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# Edwin Herbert Hall

November 7, 1855 - November 20, 1938)

was American physicist who discovered in 1879 the "Hall effect”

Edwin Herbert Hall discovered the "Hall effect" in 1879 while working on his doctoral thesis in Physics under the supervision of Professor Henry Augustus Rowland. Hall was pursuing the question first posed by Maxwell as to

◦ whether the resistance of a coil excited by a current was affected by the presence of a magnet. ◦ Does the force act on the conductor or the current?

Hall argued that if the current was affected by the magnetic field then there should be "a state of stress... the electricity passing toward one side of the wire."

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Through a myriad of experiments and failures, Hall discovered that a magnetic field would skew equipotential lines in a current-carrying conductor. This effect is observed as a voltage (Hall voltage) perpendicular to the direction of current in the conductor. Hall conducted an experiment by putting a thin gold leaf on a glass plate and then tapping off the gold leaf at points down its length. He then conducted other experiments using various materials in place of the gold leaf, and various experimental placements of tapping points.

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In 1880, full details of Hall's experimentation with this phenomenon formed his doctoral thesis and was published in the American Journal of Science and in the Philosophical Magazine. ( "On a New Action of the Magnet on Electrical Current" ) The electron, for instance, was not identified until more than 10 years later. Provides a simple method for accurately measuring carrier density, electrical resistivity, and the mobility of carriers in semiconductors

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The Left Hand Rule shows what happens when charged particles (such as electrons in a current) enter a magnetic field

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A charged particle moving through a magnetic field experiences a force that is at right angles to both the direction in which the particle is moving and the direction of the applied field. This force, known as the Lorentz force force, develops due to the interaction of the applied magnetic field and the magnetic field generated by the particle in motion. The phenomenon is named for Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz, Lorentz who developed an equation that mathematically relates the force to the velocity and charge of the particle and the strength of the applied magnetic field.

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Hall Field

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Electrical currents are affected by magnetic fields. When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the flow of current, the field causes resistance in the current. This is a manifestation of the Lorentz force, which pushes the negatively charged electrons in the current in a direction dictated by the left hand rule. Hall Force completely cancels the Lorentz Force FH=FL

At steady state Fe=Fm

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This movement of electrons results in a weak but measurable difference, voltage, potential difference or voltage perpendicular both to the current flow and the applied magnetic field. This is known as the Hall effect named after American effect, physicist Edwin Hall, who discovered the phenomenon in 1879. This effect is particularly pronounced in thin metals, and is easily observable in a low-density plasma (an electrically conductive ionized gas), such as a fluorescent light, as in this tutorial.

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Hall Force (which opposes Lorentz force) completely cancels the Lorentz Force FH=FL: or Which is the Hall field. It is convenient to express this in terms of measurable quantities, and for this purpose the velocity is expressed in terms of the current density . This leads to

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The hall field is thus proportional both to the current and to the magnetic field. The proportionality constant – that is, is known as the , and is usually denoted by

We can determine electron concentration n from the hall field.

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A similar effect is seen in semiconductors, where the Hall effect plays a large role in the design of integrated circuits on semiconductor chips. In most conductors such as metals, the conductors, Hall effect is very small because the density of conduction in electrons is very large and the drift speed (charged particle erraticism) is extremely small, even for the highest obtainable current densities. The Hall effect is therefore considered unimportant in most electric circuits and devices and is not mentioned in many texts on electricity and magnetism. However, in semiconductors and in most laboratory plasmas, the current density is many orders of magnitude smaller than in metals, and the Hall effect is correspondingly larger and is often easily observable. Some devices for measuring magnetic fields make use of semiconductors as the sensing elements and are called Hall probes probes.

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Hall Constants (in volt m3/ amp weber at RT)

Li -1.7x 10-10

Na -2.50

Cu -0.55

Ag -0.84

Au -0.72

Zn +0.3

Cd +0.6

Al -0.30

Sign depends on the sign of the charge of the current carriers. Thus Electrons, being negatively charged, lead to a negative Hall constant.

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For a simple metal where there is only one type of charge carrier (electrons) the Hall voltage VH is given by

The Hall coefficient is defined as

where I is the current across the plate length, B is the magnetic flux density, d is the depth of the plate, e is the electron charge, and n is the charge carrier density of the carrier electrons. As a result, the Hall effect is very useful as a means to measure both the carrier density and the magnetic field.

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One very important feature of the Hall effect is that it differentiates between positive charges moving in one direction and negative charges moving in the opposite. The Hall effect offered the first real proof that electric currents in metals are carried by moving electrons, not by protons. The Hall effect also showed that in some substances (especially semiconductors), it is more appropriate to think of the current as positive "holes" moving rather than negative electrons.

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Hall coefficient formula becomes more complex in semiconductors where the carriers are generally both electrons and holes which may be present in different concentrations and have different mobilities. For moderate magnetic fields the Hall coefficient is

where n is the electron concentration, p the hole concentration, e the electron mobility , h the hole mobility and e is the electronic charge.

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For large applied fields the simpler expression analogous to that for a single carrier type holds.

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Important Equations

The number of conduction electrons per unit volume (N) is found by:

N = Ix Bz edV H

Where Ix= current, Bz= magnetic field, d=sample thickness, e= elementary charge, VH=Hall voltage in the y-direction

**The Hall Resistance, or Hall constant, (RH) is often defined: RH =
**

Ix Bz B = Ix R H z Ned d

V 1

1 Ne

Thus, the Hall voltage (VH) can be written as: VH =

H Then, the Hall mobility (µ) can be determined: µ = R I B = R Nde s x z s

Where Rs is the sheet resistance, easily determined by the van der Pauw method

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Usefulness:

◦ Resistance and conductance were used for characterization in the early 1800’s, but they are influenced by sample geometry and are not material properties. ◦ For comparison between samples with different geometries, resistivity and conductivity were used. However, they are still not material properties. ◦ The Hall Effect allows measurement of carrier density and mobility, which are material properties, giving a deeper level of understanding of materials. • Advantages: – Simple, low-cost, fast turnaround time – High sensitivity: Can measure carrier concentrations in doped silicon of <1012 e-/cm3

References: 2, 3, 7.

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• Sample geometry:

– Sample uniformity – Accurate thickness determination – Lateral dimensions must be large compared to contact size and sample thickness

Ohmic contacts:

◦ Symmetric placement on sample ◦ Size ◦ Quality

Thermomagnetic effects Photoconductive and photovoltaic effects Accurate measurement of sample temperature, intensity of magnetic field, electrical current, and voltage

Reference: 3.

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**• Hall Effect sensors for sensing position, motion, magnetic fields fluid flow, power, or pressure
**

– Long life (30 billion operations, in some tests) – High speed operation (> 100 kHz possible) – Highly repeatable operation – Stationary operation (no moving parts) – Compatible input/output for logic devices)

Hall effect current sensor. Dimensions≈ 30x15x11mm.

**Industrial and commercial use:
**

◦ Electronics industry: Manufacturing low-noise transistors, electronic compasses ◦ Automobile Industry: Fuel injection systems and anti-lock brake systems ◦ Computers: Brushless DC rotors and disk-drive index sensors ◦ In general:

Hydraulic controls Integration into magnetic shields to reduce stray fields Inspect tubing or pipelines for corrosion or pitting

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Kittel, Charles. Introduction to Solid State Physics. 6th edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1986. Hummel, Rolf. E. Electronic Properties of Materials. 3rd edition. New York: Springer, 2001. “Hall Effect Measurements.” National Institute of Standards and Technology Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory Semiconductor Materials Division. 14 August 2007. U.S. Commerce Department. 13 November 2007. <http://www.eeel.nist.gov/812/hall.html>. E. H. Hall, "On a New Action of the Magnet on Electrical Current," Amer. J. Math. 2, 287-292 (1879). Ramsden, Edward. Hall-Effect Sensors Theory and Application. 2nd edition. Elsevier, 2006. Online <http://www.knovel.com/knovel2/Toc.jsp?BookID=1653>. “Hall Effect Sensing and Application.” Honeywell, Microsensing and Control. <content.honeywell.com/sensing/prodinfo/solidstate/technical/hallbook.pd f >. Bridge Technology. <http://www.four-point-probes.com/ecopia.html>. Allegro Microsystems. <http://www.allegromicro.com/en/Products/Part_Numbers/0754/index.asp >. Van der Pauw, L.J. Philips Technical Review. Vol. 20 No. 8, 220-224 (1958).

www.magnet.fsu.edu people.clarkson.edu/~ekatz/scientists/hall_edwin.html hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/hall.html#c2

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