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Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry
Definitive Rules for Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry

During the period while these rules were being formulated the Commission was made up of: H. BASSETT ( C h a i m n ,1947-53), ALEXANDER I L ~ ”(Chaimran, 1953-7), K.A. JENSEN (Trice Chairman),G. H. S CHEESMAN (Secrefury), J. BBNARD, B ERRUM,E. H. BUCHNER,W. FEITKNECHT,MALATESTA, N. L. A. LANDER, and H. REMY


Printed by permission of the Committee on Publications of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

PREFACE ....................................... INTRODUCTION .................................. .................................. 1. ELEMENTS 1 1 NAMESAND SYMBOLS THB ELEMENTS. . OF 12 . FOR GROUPS OF ELEMENTS AND THEIR SUBDIVISIONS.. ................. 13 INDICATION OF MASS, . CHARGE, ETC.. ON ATOMIC SYMBOLS ..................... 1 4 ALLOTROPES . AND FOR COMPOUNDS GENIN 2. FORMULAS NAMES


5523 5523 5525 5525

the Commission since the “1940 Rules” appeared. Their names’ are listed i the volumes of Comptes n Rendus, IUPAC, which have appeared since


3. NAMES FOR IONSAND RADICALS.. ............. 5529 5529 3.1 CATIONS.. ............................. 5530 3.2 ANIONS ................................ 5531 3.3 RADIcAcs .............................. PHASES V ~ ~ ~ COMPOSITION OF B L E 5532 4. CRYSTALLINE 5533 ...................................... 5. ACIDS 5 1 BINARY PSEUWBINARY . AND ACIDS.. ...... 5533 O Y T MC 5 2 ACIDS DERIVEDFROM P L A O I ANIONS. 5533 . FOR OXO ACIDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5534 5.214 NAMES 5.3 FUNCTIONAL DEWATIVRS ACIDS.. OF ..... 5535 AND SALT-LIKE COMPOUNDS.. ........... 5536 6. SALTS 6 1 SIMPLESALTS.. . ........................ 5536 6.2 SALTS CONTAINING ACID HYDROGEN (“ACID” SALTS). 5536 ..................... 6.3 DOUBLE SALTS, TRIPLE SALTS,ETC.. ...... 5538 6.4 OXIDE AND HYDROXIDE SALTS (“BASIC” 5537 S L S . ............................. A T ) 6.5 DOUBLE OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES.. ...... 5537 COMPOUNDS. .................. 5537 7. COORDINATION 5537 7 1 DEFINITIONS . ........................... 7.2 FORMULAS AND NAMES FOR COMPLEX COMPOUNDSGENERAL. IN ............. 5538 7 3 NAMESFOR LIGANDS. . ................... 5538 7 4 DI- AND POLYNUCLEAR . COMPOUNDS.. .... 5541 5541 7.5 ISOPOLY ANIONS.. ...................... 7.6 HETEROPOLY ANIONS.................... 5541 7.7 ADDITION COLIPOUNDS.. ................. 5542 ............................. 5542 8. POLYMORPHISM. LISTOF NAbfES FOR IONS AND RADICALS.. ......... 5543 INDEX ......................................... 5544

............................ ERAL .................................. 2.1 FORMULAS., ........................... 2.2 SYSTEMATIC NAMES. .................... 2.3 TRIVIAL NAMES.. .......................

Acknowledgment also is made of the cooperation of delegate and advisory members of the Com5525 mission, of members of nomenclature committees in a number of nations; also of E. J. Crane, Editor 5526 of C h i C a Z Abstracts. 5526 The final editing of the 1957 Report is the work of a subcoyittee, I . A. Jensen, Chairman, J. C 5526 Bhard, A. Olander, and H. Remy. 5527 November lst, 1958 5527 Alexander Silverman, Chairman 5529

The Commission on the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) was formed in 1921, and many meetings took place which culminated in the drafting of a comprehensive set of Rules in 1938. On account of the war they were published in 1940 without outside discussion. At the meeting of the International Union of Chemistry in 1947 it was decided to undertake a thorough revision of what have come to be known as the “1940 Rules,” and after much discussion they were completely rewritten and issued in English and French, the official languages of the Union, after the meeting i Stockholm in 1953 as the “Tentative n Rules for Inorganic Chemical Nomenclature.” These were studied by various national organizations and the comments and criticisms of many bodies and of private individuals were received and considered in Ziirich, Switzerland, in 1955, in Reading, England, in 1956, and in Paris, France, in 1957. The Rules set out here express the opinion of the Commission as to the best general system of nomenclature, although certain names and rules which are given here as a basis for uniformity will probably prove unworkable or unacceptable in some lanp a g e s In these cases adaptation or even alteralxon will be necessary, but it is hoped that it will be possible to keep these changes small and to preserve
(1) V. Caglioti, 0. Choudron, R. V. 0 . Bwens, F. Giordani, W. P a Jorrissen, H.I. Schlesinger, W.D. Treadwell, E. Votocek.

In addition to members o the Commission on f Inorganic Chemical Nomenclature listed above, the present revision is the evolved work of various individuals who have served as regular members of




Vol. 82

the spirit of the IUPAC Rules. The English and French versions, which differ slightly, are to be regarded as international models from which translations will be made into other languages. The latter is likely to prove the better model for the Romance languages, and the former for Germanic languages, but it must be borne in mind that English and French have been used in the two original versions of the report of the Commission as the official languages of the Union and that several nations speak them with quite considerable variations of usage among themselves. There may therefore arise a similar need for adaptation or alteration even among English-speaking and French-speaking peoples, but we hope that in these cases, as in the others, careful consideration will be given to minimizing variation and to preserving the spirit of our international model. The Commission’s aim always has been to produce rules which lead to clear and acceptable names for as many inorganic compounds as possible. It soon became obvious, however, that different users may require the name of a compound to fulfill different purposes, and it has been necessary to effect compromises in order to formulate rules of the most general usefulness. The principal function of a name is to provide the chemist with a word or set of words which is unique to the particular compound and which conveys a t least its empirical formula and also, if possible, its principal structural features. The name should be pronounceable and capable of being written or printed with an absolute minimum of additional symbols or modes of writing (e.g., subscripts or differing type faces). Many inorganic compounds exist only in the solid state and are destroyed on fusion, solution, or vaporization; some chemists have expressed strongly the view that names for such compounds should include information about the structure of the solid in each case as well as its composition. Incorporating all this information tends to make the names extremely cumbersome, and since many of the structures remain uncertain or controversial, such names often must be changed. For general purposes, therefore, it is essential to have as short names as possible, and the Commission has endeavored to produce a system based on the composition and most important properties of substances, avoiding as far as possible theoretical considerations which are liable to change.
Introductory Statement Concerning the Comments National variations as t o certain details of expression have been justified. A few such changes have been made in this American version. No alterations of basic significance have been made. The expression “American version” has been used chiefly because of the comments, made in good will and with the hope that they will prove t o be helpful. The recent appearance of the IUPAC 1957 “Definitive Rules for Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry” (published for IUPAC by Butterworths Scientific Publications in London (1959)) marks an important forward step in the development of a comprehensive and systematic inorganic nomenclature. Inorganic chemists owe a debt of gratitude to the members of the Commission on the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry for their long efforts and the successful issue of their labor.

X report such as this, comprising the contributions of many chemists representing many points of view, must of necessity be more a reflection of approved and established practices and the best compromises among these differing points of view and various national usages rather than the ideal of an integrated systematic set of nomenclature rules. But because the rules are a codification of recommended present procedures, they should iind acceptance by most chemists and should provide a good basis for future development. It should be realized that the report must stop short of many questions of detail which are probably best handled within the framework of each language and established national usage. This viewpoint has led t o some adaptations t o American practice, as exemplified in publications of the American Chemical Society. These adaptations include changes in styling (as spelling, separation of some one-word names into two words, and more liberal use of parentheses in some names) and occasional changes in wording to improve clarity. Greater harmonization of inorganic and organic nomenclature practices is much t o be desired. 4 joint committee of the IUPAC organic and inorganic nomenclature commissions has been appointed for such a purpose. Some of the overlapping areas (as organometallic compounds) are among those which will require extension of these Rules a t =me future date. These are areas which have become active within the past few years or in which significant advances in our understanding have recently taken place and are presently continuing. Nomenclature committees in the United States are currently studying some of the areas where more work is indicated, in the hope that the results of their studies may be considered at the international level with a view t o still further improvement. The Definitive Rules were carefully considered by the Subcommittee on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the National Research Council and the Committee on Nomenclature of the Division of Inorganic Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. This work was done by correspondence and by conferences a t the 137th and 138th meetings of the American Chemical Society in April and September, 1959, respectively. Tentative adoption of the Rules has been recommended by the above committees to the National Research Council, Committee on Nomenclature (Charles D. Hurd, Chairman) of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, and t o the American Chemical Society, Committee on Nomenclature, Spelling, and Pronunciation (Leonard T. Capell, Chairman) with the minor modifications incorporated in the text below and also the comments following specific rules. These comments of the two inorganic nomenclature committees-together with the comments on Section 7 by the Subcommittee on Coordination Compounds (Fred Basolo, Chairman, and Daryle H. Busch, Acting Chairman at the September meeting) of the Committee on Nomenclature of the Division of Inorganic Chemistry of the American Chemical Societyare made in a spirit not of criticism but of helpfulness and with a desire t o further the general use of these Rules in the United States. The comments following specific nomenclature rules also are in smaller type for the sake of readier recognition as such,and are preceded by the symbol+.

Subcommittee on Committee on Nomenclature, Division Nomenclature of Inorganic o Inorganic Chemistry, f Chemistry, Division of American Chemical Society Chemistry and Chemical Technology, National *DR. GEORGE SCHAEFFER, W. Research Council Chairman MISS JANET D. SCOTT, Chair- DR. FRED BASOLO DR. JOSEPH CRATT (Correman DR. FRED BASOLO sponding Member, England) DR. W. C. FERNELNS Mxss GERTRUDE GIBBONS DR. ALLANF. CLIFFORD DR. DALLAS HURD DR. W. C. FEERNELIUS T. MIS GERTRUDE GIBBONS DR. KURTL.LOENING DR. DALLAS HURD MOELLER T. DR. THBRALD DR. EUGBNE ROCROW DR. WILLIAM G. JOLLY W. DR. , *DR. GEORGE SCHAEFFER KURTI. LOBNING DR. GEORGE WATT W. DR. EUGENE ROCHOW G. MISSJANET D. SCOTT * Deceased. DR. GEORGE WATT W.

and the Commission hesitates to insert it..21 implies that D is an acceptable symbol for ical symbol.E. 21 34 14 47 11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 22 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 particu- + 1. 18. and halides and chalcogerlides for their comIn thc cases in which different names have been pounds.g. separate lists have been drawn up in English and in French. for example. I.-All isotopes of an element should have the of the elements. Se. alkali metals (Li to Frj.15. 1960 DEFINITIVE RULES FOR NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 5525 1. T~BLE I ELE~~ENTS Name Atomic Symbol number Name Atomic Symbol number Name Atomic Symbol number Actinium Ac Gold (Aurum) 89 Au 79 Praseodymium Aluminum A1 Hafnium Hf Promethium 13 72 Am Americium Helium 95 2 He Protactinium Antimony 51 67 Holmium Radium Ho Sb Ar Argon Hydrogen 18 H Radon 1 Indium Arsenic 33 As Rhenium In 49 At Iodine Astatine 85 Rhodium I 53 Barium Iridium Ba Rubidium 56 Ir 77 Berkelium Bk Iron (Ferrum) Fe 97 Ruthenium 26 Beryllium Be Krypton 4 Samarium 36 Kr Bismuth Bi Lanthanum Scandium 57 83 La B Lead (Plumbum Boron Selenium 82 Pb 5 Bromine Br Lithium Silicon 35 Li 3 Cadmium Cd Lutetium Silver (Argentum) 48 Lu 71 Ca1cium Ca Magnesium 20 Sodium 12 Mg Californium Cf Manganese 98 Strontium Mn 25 Carbon C Mendelevium 6 Sulfur Md 101 Cerium Ce Mercury 58 Tantalum 80 Hg Molybdenum Cesium cs Technetium 42 55 Mo Chlorine c1 Neodymium Tellurium 17 Nd 60 Chromium 24 Cr Neon Terbium Ne 10 Neptunium Cobalt 2 : co Thallium 93 NP Nickel Copper (Cuprum) cu 29 Ni Thorium 28 Curium Cm Niobium 96 Thulium Nb 41 Dysprosium Nitrogen 66 N 7 Tin (Stannum) DY Einsteinium Nobelium 99 ES 102 NO Titanium Erbium Er Osmium 68 76 Tungsten (Wolfram) os Europium Eu Oxygen 63 0 8 Uranium Fermium Fm 100 Palladium 46 Pd Vanadium Fluorine F Phosphorus 9 P 15 Xenon Francium Fr Platinum 87 78 Pt Ytterbium Gadolinium 64 Plutonium Gd 94 Pu Yttrium Gallium Polonium 31 Ga Po 84 Zinc Germanium Potassium 32 Ge K 19 Zirconium The committees reaffirm the name niobium for element 41 in spite of the fact t h a t many in the United larly outside of chemical circles.11.--The names placed in parentheses (after 1.g. e.” Although the name nickel agrees with the chemThe list in 3.-The elements should have the symbols given in the following table (Table I). e. aurate. It is recommended T be allowed for deuterium and that D spelled so differently in various languages (niquel. but i t For some compounds of sulfur. It is desirable that the names should differ as little as possible among the different languages] but as complete uniformity is hard to achieve. and the Latin name stibium. tungstate. and inert gases may be conconsiderations of prevailing usage and practicabil. and La to Lu inclusive. Br. respecC ’ nikkel. are used. “oxygenrespectively. tritium. etc. The English list only is reproduced here.. no: hydrargyrate). and comments made at 1. ferrate.-The use of the collective names : halogens in languages where the element has another name (F. tively.-All new elements shall have two-letter the trivial names) in the list in Table I shall always symbols. tium. whereas *H is used in 1. They should be desigFrench name azote.2 1. 5 .-Any new metallic elements should be given names ending in -ium.Nov. the numbers to other elements. carries no implication regarding priority of discovery. Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb Ru Sm Sc 59 61 91 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Ti Th Tm Sn Ti W U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr States.) that i t is recommended that names of Names for Groups of Elements and their derivatives be formed from the Latin name nic. Tungstate and nickelate are both so well established in American practice that the committees object t o changing them t o wolframate and niccolate. Y. niscolate instead of nickelate. chalcogens (0. Names and Symbols of the Elements 1. be used when forming names derived from those 1. The name rare earth metals may be used ity. it is essentially a trivial name and is deuterium. nated by mass numbers as.1. still retain the name columbium. nitrogen. I t sLould be emphasized that their selection for the elements Sc.2 Subdivisions colum. Molybdenum and a few other elements have long been spelled without an ‘iilJin most languages.1. Te. Po).S. and At). For hydrogen the isotope names proand not goldate. the . alkaline earth used the Ccmn:ission has selected one based upon metals (Ca to Ra).32. ironate. deuterium]and tritium may be retained. wolfrainate same name.31. ELEMENTS 1. + l.l3. and (mercurate. derivatives of the Greek name Beiov.14. C1. 132. The name mercury should be used as the root name also 1.tinued. and is undesirable to assign isotopic names instead of antimony.

To indicate ring and chain &ktur& the prefixes cyclo and ca6na may be used. If the number of atoms is large and unknown. The following is an example of an equation for a nuclear reaction yM ! g . atoms. the prefix w l v may be used. actinoid is preferable to actinide. 1. others may be treated as such for the purpose of nomenclature. Definition by means of atomic numbers is recommended in both cases rather than on the basis of interpretation (e.5526 INTERNATIONAL OF PURE UNION AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY Examples : HOS02WH 16NOzNH2 N0zl6NH~ HOaSW-'8OSOsH Vol. For other labeled compounds the symbol in italics for the isotope introduced is attached by a hyphen to the end of the part of the name which is modified. but i t has not been made (spoken : hydrogen chloride-36) consistently. on Atomic Symbols 1.-Isotopically labeled compounds may be Many chemical compounds are essentially binary described by adding to the name of the com. in German : Natriumchlorid H8T1hydrogen chloride(@C1) but Chlorwasserstoff). 89 (Ac) to 103 form the actinium series. similarly. which can be indicated by Greek numerical prefixes (listed in 2.. 82 name lanthanum series for the elements no. number of atoms. In these by placing the isotope symbol immediately after rules a system of nomenclature has been built on the basis of the endings -ide and -ate. the whole group containing names can be given as coordination compounds in accordance with 2. and indeed it seems impossible to 15NH3 ammonia(I6N) introduce this distinction into a consistent system (spoken : ammonia nitrogen-15) of nomenclature.31. Elements no.3 Indication of Mass.g. + Although the practice of American chemists and physicists + + IN GENERAL 1. + T h e collective term halogenides used in the Rules has been replaced in this version by halides. f The name transuranium elements is also approved for the elements following uranium. If it is deIf this method gives names which are ambiguous sired to avoid such endings for neutral molecules. and the name lanthanides for the elements 58-71 (Ce to Lu inclusive) are recommended..4. 2.not nitr("N)amide nitramide( 16NH2) peroxo(l8O2)disulfuricacid Since IUPAC rules for labeling organic compounds are not yet available. ions or radicals. not self-linking. which is almost universally used in English and is unambiguous. nature and can be regarded as combinations of pounds the symbol of the isotope in parentheses. Example: . 57-71 (La to Lu inclusive).-The mass number. tecto.-The word metalloid should not be used to denote nonmetals. phyllo. Allotropes If systematic names for gaseous and liquid modifications are required. S p-sulfur .. all used without italics or hyphens (e. and the name actinides is reserved for the elements in which the 5 shell is being filled. Such a distinction is made in some languages (e. soro) denoting structure. each of which has the atomic number 16 and mass number 32. the labeled atom may be indicated. filling of 5f shells). along with cyclo and other p r e h e s (neso. FORMULAS AND NAMES OF COMPOUNDS .22. The positions are to be occupied thus left upper index left lower index right lower index right upper index mass number atomic number number of atoms ionic charge 1.g. because the line of demarcation The position of the labeled atom may be indicated between these two categories is not sharp. thiosulfuric(Y3H)acid nitramide(lbNOz). or difficult to pronounce. the committees recognize the advantage of putting it a t the upper left so that the upper right is available for the ionic charge as needed.%Si+represents a doubly ionized molecule containing two atoms of sulfur. be emphasized that these are intended to be applied Example: fH286S04 sulfuric(a6S) acid(aH) both to ionic and covalent compounds. etc.24 and Section 7. Chemical Abstracts uses the modified Boughton system for deuterium and tritium compounds. although it is suggested that lanthanoid is preferable to lanthanide because of the use of -ide for binary compounds. Examples : Some chemists have expressed the opinion that **PC13 phosphorus(**P) trichloride the name of a compound should indicate whether (spoken : phosphorus-32 trichloride) i t is ionic or covalent.42 for chains of alternating.g. Cf. inosilicates). they should be based on the size of the molecule. but it should be pointed out that ino (not catena) has been used by mineralogists for indicating chain structures in silicates. For the nomenclature of solid allotropic forms the rules in Section 8 may be applied. particularly since the latter term is used for a radioactive series. No need is seen for the terms lanthanum series and actinium series. use of catena in 7.He = ?A !1 :H in general has been to put the m s number at the upper as right of the symbol. The use of a collective term for elements 58-71 is approved. and ionic charge of an element may be indicated by means of four indices placed around the symbol.251). and it should the locant (name of the group concerned). atomic number. Charge. The use of prefixes to indicate ring and chain structures is favored by the committees..32. Examples: Symbol Trivial Name Systematic Name H atomic hydrogen 0 2 (common) oxygen Os ozone PC white phosphorus (yellow phosphorus) Sa X-sulfur monohydrogen dioxygen trioxygen t etraphosphorus cyclooctasulfur or octasulfur catenapolysulfur or polysulfur Ionic charge should be indicated by An+ rather than by A+". The inclusion of Sc with the rare earths is questioned by some.

U. it is Ra.17. sym. Ge Bi. Ga. i. I. -uro.-1n the case of binary compounds between nonmetals that constituent should be placed first which appears earlier in the sequence: B. Te. H.When the molecular weight varies with temperature. ents should be placed in the order and -et0 are used instead of -ide. F.g. CaSO4. Rh. 2. nickel arsenide. e. Os.2 1.1. HOCN (cyanic acid).13. unless it is desirable to indicate the molecular complexity. N. boron hydrides.--1 the electronegative constituent is monelements. should be used.14. Cd. Tc. 2. Ir. Md.16. the sequence should in general atomic its name is modified to end in -ide.. Sc 2. calcium phosHSO4.. Br. Examples: NHa. e. Zn T1. Examples : Sodium chloride. However. A 1 Pb. 2.g. a formula corresponding with the correct molecular weight of the compound. Co. not a sulfide.carbides. Water of crystallization and similar loosely bound molecules. 5.18. when compounds with analogous structures are compared (AgZn and AgMg). H&. 1960 DEFINITIVERULES FOR NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 5527 2.-The number of identical atoms or atomic groups in a formula is indicated by means of Arabic numerals. They are of particular importance in chemical equations and in descriptions of chemical procedure. 2. trans. Mg. Sr. Y .16. NCS-.g.oxide. tion 5).. This also applies in Romance languages even though the electropositive constituent is placed last in the name.-The name of the electropositive constituent (or that treated as such according to 2. Ca. S.-In formulas the electropositive constituent (cation) should always be placed first. P. sulfur hexafluoride. Systematic Names Systematic names of compounds are formed by indicating the constituents and their proportions according to the following rules. chlorure de potassium.i d e s e e 3. SsC12. e. not the element standing later in the sequence in 2. No.32 and 6. Cr Re. Zr. recommended that the ending -ide be universally adopted in these languages. Fe Au. placed below and to the right of the symbol or symbols in parentheses ( ) or brackets [ ] to which they refer. The empirical formula may be supplemented by indication of the crystal structure-see Section 8. Sb. aluminum borides. Examples: CaClz not CaCP [Co(NHa)a]Clanot [CoGNHaICla [Co(NHa)6]i(so4)3 N~zSOI. Se. 0. Fm. their general use in text is not recommended. do not agree with this rule and HNO3 does phides. KCl.15. calcium sulfide. acid).16 CNS-. arsenic selenide. KC1. custom of putting the central atom immediately carbon disulfide. lOH2O . however.16) will not be modified (see. NS4. Si. e. Ru. Deviations from this order may be allowed. C. Cs. Mn Pt.e.Nov.. Cf.. name it sulfur it is customary to place the electronegative connitride.[PtClz(NHa)s] 2.g. 2. oxygen difluoride. and NO2 instead of Sa. Formulas 2. whereas the ending -ide is Fr..22. Although formulas such as HNOa. asym may be used in their usual senses. Pa. Th. In Germanic languages the electropositive con+ Because N& is definitely a nitride. In. Na. ending . C1. S2C12 and H4P20eand not SC1 and HzPO~. The formula for hypochlorous acid may Certain polyatomic groups are also given the be written HOC1 or HC10. Be 103. Ac. on account of its compactness. lithium nitride. their sequence is determined by Rules 6. Ni. Bk. P. The prefixes may be connected with the formula by a hyphen and it is recommended that they be italicized.-Formulas provide the simplest and clearest method of designating inorganic compounds. K.-For compounds consisting of discrete molecules the molecular formula. and HONC (fulminic is modified to end in -ide.-The prefixes cis. V W.. In some languages the word oxyde is used. At. HC104. the simplest possible formula generally may be chosen. hydrogen sulfide..-1n the structural f o r m u b the sequence and spatial arrangement of the atoms in a molecule are indicated. Example: cis. Nb. are designated by means of Arabic numerals before their formulas.. phosphorus hydrides. 2.161.-1n intermetallic compounds the constituIn the Romance languages the endings -ure. Cu Hg. Sec. Rb. but in Romance languages mittees prefer to write the formula &N. stituent first. For follow the order in which the atoms are actually binary compounds of the nonmetals the name of bound in the molecule or ion. 2.-The empirical formula is formed by juxtaposition of the atomic symbols to give the simplest possible formula expressing the stoichiometric composition of the compound in question. Es. silicon carbide. Ti Ta. Sb Po Nonmetals (except Sb) in the order given in 2.stituent is placed first. e. 2. As. chlorine diafter the hydrogen atom in such cases (cf. the Commis. 2.1 1. iron not even follow the main rule in 2..33. Cm. Np.g.g.22. Ag.-For compounds containing three or more 2. Li used in the names of other binary compounds. however.2531). the com.Am.19.) 2. Pu. Sn. and cite it as an exception rather than as an example.Pd. PI. may be preferable to a cumbersome and awkward name. although in some cases a formula. etc.12. (For the order of the constituents see also the later sections. ClzO. Lu-La.16. S. Mo. e. Ba. and NzOd. however.2. sion does not a t this time wish to break the old hydrogen chloride. If the compound contains more than one electropositive or more than one electronegative constituent. OF2 Hf.

The coordination principle applied in this rule because of t h e frequent.-Indication of the Proportions of the ConThe Stock notatioi c m be appli-edtc -bothcations stituents. Nas[PO41 sodium tetraoxophosphate Since the degree of polymerization of many subNaa [PSI sodium tetrathiophosphate stances varies with temperature.hyphen the names of the elements to w i h they hc atomic it should be designated by the termination refer. It should be pointed out. but preierab!v slinuld nnt be zppiied tc 2. the name to be used should nomally be K [POzFr 1 potassium dioxodifluorophosbased upon the simplest possible formula of the phate substance except when i t is required specifically to K [POClZ(NH)] potassium oxodichloroimidodraw attention to the degree of polymerization. pounds of the nonmetals.d anions.-The proportions o the constituents ~ S C ! f complexes which are as a d e considered as binary may be indicated indirectly by Stock’s system.) are used and the whole -0. penta. sodium thiosulfate (see 2-26). hendeca.23).3.5528 ~RNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIEDCHEMISTRY Vol.22.-The stoichiometric kroportions may be compounds bet. meral may be placed above and to the right 2.26 and the last sentence in 5. In this case the name of a negatively charged When it is required to indicate the number of complex should be formed from the name of the entire groups of atoms.3..2.” etc. second set of examples in 5.tri. Ca [PCh]z calcium bis(hexachlorophosphate) Examples : In indexes it may be convenient to italicize a Naz [Sod sodium tetraoxosulfate numerical prefix a t the beginning of the name and Nap [SO31 sodium trioxosulfate connect it to the rest of the name with a hyphen.16. or neutral (cf. but Naz [SZO.xvceri r:onmc-taIs I t A ciilploying ti. Cf.? Stork iic.312. comment at 2. because they are more IC4-).hexa. sodium sulfate. used for the equilibrium mixture of NO2 and NzOr. + Nitrogen sulfide has been taken out of the examples. including mono (cf. or molecules This system is applicable to all types of combound to the characteristic or central atom are pounds and is especially suitable for binary comtermed ligands. e.” in the omission of numerical Extreme caution is advised trivial names do not exist. ennea.g. phosphate. should Nz04 dinitrogen tetraoxide now designate quite generally a negative group conNzSs dinitrogen pentasulfide taining sulfur or phosphorus. cmnplex.224.251 .be inserted berween Greek” and “numerical prefixes” in plicable. phosphate Example: The name nitrogen dioxide may be In many cases these names may be abbreviated. + In the examples it would seem that full cwrdination-type placed in parentheses immediatec. octa. state of aggregaNa [PCh] sodium hexachlorophosphate tion. supplement these numerals with hemi and the In certain exceptional cases the terminations -ide Latin sesqui (”2). prefxes. etc. + I n accordance with the organic nomenclature rules and 2.i following the names should be given. well-established practFe.. deca. Greek prefixes are replaced by Arabic possible in a polyatomic group to indicate a chur. tetrakis. neutral 2. the deiinition of “central atom. the multiplicative numerals (Latin bis.12) modified to end in -ate. particularly when the name characteristic or central element (as indicated in includes a numerical prelix with a diEerent signifi1. and the atoms. sulfur trioxide.” and also. by Roman numerals representing the oxidation Thus. It may be necessary in some languages to -ate. phosphate. 2.-If the electronegative constituent is poly. cance. respectively.g. Dinitrogen tetraoxide means specifically N204. theses if necessary.24. i t is recommended that “or Latin” however. 2. For zero the Arabic 0 wi!l be used. the names sulfate. e. that compounds are given names according to 2.32 and comment a t used in conjr. number or stoichiometric valence of the element. and Section 5). and its use is recommended in all cases where “undeca’: replace “hendeca. e.numerals (with or without hyphen according to the acteristic atom (as in ClO-) or a central atmn (as in custom of the language). irrespective of its oxidation state (the Fe304 triiron tetraoxide designation of the oxidation state is discussed in UsOe triuranium octaoxide later rules) and the number and nature of the MnOp manganese dioxide ligands. ar.~ sodium trioxothiosulfate this is not desirable in text. as the S*Ch disulfur dichloride central atom.-1n inorganic compounds it is generally Beyond 12. is. Further details concerning the designation of group to which they refer may be placed in parenligands. tri-Uranium octaNa [ S O 81 sodium trioxofluorosulfate oxide. The complex is indicated by brackets Car[ POr]z tricalcium diorthophosphate [ 1. not trioxosulfur. 82 Cf.nction with symbols the Roman nuI .1 and Section 7). di.. tetra. However. that the principle is quite generally ap.25. Although the terms sulfate.. but this is not always necessary. etc.3. Anionic ligands are indicated by the termination Greek tris. (mono. use cf names such as chloroplatinate may also be applied to complexes which are positive (cf.24). Such a polyatomic group is designated a readily understood. were Examples : NzO dinitrogen oxide originally the names of the anions of particular oxo NOz nitrogen dioxide acids. appear in Section 7 . The prefix mono may generally be omitted. and dodeca) preceding without 2. US^ ~ i the i ~ t l ~ ’ denoted by nieans of Greek nwnerical prefix-e-.22. When LVI) or disodium tetraoxosulfate... SOa. either sodium tetraoxosulfate name. and in other cases trivial names may be used (cj. and -ite are u s e d s e e 3. etc. hepta.252.23.. 7.g. radicals. etc.tatic)rA.16. to compounds containing organic ligands the Grst sentence and that “nona” replace “ennea. i .

quickchloride lime. 2.-Th preceding principle should apply also to polyatomic cations corresponding to radicals for which special names are given in 3. such as soda. and hence heteratomic would be a more precise term.. etc. TrivialNames Examples : phosphonium. oxidation numbers.12. when they are not required in the particular circumstances. ammonia.--The following systems are in use but are not recommended : 22531.3.13. and acids (Section 5 ) and for hydrogen compounds iodonium ions.-The system of indicating valence by means of tihe suExes . Examples : DEFINITIVE FOR NOMENCLATURE RULES OF INORGANIC CHEXXSTRY 5529 names of the elements (or Latin Toots) is considered notation.Nov.3.3. selenonium.11) pounds of the ACS in a report not yet published. 5. Chile saltpeter.14. Examples: NO+ the nitrosyl cation NO%+ the nitryl cation Polyatomic here and in 3. does not affect indexing and should not lead to confusion.11. PLtrely trivial names.32..3.3. telluronium.32. SiH4 sifane SizHs disilane. + 3. Examples : sodium sulfate instead of sodium tetraoxosulfate aluminum sulfate instead of a l u ” ( I I 1 ) sulfate potassium chloroplatinate(1V) instead of potassium hexachtoroplatinate(1V) potassium cyanoferrate(II1)instead of potassium hexacyanoferrate(II1) phosphorus pentaoxide instead of diphosphorus pentaoxide 3. and they should be eliminated from Pb112Pb1V04 dilead(I1) lead(1V) oxide or tri. as for example hs SbHa stibine in H*O+ClO*-.-Polyatomic cations formed from monatomic cations by the addition of other ions or neutral atoms or molecules (ligands) will be regarded as complex and will be named according to the rules given in Section 7.3).2531. hydrazine) are still acceptable. 5 2seems and . for U 0 2 + the name uranyl(V1) ion in place of dioxouranium(VI) ion. Examples : [A€(HzO)a]*+ the hexaaquoaluminum ion [CoCl(NH3)6]’+ the chloropentamminecobalt ion For so” important polyatomic cations which fall i this section.13. For instance.-Names for polyatomic cations derived by addition of protons to monatomic anions are formed by adding the ending -onium to the root of the name of the anion element. which i in fact the monohydrated s PHI phosphine PtH4 diphosphine proton.12.32). these names should be used without change or s u E x . 2.1960 advantageous. 3.32 may n n be used alternatively.1. Cations 3. Natronhydrat.g.2532. Mixed use o the f two systems. are harmless in industrial and popular literaFeCL iron(II1) chloride or ferrum(Il1) ture. Mo nz manganese(1V) oxide carbonate of lime. to be limited to more than one kind of atom. Examples : Cu + the copper(1) ion Cu2+ the copper(I1) ion I+ the iodine cation + For I+. It is agreed that nitryl and not nitronium should be used in all cases (cf. 2. whether are approved the parent itself is a known compound or not: for B a s diborane example (CHa)rSb+. In many instances it is permissible to omit the numbers of atoms. free from false scientific FeC& iron(I1) chloride or ferrum(I1) implications.323).. 3. . 3. class name (cf. See comment at 1. + Apparently there is no objection to acid anhydride as a 3 NAMES FOR IONS AND RADICALS .-In systematic names it is not always necessary to indicate stoichiometric proportions. e. but a d incorrect scientific names such as l chloride sulfate of magnesia. while not desirable in any one context. without change or s&.o m and -ic added to the root of the name of the cation may be retained for elements exbibiting not more than two valences. it is suggested that it be replaced by soda ash.-Monatomic cations should be named like the corresponding dement. The widely 2. except as provided by 2. (water.223. iodide(1) cation is more consistent with recommeoded practice. oxonium perchlorate. Cf. they suggest that in some cases the system of Ewens and Bassett (designation of the aggregate charge of a complex ion by an Arabic numeral in parentheses following the name.14. Certain well-establismd trivial names for oxo oxonium. sodium muriate. . is to be known as the oxonium ion when it ASH3 arsins k H 4 diamine is believed to have t i constitution.technical and patent literature. these indications are not generally neceSSary with elements of essentially constant valence. Other functional derivatives o acids f are naqed as such in the Rules (5. Because soda is an ambiguous term.151). stibonium. the tetramethylstibonium ion. radical names given i 3. 6. similar to the use as superior notations with formulas) is adaantageous and should be abmed as an aiternate (d. ets.3.17and comment a t 7.--“ Functional” nomenclature (such as “nitric anhydride” for &Os) is not recommended apart from the name acid to designate the acid function (Section 5).. sulfonium. Organic ions derived For some other hydrogen compounds these names parent cations should beby substitution in these named as such. + While the committees favor the extended use of the Stock In some languages names of the type “Chlorwassembff” are in use and may be retained if national nomenclature committees so wish. arsonium. should be avoided under a l l BaO2 barium(I1) peroxide circumstances. The ion H30+.253.26. lead tetraoxide + For B& (omitted in the Rules) borane rather than the IL[Ni(CN)4] potassium tetracyanomcollate(0) previous€yused bo& has been recommended by the Advi&[Fe(CN)a] potassium hexacyanoferrate(I1) sory Committee on the Nomenclature o Organic Boron Comf Na2[Fe(CO)4] sodium tetracarbonylferrate(.21.e.

15. the central atom shall generally be treated as ligands + I n accord with present practice. imidazolium. etc. ions the name of the base (if necessary omitting a final may be formed in analogous manner.222.32 regarding *H D. 3. 2. These are when the rules are applied to other elements.152.221.16. This decision does not release the word nitronium 3. etc.-cations formed by adding protons to non. For example. HzNO3+.5530 INTERNATIONAL OF PURE UNION AND APPLDD CHEMISTRY VOl.boride ion Szsulfide ion Se2.-Certain polyatomic anions have names for other uses: this would lead to inconsistencies ending in -ide. the hydration is of no particular importance to the matter under consideration.neutral or positively charged.hydroxyl-ammonium.phosphide ion F. shall consist of the name of the central atom with the acetate acidium ion.252 and the use of Stock notation with the same manner as other ligands (2.33) in the original version For adding the word acidium to the name of the corre.153. glycinium.-Where more than one ion is derived from This applies also when the exact composition of one base. acetonium. as.32). does not conform to 3. and CH3COOH2+.and OZH.g. in a complex (cf. 3. 82 hydride ion Na. in aqueous solution.comment a t 6. however.mends that whenever the charge corresponds with nium ion because hydrogen ion adequately designates an that indicated above. 3. 1336-8 (1931). their names are to be formed by fide here and methylisocyanide in 5. as methyl.13 and 3.-1t is quite practicable to treat oxygen in + Cf. with the termination -ide.24 and Section 7) as. Examples : dioxanium. but it has ions or radicals in 3. but should be retained.antimonide ion Brbromide ion C4. guanidinium.. 13triiodide ion N2H3hydrazide ion 3. the hy.22. 3. Education.and dimethyloxonium ions. for exare preferred to nitrate acidium ion. be used. by adding -ium to the name of the compound to 3. ion should not be called the hydroxyl ion. The latter also may be used for the indefinitely solvated proton in nonaqueous solvents. HONHs+.+ Superoxide is well established in English for On-and no nitrogenous bases may also be given names formed advantage is seen in changing to hyperoxide.-1ons such as SH. work and spectroscopy..nitride ion deuteride ion Pa. see J. long been customary to ignore the name of this element altogether in anions and to indicate its pres3.e. HD- .selenide ion Te2.17.have been written as two words in this version. respectively. ion. The termination -ite has been used to denote a element. Thus used term hydronium should be kept for the cases where it is wished to denote an indefinite degree of hydration of the proton. nitric acidium ion. 3. sponding anion. charges may be indicated in their names as the minum hydroxide or zinc hydroxide in sodium hydrazinium(l+) and the hydrazinium(2+) ion.2.21. that the termination -ate. a rule on the written form of the names of compounds Chem. whether free or as a substituent (cf.arsenide ion C1chloride ion Sba.. For example. aluminate and zincate ions are formed. . 8. called the hydrogen sulfide ion and the hydrogen peroxide ion. The OH-e or other vowel).12 and 3. per-.-Polyatomic Anions.24).2. In the case of cations formed by adding protons + Cf.carbide ion Iiodide ion Si4. for example.. (Sb(OH)6 1 -.-The names for monatomic anions shall fixes (hypo-.223.silicide ion Ozoxide ion Ba. for example. FH2+is the fluoronium ion. The name hydroxyl is reserved for the OH group when pyridinium.comments at 1. Atoms and groups attached to apply. and not that of the acid itself.32. 3. e.4ubstituted ammonium ions derived 0 2 2 NH2imide ion peroxide ion from nitrogen bases with names ending in -amine 0 2 NH2amide ion hyperoxide ion will receive names formed by changing -amine to 0 3 ozonide ion NHOH. the hexahydroxoantimonate (V) organic. The names uronium and thiouronium. and names such as hydrosuEde are not needed.S22disulfide ion amide ion droxylammonium ion. the simpler term hydrogen ion may be used. This agrees with 6. If.15L-The name ammonium for the ion NH4+ + Cf.. etc.224.fluoride ion Asa. though in. OHN3azide ion hydroxide ion 3. the nitrate acidium ion. CH*COOHo+ is ample. anilinium.-1ons from Nitrogen Bases. hydroxide.15 and 1. for example. polyhalide. the Commission recombut see little reason for encouraging retention of the term hydro.-When the nitrogen base is known by a HFzhydrogen diCNcyanide ion name ending otherwise than in -amine. see Section 5) and someconsist of the name (sometimes abbreviated) of the times also by the suffix -ite in place of -ate. which is used quite generally when the anion of the acid is monatomic 3. consistent with this rule. etc. and 3. as.14 will for complex anions.the nitrite acidium ion. the cation fluoride ion Cz2acetylide ion name is to be formed by adding the ending -ium to Names for other polysulfide.14. Examples : hydrazinium.telluride ion Expressions of the type “chlorine ion” are used particularly in connection with crystal structure + The committees concur in oxonium for the ion H*O+.-The names for other polyatomic anions H2NOz+.. NzH5+and N z H B ~ their the anion is not known. 3. but definite ions such as CHoOHz+ and (CH&OH+ should be named as derivatives of the oxonium ion. comment a t 2.2. All “fused” names (as hydrogensulto acids. however.will be which the proton is added. the termination -ide should indeterminate degree of hydration. Note. may be retained. by solution of alu+. Anions ence and proportion by means of a series of pre3. respectively. respectively. however.

g. respectively. nitrilo.diphosphite (pyrophosphite) PH202hypophosphite AsO. 1960 DEFINITXVE RULES FOR NOMENCLATURE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF 5531 (similarly for other actinide elements) lower oxidation state and may be retained in trivial names in these cases NOSnitrite N202'hyponitrite N002peroxonitrite PHOsaphosphite P2H20sa. 3. names can be formed without entering into any controversy.2arsenite SOP sulfite &Ob2disulfite (pyrosulfite) &Or2dithionite &On2thiosulfite &Osaselenite clopchlorite c10hypochlorite (and correspondingly for the other halogens) The Commission does not recommend the use of any such names other than those listed. or a plumbate(11) is formed in the solution. In like manner. respectively. etc. SnO. . stannite. Cu(Cr02)rr copper(I1) chromium(II1) oxide. for example.g. phosphoryl (mono)chloride. + For phosphite names see comment at 6. for example.. The list of names for ions and radicals following the R l s ue is very useful and can be made more so by additions (as of dithio. VO may be vanadyl(V).32. seleno-. For all new compounds and even for the less common ones listed in the table in 3. 3. respectively.g. sulfonyl (sulfuryl) W 6 pyrosulfuryl seo sel&yl SeOt selenonyl CIQ chromyl UO.224 or derived from the adds listed in the table in 5. e. per-. It might be clearer t o indicate stoichiometric proportions. 5. uranyl Np01 neptunyl PuOt plutonyl C10 chlorosyl ClO. the uranyl group UOg may refer either to the ion U0z2+or to the ion U02+. Examples: PS thiophosphoryl CSe selenocarbonyl In cases where radicals may have different valences.Nov. a stannate(II). The list of names for ions and radicals on page 5543 gives an extensive selection of radical names at present in use in inorganic chemistry. Thus. for example. thiophosphoryl trichloride (cf. vanadyl(IV). 6. the compounds NOCl and NOClO. chloryl c10* perchlory1 (and similarly for other halogens) 1 The name nitroxyl should not be used for this group since the name nitroxylic acid has been used for H I N ~ . so sulfinyl (thionyl) SO. ferrite. These polyatomic radicals always are treated as forming the positive part of the compound. has been used for VOI as well as for VO (cf. and accordingly different names often have been assigned to the same group. By dissolving.2.214). plumbite. nitroyl may be a better model for many other languages.. Names such as the above should be used only to designate compounds containing these discrete groups.3. Radicals 3.24. instead of introducing new trivial names. Sometimes the same radical fulfils different functions in different cases. and azido in the last column) and by greater attempt a t uniformity with organic usage. but in many cases such compounds are known in the solid state to be double oxides and are to be treated as such (qf. antimonite. not copper chromite. in 6. etc. as chloro and oxo. The Commission considers it desirable to reduce this diversity and recommends that formulas or systematic names be used to denote all new radicals.5).31.24 and in Sections 5 and 7. Radicals analogous to the above containing other chalcogens in place of oxygen are named by adding the prefixes thio-.. the oxidation number of the characteristic element should be indicated by means of the Stock notation. SbOg. tellurite. it is preferable to use the system given in 2.-A radical is here regarded as a group of atoms which occurs repeatedly in a number of different compounds. A single atom may function like a radical as defined above and may be named similarly. Most of these radical names (except hydroxyl and thionyl) can be regarded as derived from the names of acids which have lost all of their hydroxyls (analogous t o -yl or -0y1 organic acid radical names) by the use of -yl and -0syl for radicals from -ic and -0us acids.42). and the Commission approves the provisional retention of HO hydroxyl NO2 nitryl1 CO carbonyl PO phosphoryl NO nitrosyl VO vanadyl + Caution is urged in the use of some of these radical names: Vanadyl. e. and vanadyl(II1). such compounds are to be designated as oxide halides (6. Although the word nitryl is firmly established in E n g h h . The use of the Stock notation in only one example (phosphoryl(II1) chloride) seems confusing.214. also the naming of VOSO. Examples: COClp carbonyl chloride NOS nitrosyl sulfide PON phosphoryl nitride PSC4 thiophosphoryl chloride POCl phosphoryl(II1) chloride N02Hs10. A number of other names ending in -ite have been used. Where there is reason to believe that a definite salt with a discrete anion exists. For example.. Concerning the use of prefixes hypo-. The use of thionyl and sulfuryl should be restricted to the halides. are quite unambiguously denoted by the names nitrosyl chloride and nitrosyl perchlorate. Some of the terms (as nitride and amide) listed as anions are used also of covalent compounds. see the list of adds (table in 5. this is implied in the footnote about nitroxyl. c. the name is formed in accordance with 2. manganite. or PbO in sodium hydroxide an antimonate(III).4).-Certain radicals containing oxygen or other chalcogens have special names ending in -yl. these can be distinguished as uranyl(V1) and uranyl(V). nitryl hydrogen disulfate s*osclF pyrosulfuryl chloride fluoride SOg(N& sulfonyl azide SOsNH sulfonyl imide IOoF iodyl fluoride By using the same radical names regardless of unknown or controversial polarity relationships. Names such as bismuthyl and antimonyl are not approved because the compounds do not contain BiO and SbO groups. respectively.

If possible the formula ought to be written so These are not true “conjunctive names” since sulfonic that the lmt of the homogeneity range are repreiis acid is not a compound. Names o purely organic f compounds. In spite of these difficulties it seems that the concept of a characteristic composition can be used in its present undehed form for establishing a system of notation for phases of variahle composition. since strictly logical names tend to become inconveniently cumbersome.5532 phOSghoryl(II1)..2.g.e. however (see 2. which can be used even when the mechanism of the variation in composition is unknown. The latter should be used only when mavoidable (e. also 5.and hydroxylaminesulfonic acids. likewise K(Br. For example the symbol (Ni.24). These names may be retained in the absence of better terms. (Li2. replacement of hydrogen atoms by other atoms or groups. mainly formulas should be used for berthollides and solid solutions. 4.) 4. i.g. the is solely or partially caused by replacement. Other substitutive names (derived from “sulfonic acid” as a name for HSOaH) are fluoro. thus the name calcite refers to a particular mineral (contrasted with other minerals of similar composition) and is not a term for the chemiml compound whose composition is properly expressed by the name calcium carbonate.and hydroxylamidodfuric acid. e.--It should be noted that the same radical may have M e r e n t names in inorganic and organic chemistry.. it vacant positions (combination of substitutional and may obey the law of constaut composition very interstitialsolution) receives an analogous notation closely.” Another organicehemid type of nomenclature. Czn The direction of the deviation may be indicated when required: -MoC2 (excess carbon) -FeS (iron-delicient) . To draw attention to such differences +he prefix names of radicals as substituents in organic compounds have been listed together with the inorganic names in the list of names printed at the end of the Rules. Such “substitutive names” are extremely rare in inorganic chemistry.52. (The mineral name may..and chlorosulfonic acid. Mg”.” is also met 4.-For a phase where the variable composition in only a few cases in inorganic chemistry. 82 phosphoryl triamide in 5. and at other times it is impossible to say whether a phase corresponds to a characteristic composition or not.4.34. pure KBr to pure KC1. “sulfuric acid” in this connection standing as an abbreviation for “trioxosulfuric acid. In connection with the berthollides the concept of a characteristic or ideal composition is frequently used.33. however. atoms hydrazine. ixriinodisulfonic acid. e. they are used. or the Eke. and may be written in the style of iron(1I) s a d e (iron-deficient) . 4. in the following cases : NH&l is called chloramine. CRYSTALLINE PHASES OF VARIABLE denotes the complete range from pure Ni to pure COMPOSITION Cu. should agree w t the nomenclature of organic ih chemist-ry.Mg)Clz denotes the homogeneous be capable of varying in composition over an a p phase from LiCl to MgCl2 where the anion lattice preaable range.. interstitial solutiorw. From a more fundamental point of view.Cu) 4.or atomic groups which replace each other are sepcording to the principles of inorganic chemical arated by a comma and placed together between nomenclature these compounds should be called parentheses. Ac. 3. is to put the sign (read as circa) before the formula. For the “ing of partial amides sented when one or other of the two atoms o h cy. aminosulfonic acid. Mineralogical names should be used only to designate actual minerals and not to define chemical composition.3. the major constituent nonstoichiometric compounds (berthoUides) should be placed first. (In special cases it may also be printed above the formula.) Examples: -FeS.L-If an intermediate crystalline phase occurs Substitution accompanied by the appearance of in a two-component (or more complex) system.g. If only part of the homointermetallic compounds. - . INTERNATIONAL UNION OF AND APPLIED CEEWSTRY Vol. These names should preferably be rephced by the following FSOJH fluorosulfutic acid ClSO3H chlorosulfuric acid NH2sOd-I amidosdfuric acid NH(S0&)2 imidodisulfuric acid N(SO&I)s nitridotrisulfuric acid Names such as chlorasu. amide. and other geneity range is referred to.-A general notation for the berthollides. In one case it may be necessary to use a definition based upon lattice geometry and in another to base it on the ratio of valence electrons to atoms.-For the present. etc. Organic chemical nomenclature is t o a large extent based on the principle of substitution. or it may For example. o which many are important in the f chemistry of coordination compounds (Section 7). groups together with oxygen atoms to a sulfur atom. groups is lacking. Sometimes one can state several characteristic compositions. as occurs for example with FeS.. such names are formed by adding hydroxyl. and nitrilotrisulfonic acid. A unique definition of this concept seems to be lacking. imide. as in the case of sodium chloride.tfuric acid and amidosulfuric acid might be considered to be substitutive names derived by substitution of hydroxyl groups in sulfuric acid. molybdenum dicarbide (excess carbon). and NHCt dichloramine.Cl) comprises the range from Isomorphous replacement.34) or to use phosphorosyl for The restriction of the use of thionyl and sulfuryl to the halides w s agreed upon at a joint meeting of the inorganic a andorganic nomenclature commissions of the IUPAC in 1951. the formation of “conjunctive names. structure remains the same but one vacant cation A substance showing such a variation is called a position appears for every substitution of 2Li+ by berthtoll&. for indexing). hydrazido. It also seems possible to use the concept even if the characteristic composition is not included in the known homogeneity range of the phase. be used to indicate the structure type--see 6.

and it appears impossible to formula (Ca. the Ag and Cd atoms can replace one an. Thus. they Ags f z C d S 2.). the mechanism of solu. however. a phase Acids giving rise to the -ide anions defined by involving simple substitution may be written 3. In the case of the y-phase of the hexacyanoferrate ions.cases tion is more clearly understood if one writes H4B204 hypoboric acid Lik 0.Ca.e. ~ contain only oxygen atoms bound to the characterFurther examples : istic atom.A&)AbOn represents the homogeneous phase from the spinel MgAlaOc (= Mg&Oa) to the spinel form of A l e 0 8 (= . Combined substi.g.36Fe3 ~0.-A still more complete notation.S CUZ.3&. The where cation substitution is accompanied by inter. H4P206 hypophosphoric acid HPHzOZ hypophosphorous acid 5.Y1-. If i t is desired to introduce the value lower oxidation state. which has the characteristic formula systematic names of the type hydrogen hexacyanoAg5C&. In other parts of in5.mon acids.4 are not required in in -ate or in -ite may also be treated as in 5.Cal. e. 5. and RBr.YF)FZ. tutional and interstitial or subtractive solution can 5.s are called acids do not fall into the classical province of acids. and Na. characteristic composition. a long history stitial addition of F-. The -011s acid position M which has dissolved a variable amount names are restricted to acids corresponding to the of water can be written M(HzO).212. If it is desired to show + Polyatomic means heteratomic here. Binary and Pseudobinary Acids ables that define the composition.21f. chloride. Most other acids may be considered as For x = 0 each of these formulas corresponds to a coordination compounds and be named as such.O acids that long-established names will have to be Nal-. over the actual physical position of Ca2+. . this may be done by substituting e for x .. Names for these acids may be derived from the names of the anions as in Section 2. w r The formula (Mg3..higher oxidation s t a t ? and K I X ~ oc rc-ained.ferrate are preferable. which should allow new compounds to be named in a more should always be used in more complex cases. For example. For the compound HNs the name hydrogen azide This shows immediately that the total number of atoms in the lattice is constant.1. would be represented by the of established custom.4 will be This nomenclature may also be used for less comgiven the formulas Ca. The commas and Acids giving rise to anions bearing names ending parentheses called for in 4.21 and 3. -ite anions listed in the table in 3.Clz and the acid corresponding with the anion terminations -ate phase between MgAl204 and A I 2 0 3 can be written and -ite. It is mainly for these Fel..)5. 5.W03 (sodium tungsten bronzes) retained.S b Fel.. 1960 DEFINITIVE RULESFOR NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC CED~MISTRY 5533 ing and it would have been most satisfactory to abolish them also for those compounds generally called acids. may systematic manner. Acids Derived from Polyatomic Anions be shown in an andogous way. It is important to note that systematize acid names without drastic alteration this formula is based purely on considerations of of the accepted names of many important and wellcomposition.2. ACIDS HOC1 hypochlorous acid (and simiiarli.35Ti2+ . Thus chloric acid correMg&l~~1-z~Als012.-The prefix per IS used to desipnzte organic chemistry functional names are disappear. ( x = 1). general formula.224. LiczFe&Ti2(1-.sponds to chlorate. hexacyanoferric acids correspond to SiZ+&I2-.. In such cases. A12Ale0. respectively.states is applied in many cases. shows that it cannot con. as opposed to that the variable denoted by x can attain only small pseudobinary.65Fel.g.Cll-. On the The present rules are aimed a t preserving the same basis a notation for the plagioclases would be more useful of the older names while attempting to guide further development along directions which (NaSi. and may be retained in thew of x into the formula itself. a particular composiFurther distinction between different acids witk tion can be indicated by stating the actual value of the same characteristic element is in some case: the variable x. The other examples given in 4.. 4.comment at 3. the homogeneous phase between formed by using the terminations -ic acid and . e. however. hydrogen sulfate instead of sulfuric acid. but names more in accordance with custom are For example. sulfuric acid to sulfate. and a phase of the com.%O Fel.-For the oxo acids the ousic Likewise a solid solution of hydrogen in palladium notation to distinguish between different oxidation can be written as PdH.Al)SizAlOs. Probably the best way of doing effected by means of prefixes.35). Ag-Cd system. be constructed by indicating in a formula the recommended in preference to hydrazoic acid. and it does not imply that YF2+takes known substances. The solid solutions between CaFa and YFs.Nov.221 will be named as binary and pseudoAzB1-z. this case.-The prefix hypo.1.~o Ha202 hyponitrous acid Til..a+& instead of Li3. binary compounds of hydrogen. When this notation is used. It is a long-established custom not to indicate these oxygen atoms.0~. values.Cul-. Many of the compounds which now according to for the other halogens 1 some used tc denote a O6 (x = 0. hydrogen cyanide.o w LiCl and MgClz becomes LiZzMgl-.5. hydrogen Examples : Ni. e.12. Cf. other to some extent and the notation would be Most of the common acids are oxo acids.g.nomenclature of acids has.21.. Oxo Acids. and which tain more Mg than that corresponding to MgAl204 phosphorous acid to phosphite. This notation s t o u l ~ this is to put the value in parentheses after the not be extended beyond the cases hsted below.F~-. hydrogen sulfide.

22.and meta. perchloric acid. wolframic acid. HI04tetraoxoiodic(VI1) acid.the systematic name elements in Group VII. imply a structure that is ruled out by our present state of knowledge. + The use of orthoperiodic acid and orthotelluric acid is approved. needs further study because of confusion in the literature.(see 5. These salts are to be designated system a t i d y as oxonitrates(1). ctc. stannic acid. to distinguish it from HsMnO4. see comment at 5. HlReOd orthoboric acid or (mono)boric acid metaboric acids trimetaboric acid hypoboric acid carbonic acid cyanic acid isocyanic acid fulminic acid orthosilicic acid metasilicic acids nitric acid peroxonitric acid nitrous acid peroxonitrous acid nitroxylic acid hyponitrous acid (ortho)phosphoric acid diphosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid triphosphoric acid polyphosphoric acids metaphosphoric acids trimetaphosphoric acid tetrametaphosphoric acid peroxo(mono)phosphoric acid peroxodiphosphoric acid hypophosphoric acid diphosphoric(II1. but the question of names for HIO. H2N204.(cf. rh + Unless trivial names clash with good nomenclature p a tices or are ambiguous.-The prefixes ortho. and similarly for the other hexahydroxy.312). clc.might be preferable (cJ. molybdic acid. and uranic acid may be used for s~bstances with indehite “water content” and degree of polymerization. 7. 5. and H4Rez07..-The accompanying Table I1 contains the accepted names of the oxo acids (whether known in the free state or not) and some of their thio and peroxo derivatives (5. H2N203. of which salts have been described. telluric acid. the systematic names should be used. Peroxo Acids. when used in conjunction with the trivial names of acids.22. to distinguish it from HReOa.V) acid phosphorous acid diphosphorous or pyrophosphorous acid hypophosphorous acid arsenic acid arsenious acid hexahydroxoantimonic acid sulfuric acid disulfuric or pyrosulfuric acid peroxo(mono)sulfuric acid peroxodisulfuric acid thiosulfuric acid dithionic acid sulfurous acid disulfurous or pyrosulfurous acid thiosulfurous acid dithionous acid sulfoxylic acid polythionic acids selenic acid selenious acid (0rtho)telluric acid chromic acid dichromic acid perchloric acid chloric acid chlorous acid hypochlorous acid bromic acid bromous acid hypobromous acid (0rtho)periodic acid iodic acid hypoiodous acid permanganic acid manganic acid pertechnetic acid technetic acid perrhenic acid rhenic acid 5. hexahydroxoantimonate(V) ion in 3. tetraoxorhenic(V) acid. metaboric acids (HsSiOa). For the less common of these acids systematic names would seem preferable. HIOr HI0 HMn04 HaMnOd HTcOI HaTcO.22). Hae04. pentaoxorhenic VII) acid H2Re04 tetraoxorhenic(V1) acid. 5. HSIO. HReO. trioxodinitrates(II). HaNaG.may be retained for pyrosulfurous and pyrosulfuric acids and for pyrophosphorous and pyrophosphoric acids. 82 If hexahydroxoantimonic acid is considered a trivial name.” These names are approved HaBOa orthoboric acid H&iO4 orthosilicic acid HaPo4 orthophosphoric acid HJOe orthoperiodic acid HeTeOs orthotelluric acid (HBOz). tantalic preferable. prefix peroxo. tetraoxodinitrates(II1) . manganic(V) acid HRe04 tetraoxorhenic(VI1) acid. antimonic acid.. metasilicic acids (HPOa)* metaphosphoric acids For the acids derived by removing water from orthoperiodic or orthotelluric acid. 7. The prefix pyro. For the analThe prefix per.) until structures are known. Trivial names should not be given to such acids as HNO. to d i s h it from HsReOs.23).. The prefix pyro. indicates substitution of -0. Systematic cwrdinationtype names in the case of these nitrogen acids..213. The names germanic acid.have been TABLE I1 used to distinguish acids m e r i n g in “water conNAIUES FOR Oxo ACIDS -0-0. HClOd. although in these ches also the preiix di. e.5). trioxorhenic(V) acid.5534 INTERNATIONAL PURE AND APPLIEDCHEMISTRY UNION OF Vol.22 and 5.214. vanadic acid.-The prefix peroxo. bismuthic acid. retention of well-established ones or the use of formulas is urged (specially for HNO. niobic acid.has been used to designate an acid formed from two molecules of an ortho acid minus one molecule of water. respectively.heptaoxodirhenic(V) acid HzNOt dioxonitric(I1) acid instead of nitroxylic acid. . Such acids can now generally be regarded as the simplest cases of isopoly acids (cf.should not be confused with the ogous use of peroxo and peroxy.223). for example. for example H2Mn04 manganic(V1) acid.

34. e. Amides. . fluorosilicic acid. Examples : NH2SOSH amidosulfuric acid or sulfamidic acid NHzPO(OH)t amidophosphoric acid or phosphoramidic acid (NH&PO(OH) diamidophosphoric acid or phosphorodiamidic acid Abbreviated names (sulfamide. methyl sulfate would be used instead of dimethyl sulfate. 7.g.33. Chloro Acids. If. + + For the use of hydrido in the fifth example see comment + The use of adjectives from names of inorganic acids may lead t o confusion because an -ic or -ous adjective (as chromic) may refer t o a higher. chloroplatinic acid. not disodium sulfate).-Acids derived from oxo acids by replacement of oxygen by sulfur are called thiu acids (cf. Cf. with adjectives from names of organic acids).. + When more than one oxygen atom can be replaced by sulfur the number of sulfur atoms generally should be indicated HaPOaS monothiophosphoric acid H8PO& dithiophosphoric acid H2CS3 trithiocarbonic acid H A & trithioarsenious acid HAsS4 tetrathioarsenic acid The prefixes seleno.. e. of course. Esters. In other cases these compounds are named as oxide halides according to rule 6. sulfides. however.. 5.24.. q.and telluro. 5. diethyl hydrogen phosphate. hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(II1) or tetrachloroauric(II1) acid hydrogen tetrachloroplatinate(11) or tetrachloroplatinic(f1) acid hydrogen hexachloroplatinate(IV) or hexachloroplatinic(1V) acid hydrogen hexacyanoferrate(I1) or hexacyanoferric(I1) acid hydrogen hydridodioxo0uorophosphate or hydridodioxofluorophosphoric acid hydrogen hexafluorophosphate or hexafluorophosphoric acid hydrogen hexafluorosilicate or hexafluorosilicic acid hydrogen hexachlorostannate(1V) or hexachlorostannic(1V) acid hydrogen tetra0uoroborate or tetrafluomboric acid hydrogen dihydroxodi0uoroborate or dihydroxodifluoroboric acid hydrogen tetraphenylborate or tetraphenylboric acid It is preferable to use names of the type hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(II1). as in indexes.or lower-valent form of the element as well as t o the acid (a possibility that does not arise.-The names of acid halides are formed from the name of the corresponding acid radical if this has a special name. dimethyl sulfate. Acid Halides. In this borderline between organic and inorganic chemistry organicchemical nomenclature principles prevail.-Esters of inorganic acids are given names in the same way as the salts. peroxysulfuric acid or trioxoperoxosulfuric(V1) acid.g.31. 5. as recommended in the 1940 Rules (inorganic). it is desired to specify the constitution of the compound.3. etc. Functional Derivatives of Acids Functional derivatives of acids are compounds formed from acids by substitution of OH and sometimes also 0 by other groups.g.-The names for amides may be derived from the names of acids by replacing acid by amide. Acid Anhydrides. no objection i seen to the more specific name. a name based on the nomenclature for coordination compounds should be used. 5.g. 1960 Examples : HNO4 H8POs HcPzOs H&Or HA08 DEFINITIVE RULES NOMENCLATURE FOR OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY peroxonitric acid peroxophosphoric acid peroxodiphosphoric acid peroxosulfuric acid peroxodisulfuric acid 5535 + Peroxy. molybdenum dioxide dichloride. Such names as methyl s sulfate are better for alphabetic listing.41. phosphoryl chloride.g. Example : (CH& [Fe(CN)s] tetramethyl hexacyanoferrate(I1) or or F~(CN)Z(CH~NC). Examples : SOz(NH& sulfuric diamide or sulfonyl diamide PO(NH2)a phosphoric triamide or phosphoryl triamide If not all hydroxyl groups of the acid have been replaced by NHz groups. sulfuryl chloride.23. For some of the more important acids of this type abbreviated names may be used. phosphamide..may be used in a similar manner. since most of the examples given in the sections immediately following are not named according t o organic practice. sulfamic acid) are often used but are not recommended. MoOZCI2. sodium sulfate.g. Examples: H&OZ thiosulfurous acid H&Og thiosulfuric acid HSCN thiocyanic acid 5. not nitric anhydride or nitric acid anhydride.312. It is not necessary that the use with trivial names conform with the use of peroxo denoting a co6rdinated ligand. Thio Acids. e.33.. or from the names of the acid radicals. 5.32.-Acids containing ligands other than oxygen and sulfur are generally designated according to the rules in Section 7. at 7. is more acceptable than peroxo to organic chemists. 5..) and to the naming of inorganic salts (e. e. dinitrogen pentaoxide.-Anhydrides of inorganic acids generally should be given names as oxides. 5. 3. etc. e. The intention of the statement “organicchemical nomenclature principles prevail” is not clear.Nov.312).] dicyanotetrakis(methy1 isocyanide)iron(II) According t o common organic practice for esters (ethers. NzO. However. names ending in -amidic acid may be used: this is an alternative to naming the compounds as complexes.

other thar OHc? .-Anions are to be cited in this roup order i. acidic hydrogen shall be ated in the same place whichever view is taken of the function of this hydrogen.2). and the Commission wishes to emphasize that any which do not conform to these Rules should be discarded. Triple Salts. It seems safer to cite even nonacidic hydrogen present.-The s u f b -nitrile has been used in the names of a few inorganic compounds. (hydrogen carbonato). 6. the present practice of running hydrogen as a separate word is preferred and has been followed throughout this version. trimeric phosphonitrile chloride.2 and 6..-When hydrogen isconsidered to be present as a cation its name shall be cited last among the cations. etc. 6. For ‘‘>. Examples : potassium magnesium fluoride TlNa(N0a)z thallium(1) sodium nitrate or thallium sodium dinitrate KNaCOa potassium sodium carbonate NHrMgPO4. however.and 0%4. comments at 6.321 5.-Owing to the prevalence of hydrated cations. triple.6H20 ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate NaZn(U0~)3(CzHaGz) s. Acidic Hydrogen. 6. C .2.22 such compounds can be designated as nitrides. If the salt contains only one anion..324.6. According to 2. triethyl phosphite in 7. 6. f The retention o sulfamic acid and sulfamide as trivial f names is favored by the!c” salts: see 6. 82 Names of the type phosphoramidk acid are recommended i the report of the Advisory Committee on the Nomenn clature of Organic Phosphorus Compounds of the Division of Organic Chemistry of the ACS published in 1952. [Cf. 7312.4 6. one element o d y ) inorganic miom. but are not as acceptable to the inorganic nomenclature committees as a whole as the amido. Hydration of Cations.33. 6.35. Accordingly there seems to be no reason for retention of the name nitrile (and nitrilo. An acceptable systematic name for NH&O&I would be ammonia-sulfur trioxide. but if it is necessary to draw attention specificallyto the presence of a particular hydrated cation this may be done by writing. + Nitrilo is used in organic chemistry.--Cations shall be arranged in order of increasing valence (except that order} 3 .. Nonacidic hydrogen shall be either not explicitly cited (cj. 1 &33. +Alphabetical order would be simpler here and even for 6.-The cations of each valence group shall be arranged in order of decreasing atomic number.4HzO sodium ammonium hydrogen phosphate tetrahydrate + The use of “fused” hydrogen names (as hydrogenwbonate in the original version) is not acceptable in English. sodium phosphite)..g.l(VI’ or nonaacetate ehnuld be specified C 3 32. all complex ions should be placed after the simple ones in the appropriate valence group. The use of hydro (as in hydrocarbonato) is not scceptable because of conflicts with organic usage. I n the f i f t i and sixth exan anion like PHOa*. The nanacidic hydrogen present. Salts Containing Acid Hydrogen (“Acid” Salts’) Names are formed by adding the word hydrogen.(unless the ion has a specitic name).3.g. . other than H.--hiOnS.222.412. e. for example. 6.333.3.335. phosphorus nitride dichloride.32. 4.. (PNCl&. in 6. parentheses can be used.] sodium hydrogen phosphite 6. In those language where cation names are placed after anion names the adjectives double. in names the principles embodied in Seciioc 2 shall be applied.5536 INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PITRE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY VOl. as in naming ligands.323. ammonium) a t the end of their appropriate group. c f .or coordination-type names. to denote the replaceable hydrogen present. 6.’ sevecrh a a n p i e ). Examples : NaHC03 sodium hydrogen carbonate NaH2POI sodium dihydrogen phosphate NaH [PHO. Nitriles. 6. Enorganic anions containing two or mow e! ments. 02-and OH.e.322. with the polyatomic radical ions (e. in the phosyhite ion. in + Cj. SALTS AND SALT-LIKE COMPOUNDS Among salts particularly there persist many old names which are bad and misleading.1... and 7. . 6. If necessary for clarity. Na2PH03.34. Cf. E2. because of current usage. e Cf.321.24 with more than one anion see 6. Actually acidic hydrogen will in most cases be bound to an anion and shall be ated together with this (6.. Anions of @rTd& a c i u an2 ot-ganic ~ s t stances exertkg I’ Acid W ~ I P W J T ~ : .6Hz0 sodium zinc triuranyl acetate hexahydrate N a [Zn(HzOhI(UOz)dGHaOzb sodium hexaaquozinc triuranyl acetate NaNHdIP04.g. either triurauyl.3 11). 6 3 Double Salts.2. it seems unnecessary to disturb the cation order in order to allow for th i s. Simple Salts Simple salts fall under the broad definition of binary compounds given in Section 2. is included in the name of the anion and is not explicitly cited (e. many of which are in reality complex.. “hexaaquo” or “tetraaquo” before the name of the simple ion.g.324. in keeping with its probable structure.322.--Cations. etc.g. For salts 5. e. 3. amples.-1n iormulas all the cations shall precede the anions. 6. Simple (. immediately in front of the name of the anion.31. where hydro denotes addition of hydrogen t o unsaturated compounds..324). Apart from this exception.2) 01 designated hydrido (4.g. and their names are formed from those of the constituent ions (given in Section 3) in the manner set out in Section 2. (their equivalents in t’ac language concerned) may be added immediately after the anion name.comment at 7. though not given the list a t the end of the Rules. e. e.33) in inorganic chemistry. 6.1 namber oi such ion?. The number so implied concerns the amber of b k d s s cation present and f not t E c tota.

. CuSno?.8H20 zirconium oxide (di)chloride ture rules as accepted coiirdination compounds.]z ( t r i ) d c i (&)~ 6. ~ H z O hydroxide hydrate but Ca. . and Section 6. 6. Names such as calcium titanate may convey false implications and it is preferable to name such compounds as double oxides and double hydroxides unless there is clear and generally accepted evidence of cations and oxo or hydrovo anions in the structure.333. ilmenite.g.anions. 4. and for the purposes of nomenExamples : clature the restriction “in excess . the system of nomenclature moved from current practice that the present system of using oxy..g.. oxychlorure originally evolved for the compounds within t h i s narrow definition has proved useful for a much wider de cuivre. . Oxide and Hydroxide Salts [ hdydroxoaluminate ] (“Basic” salts.41. CuClz. tris.1. e. etc. anions containing the smallest number of atoms shall be cited h t .. 6. it should be cited last among the cations. Cf. 6. 6. provided the valences of all the cations are either known or indicated.42.2NazSO4 or N&lF (Sod)z (hexa)sodium chloride fluoride (bis)sulfate w(PO4)a (penta)calaum fluoride (tris)phosphate The parentheses in these eases mean that numerical prefixes may not be necessary. + Again alphabetical order would be simpler.NaF. designate isopoly anions.-Within group 3 the ions shall be cited in the order given in 2. copper oxide chloride). Double Oxides atld Hydroxides The terms “mixed oxides” and “mixed hydroxides” are not recommended. within groups 3 and 4 as wl as 5. the octahydrate . etc. which is sometimes named after some well-known mineral of the same group (e. may be retained in such cases.51. NaNbOa. CaTi03. Many double oxides and hydroxides belong to several distinct groups.. etc. because such substances may exist in solution and in the solid state (cf.-The stoichiometric method is the most practicable for indicating the proportions of the constituents.332.. Thus C O P should precede C1-04~-.comment at 7. triple. and the latter should precede s 40 ’.Nov. + “Multiple” has been used in English as a class term including double. comment at 6. + Cf. The multiplicative numerical prekes bis.3 may be applied in 7. Oza-.34. triple. which there is an atom (A) to which are attached In some other languages.-In the double oxides and hydroxides the metah shall be named in the same order as for double salts (6.[Al(OH). each having its own characteristicstructure type. Thus.3Cu(OH)sor The effect of this is to bring many simple and Cus(OH)&21 dicopper trihydroxide chloride w&-known compounds under the same nomenclaZrOcls.-When required the structure type may be added in parentheses and in italics after the name. D E F ~ T I VRULES FOR NOMENCLATURE E OF INORGANICCHEWSTRY 5537 + The rommittees consider it preferable to cite El- last in 6. because disulfate. should be used in connection with anions. Any compound formed by addition o one or several ions and/or molecules to f BiOCl bismuth oxide chloride one or more ions or/and molecules may be named LaOF lanthanum oxide fluoride according to the same system as strict co6rdination vom4 vanadium(1V) oxide sulfate compounds.and hydroxy-.g. oxides or hydroxides as the case may be. (oxides or the &e). class of compounds. spinel). however. 1960 accordance with usage.. etc. 5.52. La. Within group 4. perovskite.251.5.4. ??lis does not mean that names such as titanates or aluminates should always be abandoned. Within group 5 the anions shall be cited in alphabetical order. COORDINATIOIV COMPOUNDS its entirety. the inclusion of 0 i that n list beiig taken as referring to all oxygen anions apart from 02-(ie.tZMnOzor l t i m aluminum dimanihu 6. triphosphate. hiinitions In some languages the citation in full of all the In its oldest sense the term cohdination c m separate anion names presents no trouble and is strongly recommended (e.2.-For the purposes of nomenclature. It is not always essential to give the numbers of all the anions.).. such names as other atoms (B) or groups (C) to a number in excess f “oxyde et chlorure double de cuivre” are so f a r re.-Acidic hydrogen should be cited together with the anion to which it is attached. such substances preferably should be named double. Examples : NaNbOo sodium niobium trioxide (perwskdf? type) MgTiOa magnesium titanium trioxide (dmenife type) FeTiOt irOn(I1) titanium trioxide (ilmenite) 4Ca0. If it is not known to which anion the hydrogen is bound. CaTiO3. 6. pound is taken as referring to molecules or ions in to the exclusion of the oxy form wherever possible. these LiAlMn1V*04(OH)( ganese(1V) tetraoxide should be regarded as double salts containing 0 “ tetrahydroxide and OH. and LaGaOs aSl have the same structure as perovskite.A103.nH20 or dicalcium aluminum ~ ( O H ) r . formerly oxy and hydroxy salts) LiAI(OH)r.7. oxidation numMg(0H)Cl magnesium hydroxide chloride ber” is to be omitted. etc.A120. el 6.2). Use of the Prefixes Oxy and Hydroq.16. except that when the type name is also the mineral name of the substance itself then the italics should not be used (cf. and in the case of two ions containing the same number of atoms they shall be cited in order of decreasing atomic number of the central atoms.32). 3. However.223).of that corresponding to the oxidation number o the atom A. Examples : NaCl. YAl03. CaCr03.

2. end in -0 (see.24. because it should be undmtood that there is no intention of implying that any structural analogy necessarily exists between Merent compounds merely on account of a common system of nomenclature.-Neutral and cationic ligands shall be cited in the order given first: water. as illustrated in examples under 7.251). Formulas and Names for Complex Compounds in General 7.22.-Formulas and names may be supplemented with the prefixes cis. the number of potential coordinating atoms being indicated by the terms unidentate..412: di-p-carbonyl-bis { carbonyl(triethy1 n Since brackets denote -idol 4 0 . etc. etc. (2.-The oxidation number of the central atom is indicated by means of the Stock notation (2. + F o r the inorganic ligands alphabetical order again is recommended. however. one atom-rather than one elementonly).is preferably named last.252. 7. are polycentric.21. A group containing more than one potential coordinating atom is termed a multidentate ligand.- 7. and tetra(pyridine)platinum(II) tetrachloroplatinate(II). ammonia (in that sequence) then: other inorganic ligands in the sequence in which their coordinating elements appear in the list given in 2.24 and 3.251. Oa-. The use of parentheses wherever there is any possibility of ambiguity should be stressed. Terminations.where only rare uses are involved.331). Central atom or center of coordination is to be preferred to nuclear atom because of other senses of nucleus. In the rules which follow certain terms are used in the senses here indicated: the atom referred to above as (A) is known as the central or nuclear atom. + Some dissatisfaction + It is considered preferable to place the whole complex in brackets. .324). Complex cations and neutral molecules are given no distinguishing termination. For further details concerning the names of ligands see 7. where parentheses are given in the Rules. comment at 6. Atoms (B) and groups (C) are called ligands.321: potassium trichloro(ethy1ene)platinate(II).311)and are definitely required with two-word names for ligands recommended instead of the fused names of the original version (6. 7.25.223).3. A polynuclear complex is a complex which contains w e than one nuclear atom. though the broad definition (last sentence of first paragraph) was generally approved. especially when more t4an one central atom is present. etc. with the definition of co6rdination compounds was expressed. first: anionic ligands next: neutral and cationic ligands 7.5538 INTERNATIONAL OF PURE UNION AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY Vol.3 1. the final -e is replaced by -0. etc... where they have been added in this version. or bridged complex since bridging group is in common use.e. In general. Alternatively the proportion of constituents may be given by means of stoichiometric prefixes (2.-The anionic ligands shall be cited in the order 1. Other simple anions (. one element only) 4 Polyatomic anions . Indication of Valence and Roportion of Constituents.. dinucleur. .16 last : organic ligands in alphabetical order. Central Atoms. ligands following as prescribed i 7. in other words to exclude N. In names the central atom@) should be placed after the ligands. 5. especially of a n atom. 7. because brackets may be needed sometimes for indicating cotlcentrations.25.31 1.. and -ato. H2.252). etc. and all other atoms which are directly attached to A are known as codrdinating atoms. and the formula for the whole comn plex entity (ion or molecule) should be placed in brackets [ 1. 7. Names for Ligands 7. 7. 7. + H. not first (cf. Examples: Li [AlHd] lithium tetrahydridoaluminate Na [BHd sodium tetrahydridoborate K [OSNCls] 2 potassium nitridopentachloroosmate(V1) OCZHS [Co(NHn)s(NH3)4] diamidotetraamminecobalt(II1) ethanolate [CONS(NHII)~] so4 azidopentaamminecobalt(I11) sulfate Naa[Ag(SdUl sodium bis(thiosulfato)argentate(I) [Ru(HSQa)i(NHa)J bis(hydrogen sulfito)tetraammineruthenium (11) NH4 [Cr(SCN)d(NH&l ammonium tetrathiocyanatodiamminechromate(II1) 4 For “ethanolate” in the fourth example “ethoxide” may be preferred.332. Is. if the anion name ends in -idel -itel or -ate. 82 result is to reduce the diversity of names and avoid many controversial issues. The system extends also to many addition compounds.3.23. 7. Parentheses might also be helpful with “thiocyanato” preceded by a numerical prefix (see last example in 7.(in that sequence) 3.19).. which may be an uncharged molecule or an ion of either polarity.-Anionic Ligands. in the sevas enth example i 7. trans. while a bridging group is attached to more than otte atom. etc. Organic anions in alphabetical order The sequence within categories 3 and 4 should be that given in 6. the anionic and neutral. Possible replacements for polynuclear. whether inorganic or organic. I n the United States the Greek-Latin hybrid terms polydentate and monodentate seem to be used more than the all-Latin multidentate and unidentate. The whole assembly of one or more central atoms with their attached ligands is referred to as a complex. 7.2).-The names for anionic ligands. A chelate ligand is a ligand attached to om central atom through two or more coordinating atoms. Under 4 the insertion of “inorganic” between “Polyatomic” and “anions” is recommended. OH. Alphabetical order is strongly recommended for simplicity a t least within 3 and 4. Order of Citation of Ligands i Comn plexes. bidentute.-Complex anions shall be given the termination -ate (cf. The intention seems to be to include under 3 monatomic ions (Le..2. their number being designated by the terms morwnucleur. phosphite)cobalt) braces can be used in formulas or names where needed in order to avoid the use of two sets of parentheses (braces were so used in some but not all such cases in the original version).-In formulas the symbol for the central atom(s) should be p1aced-W (except in formulas which are primarily structural). but not essential with only one central atom or with complex ions or nonionic complexes.23.2. respectively. etc.

02] " \ [cU(cfid&)t] bis(acetylacetonato)copper(II) bis(8-quinolinolato)silver(I1) / [ ~ o C=' HO - " 'O=HC / o ~ bis(4fluorosalicylaldehydato)copper(II) ~ By analogy with hydroxo. For CHS-. + I n the fifth example. 7.324).4pentanedione instead of from acetylacetone. and in the seventh example 1.. While the Subcommittee on W r d i n a t i o n Compounds [CO&I . and euphony that ate(I1) hydro be added t o the list of modhied forms of names for [Fe(dipy)d Ch anionic ligands and that hydrido be abandoned (4. methoxo. not the aldehyde or imine part t o which it is attached.22.3-triaminopropane)zinc iodide parture from organic usage by using hydroxo.ligands. nickel derivative given in 7. however. chloroiodo). etc.when it can be regarded as replacing 0. e&. 7. except in the special cases provided for in 7.313) cis. the co6rdmation subcommittee questions the use of the termination -at0 rather than plain -0 especially in cases where the -ate terms (asdimethylglyoximate) are not accepted organic practice. methoxy. etc. - .311). Ti agrees with [PtClr { H~NCHZCH(NH~)CH~~NHI)] C1 organic practice.-The name of the co6rdinated molecule or cation is to be used without change.4 ~ ~ 1 ato)cobalt(Il + Although according t o 3. etc... the systematic names methanethiolato.Nov. dichloro(2.312. etc. If.23-triaminopropane.and arylhexakis(pheny1 isocyanide)chromium substituted radicals methylthio. but wvhich function as propanetriamine t o 1.disulfide disulfido) CNcyanide cyano 1 The name thio has long been used t o denote the ligand Sa. the ligand must be treated as neutral-see 7.313. Cf.[PtClt(EtiP)t] cis-dichlorobis(triethylphosphine)platinum(II) [CUC~~(CHINH~)~] dichlorobis(methy1amine)copper (11) [ptPY4l [PtCd tetra(ppdme)platinum(II) tetrachloroplatin+ It is strongly recommended on the basis of past and present usage.321. no proton is lost.3n not normally called acids. acetylacetonato perhaps conveys better the idea that it is the enol form that is involved. modified forms have become established : Ffluoride fluor0 (ndfluo) c1chloride ChlOrO Brbromide bromo Iiodide iodo 02oxide oxo OH hydroxide hydroxo 02peroxide peroxo HShydrogen sulfide thio10 $32sulfide thiol (sulfido) (but:Sz*.2.. However.2.32.-Linands derived from organic comDounds i organic practice. Examples : [CoCt(CAN202)21 dichlorobis(dimethylg1yoxime)cobalt(11) (cf. instead of hydroxy. bipyridine is preferred to dipyridyl 7.-These anions do not follow exactly the above rule. &. 1960 D ~ m RULES m FOR NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 5539 7. methoxy. such in complex formation by loss of a proton. should be treated as anionic and given the ending -ato. also t r i s ( dipyridyl)iron(11) chloride examples in 7. Examples: [N~(CSI~NSOZ)~] bis(dimethylglyoximato! nickel(I1) '\ / N rEo\Ag. some members of the general committees do not see a sliarp enough distinction between such ligands [Zn{NHnCHtCH(NH&!H2NHt) 21 It and the same groups in organic compounds to justify a debis( 1..33 the name for the ligand in the second example should be derived from the systematic name 2. see comment at 6.-Neutral and Cationic Ligands. Such -at0 terms are especially misleading in the last two examples. ( recognizes the usefulness of the invariable -o ending for tris(ethy1enediamine)cobalt (111) sulfate anionic ligands.3 diamin0propyla"onium)platiIt should be pointed out here as well as in the list of names num(I1) chloride for ions and radicals a t the end of the R l s that the apue proved organic name for unsubstituted HS is mecapto (not [Cr(CsHdWd thiol. analogy with chloro.. The general use of this name will prevent confusion between the two interpretations of disulfide as &*or two Sa.comment at 7. t o the hydrocarbon potassium trichloro(ethy1ene)platinate(11) or radicals excepted from the rule of -0 endings for anions potassium trichloromonoethyleneplatin(7. are used. ate(I1) The -0 of a negative ligand should not be elided before anhs other vowel (chlordmate. &. are called methoxo. as also given in the list) and for the alkyl. These members therefore [PtC4(C J U I favor adding hydroxy.32. where the -at0 belongs with the hydroxyl part of the name. CHsO-. 5. an oxo acid ' or its anion. For the use of peroxo. j. Examples : K [AgF41 potassium tetrafluoroargentate(II1) KZ [NiFs] potassium hexafluoroniccolate(IV) Ba [BrRI 2 barium tetrafiuorobromate(II1) Na [UCLI sodium tetrachloroaluminate c s [IC41 cesium tetrachloroiodate(II1) K [Au(OH)rI potassium tetrahydroxoaurate(II1) K [CrOF4] potassium oxotetrafluorochromate(V) KZ [Cr(0)~02(CN)2(NHdl potassium dioxoperoxodicyanoamminechmmate(V1) Na [BH(OCHs)aI sodium hydridotrimethoxoborate KZ [Fe&(NO)J dipotassium dithiotetranitrosyldiferrate L =HL ~ ~ h .

” thus keeping potassium tetraphenylborate the -0 termination consistently for anionic ligands K [SbCLCdh] alone.g. etc.-Where ligands are capable of attachment by different atoms this may be denoted by adding the symbol for the atom by which attachment occurs a t the end of the name of the ligand.5540 INTERNATIONALOF PURE APPLIEDCHEMISTRS UNION AND Vol. carbonyl. and nitrito (+NO).6. “ammine. for example. when linked directly to a metal atom. potassium bis(dithioijxalato-S. are counted as but negative when computing the oxidation number. see comment at 1. phenylato or phenido for Cab-. respectively. e. for the sixth example iron(I1) ++ cyclopentadienide is preferred by some. In some cases m e r e n t names are already in use for alternative modes of attachment. pentaquo. On the other hand.” respectively. and thiocarbonyl.. and CS.33. This matter is presumably part o the whole organometallic problem to be f dealt with by the new IUPAC joint organic-inorganic subcommittee. -1 for boron in coordination complexes are calied “aquo” and h K[B(c&)i]. for conformity with the latest approved organic practice. instad of 1 1 1. Examples : In the tentative rules it was proposed to change K [B(CsHd41 the old-established “aquo” to “aqua. of Stock notations.-Altemative Modes of Linkage of Some Ligands. second example. Examples: K z [ N iS-CO) J (Y .312 (where NO is known to be positive) would by this system be named dithiotetranitrosyldiferratel2-). potassium pentachloro(pheny1)antimonate(V) many regarded the change as too pedantic. are to be called nitrosyl.-Anions derived from hydrocarbons are given radical names without 6 . and the Commission has decided to retain “aquo” as an Kz [ c ~ ( G H ) s l exception.. as the old form is so widely used. CO. (Cf. Thus the anion in the last example in 7. In computing the oxidation number these radicals are treated as neutral. Examples: Na2 [Fe(CN)6NOl disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate KS [Fe(CN)rCOI tripotassium pentacyanocarbonylferrate K [Co(CN)(C0)Z(N0)1 potassium cyanodicarbonyhitrosylcobaltate(0) HCo(C0)r hydrogen tetracarbonylcobaltate( -I) [Ni(CO)z(PhaP)zJ dicarbonylbis(tripheny1phosphine)nickel (0) [Fe end [Fe(C0)41 tris(ethylenediamine)iron( 11) tetracarbonylferrate (-11) WZ(CO)IO [(CO&Mn-Mn(co>~-l or decacarbonyldimanganese(0) or bis@entacarbonylmanganese) The necessity of arbitrarily considering these group as always neutral can be avoided by not using the oxidation number but instead the stoichiometric proportions (as in some of these examples) or the Ewens-Bassett system (cf. In these cases existing custom may conveniently be retained. thiocyanato ( S C N ) and isothiocyanatc (-NCS). given with two a’s separated by a hyphen in 7.g.O‘. The consistent introduction of the ending -0 would in this case lead to unfamiliar n m s e. thionitrosyl. if the radicals were counted as neutral ligands.) 7. ae. are used in the examples in the original version.324..12. However. respectively. the central atom would have to be given C H 4 H z N(CHs)2 dichloro(2-N. potassium triethynylcuprate(1) E [Ni(c~c+H~hl . Thus the dithiooxalato group may be attached through S or 0. For niccolate. 82 + Hexaquo. but have been changed in this version to hexaaquo. and these are distinguished as dithioiixalato-S.-Water and ammonia as neutral ligands an unumal oxidation number.322. Examples : potassium tetrakis(phenylethynyl)niniccolate(O) [Cr(HzO)dCla [Fe(CO)r(CsCsH6)21 hexaaquochromium(II1) chloride or hexaaquotetracarbonylbis (phenylethynyl)iron (11) chromium trichloride Fe(C&)z [M(OH)(HzO)d bis(cyclopentadieny1)iron(I1) the hydroxopentaaquoalu“ ion [Fe(C6%)21 c1 [cO(mi)s]CIS04 bis(cyclopentadienyl)iron( 111) chloride hexaamminecobalt(II1) chloride sulfate [Ni(NO)( C d W [COC~(NH~)~~CL nitmsylcyclopentadienylnickel chloropentaamminecobalt(II1)chloride + The use of radica! names such as cyclopentadienyl in the [CoCIs(NHs) 2 { (CHa)zNH1I with the use trichlorodiammine(dethylamine) cobalt (111) examples does not seem consistent (“ferrocene”).. comment at 2.N-dimethylaminoethyl2-aminoethyl sulfide-N’. etc.S’ and dithiooxalato-O. 7. NS.S’)niccolate(II) I 7.323.-The groups NO.S)platinum(II) Kz [R( N0z)d potassium tetranitroplatinate(I1) Na~[Co(Nodd sodium hexanitrocobaltate(II1) [Co(NOz)a(NHs)aI 1) Wtrotria“inecobalt( 1 1 [Co(ONO)(NHs)sISO4 nitritopentaamrmn ecobalt(II1) sulfate - . in the original version. nitro (-NOz).252). 7. as.hexaaxmmnium.

~ c 1 c 1 I I adding the Greek letter p immediately before its name and separating t i from the rest of the comhs plex by a hyphen.41. however. not phosphowolframate. wolframophosphate. e. Isopoly Anions The structure of many complicated isopoly anions has now been cleared up by X-ray work and it turns out that the indication of the several p-oxo and oxo atoms in the name does not convey any clear picture of the structure and is therefore of little value. 7.5. symcis.MP"VODOS~ hexapotassium enneamolybdomanganate(1V) of their over-all composition. a s p .-Bridging Groups. Examples: [(NEL)t&-OH-Cr(NHdd CL p-hydroxo-bis { echromium(I1i)} chloride This may be expressed in the formula (Cs+). 741.. the substance would be called cesium copper(I1) chloride (as a double salt). Cf.and Polynuclear Compounds .] n.and heteropoly anions by giving the number of atoms in parentheses is not practicable in more complicated cases. + Thioijxalato in the original version has been changed to 74 Di.-Where bridging diCate-%water causes an indefinite extension of the structure it is best to name compounds primarily on the basis KS.r dipotassium disulfate K&Om dipotassium trisulfate NasPSOlo pentasodium triphosphate KzCrrOla dipotassium tetrachromate NaaB407 disodium tetraborate Nasos sodium pentaborate Ca&tO?ou tricalaum heptamolybdate Na7HNbsOd5Ha0 heptasodium monohydrogen h d o b a t e . When all atoms have their "normal" oxidation states (e.1960 DEFINITIVE FOR NOMENCLATUREINORGANIC CHEMISTRY RULES OF chlo- 5541 [a (NHsIsI e12 [NCS) dithio6xalato. and sym where necessary..[(CuCl. I ~ ~ & - di-p-chloro-dichlorobis( triethylarsine)diplatinum(I1) (three possible isomers: asym. it is not necessary to give the numbers of the oxygen atoms.which leads to the simple name cesium catena-p-chloro-dichlorocuprate( 11). in order to avoid ambiguity..t e t r a ~ ~ u m LbHSiWUOm.. A bridging PUP shall be indicated by isothiocyanatopentaa"inecobalt(II1) ride having the composition represented by the formula CsCuCt has an anion with the structure: [ . . 1 .g.16HaO dipotassium dimagnesi~m decavanadate-16water 76 Heteropoly Anions . comment on catena at 1 4 .-If the number of central atoms bound by one bridging group exceeds two.. it may be necessary to place it immediately after the atom referred to and not after the ending -ate.t e(~ triethylarSinecopper(1)] -~ hexaammonium hexamolybdotellurate hepta[ B ~ ~ ( ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ) s ] hydrate ~ .o x ~ h ~ ..7HzO t e t r a .c c 1 ~ c 1 c 1 ' ~ I c 1 ~ 1 . trans. The central atom or atoms should be cited last in the name and h t in the formula of the anion (d. If the oxidation number has to be given. and sym-trans. the l s is shown) at CN S SCN CN di-p-thiocyanato-dithiwyanatobis( tripropylphosphine)&platinum(II) I(CO)~~(CO)~~(CO)SI tri-p-carbonyl-bis(tricarbonyliron) [(CO)s?e(SEt)2Fe(CO)d di-p~thanethiolato-bis(tri~~nyliron) [(CSHS) (CO)Fe(CO)~Fe(CO)(C~)l di-p-carbon yl-bis(carbonylcyclopenbdieny1iron) [(CO){ P ( O E ~ ) ~ ] ~ ( C O ) I ~(p(0Et)sII (CO) di-p-carbonyl-bis( carbonyl(triethy1phosphite)cobalt] Examples: [Au(CN)(csH7)~]4 (N+)&'W+ro cyclo-tetra-p-cyano-tetrakis(dipropylgo1d) tmmmomum dodecawolframophosphate [CuI(EtsAs)lr (NI%)sT~osOu. 5.412. Two or more bridging groups of the same kind are indicated by di-p-. Examples: Kfi0.21)... for example. thus the compound L(CB~)~P /\/\ 7. If the structure were in doubt. The method formerly recommended for naming iso.15-water K&gaVloO~.g. if all the others are indicated..). This system of notation allows simply of distinction between.p . It is also capable of extension to much more complex and unsymmetrical structures by use of the conventional prefixes cis..i o d o . 7. at least until isomers are found. the number shall be indicated by adding a subscript numeral to the p.p 3 . Extended Structures.24HtO trilithium (mono)hydrogen dodecawolframo7. etc.42. p-disulfide (one 52 bridge) and di-p-sulfido (two S bridges). For the time being it is sufficient to indicate the number of atoms by Greek prefixes.Nov. Wvl).a c . 7..

H~O hydrate has now a very firm position as the name iron(I1) sulfate heptahydrate or hexaaquoironof a compound containing water of crystallization (11) sulfate monohydrate and is allowed also in these Rules to designate water PtCL. the ending -ate.. and 2. "hydrate" would be. and uistobalite. and 3CdSO&HzO dimethanol as brsmethanol. thus.2 and 7 3 . &hydrate.diethyl ether-boron trifluoride (note that organlc usage favors ethyl ether over diethyl ether). 16Ha0 heptapotassium dodecawolframocobalt(I1)cobalt (111) 16-water ateKaPVzMoioOm tripotassium decamolybdodivanadophosphate .BFs. etc.(hydrogen sulfide).NOCI or NO[AlCtl The names of addition compounds may be formed aluminum chloride-nitrosyl chloride or nitrosyl by connecting the names of individual compounds tetrachloroaluminate by hyphens (short dashes) and indicating the number of molecules by Arabic numerals. The committees like hydrate and ammodate and see no Examples: P advantage in dropping them (d. ents.. Analogously addition such structures. zinc blende.Ht)iO. should not minum chloride with 4 ethanol. ammonia.251 for nona instead of ennea (fourth example). 8-krypton-46-water Isopoly and heteropoly are not separate words in the original version.12 for stand on wolframate and wolf8Kr. from usual seen for deviating here hexahydrate) organic practice by using multiplicative p&es with simple names: tetrae-ol is just as clear as tetrakisethanol. but not in the original for greater ease in reading. form part of a complex. etc.2PC4 tellurium tetrachloride-2-(phosphorus pentachloride) (CHa)(INAsCL.4CtHsOH aluminum chloride-4-ethanol or -tetrakiseth. Cf.. POLYMORPHISM BS.(C&)zO boron trifluoridecliethyl ether Minerals occunkg i nature With similar comn BFa. Chemists and BFa. ate decahydrate) It is considered preferable by some to place the electron donor first in both the formulas and name: (C.46HzO 77 Addition Compounds . wurtzite. 6-dibromine-46-water The ending -ate is now the accepted ending for 8CHCla. ammoniates. tris. it is considered to platinum(I1) chloride-2-(phosphors trichlobe preferable even in this case to avoid the ending ride) or dichlorobis(phosphors trichloride)-ate by using the name "water" (or its equivalent platinum(I1) in other languages) when possible. the name for a salt of water. quartz.10HzO the names (as sodium carbonate-10-water (or sodium carbon.2CHsOH positions have Merent names according to their boron trifluoride-bismethanol crystal structures. etc. however.5 and 7. 6Brz. AlCla.136H~O anions and should generally not be used for addition 8-chloroform-16. one exception has to be recognized.comment at 1. e&. tridymite. and the formulas and names can of Arabic figures to indicate position of substitu.6H10 hexahydrate.) instead of Arabic figures + Only some so-called "addition compounds" are known t o to avoid confusion with the organic-chemical use be codrdination compounds. anol 8. of crystallization. etc. the use of hydrate terms in examples in 6. calcium chloride-6-water (or calcium chloride as No reason can beare considered acceptable)..~CO''CO"'W~~O~~. AICla. I it needs to be shown that added molecules f However..EtrN or [BF@trN)I the added molecules are organic. Some 8HzS. and isopoly cations also 8-(hydrogen sulfide)-46-water are being investigated.. e. Le.calcium chloride with 6 water. Alcoholates are the s a h of alcohols These names are not very different from a pure and this name should not be used to indicate alcohol verbal description which may in fact be used. 82 BiCla. it i s boron trifluoride-triethylamine or Wuororecommended to use multiplicative numeral pre(triethylamine) boron fixes (bis.136-water compounds.2PCh or [ptClz(PCl~)~] bound in an unspecified way. etc. Those that are lattice compounds and those of unknown structure do not really belong in 7.6 included under 7 and recommends that calcium chloride-8-ammonia they should be studied by a special subcommittee.g. the names are given accordAccording to the commonly accepted meaning of ing to 7. as well CaClz. and was Examples: formerly regarded as.324.16H9.46Hz0 ramo. the name FeS01.5542 INTERNATIONAL OF PURE UNION AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY Vol.3PCla bismuth trichloride-3-(phosphorus pentachloride) TeCh. what is now known as a hydroxide.. tetrakis. 2AsCla tetramethylammonium tetrachloroarsenate(III)-2-(arsenic trichloride) CaCL8NHa + The coordination subcommittee would prefer not to have sections 7.46HzO cyclic isomers are already known.between version) makes in the examples here.7H20 or [Fe(H2O)a)SOI. Parentheses can always be 3-cadmium sulfate-&water used if there is danger of any ambiguity. be termed etherates. compound of alupounds containing ether. The use of short dashes ("en" dashes) instead of hyphens NaZC03.H3PO4 metallographers have designated polymorphic modboron trifluoride-phosphoric acid NasPVzMolsOsz hexasodium 18-mol ybdodiphosphate(V) N~P'I'zMoizO~i tetrasodium dodecamolybdodiphosphate(II1) K. When BF8.

LIST OF NAMES FOR IONS AND RADICALS t o certain dHerences between organic and inorganic nomenclature. no attempt has been made t o do so a t this time. but the organicchemical names are shown to draw attention Atom or SOUP Name M p11 neutral molecule anion BS ligand as prefix for substituent in organic compounds H F c1 Br I c10 clot ClOI clod monohydrogen monofluorine monochlorine monobromine monoidie chlorine dioxide hydrogen chlorine bromine iodine chlorosy1 chloryl perchloryl iodosyl iodyl I: IO 0 01 hydride fluoride chloride bromide iodide triiodide hypochlorite chlorite chlorate perchlorate h ypoiodite oxide OS+ peroxide Os-: hyperoxide hydroxide hydrogen peroxide sulfide hydrogen sulfide disulfide hydrido fluoro chloro bromo iodo hypdorito chlorito chlorato fluoro chloro bromo iodo 101 monoBxygen dioxygen hydroxyl (perhydroxyl) monosulfur (SUlfhYdrgl) disulfur sulfur monoxide sulfur dioxide sulfur trioxide oxo peroxo hydroxo hydrogen peroxo thio ( s d d o ) thiol0 disulfide sulfito hydrogen sulfito thiosulfato sulfato seleno selenito selenato telluro iodoso iodyl or iodoxy oxo or keto P OY WX hydroxy hydroperoxy thio thiol or mercapto sulfinyl sulfonyl HO HO¶ S HS SI SO. 6. trithiazyl) nitrido azido imido amido hydroxylamido hydrazido nitrosyl nitro nitrito nitrato hyponitrito phosphido illlip0 ZlmIllO hydroxylamino hydrazino nitroso nitro (NSh P PO NO: N&8 phosphorus PS phosphoryl thiophosphoryl phosphorow hypophosphito phosphito phosphato arsenato carbonyl carbonyl methoxy ethoxy methylthio ethylthio cyano cyanato thiocyanato and isothiocyanato selenocyanato PHtQ PH4 AS04 P4 o CH:O CfiO CH9 CiHrS CN OCN SCN vo co cs vanadyl carbon monoxide carbonyl thiocarbonyl methoxyl ethoxyl cyanogen methanolate ethanolate methanethiolate ethanethiolate cyanide cyanate thiocyanate SeCN TeCN COI HC4 CHaCOt acetyl acetyl CH:CO oxalate Ct01 1 If necessary.comments at such rules as 3. methoxo ethoxo methanethiolato ethanethiolato cyano cyanato thiocyanato and isothiocyanato selenocyanato selenccyanate tellurocyanato tellurocyanate carbonato carbonate hydrogen carbonate hydrogen carbonato acetato acetate oxalato acetoxy acetyl Although some additions might be made to this list. as cation or cationic radical^ 5543 In inorganic chemistry substitutive names seldom are used. 5.2.and 7.312. and a few changes suggested. oxidation state is to be given by Stock notation.36. SO: so sulfinyl (thionyl) sulfonyl (sulfuryl) SIQ se HSG so4 selenium seleninyl selenonyl selenium trioxide tellurium chromyl uranyl neptunyl plutony 1 americyl sulfoxylate sulfite hydrogen sulfite thiosulfate sulfate selenide selenite selenate telluride SeO sa e sa e Te CrO: seleno seleninyl selenonyl telluro UOI NpOt PUOI Am01 N N8 mononitrogen NH NO NS NHl NHOH NlI4 NOI ON0 nitride azide imide amide hydroxylamide hydrazide nitrite nitrate hyponitrite phosphide hypophosphite phosphite phosphate arsenate nitrogen oxide nitrogen dioxide nitrosyl nitryl thionitrosy 1 thiazyl (c. + .3 32. Cf. especially in the last col umn.g.31..

. The method is similar to the use of trivial names. . ..... .. . 2 .. ..7 Ligands ....... . INDEX T O THE 1957 IUPAC INORGANIC Acid anhydrides. . . . . = face-centered tetr . ..7 1. .. .. . . ... . . Co6rdination compounds .. .. .24. 1 3 . .. . ... . .) or as AuCd(CsCZ-type).. ... . .. . Element group names . . .. Complexes .. .. . ... .. .. .. .. .. .2. . .. Addition compounds .. . 2. . .....1 2.52. . ..cub.... . . .. 5. .... .... . . 3 2 .. . Isotopically labeled compounds . .. . . . ..... . .3 Mass indication on at . . . .... .. . . . . . . . .... ..35 Nid e s .. . .. . .. . 8.. . .. .. .. 1 ... . .. .15 Isomorphous replacement... . . ... or as trivial names ..... .. . . . Compound names . . .... 2 Names of elements . 1. . .L-For chemical purposes (i... .e. . . - Double hydroxides . .3 .. . . Thus. . .. .. . . . . .16. 1 .. as its structure cannot be referred to a type..2. . ... ... .... .... . Charge indication on atomic symbols .... ... . ... . . . ... . = monoclinic tric..5 Isopolyanions . =triclinic Slightly distorted lattices may be indicated by ... . .. Electropositive constituent. ..2. . Ions from nitrogen bases . . . . ... The rules suggested here have been framed as a basis for future work.. . . . .. and the designations a. .. .252. . .. .. .. Acid halides . . .. . 2 .. . . . .. 1... . 7... Rule No 5... . = orthorhombic hex ..7. .21 5. .. ... 5.. should be regarded as provisional.33 Formulas of compounds . .52. and some investigators have designated as a the form stable a t ordinary temperatures.22 Prefixes . . .. ... .. .24... . .. ... . ... Nonmetal binary compounds .. .... .23 2... .... . . and is likely to continue to be of use in the future in cases where the existence of polymorphism is established.. . ... 6 6.. .... . . .1 is suEaent.. 2 . .... . . .)...32. ... .. slightly distorted face-centered cubic lattice would be expressed as -f. .24.... .15 Isotopes .. . .. . 2 2 Nonstoichiometric compounds .. ..22 2.. . . . . . 8.... . . Thus..... . 2.. .. .. thereby causing confusion. . Anions . .. . . 8 Mineralnames.3 "Functional" nomenclature . salts . . 8.. .. 4 4 Interstitial solutions .. . but a t low temperature only as AuCd(o-rh. .. .) to wurtzite . . for example. 5 . . .. ... . ... 2 Functional derivatives of acids ... ...7.. . ..... .. Substitutive names .. . .. . . . 8 1. ... . .. . . .. ... .24 2. y bl Systematic names . 6. . ... .. .. and convey a maximum of information to the reader . . .. . ..4. . . but not the structures underlying it.32 2.. ....251.17. .. ... .. . .13 Molecular formula . 4... The Commission considers that these abbreviations might with advantage be standardized internationally : cub. Empirical formula .. For example. ... . . .4 5. ...2 4 2. .. . . ... Binary compounds between nonmetals ... .. .. .1.. ... . Electronegative constituent ... . . 6. 3 Ion names ... Double oxides . . ..) or ZnS(cub. . . .. . . .. . .. ice. .33 1.. . and some have even changed an already established usage and renamed a-quartz 8. ... .21 page 5543 3 6 R Tiil names . .. while others have used a for the form stable immediately below the melting point.. . .. 1 Elements .. .2..... . .. ... difticdties are encountered when the binary system A-B is studied . . .. . Bridging groups .. etc. . ...3 5. .7 2 7 4 8 ... .... ... but this system often breaks down because many structures are not referable to a type in this way . . 7 .. . Regrettably there has been no consistent system... . . 2. .. . .. . 2. . . . . .... ..22 7. 1 5. . ....... . . . 7 .. ... . 1.. .5 and 6. .2 5. zinc sulfide(cub.41 3. . . . . ....251. .. ...... ....12 Endings for names .....4 2.. 82 Scations with Greek letters or with Roman numerals (a. cations . .. 8. Stock's system .22 3. . . . . . . . 2.4imple well-known structures may also be designated by giving the typeampound i italics n in parentheses. . .. .).. .. . .. . it is doubtful whether this system would commend itself to chemists where 8.. 7.. A uds . .. s m os of elements . If the arb nomenclature is used for two substances A and B. .19.. . Stoichiometric proportions . .. . . . .. . ....213 7.. .... =trigonal mon .. .. . . . . .. . . s Salt-like compounds . ... 2. ... . .. 1 6 . 7 .251 6. .31 5 7.. .... when particular mineral occurrences are not under consideration) polymorphs should be indicated by adding the crystal system after the name or formula.. . . 2 .. ..iron. . ..2. .. and it is hoped that experience in their use may enable more sp&c rules to be formulated at a later date. AuCd above 70" may be written as AuCd(cub. ... .. rva 4.3. page 5543 Ion list . ..1 1. .. .. . .. .. 5..4 5.-Crystallographers may find it valuable to add the space-group. Amides . Solid solutions .. .. and ZnS(hex. . . . .. . 3 . ... . 2 . .. .2532 Heteropoly anions . . . a use of the circa sign. .. 5.. .5542 INTERNATIONAL OF PURIE UNION AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY RULES Vol. . Thio acids.4. .... .. . .. . 3 Esters .. . . . = tetragonal 0-rh .. A rational system should be based upon crystal structure.3... ...... . . ... . ... . .. Allotropes ... . ... . . Radicalname . . . . .. etc. 3.. . . 4 Isopoly acids.) corresponds to zinc blende or sphalerite. .2.quartz. = hexagonal trig. . .. .... .. Berthollides .. . .... . .... ... . 4 Numerical prehes . . .. ... The designations should be as short and understandable as possible. . . . . . .. =bodycentered f. . . 3 .. Intermetallic compounds .. = cubic c. .. .32 5. .. Chloro acids . . Cf..... ..34 3.. ... . .. .. . ... .4 Hydroxide salts .... Names of compounds . . .. .