to surpass Earth’s giant sons. and nearer to the Earth Wheels her pale course: they. in narrow room Throng numberless – like that pygmean race Beyond the Indian mount. Or dreams he sees. The great Seraphic Lords and Cherubim In close recess and secret conclave sat. Now less than smallest dwarfs. some belated peasant sees. or on the smoothed plank. Whose midnight revels. Pour forth their populous youth about the hive In clusters. with jocund music charm his ear. amidst the hall Of that infernal court. they among fresh dews and flowers Fly to and fro. After short silence then. on their mirth and dance Intent. expatiate.In spring-time. New rubbed with balm. Frequent and full.

to the sight of this new World which he sought. by merit raised To that bad eminence. aspires Beyond thus high. I give not Heaven for lost: from this descent Celestial Virtues rising will appear More glorious and more dread than from no fall. by whom at length they are op’nd. since no deep within her gulf can hold Immortal vigour. though oppressed and fallen. He passes on his journey to Hell Gates. is honourd and applauded. mention’d before by Satan. 31 . as thir inclinations lead them. and who sat there to guard them. and. Deities of Heaven! – For. and another kind of creature equal or not much inferiour to themselves. His proud imaginations thus displayed: – Powers and Dominions. which far Outshone the wealth of Ormus and of Ind. 14 Book II High on a throne of royal state. with what difficulty he passes through. and discover to him the great Gulf between Hell and Heaven.13 Book II: The Argument The Consultation begun. to search the truth of that Prophesie or Tradition in Heaven concerning another world. Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold. about this time to be created: Thir doubt who shall be sent on this difficult search: Satan thir chief undertakes alone the voyage. and. Satan debates whether another Battel be to be hazarded for the recovery of Heaven: some advise it. the rest betake them several wayes and to several imployments. The Councel thus ended. Satan exalted sat. others dissuade: A third proposal is prefer’d. finds them shut. to entertain the time till Satan return. insatiate to pursue Vain war with Heaven. directed by Chaos. from despair Thus high uplifted beyond hope. the Power of that place. by success untaught.

might draw Envy from each inferior. and firm faith. then. hath much more Established in a safe. Yielded with full consent. free choice With what besides in council or in fight Hath been achieved of merit – yet this loss. which follows dignity. He ceased. we now return To claim our just inheritance of old. none whose portion is so small Of present pain that with ambitious mind Will covet more! With this advantage. Did first create your leader – next.And trust themselves to fear no second fate! – Me though just right. unenvied throne. sceptred king. no strife can grow up there From faction: for none sure will claim in Hell Precedence. Who can advise may speak. then. and rather than be less 32 . and next him Moloch. Thus far at least recovered. Whether of open war or covert guile. and condemns to greatest share Of endless pain? Where there is. and firm accord. Surer to prosper than prosperity Could have assured us. To union. no good For which to strive. More than can be in Heaven. His trust was with th’ Eternal to be deemed Equal in strength. We now debate. but who here Will envy whom the highest place exposes Foremost to stand against the Thunderer’s aim Your bulwark. and by what best way. and the fixed laws of Heaven. The happier state In Heaven. Stood up – the strongest and the fiercest Spirit That fought in Heaven. now fiercer by despair.

The prison of his tyranny who reigns By our delay? No! let us rather choose. or when they need. see Black fire and horror shot with equal rage Among his Angels. Heaven’s fugitives. For. But perhaps The way seems difficult. I boast not: them let those Contrive who need. Of wiles. Armed with Hell-flames and fury. That in our proper motion we ascend Up to our native seat. He recked not. and his throne itself Mixed with Tartarean sulphur and strange fire. and longing wait The signal to ascend – sit lingering here.Cared not to be at all. Turning our tortures into horrid arms Against the Torturer. for lightning. and for their dwelling-place Accept this dark opprobrious den of shame. or Hell. he shall hear Infernal thunder. with that care lost Went all his fear: of God. if a sleepy drench Of that forgetful lake benumb not still. shall the rest – Millions that stand in arms. all at once O’er Heaven’s high towers to force resistless way. More unexpert. or worse. not now. descent and fall To us is adverse. to meet the noise Of his almighty engine. and these words thereafter spake: – My sentence is for open war. while they sit contriving. Who but felt of late. When the fierce foe hung on our broken rear 33 . when. and steep to scale With upright wing against a higher foe! Let such bethink them. and. His own invented torments.

if our substance be indeed divine. his fatal throne: Which. to the height enraged. if there be in Hell Fear to be worse destroyed! What can be worse Than to dwell here. And with perpetual inroads to alarm. Th’ event is feared! Should we again provoke Our stronger. And cannot cease to be. and the torturing hour. and his look denounced Desperate revenge. when the scourge Inexorably. some worse way his wrath may find To our destruction. and battle dangerous To less than gods. driven out from bliss.Insulting. On th’ other side up rose 34 . and reduce To nothing this essential – happier far Than miserable to have eternal being! – Or. With what compulsion and laborious flight We sunk thus low? Th’ ascent is easy. Will either quite consume us. 15 He ended frowning. if not victory. is yet revenge. Calls us to penance? More destroyed than thus. and expire. condemned In this abhorred deep to utter woe! Where pain of unextinguishable fire Must exercise us without hope of end The vassals of his anger. and pursued us through the Deep. we are at worse On this side nothing. Though inaccessible. We should be quite abolished. and by proof we feel Our power sufficient to disturb his Heaven. What fear we then? What doubt we to incense His utmost ire? which. then.

after some dire revenge. in act more graceful and humane. Scorning surprise. and high exploit.Belial. if what was urged Main reason to persuade immediate war Did not dissuade me most. that render all access Impregnable: oft on the bordering Deep Encamp their legions. Yet he pleased the ear. As not behind in hate. In what he counsels and in what excels Mistrustful. All incorruptible. First. as the scope Of all his aim. and at our heels all Hell should rise With blackest insurrection to confound Heaven’s purest light. would on his throne Sit unpolluted. to perplex and dash Maturest counsels: for his thoughts were low – To vice industrious. could we break our way By force. though his tongue Dropped manna. and seem to cast Ominous conjecture on the whole success. yet our great Enemy. or with obscure wing Scout far and wide into the realm of Night. but to nobler deeds Timorous and slothful. Or. O Peers. 35 . he seemed For dignity composed. A fairer person lost not Heaven. and th’ ethereal mould. grounds his courage on despair And utter dissolution. When he who most excels in fact of arms. But all was false and hollow. And with persuasive accent thus began: – I should be much for open war. and could make the worse appear The better reason. what revenge? The towers of Heaven are filled With armed watch.

“we are decreed. Though full of pain. Sad cure! for who would lose. would soon expel Her mischief. or will ever? How he can Is doubtful. Victorious. this intellectual being. thus in arms? What when we fled amain. worst – Thus sitting. and purge off the baser fire. what can we suffer more. our final hope Is flat despair: we must exasperate Th’ Almighty Victor to spend all his rage. that must be our cure – To be no more. and destined to eternal woe. Thus repulsed. swallowed up and lost In the wide womb of uncreated Night. Those thoughts that wander through eternity. let loose at once his ire. What can we suffer worse?” Is this. Belike through impotence or unaware. Will he. To give his enemies their wish. Reserved. 36 . To perish rather. whether our angry Foe Can give it. Awaked. and end Them in his anger whom his anger saves To punish endless? “Wherefore cease we. Let this be good. Devoid of sense and motion? And who knows. And that must end us. and besought The Deep to shelter us? This Hell then seemed A refuge from those wounds. that he never will is sure. thus consulting. pursued and struck With Heaven’s afflicting thunder. then.Incapable of stain. What if the breath that kindled those grim fires. Or when we lay Chained on the burning lake? That sure was worse. so wise. should blow them into sevenfold rage. then?” Say they who counsel war. Whatever doing.

unreprieved. Designing or exhorting glorious war. therefore. alike My voice dissuades. threatening hideous fall One day upon our heads. Caught in a fiery tempest. or for ever sunk Under yon boiling ocean. or from above Should intermitted vengeance arm again His red right hand to plague us? What if all Her stores were opened. as to do. the sport and prey Of racking whirlwinds. Not more almighty to resist our might Than wise to frustrate all our plots and wiles. There to converse with everlasting groans. Ages of hopeless end? This would be worse. nor the law unjust That so ordains. shall be hurled. The Victor’s will. Impendent horrors. Each on his rock transfixed. or who deceive his mind.And plunge us in the flames. thus expelled. and omnipotent decree. By my advice. Unrespited. This was at first resolved. unpitied. while we perhaps. 16 War. Our strength is equal. live thus vile – the race of Heaven Thus trampled. since fate inevitable Subdues us. wrapt in chains. whose eye Views all things at one view? He from Heaven’s height All these our motions vain sees and derides. To suffer. Shall we. for what can force or guile With him. to suffer here Chains and these torments? Better these than worse. open or concealed. then. 37 . and this firmament Of Hell should spout her cataracts of fire.

Not mind us not offending. if that fail them. Our purer essence then will overcome Their noxious vapour. If we procure not to ourselves more woe. whence these raging fires Will slacken.If we were wise. if war be best. inured. what change Worth waiting – since our present lot appears For happy though but ill. This horror will grow mild. Or. thus far removed. This is now Our doom. with words clothed in reason’s garb. Besides what hope the never-ending flight Of future days may bring. or. or bonds. and perhaps. this darkness light. and to the place conformed In temper and in nature. changed at length. against so great a foe Contending. I laugh when those who at the spear are bold And venturous. 17 Thus Belial. satisfied With what is punished. The sentence of their Conqueror. or pain. or ignominy. not feel. and after him thus Mammon spake: – Either to disenthrone the King of Heaven We war. if his breath stir not their flames. will receive Familiar the fierce heat. for ill not worst. Not peace. void of pain. Counselled ignoble ease and peaceful sloth. and so doubtful what might fall. Our Supreme Foe in time may much remit His anger. shrink. what chance. which if we can sustain and bear. and. and fear What yet they know must follow – to endure Exile. or to regain 38 .

By force impossible. but rather seek Our own good from ourselves. and his altar breathes Ambrosial odours and ambrosial flowers. though in this vast recess. The former. when everlasting Fate shall yield To fickle Chance. with what eyes could we Stand in his presence humble. this our delight. Useful of hurtful. and receive Strict laws imposed. vain to hope. and in what place so e’er Thrive under evil. to celebrate his throne With warbled hymns. argues as vain The latter. Him to unthrone we then May hope. We can create. and from our own Live to ourselves. and to his Godhead sing Forced hallelujahs. on promise made Of new subjection. Free and to none accountable. unless Heaven’s Lord supreme We overpower? Suppose he should relent And publish grace to all. This deep world 39 . preferring Hard liberty before the easy yoke Of servile pomp. by leave obtained Unacceptable. our state Of splendid vassalage. and work ease out of pain Through labour and endurance. and Chaos judge the strife. Our greatness will appear Then most conspicuous when great things of small. How wearisome Eternity so spent in worship paid To whom we hate! Let us not then pursue. Our servile offerings? This must be our task In Heaven. while he lordly sits Our envied sovereign. prosperous of adverse. for what place can be for us Within Heaven’s bound.Our own right lost. though in Heaven.

Nor want we skill or art from whence to raise Magnificence. and Heaven resembles Hell! As he our darkness. Such applause was heard As Mammon ended. from whence deep thunders roar.Of darkness do we dread? How oft amidst Thick clouds and dark doth Heaven’s all-ruling Sire Choose to reside. which all night long Had roused the sea. and his sentence pleased. gems and gold. with regard Of what we are and where. our temper changed Into their temper. dismissing quite All thoughts of war. these piercing fires As soft as now severe. cannot we his light Imitate when we please? This desert soil Wants not her hidden lustre. 18 He scarce had finished. when such murmur filled Th’ assembly as when hollow rocks retain The sound of blustering winds. Mustering their rage. how in safety best we may Compose our present evils. and the settled state Of order. Ye have what I advise. which must needs remove The sensible of pain. Advising peace: for such another field 40 . and what can Heaven show more? Our torments also may. All things invite To peaceful counsels. Become our elements. now with hoarse cadence lull Seafaring men o’erwatched. his glory unobscured. anchors in a craggy bay After the tempest. And with the majesty of darkness round Covers his throne. in length of time. whose bark by chance Or pinnace.

though thus far removed. his look Drew audience and attention still as night Or summer’s noontide air. For he. while thus he spake: – Thrones and Imperial Powers. Sage he stood With Atlantean shoulders. Which when Beelzebub perceived – than whom. Offspring of Heaven. Majestic. Satan except. which might rise. in new league Banded against his throne. Ethereal Virtues! or these titles now Must we renounce. and build up here A growing empire. 41 . and no less desire To found this nether empire. Under th’ inevitable curb. reserved His captive multitude. so much the fear Of thunder and the sword of Michael Wrought still within them. to live exempt From Heaven’s high jurisdiction. but to remain In strictest bondage. By policy and long process of time. and in his rising seemed A pillar of state. fit to bear The weight of mightiest monarchies. and public care. doubtless! while we dream. and. Deep on his front engraven Deliberation sat. none higher sat – with grave Aspect he rose. changing style. And know not that the King of Heaven hath doomed This place our dungeon. be called Princes of Hell? for so the popular vote Inclines – here to continue.They dreaded worse than Hell. And princely counsel in his face yet shone. to be sure. though in ruin. not our safe retreat Beyond his potent arm. In emulation opposite to Heaven.

for what peace will be given To us enslaved. still first and last will reign Sole king. though less In power and excellence. but favoured more Of him who rules above. And stripes and arbitrary punishment Inflicted? and what peace can we return.In height or depth. and may least rejoice In doing what we most in suffering feel? Nor will occasion want. the happy seat Of some new race. Untamed reluctance. but over Hell extend His empire. Yet ever plotting how the Conqueror least May reap his conquest. hostility and hate. and with iron sceptre rule Us here. What if we find Some easier enterprise? There is a place (If ancient and prophetic fame in Heaven Err not) – another World. nor shall we need With dangerous expedition to invade Heaven. Thither let us bend all our thoughts. terms of peace yet none Vouchsafed or sought. But. and revenge. about this time To be created like to us. though slow. called Man. Or ambush from the Deep. as with his golden those in Heaven. to learn What creatures there inhabit. but custody severe. What sit we then projecting peace and war? War hath determined us and foiled with loss Irreparable. to our power. whose high walls fear no assault or siege. and by an oath That shook Heaven’s whole circumference confirmed. so was his will Pronounced among the Gods. of what mould 42 . and of his kingdom lose no part By our revolt.

and drive.Or substance. and faded bliss – Faded so soon! Advise if this be worth Attempting. and what their power And where their weakness: how attempted best. or to sit in darkness here Hatching vain empires. and with repenting hand Abolish his own works. And Heaven’s high Arbitrator sit secure In his own strength. or possess All as our own. as we were driven. Hurled headlong to partake with us. when his darling sons. this place may lie exposed. or. The puny habitants. The utmost border of his kingdom. perhaps. how endued. Some advantageous act may be achieved By sudden onset – either with Hell-fire To waste his whole creation. that their God May prove their foe. shall curse Their frail originals. 43 . By force or subtlety. Seduce them to our party. and interrupt his joy In our confusion. and our joy upraise In his disturbance. left To their defence who hold it: here. if not drive. Though Heaven be shut. This would surpass Common revenge.

or else in some mild zone Dwell. and. And through the palpable obscure find out 44 . Synod of Gods. To heal the scar of these corrosive fires. Great things resolved. and Earth with Hell To mingle and involve. The bold design Pleased highly those infernal States. Nearer our ancient seat – perhaps in view Of those bright confines. done all to spite The great Creator? But their spite still serves His glory to augment. whom shall we send In search of this new World? whom shall we find Sufficient? who shall tempt with wandering feet The dark. and in part proposed: for whence.CD 2 1 Thus beelzebub Pleaded his devilish counsel – first devised By Satan. with neighbouring arms. But. whence. like to what ye are. infinite Abyss. well ended long debate. in spite of fate. But from the author of all ill. not unvisited of Heaven’s fair light. and at the brightening orient beam Purge off this gloom: the soft delicious air. which from the lowest deep Will once more lift us up. Secure. we may chance Re-enter Heaven. and joy Sparkled in all their eyes: with full assent They vote: whereat his speech he thus renews: – Well have ye judged. could spring So deep a malice. And opportune excursion. to confound the race Of mankind in one root. Shall breathe her balm. first. unbottomed.

and expectation held His look suspense. immures us round 45 . 2 This said. the dreadful voyage. unmoved thus spake: – O Progeny of Heaven! Empyreal Thrones! With reason hath deep silence and demur Seized us. awaiting who appeared To second. Astonished. or spread his airy flight. Pondering the danger with deep thoughts. with monarchal pride Conscious of highest worth. relies. But all sat mute. or oppose. None among the choice and prime Of those Heaven-warring champions could be found So hardy as to proffer or accept. whom now transcendent glory raised Above his fellows. Satan.His uncouth way. though undismayed. Our prison strong. and each In other’s countenance read his own dismay. for on whom we send The weight of all. at last. this huge convex of fire. Alone. Outrageous to devour. he sat. Upborne with indefatigable wings Over the vast abrupt. or undertake The perilous attempt. Long is the way And hard. that out of Hell leads up to light. till. Through the strict senteries and stations thick Of Angels watching round? Here he had need All circumspection: and we now no less Choice in our suffrage. or what evasion bear him safe. can then Suffice. ere he arrive The happy Isle? What strength. and our last hope. what art.

adorned With splendour. what remains him less Than unknown dangers. due alike To him who reigns. what best may ease The present misery. While here shall be our home. if there be cure or charm To respite. if aught proposed And judged of public moment in the shape Of difficulty or danger. and so much to him due Of hazard more as he above the rest High honoured sits? Go. Refusing to accept as great a share Of hazard as of honour.Ninefold. and as hard escape? But I should ill become this throne. and prevented all reply. 46 . could deter Me from attempting. This enterprise None shall partake with me. or deceive. while I abroad Through all the coasts of dark destruction seek Deliverance for us all. intend at home. rose The Monarch. and not refuse to reign. plunged in that abortive gulf. If thence he scape. Wide-gaping. and render Hell More tolerable. mighty Powers. These passed.’ Thus saying. therefore. and with utter loss of being Threatens him. Terror of Heaven. Wherefore do I assume These royalties. or slack the pain Of this ill mansion: intermit no watch Against a wakeful foe. Or unknown region. though fallen. and gates of burning adamant. And this imperial sovereignty. armed with power. the void profound Of unessential Night receives him next. if any pass. O Peers. prohibit all egress. Barred over us. into whatever world.

Towards him they bent With awful reverence prone. But they Dreaded not more th’ adventure than his voice Forbidding. O shame to men! Devil with devil damned Firm concord holds. Nor failed they to express how much they praised That for the general safety he despised His own: for neither do the Spirits damned Lose all their virtue. Others among the chief might offer now. the louring element Scowls o’er the darkened landscape snow or shower. that hill and valley rings. God proclaiming peace. And. with farewell sweet. which glory excites. and. o’erspread Heaven’s cheerful face. what erst they feared. men only disagree Of creatures rational. so refused. lest bad men should boast Their specious deeds on earth. and at once with him they rose. Thus they their doubtful consultations dark Ended.Prudent lest. rejoicing in their matchless Chief: As. Their rising all at once was as the sound Of thunder heard remote. Or close ambition varnished o’er with zeal. and as a God Extol him equal to the Highest in Heaven. might in opinion stand His rivals. The birds their notes renew. Certain to be refused. Extend his evening beam. when from mountain-tops the dusky clouds Ascending. winning cheap the high repute Which he through hazard huge must earn. though under hope Of heavenly grace. 47 . and bleating herds Attest their joy. from his resolution raised. while the north wind sleeps. If chance the radiant sun. the fields revive.

with pomp supreme. where he may likeliest find Truce to his restless thoughts. That day and night for his destruction wait! 3 The Stygian council thus dissolved. the hollow Abyss Heard far and wide.Yet live in hatred. and seemed Alone th’ antagonist of Heaven. and levy cruel wars Wasting the earth. By herald’s voice explained. and. wandering. As at th’ Olympian games or Pythian fields. and strife Among themselves. and entertain The irksome hours. each other to destroy: As if (which might induce us to accord) Man had not hellish foes enow besides. 48 . Part on the plain. Then of their session ended they bid cry With trumpet’s regal sound the great result: Toward the four winds four speedy Cherubim Put to their mouth the sounding alchemy. or in the air sublime. and all the host of Hell With deafening shout returned them loud acclaim. the ranged Powers Disband. and forth In order came the grand infernal Peers: Midst came their mighty Paramount. and somewhat raised By false presumptuous hope. enmity. each his several way Pursues. Upon the wing or in swift race contend. as inclination or sad choice Leads him perplexed. Thence more at ease their minds. nor less Than Hell’s dread Emperor. And god-like imitated state: him round A globe of fiery Seraphim enclosed With bright emblazonry. till his great Chief return. and horrent arms.

to warn proud cities. Foreknowledge. before each van Prick forth the airy knights. and Fate – Fixed fate. and took with ravishment The thronging audience. and armies rush To battle in the clouds. felt th’ envenomed robe. war appears Waged in the troubled sky. and hapless fall By doom of battle. 49 . and couch their spears. and reasoned high Of Providence. with feats of arms From either end of heaven the welkin burns.Part curb their fiery steeds. in wandering mazes lost. Retreated in a silent valley. And found no end. Hell scarce holds the wild uproar: – As when Alcides. Others. and tore Through pain up by the roots Thessalian pines. Song charms the Sense) Others apart sat on a hill retired. but the harmony (What could it less when Spirits immortal sing?) Suspended Hell. more fell. Others. with vast Typhoean rage. Will. and complain that Fate Free Virtue should enthrall to Force or Chance. In thoughts more elevate. from Oechalia crowned With conquest. In discourse more sweet (For Eloquence the Soul. And Lichas from the top of Oeta threw Into th’ Euboic sea. free will. more mild. sing With notes angelical to many a harp Their own heroic deeds. foreknowledge absolute. Till thickest legions close. Their song was partial. or fronted brigades form: As when. Rend up both rocks and hills. and ride the air In whirlwind. Of good and evil much they argued then. or shun the goal With rapid wheels.

if any clime perhaps Might yield them easier habitation. named of lamentation loud Heard on the rueful stream. but gathers heap. that disgorge Into the burning lake their baleful streams – Abhorred Styx. Another part. Passion and apathy. 4 Beyond this flood a frozen continent Lies dark and wild. black and deep. rolls Her watery labyrinth. which on firm land Thaws not. Sad Acheron of sorrow. Cocytus. could charm Pain for a while or anguish. the river of oblivion. and ruin seems Of ancient pile. Lethe. the flood of deadly hate. Whose waves of torrent fire inflame with rage. and glory and shame: Vain wisdom all. A gulf profound as that Serbonian bog 50 . and excite Fallacious hope. and false philosophy! – Yet. bend Four ways their flying march. beat with perpetual storms Of whirlwind and dire hail. fierce Phlegeton. with a pleasing sorcery. whereof who drinks Forthwith his former state and being forgets – Forgets both joy and grief.Of happiness and final misery. a slow and silent stream. in squadrons and gross bands. Far off from these. On bold adventure to discover wide That dismal world. along the banks Of four infernal rivers. pleasure and pain. or arm th’ obdured breast With stubborn patience as with triple steel. all else deep snow and ice.

and found No rest. Rocks. as once it fled The lip of Tantalus. and so near the brink. They ferry over this Lethean sound Both to and fro. and eyes aghast. O’er many a frozen. for evil only good. Viewed first their lamentable lot. Medusa with Gorgonian terror guards The ford. and many a region dolorous.Betwixt Damiata and Mount Casius old. as they pass. death lives. Where armies whole have sunk: the parching air Burns frore. fens. lakes. and frozen round Periods of time. With shuddering horror pale. their sorrow to augment. and Nature breeds. and shades of death – A universe of death. Thither. and there to pine Immovable. Where all life dies. many a fiery alp. th’ adventurous bands. caves. All in one moment. and cold performs th’ effect of fire. – thence hurried back to fire. with one small drop to lose In sweet forgetfulness all pain and woe. Through many a dark and dreary vale They passed. At certain revolutions all the damned Are brought. infixed. by harpy-footed Furies haled. to oppose th’ attempt. and feel by turns the bitter change Of fierce extremes. and. to reach The tempting stream. bogs. 51 . From beds of raging fire to starve in ice Their soft ethereal warmth. And wish and struggle. dens. and of itself the water flies All taste of living wight. But Fate withstands. which God by curse Created evil. Thus roving on In confused march forlorn. extremes by change more fierce.

all prodigious things. About her middle round A cry of Hell-hounds never-ceasing barked 52 . Gorgons. impaled with circling fire. Now shaves with level wing the deep. inutterable. Three iron. and Chimeras dire. Through the wide Ethiopian to the Cape. Yet unconsumed. sometimes the left. Abominable. As when far off at sea a fleet descried Hangs in the clouds.Perverse. high reaching to the horrid roof. and fair. But ended foul in many a scaly fold. three of adamantine rock. they on the trading flood. Voluminous and vast – a serpent armed With mortal sting. Satan. and toward the gates of Hell Explores his solitary flight: sometimes He scours the right hand coast. or the isles Of Ternate and Tidore. The one seemed woman to the waist. Puts on swift wings. with thoughts inflamed of highest design. and worse Than fables yet have feigned or fear conceived. then soars Up to the fiery concave towering high. Impenetrable. by equinoctial winds Close sailing from Bengala. three folds were brass. and Hydras. whence merchants bring Their spicy drugs. At last appear Hell-bounds. And thrice threefold the gates. Before the gates there sat On either side a formidable Shape. all monstrous. Ply stemming nightly toward the pole: so seemed Far off the flying Fiend. 5 Meanwhile the Adversary of God and Man.

For each seemed either – black it stood as Night. or limb.With wide Cerberean mouths full loud. while the labouring moon Eclipses at their charms. without leave asked of thee. yet. bathing in the sea that parts Calabria from the hoarse Trinacrian shore. execrable Shape. riding through the air she comes. joint. Satan was now at hand. If aught disturbed their noise. The other Shape – If shape it might be called that shape had none Distinguishable in member. and from his seat The monster moving onward came as fast With horrid strides. Lured with the smell of infant blood. Hell trembled as he strode. Far less abhorred than these Vexed Scylla. That be assured. Fierce as ten Furies. not feared (God and his Son except. into her womb. And kennel there. yet there still barked and howled Within unseen. That dar’st. to dance With Lapland witches. Nor uglier follow the night-hag. Created thing naught valued he nor shunned). would creep. Th’ undaunted Fiend what this might be admired – Admired. and rung A hideous peal. when. Or substance might be called that shadow seemed. terrible as Hell. though grim and terrible. advance Thy miscreated front athwart my way To yonder gates? Through them I mean to pass. 53 . called In secret. And shook a dreadful dart: what seemed his head The likeness of a kingly crown had on. And with disdainful look thus first began: – Whence and what art thou. when they list.

grew tenfold. and. or taste thy folly. full of wrath. 54 . Where I reign king. and learn by proof. Incensed with indignation. Thy king and lord? Back to thy punishment. and like a comet burned. and in shape. and from his horrid hair Shakes pestilence and war. or with one stroke of this dart Strange horror seize thee. Hell-born. and to thy speed add wings. Who first broke peace in Heaven and faith. and pangs unfelt before. On th’ other side. replied: – ‘Art thou that traitor Angel? art thou he. Each at the head Levelled his deadly aim. That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In th’ arctic sky. are here condemned To waste eternal days in woe and pain? And reckon’st thou thyself with Spirits of Heaven Hell-doomed. outcast from God. Conjured against the Highest – for which both thou And they. their fatal hands No second stroke intend. More dreadful and deform. and breath’st defiance here and scorn. False fugitive.Retire. and such a frown Each cast at th’ other as when two black clouds. and in proud rebellious arms Drew after him the third part of Heaven’s sons. To whom the Goblin. Satan stood Unterrified. not to contend with Spirits of Heaven. So speaking and so threatening. to enrage thee more. Lest with a whip of scorpions I pursue Thy lingering. till then Unbroken. 6 So spake the grisly Terror.

and at her words the hellish Pest Forbore: then these to her Satan returned: – So strange thy outcry.With heaven’s artillery fraught. – then stand front to front Hovering a space. thus double-formed. spares to tell thee yet by deeds What it intends. Prevented. But never once more was either like To meet so great a foe. she cried. and thy words so strange Thou interposest. bids – His wrath. and that phantasm call’st my son. O son. In this infernal vale first met. till first I know of thee What thing thou art. O father. which he calls justice. and with hideous outcry rushed between. Risen. ordained his drudge to execute Whate’er his wrath. that my sudden hand. and why. till winds the signal blow To join their dark encounter in mid-air. So frowned the mighty combatants that Hell Grew darker at their frown. And now great deeds Had been achieved. thou call’st Me father. whereof all Hell had rung. so matched they stood. 55 . come rattling on Over the Caspian. Possesses thee to bend that mortal dart Against thy father’s head? And know’st for whom? For him who sits above. Against thy only son? What fury. and laughs the while At thee. Had not the snaky Sorceress. which one day will destroy ye both! She spake. that sat Fast by Hell-gate and kept the fatal key. what intends thy hand.

familiar grown. to our part loss and rout Through all the Empyrean. a goddess armed. nor ever saw till now Sight more detestable than him and thee. Likest to thee in shape and countenance bright. till on the left side opening wide. And fields were fought in Heaven: wherein remained (For what could else?) to our Almighty Foe Clear victory. and called me Sin. All on a sudden miserable pain Surprised thee. and do I seem Now in thine eye so foul? – once deemed so fair In Heaven. and in the general fall I also: at which time this powerful key 56 . and with attractive graces won The most averse – thee chiefly. and in sight Of all the Seraphim with thee combined In bold conspiracy against Heaven’s King. back they recoiled afraid At first. while thy head flames thick and fast Threw forth. Out of thy head I sprung. Amazement seized All th’ host of Heaven. I pleased. Becam’st enamoured. who. Then shining heavenly fair.I know thee not. down Into this Deep. Driven headlong from the pitch of Heaven. full oft Thyself in me thy perfect image viewing. Down they fell. and for a sign Portentous held me. but. To whom thus the Portress of Hell-gate replied: – Hast thou forgot me. then. when at th’ assembly. dim thine eyes and dizzy swum In darkness. and such joy thou took’st With me in secret that my womb conceived A growing burden. Meanwhile war arose.

I fled. with fear and pain Distorted. as thou saw’st – hourly conceived And hourly born. all my nether shape thus grew Transformed: but he my inbred enemy Forth issued. with charge to keep These gates for ever shut. which none can pass Without my opening. breaking violent way. that with ceaseless cry Surround me. into the womb That bred them they return. my son and foe. bursting forth Afresh.Into my hands was given. Pregnant by thee. Pensive here I sat Alone. and cried out Death! Hell trembled at the hideous name. but that he knows 57 . but he pursued (though more. At last this odious offspring whom thou seest. Me overtook. with conscious terrors vex me round. then. Inflamed with lust than rage). for. Prodigious motion felt and rueful throes. of that rape begot These yelling monsters. would full soon devour For want of other prey. but long I sat not. in embraces forcible and foul Engendering with me. their repast. that. swifter far. when they list. who set them on. and sighed From all her caves. and howl. and. Thine own begotten. And. Before mine eyes in opposition sits Grim Death. and gnaw My bowels. his parent. Tore through my entrails. That rest or intermission none I find. with sorrow infinite To me. Made to destroy. it seems. his mother. all dismayed. till my womb. and now excessive grown. And me. brandishing his fatal dart. and back resounded Death! I fled.

and through the void immense To search. surcharged with potent multitude. now milder. ere now Created vast and round – a place of bliss In the purlieus of Heaven. 7 She finished. O father. But thou. neither vainly hope To be invulnerable in those bright arms. and one for all Myself expose. and thus answered smooth: – Dear daughter – since thou claim’st me for thy sire. through dire change Befallen us unforeseen. Whenever that shall be: so Fate pronounced. to supply Perhaps our vacant room. none can resist. and knows that I Should prove a bitter morsel. though more removed. by concurring signs. now sad to mention. but to set free From out this dark and dismal house of pain Both him and thee. and all the heavenly host Of Spirits that. And my fair son here show’st me. 58 . shun His deadly arrow.His end with mine involved. Lest Heaven. with lonely steps to tread Th’ unfounded Deep. for that mortal dint. and joys Then sweet. From them I go This uncouth errand sole. and the subtle Fiend his lore Soon learned. unthought-of – know. Though tempered heavenly. and therein placed A race of upstart creatures. and his bane. a place foretold Should be – and. I come no enemy. Save he who reigns above. the dear pledge Of dalliance had with thee in Heaven. I forewarn thee. with wandering quest. Fell with us from on high. in our just pretences armed.

to hear His famine should be filled. for both seemed highly pleased. by due And by command of Heaven’s all-powerful King. There ye shall be fed and filled Immeasurably. To sit in hateful office here confined. I haste To know. thou My being gav’st me. No less rejoiced His mother bad. I keep. With terrors and with clamours compassed round Of mine own brood. and blessed his maw Destined to that good hour. all things shall be your prey. among 59 . and up and down unseen Wing silently the buxom air. He ceased. shall soon return. and Death Grinned horrible a ghastly smile. But what owe I to his commands above. by him forbidden to unlock These adamantine gates. and. Be this. and hath hither thrust me down Into this gloom of Tartarus profound. Inhabitant of Heaven and heavenly born – Here in perpetual agony and pain. against all force Death ready stands to interpose his dart. this once known. now designed. And bring ye to the place where thou and Death Shall dwell at ease. or aught Than this more secret. Who hates me. Fearless to be o’ermatched by living might. and thus bespake her sire: – The key of this infernal Pit. that on my bowels feed? Thou art my father. thou my author. whom should I obey But thee? whom follow? Thou wilt bring me soon To that new world of light and bliss.Might hap to move new broils. embalmed With odours.

And. Sad instrument of all our woe. She opened. where length. and place. and like a furnace-mouth Cast forth redounding smoke and ruddy flame. With impetuous recoil and jarring sound. amidst the noise Of endless wars. and on their hinges grate Harsh thunder. that the lowest bottom shook Of Erebus. On a sudden open fly. then in the key-hole turns Th’ intricate wards. Before their eyes in sudden view appear The secrets of the hoary Deep – a dark Illimitable ocean. are lost. but herself. And time. 60 . without bound. from her side the fatal key. breadth. and by confusion stand. ancestors of Nature. and height. but to shut Excelled her power: the gates wide open stood. Th’ infernal doors. Which. Under spread ensigns marching. Forthwith the huge portcullis high up-drew. as beseems Thy daughter and thy darling. So wide they stood. towards the gate rolling her bestial train. and every bolt and bar Of massy iron or solid rock with ease Unfastens. not all the Stygian Powers Could once have moved. might pass through With horse and chariots ranked in loose array. without end. That with extended wings a bannered host. Without dimension. where eldest Night And Chaos. hold Eternal anarchy. 8 Thus saying.The gods who live at ease. she took. where I shall reign At thy right hand voluptuous.

Levied to side with warring winds. and. or slow. and Dry. nor shore. swift.For Hot. But all these in their pregnant causes mixed Confusedly. Unless th’ Almighty Maker them ordain His dark materials to create more worlds – Into this wild Abyss the wary Fiend Stood on the brink of Hell and looked a while. The womb of Nature. Light-armed or heavy. four champions fierce. nor air. in the surging smoke Uplifted. Swarm populous. or less than if this frame Of Heaven were falling. bent to rase Some capital city. Strive here for mastery. high arbiter. for no narrow frith He had to cross. sharp. and these elements In mutiny had from her axle torn The steadfast Earth. 61 . Moist. in their several clans. and poise Their lighter wings. To whom these most adhere He rules a moment: Chaos umpire sits. Cold. At last his sail-broad vans He spread for flight. Pondering his voyage. nor fire. Nor was his ear less pealed With noises loud and ruinous (to compare Great things with small) than when Bellona storms With all her battering engines. And by decision more embroils the fray By which he reigns: next him. Chance governs all. smooth. Of neither sea. unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Cyrene’s torrid soil. and to battle bring Their embryon atoms: they around the flag Of each his faction. thence many a league. Into this wild Abyss. spurns the ground. and perhaps her grave. and which thus must ever fight.

when straight behold the throne Of Chaos. All unawares. Fluttering his pennons vain. Half flying. meets A vast vacuity. and his dark pavilion spread Wide on the wasteful Deep! With him enthroned 62 .As in a cloudy chair. had not. Nor good dry land – nigh foundered. rough. hurried him As many miles aloft. assaults his ear With loudest vehemence. or flies. who by stealth Had from his wakeful custody purloined The guarded gold. behoves him now both oar and sail. and to this hour Down had been falling. or creeps. or wades. on he fares. As when a gryphon through the wilderness With winged course. The strong rebuff of some tumultuous cloud. hands. or feet. and voices all confused. of whom to ask Which way the nearest coast of darkness lies Bordering on light. o’er hill or moory dale. ascending rides Audacious. Borne through the hollow dark. that seat soon failing. With head. wings. but. plumb-down he drops Ten thousand fathom deep. neither sea. or sinks. or rare. Pursues the Arimaspian. half on foot. by ill chance. Treading the crude consistence. And swims. to meet there whatever Power Or Spirit of the nethermost Abyss Might in that noise reside. Instinct with fire and nitre. dense. so eagerly the Fiend O’er bog or steep. through strait. pursues his way. That fury stayed – Quenched in a boggy Syrtis. Thither he plies Undaunted. At length a universal hubbub wild Of stunning sounds.

Direct my course: Directed. or. no mean recompense it brings To your behoof. and by them stood Orcus and Ades. I seek. if I that region lost. who thou art – 63 . eldest of things. th’ Ethereal King Possesses lately. With faltering speech and visage incomposed. by constraint Wandering this darksome desert. I come no spy With purpose to explore or to disturb The secrets of your realm. Chaos and ancient Night. reduce To her original darkness and your sway (Which is my present journey). The consort of his reign. half lost. mine the revenge! Thus Satan. if some other place. stranger. From your dominion won. Answered: I know thee. All usurpation thence expelled. turning boldly. but. all embroiled. What readiest path leads where your gloomy bounds Confine with Heaven. and once more Erect the standard there of ancient Night. as my way Lies through your spacious empire up to light. and Confusion. Alone and without guide. And Tumult.Sat sable-vested Night. thus: – Ye Powers And Spirits of this nethermost Abyss. Rumour next. and Chance. thither to arrive I travel this profound. 9 T’ whom Satan. And Discord with a thousand various mouths. and the dreaded name Of Demogorgon. and him thus the Anarch old. Yours be th’ advantage all.

That mighty leading Angel. Encroached on still through our intestine broils Weakening the sceptre of old Night: first. But. another world Hung o’er my realm. stretching far and wide beneath. Confusion worse confounded. linked in a golden chain To that side Heaven from whence your legions fell! If that way be your walk. With fresh alacrity and force renewed Springs upward. and Satan stayed not to reply. Or when Ulysses on the larboard shunned Charybdis. Havoc. rout on rout. harder beset And more endangered than when Argo passed Through Bosporus betwixt the justling rocks. and ruin. glad that now his sea should find a shore. With ruin upon ruin. though overthrown. and through the shock Of fighting elements. I saw and heard. I upon my frontiers here Keep residence. Into the wild expanse. Pursuing. and by th’ other whirlpool steered. He ceased. and Heaven’s-gates Poured out by millions her victorious bands. Go. wins his way. for such a numerous host Fled not in silence through the frighted Deep. like a pyramid of fire. on all sides round Environed. Your dungeon. So much the nearer danger. Now lately Heaven and Earth. if all I can will serve That little which is left so to defend. and speed. Hell. are my gain. So he with difficulty and labour hard 64 . who of late Made head against Heaven’s King. and spoil. you have not far.

From Hell continued. when Man fell. Wafts on the calmer wave by dubious light.Moved on. Or in the emptier waste. hanging in a golden chain. undetermined square or round. But now at last the sacred influence Of light appears. except whom God and good Angels guard by special grace. and Chaos to retire. by which the Spirits perverse With easy intercourse pass to and fro To tempt or punish mortals. With tumult less and with less hostile din. But. in bigness as a star 65 . holds Gladly the port. extended wide In circuit. and now with ease. fast by. And. a broken foe. at leisure to behold Far off th’ empyreal Heaven. Weighs his spread wings. Following his track (such was the will of Heaven) Paved after him a broad and beaten way Over the dark Abyss. though shrouds and tackle torn. resembling air. and from the walls of Heaven Shoots far into the bosom of dim Night A glimmering dawn. whose boiling gulf Tamely endured a bridge of wondrous length. Strange alteration! Sin and Death amain. Here Nature first begins Her farthest verge. with difficulty and labour he. soon after. As from her utmost works. That Satan with less toil. once his native seat. reaching th’ utmost orb Of this frail World. And. With opal towers and battlements adorned Of living sapphire. This pendent World. he once passed. like a weather-beaten vessel.

and undergo his Punishment. and is directed. as did Satan. and therefore with all his Progeny devoted to death must dye. he hies. that Grace cannot be extended towards Man without the satisfaction of divine justice. offspring of Heaven firstborn. Man hath offended the majesty of God by aspiring to Godhead. and hymning to thir Harps in full Quire. shews him to the Son who sat at his right hand. unless some one can be found sufficient to answer for his offence. then newly created. clears his own Justice and Wisdom from all imputation. full fraught with mischievous revenge. inquires of him the place of his habitation. where wandring he first finds a place since call’d The Lymbo of Vanity. and in a cursed hour. yet declares his purpose of grace towards him. but first changes himself into the shape of a meaner Angel. and the waters above the Firmament that flow about it: His passage thence to the Orb of the Sun. Thither. 11 Book III Hail. Mean while Satan alights upon the bare Convex of this Worlds outermost Orb. ordains his incarnation. in regard he fell not of his own malice. they obey. holy Light. commands all the Angels to adore him. but God again declares. but by him seduc’t. Accursed. foretells the success of Satan in perverting mankind. alights first on Mount Niphates. thence comes to the Gate of Heaven. describ’d ascending by staires. having created Man free and able enough to have withstood his Tempter. celebrate the Father and the Son. Or of the Eternal coeternal beam 66 . The Son of God freely offers himself a Ransome for Man: the Father accepts him. what persons and things fly up thither.Of smallest magnitude close by the moon. he finds there Uriel the Regent of that Orb. and pretending a zealous desire to behold the new Creation and Man whom God had plac’t here. The Son of God renders praises to his Father for the manifestation of his gracious purpose towards Man. 10 Book III: The Argument God sitting on his Throne sees Satan flying towards this world. pronounces his exaltation above all Names in Heaven and Earth.

and find no dawn. Won from the void and formless infinite. And feel thy sovran vital lamp. Taught by the heavenly Muse to venture down The dark descent. Sion. and at the voice Of God. and the flowery brooks beneath. Clear spring. didst invest The rising world of waters dark and deep. or shady grove. that roll in vain To find thy piercing ray. So were I equall’d with them in renown. dwelt then in thee Bright effluence of bright essence increate. Though hard and rare: Thee I revisit safe. Before the Heavens thou wert. Or hear’st thou rather pure ethereal stream. Yet not the more Cease I to wander. And never but in unapproached light Dwelt from eternity. Smit with the love of sacred song. though long detain’d In that obscure sojourn.May I express thee unblam’d? since God is light. Or dim suffusion veil’d. So thick a drop serene hath quench’d their orbs. That wash thy hallow’d feet. Nightly I visit: nor sometimes forget Those other two equal’d with me in Fate. With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I sung of Chaos and eternal Night. and up to re-ascend. but chief Thee. but thou Revisit’st not these eyes. Escap’d the Stygian pool. Thee I re-visit now with bolder wing. where the Muses haunt. 67 . and warbling flow. or sunny hill. as with a mantle. while in my flight Through utter and through middle darkness borne. Whose fountain who shall tell? before the sun.

that Man should find grace. and in shadiest covert hid Tunes her nocturnal note. or summer’s rose. But cloud instead. and Phineus. and for the book of knowledge fair Presented with a universal blank Of nature’s works to me expung’d and ras’d. And Tiresias. all mist from thence Purge and disperse. on earth he first beheld 68 . prophets old: Then feed on thoughts. and from his sight receiv’d Beatitude past utterance. So much the rather thou. there plant eyes. that I may see and tell Of things invisible to mortal sight.Thy sovran command. Or sight of vernal bloom. celestial Light. but not to me returns Day. that voluntary move Harmonious numbers. Or flocks. or herds. on his right The radiant image of his glory sat. Now had the Almighty Father from above. bent down his eye His own works and their works at once to view: About him all the Sanctities of Heaven Stood thick as stars. Shine inward. Thus with the year Seasons return. as the wakeful bird Sings darkling. from the cheerful ways of men Cut off. and ever-during dark Surrounds me. or the sweet approach of even or morn. His only son. From the pure empyrean where he sits High thron’d above all height. Blind Thamyris. And wisdom at one entrance quite shut out. and the mind through all her powers Irradiate. and blind Maeonides. or human face divine.

yet the only two Of mankind in the happy garden plac’d Reaping immortal fruits of joy and love. 69 . By some false guile pervert. he then survey’d Hell and the gulf between. in the precincts of light. unrivall’d love. and ready now To stoop with wearied wings.Our two first parents. On the bare outside of this world. And easily transgress the sole command. In blissful solitude. And man there plac’d. or. without firmament. can hold. he wings his way Not far off Heaven. For man will hearken to his glozing lies. and willing feet. Uncertain which. seest thou what rage Transports our Adversary? whom no bounds Prescrib’d no bars of Hell. 12 Only begotten Son. he beholds. Directly towards the new created world. in ocean or in air. so bent he seems On desperate revenge. future. and shall pervert. Wherein past. nor yet the main abyss Wide interrupt. present. that shall redound Upon his own rebellious head. with purpose to assay If him by force he can destroy. Thus to his only Son foreseeing spake. Him God beholding from his prospect high. And now. Uninterrupted joy. that seem’d Firm land imbosom’d. and Satan there Coasting the wall of Heaven on this side Night In the dun air sublime. worse. nor all the chains Heap’d on him there. Through all restraint broke loose.

had serv’d necessity. So without least impulse or shadow of fate.Sole pledge of his obedience: So will fall He and his faithless progeny: Whose fault? Whose but his own? ingrate. as to right belong’d. what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance. Not free. They trespass. Foreknowledge had no influence on their fault. and fell who fell. he had of me All he could have. of freedom both despoil’d. Which had no less proved certain unforeknown. Where only what they needs must do appear’d. both them who stood. Sufficient to have stood. Or aught by me immutably foreseen. nor can justly accuse Their Maker. Freely they stood who stood. As if predestination over-rul’d Their will dispos’d by absolute decree Or high foreknowledge they themselves decreed Their own revolt. and them who fail’d. Not me? they therefore. authors to themselves in all Both what they judge. not I. or their fate. Such I created all the ethereal Powers And Spirits. When will and reason (reason also is choice) Useless and vain. I made him just and right. I else must change Their nature. for so I form’d them free: and free they must remain. constant faith or love. Till they enthrall themselves. or their making. Made passive both. though free to fall. So were created. and revoke the high decree 70 . and what they choose. if I foreknew. Not what they would? what praise could they receive? What pleasure I from such obedience paid.

first and last. The first sort by their own suggestion fell. Love without end. deceiv’d By the other first: Man therefore shall find grace. Which uttering. self-deprav’d: Man falls. shall brightest shine. For should Man finally be lost. Thus while God spake. though join’d With his own folly? that be from thee far.Unchangeable. and in his face Divine compassion visibly appear’d. 13 O Father. that Man should find grace. who art judge Of all things made. and without measure grace. wherewith thy throne Encompass’d shall resound thee ever blest. Father. That far be from thee. ambrosial fragrance fill’d All Heaven. thy youngest son. The other none: In mercy and justice both. should Man. thus he to his Father spake. in him all his Father shone Substantially express’d. so shall my glory excel. gracious was that word which clos’d Thy sovran command. Through Heaven and Earth. For which both Heaven and earth shall high extol Thy praises. and judgest only right. eternal. with the innumerable sound Of hymns and sacred songs. Self-tempted. But Mercy. Beyond compare the Son of God was seen Most glorious. Fall circumvented thus by fraud. Thy creature late so lov’d. which ordain’d Their freedom: they themselves ordain’d their fall. and in the blessed Spirits elect Sense of new joy ineffable diffus’d. 71 .

My word. and effectual might. Yet with revenge accomplish’d. what for thy glory thou hast made? So should thy goodness and thy greatness both Be question’d and blasphem’d without defence. but grace in me Freely vouchsaf’d. Son of my bosom. but sav’d who will. Man shall not quite be lost. and thy goodness bring to nought. though to his heavier doom. All hast thou spoken as my thoughts are. Elect above the rest. By him corrupted? or wilt thou thyself Abolish thy creation. By me upheld. Son who art alone. once more I will renew His lapsed powers. so is my will: The rest shall hear me call. To whom the great Creator thus replied. and oft be warn’d Their sinful state. and to me owe All his deliverance. and frustrate thine? shall he fulfill His malice. and to Hell Draw after him the whole race of mankind. and unmake For him. O son. my wisdom. yet once more he shall stand On even ground against his mortal foe. though forfeit. and enthrall’d By sin to foul exorbitant desires.Or shall the Adversary thus obtain His end. Some I have chosen of peculiar grace. in whom my soul hath chief delight. that he may know how frail His fallen condition is. and to appease betimes 72 . Yet not of will in him. Or proud return. all As my eternal purpose hath decreed. and to none but me. Upheld by me.

But hard be harden’d. unless for him Some other able. What may suffice. And none but such from mercy I exclude. while offer’d grace Invites. Disloyal. to redeem Man’s mortal crime. Man disobeying. shall never taste. so losing all. To expiate his treason hath nought left. they shall attain. and my day of grace. death for death. breaks his fealty. where shall we find such love? Which of you will be mortal. but all the heavenly quire stood mute. pay The rigid satisfaction. safe arrive. Though but endeavour’d with sincere intent. But to destruction sacred and devote. and as willing. 73 . Light after light. This my long sufferance. Die he or justice must. Say. They who neglect and scorn. well us’d. repent. Mine ear shall not be slow. with his whole posterity. and soften stony hearts To pray. and bring obedience due. repentance. My umpire Conscience.The incensed Deity. heavenly Powers. whom if they will hear. must die. blind be blinded more. Affecting God-head. and. and deeper fall. persisting. That they may stumble on. But yet all is not done. He. and sins Against the high supremacy of Heaven. And to the end. To prayer. And I will place within them as a guide. mine eye not shut. and just the unjust to save? Dwells in all Heaven charity so dear? He ask’d. for I will clear their senses dark. and obedience due.

To visit all thy creatures. Thou hast given me to possess Life in myself for ever. and to all Comes unprevented. by thee I live. hath none to bring. on me let Death wreak all his rage. And now without redemption all mankind Must have been lost. unimplor’d. Behold me then: me for him. he her aid Can never seek. All that of me can die. The speediest of thy winged messengers. and ransom set. yet. Man shall find grace. His dearest mediation thus renew’d.And silence was in Heaven: on Man’s behalf Patron or intercessour none appear’d. Under his gloomy power I shall not long Lie vanquished. that debt paid. Thou wilt not leave me in the loathsome grave 74 . Much less that durst upon his own head draw The deadly forfeiture. or offering meet. life for life I offer: on me let thine anger fall. and am his due. once dead in sins. Though now to Death I yield. and lost. And shall grace not find means. adjudg’d to Death and Hell By doom severe. had not the Son of God. Indebted and undone. thy word is past. Atonement for himself. unsought? Happy for Man. and this glory next to thee Freely put off. and for him lastly die Well pleased. In whom the fulness dwells of love divine. I for his sake will leave Thy bosom. 14 Father. that finds her way. Account me Man. so coming.

but his meek aspect Silent yet spake. what this might mean. and with his carcase glut the grave. I through the ample air in triumph high Shall lead Hell captive maugre Hell. Death his death’s wound shall then receive. and stoop Inglorious. but peace assured And reconcilement: wrath shall be no more Thenceforth. Admiration seized All Heaven. and whither tend. I ruin all my foes. Shall enter Heaven. O thou in Heaven and Earth the only peace Found out for mankind under wrath. at the sight Pleased. O thou My sole complacence! Well thou know’st how dear To me are all my works. he attends the will Of his great Father.His prey. long absent. of his mortal sting disarmed. and subdue My vanquisher. with the multitude of my redeemed. Death last. nor Man the least. but in thy presence joy entire. to see thy face. Then. above which only shone Filial obedience: as a sacrifice Glad to be offered. Wondering. 75 . and return. But I shall rise victorious. While. and show The powers of darkness bound. His words here ended. spoiled of his vaunted spoil. Thou. wherein no cloud Of anger shall remain. out of Heaven shalt look down and smile. nor suffer my unspotted soul For ever with corruption there to dwell. and breathed immortal love To mortal men. but soon th’ Almighty thus replied. Father. by thee raised.

the whole race lost.Though last created. when they may. and dying to redeem. therefore. so in thee. By wondrous birth. Made flesh. Their nature also to thy nature join. And live in thee transplanted. Imputed. of virgin seed. and from thee Receive new life. By losing thee a while. that for him I spare Thee from my bosom and right hand. ransomed with his own dear life. accept not grace. thy merit. and rising with him raise His brethren. without thee none. though Adam’s son. whom thou only canst redeem. shall absolve them who renounce Their own both righteous and unrighteous deeds. Giving to death. shall be restored As many as are restored. And be thyself Man among men on Earth. to save 76 . Nor shalt thou. as is most just. quitted all. So dearly to redeem what hellish hate So easily destroyed. be judged and die. 15 Thou. lessen or degrade thine own. So heavenly love shall outdo hellish hate. though throned in highest bliss Equal to God. And dying rise. His crime makes guilty all his sons. As from a second root. So Man. be thou in Adam’s room The head of all mankind. and still destroys In those who. by descending to assume Man’s nature. and equally enjoying God-like fruition. Shall satisfy for Man. As in him perish all men. Because thou hast. to save. when time shall be.

all thy saints assembled. and hast been found By merit more than birthright Son of God. reign for ever. such a peal shall rouse their sleep. under thee. and forthwith the cited dead Of all past ages. Thrones. Son both of God and Man. With joy and love triumphing. And. Far more than great or high. When thou. 77 . attended gloriously from Heaven. here shalt reign Both God and Man. Dominions. Hell. of them that bide In Heaven. shall sink Beneath thy sentence. Anointed universal King. after all their tribulations long. they. Princes. Powers. because in thee Love hath abounded more than glory abounds. The living. Thenceforth shall be for ever shut. her numbers full. Found worthiest to be so by being good. thou shalt judge Bad Men and Angels. fruitful of golden deeds. and from thee send The summoning Arch-Angels to proclaim Thy dread tribunal. I reduce: All knees to thee shall bow. Mean while The world shall burn. all power I give thee. forthwith from all winds. to the general doom Shall hasten. Then thou thy regal scepter shalt lay by. arraigned. wherein the just shall dwell. and fair truth. Then. or under Earth in Hell. and from her ashes spring New Heaven and Earth. Shalt in the sky appear. or Earth. as head supreme. See golden days. Therefore thy humiliation shall exalt With thee thy manhood also to this throne: Here shalt thou sit incarnate.A world from utter loss. and assume Thy merits.

Now in loose garlands thick thrown off. and waken raptures high. Impurpled with celestial roses smiled. fast by the tree of life. Began to bloom. 16 No sooner had the Almighty ceased. With these that never fade the Spirits elect Bind their resplendent locks inwreathed with beams. 78 . God shall be all in all. Adore the Son. there grows.For regal scepter then no more shall need. a flower which once In Paradise. but all The multitude of Angels. uttering joy. crowned again. and honour him as me. Heaven rung With jubilee. and with preamble sweet Of charming symphony they introduce Their sacred song. sweet As from blest voices. and loud Hosannas filled The eternal regions: Lowly reverent Towards either throne they bow. Immortal amarant. the bright Pavement. with a shout Loud as from numbers without number. and to the ground With solemn adoration down they cast Their crowns inwove with amarant and gold. where first it grew. that like a sea of jasper shone. their golden harps they took. who to compass all this dies. But. Adore him. Harps ever tuned. Then. And where the river of bliss through midst of Heaven Rolls o’er Elysian flowers her amber stream. And flowers aloft shading the fount of life. that glittering by their side Like quivers hung. but soon for man’s offence To Heaven removed. all ye Gods.

Son of thy Father’s might. Infinite. Begotten Son. Immutable. Nor stop thy flaming chariot-wheels.No voice exempt. the Almighty Father shines. such concord is in Heaven. and. He Heaven of Heavens and all the Powers therein By thee created. but when thou shadest The full blaze of thy beams. Immortal. through a cloud Drawn round about thee like a radiant shrine. Divine Similitude. while o’er the necks Thou drovest of warring Angels disarrayed. thee Author of all being. Whom else no creature can behold. but with both wings veil their eyes. without cloud Made visible. 79 . thyself invisible Amidst the glorious brightness where thou sit’st Throned inaccessible. Thee. Back from pursuit thy Powers with loud acclaim Thee only extolled. Thee next they sang of all creation first. and by thee threw down The aspiring Dominations: Thou that day Thy Father’s dreadful thunder didst not spare. Not so on Man: Him through their malice fallen. Yet dazzle Heaven. on thee Impressed the effulgence of his glory abides. To execute fierce vengeance on his foes. Transfused on thee his ample Spirit rests. Fountain of light. that brightest Seraphim Approach not. that shook Heaven’s everlasting frame. first they sung Omnipotent. no voice but well could join Melodious part. Eternal King. Dark with excessive bright thy skirts appear. In whose conspicuous countenance. Father.

some small reflection gains Of glimmering air less vexed with tempest loud: 80 . and wild. but much more to pity inclined. 17 Mean while upon the firm opacous globe Of this round world. waste. He to appease thy wrath. Son of God. O unexampled love. Save on that side which from the wall of Heaven.Father of mercy and grace. Thus they in Heaven. Though distant far. offered himself to die For Man’s offence. thou didst not doom So strictly. whose first convex divides The luminous inferiour orbs. and never shall my heart thy praise Forget. above the starry sphere. and the inroad of Darkness old. Love no where to be found less than Divine! Hail. nor from my Father’s praise disjoin. Regardless of the bliss wherein he sat Second to thee. and end the strife Of mercy and justice in thy face discerned. now seems a boundless continent Dark. but much more to pity incline: No sooner did thy dear and only Son Perceive thee purposed not to doom frail Man So strictly. inclement sky. enclosed From Chaos. and ever-threatening storms Of Chaos blustering round. Saviour of Men! Thy name Shall be the copious matter of my song Henceforth. Their happy hours in joy and hymning spent. Satan alighted walks: A globe far off It seemed. under the frown of Night Starless exposed.

or unkindly mixed. Abortive. to be found was none. Dislodging from a region scarce of prey To gorge the flesh of lambs or yeanling kids. fleet hither. Dissolved on earth. bent on his prey. the Fiend Walked up and down alone. Whose snowy ridge the roving Tartar bounds. Not in the neighbouring moon as some have dreamed. All who have their reward on earth. when sin With vanity had filled the works of men: Both all things vain. Translated Saints. for other creature in this place. Nought seeking but the praise of men. Or happiness in this or the other life. empty as their deeds. wander here. As when a vultur on Imaus bred. here find Fit retribution. but store hereafter from the earth Up hither like aereal vapours flew Of all things transitory and vain. Indian streams. or middle Spirits hold 81 . monstrous.Here walked the Fiend at large in spacious field. All the unaccomplished works of Nature’s hand. But in his way lights on the barren plains Of Sericana. flies toward the springs Of Ganges or Hydaspes. and in vain. where Chineses drive With sails and wind their cany waggons light: So. Living or lifeless. None yet. on this windy sea of land. and all who in vain things Built their fond hopes of glory or lasting fame. Alone. Till final dissolution. Those argent fields more likely habitants. On hills where flocks are fed. the fruits Of painful superstition and blind zeal.

then reliques. and friars White. who lives in Heaven. bulls. They pass the planets seven. black. tost And fluttered into rags. to be deemed A God. pardons. eremites. Or in Franciscan think to pass disguised. and idiots. and habits. and many more too long. Dying. he. And now Saint Peter at Heaven’s wicket seems To wait them with his keys. And that crystalline sphere whose balance weighs The trepidation talked. put on the weeds of Dominick. leaped into the sea. who to be sure of Paradise. would build: Others came single. New Babels. beads. had they wherewithal. when lo A violent cross wind from either coast Blows them transverse. and still with vain design.Betwixt the angelical and human kind. upwhirled aloft. though then renowned: The builders next of Babel on the plain Of Sennaar. dispenses. hoods. who. to enjoy Plato’s Elysium. with their wearers. and he. 82 . and gray. Empedocles. And they. and that first moved. Cleombrotus. Hither of ill-joined sons and daughters born First from the ancient world those giants came With many a vain exploit. and now at foot Of Heaven’s ascent they lift their feet. ten thousand leagues awry Into the devious air: Then might ye see Cowls. who. leaped fondly into Aetna flames. with all their trumpery. Embryos. The sport of winds: All these. and pass the fixed. Here pilgrims roam. Indulgences. that strayed so far to seek In Golgotha him dead.

and untrod.Fly o’er the backside of the world far off Into a Limbo large and broad. since called The Paradise of Fools. 83 . now unpeopled. to few unknown Long after.

84 . or by shading pencil. These stairs were such as whereon Jacob saw Angels ascending and descending. whether to dare The Fiend by easy ascent. bands Of guardians bright. when he from Esau fled To Padan-Aram. nor stood There always. and underneath a bright sea flowed Of jasper. Each stair mysteriously was meant. or aggravate His sad exclusion from the doors of bliss: Direct against which opened from beneath. whereon Who after came from earth. With frontispiece of diamond and gold Embellished. appeared The work as of a kingly palace-gate. thick with sparkling orient gems The portal shone.CD 3 1 All this dark globe the Fiend found as he passed. in the field of Luz Dreaming by night under the open sky And waking cried. or of liquid pearl. but drawn up to Heaven sometimes Viewless. drawn. This is the gate of Heaven. or flew o’er the lake Rapt in a chariot drawn by fiery steeds. but far more rich. till at last a gleam Of dawning light turned thither-ward in haste His travelled steps: far distant he descries Ascending by degrees magnificent Up to the wall of Heaven a structure high. inimitable on earth By model. At top whereof. Just o’er the blissful seat of Paradise. sailing arrived Wafted by Angels. The stairs were then let down. And long he wandered.

Through dark and desart ways with peril gone All night. where bounds were set To darkness. Which to his eye discovers unaware The goodly prospect of some foreign land First seen. As when a scout. Over the Promised Land to God so dear. Round he surveys (and well might. at last by break of cheerful dawn Obtains the brow of some high-climbing hill. Wider by far than that of after-times Over mount Sion. On high behests his angels to and fro Passed frequent.A passage down to the Earth. where the Holy Land Borders on Egypt and the Arabian shore. The Spirit malign. or some renowned metropolis With glistering spires and pinnacles adorned. To Beersaba. and. By which. So wide the opening seemed. though after Heaven seen. now on the lower stair. the fount of Jordan’s flood. At sight of all this world beheld so fair. Looks down with wonder at the sudden view Of all this world at once. such as bound the ocean wave. where he stood So high above the circling canopy Of night’s extended shade. though that were large. a passage wide. That scaled by steps of gold to Heaven-gate. but much more envy seised. and his eye with choice regard From Paneas. Which now the rising sun gilds with his beams: Such wonder seised. to visit oft those happy tribes.) from eastern point Of Libra to the fleecy star that bears Andromeda far off Atlantick seas 85 . Satan from hence.

By center. and without longer pause Down right into the world’s first region throws His flight precipitant. and to each inward part With gentle penetration. Thrice happy isles. and groves. Fortunate fields. as they move Their starry dance in numbers that compute Days. that shone Stars distant. That from his lordly eye keep distance due. Allured his eye. Dispenses light from far. they. or happy isles. a spot like which perhaps Astronomer in the sun’s lucent orb 86 . then from pole to pole He views in breadth. Shoots invisible virtue even to the deep. Or longitude. or eccentrick. but who dwelt happy there He staid not to inquire: Above them all The golden sun. that gently warms The universe. though unseen.) where the great luminary Aloof the vulgar constellations thick. Or other worlds they seemed.Beyond the horizon. So wonderously was set his station bright. months. Like those Hesperian gardens famed of old. or are turned By his magnetick beam. 2 There lands the Fiend. in splendour likest Heaven. and flowery vales. and years. (but up or down. towards his all-cheering lamp Turn swift their various motions. hard to tell. thither his course he bends Through the calm firmament. but nigh hand seemed other worlds. and winds with ease Through the pure marble air his oblique way Amongst innumerable stars.

and a stone besides Imagined rather oft than elsewhere seen. as when his beams at noon Culminate from the equator. though by their powerful art they bind Volatile Hermes. If metal. part silver clear. part seemed gold.Through his glazed optick tube yet never saw. but all alike informed With radiant light. metal or stone. Produces. as glowing iron with fire. with terrestrial humour mixed. In vain. whereby he soon 87 . But all sun-shine. nor shade. No where so clear. when with one virtuous touch The arch-chemick sun. What wonder then if fields and regions here Breathe forth Elixir pure. Ruby or topaz. whence no way round Shadow from body opaque can fall. or like to that which here below Philosophers in vain so long have sought. carbuncle most or chrysolite. and the air. and call up unbound In various shapes old Proteus from the sea. Not all parts like. so far from us remote. to the twelve that shone In Aaron’s breast-plate. Here in the dark so many precious things Of colour glorious. far and wide his eye commands. The place he found beyond expression bright. and rivers run Potable gold. For sight no obstacle found here. That stone. Compared with aught on earth. and effect so rare? Here matter new to gaze the Devil met Undazzled. sharpened his visual ray To objects distant far. If stone. Drained through a limbeck to his native form. as they now Shot upward still direct.

and are his eyes That run through all the Heavens. and held Before his decent steps a silver wand. nearest to his throne. nor less his locks behind Illustrious on his shoulders fledge with wings Lay waving round. but not his brightness hid. and to every limb Suitable grace diffused. the happy seat of Man. sprinkled with gold. He drew not nigh unheard. His journey’s end and our beginning woe. so well he feigned: Under a coronet his flowing hair In curls on either cheek played. O’er sea and land: him Satan thus accosts. Stand ready at command. Which else might work him danger or delay: And now a stripling Cherub he appears. one of the seven Who in God’s presence. as now in hope To find who might direct his wandering flight To Paradise. Ere he drew nigh. But first he casts to change his proper shape. the Angel bright. His habit fit for speed succinct. and straight was known The Arch-Angel Uriel. Admonished by his ear. Of beaming sunny rays a golden tiar Circled his head. yet such as in his face Youth smiled celestial. wings he wore Of many a coloured plume. or down to the Earth Bear his swift errands over moist and dry. 88 .Saw within ken a glorious Angel stand. Not of the prime. Glad was the Spirit impure. The same whom John saw also in the sun: His back was turned. on some great charge employed He seemed. his radiant visage turned. or fixed in cogitation deep.

Hath brought me from the quires of Cherubim Alone thus wandering. The first art wont his great authentick will Interpreter through highest Heaven to bring. Who justly hath driven out his rebel foes To deepest Hell. and on whom hath all these graces poured. Created this new happy race of Men To serve him better: Wise are all his ways. For neither Man nor Angel can discern Hypocrisy. and with secret gaze Or open admiration him behold. That both in him and all things. and as his eye To visit oft this new creation round. Unspeakable desire to see. His chief delight and favour. him for whom All these his works so wonderous he ordained. But all these shining orbs his choice to dwell. but chiefly Man. and know All these his wonderous works. the only evil that walks Invisible. On whom the great Creator hath bestowed Worlds. And here art likeliest by supreme decree Like honour to obtain. The universal Maker we may praise. 89 . as is meet. for thou of those seven Spirits that stand In sight of God’s high throne. except to God alone. So spake the false dissembler unperceived. gloriously bright. to repair that loss. and. tell In which of all these shining orbs hath Man His fixed seat. That I may find him. or fixed seat hath none. Brightest Seraph.3 Uriel. Where all his sons thy embassy attend.

By his permissive will. and to simplicity Resigns her charge. hear only in Heaven: For wonderful indeed are all his works. and order from disorder sprung: Swift to their several quarters hasted then The cumbrous elements. Till at his second bidding Darkness fled. In his uprightness. and worthiest to be all Had in remembrance always with delight. but rather merits praise The more it seems excess. But what created mind can comprehend Their number. thy desire. which tends to know The works of God. thereby to glorify The great Work-master. flood. came to a heap: Confusion heard his voice. through Heaven and Earth: And oft. stood vast infinitude confined. air. that led thee hither From thy empyreal mansion thus alone. Who to the fraudulent impostor foul. This world’s material mould. and held The sharpest-sighted Spirit of all in Heaven. or the wisdom infinite That brought them forth. though regent of the sun. and wild uproar Stood ruled. Pleasant to know. fire. though wisdom wake. but hid their causes deep? I saw when at his word the formless mass. answer thus returned. Fair Angel. And this ethereal quintessence of Heaven 90 . To witness with thine eyes what some perhaps. Light shone. Contented with report. earth. leads to no excess That reaches blame. while goodness thinks no ill Where no ill seems: Which now for once beguiled Uriel. suspicion sleeps At wisdom’s gate.

and how they move. is Paradise. that light His day. Down from the ecliptick. but there the neighbouring moon So call that opposite fair star) her aid Timely interposes. and her monthly round Still ending. through mid Heaven. till on Niphates’ top he lights. That rolled orbicular. Adam’s abode. and toward the coast of earth beneath. Look downward on that globe. and Satan. shines. whose hither side With light from hence. Night would invade. That place is Earth. those lofty shades. Thy way thou canst not miss.Flew upward. Each had his place appointed. his bower. and turned to stars Numberless. As to superiour Spirits is wont in Heaven. Took leave. Nor staid. Thus said. sped with hoped success. each his course. as thou seest. though but reflected. as the other hemisphere. 91 . still renewing. which else. to which I point. he turned. With borrowed light her countenance triform Hence fills and empties to enlighten the Earth. The rest in circuit walls this universe. the seat of Man. That spot. spirited with various forms. Where honour due and reverence none neglects. And in her pale dominion checks the night. bowing low. me . Throws his steep flight in many an aery wheel.

whose outward prospect and situation is discribed. to Gabriel. and past at Noon by his Sphere in the shape of a good Angel down to Paradise. journeys on to Paradise. fear. The Garden describ’d. tempting her in a dream. but at length confirms himself in evil. falls into many doubts with himself. who saw The Apocalypse. overleaps the bounds. there they find him at the ear of Eve. which he. but hinder’d by a Sign from Heaven. Gabriel promises to find him ere morning. for that warning voice. Came furious down to be revenged on men. prepares resistance. heard cry in Heaven aloud. envy. as highest in the Garden to look about him. thir Evening worship. under penalty of death. While time was. Adam and Eve discourse of going to thir rest: thir Bower describ’d. though unwilling. appoints two strong Angels to Adams Bower. Gabriel drawing forth his Bands of Night-watch to walk the round of Paradise. and many passions. but with resolution to work thir fall. Haply so ‘scaped his mortal snare: For now 92 . sits in the shape of a Cormorant on the Tree of life. put to second rout. to know further of thir state by some other means. our first parents had been warned The coming of their secret foe. that some evil spirit had escap’d the Deep. and thereon intends to found his Temptation. and ‘scaped. overhears thir discourse. Night coming on. and nigh the place where he must now attempt the bold enterprize which he undertook alone against God and Man. Woe to the inhabitants on earth! that now. and bring him.4 Book IV: The Argument Satan now in prospect of Eden. thence gathers that the Tree of knowledge was forbidden them to eat of. who had in charge the Gate of Paradise. his wonder at thir excellent form and happy state. 5 Book IV O. Mean while Uriel descending on a Sun-beam warns Gabriel. Satans first sight of Adam and Eve. and despare. he scornfully answers. Then when the Dragon. least the evill spirit should be there doing some harm to Adam or Eve sleeping. flies out of Paradise. discovered after by his furious gestures in the Mount. by whom question’d. by seducing them to transgress: then leaves them a while.

The tempter ere the accuser of mankind. and add thy name. thus in sighs began. That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell. and the full-blazing sun. though bold Far off and fearless. that. which now in his view Lay pleasant. But with no friendly voice. to thee I call. horrour and doubt distract His troubled thoughts. with surpassing glory crowned. came down. not rejoicing in his speed. now first inflamed with rage. Lookest from thy sole dominion like the God Of this new world. 93 . can fly By change of place: Now conscience wakes despair. Which now sat high in his meridian tower: Then. O Sun! to tell thee how I hate thy beams. and from the bottom stir The Hell within him. his grieved look he fixes sad. Sometimes towards Heaven. at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads. and his flight to Hell: Yet. no more than from himself. Sometimes towards Eden. which nigh the birth Now rolling boils in his tumultuous breast. much revolving. nor from Hell One step. And like a devilish engine back recoils Upon himself. wakes the bitter memory Of what he was. for within him Hell He brings. nor with cause to boast. To wreak on innocent frail Man his loss Of that first battle. Begins his dire attempt. of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue. and what must be Worse. what is.Satan. That slumbered. how glorious once above thy sphere. and round about him. O thou.

to all temptations armed. though mean. since against his thy will 94 . And understood not that a grateful mind By owing owes not. How due! yet all his good proved ill in me.Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring in Heaven against Heaven’s matchless King: Ah. Nay. The easiest recompence. I had stood Then happy. from within Or from without. So burdensome still paying. lifted up so high I sdeined subjection. still to owe. cursed be thou. and me. and with his good Upbraided none. Drawn to his part. it deals eternal woe. but stand unshaken. at once Indebted and discharged. had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferiour Angel. nor was his service hard. Hadst thou the same free will and power to stand? Thou hadst: whom hast thou then or what to accuse. what burden then O. no unbounded hope had raised Ambition! Yet why not some other Power As great might have aspired. whom he created what I was In that bright eminence. and thought one step higher Would set me highest. To me alike. wherefore! he deserved no such return From me. since love or hate. but other Powers as great Fell not. but still pays. and pay him thanks. and in a moment quit The debt immense of endless gratitude. And wrought but malice. Forgetful what from him I still received. What could be less than to afford him praise. But Heaven’s free love dealt equally to all? Be then his love accursed.

lines 73. and infinite dispair?” (Book IV.“Me miserable! Which way shall I fly Infinite wrath. 74) 95 .

Me miserable! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath. And. With diadem and scepter high advanced. at last relent: Is there no place Left for repentance. To which the Hell I suffer seems a Heaven. how soon Would height recall high thoughts. a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide. as violent and void.Chose freely what it now so justly rues. and infinite despair? Which way I fly is Hell. Ay me! they little know How dearly I abide that boast so vain. none for pardon left? None left but by submission. Where wounds of deadly hate have pierced so deep: Which would but lead me to a worse relapse And heavier fall: so should I purchase dear 96 . boasting I could subdue The Omnipotent. Under what torments inwardly I groan. For never can true reconcilement grow. only supreme In misery: Such joy ambition finds. in the lowest deep. and could obtain. O. then. and my dread of shame Among the Spirits beneath. whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts Than to submit. By act of grace. The lower still I fall. While they adore me on the throne of Hell. and that word Disdain forbids me. myself am Hell. my former state. 6 But say I could repent. how soon unsay What feigned submission swore? Ease would recant Vows made in pain.

and betrayed Him counterfeit. whose eye pursued him down The way he went. All hope excluded thus. in stead Of us out-cast. Farewell. So farewell. and despair. ire. and for him this world. his gestures fierce He marked and mad demeanour. and with hope farewell. This knows my Punisher. envy. Evil. unseen. shall know. more than could befall Spirit of happy sort. be thou my good. As he supposed. if any eye beheld. As Man ere long. So on he fares. by thee at least Divided empire with Heaven’s King I hold. fear. as I from begging. and was the first That practised falsehood under saintly show. Whereof he soon aware. Each perturbation smoothed with outward calm. Mankind created. Artificer of fraud. behold. his new delight. Thus while he spake. couched with revenge: Yet not enough had practised to deceive Uriel once warned.Short intermission bought with double smart. For heavenly minds from such distempers foul Are ever clear. 97 . therefore as far From granting he. remorse! all good to me is lost. peace. then alone. and more than half perhaps will reign. By thee. Which marred his borrowed visage. each passion dimmed his face Thrice changed with pale. and to the border comes Of Eden. hope. and this new world. all unobserved. where delicious Paradise. exil’d. Deep malice to conceal. and on the Assyrian mount Saw him disfigured.

able to drive All sadness but despair: Now gentle gales. off at sea north-east winds blow Sabean odours from the spicy shore Of Araby the blest. Fanning their odoriferous wings. As with a rural mound. as the ranks ascend. and overhead upgrew Insuperable height of loftiest shade. A sylvan scene. and branching palm. whose hairy sides With thicket overgrown. crowns with her enclosure green. Cedar. As when to them who sail Beyond the Cape of Hope. and to the heart inspires Vernal delight and joy. Yet higher than their tops The verdurous wall of Paradise upsprung. and. and now are past Mozambick. loaden with fairest fruit. dispense Native perfumes. and whisper whence they stole Those balmy spoils. Blossoms and fruits at once of golden hue. And higher than that wall a circling row Of goodliest trees. and pine. Which to our general sire gave prospect large Into his nether empire neighbouring round.Now nearer. grottesque and wilde. with gay enamelled colours mixed: On which the sun more glad impressed his beams Than in fair evening cloud. Shade above shade. the champaign head Of a steep wilderness. Appeared. or humid bow. a woody theatre Of stateliest view. so lovely seemed That landskip: And of pure now purer air Meets his approach. When God hath showered the earth. and fir. with such delay 98 . Access denied.

As when a prowling wolf. pensive and slow. Watching where shepherds pen their flocks at eve In hurdled cotes amid the field secure. and sheer within Lights on his feet. At one slight bound high over-leaped all bound Of hill or highest wall. So since into his church lewd hirelings climb. But further way found none. so thick entwined. fear no assault. Cross-barred and bolted fast. bent to unhoard the cash Of some rich burgher. and with a vengeance sent From Media post to Egypt. Whom hunger drives to seek new haunt for prey. and that looked east On the other side: which when the arch-felon saw. Leaps o’er the fence with ease into the fold: Or as a thief. In at the window climbs. and. though enamoured. One gate there only was. though with them better pleased Than Asmodeus with the fishy fume That drove him. As one continued brake. Due entrance he disdained.Well pleased they slack their course. 99 . whose substantial doors. the undergrowth Of shrubs and tangling bushes had perplexed All path of man or beast that passed that way. and many a league Cheered with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles: So entertained those odorous sweets the Fiend. 7 Now to the ascent of that steep savage hill Satan had journeyed on. or o’er the tiles: So clomb this first grand thief into God’s fold. Who came their bane. from the spouse Of Tobit’s son. in contempt. there fast bound.

for God had thrown 100 . The middle tree and highest there that grew. the tree of knowledge. but God alone. A Heaven on Earth: For blissful Paradise Of God the garden was. or to their meanest use. and on the tree of life. built by Grecian kings. To all delight of human sense exposed. So little knows Any. and next to life. Eden stretched her line From Auran eastward to the royal towers Of great Seleucia. nor on the virtue thought Of that life-giving plant. Sat like a cormorant. smell. blooming ambrosial fruit Of vegetable gold. And all amid them stood the tree of life. High eminent. Nature’s whole wealth. In narrow room. by him in the east Of Eden planted. Out of the fertile ground he caused to grow All trees of noblest kind for sight. Southward through Eden went a river large. but sat devising death To them who lived. Nor changed his course. grew fast by. taste. Knowledge of good bought dear by knowing ill. Our death. but only used For prospect. yea more. but through the shaggy hill Passed underneath ingulfed. Or where the sons of Eden long before Dwelt in Telassar: In this pleasant soil His far more pleasant garden God ordained. Beneath him with new wonder now he views. what well used had been the pledge Of immortality.Thence up he flew. but perverts best things To worse abuse. yet not true life Thereby regained. to value right The good before him.

Groves whose rich trees wept odorous gums and balm. here only. and met the nether flood. Hesperian fables true. But rather to tell how. visiting each plant. How from that sapphire fount the crisped brooks. and of delicious taste: Betwixt them lawns. and with many a rill Watered the garden. whereof here needs no account. And now. and flocks Grazing the tender herb. If true. but Nature boon Poured forth profuse on hill. and plain. or level downs. Flowers of all hue. Which from his darksome passage now appears. Rolling on orient pearl and sands of gold. Or palmy hillock. Runs diverse. which not nice Art In beds and curious knots. burnished with golden rind. if Art could tell. which. Both where the morning sun first warmly smote The open field. through veins Of porous earth with kindly thirst up-drawn. and dale.That mountain as his garden-mould high raised Upon the rapid current. and fed Flowers worthy of Paradise. Others whose fruit. umbrageous grots and caves 101 . and where the unpierced shade Imbrowned the noontide bowers: Thus was this place A happy rural seat of various view. divided into four main streams. Hung amiable. and without thorn the rose: Another side. Rose a fresh fountain. or the flowery lap Of some irriguous valley spread her store. wandering many a famous realm And country. were interposed. thence united fell Down the steep glade. With mazy errour under pendant shades Ran nectar.

Led on the eternal Spring. undelighted. 8 Not that fair field Of Enna. nor that sweet grove Of Daphne by Orontes. and her florid son Young Bacchus. vernal airs. dispersed. Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance. attune The trembling leaves. o’er which the mantling vine Lays forth her purple grape. Mount Amara. while universal Pan. Whom Gentiles Ammon call and Libyan Jove. might with this Paradise Of Eden strive. from his stepdame Rhea’s eye. That to the fringed bank with myrtle crowned Her crystal mirrour holds.Of cool recess. enclosed with shining rock. Hid Amalthea. or in a lake. A whole day’s journey high. all delight. which cost Ceres all that pain To seek her through the world. where old Cham. The birds their quire apply. Herself a fairer flower by gloomy Dis Was gathered. Breathing the smell of field and grove. and gently creeps Luxuriant. mean while murmuring waters fall Down the slope hills. Nor where Abassin kings their issue guard. where Proserpine gathering flowers. where the Fiend Saw. airs. and the inspired Castalian spring. nor that Nyseian isle Girt with the river Triton. all kind 102 . but wide remote From this Assyrian garden. though this by some supposed True Paradise under the Ethiop line By Nilus’ head. unite their streams.

modest pride. she for God in him: His fair large front and eye sublime declared Absolute rule. honour dishonourable. though both Not equal. but required with gentle sway. but not beneath his shoulders broad: She. by him best received. mere shows of seeming pure. He for God only. for in their looks divine The image of their glorious Maker shone.) Whence true authority in men. Simplicity and spotless innocence! 103 . Godlike erect. as a veil. And banished from man’s life his happiest life. reluctant. Sin-bred. For contemplation he and valour formed. Truth. Nor those mysterious parts were then concealed. and hyacinthine locks Round from his parted forelock manly hung Clustering. down to the slender waist Her unadorned golden tresses wore Dishevelled. which implied Subjection. Then was not guilty shame. new to sight. (Severe. And by her yielded. Yielded with coy submission. with native honour clad In naked majesty seemed lords of all: And worthy seemed. dishonest shame Of nature’s works.Of living creatures. erect and tall. And sweet. For softness she and sweet attractive grace. as their sex not equal seemed. but in wanton ringlets waved As the vine curls her tendrils. how have ye troubled all mankind With shows instead. amorous delay. wisdom. but in true filial freedom placed. and strange Two of far nobler shape. sanctitude severe and pure.

Insinuating. the unwieldy elephant. Still as they thirsted. as beseems Fair couple. and in the rind. close the serpent sly. That ever since in love’s embraces met. wove with Gordian twine His braided train. pards. and wreathed His lithe proboscis. Nor gentle purpose. used all his might. side-long as they sat recline On the soft downy bank damasked with flowers: The savoury pulp they chew. nor youthful dalliance. scoop the brimming stream. About them frisking played All beasts of the earth. Alone as they. and. after no more toil Of their sweet gardening labour than sufficed To recommend cool Zephyr. forest or den. Nectarine fruits which the compliant boughs Yielded them.So passed they naked on. Under a tuft of shade that on a green Stood whispering soft. ounces. since wild. nor endearing smiles Wanted. bears. tigers. by a fresh fountain side They sat them down. others on the grass 104 . and of his fatal guile Gave proof unheeded. and of all chase In wood or wilderness. and in his paw Dandled the kid. and made ease More easy. Gambolled before them. linked in happy nuptial league. for they thought no ill: So hand in hand they passed. the fairest of her daughters Eve. To make them mirth. Adam the goodliest man of men since born His sons. the loveliest pair. to their supper-fruits they fell. wholesome thirst and appetite More grateful. Sporting the lion ramped. nor shunned the sight Of God or Angel.

Couched. so lively shines In them divine resemblance. for the sun. was hasting now with prone career To the ocean isles. earth-born perhaps. Though I unpitied: League with you I seek. whom my thoughts pursue With wonder. That I with you must dwell. and now filled with pasture gazing sat. so strait. when all these delights Will vanish. Scarce thus at length failed speech recovered sad. and such grace The hand that formed them on their shape hath poured. yet to heavenly Spirits bright Little inferiour. Declined. Not Spirits. my dwelling haply may not please. Ah! gentle pair. and this high seat your Heaven Ill fenced for Heaven to keep out such a foe As now is entered. and in the ascending scale Of Heaven the stars that usher evening rose: When Satan still in gaze. but for so happy ill secured Long to continue. so close. yet such Accept your Maker’s work. as first he stood. And mutual amity. whom I could pity thus forlorn. and could love. 9 O Hell! what do mine eyes with grief behold! Into our room of bliss thus high advanced Creatures of other mould. or you with me Henceforth. 105 . your sense. More woe. Or bedward ruminating. ye little think how nigh Your change approaches. and deliver ye to woe. Like this fair Paradise. he gave it me. Happy. yet no purposed foe To you. the more your taste is now of joy.

So spake the Fiend. unespied. all ear to hear new utterance flow. her widest gates. changes oft His couchant watch. Turned him. himself now one. though damned.Which I as freely give: Hell shall unfold. 106 . as I do. Whence rushing. The tyrant’s plea. compels me now To do what else. Then as a tiger. Thank him who puts me loth to this revenge On you who wrong me not for him who wronged. And should I at your harmless innocence Melt. Griped in each paw: when. To entertain you two. and. I should abhor. About them round A lion now he stalks with fiery glare. if no better place. By word or action marked. Adam first of men To first of women Eve thus moving speech. Then from his lofty stand on that high tree Down he alights among the sportful herd Of those four-footed kinds. as one who chose his ground. By conquering this new world. there will be room. then. he might surest seize them both. who by chance hath spied In some purlieu two gentle fawns at play. And send forth all her kings. yet publick reason just. To mark what of their state he more might learn. Straight couches close. Honour and empire with revenge enlarged. and with necessity. rising. excused his devilish deeds. to receive Your numerous offspring. Now other. as their shape served best his end Nearer to view his prey. Not like these narrow limits.

planted by the tree of life. of all these joys.Sole partner. Dearer thyself than all. whate’er death is. he who requires From us no other service than to keep This one. Be infinitely good. and sea. and for us this ample world. this easy charge. and tend these flowers. and of his good As liberal and free as infinite. The only sign of our obedience left. not to taste that only tree Of knowledge. of all the trees In Paradise that bear delicious fruit So various. following our delightful task. Some dreadful thing no doubt. nor can perform Aught whereof he hath need. for well thou knowest God hath pronounced it death to taste that tree. air. That raised us from the dust. Then let us not think hard One easy prohibition. and placed us here In all this happiness. who at his hand Have nothing merited. So near grows death to life. and extol His bounty. and sole part. Which were it toilsome. needs must the Power That made us. and dominion given Over all other creatures that possess Earth. who enjoy Free leave so large to all things else. 107 . yet with thee were sweet. To prune these growing plants. and choice Unlimited of manifold delights: But let us ever praise him. Among so many signs of power and rule Conferred upon us.

when from sleep I first awaked. is thyself. enjoying thee Pre-eminent by so much odds. and how. and found myself reposed Under a shade on flowers. and pined with vain desire.10 To whom thus Eve replied. and spread Into a liquid plain. who enjoy So far the happier lot. For we to him indeed all praises owe. Pleased it returned as soon with answering looks Of sympathy and love: There I had fixed Mine eyes till now. but pleased I soon returned. I thither went With unexperienced thought. That day I oft remember. Bending to look on me: I started back. just opposite A shape within the watery gleam appeared. As I bent down to look. And daily thanks. Had not a voice thus warned me. What there thou seest. With thee it came and goes: but follow me. much wondering where And what I was. and thy soft embraces. It started back. that to me seemed another sky. O thou for whom And from whom I was formed. And I will bring thee where no shadow stays Thy coming. my guide And head! what thou hast said is just and right. and laid me down On the green bank. Not distant far from thence a murmuring sound Of waters issued from a cave. fair Creature. to look into the clear Smooth lake. I chiefly. then stood unmoved Pure as the expanse of Heaven. flesh of thy flesh. he 108 . What thou seest. And without whom am to no end. whence thither brought. while thou Like consort to thyself canst no where find.

Than that smooth watery image: Back I turned. And wisdom.Whose image thou art. fair Eve. invisibly thus led? Till I espied thee. and thee claim My other half: With that thy gentle hand Seised mine: I yielded. him thou shall enjoy Inseparably thine. Substantial life. and pressed her matron lip 109 . and submissive charms. which alone is truly fair. his bone. And meek surrender. of him thou art. and thence be called Mother of human race. Less winning soft. But follow straight. Under a platane. Part of my soul I seek thee. Whom flyest thou? whom thou flyest. His flesh. to him shalt bear Multitudes like thyself. under the flowing gold Of her loose tresses hid: he in delight Both of her beauty. Smiled with superiour love. less amiably mild. when he impregns the clouds That shed Mayflowers. half-embracing leaned On our first father. to give thee being I lent Out of my side to thee. nearest my heart. and with eyes Of conjugal attraction unreproved. What could I do. fair indeed and tall. half her swelling breast Naked met his. 11 So spake our general mother. Thou following cryedst aloud. as Jupiter On Juno smiles. to have thee by my side Henceforth an individual solace dear. yet methought less fair. Return. and from that time see How beauty is excelled by manly grace.

One fatal tree there stands. Still unfulfilled with pain of longing pines. Where neither joy nor love. of knowledge called. and no corner leave unspied. and to reject Envious commands. A chance but chance may lead where I may meet Some wandering Spirit of Heaven by fountain side. and to himself thus plained. while I to Hell am thrust. The proof of their obedience and their faith? O fair foundation laid whereon to build Their ruin! hence I will excite their minds With more desire to know. Among our other torments not the least. yet with jealous leer malign Eyed them askance. but fierce desire. Forbidden them to taste: Knowledge forbidden Suspicious. Sight hateful. sight tormenting! thus these two. whom knowledge might exalt Equal with Gods: aspiring to be such. Imparadised in one another’s arms. The happier Eden. Or in thick shade retired. reasonless. from him to draw 110 . They taste and die: What likelier can ensue But first with narrow search I must walk round This garden. shall enjoy their fill Of bliss on bliss. Why should their Lord Envy them that? Can it be sin to know? Can it be death? And do they only stand By ignorance? Is that their happy state.With kisses pure: Aside the Devil turned For envy. Yet let me not forget what I have gained From their own mouths: All is not theirs. it seems. invented with design To keep them low.

Chief of the angelick guards. But with sly circumspection. o’er hill. his proud step he scornful turned. About him exercised heroick games The unarmed youth of Heaven. where Heaven With earth and ocean meets. through waste. till I return. Yet happy pair. o’er dale. shields. his roam Mean while in utmost longitude. Betwixt these rocky pillars Gabriel sat. helms. but nigh at hand Celestial armoury.What further would be learned. swift as a shooting star In autumn thwarts the night. the setting sun Slowly descended. Hung high with diamond flaming. Thither came Uriel. one entrance high. piled up to the clouds. impossible to climb. and with gold. and began Through wood. to thee thy course by lot hath given 111 . enjoy. The rest was craggy cliff. and shows the mariner From what point of his compass to beware Impetuous winds: He thus began in haste. Conspicuous far. winding with one ascent Accessible from earth. Short pleasures. that overhung Still as it rose. Gabriel. when vapours fired Impress the air. for long woes are to succeed! 12 So saying. and with right aspect Against the eastern gate of Paradise Levelled his evening rays: It was a rock Of alabaster. Live while ye may. and spears. gliding through the even On a sun-beam. awaiting night.

hard thou knowest it to exclude Spiritual substance with corporeal bar. that to this happy place No evil thing approach or enter in. but under shade Lost sight of him: One of the banished crew. Uriel. See far and wide: In at this gate none pass The vigilance here placed. by morrow dawning I shall know. zealous. and Uriel to his charge Returned on that bright beam. But if within the circuit of these walks. but such as come Well known from Heaven. I fear. God’s latest image: I described his way Bent all on speed. But in the mount that lies from Eden north. In whatsoever shape he lurk. So minded. of whom Thou tellest.Charge and strict watch. soon discerned his looks Alien from Heaven. To whom the winged warriour thus returned. with passions foul obscured: Mine eye pursued him still. and chiefly Man. and marked his aery gait. him thy care must be to find. no wonder if thy perfect sight. So promised he. and since meridian hour No creature thence: If Spirit of other sort. as he seemed. hath ventured from the deep. to know More of the Almighty’s works. have o’er-leaped these earthly bounds On purpose. whose point now raised Bore him slope downward to the sun now fallen 112 . Where he first lighted. Amid the sun’s bright circle where thou sitst. This day at height of noon came to my sphere A Spirit. to raise New troubles.

and all things now retired to rest. She all night long her amorous descant sung. Now falling with soft slumbrous weight. unemployed. and Twilight gray Had in her sober livery all things clad. at length Apparent queen unveiled her peerless light. Man hath his daily work of body or mind Appointed. inclines Our eye-lids: Other creatures all day long Rove idle. till the moon. had thither rolled Diurnal. 13 Now came still Evening on. or this less volubil earth. rode brightest. as day and night. Silence was pleased: Now glowed the firmament With living sapphires: Hesperus. They to their grassy couch. And the regard of Heaven on all his ways. for beast and bird. By shorter flight to the east. to men Successive. the hour Of night. 113 . and the timely dew of sleep. When Adam thus to Eve.Beneath the Azores. Silence accompanied. which declares his dignity. had left him there Arraying with reflected purple and gold The clouds that on his western throne attend. and less need rest. all but the wakeful nightingale. whether the prime orb. that led The starry host. Rising in clouded majesty. And o’er the dark her silver mantle threw. Fair Consort. Incredible how swift. since God hath set Labour and rest. Mind us of like repose. these to their nests Were slunk.

To-morrow. God is thy law. And at our pleasant labour. To whom thus Eve. That mock our scant manuring. we must be risen. tree. her rising sweet. to reform Yon flowery arbours. nor rising sun 114 . yonder alleys green. That lie bestrown. and flower. all please alike. Our walk at noon. and her praise. when she ascends With charm of earliest birds. and this fair moon. Ask riddance. With thee conversing I forget all time.While other animals unactive range. Sweet is the breath of Morn. on herb. And of their doings God takes no account. if we mean to tread with ease. fragrant the fertile earth After soft showers. and require More hands than ours to lop their wanton growth: Those blossoms also. her starry train: But neither breath of Morn. and their change. what thou bidst Unargued I obey: So God ordains. And these the gems of Heaven. fruit. ere fresh morning streak the east With first approach of light. With charm of earliest birds: pleasant the sun. then silent Night. Mean while. Glistering with dew. When first on this delightful land he spreads His orient beams. with branches overgrown. All seasons. thou mine: To know no more Is woman’s happiest knowledge. night bids us rest. and those dropping gums. unsightly and unsmooth. With this her solemn bird. and sweet the coming on Of grateful Evening mild. with perfect beauty adorned My Author and Disposer. as Nature wills.

These have their course to finish round the earth. Lest total Darkness should by night regain Her old possession. both when we wake. when sleep hath shut all eyes? To whom our general ancestor replied. With this her solemn bird. That Heaven would want spectators. nor fragrance after showers. Or glittering star-light. which these soft fires Not only enlighten. flower. Ministring light prepared. Nor grateful Evening mild. fruit. These then. made hereby apter to receive Perfection from the sun’s more potent ray. But wherefore all night long shine these? for whom This glorious sight. though men were none. and extinguish life In Nature and all things. nor think. and when we sleep: All these with ceaseless praise his works behold Both day and night: How often from the steep Of echoing hill or thicket have we heard Celestial voices to the midnight air. though to nations yet unborn. they set and rise. 115 . Temper or nourish. By morrow evening. nor walk by moon. though unbeheld in deep of night. Glistering with dew. Shine not in vain. Daughter of God and Man. accomplished Eve. and from land to land In order. nor herb.On this delightful land. God want praise: Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth Unseen. but with kindly heat Of various influence foment and warm. or in part shed down Their stellar virtue on all kinds that grow On earth. without thee is sweet. nor silent Night.

in close recess. hand in hand alone they passed On to their blissful bower: it was a place Chosen by the sovran Planter. garlands. roses. Singing their great Creator? oft in bands While they keep watch. when he framed All things to Man’s delightful use. What day the genial Angel to our sire 116 . and hyacinth. and lift our thoughts to Heaven. more coloured than with stone Of costliest emblem: Other creature here. With heavenly touch of instrumental sounds In full harmonick number joined. on either side Acanthus. And heavenly quires the hymenaean sung. With flowers. Beast. 14 Thus talking. Espoused Eve decked first her nuptial bed. and wrought Mosaick. the roof Of thickest covert was inwoven shade Laurel and myrtle. and each odorous bushy shrub. or responsive each to others note. each beauteous flower. and what higher grew Of firm and fragrant leaf. nor Nymph Nor Faunus haunted. durst enter none. Here. or nightly rounding walk. bird.Sole. their songs Divide the night. In shadier bower More sacred and sequestered. Pan or Sylvanus never slept. and sweet-smelling herbs. underfoot the violet. and jessamin. though but feigned. Fenced up the verdant wall. insect. or worm. Crocus. Reared high their flourished heads between. Such was their awe of Man. with rich inlay Broidered the ground. Iris all hues.

Have finished. whom the Gods Endowed with all their gifts. And starry pole: Thou also madest the night. at their shady lodge arrived. But thou hast promised from us two a race To fill the earth. and thou the day. Which they beheld. and. and under open sky adored The God that made both sky. who shall with us extol Thy goodness infinite. eased the putting off These troublesome disguises which we wear. I ween. air.Brought her in naked beauty more adorned. thy gift of sleep. into their inmost bower Handed they went. than Pandora. nor turned. the crown of all our bliss Ordained by thee. Both turned. and uncropt falls to the ground. and heaven. when to the unwiser son Of Japhet brought by Hermes. she ensnared Mankind with her fair looks. And when we seek. More lovely. the moon’s resplendent globe. where thy abundance wants Partakers. and other rites Observing none. but adoration pure Which God likes best. and O! too like In sad event. as now. happy in our mutual help And mutual love. and this delicious place For us too large. both stood. to be avenged On him who had stole Jove’s authentick fire. Adam from his fair spouse. both when we wake. Maker Omnipotent. Thus. This said unanimous. in our appointed work employed. Straight side by side were laid. earth. nor Eve the rites 117 . Which we.

joyless. first were known. here lights His constant lamp. Here Love his golden shafts employs. leaves free to all. and all the charities Of father. Perpetual fountain of domestick sweets. loveless. or midnight ball. sole propriety In Paradise of all things common else! By thee adulterous Lust was driven from men Among the bestial herds to range. Our Maker bids encrease. Mixed dance. that I should write thee sin or blame. which the starved lover sings To his proud fair. loyal. not in the bought smile Of harlots. 15 These. and waves his purple wings. Defaming as impure what God declares Pure. unendeared. and commands to some. mysterious law. Whose bed is undefiled and chaste pronounced. Far be it. true source Of human offspring. and place. nor in court-amours. Present. And on their naked limbs the flowery roof 118 . foe to God and Man? Hail. and brother. Casual fruition. by thee Founded in reason. wedded Love. who bids abstain But our Destroyer.Mysterious of connubial love refused: Whatever hypocrites austerely talk Of purity. best quitted with disdain. son. and pure. Or serenade. just. embracing slept. Or think thee unbefitting holiest place. as saints and patriarchs used. or wanton mask. Relations dear. lulled by nightingales. or past. Reigns here and revels. and innocence.

seise fast. Forth issuing at the accustomed hour. on he led his radiant files. stood armed To their night watches in warlike parade. Now had night measured with her shadowy cone Half way up hill this vast sublunar vault. So saying. and know to know no more. Dazzling the moon. When Gabriel to his next in power thus spake. Now laid perhaps asleep. and coast the south With strictest watch. leave unsearched no nook. on errand bad no doubt: Such. As flame they part. Ithuriel and Zephon. half to the spear. these to the bower direct In search of whom they sought: Him there they found Squat like a toad. This evening from the sun’s decline arrived. But chiefly where those two fair creatures lodge. two strong and subtle Spirits he called That near him stood.Showered roses. half these draw off. Our circuit meets full west. Half wheeling to the shield. and hither bring. From these. Who tells of some infernal Spirit seen Hitherward bent (who could have thought?) escaped The bars of Hell. these other wheel the north. 119 . close at the ear of Eve. Sleep on. if ye seek No happier state. Blest pair. where ye find. and O! yet happiest. Uzziel. And from their ivory port the Cherubim. and gave them thus in charge. which the morn repaired. with winged speed Search through this garden. secure of harm.

thence raise At least distempered. for no falshood can endure Touch of celestial temper. that from pure blood arise Like gentle breaths from rivers pure. laid Fit for the tun some magazine to store Against a rumoured war. So started up in his own shape the Fiend. vain aims.Assaying by his devilish art to reach The organs of her fancy. Him thus intent Ithuriel with his spear Touched lightly. the smutty grain. accost him soon. discontented thoughts. he might taint The animal spirits. but returns Of force to its own likeness: Up he starts Discovered and surprised. transformed. inspiring venom. as he list. inflames the air. escaped thy prison? and. Back stept those two fair Angels. Know ye not me? ye knew me once no mate For you. Here watching at the head of these that sleep? Know ye not then said Satan. there sitting where ye durst not soar: Not to know me argues yourselves unknown. filled with scorn. Which of those rebel Spirits adjudged to Hell Comest thou. half amazed So sudden to behold the grisly king. As when a spark Lights on a heap of nitrous powder. inordinate desires. Or if. and with them forge Illusions. phantasms and dreams. Blown up with high conceits ingendering pride. 120 . Vain hopes. Yet thus. unmoved with fear. Why sat’st thou like an enemy in wait. With sudden blaze diffused.

Or all at once. So spake the Cherub. said Zephon bold. and superfluous begin Your message. Or undiminished brightness to be known. revolted Spirit. when thou no more wast good. And felt how awful goodness is. thy shape the same. but chiefly to find here observed His lustre visibly impaired. saw. the sender. like a proud steed reined. But come. and these from harm. answering scorn with scorn. Best with the best. and saw Virtue in her shape how lovely. and thou resemblest now Thy sin and place of doom obscure and foul. if ye know. not the sent. and thence weak. If I must contend. like to end as much in vain? To whom thus Zephon. went haughty on. Think not. Severe in youthful beauty. Champing his iron curb: To strive or fly 121 . Why ask ye. said he. As when thou stoodest in Heaven upright and pure. Will save us trial what the least can do Single against thee wicked. That glory then. more glory will be won. overcome with rage. Or less be lost. and pined His loss.The lowest of your throng. for thou. But. 16 The Fiend replied not. or. whose charge is to keep This place inviolable. added grace Invincible: Abashed the Devil stood. yet seemed Undaunted. Thy fear. shalt give account To him who sent us. Departed from thee. be sure. and his grave rebuke.

and now by glimpse discern Ithuriel and Zephon through the shade. for in his look defiance lours. Not likely to part hence without contest. when those two approached. from the front thus called aloud. who approve not to transgress By thy example. And brief related whom they brought. Gabriel. Gabriel? thou hadst in Heaven the esteem of wise. Satan. Employed. but have power and right To question thy bold entrance on this place. who by his gait And fierce demeanour seems the Prince of Hell. To whom their Chief. Now drew they nigh The western point. O friends! I hear the tread of nimble feet Hasting this way. Stand firm. to violate sleep. broke the bounds prescribed To thy transgressions. and those Whose dwelling God hath planted here in bliss! To whom thus Satan with contemptuous brow. But faded splendour wan. and disturbed the charge Of others. awe from above had quelled His heart. How busied. And such I held thee. where those half-rounding guards Just met. but this question asked 122 . in what form and posture couched. To whom with stern regard thus Gabriel spake. where found.He held it vain. it seems. A waiting next command. And with them comes a third of regal port. and closing stood in squadron joined. not else dismayed. Why hast thou. He scarce had ended.

Lives there who loves his pain! Who would not. they found me where they say. no doubt And boldly venture to whatever place Farthest from pain. if he intends our stay In that dark durance: Thus much what was asked. Thus he in scorn. thus replied. Gravely in doubt whether to hold them wise Or not. and scourge that wisdom back to Hell. Which taught thee yet no better. So wise he judges it to fly from pain However. Disdainfully half smiling. meet thy flight Sevenfold. which in this place I sought. Though thither doomed! Thou wouldst thyself. that no pain Can equal anger infinite provoked. who knowest only good. Which thou incurrest by flying. To thee no reason. and to ’scape his punishment! So judge thou still. But that implies not violence or harm. The rest is true. finding way. But evil hast not tried: and wilt object His will who bound us! Let him surer bar His iron gates. where thou mightst hope to change Torment with ease.Puts me in doubt. whom folly overthrew. O loss of one in Heaven to judge of wise Since Satan fell. who ask what boldness brought him hither Unlicensed from his bounds in Hell prescribed. and soonest recompense Dole with delight. But wherefore thou alone? wherefore with thee Came not all hell broke loose? is pain to them 123 . presumptuous! till the wrath. And now returns him from his prison ’scaped. break loose from Hell. The warlike Angel moved.

And practised distances to cringe. And seconded thy else not dreaded spear. Insulting Angel! well thou knowest I stood Thy fiercest. To say and straight unsay. Whose easier business were to serve their Lord High up in Heaven. Though for possession put to try once more What thou and thy gay legions dare against. Thou surely hadst not come sole fugitive. or shrink from pain. or in mid air. here in hope to find Better abode. 17 To whom the warriour Angel soon replied. I alone first undertook To wing the desolate abyss. and spy This new created world. not to hazard all Through ways of danger by himself untried: I. as before. when in battle to thy aid Thy blasting vollied thunder made all speed. or thou than they Less hardy to endure? Courageous Chief! The first in flight from pain! hadst thou alleged To thy deserted host this cause of flight. Not that I less endure. and my afflicted Powers To settle here on earth. less to be fled. with songs to hymn his throne. frowning stern. whereof in Hell Fame is not silent. not fight. therefore. To which the Fiend thus answered.Less pain. Argue thy inexperience what behoves From hard assays and ill successes past A faithful leader. pretending first 124 . But still thy words at random.

O sacred name of faithfulness profaned! Faithful to whom? to thy rebellious crew? Army of Fiends. Satan.Wise to fly pain. who now wouldst seem Patron of liberty. Then when I am thy captive talk of chains. but waxing more in rage replied. Your military obedience. and thou with thy compeers. So threatened he. And seal thee so. fit body to fit head. drawest his triumphant wheels In progress through the road of Heaven star-paved. Proud limitary Cherub! but ere then Far heavier load thyself expect to feel From my prevailing arm. Fly thither whence thou fledst! If from this hour Within these hallowed limits thou appear. professing next the spy. who more than thou Once fawned. 125 . to dissolve Allegiance to the acknowledged Power supreme? And thou. Argues no leader but a lyar traced. Us’d to the yoke. as henceforth not to scorn The facile gates of Hell too slightly barred. though Heaven’s King Ride on thy wings. Was this your discipline and faith engaged. and thyself to reign? But mark what I arreed thee now. and servily adored Heaven’s awful Monarch? wherefore. and cringed. but Satan to no threats Gave heed. but in hope To dispossess him. and couldst thou faithful add? O name. sly hypocrite. Avant. Back to the infernal pit I drag thee chained.

but the starry scope Of Heaven perhaps. nor wanted in his grasp What seemed both spear and shield: Now dreadful deeds Might have ensued. Wherein all things created first he weighed. Satan. the careful plowman doubting stands. Battles and realms: In these he put two weights.While thus he spake. Neither our own. unremoved: His stature reached the sky. nor only Paradise In this commotion. The pendulous round earth with balanced air In counterpoise. or all the elements At least had gone to wrack. disturbed and torn With violence of this conflict. which way the wind Sways them. and began to hem him round With ported spears. as thick as when a field Of Ceres ripe for harvest waving bends Her bearded grove of ears. I know thy strength. Satan. alarmed. had not soon The Eternal. to prevent such horrid fray. the angelick squadron bright Turned fiery red. dilated stood. and kicked the beam. now ponders all events. and thou knowest mine. yet seen Betwixt Astrea and the Scorpion sign. Collecting all his might. and on his crest Sat Horrour plumed. Hung forth in Heaven his golden scales. thus bespake the Fiend. but given: What folly then 126 . Lest on the threshing floor his hopeless sheaves Prove chaff. Like Teneriff or Atlas. sharpening in mooned horns Their phalanx. The sequel each of parting and of fight: The latter quick up flew. Which Gabriel spying. On the other side.

To boast what arms can do? since thine no more Than Heaven permits. and show how light. If thou resist. and with him fled the shades of night. The Fiend looked up. how weak. Where thou art weighed. but fled Murmuring. 127 . and knew His mounted scale aloft: Nor more. nor mine. though doubled now To trample thee as mire: For proof look up. And read thy lot in yon celestial sign.

entertains him with the choycest fruits of Paradise got together by Eve. and beheld 128 . who he is. of his free estate. who in Argument diswades and opposes him. his coming discern’d by Adam afar off sitting at the door of his Bower. brings him to his lodge. beginning from his first revolt in Heaven. and glowing cheek. her rosy steps in the eastern clime Advancing. Raphael comes down to Paradise. and how he came to be so. As through unquiet rest: He. from pure digestion bred. and there incited them to rebel with him. and the shrill matin song Of birds on every bough. Lightly dispersed. When Adam waked. And temperate vapours bland. Aurora’s fan. sowed the earth with orient pearl. on his side Leaning half raised. and the occasion thereof. he goes out to meet him. so customed. and why his enemy. his appearance describ’d. which the only sound Of leaves and fuming rills.CD 4 2 Book V: The Argument Morning approacht. how he drew his Legions after him to the parts of the North. so much the more His wonder was to find unwakened Eve With tresses discomposed. he likes it not. Eve relates to Adam her troublesome dream. then forsakes him. minds Adam of his state and of his enemy. perswading all but only Abdiel a Seraph. relates at Adams request who that enemy is. yet comforts her: They come forth to thir day labours: Thir Morning Hymn at the Door of thir Bower. God to render Man inexcusable sends Raphael to admonish him of his obedience. 2 Book V Now Morn. thir discourse at Table: Raphael performs his message. for his sleep Was aery-light. with looks of cordial love Hung over her enamoured. of his enemy near at hand. and whatever else may avail Adam to know.

Hung over her enamoured” (Book V. half raised. lines 12. 13) 129 . with looks of cordial love.“Leaning.

which my mind Knew never till this irksome night: Methought. Eve? now is the pleasant time. My fairest. as I oft am wont. which. thus she spake. the silent. and what the balmy reed. If dreamed. Shot forth peculiar graces. whether waking or asleep. to mark how spring Our tender plants. O sole in whom my thoughts find all repose. or morrow’s next design. for I this night (Such night till this I never passed) have dreamed. What drops the myrrh. then with voice Mild. but with startled eye On Adam. and with more pleasing light ‘Shadowy sets off the face of things. Close at mine ear one called me forth to walk With gentle voice. whom embracing. and morn returned. ‘The cool. Her hand soft touching. my espoused. and the fresh field Calls us. my ever new delight! Awake: The morning shines. how blows the citron grove. save where silence yields ‘To the night-warbling bird. not. my latest found. now reigns ‘Full-orbed the moon. Awake. Heaven’s last best gift. My glory. my perfection! glad I see Thy face. of thee. Works of day past. But of offence and trouble.Beauty. How nature paints her colours. in vain. how the bee Sits on the bloom extracting liquid sweet. that now awake ‘Tunes sweetest his love-laboured song. I thought it thine: It said. Such whispering waked her. we lose the prime. ‘Why sleepest thou. as when Zephyrus on Flora breathes. whispered thus. 130 .

as I wondering looked. and taste thy sweet. none shall from me withhold ‘Longer thy offered good. yet able to make Gods of Men: ‘And why not Gods of Men. Nature’s desire? ‘In whose sight all things joy. happy though thou art. ‘Forbidden here. with ravishment ‘Attracted by thy beauty still to gaze. ‘The author not impaired. 131 . beside it stood One shaped and winged like one of those from Heaven By us oft seen. And on. it seems. more abundant grows. ‘Deigns none to ease thy load.’ I rose as at thy call. but much more sweet thus cropt. me damp horrour chilled At such bold words vouched with a deed so bold: But he thus. the more ‘Communicated. nor Man? Is knowledge so despised? ‘Or envy. why else set here?’ This said. overjoyed. since good. but honoured more? ‘Here. ‘with fruit surcharged. methought. but with venturous arm He plucked. he paused not.’ said he. as only fit ‘For Gods.‘If none regard. on that tree he also gazed. ‘Sweet of thyself. happy creature. ‘Nor God. And ‘O fair plant. but found thee not. Heaven wakes with all his eyes. Much fairer to my fancy than by day: And. ‘O fruit divine. or what reserve forbids to taste? ‘Forbid who will. fair angelick Eve! ‘Partake thou also. he tasted. alone I passed through ways That brought me on a sudden to the tree Of interdicted knowledge: fair it seemed. ‘Whom to behold but thee. his dewy locks distilled Ambrosia. To find thee I directed then my walk.

Forthwith up to the clouds With him I flew. and see ‘What life the Gods live there. as we. and such live thou!’ So saying. a prospect wide And various: Wondering at my flight and change To this high exaltation. and to me held. Yet evil whence? in thee can harbour none. Best image of myself. the pleasant savoury smell So quickened appetite. methought. Created pure. Could not but taste. I fear. worthier canst not be: ‘Taste this. nor can I like This uncouth dream. ‘But sometimes in the air. But know that in the soul Are many lesser faculties. methought. suddenly My guide was gone. he drew nigh. The trouble of thy thoughts this night in sleep Affects me equally. and underneath beheld The earth outstretched immense. of evil sprung. by merit thine. Even to my mouth of that same fruit held part Which he had plucked. that serve Reason as chief. that I. and dearer half. not to earth confined. and be henceforth among the Gods ‘Thyself a Goddess. how glad I waked To find this but a dream! 3 Thus Eve her night Related. sunk down. and I. and thus Adam answered sad. but O. among these Fancy next Her office holds.‘Happier thou mayest be. of all external things 132 . And fell asleep. sometimes ‘Ascend to Heaven.

methinks. and call Our knowledge or opinion. Two other precious drops that ready stood. in this thy dream. So cheered he his fair spouse. And let us to our fresh employments rise Among the groves.Which the five watchful senses represent. and leave No spot or blame behind: Which gives me hope That what in sleep thou didst abhor to dream. nor cloud those looks. frames All what we affirm or what deny. and she was cheered. as the gracious signs of sweet remorse 133 . Each in their crystal sluice. I find Of our last evening’s talk. Evil into the mind of God or Man May come and go. Be not disheartened then. But silently a gentle tear let fall From either eye. She forms imaginations. and the flowers That open now their choisest bosomed smells. Ill matching words and deeds long past or late. and wiped them with her hair. but. he ere they fell Kissed. Which Reason. and most in dreams. aery shapes. Than when fair morning first smiles on the world. misjoining shapes. and kept for thee in store. Some such resemblances. yet be not sad. Oft in her absence mimick Fancy wakes To imitate her. so unapproved. the fountains. But with addition strange. That wont to be more cheerful and serene. Wild work produces oft. then retires Into her private cell. Reserved from night. Waking thou never will consent to do. when nature rests. joining or disjoining.

day without night. in prose or numerous verse. But first. that feared to have offended. Almighty! Thine this universal frame. ye in Heaven 134 . ye who best can tell. More tuneable than needed lute or harp To add more sweetness. Discovering in wide landskip all the east Of Paradise and Eden’s happy plains. Lowly they bowed adoring. Thyself how wonderous then! Unspeakable. or dimly seen In these thy lowest works. and they thus began.And pious awe. Parent of good. Circle his throne rejoicing. such prompt eloquence Flowed from their lips. each morning duly paid In various style. or sung Unmeditated. So all was cleared. who. 4 These are thy glorious works. from under shady arborous roof Soon as they forth were come to open sight Of day-spring. who sitst above these heavens To us invisible. Shot parallel to the earth his dewy ray. ye sons of light. for neither various style Nor holy rapture wanted they to praise Their Maker. and to the field they haste. yet these declare Thy goodness beyond thought. and with songs And choral symphonies. for ye behold him. Speak. in fit strains pronounced. and the sun. and began Their orisons. Thus wonderous fair. Angels. With wheels yet hovering o’er the ocean-brim. and power divine. scarce up-risen.

and ye Elements. Acknowledge him thy greater. that sweet hour of prime. him last. and ye that warble. 135 . In honour to the world’s great Author rise. last in the train of night. Fairest of stars. now flyest. that move In mystick dance not without song. of this great world both eye and soul. fixed in their orb that flies. And when high noon hast gained. and without end. that crownest the smiling morn With thy bright circle. that from four quarters blow. Sure pledge of day. Air. Till the sun paint your fleecy skirts with gold. him midst. let your ceaseless change Vary to our great Maker still new praise. that now rise From hill or steaming lake. dusky or gray. that in quaternion run Perpetual circle. Rising or falling still advance his praise. Thou Sun. Moon. His praise. Breathe soft or loud. both when thou climbest. And ye five other wandering Fires. Whether to deck with clouds the uncoloured sky. Fountains. wave your tops. in sign of worship wave. and. the eldest birth Of Nature’s womb. that now meetest the orient sun. sound his praise Of thy eternal course. and mix And nourish all things. as ye flow. and when thou fallest. multiform. Ye Mists and Exhalations. With every plant. With the fixed Stars. resound His praise. If better thou belong not to the dawn. who out of darkness called up light. ye Winds.On Earth join all ye Creatures to extol Him first. Or wet the thirsty earth with falling showers. ye Pines. While day arises. praise him in thy sphere.

and to their thoughts Firm peace recovered soon. Them thus employed beheld With pity Heaven’s high King. that deigned To travel with Tobias. warbling tune his praise. morn or even. or valley. or fresh shade. universal Lord. Witness if I be silent. Made vocal by my song. or concealed. and stately tread.Melodious murmurs. be bounteous still To give us only good. and to him called Raphael. the sociable Spirit. and secured His marriage with the seventimes-wedded maid. fountain. and with him brings Her dower. the adopted clusters. about him twines Her marriageable arms. Bear on your wings and in your notes his praise. and taught his praise. and needed hands to check Fruitless embraces: or they led the vine To wed her elm. all ye living Souls: Ye Birds. To hill. Join voices. and ye that walk The earth. Hail. to adorn His barren leaves. Among sweet dews and flowers. That singing up to Heaven-gate ascend. 136 . and wonted calm. 5 On to their morning’s rural work they haste. she. where any row Of fruit-trees over-woody reached too far Their pampered boughs. and if the night Have gathered aught of evil. or lowly creep. as now light dispels the dark! So prayed they innocent. spoused. Ye that in waters glide. Disperse it.

Happiness in his power left free to will. at the gate Of Heaven arrived. and fulfilled All justice: Nor delayed the winged Saint After his charge received. To respite his day-labour with repast. and such discourse bring on. Late fallen himself from Heaven. but from among Thousand celestial Ardours. Yet mutable. in what bower or shade Thou findest him from the heat of noon retired. he pretend Surprisal. said he. too secure: Tell him withal His danger. is plotting now The fall of others from like state of bliss. where he stood Veiled with his gorgeous wings. So spake the Eternal Father. from Hell ’scaped through the darksome gulf. unadmonished. up springing light. half this day as friend with friend Converse with Adam. his will though free. thou hearest what stir on Earth Satan. what enemy. Lest. till. and how disturbed This night the human pair. to his speed gave way Through all the empyreal road. and from whom. whence warn him to beware He swerve not. Left to his own free will. wilfully transgressing. the angelick quires. unforewarned. the gate self-opened wide 137 . Or with repose. On each hand parting. how he designs In them at once to ruin all mankind. By violence? no. As may advise him of his happy state.Raphael. Hath raised in Paradise. Flew through the midst of Heaven. for that shall be withstood. Go therefore. But by deceit and lies: This let him know.

then with quick fan Winnows the buxom air. with cedars crowned Above all hills. Star interposed. and to his proper shape returns A Seraph winged: Six wings he wore. Not unconformed to other shining globes. to all the fowls he seems A phoenix. Earth. And shook his plumes. Sky-tinctured grain. and through the vast ethereal sky Sails between worlds and worlds. the middle pair Girt like a starry zone his waist. or. with steady wing Now on the polar winds. When. however small he sees. As when by night the glass Of Galileo. observes Imagined lands and regions in the moon: Or pilot. Like Maia’s son he stood. that heavenly fragrance filled 138 . to enshrine his reliques in the Sun’s Bright temple. and the garden of God. to Egyptian Thebes he flies. to obstruct his sight.On golden hinges turning. From hence no cloud. to shade His lineaments divine. from amidst the Cyclades Delos or Samos first appearing. gazed by all as that sole bird. as by work Divine the sovran Architect had framed. less assured. the third his feet Shadowed from either heel with feathered mail. At once on the eastern cliff of Paradise He lights. till. within soar Of towering eagles. kens A cloudy spot. and round Skirted his loins and thighs with downy gold And colours dipt in Heaven. the pair that clad Each shoulder broad. came mantling o’er his breast With regal ornament. Down thither prone in flight He speeds.

in honour rise. 6 Him through the spicy forest onward come Adam discerned. and not disrelish thirst Of nectarous draughts between. while now the mounted sun Shot down direct his fervid rays to warm Earth’s inmost womb. what thy stores contain. enormous bliss. cassia. due at her hour prepared For dinner savoury fruits. But go with speed. Eve. what glorious shape Comes this way moving. and to his state.The circuit wide. Their glittering tents he passed. and worth thy sight behold Eastward among those trees. Straight knew him all the bands Of Angels under watch. and balm. And. and will vouchsafe This day to be our guest. And flowering odours. fit to honour and receive 139 . For on some message high they guessed him bound. Haste hither. nard. and played at will Her virgin fancies pouring forth more sweet. Berry or grape: To whom thus Adam called. bring forth. and now is come Into the blissful field. A wilderness of sweets. And to his message high. through groves of myrrh. as in the door he sat Of his cool bower. seems another morn Risen on mid-noon. more warmth than Adam needs: And Eve within. from milky stream. for Nature here Wantoned as in her prime. Wild above rule or art. and pour Abundance. of taste to please True appetite. some great behest from Heaven To us perhaps he brings.

Bestirs her then. To whom thus Eve. as he Beholding shall confess. where store. will pluck such choice To entertain our Angel-guest. or shell. or where Alcinous reigned. inoffensive must. yields In India East or West. that here on Earth God hath dispensed his bounties as in Heaven. in coat Rough. tribute large. ripe for use hangs on the stalk. and on the board Heaps with unsparing hand. with dispatchful looks in haste She turns. inelegant. Save what by frugal storing firmness gains To nourish. which instructs us not to spare. on hospitable thoughts intent What choice to choose for delicacy best. all-bearing mother. What order. or middle shore In Pontus or the Punick coast. So saying. All seasons. and meaths 140 . or smooth rind. Of God inspired! small store will serve. where Nature multiplies Her fertile growth. or bearded husk. and by disburthening grows More fruitful. She gathers. earth’s hallowed mould. fruit of all kinds. for drink the grape She crushes. and large bestow From large bestowed. and from each bough and brake.Our heavenly stranger: Well we may afford Our givers their own gifts. and superfluous moist consumes: But I will haste. so contrived as not to mix Tastes. but bring Taste after taste upheld with kindliest change. Adam. not well joined. Each plant and juciest gourd. and from each tender stalk Whatever Earth.

and the sun more cool decline. by descending from the thrones above. though Spirits of Heaven. in himself was all his state. in yonder shady bower To rest. nor art thou such Created. Those happy places thou hast deigned a while To want. who yet by sovran gift possess This spacious ground. and sets them all agape. when their rich retinue long Of horses led. As to a superiour nature bowing low. I therefore came. to meet His God-like guest. Yet with submiss approach and reverence meek. Whom thus the angelick Virtue answered mild. More solemn than the tedious pomp that waits On princes. To visit thee. and honour these. Dazzles the croud.From many a berry. Mean while our primitive great sire. and from sweet kernels pressed She tempers dulcet creams. for other place None can than Heaven such glorious shape contain. lead on then where thy bower 141 . without more train Accompanied than with his own complete Perfections. though not awed. walks forth. Adam. and grooms besmeared with gold. till this meridian heat Be over. or such place hast here to dwell. Thus said. Native of Heaven. vouchsafe with us Two only. Since. and what the garden choicest bears To sit and taste. As may not oft invite. nor these to hold Wants her fit vessels pure. Nearer his presence Adam. then strows the ground With rose and odours from the shrub unfumed.

which our Nourisher. On whom the Angel Hail Bestowed. and mossy seats had round. virtue-proof. the holy salutation used Long after to blest Mary. and fragrant smells. but Eve. second Eve. With flowerets decked. though spring and autumn here Danced hand in hand. To whom the Angel. please to taste These bounties. Undecked save with herself. only this I know. no thought infirm Altered her cheek. A while discourse they hold. Mother of Mankind. for these mid-hours. 7 Hail. when thus began Our author. Than with these various fruits the trees of God Have heaped this table! – Raised of grassy turf Their table was. Heavenly stranger. Stood to entertain her guest from Heaven.O’ershades. And on her ample square from side to side All autumn piled. Therefore what he gives 142 . no veil She needed. unsavoury food perhaps To spiritual natures. descends. No fear lest dinner cool. till evening rise. I have at will. that like Pomona’s arbour smiled. unmeasured out. or the fairest Goddess feigned Of three that in mount Ida naked strove. whose fruitful womb Shall fill the world more numerous with thy sons. So to the sylvan lodge They came. from whom All perfect good. That one celestial Father gives to all. more lovely fair Than Wood-Nymph. To us for food and for delight hath caused The earth to yield.

and find the ground Covered with pearly grain: Yet God hath here Varied his bounty so with new delights. smell. and as lowest first the moon. and to taste Think not I shall be nice. see. may of purest Spirits be found No ingrateful food: And food alike those pure Intelligential substances require. For know. Earth and the sea feed air. unpurged Vapours not yet into her substance turned. receives From all his alimental recompence In humid exhalations. whatever was created. digest. the common gloss Of Theologians. nor in mist. but with keen dispatch 143 . As may compare with Heaven. As doth your rational. The sun that light imparts to all. Whence in her visage round those spots. assimilate. the air those fires Ethereal. needs To be sustained and fed: Of elements The grosser feeds the purer. and vines Yield nectar. taste. though from off the boughs each morn We brush mellifluous dews.(Whose praise be ever sung) to Man in part Spiritual. and at even Sups with the ocean. nor seemingly The Angel. So down they sat. earth the sea. touch. whereby they hear. and both contain Within them every lower faculty Of sense. And corporeal to incorporeal turn. And to their viands fell. Tasting concoct. Nor doth the moon no nourishment exhale From her moist continent to higher orbs. Though in Heaven the trees Of life ambrosial fruitage bear.

Of real hunger. if by fire Of sooty coal the empirick alchemist Can turn. so far Exceeded human. As that more willingly thou couldst not seem 144 . not to let the occasion pass Given him by this great conference to know Of things above his world. Inhabitant with God. Thus when with meat and drinks they had sufficed. Mean while at table Eve Ministered naked. and their flowing cups With pleasant liquours crowned: O innocence Deserving Paradise! if ever. As from the mine. transpires Through Spirits with ease. nor wonder. or holds it possible to turn. Under whose lowly roof thou hast vouchsafed To enter. and of their being Who dwell in Heaven. Divine effulgence. Food not of Angels. whose high power. then. Not burdened nature. and these earthly fruits to taste. Then had the sons of God excuse to have been Enamoured at that sight. and his wary speech Thus to the empyreal minister he framed. yet accepted so. nor jealousy Was understood. but in those hearts Love unlibidinous reigned. and concoctive heat To transubstantiate: What redounds. in this honour done to Man. Metals of drossiest ore to perfect gold. sudden mind arose In Adam. whose radiant forms. now know I well Thy favour. the injured lover’s hell. whose excellence he saw Transcend his own so far.

lines 468-470) 145 . one Almighty is. from whom All things proceed” (Book V.“To whom the winged Hierarch replied: O Adam.

If not depraved from good. what God for you saw good If I refuse not. one first matter all. Endued with various forms. created all Such to perfection. 8 O Adam. to animal. of life. Till body up to spirit work. the latter most is ours. So from the root Springs lighter the green stalk. To intellectual. One Almighty is. As nearer to him placed. from whom All things proceed. Differing but in degree. whence the soul Reason receives. and reason is her being. by gradual scale sublimed. But more refined. Time may come. but convert. and. as you To proper substance. from thence the leaves More aery. in things that live. Discursive. And from these corporal nutriments perhaps 146 .At Heaven’s high feasts to have fed: yet what compare To whom the winged Hierarch replied. and pure. and find No inconvenient diet. discourse Is oftest yours. or nearer tending Each in their several active spheres assigned. give both life and sense. various degrees Of substance. Wonder not then. Fancy and understanding. of kind the same. in bounds Proportioned to each kind. Man’s nourishment. nor too light fare. last the bright consummate flower Spirits odorous breathes: flowers and their fruit. when Men With Angels may participate. and up to him return. To vital spirits aspire. more spiritous. or intuitive.

If ye be found Obedient? Can we want obedience then To him. What meant that caution joined. owe to God. and the scale of nature set From center to circumference. God made thee perfect. ordained thy will 147 . propitious guest. whereon. That thou continuest such. not immutable. Improved by tract of time. owe to thyself. but to persevere He left it in thy power. O favourable Spirit. incapable of more. Who formed us from the dust and placed us here Full to the utmost measure of what bliss Human desires can seek or apprehend? To whom the Angel. therein stand. If ye be found obedient. Attend! That thou art happy. winged. to thy obedience. ascend Ethereal. and retain Unalterably firm his love entire. To whom the patriarch of mankind replied. Whose progeny you are. be advised. This was that caution given thee. And good he made thee. or may. In contemplation of created things.Your bodies may at last turn all to spirit. Son of Heaven and Earth. That is. at choice. By steps we may ascend to God. and. as we. But say. Here or in heavenly Paradises dwell. Mean while enjoy Your fill what happiness this happy state Can comprehend. Well hast thou taught the way that might direct Our knowledge. or possibly his love desert.

not free. nor can find. Divine instructer. I have heard. Because we freely love. Worthy of sacred silence to be heard. And so from Heaven to deepest Hell. and obey him whose command Single is yet so just. and still assure: Though what thou tellest Hath passed in Heaven. which must needs be strange. or strict necessity: Our voluntary service he requires. for how Can hearts. our happy state Hold. and can no other choose? Myself. than when Cherubick songs by night from neighbouring hills Aereal musick send: Nor knew I not To be both will and deed created free. in this we stand or fall: And some are fallen. some doubt within me move. as you yours. into what woe! To whom our great progenitor. and all the angelick host. Not our necessitated. 148 . if thou consent. while our obedience holds. O fall From what high state of bliss. enthroned. that stand In sight of God. as in our will To love or not.By nature free. On other surety none: Freely we serve. my constant thoughts Assured me. not over-ruled by fate Inextricable. who will but what they must By destiny. But more desire to hear. such with him Finds no acceptance. The full relation. and with more delighted ear. Yet that we never shall forget to love Our Maker. Thy words Attentive. to disobedience fallen. be tried whether they serve Willing or no.

Thus Adam made request. and Raphael. though in eternity. The ruin of so many glorious once And perfect while they stood? how last unfold The secrets of another world. By likening spiritual to corporal forms. After short pause assenting.And we have yet large day. when on a day (For time. O prime of men. without remorse. and future. though what if Earth Be but the shadow of Heaven. 9 High matter thou enjoinest me. Sad task and hard: For how shall I relate To human sense the invisible exploits Of warring Spirits? how. the empyreal host Of Angels by imperial summons called. more than on earth is thought? As yet this world was not. and what surmounts the reach Of human sense. thus began. past. and things therein Each to other like. where Earth now rests Upon her center poised. for scarce the sun Hath finished half his journey. applied To motion. I shall delineate so. perhaps Not lawful to reveal? yet for thy good This is dispensed. measures all things durable By present. Innumerable before the Almighty’s throne 149 . and Chaos wild Reigned where these Heavens now roll.) on such day As Heaven’s great year brings forth. As may express them best. and scarce begins His other half in the great zone of Heaven.

Cast out from God and blessed vision. Hear my decree. which unrevoked shall stand. appeared Under their Hierarchs in orders bright: Ten thousand thousand ensigns high advanced. Orb within orb. breaks union. progeny of light. Standards and gonfalons ’twixt van and rear Stream in the air. and on this holy hill Him have anointed. Powers. from all the ends of Heaven. your head I him appoint. By whom in bliss imbosomed sat the Son. Amidst as from a flaming mount. Me disobeys. Thrones. and for distinction serve Of hierarchies. Thus when in orbs Of circuit inexpressible they stood. acts of zeal and love Recorded eminent. without end. the Father Infinite. whom ye now behold At my right hand. and that day.Forthwith. Princedoms. and degrees. of orders. and shall confess him Lord: Under his great vice-gerent reign abide United. For ever happy: Him who disobeys. deep ingulfed. falls Into utter darkness. This day I have begot whom I declare My only Son. Or in their glittering tissues bear imblazed Holy memorials. his place Ordained without redemption. And by myself have sworn. Dominations. whose top Brightness had made invisible. thus spake. to him shall bow All knees in Heaven. all ye Angels. Hear. Virtues. as one individual soul. 150 .

as other solemn days. the face of brightest Heaven had changed To grateful twilight. rejoicing in their joy. but were not all. And in their motions harmony divine So smooths her charming tones. where full measure only bounds Excess. and on a sudden piled With Angels food. Eccentrick. (for night comes not there 151 . That day. and of fixed. and with his words All seemed well pleased. not need. when most irregular they seem. Mystical dance. Evening now approached. they drink. which yonder starry sphere Of planets. (For we have also our evening and our morn. mazes intricate. 10 Now when ambrosial night with clouds exhaled From that high mount of God. and in communion sweet Quaff immortality and joy. intervolved. in diamond. all in circles as they stood.So spake the Omnipotent. On flowers reposed. We ours for change delectable. Tables are set. and rubied nectar flows In pearl. They eat.) Forthwith from dance to sweet repast they turn Desirous. that God’s own ear Listens delighted. they spent In song and dance about the sacred hill. and massy gold. before the all-bounteous King. and with fresh flowerets crowned. all seemed. whence light and shade Spring both. the growth of Heaven. who showered With copious hand. secure Of surfeit. yet regular Then most. in all her wheels Resembles nearest. Fruit of delicious vines.

who. Dispersed in bands and files. the throne supreme. unobeyed. Deep malice thence conceiving and disdain. so call him now. If not the first Arch-Angel. and his next subordinate Awakening. In favour and pre-eminence.) and roseat dews disposed All but the unsleeping eyes of God to rest. (Such are the courts of God) the angelick throng. could not bear Through pride that sight. that day Honoured by his great Father. Wide over all the plain. Contemptuous. great in power. so late hath passed the lips Of Heaven’s Almighty. their camp extend By living streams among the trees of life. thus to him in secret spake. his former name Is heard no more in Heaven. and leave Unworshipt. and sudden reared. he resolved With all his legions to dislodge. Pavilions numberless.In darker veil. Soon as midnight brought on the dusky hour Friendliest to sleep and silence. and proclaimed Messiah King anointed. and thought himself impaired. where they slept Fanned with cool winds. yet fraught With envy against the Son of God. Companion dear? What sleep can close Thy eye-lids? and rememberest what decree Of yesterday. Thou to me thy thoughts 152 . Celestial tabernacles. Melodious hymns about the sovran throne Alternate all night long: but not so waked Satan. save those. in their course. he of the first. and wider far Than all this globous earth in plain outspread. Sleepest thou.

Who speedily through all the hierarchies Intends to pass triumphant. New laws from him who reigns. Now ere dim night had disincumbered Heaven. and infused Bad influence into the unwary breast Of his associate: He together calls. and his new commands. new counsels to debate What doubtful may ensue: More in this place To utter is not safe. That the Most High commanding. and casts between Ambiguous words and jealousies. and high was his degree in Heaven. So spake the false Arch-Angel.Wast wont. I mine to thee wast wont to impart. and superiour voice Of their great Potentate. to sound Or taint integrity: But all obeyed The wonted signal. with flying march. ere yet dim night Her shadowy cloud withdraws. that by command. And all who under me their banners wave. 153 . the regent Powers. The great Messiah. Tell them. how then can now Thy sleep dissent? New laws thou seest imposed. The great hierarchal standard was to move. Tells the suggested cause. for great indeed His name. Under him Regent. I am to haste. new minds may raise In us who serve. Or several one by one. Both waking we were one. as he was taught. now ere night. and give laws. there to prepare Fit entertainment to receive our King. Homeward. Assemble thou Of all those myriads which we lead the chief. tells. where we possess The quarters of the north.

To whom the Son with calm aspect and clear. and all employ In our defence. Made answer. Lightning divine. serene. lest unawares we lose This our high place. our hill. what our power is.His countenance. from forth his holy mount. thou in whom my glory I behold In full resplendence. and to this hazard draw With speed what force is left. our sanctuary. And from within the golden lamps that burn Nightly before him. Nearly it now concerns us to be sure Of our Omnipotence. how spread Among the sons of morn. allured them. Nor so content. saw in whom. And. and with lies Drew after him the third part of Heaven’s host. Let us advise. saw without their light Rebellion rising. ineffable. who intends to erect his throne Equal to ours. what multitudes Were banded to oppose his high decree. Heir of all my might. to his only Son thus said. thou thy foes 154 . Son. whose sight discerns Abstrusest thoughts. Mighty Father. 11 Mean while the Eternal eye. hath in his thought to try In battle. throughout the spacious north. and with what arms We mean to hold what anciently we claim Of deity or empire: Such a foe Is rising. smiling. or our right. as the morning-star that guides The starry flock.

And all the sea. which having passed. far blazing. At length into the limits of the north They came. is no more Than what this garden is to all the earth. regions to which All thy dominion. dew-drops. 155 . Adam. In imitation of that mount whereon Messiah was declared in sight of Heaven.) which not long after. Laughest at their vain designs and tumults vain. Regions they passed. as a mount Raised on a mount. (so call That structure in the dialect of men Interpreted. but Satan. from one entire globose Stretched into longitude. secure. an host Innumerable as the stars of night. So spake the Son. Far was advanced on winged speed. which the sun Impearls on every leaf and every flower. In their triple degrees. he Affecting all equality with God. The Mountain of the Congregation called. and Thrones. and. or be found the worst in Heaven. and Satan to his royal seat High on a hill. Matter to me of glory. Or stars of morning. with his Powers. and rocks of gold. when they see all regal power Given me to quell their pride. The palace of great Lucifer. and Potentates. and in event Know whether I be dextrous to subdue Thy rebels.Justly hast in derision. with pyramids and towers From diamond quarries hewn. the mighty regencies Of Seraphim. whom their hate Illustrates.

With what may be devised of honours new. if I trust To know ye right. and teach us to cast off this yoke? Will ye submit your necks. Receive him coming to receive from us Knee-tribute yet unpaid. prostration vile! Too much to one! but double how endured. and us eclipsed under the name Of King anointed. but well consist. Equally free. This only to consult how we may best. or if ye know yourselves Natives and sons of Heaven possessed before By none. and if not equal all. 12 Thrones. or right. since by decree Another now hath to himself engrossed All power.For thither he assembled all his train. if in power and splendour less. for orders and degrees Jar not with liberty. yet free. To one. and with calumnious art Of counterfeited truth thus held their ears. Virtues. and choose to bend The supple knee? Ye will not. Pretending so commanded to consult About the great reception of their King. and hurried meeting here. Who can in reason then. assume Monarchy over such as live by right His equals. Princedoms. for whom all this haste Of midnight-march. Powers. 156 . Thither to come. Dominations. and to his image now proclaimed? But what if better counsels might erect Our minds. If these magnifick titles yet remain Not merely titular.

to the abuse Of those imperial titles. who without law Err not? much less for this to be our Lord. Stood up. and proud! Words which no ear ever to hear in Heaven Expected. and formed the Powers of Heaven Such as he pleased. pronounced and sworn. by right endued With regal scepter. O argument blasphemous.In freedom equal? or can introduce Law and edict on us. 157 . by experience taught. Ingrate. to bind with laws the free. least of all from thee. thou sayest. than whom none with more zeal adored The Deity. which assert Our being ordained to govern. In place thyself so high above thy peers. Canst thou with impious obloquy condemn The just decree of God. not to serve. and in a flame of zeal severe The current of his fury thus opposed. every soul in Heaven Shall bend the knee. when among the Seraphim Abdiel. we know how good. That to his only Son. false. One over all with unsucceeded power. And equal over equals to let reign. and circumscribed their being? Yet. and divine commands obeyed. Thus far his bold discourse without controul Had audience. who made Thee what thou art. and in that honour due Confess him rightful King? unjust. Shalt thou give law to God? shalt thou dispute With him the points of liberty. And look for adoration. Flatly unjust.

Powers. Virtues. even thee. and all the Spirits of Heaven By him created in their bright degrees. dost thou count. and to their glory named Thrones. Dominations. Or all angelick nature joined in one. Essential Powers. thus replied. That equal over equals monarch reign: Thyself. While pardon may be found in time besought. That we were formed then sayest thou? and the work Of secondary hands. but hasten to appease The incensed Father. by task transferred From Father to his Son? strange point and new! Doctrine which we would know whence learned: who saw 158 . nor by his reign obscured. under one head more near United. Or singular and rash: Whereat rejoiced The Apostate. and the incensed Son. As by his Word. His laws our laws. And tempt not these. since he the head One of our number thus reduced becomes. but his zeal None seconded. the Mighty Father made All things. Crowned them with glory. and.And of our good and of our dignity How provident he is. as out of season judged. Equal to him begotten Son? by whom. 13 So spake the fervent Angel. bent rather to exalt Our happy state. all honour to him done Returns our own. But to grant it thee unjust. though great and glorious. more haughty. how far from thought To make us less. Cease then this impious rage. Princedoms. But more illustrious made.

the birth mature Of this our native Heaven. And fly. ethereal sons. He said. nor less for that The flaming Seraph fearless. contagion spread Both of thy crime and punishment: Henceforth No more be troubled how to quit the yoke Of God’s Messiah. and thy hapless crew involved In this perfidious fraud. as the sound of waters deep. by proof to try Who is our equal: Then thou shalt behold Whether by supplication we intend Address. and. Hoarse murmur echoed to his words applause Through the infinite host. Our puissance is our own. self-raised By our own quickening power. This report. when fatal course Had circled his full orb. which thou didst reject. those indulgent laws Will not be now vouchsafed. O Spirit accursed. These tidings carry to the anointed King. O alienate from God. other decrees Against thee are gone forth without recall. while the Maker gave thee being? We know no time when we were not as now. Forsaken of all good! I see thy fall Determined. 159 . though alone Encompassed round with foes. and to begirt the almighty throne Beseeching or besieging. That golden scepter. ere evil intercept thy flight.When this creation was? rememberest thou Thy making. thus answered bold. self-begot. Know none before us. our own right hand Shall teach us highest deeds.

nor of violence feared aught. Nor number. with 160 . unseduced. Among innumerable false.Is now an iron rod to bruise and break Thy disobedience. unmoved. nor example. raging into sudden flame. Distinguish not: For soon expect to feel His thunder on thy head. invents devilish Engines. Well thou didst advise. faithful found Among the faithless. When who can uncreate thee thou shalt know. his back he turned On those proud towers to swift destruction doomed. But. Yet not for thy advice or threats I fly These wicked tents devoted. God on the third day sends Messiah his Son. his love. Though single. his zeal. which in the second dayes Fight put Michael and his Angels to some disorder. unterrified. and causing all his Legions to stand still on either side. Then who created thee lamenting learn. Unshaken. with retorted scorn. His loyalty he kept. with him wrought To swerve from truth. lest the wrath Impendent. which he sustained Superiour. faithful only he. And. So spake the Seraph Abdiel. From amidst them forth he passed. for whom he had reserv’d the glory of that Victory: Hee in the Power of his Father coming to the place. they at length pulling up Mountains overwhelm’d both the force and Machins of Satan: Yet the Tumult not so ending. Long way through hostile scorn. devouring fire. 14 Book VI: The Argument Raphael continues to relate how Michael and Gabriel were sent forth to battel against Satan and his Angels. or change his constant mind. The first Fight describ’d: Satan and his Powers retire under Night: He calls a Councel.

first met his view: War he perceived. Chariots. Reflecting blaze on blaze. when all the plain Covered with thick embattled squadrons bright. Where light and darkness in perpetual round Lodge and dislodge by turns. unpursued. and fiery steeds. which makes through Heaven Grateful vicissitude. That of so many myriads fallen. from before her vanished Night. with rosy hand Unbarred the gates of light. fast by his throne. 15 Book VI All night the dreadless Angel. which opening.his Chariot and Thunder driving into the midst of his Enemies. that one. and flaming arms. and at the other door Obsequious darkness enters. who him received With joy and acclamations loud. and found Already known what he for news had thought To have reported: Gladly then he mixed Among those friendly Powers. they leap down with horrour and confusion into the place of punishment prepar’d for them in the Deep: Messiah returns with triumph to his Father. Light issues forth. pursues them unable to resist towards the wall of Heaven. yet one Returned not lost. Through Heaven’s wide champain held his way. like day and night. till her hour To veil the Heaven. There is a cave Within the mount of God. Waked by the circling Hours. till Morn. though darkness there might well Seem twilight here: And now went forth the Morn Such as in highest Heaven arrayed in gold Empyreal. war in procinct. On to the sacred hill 161 . Shot through with orient beams.

They led him high applauded. aided by this host of friends. thus mild was heard. Servant of God. though worlds Judged thee perverse: The easier conquest now Remains thee. Into their place of punishment. the gulf Of Tartarus. far worse to bear Than violence. which ready opens wide His fiery Chaos to receive their fall. Go. and present Before the seat supreme. who reason for their law refuse. and to subdue By force. drive them out from God and bliss. By thousands and by millions. in military prowess next. for this was all thy care To stand approved in sight of God. of celestial armies prince. lead forth my armed Saints. From midst a golden cloud. in word mightier than they in arms. and. Michael. ranged for fight. lead forth to battle these my sons Invincible. Than scorned thou didst depart. who single hast maintained Against revolted multitudes the cause Of truth. who by right of merit reigns. Gabriel. and for their King Messiah. well hast thou fought The better fight. 162 . Right reason for their law. Back on thy foes more glorious to return. And thou. Well done. Equal in number to that Godless crew Rebellious: Them with fire and hostile arms Fearless assault. And for the testimony of truth hast borne Universal reproach. from whence a voice. to the brow of Heaven Pursuing.


So spake the Sovran Voice, and clouds began To darken all the hill, and smoke to roll In dusky wreaths, reluctant flames, the sign Of wrath awaked; nor with less dread the loud Ethereal trumpet from on high ’gan blow: At which command the Powers militant, That stood for Heaven, in mighty quadrate joined Of union irresistible, moved on In silence their bright legions, to the sound Of instrumental harmony, that breathed Heroick ardour to adventurous deeds Under their God-like leaders, in the cause Of God and his Messiah. On they move Indissolubly firm; nor obvious hill, Nor straitening vale, nor wood, nor stream, divides Their perfect ranks; for high above the ground Their march was, and the passive air upbore Their nimble tread; as when the total kind Of birds, in orderly array on wing, Came summoned over Eden to receive Their names of thee; so over many a tract Of Heaven they marched, and many a province wide, Tenfold the length of this terrene: At last, Far in the horizon to the north appeared From skirt to skirt a fiery region, stretched In battailous aspect, and nearer view Bristled with upright beams innumerable Of rigid spears, and helmets thronged, and shields Various, with boastful argument portrayed, The banded Powers of Satan hasting on With furious expedition; for they weened That self-same day, by fight or by surprise,

To win the mount of God, and on his throne To set the Envier of his state, the proud Aspirer; but their thoughts proved fond and vain In the mid way: Though strange to us it seemed At first, that Angel should with Angel war, And in fierce hosting meet, who wont to meet So oft in festivals of joy and love Unanimous, as sons of one great Sire, Hymning the Eternal Father: But the shout Of battle now began, and rushing sound Of onset ended soon each milder thought. High in the midst, exalted as a God, The Apostate in his sun-bright chariot sat, Idol of majesty divine, enclosed With flaming Cherubim, and golden shields; Then lighted from his gorgeous throne, for now ’twixt host and host but narrow space was left, A dreadful interval, and front to front Presented stood in terrible array Of hideous length: Before the cloudy van, On the rough edge of battle ere it joined, Satan, with vast and haughty strides advanced, Came towering, armed in adamant and gold; Abdiel that sight endured not, where he stood Among the mightiest, bent on highest deeds, And thus his own undaunted heart explores. O Heaven! that such resemblance of the Highest Should yet remain, where faith and realty Remain not: Wherefore should not strength and might There fail where virtue fails, or weakest prove Where boldest, though to fight unconquerable?

His puissance, trusting in the Almighty’s aid, I mean to try, whose reason I have tried Unsound and false; nor is it aught but just, That he, who in debate of truth hath won, Should win in arms, in both disputes alike Victor; though brutish that contest and foul, When reason hath to deal with force, yet so Most reason is that reason overcome.

So pondering, and from his armed peers Forth stepping opposite, half-way he met His daring foe, at this prevention more Incensed, and thus securely him defied. Proud, art thou met? thy hope was to have reached The height of thy aspiring unopposed, The throne of God unguarded, and his side Abandoned, at the terrour of thy power Or potent tongue: Fool! not to think how vain Against the Omnipotent to rise in arms; Who out of smallest things could, without end, Have raised incessant armies to defeat Thy folly; or with solitary hand Reaching beyond all limit, at one blow, Unaided, could have finished thee, and whelmed Thy legions under darkness: But thou seest All are not of thy train; there be, who faith Prefer, and piety to God, though then To thee not visible, when I alone Seemed in thy world erroneous to dissent From all: My sect thou seest; now learn too late

How few sometimes may know, when thousands err. Whom the grand foe, with scornful eye askance, Thus answered. Ill for thee, but in wished hour Of my revenge, first sought for, thou returnest From flight, seditious Angel! to receive Thy merited reward, the first assay Of this right hand provoked, since first that tongue, Inspired with contradiction, durst oppose A third part of the Gods, in synod met Their deities to assert; who, while they feel Vigour divine within them, can allow Omnipotence to none. But well thou comest Before thy fellows, ambitious to win From me some plume, that thy success may show Destruction to the rest: This pause between, (Unanswered lest thou boast) to let thee know, At first I thought that Liberty and Heaven To heavenly souls had been all one; but now I see that most through sloth had rather serve, Ministring Spirits, trained up in feast and song! Such hast thou armed, the minstrelsy of Heaven, Servility with freedom to contend, As both their deeds compared this day shall prove. To whom in brief thus Abdiel stern replied. Apostate! still thou errest, nor end wilt find Of erring, from the path of truth remote: Unjustly thou depravest it with the name Of servitude, to serve whom God ordains, Or Nature: God and Nature bid the same, When he who rules is worthiest, and excels

Them whom he governs. This is servitude, To serve the unwise, or him who hath rebelled Against his worthier, as thine now serve thee, Thyself not free, but to thyself enthralled; Yet lewdly darest our ministring upbraid. Reign thou in Hell, thy kingdom; let me serve In Heaven God ever blest, and his divine Behests obey, worthiest to be obeyed; Yet chains in Hell, not realms, expect: Mean while From me returned, as erst thou saidst, from flight, This greeting on thy impious crest receive. So saying, a noble stroke he lifted high, Which hung not, but so swift with tempest fell On the proud crest of Satan, that no sight, Nor motion of swift thought, less could his shield, Such ruin intercept: Ten paces huge He back recoiled; the tenth on bended knee His massy spear upstaid; as if on earth Winds under ground, or waters forcing way, Sidelong had pushed a mountain from his seat, Half sunk with all his pines. Amazement seised The rebel Thrones, but greater rage, to see Thus foiled their mightiest; ours joy filled, and shout, Presage of victory, and fierce desire Of battle: Whereat Michael bid sound The Arch-Angel trumpet; through the vast of Heaven It sounded, and the faithful armies rung Hosanna to the Highest: Nor stood at gaze The adverse legions, nor less hideous joined The horrid shock.


Now storming fury rose, And clamour such as heard in Heaven till now Was never; arms on armour clashing brayed Horrible discord, and the madding wheels Of brazen chariots raged; dire was the noise Of conflict; over head the dismal hiss Of fiery darts in flaming vollies flew, And flying vaulted either host with fire. So under fiery cope together rushed Both battles main, with ruinous assault And inextinguishable rage. All Heaven Resounded; and had Earth been then, all Earth Had to her center shook. What wonder? when Millions of fierce encountering Angels fought On either side, the least of whom could wield These elements, and arm him with the force Of all their regions: How much more of power Army against army numberless to raise Dreadful combustion warring, and disturb, Though not destroy, their happy native seat; Had not the Eternal King Omnipotent, From his strong hold of Heaven, high over-ruled And limited their might; though numbered such As each divided legion might have seemed A numerous host; in strength each armed hand A legion; led in fight, yet leader seemed Each warriour single as in chief, expert When to advance, or stand, or turn the sway Of battle, open when, and when to close The ridges of grim war: No thought of flight, None of retreat, no unbecoming deed That argued fear; each on himself relied,

As only in his arm the moment lay Of victory: Deeds of eternal fame Were done, but infinite; for wide was spread That war and various; sometimes on firm ground A standing fight, then, soaring on main wing, Tormented all the air; all air seemed then Conflicting fire. Long time in even scale The battle hung; till Satan, who that day Prodigious power had shown, and met in arms No equal, ranging through the dire attack Of fighting Seraphim confused, at length Saw where the sword of Michael smote, and felled Squadrons at once; with huge two-handed sway Brandished aloft, the horrid edge came down Wide-wasting; such destruction to withstand He hasted, and opposed the rocky orb Of tenfold adamant, his ample shield, A vast circumference. At his approach The great Arch-Angel from his warlike toil Surceased, and glad, as hoping here to end Intestine war in Heaven, the arch-foe subdued Or captive dragged in chains, with hostile frown And visage all inflamed first thus began. Author of evil, unknown till thy revolt, Unnamed in Heaven, now plenteous as thou seest These acts of hateful strife, hateful to all, Though heaviest by just measure on thyself, And thy adherents: How hast thou disturbed Heaven’s blessed peace, and into nature brought Misery, uncreated till the crime Of thy rebellion! how hast thou instilled

They ended parle. once upright And faithful. Hence then. Brooks not the works of violence and war. Hast thou turned the least of these To flight. And join him named Almighty to thy aid. Or turn this Heaven itself into the Hell Thou fablest.Thy malice into thousands. to whom thus The Adversary. the seat of bliss. I fly not. Heaven casts thee out From all her confines. now proved false! But think not here To trouble holy rest. but have sought thee far and nigh. Precipitate thee with augmented pain. or to what things 170 . Thou and thy wicked crew! there mingle broils. 19 So spake the Prince of Angels. for who. which we mean to win. and with threats To chase me hence? err not. easier to transact with me That thou shouldst hope. Thy offspring. and both addressed for fight Unspeakable. but that they rise Unvanquished. but we style The strife of glory. If not to reign: Mean while thy utmost force. winged from God. that so shall end The strife which thou callest evil. Heaven. can relate. to the place of evil. here however to dwell free. Or some more sudden vengeance. and evil go with thee along. or if to fall. Nor think thou with wind Of aery threats to awe whom yet with deeds Thou canst not. imperious. Hell. Ere this avenging sword begin thy doom. though with the tongue Of Angels.

And writhed him to and fro convolved. such as. while Expectation stood In horrour: From each hand with speed retired. in mid sky Should combat. and in the air Made horrid circles. Two planets. Now waved their fiery swords. 171 . nor odds appeared In might or swift prevention: But the sword Of Michael from the armoury of God Was given him tempered so. if. nature’s concord broke. And left large field. As not of power at once. nor staid. that neither keen Nor solid might resist that edge: it met The sword of Satan. Together both with next to almighty arm Up-lifted imminent. rushing from aspect malign Of fiercest opposition. Among the constellations war were sprung. Where erst was thickest fight. to set forth Great things by small. the angelick throng. motion. arms. and their jarring spheres confound. with steep force to smite Descending. in stature. so sore The griding sword with discontinuous wound Passed through him: But the ethereal substance closed. Fit to decide the empire of great Heaven. But with swift wheel reverse. Stood they or moved. shared All his right side: Then Satan first knew pain. that may lift Human imagination to such height Of Godlike power? for likest Gods they seemed. unsafe within the wind Of such commotion.Liken on earth conspicuous. and not need repeat. one stroke they aimed That might determine. deep entering. and in half cut sheer. two broad suns their shields Blazed opposite.

liver or reins. all eye. and from the gash A stream of necturous humour issuing flowed Sanguine. where it stood retired From off the files of war: There they him laid Gnashing for anguish. heart of head. Cannot but by annihilating die. All intellect. who interposed Defence. ere while so bright. while others bore him on their shields Back to his chariot. so far beneath His confidence to equal God in power. and despite. and. all head. for Spirits that live throughout Vital in every part. all ear. and colour. To find himself not matchless. such as celestial Spirits may bleed. no more than can the fluid air: All heart they live. as they please. all sense. And all his armour stained. and his pride Humbled by such rebuke. or size Assume. Forthwith on all sides to his aid was run By Angels many and strong. shape. 172 . not as frail man In entrails. condense or rare. Yet soon he healed. Nor in their liquid texture mortal wound Receive. and shame. They limb themselves. as likes them best.Not long divisible.

and their names Eternize here on earth. I might relate of thousands. Seek not the praise of men: The other sort. Vanquished Adramelech. and the violence Of Ramiel scorched and blasted. with shattered arms And uncouth pain fled bellowing. but anon Down cloven to the waist. Nor of renown less eager. And at his chariot-wheels to drag him bound Threatened. In might though wonderous and in acts of war. overthrew. Nor stood unmindful Abdiel to annoy The atheist crew. Nameless in dark oblivion let them dwell. Two potent Thrones. that to be less than Gods Disdained. and Asmadai. who him defied. but with redoubled blow Ariel. yet by doom Cancelled from Heaven and sacred memory. For strength from truth divided. and from just. On each wing Uriel. Illaudable. nought merits but dispraise And ignominy. where the might of Gabriel fought. yet to glory aspires 173 . Though huge. and in a rock of diamond armed. and Raphael.CD 5 1 Mean while in other parts like deeds deserved Memorial. but meaner thoughts learned in their flight. And with fierce ensigns pierced the deep array Of Moloch. and Arioch. contented with their fame in Heaven. Mangled with ghastly wounds through plate and mail. but those elect Angels. his vaunting foe. furious king. nor from the Holy One of Heaven Refrained his tongue blasphemous.

unobnoxious to be pained By wound. Far otherwise the inviolable Saints. Cherubick waving fires: On the other part. till that hour Not liable to fear. 174 . over Heaven Inducing darkness. Victor and vanquished: On the foughten field Michael and his Angels prevalent Encamping. deformed rout Entered. advanced entire. or pain. Now Night her course began. With many an inroad gored.Vain-glorious. And fiery-foaming steeds. grateful truce imposed. or flight. in fight they stood Unwearied. and through infamy seeks fame: Therefore eternal silence be their doom. the battle swerved. all the ground With shivered armour strown. recoiled O’er-wearied. through the faint Satanick host Defensive scarce. Such high advantages their innocence Gave them above their foes. placed in guard their watches round. In cubick phalanx firm. And now. impenetrably armed. And silence on the odious din of war: Under her cloudy covert both retired. and foul disorder. and. to such evil brought By sin of disobedience. not to have sinned. and sense of pain. what stood. Invulnerable. and on a heap Chariot and charioteer lay overturned. Then first with fear surprised. though from their place by violence moved. their mightiest quelled. or with pale fear surprised. Fled ignominious. Not to have disobeyed.

And in the midst thus undismayed began. Weapons more violent. O now in danger tried. and. Till now not known. while we can preserve Unhurt our minds. (And if one day. Since now we find this our empyreal form Incapable of mortal injury. it seems. though till now Omniscient thought. dominion. and renown. glory. Honour. and understanding sound. Of evil then so small as easy think The remedy. His potentates to council called by night. and judged Sufficient to subdue us to his will. Who have sustained one day in doubtful fight. 175 . when next we meet. and worse our foes. as soon contemned. perhaps more valid arms. But proves not so: Then fallible. True is. Imperishable. Companions dear. Of future we may deem him. In nature none: If other hidden cause Left them superiour. now known in arms Not to be overpowered. but. void of rest. and by native vigour healed. Soon closing. known. why not eternal days?) What Heaven’s Lord had powerfullest to send Against us from about his throne.Satan with his rebellious disappeared. Found worthy not of liberty alone. Far in the dark dislodged. Or equal what between us made the odds. less firmly armed. Some disadvantage we endured and pain. May serve to better us. and. Too mean pretence! but what we more affect. though pierced with wound.

the worst Of evils. which is the calmest life: But pain is perfect misery. to me deserves No less than for deliverance what we owe. overturns All patience. 2 He sat. or arm Ourselves with like defence. of Principalities the prime. Which of us who beholds the bright surface Of this ethereous mould whereon we stand. and too unequal work we find. his riven arms to havock hewn. Whereto with look composed Satan replied. excessive. who therefore can invent With what more forcible we may offend Our yet unwounded enemies. from which evil Ruin must needs ensue. and not repine. and. Sore toiled. Deliverer from new Lords. Against unequal arms to fight in pain. quelled with pain Which all subdues.Due search and consultation will disclose. and in the assembly next upstood Nisroch. And cloudy in his aspect thus answering spake. Against unpained. though matchless. 176 . which thou aright Believest so main to our success. and makes remiss the hands Of mightiest? Sense of pleasure we may well Spare out of life perhaps. As one he stood escaped from cruel fight. He. I bring. yet hard For Gods. Not uninvented that. leader to free Enjoyment of our right as Gods. impassive. But live content. for what avails Valour or strength.

The invention all admired. and tempered. gems. if malice should abound. pregnant with infernal flame. to strength and counsel joined Think nothing hard. He ended. Some one intent on mischief. adorned With plant. Abandon fear. Whose eye so superficially surveys These things. Which. till touched With Heaven’s ray. and their languished hope revived. as not to mind from whence they grow Deep under ground. materials dark and crude. Mean while revive. and his words their drooping cheer Enlightened. among our foes Such implements of mischief. opening to the ambient light? These in their dark nativity the deep Shall yield us. which yet unfound most would have thought Impossible: Yet. of thy race In future days. and each. much less to be despaired. flower ambrosial. fruit. long and round. as shall dash To pieces. Of spiritous and fiery spume. with thundering noise.This continent of spacious Heaven. and o’erwhelm whatever stands Adverse. or inspired With devilish machination. shall send forth From far. they shoot forth So beauteous. how he To be the inventer missed. at the other bore with touch of fire Dilated and infuriate. so easy it seemed Once found. Nor long shall be our labour. Thick rammed. yet ere dawn. that they shall fear we have disarmed The Thunderer of his only dreaded bolt. and gold. might devise Like instrument to plague the sons of men 177 . Effect shall end our wish. into hollow engines. haply.

Up rose the victor-Angels. and saw beneath The originals of nature in their crude Conception. In motion or in halt: Him soon they met Under spread ensigns moving nigh.For sin. Secret they finished. Soon banded. of Cherubim the swiftest wing. part incentive reed Provide. Each quarter to descry the distant foe. and. None arguing stood. and scouts each coast light-armed scour. and into store conveyed: Part hidden veins digged up (nor hath this earth Entrails unlike) of mineral and stone. under conscious night. So all ere day-spring. unespied. pernicious with one touch to fire. in slow But firm battalion. Concocted and adusted they reduced To blackest grain. and in order set. and to arms The matin trumpet sung: In arms they stood Of golden panoply. innumerable hands Were ready. refulgent host. on war and mutual slaughter bent. Whereof to found their engines and their balls Of missive ruin. With silent circumspection. 3 Now when fair morn orient in Heaven appeared. or if for fight. in a moment up they turned Wide the celestial soil. with subtle art. or whither fled. back with speediest sail Zophiel. they mingled. 178 . sulphurous and nitrous foam They found. others from the dawning hills Looked round. Forthwith from council to the work they flew. Where lodged.

quit of all impediment. So warned he then.Came flying. And onward moved embattled: When behold! Not distant far with heavy pace the foe Approaching gross and huge. however witness. to right and left the front unfold. who appointed stand 179 . and soon In order. That all may see who hate us. At interview both stood A while. the foe at hand. if they like Our overture. Warriours. arm for fight. and secure: Let each His adamantine coat gird well. and thus was heard commanding loud. Heaven! Heaven. and settled in his face I see Sad resolution. and turn not back perverse: But that I doubt. and each Fit well his helm. Borne even or high. If I conjecture aught. for this day will pour down. no drizzling shower. and with open breast Stand ready to receive them. But rattling storm of arrows barbed with fire. so thick a cloud He comes. but suddenly at head appeared Satan. and in mid air aloud thus cried. Instant without disturb they took alarm. witness thou anon! while we discharge Freely our part: ye. gripe fast his orbed shield. impaled On every side with shadowing squadrons deep. fear not his flight. Whom fled we thought. how we seek Peace and composure. will save us long pursuit This day. Vanguard. To hide the fraud. in hollow cube Training his devilish enginery. Arm. aware themselves.

evaded swift 180 . but down they fell By thousands. iron. as Spirits. Not long. which. and in his hand a reed Stood waving tipt with fire. when to right and left the front Divided. while we. Though standing else as rocks. chained thunderbolts and hail Of iron globes. on the victor host Levelled. had not their mouths With hideous orifice gaped on us wide. Angel on Arch-Angel rolled. and loud that all may hear! So scoffing in ambiguous words. disgorging foul Their devilish glut. and to a narrow vent applied With nicest touch. Immediate in a flame. he scarce Had ended. suspense. A triple mounted row of pillars laid On wheels (for like to pillars most they seemed. all Heaven appeared. From those deep-throated engines belched. whose roar Embowelled with outrageous noise the air. with such impetuous fury smote. for sudden all at once their reeds Put forth. unarmed. in wood or mountain felled.) Brass. And all her entrails tore. Or hollowed bodies made of oak or fir. That.Do as you have in charge. But soon obscured with smoke. With branches lopt. they might Have easily. new and strange. none on their feet might stand. Collected stood within our thoughts amused. and briefly touch What we propound. The sooner for their arms. and to either flank retired: Which to our eyes discovered. Portending hollow truce: At each behind A Seraph stood. whom they hit. stony mould.

To whom thus Belial. but now Foul dissipation followed. straight they changed their minds. (what could we more?) propounded terms Of composition. Of hard contents. yet for a dance they seemed Somewhat extravagant and wild. We should compel them to a quick result. and when we. Nor served it to relax their serried files. And to his mates thus in derision called. and indecent overthrow Doubled. and into strange vagaries fell. As they would dance. would render them yet more despised. What should they do? if on they rushed. and full of force urged home. for in view Stood ranked of Seraphim another row. To entertain them fair with open front And breast. O Friends! why come not on these victors proud Ere while they fierce were coming.By quick contraction or remove. And to their foes a laughter. In posture to displode their second tire Of thunder: Back defeated to return They worse abhorred. and forced rout. perhaps For joy of offered peace: But I suppose. 4 Satan beheld their plight. Flew off. 181 . Such as we might perceive amused them all. If our proposals once again were heard. in like gamesome mood. repulse Repeated. Leader! the terms we sent were terms of weight.

From their foundations loosening to and fro. and all their confidence Under the weight of mountains buried deep. and to the hills (For Earth hath this variety from Heaven Of pleasure situate in hill and dale. with all their load. They plucked the seated hills. woods. they flew. the power. Be sure. Not understood. So they among themselves in pleasant vein Stood scoffing. and of his thunder made a scorn.) Light as the lightning glimpse they ran. They show us when our foes walk not upright. Rage prompted them at length. Themselves invaded next. Till on those cursed engines’ triple-row They saw them whelmed. which in the air 182 . and by the shaggy tops Up-lifting bore them in their hands: Amaze. When coming towards them so dread they saw The bottom of the mountains upward turned. Had need from head to foot well understand. And all his host derided. and found them arms Against such hellish mischief fit to oppose. Which God hath in his mighty Angels placed!) Their arms away they threw.And stumbled many: Who receives them right. while they stood A while in trouble: But they stood not long. and terrour. this gift they have besides. Rocks. seized the rebel host. waters. Forthwith (behold the excellence. and on their heads Main promontories flung. hightened in their thoughts beyond All doubt of victory: Eternal Might To match with their inventions they presumed So easy.

foreseen This tumult. Son. Had not the Almighty Father. to like arms Betook them. with ruin overspread. where he sits Shrined in his sanctuary of Heaven secure. in imitation. To honour his anointed Son avenged Upon his enemies. though Spirits of purest light. Second Omnipotence! two days are past. Consulting on the sum of things. crushed in and bruised Into their substance pent. what by Deity I am. and the neighbouring hills uptore: So hills amid the air encountered hills. That under ground they fought in dismal shade. advised: That his great purpose he might so fulfil. ere they could wind Out of such prison. Long struggling underneath. 183 . and to declare All power on him transferred: Whence to his Son. Their armour helped their harm. now gross by sinning grown. and oppressed whole legions armed. and permitted all. The Assessour of his throne.Came shadowing. horrid confusion heaped Upon confusion rose: And now all Heaven Had gone to wrack. Hurled to and fro with jaculation dire. which wrought them pain Implacable. The rest. 5 Effulgence of my glory. Infernal noise! war seemed a civil game To this uproar. And in whose hand what by decree I do. in whose face invisible is beheld Visibly. he thus began. Son beloved. and many a dolorous groan. Purest at first.

Since Michael and his Powers went forth to tame These disobedient: Sore hath been their fight. and dangerous to the main. thy deserved right. that all may know In Heaven and Hell thy power above compare. My bow and thunder. and thus far Have suffered. which makes Wild work in Heaven. armed. Whence in perpetual fight they needs must last Endless. bring forth all my war. Go then. the third is thine. as with weapons. Two days are therefore past. guide the rapid wheels That shake Heaven’s basis. this perverse commotion governed thus. in thy Father’s might. drive them out From all Heaven’s bounds into the utter deep: 184 . since none but Thou Can end it. To manifest thee worthiest to be Heir Of all things. Thou Mightiest. For thee I have ordained it. And to disordered rage let loose the reins With mountains. Into thee such virtue and grace Immense I have transfused. that the glory may be thine Of ending this great war. and sword upon thy puissant thigh. when two such foes met armed. Equal in their creation they were formed. As likeliest was. For to themselves I left them. Ascend my chariot. Save what sin hath impaired. And. Pursue these sons of darkness. and no solution will be found: War wearied hath performed what war can do.Two days. as we compute the days of Heaven. and thou knowest. to be Heir. which yet hath wrought Insensibly. and to be King By sacred unction. my almighty arms Gird on. for I suspend their doom.

That from thy just obedience could revolt. Image of thee in all things. Best. circling thy holy mount. and my whole delight. I assume. As is most just: This I my glory account. Holiest. and in me all whom thou lovest: But whom thou hatest. declarest thy will Fulfilled. First. O Supreme of heavenly Thrones. and from the impure Far separate. To their prepared ill mansion driven down. thou always seek’st To glorify thy Son. and shall soon. Hymns of high praise. and I in thee For ever. and the undying worm. 185 . O Father. he all his Father full expressed Ineffably into his face received. rid Heaven of these rebelled. I hate. and I among them Chief. I always thee. when in the end Thou shalt be all in all. Unfeigned Halleluiahs to thee sing. to despise God. thy giving. Then shall thy Saints unmixed. in me well pleased. That thou. and on his Son with rays direct Shone full. To chains of darkness. He said. Scepter and power. as I put thy mildness on. And gladlier shall resign.There let them learn. My exaltation. Highest. which to fulfil is all my bliss. And thus the Filial Godhead answering spake. Armed with thy might. and Messiah his anointed King. Whom to obey is happiness entire. and can put on Thy terrours. as likes them.

far off his coming shone. in celestial panoply all armed Of radiant Urim. beside him hung his bow And quiver with three-bolted thunder stored. And from about him fierce effusion rolled Of smoke. but convoyed By four Cherubick shapes. wheel within wheeled undrawn. their bodies all And wings were set with eyes. as with stars. He on the wings of Cherub rode sublime On the crystalline sky. Ascended. And twenty thousand (I their number heard) Chariots of God. at his right hand Victory Sat eagle-winged. work divinely wrought. half on each hand. and sparkles dire: Attended with ten thousand thousand Saints. and bickering flame. He. rose From the right hand of Glory where he sat. He onward came. and colours of the showery arch. he. Under whose conduct Michael soon reduced 186 . Flashing thick flames. with eyes the wheels Of beryl. inlaid with pure Amber. Whereon a sapphire throne. and careering fires between. were seen. Dawning through Heaven. four faces each Had wonderous.6 So said. When the great ensign of Messiah blazed Aloft by Angels borne. And the third sacred morn began to shine. his sign in Heaven. o’er his scepter bowing. in sapphire throned. Itself instinct with Spirit. but by his own First seen: Them unexpected joy surprised. Illustrious far and wide. Over their heads a crystal firmament. Forth rushed with whirlwind sound The chariot of Paternal Deity.

Stood re-embattled fierce. hope conceiving from despair. and. and went Obsequious. Before him Power Divine his way prepared. Under their Head imbodied all in one. circumfused on either wing. Vengeance is his. At his command the uprooted hills retired Each to his place. at the sight Took envy. and of God Accepted. and now To final battle drew. when the great Son of God To all his host on either hand thus spake. fearless in his righteous cause. this day from battle rest: Faithful hath been your warfare. but stood obdured. by force or fraud Weening to prosper. hardened more by what might most reclaim. and at length prevail Against God and Messiah. so have ye done. disdaining flight. This saw his hapless foes. Stand still in bright array. Ye Angels armed.His army. And as ye have received. Or faint retreat. Invincibly: But of this cursed crew The punishment to other hand belongs. And with fresh flowerets hill and valley smiled. or to fall In universal ruin last. they heard his voice. Or wonders move the obdurate to relent? They. or whose he sole appoints: 187 . Heaven his wonted face renewed. And to rebellious fight rallied their Powers. here stand. Grieving to see his glory. aspiring to his height. Insensate. ye Saints. In heavenly Spirits could such perverseness dwell? But to convince the proud what signs avail.

and behold God’s indignation on these godless poured By me. or of a numerous host. to whom in Heaven s’preme Kingdom. and the orbs Of his fierce chariot rolled. Yet envied. according to his will.Number to this day’s work is not ordained. Full soon Among them he arrived. and glory appertains. astonished. stand only. And full of wrath bent on his enemies. they all. under his burning wheels The stedfast empyrean shook throughout. Hath honoured me. and into terrour changed His countenance too severe to be beheld. not you. That they may have their wish. 188 . All but the throne itself of God. such as in their souls infixed Plagues: They. He on his impious foes right onward drove. At once the Four spread out their starry wings With dreadful shade contiguous. Nor multitude. of other excellence Not emulous. since by strength They measure all. nor care who them excels. as with the sound Of torrent floods. Therefore to me their doom he hath assigned. 7 So spake the Son. which he sent Before him. Because the Father. in his right hand Grasping ten thousand thunders. against me is all their rage. but me. Or I alone against them. and power. all resistance lost. Gloomy as night. to try with me In battle which the stronger proves. Nor other strife with them do I vouchsafe. they have despised.

that withered all their strength. And of their wonted vigour left them drained. Hell heard the insufferable noise. and with furies. for he meant Not to destroy. to the bounds And crystal wall of Heaven. down their idle weapons dropt: O’er shields. eternal wrath Burnt after them to the bottomless pit. but root them out of Heaven: The overthrown he raised. and every eye Glared lightning. One Spirit in them ruled. Hell saw Heaven ruining from Heaven. afflicted.All courage. as a shelter from his ire. and would have fled Affrighted. which. but checked His thunder in mid volley. but far worse Urged them behind: Headlong themselves they threw Down from the verge of Heaven. and a spacious gap disclosed Into the wasteful deep: The monstrous sight Struck them with horrour backward. and from the living wheels Distinct alike with multitude of eyes. and shot forth pernicious fire Among the accursed. and helmed heads he rode Of Thrones and mighty Seraphim prostrate. fallen. spiritless. Nor less on either side tempestuous fell His arrows. That wished the mountains now might be again Thrown on them. from the fourfold-visaged Four Distinct with eyes. Exhausted. and as a herd Of goats or timorous flock together thronged Drove them before him thunder-struck. pursued With terrours. Rolled inward. Yet half his strength he put not forth. but strict Fate had cast too deep 189 . and helms. opening wide.

and that thou mayest beware By what is past. each Order bright. who into glory him received. and on them closed. 190 . Where now he sits at the right hand of bliss. from the expulsion of his foes. who rebelled With Satan. and the deep fall Of those too high aspiring. Disburdened Heaven rejoiced. as they went. to him dominion given. Hell. Thus. so huge a rout Incumbered him with ruin: Hell at last Yawning received them whole. Shaded with branching palm. At thy request. Heir. And felt tenfold confusion in their fall Through his wild anarchy. Nine days they fell: Confounded Chaos roared. Sung triumph. the house of woe and pain. rode Triumphant through mid Heaven. and Lord. who silent stood Eye-witnesses of his almighty acts. and too fast had bound. Messiah his triumphal chariot turned: To meet him all his Saints.Her dark foundations. into the courts And temple of his Mighty Father throned On high. Worthiest to reign: He. With jubilee advanced. fraught with fire Unquenchable. Son. returning whence it rolled. to thee I have revealed What might have else to human race been hid. measuring things in Heaven by things on Earth. and soon repaired Her mural breach. their fit habitation. Sole victor. celebrated. and. and war in Heaven Among the angelick Powers. The discord which befel. he who envies now thy state. and him sung victorious King.

nor on the top Of old Olympus dwellest. By terrible example. with him Bereaved of happiness. As a despite done against the Most High. and his reascention into Heaven. and fear to transgress. Yet fell. or fountain flowed. 9 Book VII Descend from Heaven. that. whose voice divine Following. remember. Thou with eternal Wisdom didst converse. above the Olympian hill I soar.Who now is plotting how he may seduce Thee also from obedience. Thee once to gain companion of his woe. warn Thy weaker. I call: for thou Nor of the Muses nine. Above the flight of Pegasean wing! The meaning. Which would be all his solace and revenge. Urania. not the name. after the expelling of Satan and his Angels out of Heaven. Before the hills appeared. 191 . the reward Of disobedience. that God. but. 8 Book VII: The Argument Raphael at the request of Adam relates how and wherefore this world was first created. eternal misery. let it profit thee to have heard. But listen not to his temptations. declar’d his pleasure to create another World and other Creatures to dwell therein. by that name If rightly thou art called. heavenly-born. firm they might have stood. thou mayest partake His punishment. sends his Son with Glory and attendance of Angels to perform the work of Creation in six dayes: the Angels celebrate with Hymns the performance thereof.

Standing on earth. or when morn Purples the east: still govern thou my song. though from a lower clime. And solitude. but narrower bound Within the visible diurnal sphere. nor could the Muse defend Her son. Erroneous there to wander. Thy tempering: with like safety guided down Return me to my native element: Lest from this flying steed unreined. Half yet remains unsung. yet not alone. and with dangers compassed round. unchanged To hoarse or mute. An earthly guest. More safe I sing with mortal voice. while thou Visitest my slumbers nightly. on the Aleian field I fall. But drive far off the barbarous dissonance Of Bacchus and his revellers. not rapt above the pole. who thee implores: For thou art heavenly.Wisdom thy sister. Say.) Dismounted. So fail not thou. what ensued when Raphael. On evil days though fallen. pleased With thy celestial song. Goddess. she an empty dream. Urania. and forlorn. till the savage clamour drowned Both harp and voice. and with her didst play In presence of the Almighty Father. the race Of that wild rout that tore the Thracian bard In Rhodope. though few. though fallen on evil days. and drawn empyreal air. Up led by thee Into the Heaven of Heavens I have presumed. 192 . In darkness. (as once Bellerophon. where woods and rocks had ears To rapture. and fit audience find. and evil tongues.

Whose liquid murmur heard new thirst excites. 193 . Though wandering. The story heard attentive.The affable Arch-Angel. So easily obeyed amid the choice Of all tastes else to please their appetite. soon Driven back. Proceeded thus to ask his heavenly guest. and slight that sole command. was done Before his memory. as one whose drouth Yet scarce allayed still eyes the current stream. Charged not to touch the interdicted tree. to hear Of things so high and strange. had forewarned Adam. If they transgress. things. yet sinless. impossible to mix With blessedness. and whereof created. to beware Apostasy. to their thought So imaginable. He. lest the like befall In Paradise to Adam or his race. by what befel in Heaven To those apostates. Whence Adam soon repealed The doubts that in his heart arose: and now Led on. with desire to know What nearer might concern him. redounded as a flood on those From whom it sprung. by dire example. for what cause. And war so near the peace of God in bliss. 10 Great things. When. or without. and was filled With admiration and deep muse. What within Eden. and full of wonder in our ears. With such confusion: but the evil. how this world Of Heaven and Earth conspicuous first began. with his consorted Eve. as hate in Heaven.

in his holy rest Through all eternity. the ambient air wide interfused Embracing round this floried Earth. And longer will delay to hear thee tell His generation. so late to build In Chaos. the end Of what we are. which human knowledge could not reach. And the great light of day yet wants to run Much of his race though steep. he hears. what cause Moved the Creator. Unknown. and the work begun. the more we know. as to highest wisdom seemed. thou hast revealed. How first began this Heaven which we behold Distant so high. and his admonishment Receive. with solemn purpose to observe Immutably his sovran will. to forewarn Us timely of what might else have been our loss. Held by thy voice. which yet concerned Our knowing. and this which yields or fills All space. For which to the infinitely Good we owe Immortal thanks. and the rising birth 194 . and relate What may no less perhaps avail us known. to impart Things above earthly thought. how soon Absolved. for our instruction. suspense in Heaven. if unforbid thou mayest unfold What we. with moving fires adorned Innumerable. But since thou hast vouchsafed Gently. not to explore the secrets ask Of his eternal empire. Divine interpreter! by favour sent Down from the empyrean. Deign to descend now lower. thy potent voice. but the more To magnify his works.Far differing from this world.

Or we can bid his absence. and Sleep. and needs no less Her temperance over appetite. till thy song End. Know then. Only Omniscient. will watch. as nourishment to wind. Thus Adam his illustrious guest besought: And thus the Godlike Angel answered mild. and soon turns Wisdom to folly. which best may serve To glorify the Maker. To none communicable in Earth or Heaven: Enough is left besides to search and know. shall not be withheld Thy hearing. Oppresses else with surfeit. But knowledge is as food. abstain To ask. which the invisible King. Night with her will bring. listening to thee. to know In measure what the mind may well contain. though to recount almighty works What words or tongue of Seraph can suffice. with caution asked. such commission from above I have received. beyond. Obtain. to answer thy desire Of knowledge within bounds.Of Nature from the unapparent Deep: Or if the star of evening and the moon Haste to thy audience. after Lucifer from Heaven (So call him. Silence. This also thy request. Or heart of man suffice to comprehend? Yet what thou canst attain. nor let thine own inventions hope Things not revealed. hath suppressed in night. and dismiss thee ere the morning shine. that. and infer Thee also happier. brighter once amidst the host 195 .

who thought All like himself rebellious. lest his heart exalt him in the harm Already done. Mean while inhabit lax. us dispossessed. under long obedience tried.Of Angels. and to his Son thus spake. and Heaven to Earth. They open to themselves at length the way Up hither. till. and into fraud Drew many. and in a moment will create Another world. yet populous. 196 .) Fell with his flaming legion through the deep Into his place. and the great Son returned Victorious with his Saints. than that star the stars among. joy and union without end. My damage fondly deemed. whom their place knows here no more: Yet far the greater part have kept. and this high temple to frequent With ministeries due. Heaven. I see. One kingdom. the Omnipotent Eternal Father from his throne beheld Their multitude. to have dispeopled Heaven. retains Number sufficient to possess her realms Though wide. ye Powers of Heaven. Not here. and solemn rites: But. I can repair That detriment. the seat Of Deity supreme. And Earth be changed to Heaven. by degrees of merit raised. Their station. by whose aid This inaccessible high strength. there to dwell. out of one man a race Of men innumerable. if such it be to lose Self-lost. 11 At least our envious Foe hath failed. He trusted to have seised.

by thee This I perform. which is free To act or not. And put not forth my goodness. but to human ears Cannot without process of speech be told. and thence diffuse His good to worlds and ages infinite. instead Of Spirits malign. and what I will is Fate. and in their dwellings peace. 197 . So sang the Hierarchies: Mean while the Son On his great expedition now appeared. whose just avenging ire Had driven out the ungodly from his sight And the habitations of the just. So told as earthly notion can receive. a better race to bring Into their vacant room. gave effect. because I Am who fill Infinitude. good will To future men. to Him Glory and praise. and bid the Deep Within appointed bounds be Heaven and Earth. and be it done! My overshadowing Spirit and Might with thee I send along. ride forth. Glory to Him. So spake the Almighty. nor vacuous the space. retire. When such was heard declared the Almighty’s will. Boundless the Deep. whose wisdom had ordained Good out of evil to create. more swift Than time or motion. begotten Son. Immediate are the acts of God. the Filial Godhead. Great triumph and rejoicing was in Heaven.And thou my Word. Necessity and Chance Approach not me. Though I. Glory they sung to the Most High. speak thou. and to what he spake His Word. uncircumscribed myself.

For Chaos heard his voice: Him all his train Followed in bright procession. coming to create new worlds. About his chariot numberless were poured Cherub. and all his Father in him shone. Up from the bottom turned by furious winds And surging waves. in paternal glory rode Far into Chaos. and the world unborn. and chariots winged From the armoury of God. peace. and Thrones. in his powerful Word And Spirit. and with the center mix the pole. winged Spirits. between two brazen mountains lodged Against a solemn day. harnessed at hand. with radiance crowned Of Majesty Divine. Potentates. to assault Heaven’s height. but. 198 . and the wonders of his might. as mountains. to let forth The King of Glory. for within them Spirit lived. And Virtues. and Seraph. Said then the Omnifick Word. wasteful. wild. and now came forth Spontaneous. your discord end! Nor staid. dark. where stand of old Myriads. and thou Deep. On heavenly ground they stood. Attendant on their Lord: Heaven opened wide Her ever-during gates. Silence. to behold Creation. Celestial equipage. harmonious sound On golden hinges moving. and from the shore They viewed the vast immeasurable abyss Outrageous as a sea.Girt with Omnipotence. ye troubled Waves. sapience and love Immense. on the wings of Cherubim Uplifted.

and vital warmth Throughout the fluid mass. And said. Sprung from the deep. thus the Earth. to circumscribe This universe. God saw the light was good. and from her native east To journey through the aery gloom began.12 Then staid the fervid wheels. then conglobed Like things to like. but downward purged The black tartareous cold infernal dregs. and forthwith Light Ethereal. And light from darkness by the hemisphere Divided: light the Day. and all created things: One foot he centered. This be thy just circumference. He named. for yet the sun Was not. and in his hand He took the golden compasses. Let there be light. Matter unformed and void: Darkness profound Covered the abyss: but on the watery calm His brooding wings the Spirit of God outspread. thus far thy bounds. first of things. quintessence pure. And vital virtue infused. said God. Thus was the first day even and morn: Nor past uncelebrated. and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure. nor unsung By the celestial quires. the rest to several place Disparted. Thus far extend. O World! Thus God the Heaven created. Sphered in a radiant cloud. when orient light 199 . prepared In God’s eternal store. And Earth self-balanced on her center hung. she in a cloudy tabernacle Sojourned the while. and between spun out the air. and darkness Night. Adverse to life: then founded.

Exhaling first from darkness they beheld; Birth-day of Heaven and Earth; with joy and shout The hollow universal orb they filled, And touched their golden harps, and hymning praised God and his works; Creator him they sung, Both when first evening was, and when first morn. Again, God said, Let there be firmament Amid the waters, and let it divide The waters from the waters; and God made The firmament, expanse of liquid, pure, Transparent, elemental air, diffused In circuit to the uttermost convex Of this great round; partition firm and sure, The waters underneath from those above Dividing: for as earth, so he the world Built on circumfluous waters calm, in wide Crystalline ocean, and the loud misrule Of Chaos far removed; lest fierce extremes Contiguous might distemper the whole frame: And Heaven he named the Firmament: So even And morning chorus sung the second day. The Earth was formed, but in the womb as yet Of waters, embryon immature involved, Appeared not: over all the face of Earth Main ocean flowed, not idle; but, with warm Prolifick humour softening all her globe, Fermented the great mother to conceive, Satiate with genial moisture; when God said, Be gathered now ye waters under Heaven Into one place, and let dry land appear.

Immediately the mountains huge appear Emergent, and their broad bare backs upheave Into the clouds; their tops ascend the sky: So high as heaved the tumid hills, so low Down sunk a hollow bottom broad and deep, Capacious bed of waters: Thither they Hasted with glad precipitance, uprolled, As drops on dust conglobing from the dry: Part rise in crystal wall, or ridge direct, For haste; such flight the great command impressed On the swift floods: As armies at the call Of trumpet (for of armies thou hast heard) Troop to their standard; so the watery throng, Wave rolling after wave, where way they found, If steep, with torrent rapture, if through plain, Soft-ebbing; nor withstood them rock or hill; But they, or under ground, or circuit wide With serpent errour wandering, found their way, And on the washy oose deep channels wore; Easy, ere God had bid the ground be dry, All but within those banks, where rivers now Stream, and perpetual draw their humid train. The dry land, Earth; and the great receptacle Of congregated waters, he called Seas: And saw that it was good; and said, Let the Earth Put forth the verdant grass, herb yielding seed, And fruit-tree yielding fruit after her kind, Whose seed is in herself upon the Earth.

He scarce had said, when the bare Earth, till then Desart and bare, unsightly, unadorned,

Brought forth the tender grass, whose verdure clad Her universal face with pleasant green; Then herbs of every leaf, that sudden flowered Opening their various colours, and made gay Her bosom, smelling sweet: and, these scarce blown, Forth flourished thick the clustering vine, forth crept The swelling gourd, up stood the corny reed Embattled in her field, and the humble shrub, And bush with frizzled hair implicit: Last Rose, as in dance, the stately trees, and spread Their branches hung with copious fruit, or gemmed Their blossoms: With high woods the hills were crowned; With tufts the valleys, and each fountain side; With borders long the rivers: that Earth now Seemed like to Heaven, a seat where Gods might dwell, Or wander with delight, and love to haunt Her sacred shades: though God had yet not rained Upon the Earth, and man to till the ground None was; but from the Earth a dewy mist Went up, and watered all the ground, and each Plant of the field; which, ere it was in the Earth, God made, and every herb, before it grew On the green stem: God saw that it was good: So even and morn recorded the third day. Again the Almighty spake, Let there be lights High in the expanse of Heaven, to divide The day from night; and let them be for signs, For seasons, and for days, and circling years; And let them be for lights, as I ordain Their office in the firmament of Heaven, To give light on the Earth; and it was so.

And God made two great lights, great for their use To Man, the greater to have rule by day, The less by night, altern; and made the stars, And set them in the firmament of Heaven To illuminate the Earth, and rule the day In their vicissitude, and rule the night, And light from darkness to divide. God saw, Surveying his great work, that it was good: For of celestial bodies first the sun A mighty sphere he framed, unlightsome first, Though of ethereal mould: then formed the moon Globose, and every magnitude of stars, And sowed with stars the Heaven, thick as a field: Of light by far the greater part he took, Transplanted from her cloudy shrine, and placed In the sun’s orb, made porous to receive And drink the liquid light; firm to retain Her gathered beams, great palace now of light. Hither, as to their fountain, other stars Repairing, in their golden urns draw light, And hence the morning-planet gilds her horns; By tincture or reflection they augment Their small peculiar, though from human sight So far remote, with diminution seen, First in his east the glorious lamp was seen, Regent of day, and all the horizon round Invested with bright rays, jocund to run His longitude through Heaven’s high road; the gray Dawn, and the Pleiades, before him danced, Shedding sweet influence: Less bright the moon, But opposite in levelled west was set, His mirrour, with full face borrowing her light

From him; for other light she needed none In that aspect, and still that distance keeps Till night; then in the east her turn she shines, Revolved on Heaven’s great axle, and her reign With thousand lesser lights dividual holds, With thousand thousand stars, that then appeared Spangling the hemisphere: Then first adorned With their bright luminaries that set and rose, Glad evening and glad morn crowned the fourth day.

And God said, Let the waters generate Reptile with spawn abundant, living soul: And let fowl fly above the Earth, with wings Displayed on the open firmament of Heaven. And God created the great whales, and each Soul living, each that crept, which plenteously The waters generated by their kinds; And every bird of wing after his kind; And saw that it was good, and blessed them, saying. Be fruitful, multiply, and in the seas, And lakes, and running streams, the waters fill; And let the fowl be multiplied, on the Earth. Forthwith the sounds and seas, each creek and bay, With fry innumerable swarm, and shoals Of fish that with their fins, and shining scales, Glide under the green wave, in sculls that oft Bank the mid sea: part single, or with mate, Graze the sea-weed their pasture, and through groves Of coral stray; or, sporting with quick glance, Show to the sun their waved coats dropt with gold; Or, in their pearly shells at ease, attend

Moist nutriment; or under rocks their food In jointed armour watch: on smooth the seal And bended dolphins play: part huge of bulk Wallowing unwieldy, enormous in their gait, Tempest the ocean: there leviathan, Hugest of living creatures, on the deep Stretched like a promontory sleeps or swims, And seems a moving land; and at his gills Draws in, and at his trunk spouts out, a sea. Mean while the tepid caves, and fens, and shores, Their brood as numerous hatch, from the egg that soon Bursting with kindly rupture forth disclosed Their callow young; but feathered soon and fledge They summed their pens; and, soaring the air sublime, With clang despised the ground, under a cloud In prospect; there the eagle and the stork On cliffs and cedar tops their eyries build: Part loosely wing the region, part more wise In common, ranged in figure, wedge their way, Intelligent of seasons, and set forth Their aery caravan, high over seas Flying, and over lands, with mutual wing Easing their flight; so steers the prudent crane Her annual voyage, borne on winds; the air Floats as they pass, fanned with unnumbered plumes: From branch to branch the smaller birds with song Solaced the woods, and spread their painted wings Till even; nor then the solemn nightingale Ceased warbling, but all night tun’d her soft lays: Others, on silver lakes and rivers, bathed Their downy breast; the swan with arched neck, Between her white wings mantling proudly, rows

Her state with oary feet; yet oft they quit The dank, and, rising on stiff pennons, tower The mid aereal sky: Others on ground Walked firm; the crested cock whose clarion sounds The silent hours, and the other whose gay train Adorns him, coloured with the florid hue Of rainbows and starry eyes. The waters thus With fish replenished, and the air with fowl, Evening and morn solemnized the fifth day.

The sixth, and of creation last, arose With evening harps and matin; when God said, Let the Earth bring forth soul living in her kind, Cattle, and creeping things, and beast of the Earth, Each in their kind. The Earth obeyed, and straight Opening her fertile womb teemed at a birth Innumerous living creatures, perfect forms, Limbed and full grown: Out of the ground up rose, As from his lair, the wild beast where he wons In forest wild, in thicket, brake, or den; Among the trees in pairs they rose, they walked: The cattle in the fields and meadows green: Those rare and solitary, these in flocks Pasturing at once, and in broad herds upsprung. The grassy clods now calved; now half appeared The tawny lion, pawing to get free His hinder parts, then springs as broke from bonds, And rampant shakes his brinded mane; the ounce, The libbard, and the tiger, as the mole Rising, the crumbled earth above them threw In hillocks: The swift stag from under ground

and scaly crocodile. As plants: Ambiguous between sea and land The river-horse. provident Of future. subtlest beast of all the field. in small room large heart enclosed. some of serpent-kind. nor unknown The serpent. and added wings. not all Minims of nature. and gavest them names. Wonderous in length and corpulence. Of huge extent sometimes. and rolled Her motions. their long dimension drew. And thou their natures knowest. that feeds her husband drone Deliciously. Pattern of just equality perhaps Hereafter. Streaking the ground with sinuous trace. At once came forth whatever creeps the ground. and smallest lineaments exact In all the liveries decked of summer’s pride With spots of gold and purple. but obedient at thy call. involved Their snaky folds.Bore up his branching head: Scarce from his mould Behemoth biggest born of earth upheaved His vastness: Fleeced the flocks and bleating rose. Now Heaven in all her glory shone. azure and green: These. First crept The parsimonious emmet. though to thee Not noxious. joined in her popular tribes Of commonality: Swarming next appeared The female bee. as a line. and builds her waxen cells With honey stored: The rest are numberless. with brazen eyes And hairy mane terrifick. Needless to thee repeated. Insect or worm: those waved their limber fans For wings. as the great first Mover’s hand First wheeled their course: Earth in her rich attire 207 .

Frequent. in his own image he Created thee. a creature. and said. and fill the Earth. then blessed mankind. Beast of the field. and over all the Earth. the end Of all yet done. water. for race. not prone And brute as other creatures. multiply. might erect His stature. Subdue it. fish. and from thence Magnanimous to correspond with Heaven. Dust of the ground. to adore And worship God Supreme. But grateful to acknowledge whence his good Descends. Let us make now Man in our image. was walked. Male he created thee. thee. By fowl. Adam. thither with heart. This said. and in thy nostrils breathed The breath of life.Consummate lovely smiled. but endued With sanctity of reason. and eyes Directed in devotion. And every creeping thing that creeps the ground. and let them rule Over the fish and fowl of sea and air. Man In our similitude. he formed thee. and voice. but thy consort Female. air. in the image of God Express. and of the sixth day yet remained: There wanted yet the master-work. was swum. earth. was flown. and throughout dominion hold 208 . self-knowing. and thou becamest a living soul. O Man. beast. Be fruitful. who made him chief Of all his works: therefore the Omnipotent Eternal Father (for where is not he Present?) thus to his Son audibly spake. who. and upright with front serene Govern the rest.

Up to the Heaven of Heavens. planted with the trees of God. 209 . The addition of his empire. Which. and all that he had made Viewed. thence. and fowl of the air. lest Sin Surprise thee. that tuned Angelick harmonies: The earth. And freely all their pleasant fruit for food Gave thee. though unwearied. how fair. Death is the penalty imposed.Over fish of the sea. Thence to behold this new created world. So even and morn accomplished the sixth day: Yet not till the Creator from his work Desisting. how good. Delectable both to behold and taste. for no place Is yet distinct by name. Variety without end. thou diest. all sorts are here that all the Earth yields. This garden. And govern well thy appetite. works knowledge of good and evil. and the sound Symphonious of ten thousand harps.) The heavens and all the constellations rung. Thou mayest not. and her black attendant Death. 16 Here finished he. but of the tree. his high abode. and behold all was entirely good. how it showed In prospect from his throne. beware. And every living thing that moves on the Earth. for thou heardst. tasted. as thou knowest. up returned. He brought thee into this delicious grove. in the day thou eatest. Wherever thus created. (thou rememberest. Answering his great idea. Up he rode Followed with acclamation. the air Resounded.

his six days work. for the sun Was set. blessed and hallowed the seventh day. Open. that milky way. a World. (such privilege Hath Omnipresence) and the work ordained. as stars to thee appear. fixed for ever firm and sure. But not in silence holy kept: the harp 210 . from work Now resting. Open. Forerunning night. A broad and ample road. Author and End of all things. thou seest Powdered with stars. and twilight from the east came on. and. Open. and sat him down With his great Father. whose dust is gold And pavement stars. for he also went Invisible. led To God’s eternal house direct the way. when at the holy mount Of Heaven’s high-seated top. While the bright pomp ascended jubilant. ye everlasting gates! they sung. And now on Earth the seventh Evening arose in Eden. yet staid. So sung The glorious train ascending: He through Heaven. Seen in the galaxy. and henceforth oft. let in The great Creator from his work returned Magnificent. and with frequent intercourse Thither will send his winged messengers On errands of supernal grace. That opened wide her blazing portals. Which nightly. for God will deign To visit oft the dwellings of just men. the imperial throne Of Godhead. The Filial Power arrived. Delighted. As resting on that day from all his work. as a circling zone.The planets in their station listening stood. ye Heavens! your living doors.

against his purpose serves To manifest the more thy might: his evil Thou usest. but thou knowest Their seasons: among these the seat of Men. Tempered soft tunings. Jehovah! infinite Thy power! what thought can measure thee. Creation and the six days acts they sung: Great are thy works.Had work and rested not. another Heaven From Heaven-gate not far. the glassy sea. or tongue Relate thee! Greater now in thy return Than from the giant Angels: Thee that day Thy thunders magnified. Thrice happy Men. And sons of Men. founded in view On the clear hyaline. with her nether ocean circumfused. All sounds on fret by string or golden wire. Witness this new-made world. And dulcimer. and every star perhaps a world Of destined habitation. whom God hath thus advanced! 211 . but to create Is greater than created to destroy. Of amplitude almost immense. the solemn pipe. while impiously they thought Thee to diminish. and from thee withdraw The number of thy worshippers. Thou hast repelled. Mighty King. hid the mount. Earth. and their counsels vain. all organs of sweet stop. or bound Thy empire! Easily the proud attempt Of Spirits apostate. with stars Numerous. Fuming from golden censers. intermixed with voice Choral or unison: of incense clouds. Their pleasant dwelling-place. Who seeks To lessen thee. Who can impair thee. and from thence createst more good.

in sea. that asked How first this world and face of things began. And thy request think now fulfilled. that posterity. and the empyrean rung With halleluiahs: Thus was sabbath kept.Created in his image. And what before thy memory was done From the beginning. might know: If else thou seekest Aught. and in reward to rule Over his works. 212 . say. Informed by thee. or air. on earth. and persevere upright! So sung they. there to dwell And worship him. not surpassing human measure. And multiply a race of worshippers Holy and just: Thrice happy. if they know Their happiness.

When I behold this goodly frame. is doubtfully answer’d. else by me unsearchable. have I to render thee. with the firmament compared And all her numbered stars. and vouchsafed This friendly condescension to relate Things. 2 Book VIII The Angel ended. and still desirous to detain Raphael. who after admonitions repeated departs. his discourse with the Angel thereupon. now heard With wonder. his placing in Paradise. that seem to roll Spaces incomprehensible. but delight. his talk with God concerning solitude and fit society. and compute Their magnitudes. divine Historian. With glory attributed to the high Creator! Something yet of doubt remains. his first meeting and Nuptials with Eve. or what recompence Equal. and exhorted to search rather things more worthy of knowledg: Adam assents. that he a while Thought him still speaking. and their swift return 213 . this world. An atom. a spot. and in Adam’s ear So charming left his voice. who thus largely hast allayed The thirst I had of knowledge. a grain. this Earth.CD 6 1 Book VIII: The Argument Adam inquires concerning celestial Motions. relates to him what he remember’d since his own Creation. as new waked. and. still stood fixed to hear. Of Heaven and Earth consisting. What thanks sufficient. Which only thy solution can resolve. Then. as is due. thus gratefully replied. (for such Their distance argues.

To visit how they prospered. bud and bloom. Her nursery. as not with such discourse Delighted. Speed. she sole auditress. Rose. such a sumless journey brought Of incorporeal speed. or not capable her ear Of what was high: such pleasure she reserved. And grace that won who saw to wish her stay. And. So spake our sire. and on their orbs impose Such restless revolution day by day Repeated. and receives. Yet went she not. while the sedentary Earth. where she sat retired in sight.) merely to officiate light Round this opacous Earth. to this one use. this punctual spot. Served by more noble than herself. attains Her end without least motion. to describe whose swiftness number fails. her warmth and light. Her husband the relater she preferred 214 . with superfluous hand So many nobler bodies to create.Diurnal. As tribute. Adam relating. Greater so manifold. How Nature wise and frugal could commit Such disproportions. reasoning I oft admire. That better might with far less compass move. in all their vast survey Useless besides. touched by her fair tendance. One day and night. and by his countenance seemed Entering on studious thoughts abstruse. which Eve Perceiving. For aught appears. With lowliness majestick from her seat. and went forth among her fruits and flowers. gladlier grew. they at her coming sprung.

Benevolent and facile thus replied. if thou reckon right. or months. he his fabrick of the Heavens Hath left to their disputes. A pomp of winning Graces waited still.Before the Angel. when they come to model Heaven And calculate the stars. she knew. perhaps to move His laughter at their quaint opinions wide Hereafter. contrive 215 . whether Heaven move or Earth. or. Not unattended. 3 And Raphael now. O! when meet now Such pairs. And from about her shot darts of desire Into all eyes. To ask or search. Wherein to read his wonderous works. would intermix Grateful digressions. how build. to Adam’s doubt proposed. and learn His seasons. as Queen. for on her. I blame thee not. or years: This to attain. he. unbuild. in love and mutual honour joined? With Goddess-like demeanour forth she went. to wish her still in sight. if they list to try Conjecture. for Heaven Is as the book of God before thee set. Imports not. how they will wield The mighty frame. and of him to ask Choose rather. the rest From Man or Angel the great Architect Did wisely to conceal. or days. and not divulge His secrets to be scanned by them who ought Rather admire. and solve high dispute With conjugal caresses: from his lip Not words alone pleased her. hours.

But in the fruitful Earth. Though numberless. Earth sitting still. unactive else. The swiftness of those circles attribute. That to corporeal substances could add Speed almost spiritual: Me thou thinkest not slow. when she alone receives The benefit: Consider first. who built So spacious. Lodged in a small partition. and his line stretched out so far. Yet not to Earth are those bright luminaries Officious. and supposest That bodies bright and greater should not serve The less not bright.To save appearances. may of solid good contain More plenty than the sun that barren shines. His beams. that great Or bright infers not excellence: the Earth Though. in comparison of Heaven. and ere mid-day arrived In Eden. An edifice too large for him to fill. so small. there first received. Who since the morning-hour set out from Heaven Where God resides. Cycle and epicycle. orb in orb: Already by thy reasoning this I guess. and the rest Ordained for uses to his Lord best known. their vigour find. how gird the sphere With centrick and eccentrick scribbled o’er. And for the Heaven’s wide circuit. distance inexpressible 216 . Nor glistering. Earth’s habitant. let it speak The Maker’s high magnificence. nor Heaven such journeys run. Who art to lead thy offspring. to his Omnipotence. but to thee. That Man may know he dwells not in his own. Whose virtue on itself works no effect.

dance about him various rounds? Their wandering course now high. Fields and inhabitants: Her spots thou seest 217 . so stedfast though she seem. What if the sun Be center to the world. which needs not thy belief. God. To the terrestrial moon be as a star. Or save the sun his labour. Enlightening her by day. Progressive. Not that I so affirm. to show Invalid that which thee to doubt it moved. Moved contrary with thwart obliquities. By his attractive virtue and their own Incited. If it presume. if land be there. But this I urge. and that swift Nocturnal and diurnal rhomb supposed. retrograde.By numbers that have name. Admitting motion in the Heavens. What if that light. Sent from her through the wide transpicuous air. Invisible else above all stars. and other stars. might err in things too high. and what if seventh to these The planet earth. industrious of herself. and with her part averse From the sun’s beam meet night. that earthly sight. Placed Heaven from Earth so far. Insensibly three different motions move? Which else to several spheres thou must ascribe. fetch day Travelling east. her other part Still luminous by his ray. In six thou seest. though so it seem To thee who hast thy dwelling here on Earth. as she by night This earth? reciprocal. the wheel Of day and night. If earth. And no advantage gain. to remove his ways from human sense. now low. or standing still. then hid.

thou wilt descry. He from the east his flaming road begin. be lowly wise: Think only what concerns thee. With their attendant moons. Wherever placed. which returns Light back to them. let him dispose. or whether not. Leave them to God above. And bears thee soft with the smooth air along. joy thou In what he gives to thee. Rise on the earth. as him pleases best. yet scarce to contribute Each orb a glimpse of light. Or she from west her silent course advance. With inoffensive pace that spinning sleeps On her soft axle. For such vast room in Nature unpossessed By living soul. and other suns perhaps. desart and desolate. him serve. 4 But whether thus these things. Communicating male and female light. this Paradise And thy fair Eve. while she paces even. Whether the sun. Only to shine. Sollicit not thy thoughts with matters hid. is obvious to dispute. Stored in each orb perhaps with some that live.As clouds. Dream not of other worlds. what creatures there 218 . or earth rise on the sun. and fear! Of other creatures. and thy being. Heaven is for thee too high To know what passes there. conveyed so far Down to this habitable. Which two great sexes animate the world. and rain produce Fruits in her softened soil for some to eat Allotted there. and clouds may rain. predominant in Heaven.

nor with perplexing thoughts To interrupt the sweet of life. unprepared. And not molest us. Till warned. That.Live. or by experience taught. To whom thus Adam. is fume. and notions vain. and speak of things at hand Useful. How fully hast thou satisfied me. And day is not yet spent. to know That which before us lies in daily life. But apt the mind or fancy is to rove Unchecked. freed from intricacies. and thy wonted favour. mention may arise Of something not unseasonable to ask. whence. or fond impertinence: And renders us. which perhaps thou hast not heard. she learn. Contented that thus far hath been revealed Not of Earth only. pure Intelligence of Heaven. cleared of doubt. hear me relate My story. haply. but of highest Heaven. but. till then thou seest 219 . and of her roving is no end. Angel serene! And. and still to seek. Therefore from this high pitch let us descend A lower flight. unless we ourselves Seek them with wandering thoughts. Or emptiness. replied. Is the prime wisdom: What is more. deigned. condition. By sufferance. in what state. taught to live The easiest way. obscure and subtle. from which God hath bid dwell far off all anxious cares. not to know at large of things remote From use. in things that most concern. or degree. Thee I have heard relating what was done Ere my remembrance: now. Unpractised.

How subtly to detain thee I devise. from labour. For I that day was absent. forms. and inquire Gladly into the ways of God with Man: For God. Though pleasant. Not that they durst without his leave attempt. incensed at such eruption bold. his image fair: Speaking. Or enemy. bring to their sweetness no satiety. Squared in full legion (such command we had) To see that none thence issued forth a spy. I seem in Heaven. Fond! were it not in hope of thy reply: For. and soon fill. and each word. they satiate. hath honoured thee. Lest he. for God on thee Abundantly his gifts hath also poured Inward and outward both. at the hour Of sweet repast. Bound on a voyage uncouth and obscure. or mute. And sweeter thy discourse is to my ear Than fruits of palm-tree pleasantest to thirst And hunger both. while God was in his work. Nor are thy lips ungraceful. we see. but thy words. while I sit with thee. Nor tongue ineloquent. and set On Man his equal love: Say therefore on. with grace divine Imbued. all comeliness and grace Attends thee. Far on excursion towards the gates of Hell. each motion. To whom thus Raphael answered heavenly meek. as befel. Inviting thee to hear while I relate. Sire of men. Destruction with creation might have mixed. Nor less think we in Heaven of thee on Earth Than of our fellow-servant. 220 .

dale. raised By quick instinctive motion. and furious rage. and sunny plains. which with his beams the sun Soon dried.But us he sends upon his high behests For state. and walked. But thy relation now. Torment. and upright Stood on my feet: about me round I saw Hill. or flew. Straight toward Heaven my wondering eyes I turned. for I attend. Birds on the branches warbling. As new waked from soundest sleep. and on the reeking moisture fed. and barricadoed strong. fast shut. So spake the Godlike Power. by these. all things smiled. up I sprung. 5 For Man to tell how human life began Is hard. Fast we found. And gazed a while the ample sky. Glad we returned up to the coasts of light Ere sabbath-evening: so we had in charge. But long ere our approaching heard within Noise. and to inure Our prompt obedience. Pleased with thy words no less than thou with mine. And liquid lapse of murmuring streams. In balmy sweat. and shady woods. The dismal gates. 221 . Soft on the flowery herb I found me laid. With fragrance and with joy my heart o’erflowed. As thitherward endeavouring. as Sovran King. for who himself beginning knew Desire with thee still longer to converse Induced me. till. and thus our Sire. other than the sound of dance or song. Creatures that lived and moved. and loud lament.

said I. how here? – Not of myself. Knew not. profuse of flowers. or from what cause. how adore. methought. and readily could name Whate’er I saw. as lively vigour led: But who I was. and forthwith spake. Pensive I sat me down: There gentle sleep First found me. untroubled. Whose inward apparition gently moved My fancy to believe I yet had being. and forthwith to dissolve: When suddenly stood at my head a dream. so fresh and gay. I come thy guide 222 . and limb by limb Surveyed. and Plains. On a green shady bank. to speak I tried. and sometimes went. fair Creatures. of men innumerable ordained ‘First Father! called by thee. tell. And thou enlightened Earth. or where. and with soft oppression seised My droused sense. In goodness and in power pre-eminent: Tell me. rise. and Dales. when. Adam. And lived: One came. And ye that live and move. ‘First Man. and strayed I knew not whither. And said. of shape divine. From whom I have that thus I move and live. fair light. how I came thus. – While thus I called. My tongue obeyed. if ye saw. From where I first drew air. Thou Sun. and sometimes ran With supple joints. though I thought I then was passing to my former state Insensible. Woods. And feel that I am happier than I know. how may I know him. Ye Hills. ye Rivers. ‘Thy mansion wants thee.Myself I then perused. and first beheld This happy light. – by some great Maker then. answer none returned. Tell.

‘The day thou eatest thereof. Rejoicing. as the dream Had lively shadowed: Here had new begun My wandering. by the hand he took me raised. or beneath. ‘And shun the bitter consequence: for know. whereat I waked. ‘Author of all this thou seest ‘Above. ‘Amid the garden by the tree of life. who was my guide Up hither. A circuit wide. ‘Remember what I warn thee. stirred in me sudden appetite To pluck and eat. 223 . and found Before mine eyes all real. inevitably thou shalt die. thy seat prepared. ‘This Paradise I give thee. with goodliest trees Planted. Loaden with fairest fruit that hung to the eye Tempting.’ So saying. or round about thee. and of the fruit to eat: ‘Of every tree that in the garden grows ‘Eat freely with glad heart. as in air Smooth-sliding without step. that what I saw Of Earth before scarce pleasant seemed. enclosed. In adoration at his feet I fell Submiss: He reared me. but with awe. shun to taste. whose high top was plain. And over fields and waters. my sole command ‘Transgressed. last led me up A woody mountain. with walks. count it thine ‘To till and keep. had not he. fear here no dearth: ‘But of the tree whose operation brings ‘Knowledge of good and ill.‘To the garden of bliss.’ Said mildly. Each tree. Presence Divine. which I have set ‘The pledge of thy obedience and thy faith. from among the trees appeared. and bowers. and ‘Whom thou soughtest I am.

I bring them to receive ‘From thee their names. or aught than mankind higher. Above mankind. to draw the thinner air.’ 6 Sternly he pronounced The rigid interdiction. and gracious purpose thus renewed. though in my choice Not to incur. for thou above all these. by what name. each bird stooped on his wing.’ As thus he spake. since they cannot change ‘Their element. and fowl. I named them. which resounds Yet dreadful in mine ear. each bird and beast behold ‘After their kinds. and this happy state ‘Shalt lose. but soon his clear aspect Returned. ‘In sign whereof. beast. ‘Not hither summoned.‘From that day mortal. fish. or air. expelled from hence into a world ‘Of woe and sorrow. with such knowledge God endued My sudden apprehension: But in these I found not what methought I wanted still. each bird and beast behold Approaching two and two. ‘Not only these fair bounds. 224 . as they passed. these cowering low With blandishment. and understood Their nature. O. and all things that therein live. ‘Or live in sea. understand the same ‘Of fish within their watery residence. as lords ‘Possess it. And to the heavenly Vision thus presumed. and pay thee fealty ‘With low subjection. but all the Earth ‘To thee and to thy race I give.

and with hands so liberal. My Maker. the other still remiss. Author of this universe. Cannot well suit with either. and all these at thy command To come and play before thee? Knowest thou not Their language and their ways? They also know. and bear rule. So spake the Universal Lord. and the air Replenished. What callest thou solitude? Is not the Earth With various living creatures. all enjoying. and the Vision bright. what harmony. And humble deprecation.Surpassest far my naming. And these inferiour far beneath me set? Among unequals what society Can sort. but. Thou hast provided all things: But with me I see not who partakes. and seemed So ordering: I. Heavenly Power. Or. but soon prove 225 . how may I Adore thee. Let not my words offend thee. thy realm is large. thus replied. In solitude What happiness. And reason not contemptibly: With these Find pastime. As with a smile more brightened. or true delight? Which must be mutual. who can enjoy alone. with leave of speech implored. thus replied. Hast thou not made me here thy substitute. in disparity The one intense. be propitious while I speak. in proportion due Given and received. what contentment find? Thus I presumptuous. And all this good to man? for whose well being So amply.

equal much less. Adam! and wilt taste No pleasure. Worse then can man with beast. I see. A nice and subtle happiness. lion with lioness. and in thee Is no deficience found: Not so is Man. the cause of his desire By conversation with his like to help 226 . But in degree.Tedious alike: Of fellowship I speak Such as I seek. and this my state? Seem I to thee sufficiently possessed Of happiness. So fitly them in pairs thou hast combined: Much less can bird with beast. To attain The height and depth of thy eternal ways All human thoughts come short. solitary. infinite descents Beneath what other creatures are to thee? 7 He ceased. nor with the ox the ape. Supreme of things! Thou in thyself art perfect. or not? who am alone From all eternity. and least of all. How have I then with whom to hold converse. not displeased. Whereto the Almighty answered. in the choice Of thy associates. and those To me inferiour. Save with the creatures which I made. fit to participate All rational delight: wherein the brute Cannot be human consort: They rejoice Each with their kind. I lowly answered. though in pleasure. for none I know Second to me or like. or fish with fowl So well converse. Thou to thyself proposest. What thinkest thou then of me.

No need that thou Shouldst propagate. My image. seekest not Social communication. Best with thyself accompanied. Knew it not good for Man to be alone. his image multiplied. not imparted to the brute. for trial only brought. which requires Collateral love. though One: But Man by number is to manifest His single imperfection. so pleased. nor in their ways complacence find. which gained This answer from the gracious Voice Divine. Canst raise thy creature to what height thou wilt Of union or communion. already Infinite. Which thou hast rightly named. deified: I. In unity defective.Or solace his defects. Thou in thy secresy although alone. Expressing well the spirit within thee free. and beget Like of his like. and freedom used Permissive. 227 . Whose fellowship therefore unmeet for thee Good reason was thou freely shouldst dislike. and acceptance found. And no such company as then thou sawest Intended for thee. cannot these erect From prone. Thus far to try thee. And through all numbers absolute. but of thyself. not of beasts alone. And be so minded still: I. Thus I emboldened spake. I was pleased. be assured. yet. by conversing. and dearest amity. And find thee knowing. To see how thou couldest judge of fit and meet: What next I bring shall please thee. ere thou spakest. Adam.

Thy likeness. with cordial spirits warm. and other pleasures all abjure: 228 . which instantly fell on me. called By Nature as in aid. and left me dark. in her contained And in her looks. Under his forming hands a creature grew. And into all things from her air inspired The spirit of love and amorous delight. or in her summed up. Abstract as in a trance. As with an object that excels the sense Dazzled and spent. methought I saw. and sought repair Of sleep. or for ever to deplore Her loss. but different sex. where I lay. wide was the wound. Though sleeping. I waked To find her. and saw the shape Still glorious before whom awake I stood: Who stooping opened my left side. Man-like. and closed mine eyes. seemed now Mean. thy fit help. Which it had long stood under. which from that time infused Sweetness into my heart. but open left the cell Of fancy. unfelt before. thy other self. And life-blood streaming fresh. strained to the height In that celestial colloquy sublime. She disappeared. Thy wish exactly to thy heart’s desire. so lovely fair. by which. But suddenly with flesh filled up and healed: The rib he formed and fashioned with his hands. Mine eyes he closed. That what seemed fair in all the world. and took From thence a rib. He ended. sunk down. or I heard no more. for now My earthly by his heavenly overpowered. my internal sight.

Heaven in her eye. I now see Bone of my bone. This turn hath made amends. could not forbear aloud. 8 She heard me thus. and not unsought be won. and marriage rites: Grace was in all her steps. I. myself Before me: Woman is her name. and to his wife adhere. Giver of all things fair! but fairest this Of all thy gifts! nor enviest. and virgin modesty. behold her. she what was honour knew. thou hast fulfilled Thy words.When out of hope. Such as I saw her in my dream. Nature herself. one soul. of Man Extracted: for this cause he shall forego Father and mother. Not obvious. or. retired. And they shall be one flesh. Led by her heavenly Maker. And guided by his voice. she turned: I followed her. The more desirable. Creator bounteous and benign. Yet innocence. one heart. And with obsequious majesty approved 229 . In every gesture dignity and love. Her virtue. not far off. though pure of sinful thought. and the conscience of her worth. That would be wooed. to say all. nor uninformed Of nuptial sanctity. and though divinely brought. overjoyed. adorned With what all Earth or Heaven could bestow To make her amiable: On she came. flesh of my flesh. not obtrusive. but. seeing me. though unseen. Wrought in her so. that.

on that hour Shed their selectest influence. flung odours from the spicy shrub. Commotion strange! in all enjoyments else Superiour and unmoved. here passion first I felt. and from their wings Flung rose. transported I behold. took perhaps More than enough. fruit. And happy constellations. fresh gales and gentle airs Whispered it to the woods. sight. works in the mind no change. and brought My story to the sum of earthly bliss. at least on her bestowed Too much of ornament. Transported touch. Disporting. and must confess to find In all things else delight indeed. smell. No vehement desire. in the mind 230 . and flowers. For well I understand in the prime end Of Nature her the inferiour. from my side subducting. Joyous the birds. of inward less exact. herbs. the Earth Gave sign of gratulation. but such As.My pleaded reason. these delicacies I mean of taste. used or not. and each hill. Or. Walks. and left some part Not proof enough such object to sustain. Or Nature failed in me. Thus have I told thee all my state. and bid haste the evening-star On his hill top. till the amorous bird of night Sung spousal. here only weak Against the charm of Beauty’s powerful glance. in outward show Elaborate. Which I enjoy. To the nuptial bower I led her blushing like the morn: All Heaven. to light the bridal lamp. and the melody of birds: but here Far otherwise.

Greatness of mind and Nobleness their seat Build in her loveliest. as thou thyself perceivest. and be not diffident Of Wisdom. and worthy well Thy cherishing. so absolute she seems And in herself complete. and less expressing The character of that dominion given O’er other creatures: Yet when I approach Her loveliness. to consummate all. As one intended first. Not thy subjection: Weigh with her thyself. Then value: Oft-times nothing profits more Than self-esteem. if thou Dismiss not her.And inward faculties. and. Seems wisest. In outward also her resembling less His image who made both. By attributing overmuch to things Less excellent. and like Folly shows. which most excel. Wisdom in discourse with her Loses discountenanced. thy honouring. as a guard angelick placed. discreetest. and thy love. when most thou needest her nigh. Do thou but thine. Accuse not Nature. what transports thee so. For. and create an awe About her. best: All higher knowledge in her presence falls Degraded. what admirest thou. no doubt. not after made Occasionally. she deserts thee not. An outside? fair. Authority and Reason on her wait. To whom the Angel with contracted brow. grounded on just and right 231 . so well to know Her own. she hath done her part. that what she wills to do or say. virtuousest.

rational. whereby mankind Is propagated. think the same vouchsafed To cattle and each beast. Not sunk in carnal pleasure. is the scale By which to heavenly love thou mayest ascend. Those thousand decencies. But if the sense of touch. for which cause. or passion in him move. that daily flow From all her words and actions mixed with love 232 . and is judicious. hath his seat In reason. that with honour thou mayest love Thy mate. And to realities yield all her shows: Made so adorn for thy delight the more. which would not be To them made common and divulged. human. as those graceful acts. What higher in her society thou findest Attractive. Neither her outside formed so fair. Wherein true love consists not: Love refines The thoughts. seem such dear delight Beyond all other. and heart enlarges. So awful. of that skill the more thou knowest. Adam replied.Well managed. half abashed. who sees when thou art seen least wise. In loving thou dost well. Among the beasts no mate for thee was found. if aught Therein enjoyed were worthy to subdue The soul of man. And with mysterious reverence I deem. 9 To whom thus. nor aught In procreation common to all kinds. in passion not.) So much delights me. love still. (Though higher of the genial bed by far. The more she will acknowledge thee her head.

and follow what I approve. Whatever pure thou in the body enjoyest. I to thee disclose What inward thence I feel. Total they mix. Approve the best. But I can now no more. Love’s proper hue. or limb.And sweet compliance. and without love no happiness. and how their love Express they? by looks only? or do they mix Irradiance. still free. live happy. not therefore foiled. or soul with soul. Leads up to Heaven. Let it suffice thee that thou knowest Us happy. or in us both one soul. (And pure thou wert created) we enjoy In eminence. and obstacle find none Of membrane. Yet these subject not. Easier than air with air. if lawful what I ask: Love not the heavenly Spirits. from the sense Variously representing. exclusive bars. is both the way and guide. thou sayest. and love! But. nor restrained conveyance need. thou blamest me not. yet. Bear with me then. union of pure with pure Desiring. Who meet with various objects. 233 . first of all. joint. the parting sun Beyond the Earth’s green Cape and verdant Isles Hesperian sets. for Love. if Spirits embrace. To love. my signal to depart. with a smile that glowed Celestial rosy red. which declare unfeigned Union of mind. Answered. Harmony to behold in wedded pair More grateful than harmonious sound to the ear. virtual or immediate touch? To whom the Angel. As flesh to mix with flesh. Be strong.

and of all thy sons. with meditated guile returns as a mist by Night into Paradise. lest that Enemy. urges her going apart. which Eve proposes to divide in several places. no outward aid require. Go. So saying. with much flattery 234 . of whom they were forewarn’d. alledging the danger. should attempt her found alone: Eve loath to be thought not circumspect or firm enough. the rather desirous to make tryal of her strength. enters into the Serpent sleeping. And all the Blest: Stand fast. the Angel up to Heaven From the thick shade. heavenly guest. And all temptation to transgress repel. each labouring apart: Adam consents not. ethereal Messenger. to stand or fall Free in thine own arbitrement it lies. and oft return! So parted they. beware! I in thy persevering shall rejoice.Him. Adam and Eve in the Morning go forth to thir labours. and keep His great command. Perfect within. and shall be honoured ever With grateful memory: Thou to mankind Be good and friendly still. whom to love is to obey. his subtle approach. 10 Book IX: The Argument Satan having compast the Earth. Since to part. Adam at last yields: The Serpent finds her alone. then speaking. which else free will Would not admit: thine. first gazing. take heed lest passion sway Thy judgement to do aught. Sent from whose sovran goodness I adore! Gentle to me and affable hath been Thy condescension. whom Adam thus Followed with benediction. he arose. and Adam to his bower. The weal or woe in thee is placed.

or rage Of Turnus for Lavinia disespous’d.extolling Eve above all other Creatures. I now must change Those notes to tragick. and extenuating the trespass. permitting him the while Venial discourse unblam’d. as with his friend. relates what perswaded her to eat thereof: Adam at first amaz’d. they seek to cover thir nakedness. revolt. at last brings him of the Fruit. and with him partake Rural repast. Anger and just rebuke. and Misery Death’s harbinger: Sad task! yet argument Not less but more heroick than the wrath Of stern Achilles on his foe pursued Thrice fugitive about Troy wall. And disobedience: on the part of Heaven Now alienated. resolves through vehemence of love to perish with her. Eve wondring to hear the Serpent speak. the Serpent answers. with many wiles and arguments induces her at length to eat. That brought into this world a world of woe. asks how he attain’d to human speech and such understanding not till now. Or Neptune’s ire. To sit indulgent. distance and distaste. she pleas’d with the taste deliberates a while whether to impart thereof to Adam or not. or Juno’s. but perceiving her lost. familiar us’d. and finds it to be the Tree of Knowledge forbidden: The Serpent now grown bolder. that so long 235 . and breach Disloyal on the part of Man. and judgement given. Sin and her shadow Death. foul distrust. that by tasting of a certain Tree in the Garden he attain’d both to Speech and Reason. eats also of the Fruit: The Effects thereof in them both. then fall to variance and accusation of one another. till then void of both: Eve requires him to bring her to that Tree. 11 Book IX No more of talk where God or Angel guest With Man.

Impresses quaint. the better fortitude Of patience and heroick martyrdom Unsung. Not hers. and after him the star Of Hesperus. Me. higher argument Remains. Not that which justly gives heroick name To person. and much they may. unless an age too late. caparisons and steeds. then marshall’d feast Serv’d up in hall with sewers and seneshals. or years. gorgeous knights At joust and tournament. if all be mine. and beginning late. And dictates to me slumbering. whose office is to bring 236 . Bases and tinsel trappings. damp my intended wing Depress’d. of these Nor skill’d nor studious. who deigns Her nightly visitation unimplor’d. and Cytherea’s son: If answerable style I can obtain Of my celestial patroness. or to describe races and games. or to poem. or inspires Easy my unpremeditated verse: Since first this subject for heroick song Pleas’d me long choosing. or cold Climate. The sun was sunk. Not sedulous by nature to indite Wars. hitherto the only argument Heroick deem’d chief mastery to dissect With long and tedious havock fabled knights In battles feign’d.Perplexed the Greek. sufficient of itself to raise That name. imblazon’d shields. who brings it nightly to my ear. Or tilting furniture. The skill of artifice or office mean.

by stealth Found unsuspected way. regent of the sun. Into a gulf shot under ground. fearless returned From compassing the earth. up beyond the river Ob. involved in rising mist. sea he had searched. and land. Now not. thence full of anguish driven. bent On Man’s destruction. thence to the land where flows Ganges and Indus: Thus the orb he roamed 237 . at the foot of Paradise. who late fled before the threats Of Gabriel out of Eden. and in length.Twilight upon the earth. and foreworned the Cherubim That kept their watch. first wrought the change. traversing each colure. and now from end to end Night’s hemisphere had veil’d the horizon round: When satan. four times crossed the car of night From pole to pole. now improv’d In meditated fraud and malice. till part Rose up a fountain by the tree of life: In with the river sunk. descried His entrance. There was a place. then sought Where to lie hid. From Eden over Pontus and the pool of Maeotis. on the coast averse From entrance or Cherubick watch. short arbiter ‘twixt day and night. Where Tigris. On the eighth returned. and with it rose Satan. thrice the equinoctial line He circled. Since Uriel. not time. The space of seven continued nights he rode With darkness. Downward as far antarctick. maugre what might hap Of heavier on himself. though sin. cautious of day. West from Orontes to the ocean barred At Darien . and.

if not preferred For what God. Centring. danced round by other Heavens That shine. plant. 12 More justly. his final sentence chose Fit vessel. worse would build? Terrestrial Heaven. Him after long debate. and nobler birth 238 . beyond the sense of brute. which.With narrow search. all their known virtue appears Productive in herb. yet extends to all. Thus he resolved. and found The Serpent subtlest beast of all the field. in whom To enter. as seems. in other beasts observed. fittest imp of fraud. Light above light. but first from inward grief His bursting passion into plaints thus poured. which of all Most opportune might serve his wiles. after better. as built With second thoughts. yet bear their bright officious lamps. Not in themselves. receivest from all those orbs: in thee. so thou. and his dark suggestions hide From sharpest sight: for. for thee alone. irresolute Of thoughts revolved. and with inspection deep Considered every creature. As from his wit and native subtlety Proceeding. how like to Heaven. in the wily snake Whatever sleights. Doubt might beget of diabolick power Active within. reforming what was old! O Earth . none would suspicious mark. seat worthier of Gods. In thee concentring all their precious beams Of sacred influence! As God in Heaven Is center.

no nor in Heaven To dwell. though thereby worse to me redound: For only in destroying I find ease To my relentless thoughts. as to him linked in weal or woe. that destruction wide may range: To me shall be the glory sole among The infernal Powers. woods. Rocks. and plains. reason. and valley. and who knows how long Before had been contriving? though perhaps Not longer than since I. sweet interchange Of hill. rivers. all summed up in Man. and caves! But I in none of these Find place or refuge. and. and the more I see Pleasures about me. Or won to what may work his utter loss. For whom all this was made. and thinner left the throng Of his adorers: He. all this will soon Follow. in one day to have marred What he. unless by mastering Heaven’s Supreme. six nights and days Continued making. But neither here seek I. Nor hope to be myself less miserable By what I seek. dens. now sea and shores with forest crowned. With what delight could I have walked thee round. and in Heaven much worse would be my state. sense. him destroyed. Now land. but others to make such As I. to be avenged. in one night. Almighty styled. 239 .Of creatures animate with gradual life Of growth. as from the hateful siege Of contraries: all good to me becomes Bane. In woe then. If I could joy in aught. freed From servitude inglorious well nigh half The angelick name. so much more I feel Torment within me.

in whose mazy folds To hide me. and. O indignity! Subjected to his service angel-wings. so it light well aimed. Whether such virtue spent of old now failed More Angels to create. Bitter ere long. With heavenly spoils. and pry In every bush and brake. who erst contended With Gods to sit the highest. and. must down as low As high he soared. O foul descent! that I. and him endow. thus wrapt in mist Of midnight vapour glide obscure. Since higher I fall short. to elude. To basest things. Determined to advance into our room A creature formed of earth. our spoils: What he decreed. Man he made. I reck not. Exalted from so base original. am now constrained Into a beast. He effected. This essence to incarnate and imbrute. And flaming ministers to watch and tend Their earthly charge: Of these the vigilance I dread. at first though sweet. on him who next Provokes my envy. to spite us more. or. Revenge.And to repair his numbers thus impaired. mixed with bestial slime. if they at least Are his created. this new favourite 240 . and for him built Magnificent this world. where hap may find The serpent sleeping. That to the height of Deity aspired! But what will not ambition and revenge Descend to? Who aspires. Him lord pronounced. and the dark intent I bring. back on itself recoils: Let it. and. first or last. obnoxious. and earth his seat.

and his brutal sense. he held on His midnight-search. through each thicket dank or dry. him fast-sleeping soon he found In labyrinth of many a round self-rolled. possessing. on the grassy herb. son of despite. And Eve first to her husband thus began. Nor nocent yet. but his sleep Disturbed not. that breathe. partake The season prime for sweetest scents and airs: Then commune. Like a black mist low-creeping. and his nostrils fill With grateful smell. Fearless unfeared he slept: in at his mouth The Devil entered. his Maker raised From dust: Spite then with spite is best repaid. 13 Now. but. waiting close the approach of morn. His head the midst. well stored with subtile wiles: Not yet in horrid shade or dismal den. that breathed Their morning incense. forth came the human pair. And joined their vocal worship to the quire Of creatures wanting voice. how that day they best may ply Their growing work: for much their work out-grew The hands’ dispatch of two gardening so wide. when as sacred light began to dawn In Eden on the humid flowers. From the Earth’s great altar send up silent praise To the Creator. So saying. In heart or head. that done. this man of clay. us the more to spite. where soonest he might find The serpent. 241 .Of Heaven. Whom. soon inspired With act intelligential. when all things.

Adam, well may we labour still to dress This garden, still to tend plant, herb, and flower, Our pleasant task enjoined; but, till more hands Aid us, the work under our labour grows, Luxurious by restraint; what we by day Lop o’ergrown, or prune, or prop, or bind, One night or two with wanton growth derides Tending to wild. Thou therefore now advise, Or bear to what my mind first thoughts present: Let us divide our labours; thou, where choice Leads thee, or where most needs, whether to wind The woodbine round this arbour, or direct The clasping ivy where to climb; while I, In yonder spring of roses intermixed With myrtle, find what to redress till noon: For, while so near each other thus all day Our task we choose, what wonder if so near Looks intervene and smiles, or object new Casual discourse draw on; which intermits Our day’s work, brought to little, though begun Early, and the hour of supper comes unearned? To whom mild answer Adam thus returned. Sole Eve, associate sole, to me beyond Compare above all living creatures dear! Well hast thou motioned, well thy thoughts employed, How we might best fulfil the work which here God hath assigned us; nor of me shall pass Unpraised: for nothing lovelier can be found In woman, than to study houshold good, And good works in her husband to promote.

Yet not so strictly hath our Lord imposed Labour, as to debar us when we need Refreshment, whether food, or talk between, Food of the mind, or this sweet intercourse Of looks and smiles; for smiles from reason flow, To brute denied, and are of love the food; Love, not the lowest end of human life. For not to irksome toil, but to delight, He made us, and delight to reason joined. These paths and bowers doubt not but our joint hands Will keep from wilderness with ease, as wide As we need walk, till younger hands ere long Assist us; But, if much converse perhaps Thee satiate, to short absence I could yield: For solitude sometimes is best society, And short retirement urges sweet return. But other doubt possesses me, lest harm Befall thee severed from me; for thou knowest What hath been warned us, what malicious foe Envying our happiness, and of his own Despairing, seeks to work us woe and shame By sly assault; and somewhere nigh at hand Watches, no doubt, with greedy hope to find His wish and best advantage, us asunder; Hopeless to circumvent us joined, where each To other speedy aid might lend at need: Whether his first design be to withdraw Our fealty from God, or to disturb Conjugal love, than which perhaps no bliss Enjoyed by us excites his envy more; Or this, or worse, leave not the faithful side That gave thee being, still shades thee, and protects.

The wife, where danger or dishonour lurks, Safest and seemliest by her husband stays, Who guards her, or with her the worst endures. To whom the virgin majesty of Eve, As one who loves, and some unkindness meets, With sweet austere composure thus replied.

Offspring of Heaven and Earth, and all Earth’s Lord! That such an enemy we have, who seeks Our ruin, both by thee informed I learn, And from the parting Angel over-heard, As in a shady nook I stood behind, Just then returned at shut of evening flowers. But, that thou shouldst my firmness therefore doubt To God or thee, because we have a foe May tempt it, I expected not to hear. His violence thou fearest not, being such As we, not capable of death or pain, Can either not receive, or can repel. His fraud is then thy fear; which plain infers Thy equal fear, that my firm faith and love Can by his fraud be shaken or seduced; Thoughts, which how found they harbour in thy breast, Adam, mis-thought of her to thee so dear?
To whom with healing words Adam replied. Daughter of God and Man, immortal Eve! For such thou art; from sin and blame entire: Not diffident of thee do I dissuade Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid

The attempt itself, intended by our foe. For he who tempts, though in vain, at least asperses The tempted with dishonour foul; supposed Not incorruptible of faith, not proof Against temptation: Thou thyself with scorn And anger wouldst resent the offered wrong, Though ineffectual found: misdeem not then, If such affront I labour to avert From thee alone, which on us both at once The enemy, though bold, will hardly dare; Or daring, first on me the assault shall light. Nor thou his malice and false guile contemn; Subtle he needs must be, who could seduce Angels; nor think superfluous other’s aid. I, from the influence of thy looks, receive Access in every virtue; in thy sight More wise, more watchful, stronger, if need were Of outward strength; while shame, thou looking on, Shame to be overcome or over-reached, Would utmost vigour raise, and raised unite. Why shouldst not thou like sense within thee feel When I am present, and thy trial choose With me, best witness of thy virtue tried? So spake domestick Adam in his care And matrimonial love; but Eve, who thought Less attributed to her faith sincere, Thus her reply with accent sweet renewed. If this be our condition, thus to dwell In narrow circuit straitened by a foe, Subtle or violent, we not endued

Single with like defence, wherever met; How are we happy, still in fear of harm? But harm precedes not sin: only our foe, Tempting, affronts us with his foul esteem Of our integrity: his foul esteem Sticks no dishonour on our front, but turns Foul on himself; then wherefore shunned or feared By us? who rather double honour gain From his surmise proved false; find peace within, Favour from Heaven, our witness, from the event. And what is faith, love, virtue, unassayed Alone, without exteriour help sustained? Let us not then suspect our happy state Left so imperfect by the Maker wise, As not secure to single or combined. Frail is our happiness, if this be so, And Eden were no Eden, thus exposed.

To whom thus Adam fervently replied. O Woman, best are all things as the will Of God ordained them: His creating hand Nothing imperfect or deficient left Of all that he created, much less Man, Or aught that might his happy state secure, Secure from outward force; within himself The danger lies, yet lies within his power: Against his will he can receive no harm. But God left free the will; for what obeys Reason, is free; and Reason he made right, But bid her well be ware, and still erect; Lest, by some fair-appearing good surprised,

She dictate false; and mis-inform the will To do what God expressly hath forbid. Not then mistrust, but tender love, enjoins, That I should mind thee oft; and mind thou me. Firm we subsist, yet possible to swerve; Since Reason not impossibly may meet Some specious object by the foe suborned, And fall into deception unaware, Not keeping strictest watch, as she was warned. Seek not temptation then, which to avoid Were better, and most likely if from me Thou sever not: Trial will come unsought. Wouldst thou approve thy constancy, approve First thy obedience; the other who can know, Not seeing thee attempted, who attest? But, if thou think, trial unsought may find Us both securer than thus warned thou seemest, Go; for thy stay, not free, absents thee more; Go in thy native innocence, rely On what thou hast of virtue; summon all! For God towards thee hath done his part, do thine. So spake the patriarch of mankind; but Eve Persisted; yet submiss, though last, replied. With thy permission then, and thus forewarned Chiefly by what thy own last reasoning words Touched only; that our trial, when least sought, May find us both perhaps far less prepared, The willinger I go, nor much expect A foe so proud will first the weaker seek; So bent, the more shall shame him his repulse.

Thus saying, from her husband’s hand her hand Soft she withdrew; and, like a Wood-Nymph light, Oread or Dryad, or of Delia’s train, Betook her to the groves; but Delia’s self In gait surpassed, and Goddess-like deport, Though not as she with bow and quiver armed, But with such gardening tools as Art yet rude, Guiltless of fire, had formed, or Angels brought. To Pales, or Pomona, thus adorned, Likest she seemed, Pomona when she fled Vertumnus, or to Ceres in her prime, Yet virgin of Proserpina from Jove. Her long with ardent look his eye pursued Delighted, but desiring more her stay. Oft he to her his charge of quick return Repeated; she to him as oft engaged To be returned by noon amid the bower, And all things in best order to invite Noontide repast, or afternoon’s repose. O much deceived, much failing, hapless Eve, Of thy presumed return! event perverse! Thou never from that hour in Paradise Foundst either sweet repast, or sound repose; Such ambush, hid among sweet flowers and shades, Waited with hellish rancour imminent To intercept thy way, or send thee back Despoiled of innocence, of faith, of bliss!

For now, and since first break of dawn, the Fiend, Mere serpent in appearance, forth was come;

And on his quest, where likeliest he might find The only two of mankind, but in them The whole included race, his purposed prey. In bower and field he sought, where any tuft Of grove or garden-plot more pleasant lay, Their tendance, or plantation for delight; By fountain or by shady rivulet He sought them both, but wished his hap might find Eve separate; he wished, but not with hope Of what so seldom chanced; when to his wish, Beyond his hope, Eve separate he spies, Veiled in a cloud of fragrance, where she stood, Half spied, so thick the roses bushing round About her glowed, oft stooping to support Each flower of slender stalk, whose head, though gay Carnation, purple, azure, or specked with gold, Hung drooping unsustained; them she upstays Gently with myrtle band, mindless the while Herself, though fairest unsupported flower, From her best prop so far, and storm so nigh. Nearer he drew, and many a walk traversed Of stateliest covert, cedar, pine, or palm; Then voluble and bold, now hid, now seen, Among thick-woven arborets, and flowers Imbordered on each bank, the hand of Eve: Spot more delicious than those gardens feigned Or of revived Adonis, or renowned Alcinous, host of old Laertes’ son; Or that, not mystick, where the sapient king Held dalliance with his fair Egyptian spouse. Much he the place admired, the person more. As one who long in populous city pent,

Where houses thick and sewers annoy the air, Forth issuing on a summer’s morn, to breathe Among the pleasant villages and farms Adjoined, from each thing met conceives delight; The smell of grain, or tedded grass, or kine, Or dairy, each rural sight, each rural sound; If chance, with nymph-like step, fair virgin pass, What pleasing seemed, for her now pleases more; She most, and in her look sums all delight: Such pleasure took the Serpent to behold This flowery plat, the sweet recess of Eve Thus early, thus alone: Her heavenly form Angelick, but more soft, and feminine, Her graceful innocence, her every air Of gesture, or least action, overawed His malice, and with rapine sweet bereaved His fierceness of the fierce intent it brought: That space the Evil-one abstracted stood From his own evil, and for the time remained Stupidly good; of enmity disarmed, Of guile, of hate, of envy, of revenge: But the hot Hell that always in him burns, Though in mid Heaven, soon ended his delight, And tortures him now more, the more he sees Of pleasure, not for him ordained: then soon Fierce hate he recollects, and all his thoughts Of mischief, gratulating, thus excites. Thoughts, whither have ye led me! with what sweet Compulsion thus transported, to forget What hither brought us! hate, not love; nor hope Of Paradise for Hell, hope here to taste

Of pleasure; but all pleasure to destroy, Save what is in destroying; other joy To me is lost. Then, let me not let pass Occasion which now smiles; behold alone The woman, opportune to all attempts, Her husband, for I view far round, not nigh, Whose higher intellectual more I shun, And strength, of courage haughty, and of limb Heroick built, though of terrestrial mould; Foe not informidable! exempt from wound, I not; so much hath Hell debased, and pain Enfeebled me, to what I was in Heaven. She fair, divinely fair, fit love for Gods! Not terrible, though terrour be in love And beauty, not approached by stronger hate, Hate stronger, under show of love well feigned; The way which to her ruin now I tend.


CD 7

So spake the enemy of mankind, enclosed In serpent, inmate bad! and toward Eve Addressed his way: not with indented wave, Prone on the ground, as since; but on his rear, Circular base of rising folds, that towered Fold above fold, a surging maze! his head Crested aloft, and carbuncle his eyes; With burnished neck of verdant gold, erect Amidst his circling spires, that on the grass Floated redundant: pleasing was his shape And lovely; never since of serpent-kind Lovelier, not those that in Illyria changed, Hermione and Cadmus, or the god In Epidaurus; nor to which transformed Ammonian Jove, or Capitoline, was seen; He with Olympias; this with her who bore Scipio, the height of Rome. With tract oblique At first, as one who sought access, but feared To interrupt, side-long he works his way. As when a ship, by skilful steersmen wrought Nigh river’s mouth or foreland, where the wind Veers oft, as oft so steers, and shifts her sail: So varied he, and of his tortuous train Curled many a wanton wreath in sight of Eve, To lure her eye; she, busied, heard the sound Of rusling leaves, but minded not, as used To such disport before her through the field, From every beast; more duteous at her call, Than at Circean call the herd disguised. He, bolder now, uncalled before her stood,

But as in gaze admiring: oft he bowed His turret crest, and sleek enamelled neck, Fawning; and licked the ground whereon she trod. His gentle dumb expression turned at length The eye of Eve to mark his play; he, glad Of her attention gained, with serpent-tongue Organick, or impulse of vocal air, His fraudulent temptation thus began. Wonder not, sovran Mistress, if perhaps Thou canst, who art sole wonder! much less arm Thy looks, the Heaven of mildness, with disdain, Displeased that I approach thee thus, and gaze Insatiate; I thus single; nor have feared Thy awful brow, more awful thus retired. Fairest resemblance of thy Maker fair, Thee all things living gaze on, all things thine By gift, and thy celestial beauty adore With ravishment beheld! there best beheld, Where universally admired; but here In this enclosure wild, these beasts among, Beholders rude, and shallow to discern Half what in thee is fair, one man except, Who sees thee? and what is one? who should be seen A Goddess among Gods, adored and served By Angels numberless, thy daily train.

So glozed the Tempter, and his proem tuned: Into the heart of Eve his words made way, Though at the voice much marvelling; at length, Not unamazed, she thus in answer spake.

more pleased my sense Than smell of sweetest fennel. that tend their play. or the teats Of ewe or goat dropping with milk at even. subtlest beast of all the field I knew. of these I thought denied To beasts. Grateful to appetite. and right thou shouldst be obeyed: I was at first as other beasts that graze The trodden herb. for in their looks Much reason. When from the boughs a savoury odour blown. for such wonder claims attention due. and human sense expressed? The first. Serpent. whom God. and in their actions. and say.What may this mean? language of man pronounced By tongue of brute. that daily are in sight? Say. As was my food. Empress of this fair world. at least. on their creation-day. oft appears. of abject thoughts and low. How camest thou speakable of mute. Thee. 254 . Created mute to all articulate sound: The latter I demur. Ruddy and gold: I nearer drew to gaze. but not with human voice endued. on a day roving the field. Redouble then this miracle. nor aught but food discerned Or sex. To whom the guileful Tempter thus replied. Unsucked of lamb or kid. and how To me so friendly grown above the rest Of brutal kind. and apprehended nothing high: Till. resplendent Eve! Easy to me it is to tell thee all What thou commandest. I chanced A goodly tree far distant to behold Loaden with fruit of fairest colours mixed.

to come And gaze. high from ground. urged me so keen. where plenty hung Tempting so nigh. though to this shape retained. I resolved Not to defer. 255 . Sated at length. no fair to thine Equivalent or second! which compelled Me thus. Yet more amazed. Powerful persuaders. such pleasure till that hour. with like desire Longing and envying stood. never had I found. and worship thee of right declared Sovran of creatures. hunger and thirst at once. the branches would require Thy utmost reach or Adam’s: Round the tree All other beasts that saw. to pluck and eat my fill I spared not. Amid the tree now got. but could not reach. unwary thus replied. for. About the mossy trunk I wound me soon.To satisfy the sharp desire I had Of tasting those fair apples. For. United I beheld. and with capacious mind Considered all things visible in Heaven. though importune perhaps. ere long I might perceive Strange alteration in me. and Eve. Or Earth. quickened at the scent Of that alluring fruit. to degree Of reason in my inward powers. or Middle. At feed or fountain. and in thy beauty’s heavenly ray. universal Dame! So talked the spirited sly Snake. and speech Wanted not long. all things fair and good: But all that fair and good in thy divine Semblance. Thenceforth to speculations high or deep I turned my thoughts.

Empress. and oft through pond or pool. from succour far. Misleads the amazed night-wanderer from his way To bogs and mires. and joy Brightens his crest. in such abundance lies our choice. thy overpraising leaves in doubt The virtue of that fruit. in thee first proved: But say. and made intricate seem straight.Serpent. Which oft. He. yet unknown To us. as when a wandering fire. 256 . As leaves a greater store of fruit untouched. and various. and the cold environs round. Compact of unctuous vapour. which the night Condenses. Fast by a fountain. There swallowed up and lost. some evil Spirit attends. they say. where grows the tree? from hence how far? For many are the trees of God that grow In Paradise. Hope elevates. I can bring thee thither soon 3 Lead then. leading. To mischief swift. To whom the wily Adder. on a flat. the way is ready. blithe and glad. and not long. Hovering and blazing with delusive light. Kindled through agitation to a flame. said Eve. swiftly rolled In tangles. till men Grow up to their provision. and more hands Help to disburden Nature of her birth. Still hanging incorruptible. Beyond a row of myrtles. one small thicket past Of blowing myrrh and balm: if thou accept My conduct.

Indeed! hath God then said that of the fruit Of all these garden-trees ye shall not eat. we live Law to ourselves. God hath said. our reason is our law. To whom the Tempter guilefully replied. yet sinless. we might have spared our coming hither. and. Which when she saw. and left that command Sole daughter of his voice. God so commanded. yet comely and in act Raised.So glistered the dire Snake. Yet Lords declared of all in earth or air? To whom thus Eve. Fluctuates disturbed. when now more bold The Tempter. thus to her guide she spake. Fruitless to me. our credulous mother. and into fraud Led Eve. though brief. root of all our woe. But of this tree we may not taste nor touch. She scarce had said. though fruit be here to excess. to the tree Of prohibition. if cause of such effects. But of the fruit of this fair tree amidst The garden. nor shall ye touch it. 257 . Ye shall not eat Thereof. but with show of zeal and love To Man. As when of old some orator renowned. as of some great matter to begin. as to passion moved. Serpent. Wonderous indeed. The credit of whose virtue rest with thee. the rest. lest ye die. New part puts on. Of the fruit Of each tree in the garden we may eat. and indignation at his wrong.

yet both live. while each part. 4 Of good. moving. whatever thing death be. wise. since easier shunned? 258 . Shall that be shut to Man. deemed however wise. thus began. by the threatener? look on me. and wisdom-giving Plant. where eloquence Flourished. Motion. through his zeal of right: So standing. each act. or to height up grown. O sacred.In Athens or free Rome. whom the pain Of death denounced. as no delay Of preface brooking. which to the Beast Is open? or will God incense his ire For such a petty trespass? and not praise Rather your dauntless virtue. knowledge of good and evil. how just? of evil. who have touched and tasted. Sometimes in height began. Deterred not from achieving what might lead To happier life. since mute! to some great cause addressed. why not known. if what is evil Be real. all impassioned. but to trace the ways Of highest agents. not only to discern Things in their causes. Me. And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. Mother of science! now I feel thy power Within me clear. Queen of this universe! do not believe Those rigid threats of death: ye shall not die: How should you? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. Stood in himself collected. won audience ere the tongue. by venturing higher than my lot. The Tempter.

God therefore cannot hurt ye. of human. nor obeyed: Your fear itself of death removes the fear. human. not God. Not just. that all from them proceeds: I question it. Internal Man. as they know. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. Why. or this tree Impart against his will. who enclosed Knowledge of good and evil in this tree. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared. And what are Gods. for this fair earth I see. ye. Though threatened. these. your eyes that seem so clear. Why then was this forbid? Why. and that advantage use On our belief. to put on Gods. Them. participating God-like food? The Gods are first. So ye shall die perhaps. and ye shall be as Gods. nothing: if they all things. which no worse than this can bring. Warmed by the sun. and be just. Yet are but dim. not feared then. of brute. His worshippers? He knows that in the day Ye eat thereof. Gods. but to keep ye low and ignorant. I. since I as Man. producing every kind. by putting off Human. forthwith attains Wisdom without their leave? and wherein lies The offence. That whoso eats thereof. death to be wished. is but proportion meet. Knowing both good and evil. that Man may not become As they. but to awe. That ye shall be as Gods. and many more Causes import your need of this fair fruit. 259 . that Man should thus attain to know? What can your knowledge hurt him.

and with truth: Mean while the hour of noon drew on. knowledge both of good and evil. and worthy to be admired. Inclinable now grown to touch or taste. reach then. and our want: For good unknown sure is not had. which with desire. or. doubtless. raised by the smell So savoury of that fruit. which to behold Might tempt alone. Into her heart too easy entrance won: Fixed on the fruit she gazed. who forbids thy use. replete with guile. Solicited her longing eye. best of fruits. Whose taste. naming thee the tree Of knowledge. Forbids us then to taste! but his forbidding Commends thee more. had And yet unknown. and taught The tongue not made for speech to speak thy praise: Thy praise he also. Great are thy virtues. too long forborn. forbids us to be wise? Such prohibitions bind not. Though kept from man. and his words. at first assay Gave elocution to the mute. Forbids us good. thus to herself she mused. impregned With reason. what forbids he but to know. is as not had at all. yet first Pausing a while. while it infers the good By thee communicated. But. if death 260 . and waked An eager appetite. and in her ears the sound Yet rung of his persuasive words. and freely taste! 5 He ended.Goddess humane. In plain then. Conceals not from us. to her seeming.

Bind us with after-bands. for beasts reserved? For beasts it seems: yet that one beast which first Hath tasted envies not. of law or penalty? Here grows the cure of all. our doom is. inviting to the taste. What fear I then? rather. Of virtue to make wise: What hinders then To reach. what profits then Our inward freedom? In the day we eat Of this fair fruit. as seemed. far from deceit or guile. we shall die! How dies the Serpent? he hath eaten and lives. but brings with joy The good befallen him. she plucked. Intent now wholly on her taste. Friendly to man. this fruit divine. for Eve. and speaks. and discerns. whether true Or fancied so. Of God or death. In fruit she never tasted. and well might. and reasons. Sighing through all her works. and feed at once both body and mind? So saying. and Nature from her seat. Irrational till then. For us alone Was death invented? or to us denied This intellectual food. what know to fear Under this ignorance of good and evil. such delight till then. Back to the thicket slunk The guilty Serpent. And knows. That all was lost. gave signs of woe. through expectation high 261 . she eat! 6 Earth felt the wound. Fair to the eye. nought else Regarded. her rash hand in evil hour Forth reaching to the fruit. author unsuspect.

lines 784. 785) 262 .“Back to the thicket slunk The guilty serpent” (Book IX.

High. and the fertile burden ease Of thy full branches offered free to all. safe with all his spies About him. hitherto obscured. it had not here Thus grown. I grow mature In knowledge. And I perhaps am secret: Heaven is high. as to no end Created. dieted by thee. Thus to herself she pleasingly began. virtuous. or rather not. not following thee. and due praise. But to Adam in what sort Shall I appear? shall I to him make known As yet my change. Till. and other care perhaps May have diverted from continual watch Our great Forbidder. though secret she retire. next. and remote to see from thence distinct Each thing on Earth. But keeps the odds of knowledge in my power 263 . precious of all trees In Paradise! of operation blest To sapience. thou openest wisdom’s way.Of knowledge. And hightened as with wine. had the gift been theirs. O sovran. Though others envy what they cannot give: For. each morning. and give him to partake Full happiness with me. who all things know. jocund and boon. And givest access. infamed. Shall tend thee. I had remained In ignorance. Experience. as the Gods. And thy fair fruit let hang. Not without song. Best guide. Greedily she ingorged without restraint. but henceforth my early care. And knew not eating death: Satiate at length. nor was Godhead from her thought. to thee I owe.

264 . without him live no life. whose presence had infused Into the plant sciential sap. in her hand A bough of fairest fruit.Without copartner? so to add what wants In female sex. And forth to meet her went. the more to draw his love. from the tree her step she turned. As reapers oft are wont their harvest-queen. who is free This may be well: But what if God have seen. the way she took That morn when first they parted: by the tree Of knowledge he must pass. Great joy he promised to his thoughts. there he her met. that with him all deaths I could endure. Adam the while. that downy smiled. But first low reverence done. sometime Superiour. So saying. wedded to another Eve. for. And death ensue? then I shall be no more! And Adam. he the faltering measure felt. divine of something ill. Shall live with her enjoying. and new Solace in her return. A death to think! Confirmed then I resolve. Misgave him. And render me more equal. so long delayed: Yet oft his heart. derived From nectar. as to the Power That dwelt within. and perhaps. Waiting desirous her return. to adorn Her tresses. A thing not undesirable. I extinct. inferiour. drink of Gods. and her rural labours crown. Scarce from the tree returning. Adam shall share with me in bliss or woe: So dear I love him. had wove Of choicest flowers a garland.

to me is bliss. nor shall be twice. Dim erst. The pain of absence from thy sight. and have also found The effects to correspond. with bland words at will. agony of love till now Not felt. ampler heart. Reasoning to admiration. at my stay? Thee I have missed. Adam. But strange Hath been the cause. which for thee Chiefly I sought. and odious soon. For bliss. that I Have also tasted. Not dead. 265 . and wonderful to hear: This tree is not. she thus addressed. deprived Thy presence. and is become. in her face excuse Came prologue. unshared with thee. and apology too prompt. without thee can despise. Hast thou not wondered. and with me Persuasively hath so prevailed. and make them Gods who taste. Hath eaten of the fruit. And growing up to Godhead. and ambrosial smell diffused. as we are threatened. and thought it long. nor to evil unknown Opening the way. as thou hast part. for never more Mean I to try. dilated spirits. Tedious. or not obeying. And hath been tasted such: The serpent wise. Or not restrained as we. what rash untried I sought. opener mine eyes. but of divine effect To open eyes.New gathered. as we are told. but thenceforth Endued with human voice and human sense. Which. a tree Of danger tasted. 7 To him she hasted.

that equal lot May join us. or sweet! How art thou lost! how on a sudden lost. thou not tasting. O fairest of Creation. when Fate will not permit. To live again in these wild woods forlorn! 266 . as equal love. equal joy. amiable. From his slack hand the garland wreathed for Eve Down dropt. and all his joints relaxed. good. till thus at length First to himself he inward silence broke. amazed. and all the faded roses shed: Speechless he stood and pale. soon as he heard The fatal trespass done by Eve. deflowered. how to violate The sacred fruit forbidden! Some cursed fraud Of enemy hath beguiled thee. And me with thee hath ruined. Thus Eve with countenance blithe her story told. Creature in whom excelled Whatever can to sight or thought be formed. Defaced. different degree Disjoin us. for with thee Certain my resolution is to die: How can I live without thee! how forego Thy sweet converse.Thou therefore also taste. how hast thou yielded to transgress The strict forbiddance. last and best Of all God’s works. divine. But in her cheek distemper flushing glowed. Astonied stood and blank. yet unknown. and I then too late renounce Deity for thee. Holy. and love so dearly joined. Lest. while horrour chill Ran through his veins. and now to death devote! Rather. On the other side Adam.

yet so Perhaps thou shalt not die. perhaps the fact Is not so heinous now. So having said.Should God create another Eve. bliss or woe. and unhallowed. and gains to live. as one from sad dismay Recomforted. foretasted fruit. Thus in calm mood his words to Eve he turned. inducement strong To us. who thus hast dared. ere our taste. and I Another rib afford. Creator wise. Lives. Had it been only coveting to eye That sacred fruit. will in earnest so destroy 267 . or Angels. adventurous Eve. as likely tasting to attain Proportional ascent. and from thy state Mine never shall be parted. sacred to abstinence. as thou saidst. But past who can recall. no! I feel The link of Nature draw me: flesh of flesh. Higher degree of life. by him first Made common. And peril great provoked. 8 Bold deed thou hast presumed. yet loss of thee Would never from my heart: no. demi-Gods. and after thoughts disturbed Submitting to what seemed remediless. as Man. yet he lives. Nor can I think that God. or done undo? Not God Omnipotent. Nor yet on him found deadly. Much more to taste it under ban to touch. Though threatening. Bone of my bone thou art. which cannot be But to be Gods. Profaned first by the serpent. nor Fate.

Not well conceived of God. Shall separate us. now Mankind. which in our fall. whom will he next?’ Matter of scorn. Dependant made. One heart. One flesh. Illustrious evidence. lest the Adversary Triumph. and labour lose. linked in love so dear. whereof good proof This day affords. example high! Engaging me to emulate. one soul in both. However I with thee have fixed my lot. Set over all his works. And gladly of our union hear thee speak. though his power Creation could repeat. or aught than death more dread.Us his prime creatures. dignified so high. Adam. for what thou art is mine. So Adam. death is to me as life. yet would be loth Us to abolish. and say. O glorious trial of exceeding love. Our state cannot be severed. Be frustrate. who. For us created. do. to lose thee were to lose myself. ‘Fickle their state whom God ‘Most favours. needs with us must fail. undo. Certain to undergo like doom: If death Consort with thee. declaring thee resolved. but. short Of thy perfection. 268 . and thus Eve to him replied. not to be given the Foe. how shall I attain. so God shall uncreate. who can please him long? Me first ‘He ruined. So forcible within my heart I feel The bond of Nature draw me to my own. Rather than death. from whose dear side I boast me sprung. My own in thee. we are one.

Whose virtue for of good still good proceeds. rather die Deserted. or death. as again In pangs. of tasting this fair fruit. she embraced him. one crime. freely taste. new joys. but life Augmented. which else So eminently never had been known? Were it I thought death menaced would ensue This my attempt. But fondly overcome with female charm. that he his love Had so ennobled. love unequalled: but I feel Far otherwise the event. not deceived. So saying. flat seems to this. and for joy Tenderly wept. and not persuade thee. new hopes. chiefly assured Remarkably so late of thy so true. On my experience.To undergo with me one guilt. 269 . than oblige thee with a fact Pernicious to thy peace. And fear of death deliver to the winds. or by occasion. much won. Taste so divine. Direct. and harsh. as of choice to incur Divine displeasure for her sake. not death. hath presented This happy trial of thy love. Adam. that what of sweet before Hath touched my sense. and Nature gave a second groan. Against his better knowledge. So faithful. I would sustain alone The worst. In recompence for such compliance bad Such recompence best merits from the bough She gave him of that fair enticing fruit With liberal hand: he scrupled not to eat. Earth trembled from her entrails. opened eyes. If any be.

that now. adorned With all perfections. And elegant. I the praise Yield thee. some sad drops Wept at completing of the mortal sin Original: while Adam took no thought. and. Since to each meaning savour we apply. in lust they burn: Till Adam thus ’gan Eve to dalliance move. now I see thou art exact of taste. Carnal desire inflaming. But come. nor known till now True relish. And palate call judicious. Wherewith to scorn the earth: But that false fruit Far other operation first displayed. tasting. For this one tree had been forbidden ten. since the day I saw thee first and wedded thee. Eating his fill. As with new wine intoxicated both. he on Eve Began to cast lascivious eyes. nor Eve to iterate Her former trespass feared. so inflame my sense 270 .Sky loured. of sapience no small part. so well this day thou hast purveyed. For never did thy beauty. if such pleasure be In things to us forbidden. 9 Eve. Much pleasure we have lost. and fancy that they feel Divinity within them breeding wings. muttering thunder. the more to sooth Him with her loved society. now let us play. As meet is. after such delicious fare. They swim in mirth. while we abstained From this delightful fruit. it might be wished. she him As wantonly repaid. so well refreshed.

Pansies. and native righteousness. Soon as the force of that fallacious fruit. Herculean Samson. each the other viewing. and grosser sleep. whose eye darted contagious fire. of their mutual guilt the seal. Earth’s freshest softest lap. Soon found their eyes how opened. he covered. They destitute and bare 271 . Thick over-head with verdant roof imbowered. from about them. fairer now Than ever. till dewy sleep Oppressed them. That with exhilarating vapour bland About their spirits had played. and inmost powers Made err. up they rose As from unrest. There they their fill of love and love’s disport Took largely. innocence. flowers were the couch. wearied with their amorous play. Bred of unkindly fumes. The solace of their sin. and forbore not glance or toy Of amorous intent. and. naked left To guilty Shame. He led her nothing loth. and asphodel. And honour. Her hand he seised. was now exhaled. bounty of this virtuous tree! So said he. that as a veil Had shadowed them from knowing ill. but his robe Uncovered more. and violets. and their minds How darkened. So rose the Danite strong. with conscious dreams Incumbered. now had left them.With ardour to enjoy thee. was gone. and waked Shorn of his strength. Just confidence. And hyacinth. and to a shady bank. well understood Of Eve. from the harlot-lap Of Philistean Dalilah.

False in our promised rising. And in our faces evident the signs Of foul concupiscence. as in bad plight.Of all their virtue: Silent. though not less than Eve abashed. and evil got. where highest woods. in some glade Obscured. and find we know Both good and evil. and in face Confounded. whence evil store. the last of evils. long they sat. of honour void. since our eyes Opened we find indeed. of faith. O! might I here In solitude live savage. ye Pines! Ye Cedars. true in our fall. as strucken mute: Till Adam. At length gave utterance to these words constrained. – How shall I behold the face Henceforth of God or Angel. devise What best may for the present serve to hide The parts of each from other. Even shame. O Eve. Of innocence. good lost. Bad fruit of knowledge. of whomsoever taught To counterfeit Man’s voice. in evil hour thou didst give ear To that false worm. impenetrable To star or sun-light. spread their umbrage broad And brown as evening: Cover me. if this be to know. Our wonted ornaments now soiled and stained. of purity. where I may never see them more! – But let us now. Which leaves us naked thus. with innumerable boughs Hide me. erst with joy And rapture so oft beheld? Those heavenly shapes Will dazzle now this earthly with their blaze Insufferably bright. that seem most 272 . of the first Be sure then.

And girded on our loins. Some tree. naked else. may cover round Those middle parts. And. together sewed. hate. broad as Amazonian targe. their shame in part Covered. Shame. that in the ground The bended twigs take root. a pillared shade High over-arched. Thus fenced. and tends his pasturing herds At loop-holes cut through thickest shade: Those leaves They gathered. to Indians known. and reproach us as unclean. 273 . as they thought. there soon they chose The fig-tree. and. if to hide Their guilt and dreaded shame! O. and both together went Into the thickest wood. But such as at this day. but high winds worse within Began to rise. how unlike To that first naked glory! Such of late Columbus found the American. that this new comer. and echoing walks between: There oft the Indian herdsman. To gird their waist. whose broad smooth leaves together sewed. In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms Branching so broad and long. Shelters in cool. high passions. 10 So counselled he. vain covering. anger. and unseemliest seen. not that kind for fruit renowned. so girt With feathered cincture. nor only tears Rained at their eyes. but not at rest or ease of mind. and daughters grow About the mother tree. shunning heat.To shame obnoxious. and wild Among the trees on isles and woody shores. There sit not. They sat them down to weep. with what skill they had.

Was I to have never parted from thy side? 274 . not. or seek to harm. this unhappy morn. and the Will Heard not her lore. discord. Would thou hadst hearkened to my words. Speech intermitted thus to Eve renewed. No ground of enmity between us known. both in subjection now To sensual Appetite. Adam. we had then Remained still happy. as thou callest it. Adam severe! Imputest thou that to my default. conclude.Mistrust. when that strange Desire of wandering. and staid With me. suspicion. despoiled Of all our good. speaking as he spake. as now. shamed. which who knows But might as ill have happened thou being by. What words have passed thy lips. thou couldst not have discerned Fraud in the Serpent. I know not whence possessed thee. as I besought thee. they then begin to fail. To whom. who from beneath Usurping over sovran Reason claimed Superiour sway: From thus distempered breast. naked. when earnestly they seek Such proof. Why he should mean me ill. estranged in look and altered style. calm region once And full of peace. thus Eve. now tost and turbulent: For Understanding ruled not. miserable! Let none henceforth seek needless cause to approve The faith they owe. or will Of wandering. Or here the attempt. soon moved with touch of blame. and shook sore Their inward state of mind. Or to thyself perhaps? Hadst thou been there.

It seems. in thy restraint: What could I more I warned thee. Nay. Thus it shall befall Him. and the lurking enemy That lay in wait. when thou wert lost. to worth in women overtrusting.As good have grown there still a lifeless rib. foretold The danger. Hadst thou been firm and fixed in thy dissent. Lets her will rule: restraint she will not brook. approve. To whom. and perhaps I also erred. as thou saidst? Too facile then. Who might have lived. Is this the love. but I rue The errour now. why didst not thou. 275 . who. secure Either to meet no danger. or to find Matter of glorious trial. And thou the accuser. And force upon free will hath here no place. Yet willingly chose rather death with thee? And am I now upbraided as the cause Of thy transgressing? Not enough severe. the head. Command me absolutely not to go. But confidence then bore thee on. then first incensed. I admonished thee. nor thou with me. that I thought No evil durst attempt thee. had been force. Going into such danger. and fair dismiss. which is become my crime. didst permit. in overmuch admiring What seemed in thee so perfect. not I. and joyed immortal bliss. ingrateful Eve! expressed Immutable. is this the recompence Of mine to thee. Adam replied. thou didst not much gainsay. Being as I am. beyond this. Neither had I transgressed.

she persists and at length appeases him: then to evade the Curse likely to fall on thir Ofspring. but neither self-condemning. according to the Track that Satan first made. if evil thence ensue. and the sin by Man there committed. the Guardian Angels forsake Paradise. that her Seed should be reveng’d on the Serpent. 11 Book X: The Argument Mans transgression known. by wondrous sympathie feeling the success of Satan in this new World. God foretels the final Victory of his Son over them. thir mutual gratulation. but to follow Satan thir Sire up to the place of Man: To make the way easier from Hell to this World to and fro. proposes to Adam violent wayes which he approves not. instead of applause is entertained with a general hiss by all his audience. then preparing for Earth. And of their vain contest appeared no end. then in pity cloaths them both. rejects the condolement of Eve. they meet him proud of his success returning to Hell. and exhorts her with him to seek Peace of the offended Deity. He sends his Son to judge the Transgressors. in full of assembly relates with boasting his success against Man. they greedily reaching to take of the Fruit. and the renewing of all things.And. but conceiving better hope. Adam more and more perceiving his fall’n condition heavily bewailes. and are approv’d. left to herself. but for the present commands his Angels to make several alterations in the Heavens and Elements. She first his weak indulgence will accuse. transform’d with himself also suddenly into Serpents. by repentance and supplication. who descends and gives Sentence accordingly. Satan arrives at Pandemonium. then deluded with a shew of the forbidden Tree springing up before them. Sin and Death sitting till then at the Gates of Hell. 276 . The proceedings of Sin and Death. chew dust and bitter ashes. resolve to sit no longer confin’d in Hell. puts her in mind of the late Promise made them. God declaring that The entrance of Satan could not be by them prevented. and return up to Heaven to approve thir vigilance. according to his doom giv’n in Paradise. and reascends. Thus they in mutual accusation spent The fruitless hours. they pave a broad Highway or Bridge over Chaos.

For Man. to taste the fatal fruit. Soon as the unwelcome news From Earth arrived at Heaven-gate. Hindered not Satan to attempt the mind Of Man. manifold in sin. had perverted Eve. with strength entire and free will armed. made haste. Her husband she. displeased All were who heard. their utmost vigilance And easily approved. (Incurred what could they less?) the penalty. About the new-arrived. for of his state by this they knew. in the serpent. which they not obeying. to hear and know How all befel: They towards the throne supreme. For still they knew. dim sadness did not spare That time celestial visages. or deceive his heart Omniscient? who. Was known in Heaven. yet. Accountable. not to taste that fruit. With righteous plea. Much wondering how the subtle Fiend had stolen Entrance unseen. mute. to make appear. deserved to fall. violated not their bliss. and how He. The high injunction. And. done in Paradise.12 Book X Mean while the heinous and despiteful act Of Satan. Complete to have discovered and repulsed Whatever wiles of foe or seeming friend. when the Most High 277 . and ought to have still remembered. in all things wise and just. Up into Heaven from Paradise in haste The angelick guards ascended. and sad. for what can ’scape the eye Of God all-seeing. Whoever tempted. in multitudes The ethereal people ran. mixed With pity.

But whom send I to judge them? whom but thee. Or touch with lightest moment of impulse His free will. sending thee Man’s friend. 278 . whether in Heaven. By some immediate stroke. Foretold so lately what would come to pass. When first this tempter crossed the gulf from Hell. Nor troubled at these tidings from the earth. And flattered out of all. Easy it may be seen that I intend Mercy colleague with justice. no decree of mine Concurring to necessitate his fall. or Earth. and speed On his bad errand. Vicegerent Son? To thee I have transferred All judgement. I told ye then he should prevail. or Hell. and now What rests. Justice shall not return as bounty scorned. ere day end. Which your sincerest care could not prevent. and ye Powers returned From unsuccessful charge. his Mediator. from his secret cloud. And destined Man himself to judge Man fallen. Amidst in thunder uttered thus his voice. Assembled Angels. to her own inclining left In even scale. – death denounced that day? Which he presumes already vain and void.Eternal Father. but that the mortal sentence pass On his transgression. Man should be seduced. as he feared. be not dismayed. But fallen he is. Because not yet inflicted. his designed Both ransom and Redeemer voluntary. believing lies Against his Maker. but soon shall find Forbearance no acquittance.

to do thy will Supreme. and rebel to all law: Conviction to the serpent none belongs. in prospect lay. on the Son Blazed forth unclouded Deity: He full Resplendent all his Father manifest Expressed. Princedoms. that thou in me. Mine. Convict by flight. the speed of Gods 279 .So spake the Father. Whoever judged. where none Are to behold the judgement. from whence Eden. that I may mitigate their doom On me derived. thy Son beloved. Attendance none shall need. but the judged. and all the coast. and thee appease. the third best absent is condemned. and thus divinely answered mild. Father Eternal. this obtain Of right. not repenting. as may illustrate most Them fully satisfied. and. Mayest ever rest well pleased. but thou knowest. thine is to decree. nor train. 13 Thus saying. from his radiant seat he rose Of high collateral glory: Him Thrones. Accompanied to Heaven-gate. for so I undertook Before thee. Those two. unfolding bright Toward the right hand his glory. Down he descended straight. both in Heaven and Earth. I go to judge On earth these thy transgressours. When time shall be. the worst on me must light. and Powers. and Dominations ministrant. and. yet I shall temper so Justice with mercy.

due at their hour. but apparent guilt. thus answered brief. Not pleased. Love was not in their looks. and hast not feared. 280 . Anger. wont with joy to meet My coming seen far off? I miss thee here. and with him Eve.Time counts not. My voice thou oft hast heard. To fan the earth now waked. Where obvious duty ere while appeared unsought: Or come I less conspicuous. when he. and hate. while day declined. I heard thee in the garden. and perturbation. and guile. or what chance detains? – Come forth! He came. hid myself. discountenanced both. To whom The gracious Judge without revile replied. and of thy voice Afraid. both man and wife. and obstinacy. Adam. Whence Adam. though with swiftest minutes winged. faltering long. thus entertained with solitude. Approaching. more loth. Now was the sun in western cadence low From noon. And shame. being naked. or what change Absents thee. And from his presence hid themselves among The thickest trees. by soft winds Brought to their ears. though first To offend. To sentence Man: The voice of God they heard Now walking in the garden. Or to each other. and discomposed. from wrath more cool. they heard. and usher in The evening cool. either to God. and despair. and gentle airs. till God. Came the mild Judge. and Intercessour both. thus to Adam called aloud. Where art thou.

So fit. 281 . and calamitous constraint. whom thou madest to be my help. either to undergo Myself the total crime. And gavest me as thy perfect gift. who Hath told thee? Hast thou eaten of the tree. Whose failing. Whereof I gave thee charge thou shouldst not eat? To whom thus Adam sore beset replied. – This Woman. She gave me of the tree. so divine. And what she did. Lest on my head both sin and punishment. be all Devolved. yet thou Wouldst easily detect what I conceal. However insupportable. or but equal. Superiour.But still rejoiced. and the place Wherein God set thee above her made of thee. so good. or to accuse My other self. That from her hand I could suspect no ill. and I did eat. O Heaven! in evil strait this day I stand Before my Judge. so acceptable. that her thou didst obey Before his voice? or was she made thy guide. the partner of my life. whatever in itself. To whom the Sovran Presence thus replied. though should I hold my peace. that to her Thou didst resign thy manhood. I should conceal. how is it now become So dreadful to thee? That thou art naked. Her doing seemed to justify the deed. while her faith to me remains. and not expose to blame By my complaint: but strict necessity Subdues me. Was she thy God.

with shame nigh overwhelmed. which was thy part And person. and polluted from the end Of his creation. and her gifts Were such.And for thee. Woman. 14 Which when the Lord God heard. Confessing soon. As vitiated in nature: More to know Concerned not Man. Because thou hast done this. unable to transfer The guilt on him. who made him instrument Of mischief. Unseemly to bear rule. thus abashed replied. yet God at last To Satan first in sin his doom applied. and I did eat. judged as then best: And on the Serpent thus his curse let fall. thou art accursed 282 . hadst thou known thyself aright. without delay To judgement he proceeded on the accused Serpent. whose perfection far excelled Hers in all real dignity? Adorned She was indeed. what is this which thou hast done? To whom sad Eve. Though in mysterious terms. though brute. he thus to Eve in few. So having said. to attract Thy love. The Serpent me beguiled. and lovely. (since he no further knew) Nor altered his offence. Say. as under government well seemed. not thy subjection. yet not before her Judge Bold or loquacious. justly then accursed.

rising from his grave Spoiled Principalities and Powers. and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. Thy sorrow I will greatly multiply By thy conception. The realm itself of Satan. and between thine and her seed. down from Heaven. Thorns also and thistles it shall bring thee forth Unbid. Upon thy belly groveling thou shalt go. On Adam last thus judgement he pronounced. And dust shall eat all the days of thy life. Her seed shall bruise thy head.Above all cattle. then. all the days of thy life. saying. triumphed In open show. And eaten of the tree. Prince of the air. Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife. Between thee and the woman I will put Enmity. And to the Woman thus his sentence turned. thou in sorrow Shalt eat thereof. Even he. children thou shalt bring In sorrow forth. Thou shalt not eat thereof: Cursed is the ground for thy sake. long usurped. Captivity led captive through the air. thou bruise his heel. who now foretold his fatal bruise. Saw Satan fall. second Eve. Son of Mary. then verified When Jesus. 283 . and. he over thee shall rule. concerning which I charged thee. like lightning. each beast of the field. Whom he shall tread at last under our feet. So spake this oracle. and to thy husband’s will Thine shall submit. with ascension bright.

and shalt to dust return. belching outrageous flame Far into Chaos. To him with swift ascent he up returned. since the Fiend passed through. denounced that day. he clad Their nakedness with skins of beasts. In counterview within the gates.In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. As when he washed his servants feet. For dust thou art. disdained not to begin Thenceforth the form of servant to assume. covered from his Father’s sight. with his robe of righteousness. Or as the snake with youthful coat repaid. As father of his family. Arraying. both Judge and Saviour sent. ere thus was sinned and judged on Earth. 15 Mean while. or slain. then. Removed far off. Into his blissful bosom reassumed In glory. as of old. though all-knowing. Nor he their outward only with the skins Of beasts. So judged he Man. know thy birth. to him appeased All. so now. And thought not much to clothe his enemies. that now Must suffer change. what had passed with Man Recounted. Within the gates of Hell sat Sin and Death. mixing intercession sweet. but inward nakedness. for thou Out of the ground wast taken. pitying how they stood Before him naked to the air. And the instant stroke of death. much more. Opprobrious. that now Stood open wide. 284 . Till thou return unto the ground.

For Death from Sin no power can separate. to found a path Over this main from Hell to that new world. Thou. who thus now to Death began. let us try Adventurous work. Methinks I feel new strength within me rise. 285 . Easing their passage hence. with fury driven By his avengers. Nor can I miss the way. Wings growing. or some connatural force. But. Where Satan now prevails. thrives In other worlds. Ere this he had returned. things of like kind. Or sympathy. why sit we here each other viewing Idly. yet to thy power and mine Not unagreeable. must with me along. whatever draws me on. so strongly drawn By this new-felt attraction and instinct. for intercourse. as their lot shall lead. our great author. if mishap. and dominion given me large Beyond this deep. and happier seat provides For us. since no place like this Can fit his punishment. Or transmigration. my shade Inseparable. impervious. his offspring dear? It cannot be But that success attends him. Powerful at greatest distance to unite. a monument Of merit high to all the infernal host. lest the difficulty of passing back Stay his return perhaps over this gulf Impassable. With secret amity. while Satan.Sin opening. O Son. By secretest conveyance. or their revenge.

and taste The savour of death from all things there that live: Nor shall I to the work thou enterprisest Be wanting. prey innumerable. as in raging sea Tost up and down. in bloody fight: So scented the grim Feature. the following day. Against the day of battle. Go. So saying. and inclination strong. lured With scent of living carcasses designed For death. nor err The way. I shall not lag behind.Whom thus the meager Shadow answered soon. From each side shoaling towards the mouth of Hell. what they met Solid or slimy. together drive Mountains of ice. 286 . Sagacious of his quarry from so far. into the waste Wide anarchy of Chaos. Flew diverse. come flying. blowing adverse Upon the Cronian sea. The aggregated soil Death with his mace petrifick. though many a league remote. that stop the imagined way Beyond Petsora eastward. such a scent I draw Of carnage. Leads thee. but afford thee equal aid. to the rich Cathaian coast. thou leading. together crouded drove. and with power (their power was great) Hovering upon the waters. cold and dry. whither Fate. As when two polar winds. As when a flock Of ravenous fowl. with delight he snuffed the smell Of mortal change on earth. Where armies lie encamped. Then both from out Hell-gates. and upturned His nostril wide into the murky air. to a field. damp and dark.

to each of these three places led. Smooth. too fast they made And durable! And now in little space The confines met of empyrean Heaven. Deep to the roots of Hell the gathered beach They fastened. his Memnonian palace high. the rest his look Bound with Gorgonian rigour not to move. 16 So. And with Asphaltick slime. and fixed as firm As Delos. floating once. Europe with Asia joined. if great things to small may be compared. and the mole immense wrought on Over the foaming deep high-arched. And of this World. to the outside bare Of this round world: With pins of adamant And chains they made all fast. and. over Hellespont Bridging his way. a ridge of pendant rock. Now had they brought the work by wonderous art Pontifical. 287 . on the left hand. Came to the sea: and. from hence a passage broad. easy. Xerxes. inoffensive. Over the vexed abyss. Hell With long reach interposed. following the track Of Satan to the self-same place where he First lighted from his wing. Forfeit to Death. three several ways In sight. From Susa. down to Hell. And scourged with many a stroke the indignant waves. and landed safe From out of Chaos. joining to the wall Immoveable of this now fenceless world. broad as the gate. a bridge Of length prodigious. the liberty of Greece to yoke.As with a trident. smote.

O Parent. which understood Not instant. unminded slunk Into the wood fast by. changing shape. behold! Satan. saw their shame that sought Vain covertures. that past. but of future time. in likeness of an Angel bright. Thy trophies! which thou viewest as not thine own. and listening where the hapless pair Sat in their sad discourse. and various plaint. Great joy was at their meeting. when. 288 . though in disguise. till Sin. while the sun in Aries rose: Disguised he came. near the foot Of this new wonderous pontifice. fearing. with joy And tidings fraught. thus the silence broke. Betwixt the Centaur and the Scorpion steering His zenith. To Paradise first tending. saw his guileful act By Eve. these are thy magnifick deeds. To observe the sequel. guilty. to Hell he now returned. Long he admiring stood. but when he saw descend The Son of God to judge them. who to meet him came. And at the brink of Chaos. not hoping to escape. his offspring dear. Thence gathered his own doom. returned By night. terrified He fled. but those his children dear Their parent soon discerned. and. his fair Enchanting daughter.And now their way to Earth they had descried. He. and at sight Of that stupendious bridge his joy encreased. though all unweeting. what his wrath Might suddenly inflict. after Eve seduced. but shun The present. unhoped Met. seconded Upon her husband.

Nor this unvoyageable gulf obscure Detain from following thy illustrious track. there let him still victor sway. There didst not. Thou hast achieved our liberty. and overlay. Whom thus the Prince of darkness answered glad. and fully avenged Our foil in Heaven. His quadrature. High proof ye now have given to be the race Of Satan (for I glory in the name. thy virtue hath won What thy hands builded not. Fair Daughter. by his own doom alienated. which by a secret harmony Still moves with thine. Such fatal consequence unites us three! Hell could no longer hold us in our bounds. That thou on earth hadst prospered. the dark abyss. confined Within Hell-gates till now. As battle hath adjudged. Though distant from thee worlds between. and prime architect: For I no sooner in my heart divined. which thy looks Now also evidence. 289 . Or try thee now more dangerous to his throne. And henceforth monarchy with thee divide Of all things. with this thy son. but straight I felt. My heart. yet felt. thy wisdom gained With odds what war hath lost. With this portentous bridge. joined in connexion sweet. thou us impowered To fortify thus far. here thou shalt monarch reign. That I must after thee. from thy orbicular world. and thou Son and Grandchild both.Thou art their author. from this new world Retiring. Thine now is all this world. parted by the empyreal bounds.

one continent Of easy thorough-fare.) Amply have merited of me. and lastly kill. Him first make sure your thrall. one realm. among these numerous orbs. of all The infernal empire. There dwell. thence on the earth Dominion exercise and in the air. To my associate Powers. and reign in bliss. with this glorious work. If your joint power prevail. while I Descend through darkness. them to acquaint With these successes. and be strong! 290 . and with them rejoice. right down to Paradise descend. My substitutes I send ye. go. the affairs of Hell No detriment need fear. Hell and this world. and made one realm. sole lord of all declared. that so near Heaven’s door Triumphal with triumphal act have met. You two this way.Antagonist of Heaven’s Almighty King. and create Plenipotent on earth. Therefore. of matchless might Issuing from me: on your joint vigour now My hold of this new kingdom all depends. Chiefly on Man. on your road with ease. All yours. Through Sin to Death exposed by my exploit. Mine.

planet-struck. Flown to the upper world. or Bactrin Sophi. Wide open and unguarded. the late Heaven-banished host. As when the Tartar from his Russian foe. And with rebounding surge the bars assailed. the rest were all Far to the inland retired. Retires. they with speed Their course through thickest constellations held. And planets. in his retreat To Tauris or Casbeen: So these. and they observed. Appointed to sit there. real eclipse Then suffered. city and proud seat Of Lucifer. And all about found desolate. solicitous what chance Might intercept their emperour sent. reduced in careful watch Round their metropolis. leaves all waste beyond The realm of Aladule. for those. the blasted stars looked wan. had left their charge. and now expecting 291 . By Astracan. while the Grand In council sat. The other way Satan went down The causey to Hell-gate: On either side Disparted Chaos overbuilt exclaimed. over the snowy plains. from the horns Of Turkish crescent.CD 8 1 So saying he dismissed them. Spreading their bane. so he Departing gave command. so by allusion called Of that bright star to Satan paragoned. left desart utmost Hell Many a dark league. That scorned his indignation: Through the gate. There kept their watch the legions. about the walls Of Pandemonium. Satan passed.

and round about him saw unseen: At last. to lead ye forth Triumphant out of this infernal pit Abominable. I call ye. and whom they wished beheld. to our native Heaven Little inferiour. and with like joy Congratulant approached him. Dominations. which. passed. invisible Ascended his high throne. from the search Of foreign worlds: He through the midst unmarked. what suffered. Virtues. Down a while He sat. and declare ye now. Raised from their dark Divan. returned Successful beyond hope. Powers. Princedoms. who with hand Silence. won. and with these words attention. Long were to tell What I have done. and from the door Of that Plutonian hall. or false glitter: All amazed At that so sudden blaze the Stygian throng Bent their aspect. a spacious world. or brighter. For in possession such. clad With what permissive glory since his fall Was left him. Thrones. As Lords. In show plebeian Angel militant Of lowest order. Their mighty Chief returned: loud was the acclaim: Forth rushed in haste the great consulting peers. his fulgent head And shape star-bright appeared. with what pain 292 . under state Of richest texture spread.Each hour their great adventurer. at the upper end Was placed in regal lustre. as from a cloud. the house of woe. not only of right. by my adventure hard With peril great achieved. And dungeon of our tyrant: Now possess. accursed.

Is enmity which he will put between Me and mankind. labour. To Sin and Death a prey. but I Toiled out my uncouth passage. That. with clamorous uproar Protesting Fate supreme. To range in. as over all he should have ruled. vast. I am to bruise his heel. and over Man To rule. when is not set. thereat Offended. he. and all his world. thence how I found The new created world. jealous of their secrets. and to dwell. 293 . but the brute serpent in whose shape Man I deceived: that which to me belongs. me also he hath judged. True is. ye Gods. a fabrick wonderful Of absolute perfection! therein Man Placed in a Paradise. Or much more grievous pain? – Ye have the account Of my performance: What remains. over which By Sin and Death a broad way now is paved. by our exile Made happy: Him by fraud I have seduced From his Creator. forced to ride The untractable abyss. or rather Me not. fiercely opposed My journey strange.Voyaged th’ unreal. and so to us. the more to encrease Your wonder. or alarm. which fame in Heaven Long had foretold. plunged in the womb Of unoriginal Night and Chaos wild. Without our hazard. and. To expedite your glorious march. shall bruise my head: A world who would not purchase with a bruise. unbounded deep Of horrible confusion. worth your laughter! hath given up Both his beloved Man. His seed. with an apple.

(not so thick swarmed once the soil Bedropt with blood of Gorgon. Hydrus. According to his doom: he would have spoke. To fill his ear. and Asp. and Amphisbaena dire. punished in the shape he sinned. His visage drawn he felt to sharp and spare.) but still greatest he the midst. A dismal universal hiss. but not long Had leisure. wondering at himself now more. larger than whom the sun Ingendered in the Pythian vale or slime. when. he wondered. His arms clung to his ribs. to serpents all. and high applause. from innumerable tongues. Reluctant. Where all yet left of that revolted rout. Cerastes horned. till supplanted down he fell A monstrous serpent on his belly prone. contrary. issuing forth to the open field. they all Him followed. as accessories To his bold riot: Dreadful was the din Of hissing through the hall. And Dipsas. the sound Of publick scorn. Now Dragon grown. a while he stood. but in vain. expecting Their universal shout. But hiss for hiss returned with forked tongue To forked tongue. Huge Python. thick swarming now With complicated monsters head and tail.2 But up. a greater power Now ruled him. he hears On all sides. or the isle Ophiusa. and Elops drear. and his power no less he seemed Above the rest still to retain. his legs entwining Each other. 294 . and enter now into full bliss? So having said. Scorpion. for now were all transformed Alike.

the bait of Eve Used by the Tempter: on that prospect strange Their earnest eyes they fixed. could not abstain. in station stood or just array. to work them further woe or shame. like that Which grew in Paradise. sprung up with this their change. down they as fast. But on they rolled in heaps. up the trees Climbing. but taste Deceived. Sublime with expectation when to see In triumph issuing forth their glorious Chief. parched with scalding thirst and hunger fierce. His will who reigns above. fondly thinking to allay Their appetite with gust. laden with fair fruit. but other sight instead! a croud Of ugly serpents. like in punishment. imagining For one forbidden tree a multitude Now risen. They felt themselves. And the dire hiss renewed. what they saw. they. sat thicker than the snaky locks That curled Megaera: greedily they plucked The fruitage fair to sight. which the offended taste 295 . like that which grew Near that bituminous lake where Sodom flamed. This more delusive. for. down their arms. Yet. instead of fruit Chewed bitter ashes. and. not the touch. Down fell both spear and shield. And horrid sympathy.Heaven-fallen. and the dire form Catched. Turned to exploding hiss. by contagion. As in their crime. triumph to shame Cast on themselves from their own mouths. to aggravate Their penance. They saw. now changing. Thus was the applause they meant. Though to delude them sent. horrour on them fell. There stood A grove hard by.

whom they called Ophion. and thyself half starved? 296 . with Eurynome. Thus were they plagued And worn with famine. With hatefullest disrelish writhed their jaws. Once actual. of their purchase got. Unnamed. not as Man Whom they triumphed once lapsed. long and ceaseless hiss. Till their lost shape. With soot and cinders filled. permitted. Sin. there in power before. so oft they fell Into the same illusion. and joy. behind her Death. ere yet Dictaean Jove was born. However. And fabled how the Serpent. undreaded. thence by Saturn driven And Ops. drugged as oft. Hunger and thirst constraining. they resumed.With spattering noise rejected: oft they assayed. though earned With travel difficult. to undergo. and to dwell Habitual habitant. Close following pace for pace. some say. now in body. 3 Mean while in Paradise the hellish pair Too soon arrived. the wide – Encroaching Eve perhaps. had first the rule Of high Olympus. Yearly enjoined. some tradition they dispersed Among the Heathen. for Man seduced. all-conquering Death! What thinkest thou of our empire now. not mounted yet On his pale horse: to whom Sin thus began. Second of Satan sprung. To dash their pride. This annual humbling certain numbered days. not better far Than still at Hell’s dark threshold to have sat watch.

or Paradise. so doth the Prince of Hell And his adherents. all infect. whatever thing The sithe of Time mows down. through the race. which the Almighty seeing. this vast unhide-bound corps. No homely morsels! and. who with eternal famine pine. To me. his looks. Thou therefore on these herbs. From his transcendent seat the Saints among. This said. and fish. And season him thy last and sweetest prey. and for destruction to mature Sooner or later. devour unspared. actions. on each beast next. There best. all too little seems To stuff this maw. in Man residing. and had still Kept in that state. To those bright Orders uttered thus his voice. or unimmortal make All kinds. had not the folly of Man Let in these wasteful furies. they both betook them several ways. Till I. with what heat these dogs of Hell advance To waste and havock yonder world. Feed first. where most with ravine I may meet.Whom thus the Sin-born monster answered soon. Alike is Hell. who impute Folly to me. Both to destroy. though plenteous. His thoughts. and fruits. that with so much ease I suffer them to enter and possess 297 . or Heaven. and fowl. words. and flowers. To whom the incestuous mother thus replied. Which here. See. which I So fair and good created.

The sun 298 . He ended. My Hell-hounds. gave them several charge. and Death. calling forth by name His mighty Angels. Righteous are thy decrees on all thy works. Then Heaven and Earth renewed shall be made pure To sanctity. by whom New Heaven and Earth shall to the ages rise.A place so heavenly. and seal up his ravenous jaws. crammed and gorged. 4 Such was their song. as if. Both Sin. to lick up the draff and filth Which Man’s polluting sin with taint hath shed On what was pure. Who can extenuate thee? Next. and drew them thither. Or down from Heaven descend. conniving. That laugh. As sorted best with present things. Through Chaos hurled. and. til. well-pleasing Son. at last. At random yielded up to their misrule. the curse pronounced on both precedes. as the sound of seas. transported with some fit Of passion. to the Son. And know not that I called. and the heavenly audience loud Sung Halleluiah. nigh burst With sucked and glutted offal. at one sling Of thy victorious arm. obstruct the mouth of Hell For ever. While the Creator. and yawning Grave. seem To gratify my scornful enemies. Through multitude that sung: Just are thy ways. Destined Restorer of mankind. that shall receive no stain: Till then. I to them had quitted all.

Had first his precept so to move. air. Which of them rising with the sun. or falling. and the Scales. except to those Beyond the polar circles. Up to the Tropick Crab: thence down amain By Leo. and the Spartan Twins. As might affect the earth with cold and heat Scarce tolerable. and when to join In synod unbenign. they with labour pushed Oblique the centrick globe: Some say. and from the north to call Decrepit winter. To recompense his distance. so shine. while the low sun. As deep as Capricorn. Of noxious efficacy. from the south to bring Solstitial summer’s heat. In sextile. and opposite. to bring in change Of seasons to each clime. Should prove tempestuous: To the winds they set Their corners. and taught the fixed Their influence malignant when to shower. twice ten degrees and more. To the blanc moon Her office they prescribed. he bid his Angels turn ascanse The poles of earth. else had the spring Perpetual smiled on earth with vernant flowers. and the Virgin. and aspects. square. when with bluster to confound Sea. and trine. to the other five Their planetary motions. to them day Had unbenighted shone. the sun Was bid turn reins from the equinoctial road Like distant breadth to Taurus with the seven Atlantick Sisters. and shore. From the sun’s axle. Some say. in their sight 299 . the thunder when to roll With terrour through the dark aereal hall. Equal in days and nights.

Vapour. Devoured each other. to graze the herb all leaving. and the Samoed shore. Sirocco and Libecchio. and seas upturn. with their lateral noise. among the irrational Death introduced. and hail. rend the woods. thwart of these. With adverse blast upturns them from the south Notus. as fierce. And Thrascias. and not known Or east or west. and Afer black with thunderous clouds From Serraliona. and Argestes loud. turned His course intended. Forth rush the Levant and the Ponent winds. Thus began Outrage from lifeless things. Glared on him passing. And snow. At that tasted fruit The sun. more than now. which Adam saw 300 . Daughter of Sin. as from Thyestean banquet.Had rounded still the horizon. through fierce antipathy: Beast now with beast ’gan war. sideral blast. which had forbid the snow From cold Estotiland. Bursting their brazen dungeon. with countenance grim. and fowl with fowl. And fish with fish. else. Avoided pinching cold and scorching heat? These changes in the Heavens. Boreas. Eurus and Zephyr. and mist. or. and exhalation hot. though sinless. but Discord first. though slow. and stormy gust and flaw. and south as far Beneath Magellan. but fled him. and Caecias. Corrupt and pestilent: Now from the north Of Norumbega. produced Like change on sea and land. nor stood much in awe Of Man. armed with ice. how had the world Inhabited. These were from without The growing miseries.

O fleeting joys Of Paradise. in a troubled sea of passion tost. whom to behold was then my height Of happiness! – Yet well. Is propagated curse. dear bought with lasting woes! Did I request thee. Encrease and multiply. And. once heard Delightfully. but this will not serve: All that I eat or drink.Already in part. as on their natural center. O voice. will curse My head? Ill fare our ancestor impure. if here would end The misery. though hid in gloomiest shade. who now become Accursed. feeling The evil on him brought by me. For this we may thank Adam! but his thanks Shall be the execration: so. but worse felt within. but. of blessed? hide me from the face Of God. 5 O miserable of happy! Is this the end Of this new glorious world. Now death to hear! for what can I encrease. though in their place. or here place 301 . I deserved it. Maker. To sorrow abandoned. and me so late The glory of that glory. On me. but curses on my head? Who of all ages to succeed. Or multiply. or shall beget. Thus to disburden sought with sad complaint. besides Mine own that bide upon me. all from me Shall with a fierce reflux on me redound. and would bear My own deservings. from my clay To mould me Man? did I solicit thee From darkness to promote me. light Heavy.

thy reward was of his grace. That dust I am. Thy punishment then justly is at his Will. Why am I mocked with death. and shall to dust returne: O welcom hour whenever! why delayes His hand to execute what his Decree Fixd on this day? why do I overlive. and reprov’d. when they were propos’d: Thou didst accept them. too late. and be earth Insensible! How glad would lay me down 302 . and of his own To serve him. Desirous to resign and render back All I received. Then cavil the conditions? and though God Made thee without thy leave. by which I was to hold The good I sought not. To the loss of that. wilt thou enjoy the good. for I submit. what if thy Son Prove disobedient. then should have been refusd Those terms whatever. I thus contest. why hast thou added The sense of endless woes? Inexplicable Thy Justice seems. unable to perform Thy terms too hard. his doom is fair. Wherefore didst thou beget me? I sought it not Wouldst thou admit for his contempt of thee That proud excuse? yet him not thy election. God made thee of choice his own.In this delicious garden? As my will Concurred not to my being. yet to say truth. it were but right And equal to reduce me to my dust. But Natural necessity begot. retort. Sufficient penalty. Be it so. and lengthened out To deathless pain? How gladly would I meet Mortality my sentence.

For anger’s sake. 6 Yet one doubt Pursues me still. Lest that pure breath of life. In punished Man.As in my mother’s lap! There I should rest. For though the Lord of all be infinite. then. How can he exercise Wrath without end on Man. Or in some other dismal place. All of me then shall die: let this appease The doubt. in the grave. whom death must end? Can he make deathless death? That were to make Strange contradiction. And sleep secure. By which all causes else. Is his wrath also? Be it. Satisfied never? That were to extend His sentence beyond dust and Nature’s law. no fear of worse To me. which to God himself Impossible is held. But mortal doomed. who knows But I shall die a living death? O thought Horrid. and to my offspring. if true! Yet why? It was but breath Of life that sinned. Will he draw out. finite to infinite. since human reach no further knows. his dreadful voice no more Would thunder in my ears. cannot together perish With this corporeal clod. Man is not so. would torment me With cruel expectation. as argument Of weakness. the spirit of Man Which God inspired. what dies but what had life And sin? The body properly had neither. lest all I cannot die. not of power. to satisfy his rigour. according still 303 .

and incorporate both. how would you bless Me. thus guiltless be condemned. though through mazes.To the reception of their matter. and without me. act. why should all mankind. in me all Posterity stands cursed: Fair patrimony That I must leave ye. heavier than the earth to bear. If guiltless? But from me what can proceed. lead me still But to my own conviction: first and last On me. Forced I absolve: all my evasions vain. both mind and will depraved Not to do only. and leave ye none! So disinherited. But say That death be not one stroke. after all disputes. Than all the world much heavier. alike destroys all hope 304 . but to will the same With me? How can they then acquitted stand In sight of God? Him. Bereaving sense. what thou desirest. as I supposed. – Ay me! that fear Comes thundering back with dreadful revolution On my defenceless head. which I feel begun Both in me. were I able To waste it all myself. as the source and spring Of all corruption. now your curse! Ah. but endless misery From this day onward. Sons! O. though divided With that bad Woman? Thus. me only. and so last To perpetuity. And what thou fearest. And reasonings. So might the wrath! Fond wish! couldst thou support That burden. For one man’s fault. Nor I on my part single. both Death and I Am found eternal. all the blame lights due. Not to the extent of their own sphere. But all corrupt.

and cool. thou Serpent! That name best Befits thee with him leagued. Which to his evil conscience represented All things with double terrour: On the ground Outstretched he lay. and bowers! With other echo late I taught your shades To answer.Of refuge. and concludes thee miserable Beyond all past example and future. as ere Man fell. Justice Divine not hasten to be just? But Death comes not at call. – Whom thus afflicted when sad Eve beheld. since denounced The day of his offence. O woods. Soft words to his fierce passion she assayed: But her with stern regard he thus repelled. with one thrice-acceptable stroke To end me? Shall Truth fail to keep her word. Said he. but now. Why comes not Death. Death as oft accused Of tardy execution. but with black air Accompanied. and oft Cursed his creation. thyself as false 305 . Out of my sight. Wholesome. Through the still night. O Conscience! into what abyss of fears And horrours hast thou driven me. Justice Divine Mends not her slowest pace for prayers or cries. with damps. Desolate where she sat. To Satan only like both crime and doom. dales. approaching nigh. from deep to deeper plunged! 7 Thus Adam to himself lamented loud. and resound far other song. out of which I find no way. O fountains. hillocks. and mild. and dreadful gloom. on the cold ground.

And more that shall befall.And hateful. to warn all creatures from thee Henceforth. Creator wise. Rather than solid virtue. or mistake. as supernumerary To my just number found. and disdained Not to be trusted. by him thou. Or find some other way to generate Mankind? This mischief had not been befallen. create at last This novelty on earth. him overweening To over-reach. Though by the Devil himself. And understood not all was but a show. Fooled and beguiled. Constant. pretended To hellish falshood. 306 . nothing wants. proof against all assaults. with the serpent meeting. from me drawn. as now appears. as Angels. lest that too heavenly form. but such As some misfortune brings him. may show Thy inward fraud. O! why did God. had not thy pride And wandering vanity. when least was safe. More to the part sinister. that peopled highest Heaven With Spirits masculine. without feminine. this fair defect Of nature. mature. and not fill the world at once With Men. innumerable Disturbances on earth through female snares. but. all but a rib Crooked by nature. bent. Like his. imagined wise. Well if thrown out. Rejected my forewarning. longing to be seen. and colour serpentine. And strait conjunction with this sex: for either He never shall find out fit mate. snare them! But for thee I had persisted happy. I by thee To trust thee from my side. but that thy shape.

or. and thus proceeded in her plaint. Whither shall I betake me. On me already lost. Whereon I live. me than thyself 307 . besought His peace. and reverence in my heart I bear thee. Adam! witness Heaven What love sincere. Unhappily deceived! Thy suppliant I beg. 8 Forsake me not thus. bereave me not. As joined in injuries. both joining. He added not. embracing them. but Eve. if she love. or his happiest choice too late Shall meet. Not so repulsed. scarce one short hour perhaps. one enmity Against a foe by doom express assigned us. and houshold peace confound. where subsist? While yet we live. withheld By parents. and unweeting have offended. My only strength and stay: Forlorn of thee. and from her turned. Between us two let there be peace. in this uttermost distress. and clasp thy knees. at his feet Fell humble. and. but shall see her gained By a far worse. That cruel Serpent: On me exercise not Thy hatred for this misery befallen. already linked and wedlock-bound To a fell adversary. thy gentle looks. thy aid. Thy counsel. with tears that ceased not flowing And tresses all disordered.Or whom he wishes most shall seldom gain Through her perverseness. his hate or shame: Which infinite calamity shall cause To human life.

and sole delight. and by me exposed. nor blame Each other. Me. and her lowly plight. Creature so fair his reconcilement seeking. but thou Against God only. But rise. Now at his feet submissive in distress. blamed enough elsewhere. ill able to sustain His full wrath. I to that place Would speed before thee. his aid: As one disarmed. from thy head removed. his life so late. in Adam wrought Commiseration: Soon his heart relented Towards her. me only. that all The sentence. as before. whose thou feelest as yet least part. Unwary. And thus with peaceful words upraised her soon. And to the place of judgement will return. just object of his ire! She ended weeping. Thy frailty and infirmer sex forgiven. Immoveable. I against God and thee. may light On me. who desirest The punishment all on thyself. To me committed. So now of what thou knowest not. whom she had displeased. His counsel. and too desirous. till peace obtained from fault Acknowledged and deplored. – let us no more contend.More miserable! Both have sinned. If prayers Could alter high decrees. but strive 308 . sole cause to thee of all this woe. and be louder heard. And my displeasure bearest so ill. alas! Bear thine own first. That on my head all might be visited. his anger all he lost. There with my cries importune Heaven.

though sharp and sad. Our own begotten. to place Of new acceptance. to augment our pain. if aught I see. Restored by thee. To whom thus Eve. replied. recovering heart. how we may lighten Each other’s burden. to being yet unbegot. yet ere conception to prevent The race unblest. Adam. in our share of woe. by sad experiment I know How little weight my words with thee can find. Or end. from thee I will not hide What thoughts in my unquiet breast are risen. Since this day’s death denounced. yet tolerable. thence by just event Found so unfortunate: Nevertheless. And to our seed (O hapless seed!) derived. That after wretched life must be at last Food for so foul a monster. childless remain: so Death Shall be deceived his glut. the sole contentment of my heart Living or dying. and of easier choice. Childless thou art. vile as I am. A long day’s dying. If care of our descent perplex us most. As in our evils.In offices of love. but a slow-paced evil. in thy power It lies. Will prove no sudden. and with us two 309 . Found so erroneous. and miserable it is To be to others cause of misery. Tending to some relief of our extremes. hopeful to regain Thy love. devoured By Death at last. Which must be born to certain woe. and of our loins to bring Into this cursed world a woeful race.

with such counsel nothing swayed. refutes That excellence thought in thee. and have the power.Be forced to satisfy his ravenous maw. Of many ways to die the shortest choosing. as dyed her cheeks with pale. But self-destruction therefore sought. thy contempt of life and pleasure seems To argue in thee something more sublime And excellent. Before the present object languishing With like desire. than what thy mind contemns. nuptial embraces sweet. both ourselves and seed at once to free From what we fear for both. Then. loving. And with desire to languish without hope. Not thy contempt. but anguish and regret 310 . Eve. 9 But Adam. which would be misery And torment less than none of what we dread. But if thou judge it hard and difficult. let us make short. – or. or vehement despair Broke off the rest: so much of death her thoughts Had entertained. – Let us seek Death. and thus to Eve replied. and implies. to abstain From love’s due rights. supply With our own hands his office on ourselves: Why stand we longer shivering under fears. To better hopes his more attentive mind Labouring had raised. he not found. Destruction with destruction to destroy? – She ended here. Conversing. That show no end but death. looking.

our grand foe. and judged. or childless days Resolved. hath contrived Against us this deceit: To crush his head Would be revenge indeed! which will be lost By death brought on ourselves. which we thought Was meant by death that day. rather. Remember with what mild And gracious temper he both heard. that thy seed shall bruise The Serpent’s head. will not exempt us from the pain We are by doom to pay. in the serpent. so thinking to evade The penalty pronounced. we expected Immediate dissolution. No more be mentioned then of violence Against ourselves. Satan. as utmost end Of misery. So snatched. which methinks I have in view. such acts Of contumacy will provoke the Highest To make death in us live: Then let us seek Some safer resolution. so our foe Shal ’scape his punishment ordained. Reluctance against God and his just yoke Laid on our necks. and savours only Rancour and pride. and wilful barrenness. whom I conjecture. than so To be forestalled. impatience and despite. and we Instead shall double ours upon our heads. much more I fear lest death. Or if thou covet death. That cuts us off from hope. who. Without wrath or reviling. as thou proposest. calling to mind with heed Part of our sentence. piteous amends! unless Be meant.For loss of life and pleasure overloved. doubt not but God Hath wiselier armed his vengeful ire. when lo! to thee 311 .

rude in their shock. unbesought. Which might supply the sun: Such fire to use. hail. pitying while he judged. and. which bids us seek Some better shroud. whose thwart flame. or pushed with winds. rain. some better warmth to cherish Our limbs benummed. ere this diurnal star Leave cold the night. Or. with labour I must earn My bread. by collision of two bodies. driven down Kindles the gummy bark of fir or pine. as late the clouds Justling. what harm? Idleness had been worse. his timely care Hath. begins To show us in this mountain. grind The air attrite to fire. How much more. lest cold Or heat should injure us. And sends a comfortable heat from far. will his ear Be open. and his hands Clothed us unworthy. while the winds Blow moist and keen. My labour will sustain me. ice. if we pray him. He will instruct us praying. And bringing forth. so as we need not fear 312 . soon recompensed with joy. how we his gathered beams Reflected may with matter sere foment. and snow! Which now the sky. provided. and of grace Beseeching him. and his heart to pity incline. shattering the graceful locks Of these fair spreading trees.Pains only in child-bearing were foretold. with various face. Tine the slant lightning. Fruit of thy womb: On me the curse aslope Glanced on the ground. And teach us further by what means to shun The inclement seasons. And what may else be remedy or cure To evils which our own misdeeds have wrought.

Eve’s Lamentation. sent from hearts contrite. prostrate fell Before Him reverent and both confessed. sustained By him with many comforts. sent from hearts contrite in sign Of sorrow unfeigned. but declares that they must no longer abide in Paradise.To pass commodiously this life. than. with tears Watering the ground. and with our sighs the air Frequenting. What better can we do. till we end In dust. sets 313 . prostrate fall Before him reverent. to the place Repairing where he judged us.They forthwith to the place Repairing where He judged them. grace and mercy shone? So spake our father. and pardon beg. in whose look serene When angry most he seemed and most severe. sends Michael with a Band of Cherubim to dispossess them. and humiliation meek Undoubtedly he will relent. and humiliation meek. and turn From his displeasure. but submits: The Angel leads him up to a high Hill. Adam shews to Eve certain ominous signs. Humbly their faults and pardon begged. and there confess Humbly our faults. Adam pleads. in sign Of sorrow unfeigned. What else but favour. with tears Watering the ground. goes out to meet him: the Angel denounces thir departure. but first to reveal to Adam future things: Michael’s coming down. 10 Book XI: The Argument The Son of God presents to his Father the Prayers of our first Parents now repenting. nor Eve Felt less remorse. and intercedes for them: God accepts them. he discerns Michaels approach. penitent. our final rest and native home. and with their sighs the air Frequenting.

to restore The race of mankind drowned. See. which the Spirit of prayer Inspired. repentant stood Praying. and winged for Heaven with speedier flight Than loudest oratory: Yet their port Not of mean suitors. before the shrine Of Themis stood devout. what first-fruits on earth are sprung From thy implanted grace in Man. these sighs And prayers. Father. I thy priest before thee bring. than those 314 . then clad With incense. in lowliest plight. by envious winds Blown vagabond or frustrate: in they passed Dimensionless through heavenly doors. where the golden altar fumed. To Heaven their prayers Flew up. than when the ancient pair In fables old. came in sight Before the Father’s throne: them the glad Son Presenting. from thy seed Sown with contrition in his heart. nor missed the way. 11 Book XI Thus they. that sighs now breathed Unutterable. Fruits of more pleasing savour. for from the mercy-seat above Prevenient grace descending had removed The stony from their hearts. Deucalion and chaste Pyrrha. nor important less Seemed their petition. thus to intercede began. less ancient yet than these.before him in vision what shall happ’n till the Flood. By their great intercessour. which in this golden censer mixed With incense. and made new flesh Regenerate grow instead.

all his works on me. serene. hear his sighs. No gross. And mortal food. All thy request for Man. in me. accepted Son. Good. ingraft. with two fair gifts Created him endowed. gross. as may dispose him best For dissolution wrought by sin. no unharmonious mixture foul. tainted now. to air as gross. all thy request was my decree: But. longer in that Paradise to dwell. ere fallen From innocence.Which. To whom the Father. and purge him off. As a distemper. Unskilful with what words to pray. I. with happiness. and for these my death shall pay. Eject him. at least his days Numbered. his doom. me. that first Distempered all things. The law I gave to Nature him forbids: Those pure immortal elements. 315 . without cloud. though mute. Obtain.) To better life shall yield him: where with me All my redeemed may dwell in joy and bliss. (which I To mitigate thus plead. Accept me. all the trees Of Paradise could have produced. till death. Made one with me. let me Interpret for him. and of incorrupt Corrupted. not to reverse. or not good. at first. though sad. Now therefore. my merit those Shall perfect. his advocate And propitiation. from these receive The smell of peace toward mankind: let him live Before thee reconciled. and. his own hand manuring. bend thine ear To supplication. that know. as I with thee am one.

And took their seats. after life. though firm. like one of us Man is become To know both good and evil. 12 O Sons. but let him boast His knowledge of good lost. Tried in sharp tribulation. He ended. stood more confirmed. and perhaps once more To sound at general doom. and. The angelick blast Filled all the regions: from their blisful bowers Of amarantine shade. and refined By faith and faithful works.And immortality: that fondly lost. And in their state. how with mankind I proceed. Resigns him up with Heaven and Earth renewed. Through Heaven’s wide bounds: from them I will not hide My judgements. By the waters of life. heard in Oreb since perhaps When God descended. As how with peccant Angels late they saw. and the Son gave signal high To the bright minister that watched. till from his throne supreme The Almighty thus pronounced his sovran will. 316 . to second life. and evil got. resorting to the summons high. he blew His trumpet. fountain or spring. Waked in the renovation of the just. since his taste Of that defended fruit. But let us call to synod all the Blest. the sons of light Hasted. This other served but to eternize woe. where’er they sat In fellowships of joy. Till I provided death: so death becomes His final remedy.

Self-left. and from the Paradise of God Without remorse drive out the sinful pair. He sorrows now. and evil not at all. and prays contrite. If patiently thy bidding they obey. Or in behalf of Man. and with tears Bewailing their excess. or to invade Vacant possession. lest they faint At the sad sentence rigorously urged. Take to thee from among the Cherubim Thy choice of flaming warriours. though sorrowing. From hallowed ground the unholy. some new trouble raise: Haste thee.) all terrour hide. And send him from the garden forth to till The ground whence he was taken. yet in peace: And on the east side of the garden place. Michael. dream at least to live For ever. and to their progeny. So send them forth. reveal To Adam what shall come in future days. My motions in him.Happier! had it sufficed him to have known Good by itself. and denounce To them. As I shall thee enlighten. intermix My covenant in the Woman’s seed renewed. to remove him I decree. fitter soil. from thence Perpetual banishment. Yet. how variable and vain. longer than they move. And live for ever. lest the Fiend. repents. (For I behold them softened. Lest therefore his now bolder hand Reach also of the tree of life. and eat. 317 . this my behest have thou in charge. Dismiss them not disconsolate. His heart I know.

Hard to belief may seem. the pastoral reed Of Hermes. like a double Janus. and all my trees their prey. Cherubick watch. Which thus to Eve his welcome words renewed. With whose stolen fruit Man once more to delude. and more wakeful than to drouse. or to incline his will. Eve. To re-salute the world with sacred light. Leucothea waked. all their shape Spangled with eyes more numerous than those Of Argus. that all The good which we enjoy from Heaven descends. easily may faith admit. all approach far off to fright. yet this will prayer Or one short sigh of human breath. and of a sword the flame Wide-waving.Where entrance up from Eden easiest climbs. or his opiate rod. Mean while. But. but with fear yet linked. and the arch-angelick Power prepared For swift descent. that from us aught should ascend to Heaven So prevalent as to concern the mind Of God high-blest. and found Strength added from above. and with fresh dews imbalmed The earth. with him the cohort bright Of watchful Cherubim: four faces each Had. For since I sought 318 . when Adam and first matron Eve Had ended now their orisons. And guard all passage to the tree of life: Lest Paradise a receptacle prove To Spirits foul. He ceased. new hope to spring Out of despair. joy. upborne Even to the seat of God. Charmed with Arcadian pipe.

and all things live for Man. Ill-worthy I such title should belong To me transgressour. that thy seed shall bruise our foe. peace returned Home to my breast. to me reproach Rather belongs. and we shall live. That I. distrust. while here we dwell. To whom thus Eve with sad demeanour meek. next favourable thou. I never from thy side henceforth to stray. But the field To labour calls us. and before him humbled all my heart. who. All unconcerned with our unrest. till day droop. for thee ordained A help. yet now Assures me that the bitterness of death Is past. mother of all mankind.By prayer the offended Deity to appease. What can be toilsome in these pleasant walks? 319 . for see! the morn. Which. became thy snare. now with sweat imposed. Whence hail to thee. who first brought death on all. Bending his ear. Far other name deserving. then not minded in dismay. am graced The source of life. Kneeled. Mother of all things living. Methought I saw him placable and mild. Where’er our day’s work lies. Though after sleepless night. Eve rightly called. and to my memory His promise. though now enjoined Laborious. begins Her rosy progress smiling: let us forth. Who highly thus to entitle me vouchsaf’st. and all dispraise: But infinite in pardon was my Judge. persuasion in me grew That I was heard with favour. since by thee Man is to live.

because from death released Some days: how long. air. haply too secure. so wished much humbled Eve. hart and hind. that draws O’er the blue firmament a radiant white. and o’er the ground. After short blush of morn. Goodliest of all the forest. that we are dust. and what till then our life. shows Forerunners of his purpose. O Eve. And thither must return. and morning-light More orient in yon western cloud. Which Heaven. stooped from his aery tour. One way the self-same hour? why in the east Darkness ere day’s mid-course. or to warn Us. and with his eye the chase Pursuing.Here let us live. Direct to the eastern gate was bent their flight. though in fallen state. of our discharge From penalty. some further change awaits us nigh. but Fate Subscribed not: Nature first gave signs. pursued a gentle brace. And slow descends with something heavenly fraught? 320 . beast. air suddenly eclipsed. First hunter then. Who knows? or more than this. 13 So spake. not unmoved. content. Two birds of gayest plume before him drove. by these mute signs in Nature. nigh in her sight The bird of Jove. Down from a hill the beast that reigns in woods. Adam observed. and be no more? Why else this double object in our sight Of flight pursued in the air. to Eve thus spake. impressed On bird.

and on a hill made halt. thus spake. who to surprise One man. The princely Hierarch In their bright stand there left his Powers. That I should fear. With reverence I must meet. whom not to offend. covered with a camp fire. for by this the heavenly bands Down from a sky of jasper lighted now In Paradise. to seise Possession of the garden. had levied war. he alone. or impose New laws to be observed. While the great visitant approached. 321 . and thou retire. One of the heavenly host. took his way. where he saw The field pavilioned with his guardians bright. had not doubt And carnal fear that day dimmed Adam’s eye. From yonder blazing cloud that veils the hill. such majesty Invests him coming! yet not terrible. None of the meanest. Not unperceived of Adam. But solemn and sublime. who to Eve. Against the Syrian king. which perhaps Of us will soon determine. War unproclaimed. Nor that. As Raphael. A glorious apparition. for I descry. and. by his gait. assassin-like. some great Potentate Or of the Thrones above. nor sociably mild. now expect great tidings.He erred not. To find where Adam sheltered. when the Angels met Jacob in Mahanaim. Eve. Not that more glorious. which on the flaming mount appeared In Dothan. that I should much confide.

Adam. from his state Inclined not. Adam bowed low. His starry helm unbuckled showed him prime In manhood where youth ended. Iris had dipt the woof. over his lucid arms A military vest of purple flowed. Heaven’s high behest no preface needs: Sufficient that thy prayers are heard. but his coming thus declared. he. but as man Clad to meet man. 322 . or the grain Of Sarra. by his side. with audible lament Discovered soon the place of her retire. And send thee from the garden forth to till The ground whence thou wast taken. That all his senses bound. Not in his shape celestial. fitter soil. and in his hand the spear. Livelier than Meliboean. appeased. who unseen Yet all had heard. and Death. Eve. kingly. Then due by sentence when thou didst transgress. He added not. And one bad act with many deeds well done Mayest cover: Well may then thy Lord. worn by kings and heroes old In time of truce.He ended: and the Arch-Angel soon drew nigh. wherein thou mayest repent. As in a glistering zodiack. Defeated of his seisure many days Given thee of grace. for Adam at the news Heart-struck with chilling gripe of sorrow stood. But longer in this Paradise to dwell Permits not: to remove thee I am come. Redeem thee quite from Death’s rapacious claim. Satan’s dire dread. hung the sword.

worse than of Death! Must I thus leave thee. Eve. and whither wander down Into a lower world.14 O unexpected stroke. whether among the Thrones. think there thy native soil. nuptial bower! by me adorned With what to sight or smell was sweet! from thee How shall I part. with thee goes Thy husband. O flowers. or named 323 . and my last At even. and his scattered spirits returned. him to follow thou art bound. but patiently resign What justly thou hast lost. Lament not. on that which is not thine: Thy going is not lonely. Adam. Thus over-fond. To Michael thus his humble words addressed. Paradise? thus leave Thee. My early visitation. That never will in other climate grow. accustomed to immortal fruits? Whom thus the Angel interrupted mild. native soil! these happy walks and shades. by this from the cold sudden damp Recovering. or rank Your tribes. Where he abides. to this obscure And wild? how shall we breathe in other air Less pure. Quiet though sad. nor set thy heart. and gave ye names! Who now shall rear ye to the sun. Fit haunt of Gods? where I had hope to spend. and water from the ambrosial fount? Thee lastly. Celestial. which I bred up with tender hand From the first opening bud. the respite of that day That must be mortal to us both.

and to my sons relate. This most afflicts me. And in performing end us. and desolate. Blown stifling back on him that breathes it forth: Therefore to his great bidding I submit. for such of shape may seem Prince above princes! gently hast thou told Thy message. in memory. what besides Of sorrow. which might else in telling wound. deprived His blessed countenance: Here I could frequent With worship place by place where he vouchsafed Presence Divine. and pile up every stone lustre from the brook. among these pines his voice ‘I heard. if by prayer Incessant I could hope to change the will Of Him who all things can. and only consolation left Familiar to our eyes! all places else Inhospitable appear. Nor knowing us.Of them the highest. under this tree ‘Stood visible. here with him at this fountain talked: So Of Of Or many grateful altars I would rear grassy turf. ‘On this mount he appeared. that. Our frailty can sustain. Departure from this happy place. and dejection. I would not cease To weary him with my assiduous cries: But prayer against his absolute decree No more avails than breath against the wind. thy tidings bring. our sweet Recess. and thereon 324 . departing hence. and despair. monument to ages. As from his face I shall be hid. nor known: And.

as here. and will be found alike Present. I now Gladly behold though but his utmost skirts Of glory. sea. 15 But this pre-eminence thou hast lost. To whom thus Michael with regard benign. and had hither come From all the ends of the earth. and of his presence many a sign Still following thee. or Eden: this had been Perhaps thy capital seat. Which that thou mayest believe. or foot-step trace? For though I fled him angry. Fomented by his virtual power and warmed: All the earth he gave thee to possess and rule. and flowers: In yonder nether world where shall I seek His bright appearances. to celebrate And reverence thee. his Omnipresence fills Land. God is. and far off his steps adore. No despicable gift. and air. thou knowest Heaven his. still compassing thee round With goodness and paternal love. their great progenitor. surmise not then His presence to these narrow bounds confined Of Paradise. and every kind that lives. brought down To dwell on even ground now with thy sons: Yet doubt not but in valley. from whence had spread All generations. Not this rock only. his face Express. yet recalled To life prolonged and promised race. and be confirmed 325 . and in plain. and of his steps the track divine. and fruits. and all the Earth. Adam.Offer sweet-smelling gums.

from whose top The hemisphere of earth. arming to overcome By suffering. I am sent To show thee what shall come in future days To thee. safe Guide. know. and to the hand of Heaven submit. To show him all Earth’s kingdoms. Stretched out to amplest reach of prospect lay. To whom thus Adam gratefully replied. His eye might there command wherever stood City of old or modern fame. It was a hill. I follow thee. for different cause. nor wider looking round. in the wilderness. If so I may attain. equally inured By moderation either state to bear. in clearest ken. Ascend. the seat 326 . and earn rest from labour won. thereby to learn True patience. Whereon. to the evil turn My obvious breast. and best prepared endure Thy mortal passage when it comes. let Eve (for I have drenched her eyes) Here sleep below. while thou to foresight wakest. Prosperous or adverse: so shalt thou lead Safest thy life. the Tempter set Our second Adam. Of Paradise the highest. supernal grace contending With sinfulness of men. – So both ascend In the visions of God. and to thy offspring: good with bad Expect to hear. However chastening. while she to life was formed. and to temper joy with fear And pious sorrow.Ere thou from hence depart. – Ascend This hill. As once thou sleptst. Not higher that hill. and their glory. the path Thou leadest me.

Down to the golden Chersonese. the seat of Montezume. and Quiloa. Turchestan-born. Even to the inmost seat of mental sight. Which that false fruit that promised clearer sight Had bred. and Angola farthest south. thought Ophir. and yet unspoiled Guiana. whose great city Geryon’s sons Call El Dorado. Fez and Sus. the richer seat Of Atabalipa. and Melind. And Samarchand by Oxus. And Sofala. then purged with euphrasy and rue The visual nerve. Temir’s throne. So deep the power of these ingredients pierced. And Cusco in Peru. from the destined walls Of Cambalu. On Europe thence. and where Rome was to sway The world: in spirit perhaps he also saw Rich Mexico. nor could his eye not ken The empire of Negus to his utmost port Ercoco. 327 . Morocco. and Tremisen.Of mightiest empire. Or thence from Niger flood to Atlas mount The kingdoms of Almansor. seat of Cathaian Can. or where The Persian in Ecbatan sat. And from the well of life three drops instilled. for he had much to see. or where the Russian Ksar In Mosco. To Paquin of Sinaean kings. and thence To Agra and Lahor of great Mogul. and Algiers. and the less maritim kings Mombaza. to the realm Of Congo. or the Sultan in Bizance. or since In Hispahan. But to nobler sights Michael from Adam’s eyes the film removed.

and. of grassy sord. Part arable and tilth. 328 . a shepherd next. and first behold The effects. nor with the snake conspired. Choicest and best. for his was not sincere. Whereat he inly raged. now enforced to close his eyes. as they talked. The other’s not. and his attention thus recalled. and. and all due rights performed: His offering soon propitious fire from Heaven Consumed with nimble glance. whereon were sheaves New reaped. 16 But him the gentle Angel by the hand Soon raised. to bring forth more violent deeds. I’ the midst an altar as the land-mark stood. who never touched The excepted tree. laid The inwards and their fat. deadly pale. and beheld a field. he fell. More meek. and all his spirits became entranced. Adam. and grateful steam. Unculled. and the yellow sheaf. His eyes he opened.That Adam. now ope thine eyes. which thy original crime hath wrought In some to spring from thee. the other part sheep-walks and folds. sacrificing. as came to hand. Rustick. Nor sinned thy sin. yet from that sin derive Corruption. Smote him into the midriff with a stone That beat out life. with incense strowed. came with the firstlings of his flock. the green ear. On the cleft wood. then. Sunk down. thither anon A sweaty reaper from his tillage brought First fruits.

though here thou see him die. Rolling in dust and gore. foul and ugly to behold. Some. yet to sense More terrible at the entrance. by violent stroke shall die. O Teacher. Horrid to think. and for the cause! But have I now seen Death? Is this the way I must return to native dust? O sight Of terrour. some great mischief hath befallen To that meek man. the unjust the just hath slain. than within. he also moved. Adam. For envy that his brother’s offering found From Heaven acceptance. and many are the ways that lead To his grim cave. Is piety thus and pure devotion paid? To whom Michael thus. Death thou hast seen In his first shape on Man. These two are brethren. To which our sire. By fire. of which a monstrous crew 329 . and thus in haste to the Angel cried. but many shapes Of Death. how horrible to feel! To whom thus Michael. who well had sacrificed. and to come Out of thy loins. all dismal. Lose no reward. which on the earth shall bring Diseases dire. replied. as thou sawest. flood. approved.Groaned out his soul with gushing blood effused. but the bloody fact Will be avenged. and the other’s faith. Alas! both for the deed. famine. Much at that sight was Adam in his heart Dismayed. by intemperance more In meats and drinks.

Before thee shall appear. that thou mayest know What misery the inabstinence of Eve Shall bring on Men. 330 .

scarce recovering words. to what fall Degraded. Marasmus. And over them triumphant Death his dart Shook. Convulsions. moaping melancholy. And moon-struck madness. Though not of woman born. Dire was the tossing. and final hope. Why is life given To be thus wrested from us? rather.CD 9 1 Immediately a place Before his eyes appeared. and wide-wasting pestilence. but delayed to strike. Sight so deform what heart of rock could long Dry-eyed behold? Adam could not. dark. but wept. A lazar-house it seemed. sad. and asthmas. O miserable mankind. all maladies Of ghastly spasm. And. if we knew What we receive. or racking torture. and gave him up to tears A space. Despair Tended the sick busiest from couch to couch. noisome. colick-pangs. as their chief good. qualms Of heart-sick agony. Demoniack phrenzy. Dropsies. all feverous kinds. deep the groans. epilepsies. compassion quelled His best of man. wherein were laid Numbers of all diseased. why Obtruded on us thus? who. his plaint renewed. joint-racking rheums. pining atrophy. fierce catarrhs. though oft invoked With vows. to what wretched state reserved! Better end here unborn. Intestine stone and ulcer. would either not accept 331 . till firmer thoughts restrained excess.

Retaining still divine similitude In part. said Michael. In what thou eatest and drinkest. but their own. a brutish vice. While they pervert pure Nature’s healthful rules To loathsome sickness. seeking from thence Due nourishment. or soon beg to lay it down. if thou well observe The rule of Not too much. Therefore so abject is their punishment. Disfiguring not God’s likeness. But is there yet no other way. not gluttonous delight. and mix with our connatural dust? There is. said Adam. Till many years over thy head return: 332 . Glad to be so dismissed in peace. and submit. To such unsightly sufferings be debased Under inhuman pains? Why should not Man. by temperance taught. exempt? Their Maker’s image. for his Maker’s image sake. though faulty since. And. Or if his likeness.Life offered. how we may come To death. since they God’s image did not reverence in themselves. worthily. when themselves they vilified To serve ungoverned Appetite. Inductive mainly to the sin of Eve. I yield it just. and took His image whom they served. created once So goodly and erect. then Forsook them. from such deformities be free. answered Michael. Can thus The image of God in Man. by themselves defaced. besides These painful passages.

thy strength. was seen. for the air of youth. nor hate. Henceforth I fly not death. others.So mayest thou live. low and high. of harp and organ. not harshly plucked. by some. till. but then. To whom our ancestor. how long. thou drop Into thy mother’s lap. how I may be quit. his volant touch. who moved Their stops and chords. Instinct through all proportions. which will change To withered. all taste of pleasure must forego. for death mature: This is Old Age. permit to Heaven: And now prepare thee for another sight. weak. and saw a spacious plain. 333 . thy senses then. and last consume The balm of life. To what thou hast. like ripe fruit. and. 2 He looked. or short. thou must outlive Thy youth. Was heard. and. Which I must keep till my appointed day Of rendering up. and patiently attend My dissolution. bent rather. Hopeful and cheerful. Nor love thy life. whence the sound Of instruments. Obtuse. and gray. thy beauty. but what thou livest Live well. in thy blood will reign A melancholy damp of cold and dry To weigh thy spirits down. whereon Were tents of various hue. or be with ease Gathered. that made melodious chime. nor would prolong Life much. Fairest and easiest. Michael replied. of this cumbrous charge. were herds Of cattle grazing.

Such happy interview. eyed them. then. appeared.Fled and pursued transverse the resonant fugue. songs. 334 . behold! A bevy of fair women. flowers. Down to the plain descended. which might preserve Freedom and peace to Men. to the harp they sung Soft amorous ditties. nor those things last. then. all in heat They light the nuptial torch. till the evening-star. After these. a different sort From the high neighbouring hills. Love’s harbinger. from which he formed First his own tools. two massy clods of iron and brass Had melted. Down to the veins of earth. at the forge Labouring. and all their study bent To worship God aright. and in dance came on: The men. and let their eyes Rove without rein. till. garlands. they on the plain Long had not walked. though grave. what might else be wrought Fusil or graven in metal. richly gay In gems and wanton dress.) the liquid ore he drained Into fit moulds prepared. and fair event Of love and youth not lost. or whether washed by stream From underground. thence gliding hot To some cave’s mouth. (whether found where casual fire Had wasted woods on mountain or in vale. they liked. which was their seat. But on the hither side. in the amorous net Fast caught. when from the tents. In other part stood one who. and bid invoke Hymen. and know his works Not hid. then first to marriage rites invoked: With feast and musick all the tents resound. by their guise Just men they seemed. And now of love they treat. and each his liking chose.

Bred only and completed to the taste Of lustful appetence. Those tents thou sawest so pleasant. to nobler end Holy and pure.And charming symphonies. Unmindful of their Maker. Those were of hate and death. so smooth. For that fair female troop thou sawest. prime Angel blest. Created. Yet empty of all good wherein consists Woman’s domestick honour and chief praise. than those two past. wherein shall dwell his race Who slew his brother. all their fame Ignobly. as thou art. that seemed Of Goddesses. but they his gifts acknowledged none. to dance. Yet they a beauteous offspring shall beget. inventers rare. which he thus expressed. though his Spirit Taught them. to the trains and to the smiles 335 . whose lives Religious titled them the sons of God. soon inclined to admit delight. attacked the heart Of Adam. Much better seems this vision. to sing. True opener of mine eyes. or pain much worse. conformity divine. To whom thus Michael. though to nature seeming meet. Here Nature seems fulfilled in all her ends. The bent of nature. Shall yield up all their virtue. To dress. were the tents Of wickedness. and troll the tongue. so gay. Judge not what is best By pleasure. so blithe. and more hope Of peaceful days portends. studious they appear Of arts that polish life. and roll the eye: To these that sober race of men.

of short joy bereft. From Man’s effeminate slackness it begins. Part wield their arms. fair oxen and fair kine. should turn aside to tread Paths indirect. or fleecy flock. Their booty. and superiour gifts received. who to live well Entered so fair. O pity and shame. Concourse in arms. But call in aid. and laugh. fierce faces threatening war. To whom thus Adam. 3 He looked. 336 . Erelong to swim at large. from Woman to begin. who should better hold his place By wisdom. Ewes and their bleating lambs over the plain. But now prepare thee for another scene. nor idly mustering stood. which makes a bloody fray. or in the mid way faint! But still I see the tenour of Man’s woe Holds on the same. and rural works between. and now swim in joy. scarce with life the shepherds fly. Said the Angel. Cities of men with lofty gates and towers. With cruel tournament the squadrons join. Single or in array of battle ranged Both horse and foot. One way a band select from forage drives A herd of beeves.Of these fair atheists. Giants of mighty bone and bold emprise. towns. and saw wide territory spread Before him. that they. part curb the foaming steed. for which The world erelong a world of tears must weep. From a fat meadow ground.

Through all the plain. in the city-gates. but soon. In other part the sceptered heralds call To council. These are the product 337 . Of justice. Assemble. and to his guide Lamenting turned full sad. and refuge none was found. Had not a cloud descending snatched him thence Unseen amid the throng: so violence Proceeded. of religion. till at last. and oppression. and gigantick deeds. and harangues are heard. stones. by battery. Adam was all in tears. Assaulting. and multiply Ten thousandfold the sin of him who slew His brother: for of whom such massacre Make they. encamped. and had seized with violent hands. men of men But who was that just man. O! what are these. and sword-law. truth. others from the wall defend With dart and javelin. spake much of right and wrong. anon Gray-headed men and grave. scale. And judgement from above: him old and young Exploded. whom had not Heaven Rescued. Death’s ministers. with warriours mixed. and mine. In factious opposition. On each hand slaughter. eminent In wise deport. not men? who thus deal death Inhumanly to men. now scattered lies With carcasses and arms the ensanguined field. had in his righteousness been lost? To whom thus Michael.Where cattle pastured late. Of middle age one rising. and peace. Deserted: Others to a city strong Lay siege. and sulphurous fire. but of their brethren.

Thus fame shall be achieved. For in those days might only shall be admired. therefore so beset With foes. and saw the face of things quite changed. 4 He looked. by imprudence mixed. And utter odious truth. And valour and heroick virtue called. Produce prodigious births of body or mind.Of those ill-mated marriages thou sawest. who of themselves Abhor to join. to show thee what reward Awaits the good. To overcome in battle. Where good with bad were matched. whom thou beheldst The only righteous in a world preverse. Exempt from death. The brazen throat of war had ceased to roar. and sons of Gods. the seventh from thee. him the Most High Rapt in a balmy cloud with winged steeds Did. and bring home spoils with infinite Man-slaughter. that God would come To judge them with his Saints. But he. Gods. renown on earth. shall be held the highest pitch Of human glory. Which now direct thine eyes and soon behold. and plagues of men. and for glory done Of triumph. as thou sawest. receive. to walk with God High in salvation and the climes of bliss. Such were these giants. And therefore hated. 338 . in silence hid. Destroyers rightlier called. the rest what punishment. and subdue Nations. and. And what most merits fame. men of high renown. to be styled great conquerours Patrons of mankind. for daring single to be just.

all the clouds together drove From under Heaven. he ceased Contending. and breadth. Marrying or prostituting. under judgements imminent: But all in vain: which when he saw. Then. Mean while the south-wind rose. To luxury and riot. and exhalation dusk and moist. and height. as befel. with black wings Wide-hovering. For man and beast: when lo. a wonder strange! Of every beast. the hills to their supply Vapour. Measured by cubit. and of provisions laid in large. and to them preached Conversion and repentance. as to souls In prison. feast and dance. and pairs.All now was turned to jollity and game. Smeared round with pitch. Began to build a vessel of huge bulk. Rape or adultery. he oft Frequented their assemblies. Sent up amain. and. where passing fair Allured them. Came sevens. Triumphs or festivals. and removed his tents far off. and God made fast the door. And testified against their ways. and now the thickened sky Like a dark cieling stood. At length a reverend sire among them came. With their four wives. And of their doings great dislike declared. and entered in as taught Their order: last the sire and his three sons. till the earth No more was seen: the floating vessel swum 339 . down rushed the rain Impetuous. and bird. whereso met. and insect small. and in the side a door Contrived. from the mountain hewing timber tall. and continued. thence from cups to civil broils. length.

each day’s lot Enough to bear. in one small bottom swum imbarked. Of tears and sorrow a flood. and secure with beaked prow Rode tilting o’er the waves. end so sad. 340 . And sunk thee as thy sons. Though comfortless. All left.Uplifted. by my foreknowledge gaining birth Abortive. How didst thou grieve then. And scarce to the Angel utter’dst thus thy plaint. O visions ill foreseen! Better had I Lived ignorant of future! so had borne My part of evil only. so numerous late. sea-monsters whelped And stabled. gently reared By the Angel. all in view destroyed at once. Where luxury late reigned. Adam. on thy feet thou stoodest at last. to behold The end of all thy offspring. evil he may sure. to torment me ere their being. With thought that they must be. Depopulation! Thee another flood. and them with all their pomp Deep under water rolled. that were dispensed The burden of many ages. of mankind. Grievous to bear: but that care now is past. thee also drowned. those now. Let no man seek Henceforth to be foretold. what shall befall Him or his children. sea covered sea. Sea without shore. as when a father mourns His children. all dwellings else Flood overwhelmed. and in their palaces. till. And he the future evil shall no less In apprehension than in substance feel. on me light At once. Which neither his foreknowing can prevent.

and achieved thereby Fame in the world. How comes it thus? unfold. Shall. Wandering that watery desart: I had hope. and rich prey. peace would have crowned With length of happy days the race of Man. from whom their piety feigned In sharp contest of battle found no aid Against invaders. and enslaved by war. on what their lords Shall leave them to enjoy. till wantonness and pride Raise out of friendship hostile deeds in peace. for now I see Peace to corrupt no less than war to waste. and lust. and sloth. therefore. that temperance may be tried: 341 . Thenceforth shall practice how to live secure. Surfeit.Man is not whom to warn: those few escaped Famine and anguish will at last consume. and war on earth. Worldly or dissolute. ease. All would have then gone well. Who. When violence was ceased. having spilt much blood. The conquered also. are they First seen in acts of prowess eminent And great exploits. all virtue lose And fear of God. but of true virtue void. high titles. and done much wast Subduing nations. celestial Guide. And whether here the race of Man will end. for the earth shall bear More than enough. Those. But I was far deceived. cooled in zeal. Shall change their course to pleasure. with their freedom lost. whom last thou sawest In triumph and luxurious wealth. 5 To whom thus Michael.

and orcs. with them of man and beast Select for life. shall heave the ocean to usurp Beyond all bounds. With all his verdure spoiled. but all the cataracts Of Heaven set open on the Earth shall pour Rain. from amidst A world devote to universal wrack. custom.So all shall turn degenerate. as thou beheldst. To save himself. And sheltered round. he of their wicked ways Shall them admonish. Against allurement. Justice and temperance. denouncing wrath to come On their impenitence. and a world Offended: fearless of reproach and scorn. truth and faith. till inundation rise Above the highest hills: Then shall this mount Of Paradise by might of waves be moved Out of his place. No sooner he. One man except. and houshold. and before them set The paths of righteousness. by his command Shall build a wonderous ark. and trees adrift. shall in the ark be lodged. and sea-mews’ clang: To teach thee that God attributes to place No sanctity. Or violence. Broke up. And there take root an island salt and bare. but of God observed The one just man alive. against example good. Down the great river to the opening gulf. how much more safe And full of peace. the only son of light In a dark age. and shall return Of them derided. pushed by the horned flood. The haunt of seals. forgot. all fountains of the deep. if none be thither brought 342 . all depraved. day and night.

and saw the ark hull on the flood. 343 . As after thirst. in his bill An olive-leaf he brings. that stole With soft foot towards the deep. and of the fresh wave largely drew. Towards the retreating sea. blowing dry. pacifick sign: Anon dry ground appears. and from his ark The ancient sire descends. which made their flowing shrink From standing lake to tripping ebb. that. appear. Forthwith from out the ark a raven flies. and in the cloud a bow Conspicuous with three listed colours gay. And after him. who now had stopt His sluces. or therein dwell. and eyes devout. And now. whereon his foot may light: The second time returning. for the clouds were fled. And the clear sun on his wide watery glass Gazed hot. Wrinkled the face of deluge. Then with uplifted hands. the surer messenger.By men who there frequent. behold. With clamour thence the rapid currents drive. Grateful to Heaven. Which now abated. as decayed. And now the tops of hills. as rocks. A dove sent forth once and again to spy Green tree or ground. Fast on the top of some high mountain fixed. 6 The ark no more now floats. what further shall ensue. over his head beholds A dewy cloud. their furious tide. as the Heaven his windows shut. He looked. but seems on ground. with all his train. Driven by a keen north-wind.

not to blot out mankind. nor rain to drown the world. That God vouchsafes to raise another world From him. what mean those coloured streaks in Heaven Distended. Though late repenting him of Man depraved. Such grace shall one just man find in his sight. nor let the sea Surpass his bounds. when he brings Over the earth a cloud. when looking down he saw The whole earth filled with violence. and thus his joy broke forth. and shower the earth? To whom the Arch-Angel. heavenly Instructer! I revive At this last sight. and so just. Grieved at his heart. yet. That he relents. assured that Man shall live. Dextrously thou aimest.Betokening peace from God. as the brow of God appeased? Or serve they. will therein set 344 . as a flowery verge. and all his anger to forget. those removed. But say. And makes a covenant never to destroy The earth again by flood. and covenant new. With man therein or beast. than I rejoice For one man found so perfect. So willingly doth God remit his ire. Lest it again dissolve. erst so sad. and their seed preserve. Whereat the heart of Adam. to bind The fluid skirts of that same watery cloud. who future things canst represent As present. Greatly rejoiced. Far less I now lament for one whole world Of wicked sons destroyed. O thou. but. With all the creatures. and all flesh Corrupting each their way.

Thou therefore give due audience. heat and hoary frost. in the mention of Abraham. the fiery Sword waving behind them. then. and Ascention. Both Heaven and Earth. Michael in either hand leads them out of Paradise. Death. who that Seed of the Woman shall be. 345 . comes by degrees to explain. and the Cherubim taking thir Stations to guard the Place. Adam greatly satisfied and recomforted by these Relations and Promises descends the Hill with Michael. who all this while had slept. And Man. Thus thou hast seen one world begin. with transition sweet. new speech resumes. wakens Eve. Then. Though bent on speed. so here the Arch-Angel paused Betwixt the world destroyed and world restored. but I perceive Thy mortal sight to fail. Much thou hast yet to see.His triple-coloured bow. but with gentle dreams compos’d to quietness of mind and submission. as from a second stock. till fire purge all things new. the state of the Church till his second Coming. wherein the just shall dwell. Seed-time and harvest. and attend. Shall hold their course. and end. whereon to look. 8 Book XII As one who in his journey bates at noon. And call to mind his covenant: Day and night. Resurrection. his Incarnation. objects divine Must needs impair and weary human sense: Henceforth what is to come I will relate. 7 Book XII: The Argument The Angel Michael continues from the Flood to relate what shall succeed. which was promised Adam and Eve in the Fall. If Adam aught perhaps might interpose. proceed.

346 . And from rebellion shall derive his name. and sacred feast. and. wine. from the herd or flock. Though of rebellion others he accuse. by families and tribes. Labouring the soil. And while the dread of judgement past remains Fresh in their minds. Hunting (and men not beasts shall be his game) With war. Will arrogate dominion undeserved Over his brethren. Shall spend their days in joy unblamed. and multiply apace. as in despite of Heaven. and reaping plenteous crop. they cast to build A city and a tower. or kid. With large wine-offerings poured. fraternal state. and dwell Long time in peace. while yet but few. and oil. fearing the Deity. He with a crew. and hostile snare. lamb. shall find The plain. wherein a black bituminous gurge Boils out from under ground. such as refuse Subjection to his empire tyrannous: A mighty hunter thence he shall be styled Before the Lord. the mouth of Hell: Of brick. whose top may reach to Heaven. Marching from Eden towards the west. With some regard to what is just and right Shall lead their lives. Or from Heaven. and of that stuff. and quite dispossess Concord and law of nature from the earth. who.This second source of Men. whom like ambition joins With him or under him to tyrannize. not content With fair equality. Under paternal rule: till one shall rise Of proud ambitious heart. Corn. claiming second sovranty. Oft sacrificing bullock.

And get themselves a name. and the work Confusion named. fatherly displeased. As mocked they storm: great laughter was in Heaven. Dominion absolute. them beholding soon. Whereto thus Adam. each to other calls Not understood. O execrable son! so to aspire Above his brethren. lest. their memory be lost. to see the hubbub strange. who oft descends to visit men Unseen. from God not given: He gave us only over beast. till hoarse. fish. But this usurper his encroachment proud Stays not on Man. that right we hold By his donation. and in derision sets Upon their tongues a various spirit. to sustain 347 . fowl. and all in rage. and. instead. such title to himself Reserving. Comes down to see their city. Regardless whether good or evil fame. To sow a jangling noise of words unknown: Forthwith a hideous gabble rises loud. and through their habitations walks To mark their doings. ere the tower Obstruct Heaven-towers. Among the builders. But God. to rase Quite out their native language. far dispersed In foreign lands. to God his tower intends Siege and defiance: Wretched man! what food Will he convey up thither. but man over men He made not lord. And looking down. And hear the din: Thus was the building left Ridiculous. to himself assuming Authority usurped. human left from human free.

and from her hath no dividual being: Reason in man obscured. And upstart passions. for the shame Done to his father. yet know withal. and to servitude reduce Man. affecting to subdue Rational liberty. And famish him of breath. as the former world. since he permits Within himself unworthy powers to reign Over free reason. till then free. Though to the tyrant thereby no excuse. that no wrong. Who oft as undeservedly enthrall His outward freedom: Tyranny must be. heard this heavy curse. But justice. Justly thou abhorrest That son.Himself and his rash army. which always with right reason dwells Twinned. if not of bread? 9 To whom thus Michael. where thin air Above the clouds will pine his entrails gross. Subjects him from without to violent lords. or not obeyed. true liberty Is lost. God. who on the quiet state of men Such trouble brought. Deprives them of their outward liberty. Servant of servants. 348 . Therefore. Immediately inordinate desires. on his vicious race. and some fatal curse annexed. Yet sometimes nations will decline so low From virtue. Thus will this latter. in judgement just. catch the government From reason. which is reason. Their inward lost: Witness the irreverent son Of him who built the ark. who. Since thy original lapse.

Ur of Chaldaea. passing now the ford To Haran. Not wandering poor. Wearied with their iniquities. who ’scaped the flood. from his father’s house. after him a cumbrous train Of herds and flocks. resolving from thenceforth To leave them to their own polluted ways. his friends. withdraw His presence from among them. there by promise he receives 349 . and upon him shower His benediction so. yet firm believes: I see him. but thou canst not. Canaan he now attains. And one peculiar nation to select From all the rest. and false Gods. While yet the patriarch lived. and numerous servitude. of whom to be invoked. till God at last. who called him. and fall To worship their own work in wood and stone For Gods! Yet him God the Most High vouchsafes To call by vision. A nation from one faithful man to spring: Him on this side Euphrates yet residing.Still tend from bad to worse. into a land Which he will show him. in a land unknown. Bred up in idol-worship: O. As to forsake the living God. and native soil. I see his tents Pitched about Sechem. and avert His holy eyes. His kindred. that in his seed All nations shall be blest: he straight obeys. but trusting all his wealth With God. that men (Canst thou believe?) should be so stupid grown. and the neighbouring plain Of Moreh. with what faith He leaves his Gods. and from him will raise A mighty nation. Not knowing to what land.

From Hameth northward to the Desart south.) From Hermon east to the great western Sea. Jordan. and kills their infant males: Till by two brethren (those two brethren call 350 . disgorging at seven mouths Into the sea. the double-founted stream. here. in wisdom. Like him in faith. This patriarch blest. a son whose worthy deeds Raise him to be the second in that realm Of Pharaoh. departs From Canaan to a land hereafter called Egypt. invited by a younger son In time of dearth. as I point them. who shall bruise The Serpent’s head. This ponder. There he dies. and now grown Suspected to a sequent king. that long ridge of hills. and of his son a grand-child.Gift to his progeny of all that land. A son. as inmate guests Too numerous. and leaves his race Growing into a nation. divided by the river Nile See where it flows. who seeks To stop their overgrowth. though yet unnamed. To sojourn in that land He comes. each place behold In prospect. whence of guests he makes them slaves Inhospitably. but his sons Shall dwell to Senir. with twelve sons increased. leaves. yonder sea. whereof to thee anon Plainlier shall be revealed. that all nations of the earth Shall in his seed be blessed: By that seed Is meant thy great Deliverer. on the shore Mount Carmel. Mount Hermon. (Things by their names I call. and renown: The grandchild. Whom faithful Abraham due time shall call. true limit eastward.

Last. back to their promised land. thunder mixed with hail. Thus with ten wounds This river-dragon tamed at length submits To let his sojourners depart. Hail mixed with fire. What it devours not. and blot out three days. they return. and flies. must all his palace fill With loathed intrusion. who denies To know their God. Frogs. the sea Swallows him with his host. herb. And all his people. and oft Humbles his stubborn heart. all the first-born Of Egypt must lie dead. as ice More hardened after thaw. To blood unshed the rivers must be turned. between two crystal walls. lice. and on the ground leave nothing green. but still. Must be compelled by signs and judgements dire. 10 But first. or fruit. with one midnight stroke. His cattle must of rot and murren die. Darkness must overshadow all his bounds. till his rescued gain their shore: 351 . or grain.Moses and Aaron) sent from God to claim His people from enthralment. Botches and blains must all his flesh emboss. As on dry land. Awed by the rod of Moses so to stand Divided. must rend the Egyptians sky. And wheel on the earth. devouring where it rolls. or message to regard. Palpable darkness. the lawless tyrant. in his rage Pursuing whom he late dismissed. A darksome cloud of locusts swarming down Must eat. With glory and spoil. but them lets pass. till. and fill all the land.

for life To noble and ignoble is more sweet Untrained in arms. Though present in his Angel. whose gray top Shall tremble. religious rites 352 . and a pillar of fire. War terrify them inexpert. and remove Behind them. lightning. God looking forth will trouble all his host. he descending.Such wondrous power God to his saint will lend. to rule by laws ordained: God from the mount of Sinai. and fear Return them back to Egypt. This also shall they gain by their delay In the wide wilderness. part. such as appertain To civil justice. And overwhelm their war: The race elect Safe toward Canaan from the shore advance Through the wild Desart. and loud trumpets’ sound. Then through the fiery pillar. and the cloud. Ordain them laws. while the obdurate king pursues: All night he will pursue. the sea his rod obeys. Lest. not the readiest way. choosing rather Inglorious life with servitude. will himself In thunder. part. entering on the Canaanite alarmed. by night a pillar of fire. where rashness leads not on. there they shall found Their government. but his approach Darkness defends between till morning watch. and their great senate choose Through the twelve tribes. By day a cloud. On their embattled ranks the waves return. To guide them in their journey. And craze their chariot-wheels: when by command Moses once more his potent rod extends Over the sea. who shall go Before them in a cloud.

before him burn Seven lamps as in a zodiack representing The heavenly fires. he grants what they besought. such delight hath God in Men Obedient to his will. over these A mercy-seat of gold. Save when they journey. The records of his covenant. how many battles fought How many kings destroyed. and kingdoms won. Or how the sun shall in mid Heaven stand still 353 . to the land Promised to Abraham and his seed: – The rest Were long to tell. over the tent a cloud Shall rest by day. of that destined Seed to bruise The Serpent. whose high office now Moses in figure bears. and at length they come.Of sacrifice. to introduce One greater. And terrour cease. laws and rites Established. informing them. Thus. and in the ark his testimony. of whose day he shall foretel. But the voice of God To mortal ear is dreadful: They beseech That Moses might report to them his will. between the wings Of two bright Cherubim. a fiery gleam by night. Instructed that to God is no access Without Mediator. by what means he shall achieve Mankind’s deliverance. And all the Prophets in their age the times Of great Messiah shall sing. Conducted by his Angel. by types And shadows. overlaid with gold. that he vouchsafes Among them to set up his tabernacle. The Holy One with mortal Men to dwell: By his prescript a sanctuary is framed Of cedar. therein An ark.

why to those Among whom God will deign to dwell on earth So many and so various laws are given. by stirring up Sin against law to fight: that when they see Law can discover sin. how can God with such reside? To whom thus Michael. what would become Of me and all mankind: But now I see His day. Favour unmerited by me. Erewhile perplexed with thoughts. Doubt not but that sin Will reign among them. Save by those shadowy expiations weak. The blood of bulls and goats. ‘Till Israel overcome!’ so call the third From Abraham. and night’s due course adjourn.A day entire. and from him His whole descent. And therefore was law given them. ‘And thou moon in the vale of Aialon. to evince Their natural pravity. O sent from Heaven. but not remove. and my heart much eased. This yet I apprehend not. ‘Sun. those chiefly. as of thee begot. Enlightener of my darkness. who thus shall Canaan win. in whom all nations shall be blest. son of Isaac. gracious things Thou hast revealed. So many laws argue so many sins Among them. which concern Just Abraham and his seed: now first I find Mine eyes true-opening. Man’s voice commanding. in Gibeon stand. 11 Here Adam interposed. who sought Forbidden knowledge by forbidden means. they may conclude 354 .

being but the minister Of law. that his regal throne For ever shall endure. And therefore shall not Moses. From whom as oft he saves them penitent By Judges first. Up to a better covenant. From imposition of strict laws to free Acceptance of large grace. in full time. cannot live. whom the Gentiles Jesus call. though of God Highly beloved. of whom The second. and peace Of conscience. Mean while they. His name and office bearing. But Joshua. Just for unjust. and bring back Through the world’s wilderness long-wandered Man Safe to eternal Paradise of rest. from servile fear To filial. in such righteousness To them by faith imputed. but when sins National interrupt their publick peace. nor Man the moral part Perform. disciplined From shadowy types to truth. then under Kings. which the law by ceremonies Cannot appease. not performing.Some blood more precious must be paid for Man. So law appears imperfect. a promise shall receive Irrevocable. from flesh to spirit. they may find Justification towards God. his people into Canaan lead. Long time shall dwell and prosper. works of law to works of faith. in their earthly Canaan placed. and. the like shall sing 355 . both for piety renowned And puissant deeds. and but given With purpose to resign them. Provoking God to raise them enemies. who shall quell The adversary-Serpent. that.

But first. will so incense God. the house of God They first re-edify. With all his sacred things. shall in a glorious temple enshrine. his temple.All Prophecy. till then in tents Wandering. and his holy ark. stablished as the days of Heaven. for wealth and wisdom famed. and expose their land. till. then brings them back. as shall be registered Part good. and other faults Heaped to the popular sum. Babylon thence called. Their city. part bad. Foretold to Abraham. The clouded ark of God. Returned from Babylon by leave of kings Their lords. of bad the longer scroll. a scorn and prey To that proud city. of kings The last. whom God disposed. grown In wealth and multitude. 12 There in captivity he lets them dwell The space of seventy years. Whose foul idolatries. Men who attend the altar. as in whom shall trust All nations. whose high walls thou sawest Left in confusion. Such follow him. and should most 356 . But first among the priests dissention springs. and to kings foretold. and for a while In mean estate live moderate. and his covenant sworn To David. Remembering mercy. the Woman’s seed to thee foretold. factious they grow. as to leave them. a long succession must ensue. for of his reign shall be no end. And his next son. that of the royal stock Of David (so I name this king) shall rise A Son.

that the true Anointed King Messiah might be born Barred of his right. who inquire His place. finisher Of utmost hope! now clear I understand What oft my steadiest thoughts have searched in vain. and regard not David’s sons. to offer incense. proclaims him come. High in the love of Heaven. Without the vent of words. O prophet of glad tidings. Why our great Expectation should be called The seed of Woman: Virgin Mother. yet at his birth a star. discerning Adam with such joy Surcharged. which these he breathed. They gladly thither haste. myrrh. as had like grief been dewed in tears. but his sire The power of the Most High: He shall ascend The throne hereditary. Unseen before in Heaven. A virgin is his mother. and by a quire Of squadroned Angels hear his carol sung. his glory with the Heavens. And guides the eastern sages. keeping watch by night.Endeavour peace: their strife pollution brings Upon the temple itself: at last they seise The scepter. hail. Then lose it to a stranger. He ceased. yet from my loins Thou shalt proceed. and from thy womb the Son Of God Most High: so God with Man unites! Needs must the Serpent now his capital bruise Expect with mortal pain: Say where and when 357 . and gold: His place of birth a solemn Angel tells To simple shepherds. and bound his reign With Earth’s wide bounds.

not their own. nailed to the cross 358 . thy punishment He shall endure. with more strength to foil Thy enemy. judged. be blasphemed. nor so is overcome Satan. and that his obedience. Not by destroying Satan. and cursed death. and to death condemned A shameful and accursed. works. and suffering death. what stroke shall bruise the victor’s heel. Disabled. But by fulfilling that which thou didst want.Their fight. The penalty to thy transgression due. and in thy seed: Nor can this be. As of a duel. by coming in the flesh To a reproachful life. Seised on by force. though love Alone fulfil the law. who comes thy Saviour. whose fall from Heaven. or the local wounds Of head or heel: Not therefore joins the Son Manhood to Godhead. though legal. The law of God exact he shall fulfil Both by obedience and by love. shall recure. becomes theirs by faith. Proclaiming life to all who shall believe In his redemption. imposed On penalty of death. 13 For this he shall live hated. And due to theirs which out of thine will grow: So only can high Justice rest appaid. To whom thus Michael. Obedience to the law of God. not to give thee thy death’s wound: Which he. his merits To save them. a deadlier bruise. but his works In thee. Dream not of their fight. Imputed.

to them shall leave in charge To teach all nations what of him they learned And his salvation. a death. fresh as the dawning light. so he dies. A gentle wafting to immortal life. Thy ransom paid. them who shall believe Baptizing in the profluent stream. men who in his life Still followed him. For death. His death for Man. the death thou shouldest have died. and the benefit embrace By faith not void of works: This God-like act Annuls thy doom. In sin for ever lost from life. this act Shall bruise the head of Satan. which Man from death redeems. 359 . and in mind prepared. and the sins Of all mankind. Defeating Sin and Death. than certain times to appear To his disciples.By his own nation. Death over him no power Shall long usurp. the sign Of washing them from guilt of sin to life Pure. ere the third dawning light Return. The law that is against thee. Nor after resurrection shall he stay Longer on earth. like that which the Redeemer died. And fix far deeper in his head their stings Than temporal death shall bruise the victor’s heel. crush his strength. if so befall. Never to hurt them more who rightly trust In this his satisfaction. Or theirs whom he redeems. his two main arms. the stars of morn shall see him rise Out of his grave. slain for bringing life: But to the cross he nails thy enemies. with him there crucified. as many as offered life Neglect not. But soon revives. like sleep.

and far happier days. As at the world’s great period. Goodness immense! That all this good of evil shall produce. far happier place Than this of Eden. Not only to the sons of Abraham’s loins Salvation shall be preached. To judge the unfaithful dead. thus replied. but to the sons Of Abraham’s faith wherever through the world. from that day. and resume His seat at God’s right hand. more wonderful Than that which by creation first brought forth Light out of darkness! Full of doubt I stand. Then to the Heaven of Heavens he shall ascend With victory. for then the Earth Shall all be Paradise. So in his seed all nations shall be blest. With glory and power to judge both quick and dead. for. and thence shall come. Then enter into glory. Whether in Heaven or Earth. prince of air. and our sire.All nations they shall teach. and receive them into bliss. When this world’s dissolution shall be ripe. Replete with joy and wonder. 14 So spake the Arch-Angel Michael. there shall surprise The Serpent. and drag in chains Through all his realm. exalted high Above all names in Heaven. then paused. O Goodness infinite. but to reward His faithful. Whether I should repent me now of sin 360 . And evil turn to good. triumphing through the air Over his foes and thine. and there confounded leave.

The enemies of truth? Who then shall guide His people. that much more good thereof shall spring. if our Deliverer up to Heaven Must re-ascend. Though to the death. and the law of faith. The promise of the Father. against such cruelties With inward consolations recompensed. As did their Lord before them. more good-will to Men From God. not afraid. To guide them in all truth.By me done. said the Angel. and do all miracles. what will betide the few His faithful. Working through love. upon their hearts shall write. and quench his fiery darts. or rejoice Much more. able to resist Satan’s assaults. and also arm With spiritual armour. Thus they win Great numbers of each nation to receive With joy the tidings brought from Heaven: At length Their ministry performed. then on all Baptized. and occasioned. whom he sends To evangelize the nations. To God more glory. and race well run. And oft supported so as shall amaze Their proudest persecutors: For the Spirit. shall them with wonderous gifts endue To speak all tongues. 361 . who defend? Will they not deal Worse with his followers than with him they dealt? Be sure they will. Poured first on his Apostles. but from Heaven He to his own a Comforter will send. But say. What man can do against them. and over wrath grace shall abound. who shall dwell His Spirit within them. left among the unfaithful herd.

and with these to join Secular power. grievous wolves. built by faith to stand. Truth shall retire Bestuck with slanderous darts. but in their room. Who against faith and conscience can be heard Infallible? yet many will presume: Whence heavy persecution shall arise On all. as they forewarn.Their doctrine and their story written left. Who all the sacred mysteries of Heaven To their own vile advantages shall turn Of lucre and ambition. Places. Left only in those written records pure. Their own faith. They die. Though not but by the Spirit understood. and. and the truth With superstitions and traditions taint. who in the worship persevere Of spirit and truth. Will deem in outward rites and specious forms Religion satisfied. and works of faith Rarely be found: So shall the world go on. and bind His consort Liberty? what. from that pretence. far greater part. and titles. on earth. promised alike and given To all believers. not another’s? for. Wolves shall succeed for teachers. or what the Spirit within Shall on the heart engrave. laws which none shall find Left them inrolled. but unbuild His living temples. the rest. though feigning still to act By spiritual. Spiritual laws by carnal power shall force On every conscience. 362 . to themselves appropriating The Spirit of God. Then shall they seek to avail themselves of names. What will they then But force the Spirit of Grace itself.

what this vessel can contain. by things deemed weak 363 . Merciful over all his works. Founded in righteousness. ages of endless date. To bring forth fruits. Eternity. Till time stand fixed! Beyond is all abyss. to walk As in his presence. and love. And vengeance to the wicked. at return Of him so lately promised to thy aid. Greatly-instructed I shall hence depart. the race of time. and peace. obscurely then foretold. Greatly in peace of thought. New Heavens. and by small Accomplishing great things. with good Still overcoming evil. in the clouds. till the day Appear of respiration to the just. And love with fear the only God. 15 How soon hath thy prediction. then raise From the conflagrant mass. He ended. Now ampler known thy Saviour and thy Lord. Beyond which was my folly to aspire. to bad men benign. to dissolve Satan with his perverted world. new Earth. Henceforth I learn. and thus Adam last replied. whose end no eye can reach. that to obey is best. The Woman’s Seed. joy and eternal bliss. purged and refined. and have my fill Of knowledge. from Heaven to be revealed In glory of the Father. ever to observe His providence. Under her own weight groaning. Measured this transient world. Seer blest. Last.To good malignant. and on him sole depend.

temperance. waken Eve. death the gate of life. – Let us descend now therefore from this top Of speculation. happier far. By me encamped on yonder hill. air. one empire. And. Let her with thee partake what thou hast heard. All secrets of the deep. but shall possess A Paradise within thee. whom I now Acknowledge my Redeemer ever blest. all Nature’s works. at season fit. By name to come called charity. for the hour precise Exacts our parting hence. and see! the guards. and all her spirits composed To meek submission: thou. only add Deeds to thy knowledge answerable. expect Their motion. thou hast attained the sum Of wisdom. Or works of God in Heaven. though all the stars Thou knewest by name. and worldly wise By simply meek: that suffering for truth’s sake Is fortitude to highest victory. hope no higher. the soul Of all the rest: then wilt thou not be loth To leave this Paradise. waves fiercely round: We may no longer stay: go.Subverting worldly strong. to the faithful. Taught this by his example. This having learned. Her also I with gentle dreams have calmed Portending good. or sea. patience. add faith. and all the ethereal powers. earth. In signal of remove. 364 . To whom thus also the Angel last replied. And all the riches of this world enjoyedst. at whose front a flaming sword. Add virtue. add love. And all the rule.

I know. With cause.Chiefly what may concern her faith to know. By me the Promised Seed shall all restore. without thee here to stay. He ended. from the other hill To their fixed station. Descended. Is to stay here. which will be many days. The great deliverance by her seed to come (For by the Woman’s seed) on all mankind: That ye may live. For God is also in sleep. Who for my wilful crime art banished hence. though sad. since with sorrow and heart’s distress Wearied I fell asleep: But now lead on. and. So spake our mother Eve. and whither wentest. with thee to go. all places thou. but found her waked. Whence thou returnest. And thus with words not sad she him received. though all by me is lost. yet much more cheered With meditation on the happy end. This further consolation yet secure I carry hence. thou to me Art all things under Heaven. Such favour I unworthy am vouchsafed. and Adam heard Well pleased. too nigh The Arch-Angel stood. In me is no delay. and they both descend the hill. some great good Presaging. Both in one faith unanimous. where Eve Lay sleeping. all in bright array 365 . Adam to the bower. Which he hath sent propitious. Is to go hence unwilling. and dreams advise. ran before. for evils past. but answered not: For now.

Through Eden took their solitary way. Fierce as a comet. all the eastern side beheld Of Paradise. and to the eastern gate Led them direct. the gate With dreadful faces thronged.The Cherubim descended. so late their happy seat. and fiery arms: Some natural tears they dropt. looking back. 16 Music Engravings by Gustave Doré. but wiped them soon. And vapour as the Libyan air adust. and Providence their guide: They. Waved over by that flaming brand. on the ground Gliding meteorous. which with torrid heat. with wandering steps and slow. where to choose Their place of rest. whereat In either hand the hastening Angel caught Our lingering parents. The world was all before them. They. hand in hand. 366 . and down the cliff as fast To the subjected plain. High in front advanced. The brandished sword of God before them blazed. Began to parch that temperate clime. And gathers ground fast at the labourer’s heel Homeward returning. then disappeared. as evening-mist Risen from a river o’er the marish glides.

but wiped them soon” (Book XII.“Some natural tears they dropt. line 645) 367 .