CHAPTER 2.

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN

Learning Objectives and Expectations
To be familiar with pressure vessel components and features. To understand the difference between pressure and non-pressure, fired and un-fired vessels. To understand the importance of regulations and standards in safe design. To be able to use AS1210 and related standards in pressure vessel design. To become familiar with rules of thumb regarding vessel design. Understand why there is a minimum safe thickness. To be able to determine the minimum design thickness. To be able to design and specify the details of safe pressure vessels. To be able to design pressure vessels in a economically efficient manner. To be able to produce pressure vessel specification sheets and equipment drawings.
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CHAPTER 2. PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN
1. VESSEL
A vessel is a container which holds a solid, a liquid or a gas, or a combination of these. The vessel may be: - A fired vessel or a non-fired vessel, - A pressure vessel or a non-pressure vessel - A thin walled vessel or a thick walled vessel, depending on the vessel structure and normal conditions of operation, i.e. the temperature and pressure.

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Pressure Vessels

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2. FIRED vs UNFIRED VESSEL
Sometimes the vessel is operated at (near) the ambient temperature, the vessel is obviously an unfired vessel. At other times, energy and heat have to be added to the content of the vessel. When heat transfer is involved, the vessel (pressure or non-pressure) may be classified as: - A fired vessel (e.g. direct combustion or electrically powered) - An unfired vessel (e.g. heat exchangers) A fired vessel is one where heat is added to the content of the vessel by the application of fire, electrical power or similar high temperature means. An unfired vessel is one where heat is added to the content of the vessel by a stream of fluid at moderate temperatures. In this chapter, the discussion will be restricted to unfired vessels only.
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3. PRESSURE VESSEL vs NON-PRESSURE VESSEL
A non-pressure vessel is one where the design pressure is substantially atmospheric pressure. This may be a tank containing liquid with a certain vapor pressure. The absolute pressure of the vapor above the liquid is ~ atmospheric. A vessel is considered a non-pressure vessel if it is subject only to pressures caused by the static head of its contents such as liquid storage tanks. A pressure vessel is one where the design pressure is substantially greater or less than atmospheric pressure. The present chapter will deal with pressure vessel only. The design of non-pressure vessel will be discussed later.
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4. WHAT IS A PRESSURE VESSEL?
A vessel subject to internal or external pressure as defined by the Australian Standard AS 1200. The design criteria are given in AS 1210. Figures 1.3.1 and Fig. 1.3.2 (next two pages) in AS 1210 delineate the boundary between pressure and non-pressure vessels in pressure diameter space. A vessel with a given diameter and operated at pressures above the curve shown is a pressure vessel. Least pressures shown are: - 2.57 kPa for an internal design pressure (gauge). - 1.85 kPa for an external design pressure (gauge), or 1.85 kPa below atm. Pressure. Note AS1210 was updated in 2010 and there may be some slight differences between the new version and these notes based on the 2006 version.
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AS 1210 1997

Design Pressure = Inside Pressure – Outside Pressure

A pressure vessel

Not a pressure vessel

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AS 1210 1997

Design Pressure = Outside Pressure – Inside Pressure

A pressure vessel

Not a pressure vessel

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5. THIN WALLED vs THICK WALLED PRESSURE VESSEL
A simplified definition: - thin walled t < 0.25D - thick walled t > 0.25D Most of the vessels built are thin walled. Thick walled vessels are used for special applications only. We will consider thin walled vessels only here.

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6. THE TERM ‘PRESSURE’
a. Absolute pressure 101.3 kPa absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure 0 kPa absolute pressure = full vacuum b. Gauge pressure 0 kPa gauge pressure = 101.3 kPa absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure - Be very careful and do not confuse one with the other. - There is no assumed convention being adopted. For vessels with internal pressure, Design Pressure = Outside Pressure – Inside Pressure

7. STATUTORY AUTHORITIES
All pressure vessels, for use in Australia, must meet the requirement of the Statutory Authorities of the respective States of Australia before they can be used.
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8. PHILOSOPHY OF STATUTORY AUTHORITIES
There has been a change in philosophy Previously - Detailed technical rules are set down - Drawing and calculation checked for correctness - Then a designed is certified After July 1, 1995 - New regulations came into force - Owner is to accept full responsibility for design and construction - Designs are to be verified by competent person - Authority now only registers design for the record - Owner must identify the potential hazards - Allowance must be made in the design to minimize the chance of any incident
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9. OWNERS RESPONSIBILITY NOW
Under the new regulations - Free to establish design and manufacture procedure - Obliged to keep good records - Responsible for safety of the staff - In event of accident, must be able to show that the vessel has been properly designed and build to acceptable standards. AS 1200 Pressure Equipment Australian Standards can be found in the Uni library in hard copy or Electronically AS 1210 Pressure Vessel Search library for SAI Global – Standards Australia AS 4041 Pressure Piping SEEK THE ADVICE OF AN EXPERT!!

10. STATUTORY AUTHORITIES
In Victoria, Victoria Work Cover Authority, Worksafe Victoria, Licensing Division See – http://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/WorkSafe/Home /Safety+and+Prevention/Health+And+Safety+Topics/Plant/D_Plant Other States have equivalent departments Before starting design, check the status of requirements of statutory authorities, as these requirements may change with time.
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11. MAIN FEATURES OF A PRESSURE VESSEL
a. Shell – cylindrical or spherical usually b. Head and closures – sometimes called end caps - flat plates, hemi-spherical, ellipsoidal, torispherical c. Nozzles - fluid inlet and outlet connections d. Access holes - manholes - inspection holes e. External support

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pressure relief valve endcaps pressure gauge

shell

nozzles inlets outlets

external supports endcaps

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12. SOME DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Design pressure Design temperature Material of construction Design strength of material (see AS 1210, Table 3.3.1) Welded joint efficiency (η) (see AS 1210 table 1.6) Corrosion allowance Design load Primary - static pressure static liquid maximum weight of vessel + content maximum weight of vessel + content under hydrostatic test conditions wind load earthquake load (seismic) other equipment load supported by vessel Secondary- local stress due to internal structure, pipes, support structure shock load – water hammer, pump starting, etc. bending moment stress due to temp and expansion stress due to fluctuation of pressure h. Minimum practical wall thickness
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Operating, Design and Relief Pressures
Operating pressure—the highest pressure to which the vessel is subjected under normal operation. It is determined by the technical requirements of the process. Design pressure—the maximum gauge pressure, at a designated temperature, which is allowed at the top of the vessel. Usually somewhat higher than the operating pressure. Design Pressure = Outside Pressure – Inside Pressure, for internally pressurised vessels Where pressure relief devices are used, the design pressure is often assumed to be 5 percent to 10 percent above the operating pressure at the most severe condition, but where wide surges in pressure and temperature may occur, this margin may need to be increased. The design pressure shall not be less than the set pressure of the lowest set pressure-relief device. (more detail in chapter 6 about pressure relief devices)
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13. DESIGN PROCEDURE
Follow AS 1210 Straight forward, but watch details for design of vessel with moderate design temperature and pressure For more severe conditions, refer to a pressure vessel designer

a. Establish design conditions (i) design pressure - internal - external - combination of both

(ii) design temperature - maximum - minimum expected (iii) corrosion from content (iv) capacity of vessel - volume
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b. Select class of vessel (see AS 1210, Table 1.6 and 1.7, Clause 1.7) Classification is made based on the design, construction, testing and inspection requirements of the Code. - Lethal substance, must be Class 1 - non-corrosive special operation vessels, must be Class 1 e.g. vacuum insulated cryogenic vessel not practical to provide inspection opening for frequent inspection - Welded joint efficiency must be achieved - Any vessel with wall thickness >x mm as specified in Table 1.7 - Class 2 – less stringent conditions, any vessel with wall thickness >x mm as specified in Table 1.7 - Class 3 – when a Class 1 or Class 2 vessel not required
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1.7.1 WELDED CONSTRUCTION
1.7.2.1 Vessel of class 1 welded construction. Class 1 construction shall be used for (a) (b) (c) vessels constructed of materials of thicknesses which requires Class 1 construction (see Table 1.7) vessels designed with a welded joint efficiency which requires Class 1 construction ( see Table 3.5.1.7) vessels which are to be pneumatically tested to a pressure greater than 20 percent of the test pressure required by Clause 5.10.2.1 prior to hydrostatic testing vessels containing lethal substances referred to in Clause 1.7.1 vessels for special non-corrosive applications, e.g. vacuum insulated cryogenic vessels, where it is not practicable to provide inspection openings for subsequent inspection (see Clause 3.2.6(b)) transportable vessels required by Clause 3.26 to be of Class 1 Construction

(d) (e)

(f)

AS 1210, 1997, section 1.7
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1.7.2.2 Vessels of class 2 welded construction. Class 2.A or 2 B construction shall be used a minimum for – (a) vessels constructed of materials of thicknesses which require Class 2 construction (see Table 1.7) vessels designed with a welded joint efficiency which require Class 2 construction ( see Table 3.5.1.7) transportable vessels having a capacity not greater than 5m3 water capacity and allowed by Clause 3.26 to be of Class 2 construction.

(b)

(c)

1.7.2.3 Vessels of Class 3 welded construction. Class 3 construction may be used where Class 1 or 2 construction is not necessary. Note: new subclasses added in 2010 version. AS 1210, 1997, section 1.7
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AS 1210, 1997 Table 1.7

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AS 1210, 1997 Table 1.6

Number in parentheses is the welded joint efficiency (η) if η = 1, the structure is not weakened by the weld, if η = 0.5, the structure has half the strength

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A matter of economics – Classification issue When a higher class is used, the welding efficiency goes up, the wall thickness comes down. It may be cheaper to manufacture a Class 2 vessel than a Class 3 vessel. But the welding has to be done with better care to give a better quality weld, and more testing procedures have to be followed and performed. Hence the costs of testing must be considered and included.

-

Selection Start with a Class 3 vessel and apply the rules changing the class until all the rules are passed.

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c. Select material of construction metal – carbon steel, stainless steel, nickel alloy, copper alloy, aluminium, non-metal – polypropylene, polyethylene, fiberglass reinforced resins, concrete. d. Select volume per tank - If capacity is too big, use multiple tanks. (see next page) - No limit on vessel diameter and length by AS. But you have to be practical as an engineer. The vessel heads are usually manufactured by spinning on a lathe. - Preferably head diameter < 120 inches, < 3 m - Aspect ratio between 2 to 1 and 5 to 1 has to be maintained - Therefore volume is somewhat limited - In general vessels can be installed vertical or horizontal e. Select tank configurations cylindrical vs spherical, vertical vs horizontal, (see next page) select end cap type (see AS 1210 Fig 3.12.3)
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PRESSURE VESSEL Optimum L/D = 3, range 2 to 5 Guidelines for pressure dependence Presssure kPa 0 to 1750 L/D 3 PRESSURE VESSEL General guidelines Less than 4000 L – vertical tanks on legs: L/D ≈ 3 to 4 More than 4000 L – horizontal tanks on saddles : L/D ≈ 3 to 4 ASPECT RATIOS FOR DIFFERENT UNIT OPERATIONS Reactors Pressure Vessels Heat Exchangers L/D ≈ 1 L/D ≈ 2 to 5 L/D ≈ 4 to 10
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 27

1751 to 3500 4

3501 + 5

f. Select the end cap type – heads and closures of the cylindrical shells. The principle types used are (see AS 1210, Fig. 3.12.3) (i) Flat heads formed from flat plates – welded or bolted (ii) Hemispherical heads also called (iii) Ellipsoidal heads Domed head or (iv) Torispherical heads Dished Ends Domed head are formed by casting or spinning Economical considerations: Non-pressure vessels – Flat Plates okay Up to 10 bar (i.e. P < 1.0 MPa) use Torispherical heads Above 15 bar (i.e. P > 1.5 MPa) use Ellipsoidal heads Between 10–15 bar (i.e. 1.0–1.5 MPa) costs are about the same Hemi-spherical heads form the strongest closure, operating pressure can be twice as big as that of torispherical heads. But the cost of production will obviously be higher. The specific sizes of various typical end caps available are given in the Australian Pressure Vessel Heads data sheet (see the following page)
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 28

SF

R = ICR = Inner Crown Radius
SF

r = IKR = Inner Knuckle Radius h = ITH = Inside Tangential Height SF = Straight Flange

AS 1210, 1997
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 29

Australian Pressure Vessel Heads Pty Ltd

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g. Sheets/Plates of material of construction Plates of steel and other commonly used metal are available in standard dimension and thickness. See data sheet provided by the supplier and other standards tables. Widths Increments of 100 mm from 1200 mm to 3300 mm Thicknesses (mm) 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 28, 32, 36, 40, and so on Lengths Increments of 200 mm from 4000 mm to 18000 mm Common Sizes Widths - 1800 mm, 2400 mm, and 3000 mm Lengths - 6000 mm and 9000 mm Steel quality Pressure vessels from boiler and pressure vessel grades Non-pressure vessels from structural grades h. Estimate tank diameter Use aspect ratio of 3:1 where possible, but range of 2 to 5 are commonly seen. See page 27. Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 31

i. Calculate vessel wall thickness (i) Cylindrical Shells AS1210 (circumferential stress = tc)

tc = t =

PD 2 fη − P

3.7.3 (1), AS1210 (mm) (MPa) (mm) (MPa)

t = minimum calculated thickness P = design pressure D = inside diameter of shell

f

= design tensile strength
See AS1210, 1997, Table 3.3.1 See AS1210, 2010, Table B

η

= efficiency of joint

(dimensionless)
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 32

AS1210 Longitudinal stress t=

PD ( 4 fη − P )

3.7.3 (2), AS1210

= tL Note that this value of tL is about half that of the thickness needed to overcome the circumferential stress, tc. Use Eq. 3.7.3 (2) for seamless pipe with

η = 1.0 for class 1 vessels η = 0.7 for class 3 vessels

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(ii) Spherical Shells Minimum calculated thickness

t=

PD 4 fη − P

3.7.4, AS1210

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j. Thickness of dished ends The shape of typical ends is given in Fig. 3.12.3 (i) Ellipsoidal ends Minimum calculated thickness

t=

PDK (2 f η − P )
2

3.12.5.1, AS1210
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

where

1⎡ ⎛ D ⎞ K = ⎢2 + ⎜ ⎟ 6 ⎢ ⎝ 2h ⎠ ⎣

K is a factor depending on the proportion of

D 2h

In any case, keep:

D < 600 t
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 35

(see AS1210, Table 3.12.5.1)

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(ii) Torispherical ends Minimum calculated thickness

t=

PRM ( 2 f η − 0.5P )

3.12.5.2, AS1210

1/ 2 1⎡ ⎛R⎞ ⎤ ⎢3 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ Where M = 4⎢ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

M is a factor depending on r/R > 0.06 or R/r < 16.66 hence R/r = 16.66 is the limit (see AS1210, Table 3.12.5.2) For safety reasons, keep

R r

setting up of localized stresses during the initial hydrostatic testing may occur.
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 37

D < 100 otherwise, buckling due to the t

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(iii) Hemispherical ends Minimum calculated thickness PR t= 3.12.5.3, AS1210 ( 2 f η − 0.5P ) The actual pressure shell thickness must be larger than the minimum calculated thickness.

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k. Type of welded joints AS1210, Fig. 3.5.1.5, are for arc welding of carbon and stainless steel parts. (i) Butt joint single welded square butt joint

Not recommended (thin plates only)

double welded square butt joint

Recommended

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Doubled welded single V butt joint Double welded double V butt joint

For stronger joint

For stronger joints

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(ii) Fillet joint

Single welded

Double welded

Not recommended for pressure vessels.

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l. Efficiencies of welded joints (see AS1210, Table 1.6 and 3.5.1.7) doubled welded butt joints

Maximum welded joint efficiency (η) Radiographic Examination Class 1 Class 2A Class 2B Class 3 Full 1.0 Spot 0.85 None 0.8 0.7

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AS 1210, 1997

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m. Corrosion allowance (relies somewhat on experience) - a complex phenomena - not possible to give specific values for estimating the allowance. - carbon and low alloy steel 2mm – less severe corrosion 4mm – more severe corrosion 1mm – minimum (after Coulson and Richardson, Vol. 6,) n. Legs and supports Vertical tanks on legs Bracket support Column support Skirt support (see AS1210, Fig 3.24, page 46) (see also Figures on pages 47-50)
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 45

Horizontal tanks Saddle support Ring support

AS 1210, 1997

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AS 1210, 1997

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AS 1210, 1997

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C & R Vol 6

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C & R Vol 6

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o.

Nozzles, access holes, accessories

- A hole to be cut - Proper connection and support tube to be used - seamless pressure tube vs welded tubes - wall thickness of the parts used - Welding procedures must be up to standard - Compensating reinforcement for the opening - must observe guideline set by standards - Seals and enclosures - flanged plate - seals and gasket - bolts and nuts - flange design Nozzles should be sized for target fluid velocity as shown in the pipeline chapter
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 51

p. Standard size for opening (see AS1210, table 3.20.9

AS 1210, 1997

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q. Compensation for openings and brackets - an opening weakens the shell - give rise to local stress Compensation - wall thickness adjacent to hole is increased to provide reinforcement - over-reinforcement will reduce flexibility of wall - give rise to ‘hard spot’ and secondary stress - add a welded pad around the opening - pad o.d. = opening d. X (1.5 or 2) - equal area method: provide reinforcement equal in cross sectional area to the area removed - see Fig. 13.13, Coulson and Richardson, Vol. 6

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r. Minimum nominal thickness of pressure parts (see AS1210, Table 3.4.3) Vessel Outside Forged Brazed Cast Diameter (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) <225 >225 < 1000 >1000 2 2.3 2.4 0.1 x (d0)1/2 1.5 2.4 4 8 10

Lethal contents – twice the above values As a general guide, the minimum practical wall thickness of non supported walls: for both pressure vessels and non-pressure vessels. Vessel diameter Minimum wall thickness (m) (mm) Note these values are somewhat 1.0 5 larger than category 4 and 5 AS 1692 1.0 – 2.0 7 tanks due to the specifications 2 – 2.5 9 required by AS 1692 2.5 – 3.0 10 3.0 – 3.5 12 See non-pressure vessel chapter for thickness of supported walls The minimum practical wall thickness is set to ensure that any vessel is Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight.
56

s. Stayed and Unstayed flat ends - Plate thickness - Welded vs bolted ends - Gaskets may be needed for sealing - Flange design must meet the Standards - Gaskets need to be properly designed - Supports for the flat ends - See Fig 13.9, C & R, Vol 6

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FLAT END CAPS

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t.

Tests for Integrity (i) Hydrostatic test (a) (internal pressure)

Ph = 1.5 P ×
where

fh f

AS1210 (5.10.2)

Ph

= hydrostatic test pressure (MPa)

P = design pressure of vessel (MPa) f h = lowest ratio of design strength at test temp f design strength at design temp
(b)

f values to be taken from Table 3.3.1

- test pressure should include the static head (external pressure)

Ph
(ii)

= 1.5 (absolute atm pressure – design internal pressure)

Pneumatic test - Avoid if possible - May be used in place of hydrostatic test in special circumstances
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 60

PRESSURE VESSEL EXAMPLE It is necessary to store 3.4 tonnes of CO2 on site, at a maximum operating gauge pressure of 9 atm at room temperature. Design the vessel (s). (a) Preliminary design - Cylindrical - Diameter ≈ 3 m - L/D = 3 - Say, flat ends
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 61

(b) Check capacity/vessel D=3m L = (3)(3) = 9 m For flat ends
bar ⋅ cm3 R = 83.14 moleK bar ⋅ m 3 kmoleK

Vol = π (1.5m) 2 (9m) = 63.6m 3 Vessel
PV = nRT
n=

R = 83.014 x10 −3

9 atm gauge = 10atm abs

1bar = 0.987 atm 1.0132bar = 1atm 1bar = 100kPa 1.01bar = 101kPa

(10atm)(63.6 × 106 cm3 ) = 26.0kmole atm ⋅ cm3 (82.05 )(298 K ) moleK

Mass=(26.0 kmole)(44kg/kmole) = 1.14 tonnes

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Let us design for 3 tanks at 1133 kg/tank No. of moles =

1133kg = 25.75kmole 44kg / kmole

V=

nRT P
atm ⋅ cm3 )(298 K ) moleK = 63.0 × 106 cm3 (10atm)

V=

(25750mole)(82.05

V = 63.0m3

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Dimension calculations Try 3 m diameter (c) Material selection: Say – Carbon steel AS1548-7-430

Vol. = π r 2 L 63m3 L= = 8.9m π (1.5m) 2 L 8.9m = = 2.97 D 3m
Ok, close to 3

Strength at design temp, f = 108 MPa Specify corrosion allowance = 2mm Try class 3 first, CO2 is not very corrosive, or toxic.

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(d) Calculate shell thickness

t=

PD 2 fη − P
1 atm 10 atm

P = 1MPa D = 3000mm f = 108MPa

η = 0.7
t = 19.97 mm c = 2mm ttotal = 21.97 mm

Select 25 mm plate Specify double welded butt joint.

= Operating Pressure = 9 atm Assume the design pressure is about 10% greater than the operating pressure say P = Design Pressure = 10 atm = 1 x 106 Pa
66

P

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels

AS 1210 1997

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Double welded single V butt joint Double welded double V butt joint

For stronger joints

For stronger joints

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Widths Increments of 100 mm from 1200 mm to 3300 mm. Thicknesses (mm) 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 28, 32, 36, 40 and so on. Lengths Increments of 200 mm from 4000 mm to 18000 mm. Common sizes Widths – 1800, 2400 mm, and 3000 mm Lengths – 6000 mm and 9000 mm Steel quality - Pressure vessels from boiler - Non-pressure vessels from structural grades

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(e) T (selected) = 25 mm compare with data on Table 1.7 - This looks like a Class 2 vessel, Class 1 not needed according to thickness

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If Class 2 vessel, larger

Then follow Class 2 procedures All requirement in the Table 1.6 must be satisfied Qualified welder needed, standard welding procedure Production of weld test plate needed (AS3992) Must perform hydrostatic test

η

thinner wall more stringent tests better quality welding recalculate t

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AS 1210, Table 1.6

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(f) Test pressure, Ph Ph= 1.5 (10 atm) = 15.0 atm Where

fh =1 f

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If you want to try to save some cash, you can try to keep it a Class 3, but don’t skimp on safety (g) Try dia. = 2.7 m
L= Vol π r2 63m3 = 11.0m π (1.35m) 2

L=

L 11.0m = = 4.07 D 2.7 m

A bit higher than 3, but not too bad if well supported, may be horizontal tanks on saddles. Still keep as a Class 3 vessel.

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t=

PD 2 fη − P

P = 1MPa D = 2700mm f = 108MPa

η = 0.7
t = 17.97 mm c = 2mm t total = 19.97

Select 20 mm plate & remain as a Class 3 vessel. Specify double welded butt joint
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 75

Is it a pressure vessel? - Check with Fig. 1.3.1, AS1210 P=1MPa = 1000kPa D=3m or 2.7m Yes, a pressure vessel Must register vessel with WorkSafe Victoria Must keep a good record of design Must perform hazard analysis Check minimum wall thickness >10mm OK

1.3.1 Vessels subject to internal pressure

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As a general guide, the minimum practical wall thickness: Vessel diameter (m) 1.0 1.0 – 2.0 2 – 2.5 2.5 – 3.0 3.0 – 3.5 Minimum Wall thickness (mm) 5 7 9 Leg support = saddle 10 Nozzles – inlet & outlet 12
Std. pipe diameter Std. flange size must be specified Pressure relief valve ~ 10 atm Pressure indicator Support for flat ends Man-hole, 450 mm dia.
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 77

FLAT END CAPS
Try welding configuration (f)

m = 17.97/20 = 0.90 K = 3/0.90 = 3.33

⎛ P ⎞ t = D⎜ ⎟ ⎜ Kfη ⎟ ⎠ ⎝
0.5

0.5

1MPa ⎞ ⎛ t = 2700mm⎜ ⎟ 3.33 ×108MPa × 0.7 ⎠ ⎝

= 170mm
78

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels

Equipment Sketch not Drawing
11.0 m

2.7 m

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170 mm thick flat end plate is too thick to be reasonable!!
Alternatives Does not have to be flat ends For 10 bars, can also be torispherical or ellipsoidal heads Volume of head Data provided by Australian Pressure Vessel Heads Pty Ltd *Hot pressed ends *Hot spun ends Try semi-ellipsoidal 2731 mm ID

-

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Australian Pressure Vessel Heads Pty Ltd

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t SE =

PDK 2 fη − 0.2 P

K depends on

D 2h

D = 2731mm ID h =ITH = 682 K = 1.0

D 2731 = = 2.00 2h 2(682)

t se =

1MPa(2731)(1) 2731 = = 18.08mm 2(.7)(108) − 0.2(1) 151

+ 2mm CORROSION ALLOWANCE ~ 20mm thick Semi-elliptical head OK, this is reasonable

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