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Editorial
C’MUN 2011. The School of Values

Pàg. 4 - C’MUN 2011: A Team Work Victory C’MUN 2011, the Model United Nations of Barcelona Pàg. 8 - Once Upon a Time… Training session Pàg. 9 - The Crisis of Myanmar Crisis sessions Pàg. 10 - The Crisis of Myanmar and the Reform of the Security Council Security Council Pàg. 14 - Right to Health versus Patents / Right to Free Flow of Information versus Copyrights Human Rights Council Pàg. 18 - International Taxes to Fight Poverty and the Economic Crisisa Economic and Financial Committee Pàg. 24 - Gender and Migration The Ad Hoc Committee of the Alliance of Civilizations Pàg. 26 - Traditions versus Animal Welfare UNESCO Pàg. 30 - Towards the End of Tobacco? World Health Organization Pàg. 33 - The North Pole’s Future International Court of Justice Pàg. 36 - The Importance of Journalism Press Team

UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION OF SPAIN Honorary Presidents Francesc Casares Potau Lluís Armet Coma Marina Bru Purón President Eduard Sagarra i Trias 1st Vice-president Xavier Pons Ràfols 2nd Vice-president Lídia Santos i Arnau Secretary Joan Soler Martí Treasurer Antoni Sabaté Boza Vocals Ildefons Valls i Torné Rafael Jorba i Castellví Pablo Pareja Alcaraz Albert Barbany i Hurtado Xavier Fernández Pons Director Àngels Mataró Pau Assistant to Direction Xavier Guerrero Fernández Staff Ariadna Quintero Valderrama Raül Jiménez Jiménez Teresa Visa Pérez Bernat Comes Llovera Eirene Ramos Nuño Pablo Rodríguez-Aguilera

C’MUN 2010 Magazine Design, layout and coordination Bernat Comes Raül Jiménez Eirene Ramos C’MUN 2010 Magazine Contributors Vera Ríos Madoka Shimura Lourdes Pistón Stela Zarija Laura Martínez Inés Valera Irene Cortés Caroline Bach Printed by Masanas Gràfiques c/ Moles, 31, baixos 08010 Barcelona Legal deposit B 32.843-92
The UNA Spain magazine’s editorial board does not necessarily agree with the opinions expressed by its collaborators. The magazine’s editorial board reserves its right to alter the titles, highlights or texts according to its professional opinion

All the photos of this magazine are by Pablo Rodríguez-Aguilera, except: page 5, Carmen Méndez speech (ADDA), and Manuel Manonelles speech (Bernat Comes); page 6, visit to the Sagrada Família (Joan Soler); page 7, crisis meeting (Eirene Ramos); pages 8-9-10, training, and crisis at the Security Council (Caroline Bach); page 37, press team (Raül Jiménez); and pages 38-39, C’MUN 2011 staff (Bernat Comes).

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Editorial

C’MUN 2011. The School of Values
Allow us to do an introduction focused, rather than on praising the virtues of the sixth edition of C’MUN, on highlighting the necessity for activities such as this one, that needs to be guaranteed, because everybody is aware of the context of global crisis in which this event has been held. A crisis that affects with cruelty an Association that will arrive to its 50th anniversary in 2012. Focused on defending one of the main causes of UNA-Spain: the Model United Nations of Barcelona, C’MUN. Why do we say C’MUN is necessary? Because it goes beyond the practical usefulness of the Model United Nations, in terms of the exercise linked directly to learning about the international organisation and its functioning. Because it also goes beyond a highly recommended experience for anyone interested in international relations, maybe even an impulse to guide their future careers to this field. Because C’MUN, as a simulation, is much more. It is a school of values. Universality: The international will of C’MUN comes from ANUE’s history, and it is expressed in the topics treated in each edition and its participation, always open to everyone. Plurality: 400 students from more than 90 different universities, more than 50 nationalities representing all the continents. A true UN of the youth to simulate the real United Nations. Dialogue: As every Model does, the debate is the central point of the activity, always in search of consensus. Work: The responsability of the delegate participating starts months in advance, with the necessary preparation of the country/actor to represent, and then, it becomes an intense activity during the days of the simulation. Empathy: C’MUN aims to make the participants put themselves in the delegates shoes. To be a good delegate, one has to understand the other. This element of the simulation is an unpayable value, which is not taught in schools or textbooks and is more valuable if it fits in the current context (if you follow the news, you know what we are talking about). Convivence: Perhaps the other most precious value, and forgive us the immodesty, is that C’MUN is a vital experience that is hard to compare to another. C’MUN is not only a useful activity intended to train future professionals, but an activity that seeks to educate people. Something much more important in times like the ones we are living nowadays, where injustices, excesses of those in power, and social imbalances are more evident than ever. Having defended our cause, we have only one question to resolve, how was the sixth C’MUN? Well, said it in a nutshell, it was the best edition of our model... so far. You will see it in these pages.

ANUE and C’MUN staff at the Parliament of Catalonia.

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C’MUN 2011, the Model United Nations of Barcelona

C’MUN 2011: A Team Work Victory
Raül Jiménez. Secretary-General of C’MUN 2011.

The world situation –the world seems to be ready to impress us at any moment–, and the state and local situation –crisis, budget cuts, football– that we are suffering causes craziness and a downhearted spirit. This also happens at ANUE. But instead of that, from 6th to 9th of April we committed ourselves to offer more and more new features in order to create the best possible edition of our Model of United Nations. This is the chronology, as an article, about those days. April 6th. Simulating Sant Jordi and filling up the Parliament The first big new feature occurred on Wednesday morning, with the celebration at Cosmo Caixa of the first training session of the C’MUN. The activity, one of the greatest wishes by those who organized the model, gave the opTwo pictures of the opening ceremony of C’MUN at the Parliament of Catalonia. From left to right, Eirene Ramos, Deputy SecretaryGeneral of C’MUN; Manel Camós, Director of the European Commission Office of Barcelona; Eduard Sagarra, President of UNA-Spain; Núria de Gispert, President of the Parliament of Catalonia; Armando Peruga, director of the Tobacco Free Initiative; Manel Vila, Commissioner of the Barcelona City Council; and Raül Jiménez, Secretary-General of C’MUN.

portunity to the delegates with less experience to have a space to solve their doubts, and in a peculiar and original way –we are the first ones in “transferring” the legend of Sant Jordi to the United Nations– could see with a practice form what they were going to find the following day. In addition, we could divide the registry of the delegates, carried out between Cosmo Caixa and the head office of the ANUE. Later, we went towards the Parliament of Catalonia, being the second new feature of this year, for the C’MUN opening ceremony. There, we could confirm with satisfaction that definitely there were not volcanoes at first sight –I couldn’t trust them anymore…– and that the room was too small for so many people. At the opening ceremony the presidency table was formed by Núria de Gispert, President of the Parliament of Catalonia; Manel Vila, commissioner of the City hall of Barcelona; Manel

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C’MUN 2011 guest speakers: Juan Sebastián Mateos, Armando Peruga, Carmen Méndez, and Manuel Manonelles, during their speeches on the first day of sessions.

Camós, director of the Office of the European Commission in Barcelona; Dr. Armando Peruga, director of the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative; Eduard Sagarra, president of the ANUE, and the staff responsible for C’MUN and the presidents of the commissions. There was time for reflections on social politics, to talk about values, to present the topics of debate, to listen to the opening speech by Dr. Peruga, and also to sing “Happy birthday to you” to the president. And after that the reception closed the first working day of C’MUN. April 7th. From the death of Aun San Suu Kyi to Hard Rock Cafe The working day started in the morning of the 7th of April at CosmoCaixa, and they did it with another qualitative step forward: with four guest speakers: Juan Sebastián Mateos, desk officer for the Alliance of Civilizations of the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Carmen Méndez, president of the Association Defending Animal Rights; Manel Manonelles, director of UBUNTU, and the Doctor already mentioned Armando Peruga. Thanks to them, the commission of the Alliance, the UNESCO, the Economic and Financial committee and the WHO listened to their opinions, showing the delegates that what they were going to simulate was a reality at the agenda of the United Nations. The third new feature occurred without us having to wait, and it happened in the way of

a crisis, not an economic one –which wouldn’t have been a surprise–, but as the outbreak of a conflict –fictitious– in Myanmar. The emergency situation was prepared with the pretension of stimulating the delegates’ capacity of reaction, their “reflexes” and knowledge about the country that they represented. It was one of the most stimulating new features of C’MUN 2011, and it affected the sessions of the Security Council, the Human Rights Council and the Alliance of Civilizations, who got together “with the utmost urgency” due to the complexion that the conflict took after the death of the Nobel Peace Prize awarded and pro-human rights activist, Aun San Suu Kyi among the uprising occurring in her country. The crisis, in its conception and design, was moving from Middle East to Asia, –sometimes truth is stranger than fiction–, and it had been designed in the previous months by the C’MUN team, producing the necessary information and coordinating the tasks with the press team so that the outbreak and the escalation of the crisis could take place in a more realistic way within the simulation. For me, creating such an activity from the void, and having done it in the wonderful atmosphere of the C’MUN team meetings, has been one of the most stimulating aspects in these six editions of our simulation.

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C’MUN 2011 side events: three pictures of the UN Quiz, and one of the visit to Sagrada Família.

In the afternoon, once the working period of the first day was over, with the crisis being about to be solved in the Security Council and in the Human Rights Council, with different approaches; and the rest of the commissions fully working, the day was closed at Hard Rock Café, where we celebrated the 3rd edition of C’MUN Quiz. Regarding the quiz, given the facilities and support offered by Hard Rock Staff, and also taking into account that it is a centric place; we could finally have a proper quiz. Certainly the winners of the event, after the tough series of questions regarding the International Organization, as well as the hundreds of participants who took part in this enjoyable and original evening, thought it in the same way. April 8th. Cultural Friday The sessions resumed on Friday morning, and we could verify that the delegates were confronting the debates with effectiveness, so it seemed like reaching the eagerly awaited resolutions the following day was a close reality. The relaxed atmosphere favored the greater personal implication at the debates, while I could have time to write for the Clarion, to get involved in the debates, or to prepare some incentives for the sake of progress of the debates, introducing deciding actors. (For exam-

ple, Japan at the Security Council to come up with the topic of the organization reform.) After a short session in the afternoon, the fourth new feature occurred. The delegates of C’MUN, organized in four groups depending on their election, went on cultural tours to the Pedrera, Sagrada Familia, MNAC and F.C.Barcelona museum. These institutions generously collaborated with the ANUE enriching the experience of the delegates in Barcelona. 9th. Skin Deep emotions The last day was different to the past years editions, when we had to achieve the agreements in the last seconds under extreme tension. After six years being that way, when everything went so smoothly it was something out of schedule. If we sum up all I have previously said, plus the hard and unfair moments that ANUE were and is suffering to be able to carry out the C’MUN; and also trying our best to recognize the previous months of hard daily work of the Association and the great work of the C’MUN staff, who worked enthusiastically and hopefully. The result is a closing ceremony where the emotions overcame the habitual protocol in this type of events. But this only adds mythology to the “legend” that tells that C’MUN is something spe-

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cial, and proves that people who are part of the ANUE are a cut above the rest. Formally concluded the simulation, there were still time for the fifth and the final new feature: the farewell party organized by the Association in the noble hall of the Industrial School, thanks to the Council of Barcelona, closing definitely the fantastic C’MUN 6th Edition four days. Special and sincere thanks The final paragraph of this article can just be dedicated to the people who, as far as possible, took part in the process of making C’MUN 2011 a great success. Thanks to your motivation and interest, we, the responsible for the simulation, could achieve new challenges, for example the long-awaited crisis and training session, activities that we had wished to include as parts of C’MUN for a long time. This new

C’MUN feature went in the interest of the model quality. And, even more important, thanks to let us enjoy ourselves with you during our staff meetings, preparing sessions, working days together… With pride we can say loud that C’MUN 2011 had a real team, and it was the best one. And thanks to that brilliant team we can just have the best C’MUN ever. Thank you.

On the top, the closing ceremony of C’MUN 2011 at CosmoCaixa. on the middle, some C’MUN staff members preparing the crisis at UNA-Spain Headquarters. And, finally, staff, chairs and press team of C’MUN at the farewell party.

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Training session Once Upon a Time…
Eirene Ramos. Deputy Secretary-General of C’MUN 2011.
When you participate in a MUN, you probably would find the mechanism and rules of procedure a bit complicated to understand. This is especially true if you don’t have a lot of experience or if it is your first time. So, to start with the sixth edition of C’MUN with one of the several new features, we carried out a training session about the rules of procedure in the morning of the first day at Cosmo Caixa, the same day the registration was held, so that the participants who had no previous experience could take the opportunity to see how everything works. We tried to make the training session more pleasant for the participants by combining the theoretical explanations with enjoyable and original practices. We had the idea of the so-called Training Session in mind since we started to plan this sixth edition. After we had a meeting with the great team who formed the organization of this year’s C’MUN, we decided to use the legend of Sant Jordi (Saint George) and the dragon (which is very famous in Catalonia) as the story where the delegates would decide their position. This legend tells that a dragon besieges a small village, ravaging the population and domestic animals. To pacify the dragon, the king every day would send a person, who was chosen randomly, to the monster, so that the monster could eat him/her. And then, one inauspicious day, the same fate befell the king’s daughter. Fortunately, she could have a narrow escape thanks to an armored knight who confronted the dragon and killed it. In our case, the knight was replaced by the delegates, who had to put the rules of procedure into practice after the theoretical explication. Delegates were divided in groups related

to the committees the would participate in on the following days, and through some arguments connected to the topics they would discuss in the next sessions at C’MUN, they had to decide whether to kill the dragon or not. After ten minutes of unmoderated caucus, and under the direction of the person who would fill the role of their chairs lately, each commission chose a spokesperson to argue their decision regarding the monster. While the UNESCO came to the animal defense, suggesting that it would be necessary to create a nature reserve where the dragon could live because it was an animal in danger of extinction; the World Health Organization was in favor of killing the dragon because the panicky and uncertainty situation in the village was causing big stress and mental health problems to the population. And so, each commission set out their arguments against or in favor. Furthermore, suddenly and contrary to the delegations expectations, the group of the dragons tried to pressure into the decision of participates saying that this would end up in a war if they killed the dragon. But these threats didn’t achieve distress of the commissions, because the final result by simple majority pronounced judgment in favor of killing the dragon and keep the princess alive. The delegates supposed that this would be the hardest decision during those days. But what happened is that they did not know that what we had prepared a lot of surprises for them… But what it is certain is that finally, and like in all fairytales, all delegates “lived the experience happily ever after!”.

Two pictures of the training session of C’MUN 2011.

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Crisis sessions

The Crisis of Myanmar
Mary Michele Connellan. Delegate of Myanmar at the Security Council in C’MUN 2011. Master of Citizenship and human rights, Universitat de Barcelona.

In the spirit of representing a completely realistic UN Model, the C’MUN team created what would be a “crisis” to take place throughout the course of the UN simulation. Added to the already proposed topics of debate, the delegates in each committee were to deal with a “real life crisis” in Myanmar, former Burma. The crisis was so well constructed that most people believed it to be true, as they were given video footage and various articles regarding the situation published in The Clarion, the official newspaper for the United Nations Model of Barcelona. The crisis, which was constructed to represent a realistic situation that could possibly happen during any UN conference gave the delegates the opportunity to not only respond to topics which they had prepared for, but also to be able to respond instinctively in the moment of a significant global situation. They were told that the military government of Myanmar had attacked innocent civilians during a protest, and later that the inspirational activist and democratic voice of Myanmar, Aung San Suu Kiy had been killed in the clash with the military. This crisis affected mostly the Security Council and the Human Rights Council, as well as The Alliance of Civilizations. As part of the construction of the crisis, the C’MUN staff had prepped two delegates to represent

the military government of Myanmar, myself, Mary Michele Connellan to deliver a report to the Security Council, and the Alliance of Civilizations, and Renata Pumarol who defended the position of the military government in the Human Rights Council. What we were to witness in the unfolding of the crisis was an unfortunate lack of commitment to the protection of the rights of the civilians in Myanmar by the Human Rights Council. It seemed as though the charismatic influence of the military representative, Renata Pumarol had managed to persuade the delegates in the Human Rights Council that the situation did not call for any international intervention. On the other hand, while the Security Council members could also have taken a stronger stance against the military government of Myanmar, they were wisely influenced by a report from the chair person of The Alliance of Civilizations, and they finally passed a resolution which did more to protect human rights in the region. Overall, the outcome of the crisis was positive, the delegates learnt how to tackle issues in an urgent manner, and then realised the consequences of their decisions. Although a crisis may require quick and efficient strategies, the implications of any actions, or lack thereof need to be thought well through before passing any resolutions.

The Security Council receives the message of the SecretaryGeneral of C’MUN informing about the death of Aung San Suu Kiy.

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Security Council

The Crisis of Myanmar and the Reform of the Security Council
Guillermo Serra. Chair of the Security Council in C’MUN 2011. University of Essex.

The Security Council during the first day of sessions.

The sixth edition of C’MUN –my second time participating in this model UN-, was full of surprises. The debate started in the Security Council just after nine o’clock on Thursday, and as an unanimous decision, we started debating the Security Council Reform. Since the first debate, Brazil and India expressed their interest regarding the expansion of the committee and its candidacy as permanents members of the Council. Afterwards, the delegates had to face up a humanitarian crisis in Myanmar. Keeping in mind the statements from the Secretary General and the Alliance of Civilisations, the delegates noticed the severity of the case and the urgency of solving that crisis in an effective and rigid way. During the debate the delegate of Myanmar in the General Assembly was invited according to the Article 32 of the Charter of the United Nations, so that she could answer some questions and clear up the situation in Myanmar regarding the death of Aung San Suu Kiy and the likely human rights violation on a large scale. The delegate of Myanmar assured that the government had nothing to do with those violations of human rights, that it was insurgence groups’ responsibility.

During the debate and the unmoderated caucus regarding the situation in Myanmar; Bosnia and Herzegovina, China and India showed their leadership. Bosnia worked hard on the respect of human rights in this area and urged the rest of the countries to take a more clear-cut position on the humanitarian crisis. India, on the other hand, worked on the prevention of the migration flow, topic that also concerned China, as both countries are neighbours of Myanmar in Southeast Asia. The resolution put forward by India and the United Kingdom was voted at midday on Friday, with the support of the majority of the committee. However, China, the Russian Federation and South Africa decided to abstain. The delegates were immediately interested in reintroducing the debate regarding the Security Council reform, in spite of the insistent pressure exerted by the United States in order to postpone the debate and/or close it, the delegations took advantage of the speeches made by the democrat government of the United States, specially its commitment with India, and the representation of the African continent. For the sake of the debate, the delegation of Japan was invited as member of the G4 and the second largest contributor to the peace-keeping missions of the United Nations. Japan intervention caused disagreement

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from China and India; China would not accept the permanent position of Japan, and India knew that the Council would not accept two members from the same block. In the last session, the delegations of Brazil, South Africa and the United Kingdom made a document where Brazil, India and South Africa were included as permanent members, apart from increasing the non-permanent seats in two. The selection of non-permanent seats also changed, holding eight seats for two years of membership, and adding four seats of five years of membership. At the end of the meeting, twelve members of Council voted in favor, Germany and the United States abstained, and Lebanon voted against the resolution. The Delegation of Lebanon asked to explain his vote, and with this intervention the committee closed the sessions. This resolution was of vital importance for the African and Latinamerican and Caribbean block. Apart from achieveing a permanent representation at the Council, they also expanded their non- permanent seats. Germany, that had aspirations to a permanent seat, hardly achieved preference in the upcoming selection of non-permanent members. Japan, who acted as a guest, could not keep the pressure on the delegates of the Council, as it had to leave the committee to the voting process. Lebanon was the most affected nation by this resolution as far as the current members of the Security Council is concerned, because Arabian countries lost their representation in the Council. Since its participation in the Middle East Group (1946-1965), its representation in the African or Asiatic block –a seat at random between these two blocks- (1966-2011), until its total loss of representation mandated by this resolution. Bosnia and Herzegovina neither succeded in achieving representation in the Security Council for the East European Block. The delegate of Bosnia pointed out that the number of seats were ten in 1966 and it expanded until 23 in 2011. Bosnia barely managed to keep a seat for its block or a shared randomly one with the group of Western European countries and others. Despite the fact that the two resolutions were presented in the weekend, from my point of view the delegates should have deepened in the Security Council reform and not only focused on article 23 concerning the number of members and powers, leaving aside the procedural reforms and laws concerning Article 30 of the Charter. I also believe that during the crisis in Myanmar the potentially fraudulent elections of 2010 and the light sentences to cases of torture sponsored by the Union of the Republic of Myanmar should have been highlighted. This edition of C’MUN has been one of the most intense experiences in my training in Model UN. It had a high level of debate and a rapid response to the crisis. I hope to work again with this group of delegates, with the team at UNA-Spain, and the other committee chairmen. Hope to see you all in an upcoming edition of C’MUN

The delegates of the Security Council.

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C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona S/RES/1/ 2011

Security Council
The Situation of Human Rights in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar Adopted by the Security Council on 8 April 2011 The Security Council,

Distr.: General 8 April 2011

Guided by the report of the Secretary General on the situation in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, introduced on the 7th of April of the present year, Reaffirming that all Member States have an obligation to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms and the duty to fulfill the obligations they have undertaken under the various international instruments in this field, Taking into consideration the previous General Assembly’s resolutions on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, those of the Commission on Human Rights, and the resolutions of the Human Rights Council, Welcoming the report of the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, Fully believing that the Government of Myanmar will cooperate with the international community in order to achieve concrete progress with regard to human rights and fundamental freedoms, 1. Strongly condemns any violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms of the people of Myanmar, namely the conditions in prisons and other detention facilities, and consistent reports of ill-treatment of prisoners of conscience, including torture, and about the moving of prisoners of conscience to isolated prisons far from their families where they cannot receive food and medicine. We also condemn the displacement of large numbers of persons within Myanmar; 2. Urges the cease of violence from all involved parties; 3. Reaffirms the essential importance of a genuine process of dialogue and national reconciliation; 4. Encourages the Government of Myanmar to abide by international and national human rights law; 5. Expresses the hope for ensuring constructive dialogue between the sides of the conflict; 6. Further requests the Government of Myanmar to take into account the needs of the population and economic prosperity; 7. Expresses its deep concern about the resumption of armed conflict in areas where violence is taking place, and is determined to protect civilians and civilian-populated areas. Likewise, calls for the rapid and the unimpeded passage of humanitarian assistance to ensure the safety of humanitarian personnel provided by UN agencies and the International Committee for the Red Cross; 8. Calls upon the Government of Myanmar to find a solution to stop refugee flows into neighboring countries; 9. Further requests the Government of Myanmar to provide, in cooperation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, adequate human rights and international humanitarian law training for its armed forces, police and prison personnel, to ensure their strict compliance with international human rights law and international humanitarian law and to hold them accountable for any violations thereof; 10. Calls upon the Government of Myanmar to engage in a dialogue with the Office of the High Commissioner with a view to ensuring full respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms; 11. Has resolved to: (a). Establish an international commission to investigate the violation of basic human right by all parties involved in tensions with a particular focus on the murder of Aung San Suu Kiy; (b). Provide medical aid and food, apart from basic supplies to be distributed on the territory by UN Agencies, in collaboration with Myanmar authorities; (c). Report to the General Assembly at its sixty-sixth session as well as to the Human Rights Council on the progress made in the implementation of the present resolution; 12. Requests the General Assembly as well as the bodies that act under the auspices of the UN to actively promote economic development and stability in the conflict area; and 13. Decides to remain seized on the matter.

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C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona S/RES/2/ 2011

Security Council
The reform of the Security Council Adopted by the Security Council on 9 April 2011 The Security Council,

Distr.: General 9 April 2011

Recognizing its fundamental responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security according to the Charter of the United Nations, Acknowledging the emergence of new world powers which contribute significantly to the maintenance of peace and security, Aiming at equitable representation of geographical regions with particular attention to developing countries to have their voice strongly heard, Noting that the effectiveness, legitimacy and transparency of the work of the Security Council are the underlying principles the Security Council bases on, Stressing the necessity of a closer cooperation between the Security Council and other UN bodies and agencies, 1. Affirms the current five permanent members: France, Russian Federation, the People`s Republic of China, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America; 2. Decides to extend the Security Council to three new permanent seats, which should be allocated as follows: (a) Brazil from the Latin America and the Caribbean bloc; (b) South Africa from the African bloc; (c) India from the Asian bloc; 3. Approves the changes in the category of non-permanent seats and distinguishes two different terms of mandate: 3.1. Eight two-year non-renewable mandate seats. These seats will be regionally redistributed as follows: (a) Two seats from the African bloc; (b) Two seats from the Asian bloc; (c) Two seats from the Latin American and Caribbean bloc; (d) One seat from the Eastern European bloc; (e) One seat from the Western European and Others bloc; 3.2 Four five-year renewable mandate seats with the possibility of one reelection. These seats will be regionally redistributed as follows: (a) One seat from the Latin American and Caribbean bloc; (b) One seat from the Asian bloc; (c) One seat from the African bloc; (d) One seat to be chosen alternatively from the Western European and Others bloc, and the Eastern European bloc; 4. Declares accordingly that the countries mentioned in sub Article 3.2. may be chosen on a rotating basis within their regional group according to the following criteria: (a) Population; (b) Economic development; (c) Agricultural potential and financial contribution to regional development (d) Engagement in promoting human rights, international peace and security; 5. Recommends Japan and Germany to be the first representatives for the Asian, and Western European and Others blocs, respectively, in the new category established in sub Article 3.2; 6. Accepts a review conference after twenty years in order to reconsider already established solutions as well as to conduct further reforms; 7. Has resolved to improve the working methods of the Security Council in the following ways: (a) Consultations on a regular and more frequent basis between members and non-members of the Security Council; (b). Regular joint meetings of representatives of the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and other UN organs if the topic requires it; (c). Guarantees to hold open briefings and public debates in order to achieve more transparent and democratic accountability; and 8. Decides to remain seized on the matter.

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Human Rights Council

Right to Health versus Patents / Right to Free Flow of Information versus Copyrights
Till Weyers. Chair of the Human Rights Council in C´MUN 2011. Universitat Pompeu Fabra.

The Human Rights Council during the first day ofsessions.

In the 6th edition of the Catalonian Model United Nations, the expectations of the Human Rights Council (HRC) were high, with two actual controversial subjects: regarding medicines, the right of health versus patents; and with regards to the Internet, the free flow of information versus copyrights. The agenda focused on the first point, and so, the debate about the suitable balance between the health rights and the patents started. The delegates were very motivated and, despite the problems that arose with rules of procedure, –for a great majority of the participants it was their first time at C’MUN–, the pace of the debate was fluid and fruitful. However, the delegates could not set out their points of view for some time due to a crisis that affected C’MUN2011. First at the Security Council, and afterwards at the Human Rights Council and at the Ad hoc Council of the Alliance of Civilizations at the General Assembly. The military government of Myanmar had approved an agricultural reform that prompted numerous protests, and the government’s reaction was cruel: they suppressed the protests, assassinated the Nobel Peace Prize awarded, Aung San Suu Kyi, and accused rebel groups of having assassinated both the protestants and the famous leader of the opposition. The delegates of the Human Rights Council spent the rest of day trying to find a solution, which could achieve a consensus of all the committee, and during the whole process, the Under-Secretary General for Chairing, Ambiorix, and some of

the C’MUN staff kept giving new information to the delegates. Moreover, the Deputy Secretary-General, Eirene Ramos, pronounced an official communiqué in which she urged the Committee to meet up with a solution. Numerous working papers were written down and also two resolutions. In the possible resolutions two groups objected: on one hand, fundamental human rights activists, and on the other, some countries like China, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, who still defended the principle of no intervention. With the intention of approving a resolution which embraced the consensus of all the Committee, the two blocks gathered two resolutions changing the operative clause No.1 which did not condemn the authorities of Myanmar for “the violation against civil population”. At the end of the day, the first resolution was approved. However, the next day, it arose tragic news: after break time, the newspaper The Clarion was distributed to the delegates and the reaction on the HRC’s resolution were catastrophic for us. The Secretary General of C’MUN, Raül Jiménez, affirmed that “the Human Rights Council had failed in the promotion of Human Rights” and the NGOs Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch declared that “it was the worst moment of the Human Rights Council”. Both criticized the vagueness of the resolution which did not condemn the violation of the Human Rights by the government of Myanmar, but the violations of human rights in general. The delegates were overcome, since its intention was to find a con-

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sensual answer of the Committee in which all of the opinions were included, but due to that, they lost some important operating clauses. However, it has to be mentioned that the fault of the first resolution motivated the delegates to make the second one better. The HRC continued the theme regarding to the rights of health versus patents. All of the delegates worked without cease in some working papers, and they exposed theirs ideas and tried to reach an agreement. A balanced agreement had to be found between those different rights and it was clear that the developed countries, with big pharmaceutical industries, like the United States, defended patents; while the countries like Brazil and Thailand, which depend on development in medical research and industrial plants, tried to emphasize the right to health. Two more draft resolutions were written and both got better during the unmoderated caucus. The UNESCO also fought to be involved in the documents, since this institution is important to achieve a balanced agreement between both rights. At the end of the afternoon, both planning resolution were merged, as the delegates realized that both had many clauses in common. The chairs rejected as “inappropriate” the proposal of dividing the matter in both resolutions and to include just the approved operative clauses. The final resolution project was presented and was debated productively. Important amendments were approved and some orthographic and grammar errors were eliminated. Particularly, I would like to emphasize the discussion between France and Saudi Arabia in which both could not find an agreement in a specific formulation, and as a result, Saudi Arabia rectified a France’s amendment that, few moments before, the Committee had approved. At the final moment, the International Pirate Party tried to include a clause which expressed the importance of the rights of the intellectual property, but the rest of the committee invalidated the amendment. After a meaningful and fruitful day of debate, the HRC approved the proposal of a merged resolution. The delegates had been extraordinary productive and the chairs were sure that they would gain at least some working paper on the second topic. The final day was started slower than the previous days, since many delegates enjoyed the social and cultural activities of the day before. In spite of that, many countries were motivated to even approve a third resolution. More working papers were written and were discussed in moderated and unmoderated caucus. As we had only the morning session to finish, the delegates had to hurry up to achieve their objective. After the break, the delegates began to write a resolution. Nevertheless, that resolution could not be presented, and it was far from neither being discussed, nor amended, nor approved. In spite of that, the last morning was very productive and the resolution proposed would be a good base for a satisfactory resolution. Personally, C’MUN 2011 was a great experience and I would like to thank all those people who worked for making it possible. Especially, I would like to thank Alkmini-Lydia Mitsikosta, my colleague and co-chair, for her support and incalculable work during these days. And of course, to all the distinguished delegates who strived and worked incessantly at the Committee to obtain exceptional results. I hope that all of you enjoyed it as much as I did!

The delegates of the Human Rights Council.

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C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona HRC/ 2011

Human Rights Council

Distr.: General 8 April 2011

Resolution on the Situation of Human Rights in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar The Human Rights Council, Regarding the UN charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as two principal documents constituting the framework for the achievement of the UN goals, Emphasizing the fact that global peace and stabilization should be perceived as the first and foremost objective of the UN countries, Respecting the authority of the government of Myanmar, 1. Condemns violence towards civil population and encourages the dialogue between the parties involved; 2. Expresses the will of the bordering countries to provide the political refugees from Myanmar with the necessary aid of the UNHCR; 3. Declares the will of the UN to ensure that citizens have all their basic needs met: (a). Access to water; (b). Food; (c). Medical care; 4. Specifies that each country should contribute with aids according to its possibilities; 5. Recognizes only humanitarian intervention, excluding any kind of military intervention, which is in any case beyond the powers of this committee; 6. Stresses that it is within the UNSC competence to take into account the situation of Myanmar.

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C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona HRC/ 2011

Human Rights Council
Resolution on the Right to Health vs. Patents The Human Rights Council,

Distr.: General 8 April 2011

Acting under the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Believing that access to healthcare including the right to obtain sufficient medicines for a reasonable price should be regarded as a Human Right, Bearing in mind the need for intellectual property of pharmaceutical companies protection, Being fully aware of the fact that the contradiction between IP rights and the right to health exists, Noting with a deep concern current situations in some of the developing countries, without access to fundamental medicines, Wishing acting together within the UN community to contribute to the current state of affairs improvement, Acknowledging the Millennium Development Goals, focusing on the goal number 8, Realizing that generic medicines might constitute an ultimate alternative for those remaining in destitution, Believing in the global understanding of the problem and the will of obtaining common solutions to the matter, Further recognizing that a priority of the world states is the health of the population, 1. Proposes the extension of competences of already existing bodies such as the WHO, the Accelerated Access Initiative, WIPO and the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, determining exactly their competences; 2. Encourages the creation and implementation of educational and awareness programs with the collaboration of the WHO and UNESCO, to track and control the course of medicines to the country of destination and to improve infrastructures in developing countries (sewage system, water purification, road and rail network); 3. Proposes the creation of an international fund, with the purpose of investing into research for new cures for diseases or reduction of costs for essential medicines, favoring the countries affected by price increases, taking into account the GDP (giving more consideration to the HDI); managed by a commission created inside a previously existing body such as the UNDP to assist and guarantee the new and previous competences, with an important assistance of any international organization; 4. Declares, accordingly to the TRIPS agreement, the need of promoting public health care and also takes into consideration the necessity of protecting intellectual property in order to promote the research and creation of new medical advances; 5. Strongly urges the creation of an advanced market for drugs of limited profitability to ensure the right to health of all people; one way to accomplish this is through the creation of advanced purchasing funds; another less costly option is an exchange of know-how; 6. Recommends, in collaboration with the WHO and WIPO, an international regulation to unify and specify the definition of a crisis situation, when compulsory licensing is permitted according to the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement of 2001; 7. Suggests the delocalization of the production of pharmaceutical companies in a mutually beneficial way for both developed and developing countries in order to promote the establishment of their own medicine research development and production plants, following the examples such as the ones of Thailand and Brazil, proportionally to the capabilities of each country; 8. Recognizes the need of promoting health care and also takes into consideration the protection of intellectual property in order to promote the research and creation of new medical advances, although recognizing other not private ways of researching; 9. Proposes the further development of research regarding medical issues which affect both developed and developing countries, regarding the article 66 of the TRIPS Agreement; 10. Invites all Member States, relevant organizations of the UN system and other international organizations, including non-governmental organizations to participate in World HIV Day in an appropriate manner, in order to raise public awareness, as well as its prevention and care including education and mass media; 11. Affirms the rules governing the use of property rights established by the Bangui agreement which provides favorable measures for developing countries; 12. Recognizes that every alliance (referring to the possibility of regional agreements) would be formed taking into account their position in the international system and their specific situation; 13. Urges all Nations to work together towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, focusing on Target 17 “access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.”

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Economic and Financial Committee

International Taxes to Fight Poverty and the Economic Crisis
Persefoni Ririka. Chair of the Economic and Financial Committee in C’MUN 2011, University of Macedonia.

The Economic and Financial Committee during the first day of sessions.

In the Economic and Financial Committee of the General Assembly of this year conference there was one challenging topic under discussion: “Establishing international taxes to fight poverty and the economic crisis :a) banking and stock exchanges taxes . b) aviation tax. c) tourism tax”. These days the world has to face a crisis originated by the developed countries, a crisis which highly affects the real economy, further worsened by the lack of liquidity in the financial circuits. Delegates representing countries from all over the world had to reach an agreement and introduce a resolution which would state a clear position regarding the issue of international taxes and their use in order to combat poverty and reach the Millennium Development Goals. At beginning of the first day of the sessions we had the honor of hosting Mr. Manuel Manonelles, director of the Foundation Culture of Peace, who gave us a speech on the issue of international taxation system. Manonelles talked about Currency Transaction Tax for Financing Development (CTT for FfD) and stated that introducing a tax of 0.005% on currency exchange would “suffice to raise an amount of money over 30 billion USD per year”. According to the results of the research conducted by a group of experts, by request of the Leading Group on Innovative Financing for Development, this tax will not cause problems at the real economy and it has to be underlined that these Funds will be managed by United Nations programs and agencies,

something which was also raised as a point by many delegation of the committee during the sessions. Manonelles later wondered if CTT will be implemented and accepted to answer many delegates’ questions. Although most of the delegates were first timers, it was a great pleasure seeing them being confident, passionate and active. The discussion started and the common belief inside the committee was that taxes are not a solution and that a more concrete and radical change should be made in order to fight the economic crisis and reach the MDGs, a change of the economic system itself. The majority of the developed countries were in favor of the immediate implementation of the taxes while the developing ones were against it, both taking into consideration the fact that the crisis caused by the developed countries affected the whole world. Some of the most important views on the issue were expressed by the delegations of China, which was in favor of a more independent policy of developing countries helping themselves on their own, Morocco, which asked the transactional taxes to be used as an aid for the developing countries, France and Germany, which were in favor of aviation taxes and United Kingdom, which questioned the long term effectiveness of such measures. Although there were different opinions on the subject and blocks were made the outcome of the first day was one working paper which summarized the opinions heard during the sessions. The paper also suggested some

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measures regarding the issue, such as the implementation of taxes on financial transactions, the introduction of an agency which would monitor the progress and process of international taxes and the liability of international rating agencies. Moreover, an idea of a creation of a public international rating agency was heard. During the second day of sessions delegates were concentrated on forming a draft resolution and talking about other tourism and aviation taxes. According to the delegations of Japan and Morocco tourism tax is really important and it should not affect tourists, thus they were against it. Brazil supported the opinion expressed by the delegation of Greece which was against tourism taxes as tourism is a very sensitive area, while Sweden was in favor of it as they believe that tourism is not affected by taxes. As far as aviation taxes are concerned most of the countries were in favor of them while IATA underlined that even 1 euro would be too much and it could have severe effects. Germany, Morocco and Japan were the leading countries of the group which was in favor of this taxation with the latest expressing its will that developing countries would commit to it. United States of America and European Union further suggested the implementation of taxes on sea and air transportation and Morocco stressed the importance of taxes on companies which cause the pollution of the environment, such as air companies, which was further underlined by Egypt. On the other hand, the delegations of developing countries believed that it was unfair to pay the same taxes as the developed nations. The African Union, South Africa and Bulgaria were against these taxes, while China was afraid of supporting the implementation of taxes on polluting companies. The result of this difference was two different working papers, one by China and the other by Morocco. Since an agreement on transportation taxes did not seem feasible, delegates decided to concentrate mainly on financial transactions. The day closed without an introduction of a draft resolution although the committee was close to the introduction of one. During the last day of session the delegates were really busy with forming the draft resolution but heated discussion continued taking place. Finally, a draft resolution was introduced, sponsored by the delegations of Bolivia, Morocco, Spain and United Kingdom. The committee, realizing the importance and difficulty of reaching an agreement, decided to strengthen the significance of taxes on financial transactions and currency speculations. While recommending that 1/3 of the funds raised through the above mentioned taxes should be managed by each country separately and 2/3 by the MDG Achievement Fund it further requested that the taxes should range between 0.05% and 0.25%. Furthermore, it decided that at this point reaching an agreement on tourism and transportation taxes was impossible. Last but not least, it expressed its belief that regulation and supervision should become more effective and it decided to remain active on the matter. Being a chair of the Economic and Financial Committee of C’MUN conference 2011 was a great pleasure and honor for me. I should underline that all our delegates were really active and passionate and that it is my firm belief that in the future they will achieve many things both in favor of their personal lives and of the world. I would like to thank the organization team for giving me the opportunity of chairing this marvelous committee, bringing us together and for their hard work during all these days, which made this conference a success and an unforgettable experience.

The delegates of the Economic and Financial Committee.

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C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona A/C.2/ 2011

General Assembly
Economic and Financial Committee

Distr.: General 8 April 2011

Sixth Session 2nd Committee Adopted by the C’MUN X Committee at its 6th meeting, on 08 April 2011 Establishing International Taxes on Financial Transactions to Fight Poverty and the Economic Crisis: A) Banking and stock exchanges taxes B)Aviation tax C)Tourism tax The Economic and Financial Committee of the General Assembly, Determined to foster strict respect for the purposes and principles stated in the Charter of the United Nations, Having considered the impact of the financial crisis on the whole world and its threat to long term objectives a the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, Convinced by the fact that speculative financial transactions should be restricted by international taxes, Affirming that a transaction tax would stabilize asset prices, thus improving general macroeconomic functioning, Emphasizing that a transaction tax would allow the United Nations to have enough funds to accomplish the Millennium Development Goals, Convinced that a better regulation of the financial markets will improve the global economy, Realizing the difficulties in reaching a consensus regarding transportation taxing, Recognizing the crucial importance and the need of immediate considerations in the financial sector, Deeply concerned with the recent food crisis that boosts food prices and raises poverty and hunger, 1. Strongly affirms the necessity of a global and international implementation of a tax on financial transactions; 2. Recommends the implementation of a tax on foreign currency speculations; 3. Further affirms the necessity of 2/3 of the funds raised by the above mentioned taxes to be managed by the MDG Achievement Fund. Under the principle of subsidiarity, in 2015 the funds will be transferred to the UNDP, which will allocate the money to any commission similar to the MDG Achievement Fund; 4. Recommends that 1/3 of the funds raised by the previously mentioned taxes to be managed by each country for internal issues, stressing on the importance of solving the sovereign debt crisis; 5. Suggests that the nature of both taxes should be global and adopted simultaneously by all the countries worldwide; 6. Requests that the value of the tax ranges from 0.05% to 0.25%, depending on the nature and risk of the financial product, which will be evaluated by the already existing UN Commission of Financial Experts; 7. Asks for a minimum tax rate to be set at 0.05% for all countries; 8. Recommends the inclusion of countries which have already implemented taxes in their national legal system to the abovementioned tax system; 9. Further recommends public companies not to pay taxes as long as the nature of their activity is not speculative; 10. Affirms that, in order to fight speculation and enhance development, financial transactions related to trade will not be affected by this tax; 11. Suggests the IMF to strengthen the Financial Sector Assessment Program for closer financial sector surveillance; 12. Calls upon those nations interested in taxing transportation to act regionally and nationally under the guidance of the UN, emphasizing that we recommend states to avoid taxing maritime transport as it is essential for trade; 13. Acknowledges the importance of tourism and trade and therefore, cannot, at this point, reach a consensus regarding transportation taxes; 14. Encourages the FAO to take serious action against food speculation before 2015; 15. Stresses the critical need of making regulation and supervision more effective; 17. Encourages the international community to take long-term actions to strengthen the international economic system, such as restricting complex financial products; 18. Decides to remain active on this matter.

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Ad Hoc Committee of the Alliance of Civilizations

Gender and Migration
Aleksandra Semeriak. Co-Chair of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Alliance of Civilizations in C’MUN 2011.
Universitat Pompeu Fabra.

The Ad Hoc Committee of the Alliance of Civilizations during the first day of sessions.

This year in the 6th Catalonia Model United Nations, the Committee of the Alliance of Civilizations had to face a subject of discussion as wide as strong and as important as difficult. This year, the content, always on the importance of managing labor migration, tried to focus on the role of gender. The theme of the meeting was divided into three subtopics: gender equality, gender violence and religious visual symbols. Per se, migration is still a difficult topic to deal with, above all in political and cultural matters which confront countries receiving migration with home countries. Adding religion and gender equality, we were expectant to see how the discussion would develop. The first day of meeting, we had the great opportunity of counting on the presence of Juan Sebastián Mateos, Head of Services of the Office of the “real” Alliance of Civilizations, within the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. Delegates could obtain first-hand information about the Committee and ask questions giving their own opinion on the topics before putting themselves in the shoes of the representatives of the countries they have been assigned for the next days. After the pleasant visit, delegates were ready

to begin the discussion, and almost all of them wanted to be added to the speakers list. When the session was reaching a high point, an unexpected event shook the Committee: in front of the surprised faces of the delegates, Juan Sebastián Mateos informed them that the clashes in Myanmar had led to a repression on the part of the military government and ended up with the murder of Aung San Suu Kyi, the most famous “symbol” of the Myanmar’s opposition. The agenda set up by the delegates was postponed in order to firstly discuss the crisis. All countries tried to find measures and solutions to the wave of immigrants towards China that, after the serious problems, the Burmese population started to suffer. Despite having different economic interests on the area, delegations tried to forget (as far as possible) their own benefits to issue a statement recommending a humanitarian intervention on the area to avoid the displacement and the possible disasters which could derive from this tragic outcome. First thing in the morning of the following day, this statement was submitted to the Security Council which was working on a resolution to the conflict. After having dealt with the crisis, the present representatives of the Commit-

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tee were ready to retake the discussion on migration and gender equality on the second day. Insisting on the importance of managing the time (since we only had a day and a half of sessions), delegates put a lot of effort in starting to collect ideas and find solutions. The day began with two working papers led by the delegations of Peru, on the one hand, and Australia, on the other hand. It seems the main topic of gender equality was tackled in both documents, finding some similarities and also differences. Following the spirit of the Alliance of Civilizations that the Chairs always remembered, delegates decided to bet on the consensus and unify both working papers in one. The resolution was about to be born. However, in the middle of the afternoon the delegations of the Muslim countries and religious organizations, such as the Holy See and the Organization of the Islamic Conference, expressed their wish to add the topic of the religious symbols due to the significance related to the migrant population and education. Despite the criticism of some delegations, since they argued that it would be very difficult to reach a consensus in a very short space of time, the representatives of the Muslim countries knew how to prove that this subject could not be out of the resolution. The moderated caucuses were used to state their concerns and intentions to the rest of delegates and they also clarified that they would not pass a resolution that doesn’t respect the cultural traditions and religions of the migrants’ home country, since this resolution would not be to their liking. Influenced by the polemic news about the banning of the integral veil in France, the resulting work of the Committee looked for the passing of the delegations affected in this aspect without going against the host countries. Despite some discrepancies, the discussion should go on. The new topics were added to the working paper and new requests were taken into consideration. Each delegation had something to say and time was pressing. Thanks to the collaboration of all delegates, who devoted all their efforts both during and out of the formal sessions, a real joint work could be carried out. The delegations considering it necessary sent their proposals for modification during an unmoderated caucus, in which the representatives were sitting in their respective seats instead of gathering in small groups. In this unmoderated caucus, they discussed the working paper and the modifications point by point informally. They also argued why these modifications should be made or not, so that all delegations were kept informed about the changes and they could reach an agreement or voice their opposition at the moment. This procedure, positively valued by the chairs, enabled us not to have a single amendment and to reach

The delegates the Ad Hoc Committee of the Alliance of Civilizations

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the favorable vote on the part of all delegations, when it was presented as a draft resolution the last day. It is a resolution that urges the improvement of the measures already recommended and also insists that achieving gender equality is directly attached to poverty, education, social services and policy implementation which must remove the current differences. A resolution that recommends and suggests to the Member States of the United Nations that they promote equal opportunity and equal access for women to public and private sectors of the society, both from the administration and the education. This resolution is based on the respect for the multiculturalism and the different religions, and for the freedom of migrants to endure their own traditions without being discriminated and also the respect for freely choosing their way of life, but always respecting Human Rights. It is a resolution that covers everything. It is said that when something is repeated constantly, finally you end up internalizing it. After constantly repeating that the Alliance of Civilizations had to find a consensus and work jointly, not as divided delegations, I think that both Pau and I managed to bear this idea in mind in every declaration and proposal issued by the delegates. We couldn’t be happier with the work done in a limited time. We would have been delighted, if we had had the opportunity of further discussing each topic proposed for the agenda and going into details that emerged from the subtopics. Likewise, we hope the sessions have been to delegates´ liking and we apologize in case of not having met some of your expectations. Finally and once again, thank you very much.

The Ad Hoc Committee on the Alliance of Civilizations 8 April 2011 Statement by the President of the UN Alliance of Civilizations At the 6th United Nations Model, held on 7 April 2011, in connection with the Alliance’s consideration of the item entitled “The issue of Myanmar crisis”, the President of the Alliance of Civilizations made the following statement on behalf of the Alliance: “Condemns the outbreaks of violence in Myanmar. “Demands an immediate end to violence from both the demonstrators and the military. “Invites neighboring countries to take substantive action to help the refugees from Myanmar. “Encourages UN members, especially those who have achieved a higher level of economic development, such as the USA and consenting EU countries, to give humanitarian and financial support to handle the situation of the refugees that might arrive to the neighboring countries, since these countries will not be able to handle the crisis without help. “Recommends the Security Council to be vigilant of the current events. “Encourages Myanmar to be as cooperative as possible in keeping the international community informed about the recent events, by allowing international NGOs and journalists to enter the country and report on the migratory movement. “Reminds Myanmar of the potential threat that massive, uncontrolled migration movements might pose, making this issue of international interest. “Encourages financial support for any neighboring country that is willing to help the refugees through the help of more economically developed countries and the International Monetary Fund. “Views positively any humanitarian mission that includes provision of medical help for shelters and anything else that can be offered with the help of relevant NGOs such as the Red Cross, Doctors Without Borders and other NGOs from the Platform of European Social NGOs. “Emphasizes the importance of cultural exchange in order to achieve mutual understanding to solve controversies in a peaceful manner to contribute to the stabilization of the region so as to achieve development.”

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C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona A/C. Ad Hoc/ 2011

General Assembly
The Ad Hoc Committee on the Alliance of Civilizations The General Assembly,

Distr.: General 9 April 2011

Reaffirming the commitment made by the United Nations regarding the Millennium Development Goals, Recalling the resolutions S/RES/1325, S/RES/1261, S/RES/1265, S/RES/1296 and S/RES/1314 voted by the Security Council, as well as relevant statements made by its Presidents, Bearing in mind the commitments of the Beijing Declaration regarding the platform for action (A/ RES/52/231) as well as those contained in the resulting document of the twenty-third special session of the United Nations General Assembly on “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century” (A/S-23/10/Rev.1), Convinced that global cooperation amongst states is of crucial importance in eliminating gender inequality, Noting with deep concern the inefficiency and lack of coordination of past initiatives, Deeply disturbed by the widespread violation of women rights and the persistent inequalities that exist between men and women, Fully alarmed that gender discrimination is the principal reason why different manifestations of gender inequality and violence against women occurs in all countries, 1. Further invites new measures and improvements of those which already exist in order to prevent, reduce and prosecute all forms of violence against women. Special attention should be dedicated to female migrants in order to eliminate human trafficking and ethnical violence; 2. Considers that gender equality is directly linked to poverty, education, health services, juridical assistance and employment. The development and implementation of policies and programs with a determinant focus on gender is encouraged; 3. Requests the enforcement of existing structures of a Committee of Control and Evaluation, such as UN Women. This committee formed by independent experts will analyze annual reports sent by country members. Encouraging the UN members to collect and make available the relevant data for such reports, which should address each country´s situation regarding gender equality, especially in education area. Experts would make recommendations for improvement to each country regarding each situation; 4. Calls for the establishment of governmental programs to improve gender equality: (a) Promote access and participation of women in the political sphere, public government and administration, and in the decision-making roles; (b) Encourage the access of women into each level of the working sector, in consideration to the specific economical structure of each region; (c) Promote equal access to social and cultural services; (d) Encourage the adoption of measures by enterprises and governments that favor conciliation between individual personal and working lives. Assuring that maternity issues do not affect women´s employment rights; (e) Promote a positive image of women in employment, as well as the values of equality through the media and educational programs; and (f) Recommend measures in order to condemn and punish domestic violence, including sexual violence; 5. Endorses education measures: increase national efforts to guarantee the equal access of women at all education levels, especially at primary school. Programs will also be dedicated to making school affordable for all families;

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C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona A/C. Ad Hoc/ 2011 6. Expresses its appreciation to the states which guarantee free choice of religious education and/ or secular education at school. However, we encourage all countries to include religious studies in their curriculum in order to allow students to be aware and respectful with both their own and all religions and traditions; 7. Further suggests that all countries allow personal religious symbols, in their private schools, as a minimum; 8. Encourages the promotion of educational programs which respect Universal Human Rights principles, cultural and ethnical diversity, and the freedom of choosing and practicing a religion; 9. Calls upon universal access to family planning education, including education on gender relations, in line with each country’s culture, religion and tradition in multiple forms, as long as it does not impinge on the fundamental human rights: (a) Suggesting the promotion of educational programs in order to reduce the spread of venereal diseases in all countries; and (b) Suggesting the teaching of mutual respect amongst the genders in accordance with each country´s cultural norms; 10. Reaffirms the importance of women´s access to education and calls for the investment of the UN members in this sector, especially for developing countries; 11. Takes note of the role of non-governmental sectors in developing educational, social and cultural projects and contributions; 12. Further invites the development of a mechanism of cooperation for the implementation of humanitarian border management strategies, in order to ensure the respect of human rights of migrant women; 13. Expresses its hope of the inclusion of specific measures related to migrant women in order to facilitate their integration; 14. Recommends free obligatory language classes for all migrants who do not speak the language of the host country, along with the creation of parents groups (with an emphasis on the participation of women) in order to facilitate their integration into the host community to allow them to play an active role in their child´s educational development; 15. Invites the creation of shelters for abused women which will provide both a safe haven for abused women and also ferment their reintegration into host societies –helping them to enter or re-enter the labor market and look for housing. This decision has been adopted by consensus of all the present and voting delegations. The delegation of Argentina supports this resolution, with the following reservation to article 14: The word “obligatory” used in this resolution may be used by some countries as a political measure to discriminate or to increase obstacles for legal free migration.

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UNESCO

Traditions versus Animal Welfare
Catherine Moore. Chair of the UNESCO Commitee in C’MUN 2011. University of Essex.
to the Chairs for review. After lunch it was a flurry of discussion and heated debate as the committee debated the resolution, its operative clauses, and the areas where it needed improvement. In fact, the committee was so wrapped up in writing amendments to the resolution and an opposing resolution being written that they let the speakers list exhaust!! When such a thing happens, and as had been explained to the committee multiple times throughout the first two days, the committee must vote on whatever resolutions are on the floor at the time. Debate was closed and voting procedure commenced. As there had been some pushback from several delegates on the quality of the resolution, and to keep some delegates honest in their vote, a motion was made for a roll call vote followed by a division of the question. Both passed and the committee voted on draft resolution 1.2 clause by clause through a roll call vote. This 14-clause draft resolution passed with the exception of clauses 3 and 4, the

The UNESCO committee during the first day of sessions.

The UNESCO committee at C’MUN 2011 debated both intangible and tangible cultural heritage during the conference. The topic of bullfighting and animal welfare was at the center point of the intangible cultural heritage debate was met with a swift hand. The presence of such organizations as the WSPA and PETA added greatly to the discussion, focusing the committee on the rights and welfare of those who have no human voice. The first full day was spent with delegates pushing their own country’s agenda and establishing the general framework for the final resolution, with six working papers being submitted, all outlining the general ideas of the delegates and which aided greatly in writing the draft resolutions. The second day of debate was met with a much more serious tone and the delegates quickly got to work on converging the working papers into a draft resolution. By lunchtime, one had been introduced to the floor for debate and another was sent

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most contentious clauses. It then became resolution 1 and the committee would soon be moving on to a second topic. While the resolution passed, it was clear that this was not the resolution that the committee wanted to pass, as amendments were floating around. However, this was an instance where the rules of procedure hindered the debate, as the inexperience of some delegates was obvious to the Chairs. The final resolution, however, provided a generalized viewpoint of the topic at hand. A distinction was made between cruelty to animals for entertainment purposes and slaughter of animals for religious purposes. The la-tter, according to the committee, should be preserved so as to not infringe upon the right to freedom of religion. Furthermore, the resolution went on to propose measures that a country could rely upon to help enforce any legislation against animal cruelty while also improving living conditions of these types of animals, i.e. bulls, dogs, etc. It appeared that, despite the unusual nature of the closure of debate on the topic, the majority of the committee agreed on the bulk of the resolution as it stood. Only two clauses were eliminated during voting procedure and the rest of the resolution remained intact. The committee was then redirected as a second topic was introduced, “Illicit Trafficking of Cultural Property.” While some countries had to be reassigned, NGOs and observers such as WSPA and PETA that were not necessary to the debate, a similar shuffle was performed with other countries in order to make the debate livelier, including the introduction of Greece and a newly reformed United Kingdom. This proved to be quite interesting as these two countries debated the ownership of the Elgin Marbles and which country was the rightful owner. The delegates, for this particular topic, were much more lively and engaged more in active debate than the first topic as more countries felt directly involved in the topic at hand. After just 4 hours of debate, a draft resolution was presented, voted upon, and passed. This resolution encouraged communication between countries directly involved in these issues and proposes itself, UNESCO, to act as a third party arbitrator in disputes. Broad, sweeping recommendations were made as well in hopes of addressing the issue. It was clear to the Chairs that if the delegates had more time to debate this topic, the quality of the resolution would have been much higher and the plans put in place by the committee would have been more in depth. On the whole, the Chairs were quite pleased with the final outcome of the committee session, as it was made apparent to them that many in the committee were beginner MUNers. It is our hope that through their time at C’MUN 2011, the delegates will come to love the concept of MUN just as much as the Chairs do! We hope to see you all at C’MUN 2012!!

The delegates of the UNESCO committee.

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C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona UNESCO/ 1/ 2011

UNESCO
The United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Topic: Traditions versus Animal Welfare

Distr.: General 8 April 2011

The General Conference of the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Noting with regret that animals are subjected to both physical and mental suffering caused by some of the traditional cultural practices involving animal use, Recalling the Recommendation on Safeguarding Traditional and Popular Culture of 1989, the Declaration of Principles on International Cultural Cooperation of 1966, the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity adopted by the UNESCO General Conference of 2001, the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage of 2003, Guided by the definition of “cultural heritage” adopted within The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Recognizing animals are sentient creatures, highly perceptive and capable of experiencing a range of emotions, including pain and suffering, Understanding the need to uphold respect and compassion towards animals, Recognizing animal welfare as a key priority on the domestic and international agenda, Acknowledging that animal neglect in spheres encompassing farming and agriculture should be reduced, Desiring that countries economically dependent on practices involving cruelty would be supported by nations in adopting have the potential to find alternative sources of revenue, Affirming the need to use humane methods of slaughter in circumstances of unavoidable slaughter, Acknowledging that improved animal welfare is conducive to the fulfillment of the UN Millennium Development Goals, Realizing that the current phenomenon of globalization also entails the reestablishment of values and the evolvement of cultural practices, Bearing in mind that animal slaughter for necessity and slaughter or torture for entertainment purposes should be distinguished and the latter should be condemned, Acknowledging that religion has to be respected, that a balance can be ensured between religious values and animal welfare, Recognizing every human being’s right to have access to food, as established in the UN Declaration of Human Rights, likewise the animal consumption as a necessity, Underlining that animal consumption for necessities should not involve endangered species, Taking into consideration that not only direct actions over animals, but also the deterioration of the environment has an influence in animal welfare, Adopts the following resolution: 1. Encourages the establishment of an international body which Multinational Corporations and international organizations would be invited, along with nation states, to discuss the issue of animal welfare; 2. Calls for the modification and improvement of the Universal Declaration of Animal Welfare and recognition of the latter by the United Nations; 3. Advises the states to monitor the religious sacrifices during the festival days in order to make sure that animals are not subject to torture; 4. Requests nations to ensure the presence of animal welfare experts in religious festivals to guarantee the quick and safely monitored deaths so as to reduce suffering as much as possible; 5. Suggests making sure that animals are respected and honored through a number of activities such as movies, plays, lectures and publications, within the context of an international campaign sponsored by the UNESCO; 6. Implores governments to draft legislation concerning animal well-being in order to improve animal welfare and protection; 7. Encourages the nations which already have regulations and policies regarding animal welfare to strengthen their existing legislation so that they can be more effective. 8. Recommends the monitoring and regulation of traditional animal trading in the international markets;

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C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona UNESCO/ 1/ 2011 9. Affirms member states enforcing educational programs that provide information regarding current and past practices involving animal cruelty; 10. Encourages member states to engage in deliberate local efforts that seek to eliminate unnecessary suffering and/or death in entertainment; 11. Further invites nations to share scientific and technical expertise in assisting the abovementioned countries in their endeavor; 12. Encourages member states to empower pre-existing civil society movements and NGOs that deal with animal welfare;

C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona

UNESCO/ 2/ 2011

UNESCO
The United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Topic: Illicit Trafficking of Cultural Property

Distr.: General 9 April 2011

The General Conference of the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Recognizing that cultural property is important for the preservation of world culture, Convinced that illicit trafficking of cultural poverty erodes and destroys the history and heritage of nations and threatens the preservation of culture, Bearing in mind the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970), The Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954, The UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (Rome, 1995), Adhering to the definitions of cultural property, illicit trafficking, among others in the aforementioned documents, Adopts the following resolution: 1. Reminds that the problem of illicit trafficking is both a domestic and an international problem; 2. Promotes financial help for those countries who have difficulty in implementing measures to monitor; 3. Encourages the loan of cultural property for educational research purposes, time, restitution, and return based on the agreement between legally recognized entities; 4. Proposes that discrepancies between two countries over historical transactions will be solved by a thirdparty authority under the auspices of UNESCO and supported by authorities of legal expertise; 5. Suggests that upon the return of an object of cultural significance to the original geographic location, a portion of the accrued funds (donated or otherwise) will be sent back to the former country to aid that country to preserve its endemic cultural heritage; 6. Encourages those countries that exhibit the cultural heritage from other countries in their museums to study and promote policies to return that cultural heritage to their country of origin, as part of their nations plans for development; 7. Suggests that if a government refuses to return illegally obtained articles, cooperating countries raise the issue in other UN forums as a point of concern with the hope of finding a solution; 8. Seeks strong commitment of member countries to regulate the international market; 9. Calls for the adherence to pre-existing databases and inventories on cultural property; 10. Invites nations which receive national and cultural items for touristic and educational purpose to reinforce a strict supervision of purchased items and to return them when legal conditions of trade are not met. 11. Endorses the technical expertise and knowledge transfer from more able countries to others in the form of consultants, experts or advisory advisory committees to help regulating crimes related to trafficking.

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World Health Organization

Towards the End of Tobacco?
Sara Ersoezlue. Chair of the World Health Organization in C’MUN 2011. Charité Medical School Berlin.

The World Health Organization during the first day of sessions.

At this year’s edition of the Catalonia Model United Nations, the World Health Organization dedicated itself to one of the biggest public health threats our global community has ever faced: Tobacco. In response to this global epidemic 168 countries have signed the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and many of them, including most recently Spain, have prohibited smoking in public places. However, despite all these efforts global tobacco consumption is increasing, especially among young people and in particular in the developing countries. Why is that so? And how can the global community tackle this problem in a more effective way? What are the obstacles? And how can they be overcome? These and many more questions had to be answered by this Committee. The core issues dealt with in this Council were: control of advertisement, smoking bans, education, taxation, the environmental perspective and the creation of alternative industries to the tobacco industry. However, also cultural aspects of tobacco consumption were brought up by several counties. The first session of the WHO started of enthusiastically with an inspiring presentation by the doctor Armado Peruga, Manager of the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative. Peruga provided the Council with

the most recent statistics, outlined the challenges of this topic and demonstrated how the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative has been fighting tobacco consumption for the last decades. As he opened himself for questions, delegates queued for using this one-time opportunity. After this great opening, delegates had the chance to inform the house about their country positions. Before lunch break, the first lobbying groups were formed and moreover five working papers were handed in, which was worth a round of applause. However, after this strong start the WHO experienced a motivational “low” in the afternoon. Moreover, uncertainties with the Rules of Procedure became apparent and we were confronted with several unplanned “minutes of silence” during formal debate, which we managed to overcome, also by some informal announcements to the house. The second day started off with a series of moderated caucuses on several aspects of tobacco consumption, which were conducted in a good way. While on the first day, many statements were rather general and repetitive of the FCTC, at the 2nd day, delegates came also up with more concrete ideas: for instance, the proposal of rising taxes on the materials and facilities required for the production of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Also some quite memorable statements were made

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during formal debate. For instance one delegate started off his speech this way: “Cancer is bad, right? So then smoking is bad, too”. As I learned later that day, several delegates stood up early in the morning to familiarize themselves with the Rules of Procedures, the FCTC and their country positions. Two delegates furthermore wanted to use their rights to the fullest by asking for rights of reply, which did heat up the atmosphere as a matter of fact. Despite all the controversy delegates were eager to find common grounds; sometimes maybe a bit too ambitious. We were more than surprised, when we received a draft resolution sponsored by the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative and Phillip Morris. At the end of the second day, the first draft resolution was introduced to the house, followed by a second one on the next day. Both resolutions had merit. However, each one had a different focus: one rather dealt with public health policies and the other one with the economic aspects. We therefore encouraged the delegates to merge their ideas. On the third day, just before we started our final debate on the resolutions, the committee experienced a dramatic moment: The delegate of Iran decided to withdraw her sponsorship of her own draft resolution in order to sign the other one. During the last 90 minutes, delegates tried to improve the remaining draft resolution by amendments. After a final round debate and amendments, the house made a motion to directly move to voting on the draft resolution. Finally the resolution,

which was sponsored by Germany, Kenya and Sweden, passed at 13:15 o’clock. For me personally, it was a great pleasure to chair the WHO on this topic. I really enjoyed the interdisciplinary approach to this public health issue and on the whole I am very happy with the way the WHO simulation went. During the opening session I had concluded my speech with the question where our global community was heading: “Towards an even bigger epidemic or towards the end of tobacco?” After 3 days of simulation my question was clearly answered with “towards the end of tobacco!” It, however remains unclear, when this “end” will be. It’s up to us… let’s see how this will turn out in 2030. Before we reconvene in 2030 to see whether we achieved our goals, let be first thank all of you, honorable delegates of the WHO, for making this MUN such a great experience! You all did a great job! I’d further like to thank Dogan for being a great Co-Chair! Finally, I’d like to thank Raül for giving me the opportunity to be part of C’MUN 2011! I really enjoyed it, thanks! My very special thanks go to Ambiorix, who was always there, whenever we needed him!

On top, the Chairs of the World Health Organization. On the bottom, all the delegates.

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C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona WHO/1/ 2011

World Health Organization

Distr.: General 9 April 2011

The World Health Assembly, Noting that tobacco is proved to be the most fatal preventable cause of death, Acknowledging the effectiveness of tobacco control measures for the improvement of health, Recalling the articles 2, 6, 13 and 15 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Deeply concerned by the increasing consumption of tobacco products, Recalling its resolutions WHO 49.17, WHA 52.18 and WHA 56.1 in accordance with Article 19 of the Constitution of WHO, Guided by the notion of the ascendancy of public health against the right of personal choices, Appreciating the full protection of public health, achieved in some countries by the total ban of smoking in public places, Acknowledging and appreciating the work that is being done on the Protocol on Illicit Trade, 1) Proposes the participation and cooperation of specialized international agencies and programs, including the international labor office, the United Nations Development Program, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and World Bank; 2) Recommends the establishment of working groups intended to help the collection of data referring to the implementation of the treaty and examine the conditions of tobacco production in developing countries; 3) Suggests the protection of public health, through the implementation of bans and restrictions of advertising, sale and promotion of tobacco products; 4) Further recommends the enforcement of higher taxes and the implementation of excise on all tobacco products; 5) Requests more studies to be conducted and more data to be collected as far as taxation is concerned; 6) Invites the working group that is handling this issue to consider the balance in increasing direct and indirect taxes; 7) Proposes the establishment of an intergovernmental negotiating body that will evaluate the specific economic conditions of each country and recommend appropriate rates accordingly; 8) Urges the implementation of a restriction on waste (both chemical waste and tobacco waste), a limitation on pesticides and carbon emissions, through establishment of a working group, in order to address: a. the detrimental effects on the environment, caused by tobacco production through the contamination of water, b. soil degradation, c. lack of biodiversity; 9) Encourages the creation of long term programs in order to find alternative livelihoods to tobacco in collaboration with the Tobacco Free Initiative done through a development perspective since it involves health, social , environmental and economic aspects beyond substitution of one economic activity for another; 10) Invites all the parties to the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) to contribute to raising of funds and the establishment of mechanisms to supervise the implementation of the Articles 17 and 18 of the Framework Convention; 11) Requests the establishment of a new ad-hoc committee under the World Trade Organization (WTO) that will regulate the trade of tobacco products in order to strengthen the multilateral collaboration in boarder control; 12) Supports the collaboration of an Inter-Agency Task Force on Tobacco Control which works under the World Health Organization with the WTO; 13) Further Invites the Conference of the Parties (COP) to establish: a. a special fund to help developing countries, b. a study group on new technologies and investments that will help developing countries overcome high deficits and public debts; 14) Asks all member states to allocate a bigger proportion of current tax revenues from tobacco products in support of education and cessation programmes; 15) Encourages all member states to consider cultural aspects of tobacco consumption when making any decision concerning tobacco; 16) Welcomes the fund for education and smoking cessation programme from Tobacco-Free Initiative and other stakeholders.

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International Court of Justice

The North Pole’s Future
Marta Garbarino. Judge of the International Court of Justice in C’MUN 2011. Universitat de Trieste.

The International Court of Justice during the first day of sessions.

The new “cold war” between the United States of America and the Russian Federation: this is how the situation in the Arctic region has been defined by experts. According to the definition given by the Arctic Council, when we speak about the Arctic we are referring to an enormous area, sprawling over one sixth of the earths’ landmass, that is also the home of four million people, including over thirty different indigenous peoples. With almost 30% of world’s oil and gas reserves buried under the Arctic seas, the race between Arctic states to claim the ownership of the North Pole has begun. As a matter of fact, the bad impact of global warming, caused by climate change, has recently contributed to an unexpected acceleration of the ice melting process in the area, so that new opportunities for the exploitation of natural resources are now available. Because of the economical potentiality, the Arctic issue has become one of the top priorities of the political agenda of the 8 Arctic states. Moreover, since changes in the Arctic will not only affect local people and natural ecosystems but also the rest of the world, the attention of the international community is now focused on

the militarization and territorial claims in the area. As a matter of fact, the most important feature of the Arctic is its natural environment. Because of the extreme climate conditions and the delicate balance of nature in the area, the protection and preservation of the Arctic have become one of the major goals of the United Nations as well as of many NGOs, who fear that the increasing human activities may cause some irreparable damages to such a fragile environment. How has the Arctic region changed so far, and what future changes are expected? This was the challenging question upon which the delegates of the International Court of Justice at C’MUN 2011 had to find an answer. So let’s have a look at the work of the ICJ during C’MUN2011! Since the very first day of the conference it was clear that the discussion was very interesting but at the same time very difficult because of the broadness and technicality of the topic. During the first session five Member States and six observers had the chance to present

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their opinion on the topic. However, later on the same day the debate begun to come to a standstill, so the Judges encouraged the adoption of a new agenda, dividing the general topic into some specific sub-topics, that after a short discussion was accepted unanimously by the Court. Therefore, the second day started with the first point on the new agenda: economic aspects and management of Arctic natural resources; with a special reference to fishing, mining industry and oil and gas exploitation. On one side Member States discussed the management of numerous natural resources available in the area, reiterating the principle of state sovereignty over territorial seas already expressed in the UNCLOS convention. Concerning the management of natural resources beyond the so called Exclusive Economic Zone, the Court discussed two possible solutions: an expansion of the mandate of the International Sea-bed Authority or the creation of a new treaty. On the other side the Observers, especially UNEP and Greenpeace, stressed the need of the implementation of the so called “corporate social responsibility” among private and public companies. They also asked for a “free, prior and informed” consent when economic activities has to take place in the land of Indigenous People. The second part of the debate was dedicated to the issue of sovereignty. All countries agreed with the principles expressed in the Law of the Sea Convention (1982); according to this agreement coastal states own the seabed beyond existing 200 nautical mile zones if it is part of a continental shelf of shallower waters. The Court was informed that many territorial claims in the area has already been solved, but the ownership of the North Pole remain the bone of contention. Later on the same day the Court was also able to open the debate on the issue of militarization. Many countries affirmed that the militarization of their Arctic lands was implemented as a defense against possible external threats (for example pirates or terrorists), but no offense to other Member States was intended. On the very last day of session the Court discussed the issue of the protection of the environment and the rights of Indigenous People. Even thou the question of the right of Indigenous People was smartly avoided during the debate, all Member States finally agreed with the principles of the UN Declaration of Rights of Indigenous People and stressed their commitments towards the protection of indigenous communities who live inside their borders. Moreover many observes introduced some relevant data concerning the level of pollution of the Arctic region and the impact of climate change on the delicate environment of the Arctic. Later on the same day the Judges finally informed the Court that they were satisfied with the information gathered and they were ready to bow out and deliver an opinion. I must admit that the high level of the debate and the astonishing preparation of each delegate, made the work of the three judges even more difficult. After a long and challenging exchange of opinions, the Judges decided come up unanimously with an opinion and read it to the Court. Basically the Judges recognized UNCLOS as the only binding agreement in the region and declared that no further militarization, territorial claims or economic exploitation in the high sea have to be performed before further scientific explorations will clarify the composition of the area. According to my personal point of view, the work within the International Court of Justice was characterized not only by an uncountable number of maps projected on the screen but also by many wonderful memories to take back home. Personally I was impressed by the high preparation and the commitment of each delegate; their passion and enthusiasm during the three days of conference, inside and outside formal sessions, was simply amazing and unforgettable. If the work within the ICJ went so smoothly, the truth is that I could never hoped for a better and more inspiring CoJudges. I would like to thank one more time Maarja Meitern and Dechen Alba Campo for their precious help and unconditional support before, during and after the conference. Last but not least, I would like to thank the family of ANUE Spain, the board and all the organizers for giving me the opportunity of being involved in such a challenging and enriching experience one more time. It was a real pleasure to work with you all and I hope we will meet again soon, hopefully in next year edition of C’MUN!

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The delegates of the International Court of Justice

Below, the consultive opinion of the International Court of Justice of C’MUN 2011. You can read the full pronouncement on our website http://www.anue.org/castellano/indexcmun.htm

International Court of Justice
ADVISORY OPINION Present: Judges Marta GARBARINO; Maarja MEITERN; Dechen CAMPO ALBA.; Registrer Ricardo GALIZA. On the accordance with international law of the Future sovereignty of the North Pole, THE COURT, composed as above, gives the following Advisory Opinion: 1.Bearing in mind the Convention of Law of the Sea, the Court recognizes the Arctic region fully fall under the scope of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea. Notwithstanding which, the Court decides not to take position with any of the States’ claims over the North Pole sovereignty, insofar no further scientific research will clarify the geographical composition of the Arctic region as a result of the climate change process. Therefore the Arctic region is to be considered and ruled according to the definition and principle of High Sea. 2. Pursuant to art. 279 of the UNCLOS, States must settle disputes by peaceful means bur are equally free to agree to adopt some means other than that prescribed in the Convention. The court recommends, however, that all the military actions adopted in the region should be suspended until a clear picture of the geographical and environmental composition of the high sea area has been provided by experts. Meanwhile, the States should confine their activities to the strict exercise of their right to innocent passage over the territory corresponding to other States in light of the abovementioned Convention. 3. The court recalls the universality of human rights of all peoples, and accordingly, the rights of the indigenous peoples must be respected by the States. Furthermore, the Court reiterates that the right of all the peoples over the natural resources sited in their territories is unalienable. Any military and economical activity of the states performed in the area should not conflict with their fundamental rights, including the right of sovereignty. 4. Any further provision over the subsequent rights and prerogatives over the High Seas should be addressed within the framework of a treaty, having present all the legitimate interests at stake. We identify the UN as the most reliable organization to patrol and control the exploitation of those resources.

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Press Team

The Importance of Journalism
Juan Calleja. Editor in chief of ‘The Clarion’ in C’MUN 2011. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

The sixth edition of the Catalonia Model United Nations started with a historical context marked by the revolutionary upheavals in the Middle East and the recent natural disaster and subsequent nuclear crisis caused by a terrible tsunami in Japan. More than 350 delegates who participated in this new edition of C’MUN know the importance of their opinions, because some of them will be the politicians that represent us in the future. During the sessions, they will have to battle with conflicts such as those mentioned above, therefore they must be well prepared for their participation. The MUNs are not only good for the delegates from different countries and the Chairs of each committee at learning more about how the UN works, but also at becoming aware of the responsibility that comes with representing a country in this major multilateral body that orders international diplomatic relations. This body has a duty: to be judge and part of the most serious global problems. Like every year, we the team of the most prestigious Spanish model, have

set to work to collect ideas, statements, first drafts and final decisions that have been discussed within the rooms of the spectacular CosmoCaixa of the city of Barcelona. The tools that we use are paper, notebook and recorder, and our vehicle of transmission that we use is the newspaper, The Clarion. In my third year as a journalist for The Clarion and my second year as editor, I confess that this one has been the most intense and interesting edition of those lived until now because of the success in the choice of topics by the organization. The vibrant discussion about the possible ban of burqa, shows such as bulls or cockfighting, smoking in public spaces, or the “utopian” paths to follow to turn economic ideas such as the Tobin tax into something really effective and supportive, and that natural paradises like the Arctic are usable by countries without giving effect to its slow destruction, have been some of the attractive topics treated from the journalistic point of view. Besides a simulated

On top, the frontpages of The Clarion 2011. On the bottom, a picture of the Parliament of Catalonia, previous to the opening, with the journal on all seats.

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crisis of Myanmar that took by surprise all delegates. As editor in chief of the C’MUN newspaper, I only have words of gratitude to all journalists that have been part of the press team. Thanks for their daily tenacity to collect, in the most serious and professional way, news and bubbling statements of each of committees, despite the tight timing of delivery that requires a daily newspaper. Some of them have become journalists for four days, others are going to become one, but the common link to all is the energy and desire to do well regardless of their role. They have participated as partners in an UN-sponsored project that not only it is a great responsibility, but also it is a personal challenge to see how far we are able to reach. I hope we have done things right, that Delegates, Chairs and all the staff who worked and participated in the 2011 C’MUN have been well reported each day of all the events through The Clarion. I firmly believe in journalism despite it

nowadays being a discredited profession, because we are not the fourth power, but we have to dance with world leaders every day and without us their opinions and decisions would not reach out to all the citizens. The Clarion has been printed one year again, moreover, it has returned to fulfill their journalistic duty. I wish that these twelve pages won’t be the last to be published because it is really worth all this effort. I hope we’ll see each other again.

On this page, several images of the press work: the first one, interviewing; the second one, delegates reading the paper; the third one, the press room; and, finally, all the team of The Clarion 2011.

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C’MUN Staff

C’MUN 2011: From Inside
Stela Zarija. Staff member of C’MUN 2011. Universitat Jaume I de Castelló.

C’MUN 2011 staff meeting at UNA-Spain Headquarters, before the conference.

One more year has passed and another edition of C’MUN took place, an edition which could be described as innovative, because of the “unexpected” elements that it has included. Actually, the general conclusion is that it has been one of the best Models held so far, and all thanks to the good organization and the enthusiasm of the participants. The organization of an event of this magnitude involves many months of work and its planning starts almost after finishing the previous edition. That is, it’s a project that never sleeps and continuously needs ideas in order to make it more effective every year. The first thing to be considered is the participant committees and topics. This is a difficult task because the international political scene provides exciting matters to discuss every day. Therefore, the selection criteria that must prevail is the relevance of the topic, its international impact and the degree of UN involvement in it. Then, the member countries of each committee simulated at C’MUN are analyzed. This phase is particularly intriguing, as it is always interesting to see the views of key players involved in a conflict. After the initial stage, young people from around the world are summoned, people interested in international politics and in the running of the UN. Thanks to a Model, they are given the opportunity to truly understand what is the protocol followed dur-

ing the sessions and to put themselves in the skin of a country. This pace of work characterizes the months preceding C’MUN, year after year, and while it gets closer, the team of ANUE thinks how to make the delegate’s stay as pleasant as possible. That is, they try it not to be just a working visit to Barcelona. This year, for example, cultural events and visits were organized to suit all tastes. During the preparation of this year, a suggestion was made, which gave the title of “innovative” to C’MUN 2011: simulating the outbreak of a crisis in Myanmar, so as to illustrate the current situation in the Arab world. In this way, we wanted to test the ability of young people to solve a sudden conflict and to agree on a crisis situation. However, the acid test for the team is the days of C’MUN. The previous days, all volunteers to serve on the staff are summoned. At this meeting the roles of each member are set and guidelines are established, so as to deal with different situations that may arise. And finally, the day of reception of the nearly 400 delegates of C’MUN 2011 came, during which they were given the documentation. This year, organizers included a new feature: the possibility of attending a training session so as to help those who undertook this adventure for the first time. At the opening session, where we had the support of the President of the Catalan Parliament,

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participants received an official welcome. So the starting signal was given for what was to be one of the most active editions. On the first day, sessions began with the establishment of the topics on the agenda. In the Alliance of Civilizations, which I was responsible of, gender and immigration issues were voted. Consensus was reached easily because these are matters that have always troubled the Alliance. In the middle of the session, the crisis planned in advance by the organizing team erupted. Delegates were really surprised but knew how to react quickly. After handing out information on Myanmar, they began to state their positions. And for it to be more accurate, we invited the delegation of Myanmar, from the Security Council. We can therefore say that the inclusion of this crisis truly tested the ability of participants to resolve sudden conflicts, as they voted unanimously a resolution condemning Myanmar’s military regime. On the second day of debate, the Alliance focused on topics on the agenda: gender and immigration. After discussing the controversial issues and expressing the position of their countries, some delegations offered to draw up a draft resolution. From this draft, delegations with similar interests began to ally and that was clearly reflected during the unmoderated caucus. Participants discussed in a very professional manner, respecting the times set by the chairs. On the last day, during the debate, the final resolution was voted. It included amendments and proposals so as to improve the resolution. Finally, the amendments were voted on and when the resolution was drawn up, it received the unanimous agreement of all delegations. It’s noteworthy the sincere interest of the young participants in gender and immigration issues, which was clearly reflected in the debates of Muslim and Christian representatives. This demonstrated the commitment and professionalism of the delegates, who were able to convey the point of view of the countries they represented, not their own. It’s also outstanding the respect for the Model protocol which showed the high level of preparation of participants. After voting the final resolution, the atmosphere was defused and the Group of Friends of the Alliance voted several award categories. They have been so varied that almost all delegations were awarded, demonstrating the friendly spirit of the Alliance. We hope this tolerance to be reflected in the real Alliance of Civilizations, in order to make possible a genuine dialogue between East and West. In the closing ceremony, it was clear once again the ability of participants to reach a consensus, since each committee summarized the voted resolutions, showing that through dialogue it is possible to solve conflicts. It was a very exciting ceremony, both for organizers and delegations, as it put an end to an edition that was innovative in many aspects, which proved to be a success. In conclusion we can say that, throughout these days, the delegates showed that they are the world’s future politicians. Because, if at this early age they show this professionalism, in a few years, after gaining experience in the field, they will become true mass leaders and experts in international relations. And C’MUN, which gives them the opportunity to gain experience, is only the first step in a long successful political career.

C’MUN 2011 staff meeting at UNA-Spain Headquarters, after the conference.

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Participants of C’MUN 2011
Universities
Aarhus University, Denmark Adelaide University, Australia Ankara University, Turkey Aston University, UK Bilkent University, Turkey Cass Business School, London, UK Charite Medical School, Berlin, Germany Chelyabinsk State University, Russia City University London, UK Collegium Civitas, Poland Coventry University, UK ESADE, Spain European Institute of the University of Geneva, Switzerland Franklin College, Switzerland Fudan University, China Gothenburg University, Sweden House of Europe in Saint-Petersburg, Russia Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany IES EMT Escola Municipal del Treball, Spain Ilia State University, Georgia Institut Barcelona d’Estudis Internacionals, Spain Institute of Foreign Languages of the Federal State University, Russia Ivane Javakhishvili Tblisi State University, Georgia Koç University, Turkey London Metropolitan University, UK Lund University, Sweden Maastricht University, the Netherlands Máster de Estudios Latinoamericanos Contemporáneos, Spain Middle East Technical University, Turkey National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Richmond, The American International University in London, UK Rijks University, Groningen, the Netherlands Ritsumeikan University, Japan Sciences Po Bordeaux, France Spyken School, Lund, Sweden St. Augustine University of Tanzania Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine The Hague University, the Netherlands Tianjin Foreign Language University, Chine UAB Research Group on Animal Law Society, Spain Ulyanovsk State University, Russia UNA-Sweden Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain Universidad de Deusto, Spain Universidad de Granada, Spain Universidad de Málaga, Spain Universidad de Salamanca, Spain Universidad de Sevilla, Spain Universidad del País Vasco, Spain Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla, Spain Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain Universidade de Vigo, Spain Universitá de Turin, Italy Universitá degli studi di Milano, Italy Universitá degli studi di Napoli, Italy Universitá degli studi di Perugia, Italy Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain Universitat Cattolica Sacro Cuore di Milano, Italy Universitat de Barcelona, Spain Universitat de València, Spain Universitat Jaume I de Castelló, Spain Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain Université Bretagne-Sud Lorient-France Université de Genève, Switzerland Universiteit van Amsterdam, the Netherlands University College London, UK University for Development Studies, Ghana University of Birmingham, UK University of Bristol, UK University of Bucharest, Romania University of Essex, UK University of Florence, Italy University of Göttingen, Germany University of Groningen, the Netherlands University of Helsinki, Finland University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece University of Manchester, UK University of Nairobi, Kenya University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria University of Padova, Italy University of Palermo, Italy University of Piraeus, Greece University of Southern Denmark University of Stockholm, Sweden University of Trieste, Italy University of Warsaw University of Yaoundé, Cameroon Uppsala University, Sweden

Nacionalities
American Andorran Argentinian Australian Austrian Azerbaijani Belgian Bulgarian Brittish Cameroonian Canadian Chilean Chinese Colombian Cypriot Dominican Dutch Ecuadorian Finnish French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Indian Iranian Israeli Italian Japanese Jordan Kazakh Latvian Malaysian Mexican Moldavian Nigerian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Slovenian Spanish South African Stonian Surinamese Swedish Swiss Tanzanian Turkish Turkmen Ukranian Venezuelan

THE UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION OF SPAIN The United Nations Association of Spain (UNA Spain), founded in 1962 with its headquarters in Barcelona, is an NGO in consultative status to the UN ECOSOC and has been declared organisation of public use. We are recognized by the United Nations as its main connection to civil society. As such, we act as a focal point of the regional Center of Information of the United Nations in Brussels (UNRIC). Our fundamental aims are: - To spread the principles and goals of the United Nations and their specialized agencies. - To proclaim, to promote and to defend human rights and the fundamental freedoms. - To guard over the fulfillment of the commitments governments made in the framework of the United Nations towards the achievement of peace, justice and development. ACTIVITIES UNA Spain is engaged in the following activities: - To organize educational and sensibility campaigns about humans rights as well as trainings, seminars, conferences, etc. - To publish books about international relations, conflicts, human rights as well as didactic material for schools, magazines, yearbooks, etc. - To give the voice to the young people through the Catalonia Model United Nations (C’MUN); a simulation of the General Assembly and the main bodies of the United Nations where they can practice the skills of dialog and mediation among young people from all around the world. - To promote social responsibility; both of the private sector towards society and of the public sector and the NGO’s. PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL, SPANISH AND CATALAN ORGANIZATIONS UNA Spain was admitted to the World Federation of United Nations Associations (WFUNA) in 1963 and is currently a member of its Executive Committee. The WFUNA is the only international NGO committed to support the principles and goals of the United Nations Charter, as well as to promote the activities of the organization and its specialized agencies. UNA Spain is a member of the Federation of Associations for the Defence and the Promotion of Human Rights on a national level. UNA Spain is part of four Federations in Catalonia: the Catalan Federation of NGO’s for Human Rights, the Catalan Federation of NGO’s for Development, the Catalan Federation of NGO’s for Peace, and the Catalan Federation of Social Volunteering. UNA Spain is part of the Council of Social Welfare of the Barcelona City Council. PARTNERSHIP INSTITUTIONS Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain, Generalitat of Catalonia, County Council of Barcelona, City Council of Barcelona. CITY COUNCILS Badalona, Barberà del Vallès, Barcelona, Castelldefels, Cornellà de Llobregat Esplugues de Llobregat, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Girona, Lleida, Manlleu, Martorell, Mataró, Mollet del Vallès, Rubí, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Sant Feliu de Llobregat, Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Terrassa, Viladecans, Vilafranca del Penedès. UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION OF SPAIN C/ Fontanella, 14, 1º 1ª 08010 Barcelona Tel. 93 301 31 98 Fax: 93 317 57 68 e-mail: info@anue.org www.anue.org We also are at: OFFICE IN MADRID C/ Hermosilla, 114, bajos. 28009 Madrid e-mail: info@anue.org LLEIDA Universitat de Lleida C/ Jaume II, 73. 25001 Lleida Tel. 9733238658 Responsible: Antoni Blanc, president ARAGON Junta Municipal Actur - Rey Fernando C.C. Río Ebro María Zambrano, 56 50018 Zaragoza Tel. 638 04 18 92/893 e-mail: anuesport@anuesport.com www.anuesport.org Responsibles: Jesús Arroyo Salvador Fernando López Sierra Information Points GALICIA GADI (Instituto Galego de Anàlise e Documentación Internacional) Avda. Joselín, 7, puerta 3 5o. 36300 Baiona. Coruña. Tel. 986/357 23 38 Responsible: Xulio Ríos, director