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Accenture and Teradata Teradata Architecture Key Database Features
Teradata Architecture: Table of Contents
Platform Architecture: MPP and SMP
Teradata Architecture: MPP and SMP Key Differentiators
Platform Architecture: MPP and SMP
Teradata Architecture: MPP and SMP Key Differentiators
Introduction: Purpose and Intended Audience
• The purpose of this deck is to familiarize Accenture practitioners with the Teradata Relational Database System (RDBMS) • We tend to focus on Teradata’s unique architecture or features, occasionally contrasting them with Oracle, a much more familiar reference for most readers • The reader need not be totally technical to benefit by reading this: we have attempted to provide high-level overview material vs. deep (and sometimes boring) details • Finally, illustrations are provided to add clarity to certain concepts where it makes sense
Introduction: Unique Teradata Attributes • Teradata is unique among commercial RDBMSs in a number of ways. there probably would be no need for this deck) • Key Teradata differentiators: – It is implemented on Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) hardware architecture – and always has been – It was implemented on proprietary hardware with portions of the database imbedded in the hardware/firmware (although this is no longer the case) – The database software is unconditionally parallel – It is linearly scalable.000 gigabytes) in size – It virtually “owns” the Very Large Database (VLDB) market space – and has for twelve years • Some of the above points are discussed in the “Key Differentiators” section Accenture Confidential 5 . with hundreds of reference sites exceeding a terabyte (1. (If that weren’t true.
Introduction Platform Architecture: MPP and SMP Teradata Architecture: MPP and SMP Key Differentiators Accenture Confidential 6 .
the application programming model is essentially unchanged among them: the platform software deals with the hardware differences Accenture Confidential 7 . not server. applications • Not further discussed further in this paper – Symmetric Multi Processing (SMP) • A single computing system with multiple processing units.Teradata Platform Architecture: Uni-processors. often microprocessors – Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) • A collection of computing systems – usually SMPs – that are interconnected and that collaborate to solve a common task(s) • While there are significant differences between these architectures. SMPs and MPPs • Computers –can be broadly categorized into one of three hardware architectures: – Uni-processor • The desktop PC is the example • Generally applied to client.
desk side) – Midrange: HP’s NetServer 6000 series (4-6 CPUs. shared memory and they all access that memory via a common. shared memory bus – All of the processors share the I/O slots. notable disk storage subsystems • SMP examples: – Low-end: • Compaq ProLiant DL series (2-4 CPUs. rack mount) – High-end: Sun’s Enterprise 10000 (16-64 CPUs. H-P and IBM dominate this space – All of the processors run from a common.Teradata Platform Architecture: A Closer Look at SMP Hardware • Typical SMP hardware architectures have: – Two to eight. desk side) • NCR’s Model 4455 or similar (1-4 CPUs. channels and associated peripherals devices. free standing) – Nearly all IBM and compatible mainframes Accenture Confidential 8 . up to as many as 64 processors • Smaller SMPs often have Compaq or Intel motherboards and run MS Windows • Larger SMPs are typically RISC machines running UNIX – Sun.
Teradata Platform Architecture: SMP Hardware SMP hardware: 4 CPUs (in blue) with shared memory and I/O subsystems Memory Memory Bus I/O Bus Peripheral Devices Accenture Confidential 9 .
where the added expense of additional CPUs fails to provide a commensurate increase in performance Accenture Confidential 10 . there is added contention for memory accesses – CPUs begin waiting on the memory subsystem • Eventually.Teradata Platform Architecture: SMP Hardware Scalability • Scalability options for SMPs include: – – – – – Larger memories Faster CPUs More CPUs More I/O (slots and busses) More peripherals (usually disk arrays) • Scalability limitations for SMPs: – Every shared hardware subsystem is a potential bottleneck for an SMP – The most common limiter to SMP scalability is the memory subsystem • Each CPU must access the single memory via a common bus • As the number of CPUs increases. a point of diminishing returns is reached.
each node has its own memory and I/O subsystems as well as its own copy of the operating system and application(s) – The nodes are interconnected via a dedicated. often proprietary interconnect network – Most MPP systems run under UNIX. 1997 – The NCR 5250 or 5255 (among other NCR servers).” their chessplaying machine that defeated Grand Master Gary Kasparov in May. very high-speed.Teradata Platform Architecture: An Introduction to MPP Hardware • Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) hardware systems consist of from two to perhaps hundreds of SMP systems called “nodes” – Just like a stand alone SMP. which has never played chess and probably never will Accenture Confidential 11 . though a few MPP Teradata installations run under Windows 2000 • MPP examples: – IBM’s pSeries (formerly RS6000) and IBM’s “Deep Blue.
Platform Architecture: A 2-node MPP System MPP hardware showing 2 nodes. their disk arrays and the interconnect Interconnect Network MPP Node 0 MPP Node 1 Disk Array 0 Disk Array 1 Accenture Confidential 12 .
Teradata Platform Architecture: More on MPP Hardware • MPP hardware architectures are often called “shared nothing” or “loosely-coupled” systems. since the nodes – the basic MPP building blocks – share no computing hardware • The network that interconnects the nodes enables them to communicate and cooperate to solve a problem – Exactly how the interconnect is used depends entirely on the application(s) running in the system • So. why bother with the complexity of MPP hardware? – One word: Scalability: The ability to add processing nodes without “hitting the wall” before reaching a desired level of performance Accenture Confidential 13 .
Platform Architecture: Teradata’s MPP Hardware • For Teradata’s MPP hardware. each node is: – – – – – Made by Solectron to NCR’s design and specifications Powered by a 4-CPU Intel Xeon board Connected to all the other nodes via NCR’s BYNET interconnect Connected via SCSI to its own disk array(s) Optionally connected to the disk array(s) of another node in the complex for fault tolerance purposes (more on this later) Accenture Confidential 14 .
their disk arrays and the BYNET interconnect BYNET BYNET Interconnect Node 0 Disk Array 0 Node 1 Disk Array 1 Node 2 Disk Array 2 Node 3 Disk Array 3 Accenture Confidential 15 .Platform Architecture: Teradata’s MPP Hardware NCR MPP hardware showing 4 nodes.
so that the total bandwidth available scales as the MPP complex grows – Early Teradata machines did not have a scalable interconnect (YNET) • The network architecture is “Folded Banyan” – All nodes are directly connected to all other nodes • There are always two BYNETs for redundancy purposes • The BYNET hardware is an ordinary PCI card designed by NCR • The BYNET is fast: – 120 megabytes per second per node per BYNET in each direction • It’s patented by and proprietary to NCR Accenture Confidential 16 . you add bandwidth with it.Platform Architecture: Teradata’s BYNETtm Interconnect • NCR’s node interconnect subsystem is called the BYNET • The BYNET is fully scalable: – When you add a node.
Platform Architecture: BYNET Node-to-Node Connections • Ever node has a dedicated bi-directional channel to every other node • This architecture is duplicated – there are really 2 channels (one shown) Point-to-Point Messaging Broadcast Messaging Accenture Confidential 17 .
and is a configuration option • A clique is a group of nodes – 4 are shown below – that can access a common chunk of disk array storage • Cliques eliminate any single point of failure BYNET Interconnect Four nodes Shared SCSI Sharable disk Accenture Confidential 18 .Platform Architecture: Teradata “Cliques” • A Teradata clique provides high availability.
Platform Architecture: Why have Cliques? • Cliques add high availability via automatic failure detection and software re-configuration in the event of a hardware failure(s) BYNET Interconnect Interconnect Accenture Confidential 19 .
one for each clique 2 BYNETs. Accenture Confidential 20 .68 GB/sec! . each with their own busses. memory and back plane 8 cliques of 2 nodes 8 disk arrays. because there are always two BYNETs Total BYNET bandwidth is (2 x 2 x 16 x 120) = 7...Platform Architecture: MPP Hardware Illustration • Below is a medium size Teradata MPP system: – – – – – 16 nodes.
all the Teradata database structures are managed by Teradata within raw disk Accenture Confidential 21 . the choices are the same as for SMP: • NCR’s version of UNIX: MP-RAS.Platform Architecture: MPP Operating System Software • Operating System software – For MPP Teradata. or • Windows 2000 – For both OS options: • The BYNET device driver is an ordinary (UNIX or Windows) one • Teradata doesn’t use the native file system for performance reasons.
Introduction Platform Architecture: MPP and SMP Teradata Architecture: MPP and SMP Key Differentiators Accenture Confidential 22 .
writes and manipulates all database rows in the partition that the AMP “owns” – Parsing Engines (PEs) • PE parse SQL statements. reducing them to their component executable steps • The number of VPROCs is configurable • VPROCs are in every Teradata node • VPROCs can migrate around the complex.Teradata Architecture: Software “Units of Parallelism” • Teradata software components are known as “Virtual Processors” or VPROCs – VPROCs are software threads or processes • There are two kinds of VPROCs: – Access Module Processors (AMPs) • An AMP reads. as in the case of a failed node • VPROCS provide parallelism within a node Accenture Confidential 23 .
Teradata Architecture: MPP Platform with AMPs and PEs • Four-node MPP system showing Virtual Processors – AMPs and PEs – in each node BYNET BYNET Interconnect VPROCS AMP & PE VPROCS AMP & PE VPROCS AMP & PE VPROCS AMP & PE Node 0 “w” AMPs “w” partitions Node 1 “x” AMPs “x” partitions Node 2 “y” AMPs “y” partitions Node 3 “z” AMPs “z” partitions Accenture Confidential 24 .
repartitioning.Teradata Architecture: Data Partitioning Explained • Data is automatically distributed to all AMPs – and thus to all disks – via a proprietary hashing algorithm – No partitioning or re-partitioning ever required • File system architecture is fundamentally different – Rows stored in blocks – Space allocation is entirely dynamic • Absolutely minimal DBA effort required – No reorgs. space management. index rebuilds – Minimal monitoring required Accenture Confidential 25 .
Teradata Architecture: Data Partitioning Illustrated • The rows of each table are automatically and unconditionally distributed to all AMPs (and all available disk storage) – This enables Teradata’s automatic and unconditional parallelism AMP1 Disk AMP2 Disk AMP3 Disk AMP4 Disk SYSTEM TABLES CUSTOMER ORDERS LINEITEM PART SUPPLIERS Accenture Confidential 26 .
eight AMP Teradata MPP system – A single database table of 100. via hashing the Unique Primary Index.Teradata Architecture: Data Partitioning Explained • Let’s take a simple case: – A four-node. and will occur if the primary key is essentially random – like SSN • In all processing.500 rows – and each node 25. each node has to deal with only 1/4 of the total database – The name of the game is simple: “Divide and conquer” Accenture Confidential 27 .000 rows • This is the ideal “flat” distribution across all the system. it will distribute all rows to all AMPs – giving each AMP about 12.000 rows • The system will configure itself with two AMPs in each node • Then.
Teradata looks much the same as an ordinary database such as Oracle: – A single SMP processor does it all – A single software image can access the entire database Accenture Confidential 28 .Teradata Architecture: SMP Hardware • In an SMP architecture.
Teradata runs on: – – – – Windows 2000 Intel microprocessors The above combination is often called “Wintel” Almost all Wintel boxes use Compaq or Intel processor boards. probably due to cost or client standards) Accenture Confidential 29 .RDBMS Architecture: Teradata on SMP Hardware • On SMP hardware architecture. typically populated with Pentium III or Pentium 4 CPUs – NCR’s SMP machines on either Windows or UNIX (MP-RAS) • The latter configuration – SMP/UNIX is often used as a low-cost test platform for a production MPP system under MP-RAS • Examples of Teradata SMP platforms: – – – – – IBM HP Compaq Dell NCR (but only rarely.
Teradata Architecture: SMP Hardware and Disk Array SMP hardware showing 4 CPUs and disk array SMP Box SCSI Interconnect (dual paths shown) Disk Array Accenture Confidential 30 .
Introduction Historical Perspective Platform Architecture: MPP and SMP Teradata Architecture: MPP and SMP Key Differentiators Accenture Confidential 31 .
Key Differentiators • • • • Ubiquitous. really mature query optimizer The above yield the ability to handle very complex queries. persistent parallelism Unrelenting partitioning A really. large complex databases and lots of concurrent users doing lots of different stuff • Truly linear scalability • Mainframe connection via direct FIPS-60 channel connect – ESCON or “Bus and Tag” media Accenture Confidential 32 .
keeps applications running when node(s) fail All critical components have redundant backups Nodes have (optional) LAN/WAN/Mainframe connectivity Server Management MPP Interconnect CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU BYNET CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU SMP Processing Nodes CPU CPU Data Cache Memory Memory Data Cache Memory Memory Data Cache Memory Memory Data Cache Memory Memory Point-to-Point SCSI or FibreChannel Interconnect DA Controllers (w/Cache) DA Controllers (w/Cache) DA Controllers (w/Cache) DA Controllers (w/Cache) LSI Logic or EMC2 Disk Arrays Accenture Confidential 33 . Parallel. High Availability MPP Hardware • • • A group of 1-4 nodes with connections to each other’s storage --.Scalable.
Shared Nothing Software Architecture • Basis of Teradata parallelism and scalability – Divide the work evenly among many processing units – No single point of vulnerability or chokepoint for any operation Accenture Confidential 34 .
Always On • Rows are distributed evenly by hash partitioning Table A Table B Table C – Define the row.Teradata Data Distribution • Automatic. we’ll do the rest – Regardless of queries or demographics • Shared nothing software Primary Index Teradata Parallel Hash Function VAMP1 P VAMP2 P VAMP3 P VAMP4 ………………………………………………………VAMPn P P P P P P M D M D M D M D M D M D M D M D M D Accenture Confidential 35 .
Integral. Automatic. complex query optimization Accenture Confidential 36 .Key Data Warehousing Capabilities • Technology – – – – – Fully automatic space management Automatic data distribution Always-On. Multi-Level Parallelism Continually Improved Cost Based Optimizer Full ANSI SQL functionality.
Hash Distribution • Data automatically distributed to AMPs via hashing • Even distribution results in scalable performance • Hash map defined and maintained by the system – 2**32 hash codes.for the same values • No partitioning or repartitioning required VPROCs AMP & PE VPROCs AMP & PE 14 41 87 3 7 94 16 21 53 2 33 61 54 73 75 1 18 23 Accenture Confidential 37 . 64K buckets distributed to AMPs • Prime Index (PI) column(s) are hashed • Hash is always the same .
Shared Nothing Software • Delivers linear scalability – – – – Maximizes utilization of SMP resources To any size configuration Allows flexible configurations Incremental upgrades VPROCs Amps VPROCs VPROCs Amps Amps VPROCs Amps VPROCs Amps VPROCs VPROCs Amps Amps VPROCs Amps VPROCs Amps VPROCs VPROCs Amps Amps VPROCs Amps VPROCs Amps VPROCs VPROCs Amps Amps VPROCs Amps Accenture Confidential 38 .
A Shared Nothing Database Architecture Enables Expansion with Balance • Amount of parallelism grows at the same rate as the system expands • Each parallel unit does an equal amount of work Work Accomplished Unit of Hardware Power Hardware Scalability Unit of Hardware Power Unit of Hardware Power Unit of Hardware Power Software Scalability = Unit of Parallelism Accenture Confidential 39 .
Parallelization • Cost based optimizer – Parallel aware • • • • Rewrites built-in and cost based Parallelism is automatic Parallelism is unconditional Each query step fully parallelized Accenture Confidential 40 .Optimizer .
. not shared • Highly scalable data volumes Buffers. etc.Unit of Parallelism Data Partition Data Partition Data Partition Accenture Confidential . buffers.Shared Everything vs. Nothing Shared Everything Database Architecture Shared Nothing Database Architecture • A single database buffer used by all UoPs • A single logical data store accessed by all UoPs • Scalability limited due to control bottlenecks and scalability of single SMP platform • Each UoP is assigned a data portion • Query Controller ships functions to UoPs that own the data • Locks. Control Blocks Data Data Partition . Locks.
Q/A Thank You Accenture Confidential 42 .
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