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# 1 The line

1
l
has equation
1 2 x y z − · − · −
.
The line
2
l
passes through the point
( 2,1, 7) A −
and is parallel to the vector
3 5 − + + i j k
.
(i) Write down the vector equations of lines
1
l
and
2
l
. [2]
(ii) Show that the lines
1
l
and
2
l
intersect and find the coordinates of E, the point of
intersection of
1
l
and
2
l
. [3]
(iii) The acute angle between the lines
1
l
and
2
l
is denoted by θ . By finding
cos , θ
show
that
2 2
sin
35
θ · . Hence find the shortest distance from A to the line
1
l
, leaving your
answer in exact form. [4]
2 The plane
1
Π
has equation
1
2 4
1
| `

⋅ − ·

. ,
r
. The line l passes through two points A and B
whose position vectors are
2
0
2
| `

. ,
and
7
18
1
− | `

. ,
respectively.
(a) Show that the position vector of the point N on
1
Π
such that BN is perpendicular
to
1
Π
is
1
2
7
| `

. ,
. Hence find the perpendicular distance from B to
1
Π
. [5]
(b) Verify that point A lies on
1
Π
. Hence show that the reflection of l in
1
Π
is
parallel to
7
14
13
− | `

. ,
. [3]
(c) The plane
2
Π
is perpendicular to
1
Π
and contains l. Find the equation of
2
Π
in
the form
p ⋅ · r n
. [3]
(d)
3
Π
is perpendicular to both
1
Π
and
2
Π
and contains the line BN. By considering
the triangle ABN, or otherwise, determine
(i) the distance of A from
3
Π
;
(ii) the acute angle between l and
3
Π
. [4]
3 A line l has equation
4 3
0 2
5 1
λ
− | ` | `

· + −

. , . ,
r
, λ ∈¡ .
(i) Find the position vector of P , the foot of the perpendicular from the origin O to l.
[3]
(ii) Find a cartesian equation of the plane
1
Π
containing O and l . [3]
(iii) It is given that l also lies in a plane
2
Π
with equation
2
3
1
k
| `

⋅ · −

. ,
r
, k ∈¡ . Show
that
7
2
k · . [2]
(iv) Find the angle between the planes
1
Π
and
2
Π
[3]
(v) A third plane
3
Π
has cartesian equation
2 7 x y z + + ·
. Determine the nature of
the intersection of the three planes
1
Π
,
2
Π
and
3
Π
. [3]
4 Verify that the point (2, 4, 6) lies on the plane
1
π
and
2
π
, such that
1
6
: . 5 32
4
π
| `

− · −

. ,
r
and
2
5
: . 1 24
3
π
| `

− ·

. ,
r
. Given that
1
π
and
2
π
meet in the line l, find a vector equation of the line
l in the form λ · + r a b. [4]
The plane
3
π
contains the line l and passes through the point with position vector 4i + 3j +
2k. Find the vector equation of the plane
3
π
and express it in the form ax + by + cz = d.
[4]
Deduce, or prove otherwise, that the system of equations
6 5 4 32
5 3 24
9 2 5 40
x y z
x y z
x y z
− − · −
− + ·
− + ·
has an infinite number of solutions. [2]
The plane
4
π
is parallel to
3
π
and has equation
9 2 5 50 x y z − + ·
. Comment on the
geometrical representation of the 3 planes
1
π
,
2
π
and
4
π
. [2]
5 As part of a sculpture, an artist erects a flat triangular sheet ABC in his garden. The vertices
are attached to vertical poles DA, EB and FC. The coordinate axes Ox and Oy are horizontal,
and Oz is vertical. The coordinates of triangle are A(2, 0, 2), B(–2, 0, 1) and C(0, 4, 3), with
units in metres.
i) Find the length of the side AC. [2]
ii) Find the scalar product AB•AC, and the angle BAC. [4]
iii) Show that 2i + 3j – 8k is perpendicular to the lines AB and AC. Hence find the Cartesian
equation of the plane ABC. [4]
iv) The artist decides to erect another vertical pole GH based at the point G(1, 1, 0).
Calculate the height of the pole if H is to lie in the plane ABC. [5]
C(0, 4, 3)
B(−2, 0,
1)
A(2, 0, 2)
F
D
E
O
y
x
z
Solution
1(i)
Equation of 1
l
is
1 1
2 1 ,
0 1
r λ λ
| ` | `

· + − ∈

. , . ,
¡

Equation of 2
l
is
2 3
1 1 ,
7 5
r µ µ
− −
| ` | `

· + ∈

. , . ,
¡
1(ii)
1
If 1 2 3 ----(1)
and 2 1 ----(2)
and 7 5 ----(3),
we have from (1) & (2), 3 and 2 which satisfies (3) since
R.H.S of (3) = 7 + 5( 2) = 3 = L.H.S of (3) .
and l
λ µ
λ µ
λ µ
λ µ
+ · − −
− · +
− · +
· · −
− −

2
intersect and the coordinates of is (4, 1, 3). l E − −

(iii)
2
1
3 1
1 1
5 1
9 3 3
cos
35 3 35 3 35
27 2 2
sin 1 cos 1
35 35
6
sin , where is the shortest dist from to and 2
10
2 2
140 4 2
35
.
p
p A l AE
AE
p
θ
θ θ
θ
− | ` | `

. , . ,
· · ·
∴ · − · − ·

| `

· ·

. ,
∴ · × ·
2. (a)
2. (b)
2. (c)
1
1
: 2 4
1
| `

Π ⋅ − ·

. ,
r
7 1
: 18 2
1 1
BN
l λ
− | ` | `

· + −

. , . ,
r , λ ∈¡
7
18 2
1
ON
λ
λ
λ
− + | `

· −

− +
. ,
uuur
for some λ ∈¡
Thus,
7 1
18 2 2 4
1 1
λ
λ
λ
− + | ` | `

− ⋅ − ·

− +
. , . ,
( ) 7 2 18 2 1 4 8 λ λ λ λ − + − − − + · ⇒ ·
( )
7 8 1
18 2 8 2
1 8 7
ON
− + | ` | `

· − ·

− +
. , . ,
uuur
(shown)
Perpendicular distance
=
1 7 1
2 18 8 2 8 1 4 1 8 6
7 1 1
BN ON OB
− | ` | ` | `

· − · − · − · + + ·

. , . , . ,
uuur uuur uuur
.
2 1
0 2 2 2 4
2 1
| ` | `

⋅ − · + ·

. , . ,
. Therefore point A lies in Π1. (Verified)
7 2 8 7 7
2 18 0 2 16 14 // 14
1 2 8 13 13
AB AB BN
− − | ` | ` | ` | ` | `

′ · + · − + − · −

− −
. , . , . , . , . ,
uuuur uuur uuur
(shown)
7 2 9 3
18 0 18 3 6
1 2 3 1
AB
− − | ` | ` | ` | `

· − · · − −

− −
. , . , . , . ,
uuur
Two vectors // to Π2 are
3
6
1
| `

. ,
and
1
2
1
| `

. ,
.
Π
1
B (−7, 18, −1)
A (2, 0, 2)
N
B’
n
1
Π
2
l
2. (d)(i)
2.(d)(ii)
3 1 4 2
6 2 2 2 1
1 1 0 0
− | ` | ` | ` | `

− × − · − · −

. , . , . , . ,
Vector perpendicular to Π2,
2
2
1
0
| `

·

. ,
n
. Also, point A lies in Π2.
Therefore,
2 2 2
1 0 1 4
0 2 0
| ` | ` | `

⋅ · ⋅ ·

. , . , . ,
r
.
Equation of
2
2
: 1 4
0
| `

Π ⋅ ·

. ,
r
Distance A from Π3,
1 2 1
2 0 2
7 2 5
1 4 25 30
AN ON OA · −
− | ` | ` | `

· − ·

. , . , . ,
· + + ·
uuur uuur uuur
Acute angle between l and Π3
=
1 1
30
tan tan 15.6
8 6
AN
ABN
BN
− −
· · · ° R (to 1 dec. pl.)
Qn Suggested Solutions
3 Vectors
(i)
Since P lies on l ,
4 3
2
5
OP
λ
λ
λ
− + | `

· −

+
. ,
for some λ ∈R.
Since
3
, 2 0.
1
OP l OP
| `
→ →

⊥ ⋅ − ·

. ,
B
A
N
Π
3
Π
1
Π
2
l
Now
4 3 3
2 2 0
5 1
λ
λ
λ
− + | ` | `

− ⋅ − ·

+
. , . ,
12 9 4 5 0
14 7
λ λ λ
λ
∴ − + + + + ·
·

1
2
λ ·
1
4 3
2
5
1 1
2 2
2 2
11
1
5
2
OP
| ` | `
− +

. ,

− | `

| `
∴ · − · −

. ,

. ,

| `
+

. , . ,
(ii)
3 5 3 20 10
1 1
2 2 2 38 19
2 2
1 11 1 16 8
OP
− | ` | ` | ` | ` | `

× − · − × − · ·

. , . , . , . , . ,
10
19 0
8
| `

∴ ⋅ ·

. ,
r
The cartesian equation is
10 19 8 0 x y z + + ·
.
Remark: Better to use
4
0
5
− | `

. ,
OP

.
(iii)
4 3 2
2 3
5 1
k
λ
λ
λ
− + | ` | `

− ⋅ · −

+
. , . ,
8 6 2 5 3 k λ λ λ − + − + + · −

3 (7 2 ) 3 k λ − + − · −

7 2 0 k ⇒ − ·

7
2
k ⇒ ·
OR Use point P (or any point on l).

5
2
2
1 3
11 1
2
k
| `

| `

− ⋅ · −

. ,

. ,
Alt. Since l lies in Π
2
,
2
1
l k
| `

. ,
.

2 3
2 0
1 1
k
| ` | `

⋅ − ·

. , . ,
6 2 1 0 k − + ·

7
2
k ·
(iv)
Let θ be the angle between planes
1
Π
and
2
Π
.
7
2
10 2
19
8 1
cos
525 17.25
θ
| ` | `

. , . ,
·

6.8 θ ∴ ·
o
(v) The system of equations is
10 19 8 0
7
2 3
2
2 7
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + ·
+ + · −
+ + ·
Hence the augmented matrix is
7
2
10 19 8 0
2 1 3
1 2 1 7
| `

. ,
Using GC, the RREF is
1 0 3 0
0 1 2 0
0 0 0 1
− | `

. ,
The last row
0 1 ⇒ ·
impossible!
Therefore, there is no solution. The system is inconsistent.
Hence the three planes
1
Π
,
2
Π
and
3
Π
do not intersect.
Alt. l is the line of intersection of Π
1
and Π
2
.
Check to see if l intersects with Π
3
.

2 x y z + +
=( ) ( ) ( ) 4 3 2 2 5 λ λ λ − + + − + +
= 1
≠ 7
∴ l does not intersect with Π
3
.
Hence the 3 planes do not intersect at any common point.
4
Since
2 6
4 5 32
6 4
| ` | `

− · −

. , . ,
g
and
2 5
4 1 24
6 3
| ` | `

− ·

. , . ,
g
, thus the point (2, 4, 6) lies on
1
π
and
2
π
.
Direction vector of line l =
6 5 19 1
5 1 38 19 2
4 3 19 1
− | ` | ` | ` | `

− × − · − · −

− −
. , . , . , . ,
.
Thus
2 1
4 2 : , .
6 1
r l λ λ
| ` | `

· + ∈

. , . ,
¡
3
2 1 4 2
: 4 2 3 4
6 1 2 6
r π λ µ
] | ` | ` | ` | `
]
· + + −
]

]

. , . , . , . , ]
=
2 1 2
4 2 1 , ,
6 1 4
λ µ λ µ
| ` | ` | `

+ + − ∈

− −
. , . , . ,
¡
Normal vector of
3
π
=
1 2 9
2 1 2 2
1 4 5
9
5
− | ` | ` | ` | `

× − · · − −

− − −
. , . , . , . ,
.
Thus
3
9 2 9
: 2 4 2 40
5 6 5
r π
| ` | ` | `

− · − ·

. , . , . ,
g g
.
Thus Cartesian equation of
3
π
is
9 2 5 40 x y z − + ·
.
The system of linear equations represents the intersection between
1 2 3
, a . nd π π π

Since l is a common line to
1 2 3
, a , nd π π π
thus the system has an infinite number of
solutions.
Since
4
π
is parallel to
3
π
, the planes
1 2 4
, and π π π
will form an infinite triangular
prism.
5. (i) AC = OC – OA = 4j + 3k – (2i + 2k) = −2i + 4j + k
Length of side AC = |AC| = 21 1 16 4 · + +
(ii) AB = OB – OA = −2i + k – (2i + 2k) = −4i – i
AB.AC =
7 1 8
1
4
2
1
0
4
· − ·

,
`

.
|−

,
`

.
|

Let ∠ BAC = θ .
cos θ =
21 17
7
1 16 4 1 16
7
·
+ + +
·
| AC || AB |
AC . AB
0
3 68. · θ ⇒
(iii) Vector perpendicular to AB and AC
= AB x AC =

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|−

,
`

.
|

8
3
2
2
16
6
4
1
4
2
1
0
4
x

,
`

.
|
−8
3
2
is perpendicular to the lines AB and AC.
Vector equation of plane ABC is

12
8
3
2
2
0
2
8
3
2
− ·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

. . r
Cartesian equation of plane ABC is
2x + 3y – 8z = −12
(iv) OG = i + j ，　OH = i + j + λ k
GH =

,
`

.
|
λ
0
0
H lies on plane ABC. Then
8
17
17 8
12 ) ( 8 ) 1 ( 3 ) 1 ( 2
12
8
3
2
1
1
12
8
3
2
OH
· λ ⇒
· λ ⇒
− · λ − + ⇒
− ·

,
`

.
|

]
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
λ

− ·

,
`

.
|

GH =

,
`

.
|
8
17
0
0
|GH| =
8
17
Height of pole GH =
8
17
（or 2.125m）

find a vector equation of the line   3   l in the form r = a + λb .  −5  = −32 and  −4    5 π 2 : r. [3] (ii) Find a cartesian equation of the plane Π 1 containing O and l . the acute angle between l and Π 3 . the foot of the perpendicular from the origin O to l. [3] A third plane Π 3 has cartesian equation x + 2 y + z = 7 . Find the vector equation of the plane π 3 and express it in the form ax + by + cz = d. [4] 3  −4   3     A line l has equation r =  0  + λ  −2  . [2] 2 Find the angle between the planes Π 1 and Π 2 . k ∈ ¡ . 5 1     (i) Find the position vector of P . Show 1   7 that k = . [3] (iv) (v) 4  6   Verify that the point (2. 6) lies on the plane π 1 and π 2 . Given that π 1 and π 2 meet in the line l. 4. giving your answer in degrees. λ ∈ ¡ . . Determine the nature of the intersection of the three planes Π 1 .(i) (ii) the distance of A from Π 3 . Π 2 and Π 3 . such that π 1 : r. [4] The plane π 3 contains the line l and passes through the point with position vector 4i + 3j + 2k.  −1 = 24 . [3] (iii) 2   It is given that l also lies in a plane Π 2 with equation r ⋅  k  = −3 .

[2] [2] 5 As part of a sculpture. [2] [4] iii) Show that 2i + 3j – 8k is perpendicular to the lines AB and AC. 3) B(− 0. Hence find the Cartesian equation of the plane ABC. ii) Find the scalar product AB•AC. EB and FC. 2) D x i) Find the length of the side AC. The plane π 4 is parallel to π 3 and has equation 9 x − 2 y + 5 z = 50 . The coordinates of triangle are A(2. and the angle BAC. 1) and C(0. and Oz is vertical. 3). 1. π 2 and π 4 . Comment on the geometrical representation of the 3 planes π 1 . z C(0. that the system of equations 6 x − 5 y − 4 z = −32 5 x − y + 3 z = 24 9 x − 2 y + 5 z = 40 has an infinite number of solutions. 1) E O y F A(2. [5] . 0.[4] Deduce. an artist erects a flat triangular sheet ABC in his garden. 2. 4. 0. Calculate the height of the pole if H is to lie in the plane ABC. 0. 2). with units in metres. 4. 0). [4] iv) The artist decides to erect another vertical pole GH based at the point G(1. B(–2. The vertices are attached to vertical poles DA. The coordinate axes Ox and Oy are horizontal. or prove otherwise.

λ ∈ ¡ Equation of l1 is r = 0  −1      −2   −3  Equation of l2 is r =  1  + µ  1  . λ = 3 and µ = −2 which satisfies (3) since R. −3). where p is the shortest dist from A to l1 and AE =  2    AE  10    ∴p= 2 2 × 140 = 4 2 35 .H. −1.S of (3) = 7 + 5( − 2) = − 3 = L.Solution 1(i) 1 1  2  + λ  −1 .  −3   1   1  .H.S of (3) .  −1      5   −1  9 3 3     cosθ = = = 35 3 35 3 35 ∴ sin θ = 1 − cos 2 θ = 1 − 27 2 2 = 35 35 (iii)  −6  p sin θ = . we have from (1) & (2). ∴ l1 and l2 intersect and the coordinates of E is (4. µ ∈ ¡ 7 5     1(ii) If 1 + λ = −2 − 3µ ----(1) and 2 − λ = 1 + µ ----(2) and − λ = 7 + 5µ ----(3).

(c)  −7   2   8   7   −7  uu uu uu      uu ur r ur      AB ′ = AB + 2 BN =  18  −  0  + 2  −16  =  −14  //  14  (shown)  −1   2   8   13   −13             −7   2   −9   3 uu       ur   AB =  18  −  0  =  18  = −3  −6   −1   2   −3  1         3  1     Two vectors // to Π2 are  −6  and  −2  . 2) Π1 B’ −7 + λ − 2 ( 18 − 2λ ) − 1 + λ = 4 ⇒ λ = 8  −7 + 8   1  uu  ur    ON = 18 − 2 ( 8 )  =  2  (shown)  −1 + 8   7      Perpendicular distance 2. =  7   −1  1        2  1       0  ⋅  −2  = 2 + 2 = 4 .2. (b)  1   −7  1 uu uu uu     ur ur ur   BN = ON − OB =  2  −  18  = 8  −2  = 8 1 + 4 + 1 = 8 6 . −1) Π2 l n1 N A (2. Therefore point A lies in Π1. 1 1     . (a) 1   Π1 : r ⋅  − 2  = 4 1    −7  1     lBN : r =  18  + λ  −2  . λ ∈ ¡  −1  1      −7 + λ  uu  ur  ON = 18 − 2λ  for some λ ∈ ¡  −1 + λ     −7 + λ   1      Thus.  18 − 2λ  ⋅  −2  = 4  −1 + λ   1      B (−7. 18. 0. (Verified)  2  1      2.

(d)(i)  2  2  2       r ⋅1 =  0⋅1 = 4 .6° (to 1 dec. Therefore.  0   2. n 2 =  1  .) BN 8 6 Π2 l N A Π1 B Π3 2. Also. uu ur u u u u ur ur AN = ON − OA  1   2   −1        =  2 −  0 =  2  7  2  5        = 1 + 4 + 25 = 30 Acute angle between l and Π3 = AN 30 R ABN = tan −1 = tan −1 = 15. pl. 3   1   −4   2          −6  ×  −2  =  −2  = −2  1  1 1  0 0          2   Vector perpendicular to Π2.  0  2  0        2   Equation of Π 2 : r ⋅  1  = 4 0   Distance A from Π3. point A lies in Π2.(d)(ii) Qn 3 (i) Suggested Solutions Vectors →  −4 + 3λ    Since P lies on l . 1   .  5+λ    → →  3   Since OP ⊥ l . OP⋅  −2  = 0. OP =  −2λ  for some λ ∈ R .

 −4    → Remark: Better to use  0  instead of OP .  5    −4 + 3λ   2       −2λ  ⋅  k  = −3  5+λ  1     −8 + 6λ − 2 kλ + 5 + λ = − 3 −3 + (7 − 2k )λ = −3 ⇒ 7 − 2k = 0 7 ⇒ k= 2 OR Use point P (or any point on l). (iii) . −4 + 3λ   3      Now  −2λ  ⋅  −2  = 0  5+λ   1      ∴ − 12 + 9λ + 4λ + 5 + λ = 0 14λ = 7 1 λ= 2   1   −4 + 3  2       −5  →  1  1  ∴ OP =  −2    =  −2  2  2    11   1   5+   2   (ii) →  3  1  −5   3  1  20  10            OP ×  −2  =  −2  ×  −2  =  38  = 19   1  2  11   1  2  16   8             10    ∴ r ⋅  19  = 0 8   The cartesian equation is 10 x + 19 y + 8 z = 0 .

10   2  19  ⋅  7    2  8  1     cos θ = 525 ⋅ 17. 1    2  3      ∴  k  ⋅  −2  = 0 1  1      6 − 2k + 1 = 0 7 k= 2 (iv) Let θ be the angle between planes Π 1 and Π 2 .25 ∴ θ = 6.8o (v) The system of equations is 10 x + 19 y + 8 z = 0 7 2 x + y + z = −3 2 x + 2y + z = 7  10 19 8 0    Hence the augmented matrix is  2 7 1 −3  2 1 2 1 7   . 5  − 2   2      −1  ⋅  k  = − 3  11   1       2  2   Alt. Since l lies in Π 2. l ⊥  k  .

 −1   −4   −5  5         . 4. λ .    6   −4  6  3         6   5   −19  1         Direction vector of line l =  −5  ×  −1 =  −38  = −19  2  .  −4   3   19   −1          2 1     Thus l : r =  4  + λ  2  . x + 2y + z = ( −4 + 3λ ) + 2 ( −2λ ) + ( 5 + λ ) =1 ≠7 ∴ l does not intersect with Π 3. Hence the three planes Π 1 . 1 0 −3 0    Using GC. there is no solution. 6) lies on π 1 and π 2 . l is the line of intersection of Π 1 and Π 2. 4  2  6   2  5        Since  4 g −5  = −32 and  4 g −1 = 24 . The system is inconsistent. the RREF is  0 1 2 0  0 0 0 1   ⇒ 0 = 1 impossible! The last row Therefore. Alt. Π 2 and Π 3 do not intersect. λ ∈ ¡ . µ ∈ ¡   6  −1   −1   −4   2   6    6                  1   2   −9  9         Normal vector of π 3 =  2  ×  −1  =  2  = −  −2  . 6  −1      4   2    2   2 1 1  2              π 3 : r =  4  + λ  2  + µ   3  −  4   =  4  + λ  2  + µ  −1  . Hence the 3 planes do not intersect at any common point. thus the point (2. Check to see if l intersects with Π 3.

 3  =  0  .AC =  0  •  4  = 8 −1 = 7  −1   1       9   2  9       Thus π 3 : r g −2  =  4 g −2  = 40 . (i) AC = OC – OA = 4j + 3k – (2i + 2k) = − + 4j + k 2i Length of side AC = |AC| = 4 +16 +1 = 21 (ii) AB = OB – OA = − + k – (2i + 2k) = − – i 2i 4i − 4  − 2     AB. Then . Since π 4 is parallel to π 3 .  3  = −12 −8  2  − 8        Cartesian equation of plane ABC is 2x + 3y – 8z = − 12 (iv) OG = i + j ，　OH = i + j + λ k 0    GH =  0  λ   H lies on plane ABC. thus the system has an infinite number of solutions. π 2 and π 3 . Since l is a common line to π 1 . π 2 and π 3 .3 0 = cos θ = | AB || AC | = 16 + 1 4 + 16 + 1 17 21 AB . the planes π 1 .    5   6  5       Let ∠ BAC = θ . The system of linear equations represents the intersection between π 1 . π 2 and π 4 will form an infinite triangular prism.AC 7 7 (iii) Vector perpendicular to AB and AC − 4  − 2   4   2          = AB x AC =  0  x  4  =  6  = 2  3   −1   1   −16  −8          2    ∴  3  is perpendicular to the lines AB and AC.5. Thus Cartesian equation of π 3 is 9 x − 2 y + 5 z = 40 . ⇒ θ = 68 .  −8    Vector equation of plane ABC is  2  2   2        r .

 2    OH •  3  = −12 − 8     1   2      ⇒  1  •  3  = −12 λ  − 8      ⇒ 2(1) + 3(1) − 8(λ) = −12 ⇒ 8λ = 17 ⇒ λ= 17 8   0    GH =  0  17   8  17 |GH| = 8 Height of pole GH = 17 （or 2.125m） 8 .