INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY

1957 REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON THE NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry
Definitive Rules for Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry
AMERICAN VERSION WITH COMMENTS

During the period while these rules were being formulated the Commission was made up of: H. BASSETT ( C h a i m n ,1947-53), ALEXANDER I L ~ ”(Chaimran, 1953-7), K.A. JENSEN (Trice Chairman),G. H. S CHEESMAN (Secrefury), J. BBNARD, B ERRUM,E. H. BUCHNER,W. FEITKNECHT,MALATESTA, N. L. A. LANDER, and H. REMY

d

Printed by permission of the Committee on Publications of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

CONTENTS
PREFACE ....................................... INTRODUCTION .................................. .................................. 1. ELEMENTS 1 1 NAMESAND SYMBOLS THB ELEMENTS. . OF 12 . FOR GROUPS OF ELEMENTS AND THEIR SUBDIVISIONS.. ................. 13 INDICATION OF MASS, . CHARGE, ETC.. ON ATOMIC SYMBOLS ..................... 1 4 ALLOTROPES . AND FOR COMPOUNDS GENIN 2. FORMULAS NAMES
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5523 5523 5525 5525

the Commission since the “1940 Rules” appeared. Their names’ are listed i the volumes of Comptes n Rendus, IUPAC, which have appeared since

1940.

3. NAMES FOR IONSAND RADICALS.. ............. 5529 5529 3.1 CATIONS.. ............................. 5530 3.2 ANIONS ................................ 5531 3.3 RADIcAcs .............................. PHASES V ~ ~ ~ COMPOSITION OF B L E 5532 4. CRYSTALLINE 5533 ...................................... 5. ACIDS 5 1 BINARY PSEUWBINARY . AND ACIDS.. ...... 5533 O Y T MC 5 2 ACIDS DERIVEDFROM P L A O I ANIONS. 5533 . FOR OXO ACIDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5534 5.214 NAMES 5.3 FUNCTIONAL DEWATIVRS ACIDS.. OF ..... 5535 AND SALT-LIKE COMPOUNDS.. ........... 5536 6. SALTS 6 1 SIMPLESALTS.. . ........................ 5536 6.2 SALTS CONTAINING ACID HYDROGEN (“ACID” SALTS). 5536 ..................... 6.3 DOUBLE SALTS, TRIPLE SALTS,ETC.. ...... 5538 6.4 OXIDE AND HYDROXIDE SALTS (“BASIC” 5537 S L S . ............................. A T ) 6.5 DOUBLE OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES.. ...... 5537 COMPOUNDS. .................. 5537 7. COORDINATION 5537 7 1 DEFINITIONS . ........................... 7.2 FORMULAS AND NAMES FOR COMPLEX COMPOUNDSGENERAL. IN ............. 5538 7 3 NAMESFOR LIGANDS. . ................... 5538 7 4 DI- AND POLYNUCLEAR . COMPOUNDS.. .... 5541 5541 7.5 ISOPOLY ANIONS.. ...................... 7.6 HETEROPOLY ANIONS.................... 5541 7.7 ADDITION COLIPOUNDS.. ................. 5542 ............................. 5542 8. POLYMORPHISM. LISTOF NAbfES FOR IONS AND RADICALS.. ......... 5543 INDEX ......................................... 5544

............................ ERAL .................................. 2.1 FORMULAS., ........................... 2.2 SYSTEMATIC NAMES. .................... 2.3 TRIVIAL NAMES.. .......................

Acknowledgment also is made of the cooperation of delegate and advisory members of the Com5525 mission, of members of nomenclature committees in a number of nations; also of E. J. Crane, Editor 5526 of C h i C a Z Abstracts. 5526 The final editing of the 1957 Report is the work of a subcoyittee, I . A. Jensen, Chairman, J. C 5526 Bhard, A. Olander, and H. Remy. 5527 November lst, 1958 5527 Alexander Silverman, Chairman 5529

INTRODUCTION
The Commission on the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) was formed in 1921, and many meetings took place which culminated in the drafting of a comprehensive set of Rules in 1938. On account of the war they were published in 1940 without outside discussion. At the meeting of the International Union of Chemistry in 1947 it was decided to undertake a thorough revision of what have come to be known as the “1940 Rules,” and after much discussion they were completely rewritten and issued in English and French, the official languages of the Union, after the meeting i Stockholm in 1953 as the “Tentative n Rules for Inorganic Chemical Nomenclature.” These were studied by various national organizations and the comments and criticisms of many bodies and of private individuals were received and considered in Ziirich, Switzerland, in 1955, in Reading, England, in 1956, and in Paris, France, in 1957. The Rules set out here express the opinion of the Commission as to the best general system of nomenclature, although certain names and rules which are given here as a basis for uniformity will probably prove unworkable or unacceptable in some lanp a g e s In these cases adaptation or even alteralxon will be necessary, but it is hoped that it will be possible to keep these changes small and to preserve
(1) V. Caglioti, 0. Choudron, R. V. 0 . Bwens, F. Giordani, W. P a Jorrissen, H.I. Schlesinger, W.D. Treadwell, E. Votocek.

PREFACE
In addition to members o the Commission on f Inorganic Chemical Nomenclature listed above, the present revision is the evolved work of various individuals who have served as regular members of

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INTERNATIONAL OF PURE UNION AND APPLIED CHEMXSTRY

Vol. 82

the spirit of the IUPAC Rules. The English and French versions, which differ slightly, are to be regarded as international models from which translations will be made into other languages. The latter is likely to prove the better model for the Romance languages, and the former for Germanic languages, but it must be borne in mind that English and French have been used in the two original versions of the report of the Commission as the official languages of the Union and that several nations speak them with quite considerable variations of usage among themselves. There may therefore arise a similar need for adaptation or alteration even among English-speaking and French-speaking peoples, but we hope that in these cases, as in the others, careful consideration will be given to minimizing variation and to preserving the spirit of our international model. The Commission’s aim always has been to produce rules which lead to clear and acceptable names for as many inorganic compounds as possible. It soon became obvious, however, that different users may require the name of a compound to fulfill different purposes, and it has been necessary to effect compromises in order to formulate rules of the most general usefulness. The principal function of a name is to provide the chemist with a word or set of words which is unique to the particular compound and which conveys a t least its empirical formula and also, if possible, its principal structural features. The name should be pronounceable and capable of being written or printed with an absolute minimum of additional symbols or modes of writing (e.g., subscripts or differing type faces). Many inorganic compounds exist only in the solid state and are destroyed on fusion, solution, or vaporization; some chemists have expressed strongly the view that names for such compounds should include information about the structure of the solid in each case as well as its composition. Incorporating all this information tends to make the names extremely cumbersome, and since many of the structures remain uncertain or controversial, such names often must be changed. For general purposes, therefore, it is essential to have as short names as possible, and the Commission has endeavored to produce a system based on the composition and most important properties of substances, avoiding as far as possible theoretical considerations which are liable to change.
Introductory Statement Concerning the Comments National variations as t o certain details of expression have been justified. A few such changes have been made in this American version. No alterations of basic significance have been made. The expression “American version” has been used chiefly because of the comments, made in good will and with the hope that they will prove t o be helpful. The recent appearance of the IUPAC 1957 “Definitive Rules for Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry” (published for IUPAC by Butterworths Scientific Publications in London (1959)) marks an important forward step in the development of a comprehensive and systematic inorganic nomenclature. Inorganic chemists owe a debt of gratitude to the members of the Commission on the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry for their long efforts and the successful issue of their labor.

X report such as this, comprising the contributions of many chemists representing many points of view, must of necessity be more a reflection of approved and established practices and the best compromises among these differing points of view and various national usages rather than the ideal of an integrated systematic set of nomenclature rules. But because the rules are a codification of recommended present procedures, they should iind acceptance by most chemists and should provide a good basis for future development. It should be realized that the report must stop short of many questions of detail which are probably best handled within the framework of each language and established national usage. This viewpoint has led t o some adaptations t o American practice, as exemplified in publications of the American Chemical Society. These adaptations include changes in styling (as spelling, separation of some one-word names into two words, and more liberal use of parentheses in some names) and occasional changes in wording to improve clarity. Greater harmonization of inorganic and organic nomenclature practices is much t o be desired. 4 joint committee of the IUPAC organic and inorganic nomenclature commissions has been appointed for such a purpose. Some of the overlapping areas (as organometallic compounds) are among those which will require extension of these Rules a t =me future date. These are areas which have become active within the past few years or in which significant advances in our understanding have recently taken place and are presently continuing. Nomenclature committees in the United States are currently studying some of the areas where more work is indicated, in the hope that the results of their studies may be considered at the international level with a view t o still further improvement. The Definitive Rules were carefully considered by the Subcommittee on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the National Research Council and the Committee on Nomenclature of the Division of Inorganic Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. This work was done by correspondence and by conferences a t the 137th and 138th meetings of the American Chemical Society in April and September, 1959, respectively. Tentative adoption of the Rules has been recommended by the above committees to the National Research Council, Committee on Nomenclature (Charles D. Hurd, Chairman) of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, and t o the American Chemical Society, Committee on Nomenclature, Spelling, and Pronunciation (Leonard T. Capell, Chairman) with the minor modifications incorporated in the text below and also the comments following specific rules. These comments of the two inorganic nomenclature committees-together with the comments on Section 7 by the Subcommittee on Coordination Compounds (Fred Basolo, Chairman, and Daryle H. Busch, Acting Chairman at the September meeting) of the Committee on Nomenclature of the Division of Inorganic Chemistry of the American Chemical Societyare made in a spirit not of criticism but of helpfulness and with a desire t o further the general use of these Rules in the United States. The comments following specific nomenclature rules also are in smaller type for the sake of readier recognition as such,and are preceded by the symbol+.

Subcommittee on Committee on Nomenclature, Division Nomenclature of Inorganic o Inorganic Chemistry, f Chemistry, Division of American Chemical Society Chemistry and Chemical Technology, National *DR. GEORGE SCHAEFFER, W. Research Council Chairman MISS JANET D. SCOTT, Chair- DR. FRED BASOLO DR. JOSEPH CRATT (Correman DR. FRED BASOLO sponding Member, England) DR. W. C. FERNELNS Mxss GERTRUDE GIBBONS DR. ALLANF. CLIFFORD DR. DALLAS HURD DR. W. C. FEERNELIUS T. MIS GERTRUDE GIBBONS DR. KURTL.LOENING DR. DALLAS HURD MOELLER T. DR. THBRALD DR. EUGBNE ROCROW DR. WILLIAM G. JOLLY W. DR. , *DR. GEORGE SCHAEFFER KURTI. LOBNING DR. GEORGE WATT W. DR. EUGENE ROCHOW G. MISSJANET D. SCOTT * Deceased. DR. GEORGE WATT W.

nated by mass numbers as. ferrate. whereas *H is used in 1. The name mercury should be used as the root name also 1. are used. Names and Symbols of the Elements 1. 21 34 14 47 11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 22 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 particu- + 1. e. Y. and is undesirable to assign isotopic names instead of antimony.-The elements should have the symbols given in the following table (Table I).1.14. be used when forming names derived from those 1.-Any new metallic elements should be given names ending in -ium. Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb Ru Sm Sc 59 61 91 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Ti Th Tm Sn Ti W U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr States. The English list only is reproduced here. and halides and chalcogerlides for their comIn thc cases in which different names have been pounds.g. and the Latin name stibium. The name rare earth metals may be used ity.2 Subdivisions colum. and (mercurate. deuterium]and tritium may be retained. and inert gases may be conconsiderations of prevailing usage and practicabil. still retain the name columbium. niscolate instead of nickelate. For hydrogen the isotope names proand not goldate. alkaline earth used the Ccmn:ission has selected one based upon metals (Ca to Ra). T~BLE I ELE~~ENTS Name Atomic Symbol number Name Atomic Symbol number Name Atomic Symbol number Actinium Ac Gold (Aurum) 89 Au 79 Praseodymium Aluminum A1 Hafnium Hf Promethium 13 72 Am Americium Helium 95 2 He Protactinium Antimony 51 67 Holmium Radium Ho Sb Ar Argon Hydrogen 18 H Radon 1 Indium Arsenic 33 As Rhenium In 49 At Iodine Astatine 85 Rhodium I 53 Barium Iridium Ba Rubidium 56 Ir 77 Berkelium Bk Iron (Ferrum) Fe 97 Ruthenium 26 Beryllium Be Krypton 4 Samarium 36 Kr Bismuth Bi Lanthanum Scandium 57 83 La B Lead (Plumbum Boron Selenium 82 Pb 5 Bromine Br Lithium Silicon 35 Li 3 Cadmium Cd Lutetium Silver (Argentum) 48 Lu 71 Ca1cium Ca Magnesium 20 Sodium 12 Mg Californium Cf Manganese 98 Strontium Mn 25 Carbon C Mendelevium 6 Sulfur Md 101 Cerium Ce Mercury 58 Tantalum 80 Hg Molybdenum Cesium cs Technetium 42 55 Mo Chlorine c1 Neodymium Tellurium 17 Nd 60 Chromium 24 Cr Neon Terbium Ne 10 Neptunium Cobalt 2 : co Thallium 93 NP Nickel Copper (Cuprum) cu 29 Ni Thorium 28 Curium Cm Niobium 96 Thulium Nb 41 Dysprosium Nitrogen 66 N 7 Tin (Stannum) DY Einsteinium Nobelium 99 ES 102 NO Titanium Erbium Er Osmium 68 76 Tungsten (Wolfram) os Europium Eu Oxygen 63 0 8 Uranium Fermium Fm 100 Palladium 46 Pd Vanadium Fluorine F Phosphorus 9 P 15 Xenon Francium Fr Platinum 87 78 Pt Ytterbium Gadolinium 64 Plutonium Gd 94 Pu Yttrium Gallium Polonium 31 Ga Po 84 Zinc Germanium Potassium 32 Ge K 19 Zirconium The committees reaffirm the name niobium for element 41 in spite of the fact t h a t many in the United larly outside of chemical circles.S.1. and comments made at 1.-The use of the collective names : halogens in languages where the element has another name (F. respecC ’ nikkel. for example.15. chalcogens (0. tium.g. wolfrainate same name. + l. etc. It is recommended T be allowed for deuterium and that D spelled so differently in various languages (niquel. Se. Br. Molybdenum and a few other elements have long been spelled without an ‘iilJin most languages. but i t For some compounds of sulfur.2 1. it is essentially a trivial name and is deuterium. e. It is desirable that the names should differ as little as possible among the different languages] but as complete uniformity is hard to achieve.. no: hydrargyrate).tinued. aurate.” Although the name nickel agrees with the chemThe list in 3. nitrogen.) that i t is recommended that names of Names for Groups of Elements and their derivatives be formed from the Latin name nic. Te. the . separate lists have been drawn up in English and in French. tritium. C1. They should be desigFrench name azote.E. the numbers to other elements. and La to Lu inclusive. and At).21 implies that D is an acceptable symbol for ical symbol. tively. ELEMENTS 1. Tungstate and nickelate are both so well established in American practice that the committees object t o changing them t o wolframate and niccolate.. tungstate. and the Commission hesitates to insert it.31. I. 1960 DEFINITIVE RULES FOR NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 5525 1.11.-All isotopes of an element should have the of the elements. I t sLould be emphasized that their selection for the elements Sc. carries no implication regarding priority of discovery. 5 . derivatives of the Greek name Beiov. 132.--The names placed in parentheses (after 1. “oxygenrespectively.-All new elements shall have two-letter the trivial names) in the list in Table I shall always symbols. Po). 18.Nov. ironate. alkali metals (Li to Frj.32.l3.

Allotropes If systematic names for gaseous and liquid modifications are required.31.3 Indication of Mass.. similarly. The positions are to be occupied thus left upper index left lower index right lower index right upper index mass number atomic number number of atoms ionic charge 1. atomic number. soro) denoting structure. The use of prefixes to indicate ring and chain structures is favored by the committees. they should be based on the size of the molecule. 1. the prefix w l v may be used.g. the whole group containing names can be given as coordination compounds in accordance with 2. and indeed it seems impossible to 15NH3 ammonia(I6N) introduce this distinction into a consistent system (spoken : ammonia nitrogen-15) of nomenclature.. be emphasized that these are intended to be applied Example: fH286S04 sulfuric(a6S) acid(aH) both to ionic and covalent compounds. but it should be pointed out that ino (not catena) has been used by mineralogists for indicating chain structures in silicates. Elements no. To indicate ring and chain &ktur& the prefixes cyclo and ca6na may be used. 82 name lanthanum series for the elements no.in nature and can be regarded as combinations of pounds the symbol of the isotope in parentheses. If it is deIf this method gives names which are ambiguous sired to avoid such endings for neutral molecules. Cf. in German : Natriumchlorid H8T1hydrogen chloride(@C1) but Chlorwasserstoff). etc. + Although the practice of American chemists and physicists + + IN GENERAL 1. on Atomic Symbols 1. number of atoms.22.5526 INTERNATIONAL OF PURE UNION AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY Examples : HOS02WH 16NOzNH2 N0zl6NH~ HOaSW-'8OSOsH Vol.251). Such a distinction is made in some languages (e. the labeled atom may be indicated.g. particularly since the latter term is used for a radioactive series. The inclusion of Sc with the rare earths is questioned by some. although it is suggested that lanthanoid is preferable to lanthanide because of the use of -ide for binary compounds. thiosulfuric(Y3H)acid nitramide(lbNOz).32. filling of 5f shells). each of which has the atomic number 16 and mass number 32.g. FORMULAS AND NAMES OF COMPOUNDS . all used without italics or hyphens (e. If the number of atoms is large and unknown. along with cyclo and other p r e h e s (neso. The use of a collective term for elements 58-71 is approved. 57-71 (La to Lu inclusive). Examples: Symbol Trivial Name Systematic Name H atomic hydrogen 0 2 (common) oxygen Os ozone PC white phosphorus (yellow phosphorus) Sa X-sulfur monohydrogen dioxygen trioxygen t etraphosphorus cyclooctasulfur or octasulfur catenapolysulfur or polysulfur Ionic charge should be indicated by An+ rather than by A+". atoms. The following is an example of an equation for a nuclear reaction yM ! g . phyllo. ions or radicals. Example: .-The mass number. No need is seen for the terms lanthanum series and actinium series.-Isotopically labeled compounds may be Many chemical compounds are essentially binary described by adding to the name of the com. 2. tecto. because the line of demarcation The position of the labeled atom may be indicated between these two categories is not sharp. which can be indicated by Greek numerical prefixes (listed in 2. inosilicates). S p-sulfur . Charge. the committees recognize the advantage of putting it a t the upper left so that the upper right is available for the ionic charge as needed.He = ?A !1 :H in general has been to put the m s number at the upper as right of the symbol. and ionic charge of an element may be indicated by means of four indices placed around the symbol.-The word metalloid should not be used to denote nonmetals. and it should the locant (name of the group concerned).not nitr("N)amide nitramide( 16NH2) peroxo(l8O2)disulfuricacid Since IUPAC rules for labeling organic compounds are not yet available.4. 1.. others may be treated as such for the purpose of nomenclature. and the name actinides is reserved for the elements in which the 5 shell is being filled.. use of catena in 7. Chemical Abstracts uses the modified Boughton system for deuterium and tritium compounds. actinoid is preferable to actinide. not self-linking. f The name transuranium elements is also approved for the elements following uranium. For other labeled compounds the symbol in italics for the isotope introduced is attached by a hyphen to the end of the part of the name which is modified. In these by placing the isotope symbol immediately after rules a system of nomenclature has been built on the basis of the endings -ide and -ate. Examples : Some chemists have expressed the opinion that **PC13 phosphorus(**P) trichloride the name of a compound should indicate whether (spoken : phosphorus-32 trichloride) i t is ionic or covalent.24 and Section 7. For the nomenclature of solid allotropic forms the rules in Section 8 may be applied. + T h e collective term halogenides used in the Rules has been replaced in this version by halides.%Si+represents a doubly ionized molecule containing two atoms of sulfur.42 for chains of alternating. or difficult to pronounce. but i t has not been made (spoken : hydrogen chloride-36) consistently. and the name lanthanides for the elements 58-71 (Ce to Lu inclusive) are recommended. Definition by means of atomic numbers is recommended in both cases rather than on the basis of interpretation (e. 89 (Ac) to 103 form the actinium series. which is almost universally used in English and is unambiguous.

but in Romance languages mittees prefer to write the formula &N. sym. when compounds with analogous structures are compared (AgZn and AgMg). PI. Systematic Names Systematic names of compounds are formed by indicating the constituents and their proportions according to the following rules. a formula corresponding with the correct molecular weight of the compound. If the compound contains more than one electropositive or more than one electronegative constituent. e. Sn. trans. however. Bk.. Examples : Sodium chloride.) 2. Cr Re.Nov. chlorine diafter the hydrogen atom in such cases (cf. etc. recommended that the ending -ide be universally adopted in these languages. Cu Hg.. V W.g. 2.-In formulas the electropositive constituent (cation) should always be placed first. phosphorus hydrides.17. They are of particular importance in chemical equations and in descriptions of chemical procedure. The empirical formula may be supplemented by indication of the crystal structure-see Section 8.-1n intermetallic compounds the constituIn the Romance languages the endings -ure. Rh.--1 the electronegative constituent is monelements. e. CaSO4. e. C1. Pu.-The empirical formula is formed by juxtaposition of the atomic symbols to give the simplest possible formula expressing the stoichiometric composition of the compound in question. Y . Es. tion 5).. K.1. Cd. e. The prefixes may be connected with the formula by a hyphen and it is recommended that they be italicized. Lu-La. boron hydrides. Li used in the names of other binary compounds.15.g. Zn T1. Nb. Te.oxide.16 CNS-. Be 103.Pd. i. 2. calcium phosHSO4.[PtClz(NHa)s] 2. Ac.. Rb. Ir. e. the com. Deviations from this order may be allowed. For follow the order in which the atoms are actually binary compounds of the nonmetals the name of bound in the molecule or ion. on account of its compactness. sion does not a t this time wish to break the old hydrogen chloride.-Formulas provide the simplest and clearest method of designating inorganic compounds. oxygen difluoride.-1n the structural f o r m u b the sequence and spatial arrangement of the atoms in a molecule are indicated. 2. are designated by means of Arabic numerals before their formulas.g.stituent is placed first.2 1.. NCS-. the simplest possible formula generally may be chosen. S.-The prefixes cis. Np. Th. 1960 DEFINITIVERULES FOR NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 5527 2.13. 2. Sec. Cs. calcium sulfide. The formula for hypochlorous acid may Certain polyatomic groups are also given the be written HOC1 or HC10. SsC12. do not agree with this rule and HNO3 does phides. aluminum borides. Ni. Na.2. F.-1n the case of binary compounds between nonmetals that constituent should be placed first which appears earlier in the sequence: B. Although formulas such as HNOa. Sb. H. e. S. S2C12 and H4P20eand not SC1 and HzPO~. N. In. unless it is desirable to indicate the molecular complexity. Tc. Ca. Ge Bi. OF2 Hf. P. Se. asym may be used in their usual senses. 5.16. nickel arsenide.-For compounds consisting of discrete molecules the molecular formula. Example: cis. 0. 2. Pa. Cm. KC1. Si. Fe Au. ClzO. hydrogen sulfide. ending .1 1. KCl. 2. may be preferable to a cumbersome and awkward name. Mn Pt.. 2. their general use in text is not recommended.161. Water of crystallization and similar loosely bound molecules. In some languages the word oxyde is used.16) will not be modified (see. Mo. Mg. NS4.12. Cf. A 1 Pb. acid). the Commis. however. the sequence should in general atomic its name is modified to end in -ide. ents should be placed in the order and -et0 are used instead of -ide.16. Examples: NHa. Sc 2. Zr. stituent first. however.-The name of the electropositive constituent (or that treated as such according to 2.33. H&. (For the order of the constituents see also the later sections. Ti Ta.g. name it sulfur it is customary to place the electronegative connitride. not the element standing later in the sequence in 2.. Fm.g.32 and 6. not a sulfide. U. chlorure de potassium. Ag. Br.18. Sr. and cite it as an exception rather than as an example. In Germanic languages the electropositive con+ Because N& is definitely a nitride.Am. P. Ba. I.22.When the molecular weight varies with temperature. and NzOd.16.22. HOCN (cyanic acid). C.e.carbides. As. This also applies in Romance languages even though the electropositive constituent is placed last in the name.i d e s e e 3. iron not even follow the main rule in 2. should be used. HC104. whereas the ending -ide is Fr.. Md. and HONC (fulminic is modified to end in -ide.g. At. their sequence is determined by Rules 6.. Ga. Ru. 2. Co. Sb Po Nonmetals (except Sb) in the order given in 2. lithium nitride. No. lOH2O . 2. sulfur hexafluoride.-For compounds containing three or more 2.-The number of identical atoms or atomic groups in a formula is indicated by means of Arabic numerals. it is Ra. Examples: CaClz not CaCP [Co(NHa)a]Clanot [CoGNHaICla [Co(NHa)6]i(so4)3 N~zSOI.19. -uro. custom of putting the central atom immediately carbon disulfide.14. silicon carbide.. Formulas 2. although in some cases a formula. arsenic selenide. and NO2 instead of Sa. However. placed below and to the right of the symbol or symbols in parentheses ( ) or brackets [ ] to which they refer. Os.2531).

g.” in the omission of numerical Extreme caution is advised trivial names do not exist. Cf. comment at 2. It may be necessary in some languages to -ate.tatic)rA. well-established practFe. the name to be used should nomally be K [POzFr 1 potassium dioxodifluorophosbased upon the simplest possible formula of the phate substance except when i t is required specifically to K [POClZ(NH)] potassium oxodichloroimidodraw attention to the degree of polymerization.22. sodium thiosulfate (see 2-26). meral may be placed above and to the right 2. etc. and its use is recommended in all cases where “undeca’: replace “hendeca. cance. Nas[PO41 sodium tetraoxophosphate Since the degree of polymerization of many subNaa [PSI sodium tetrathiophosphate stances varies with temperature.25. and the atoms. because they are more IC4-). or molecules This system is applicable to all types of combound to the characteristic or central atom are pounds and is especially suitable for binary comtermed ligands. the deiinition of “central atom.26 and the last sentence in 5. Dinitrogen tetraoxide means specifically N204. the multiplicative numerals (Latin bis. but Naz [SZO. including mono (cf. radicals. 2.numerals (with or without hyphen according to the acteristic atom (as in ClO-) or a central atmn (as in custom of the language). US^ ~ i the i ~ t l ~ ’ denoted by nieans of Greek nwnerical prefix-e-. or neutral (cf. The complex is indicated by brackets Car[ POr]z tricalcium diorthophosphate [ 1.. supplement these numerals with hemi and the In certain exceptional cases the terminations -ide Latin sesqui (”2). 7. + In the examples it would seem that full cwrdination-type placed in parentheses immediatec.-Indication of the Proportions of the ConThe Stock notatioi c m be appli-edtc -bothcations stituents.24). but preierab!v slinuld nnt be zppiied tc 2. (mono.be inserted berween Greek” and “numerical prefixes” in plicable. phosphate Example: The name nitrogen dioxide may be In many cases these names may be abbreviated.. tetrakis.. ennea. When LVI) or disodium tetraoxosulfate. tetra. e..12) modified to end in -ate.32 and comment a t used in conjr. penta.2.nction with symbols the Roman nuI . phosphate.? Stork iic.i following the names should be given.. 82 Cf. etc.) are used and the whole -0. Further details concerning the designation of group to which they refer may be placed in parenligands.. hepta.1 and Section 7).312.3. state of aggregaNa [PCh] sodium hexachlorophosphate tion.-The stoichiometric kroportions may be compounds bet. sodium sulfate.~ sodium trioxothiosulfate this is not desirable in text. etc. either sodium tetraoxosulfate name. is. as the S*Ch disulfur dichloride central atom. were Examples : NzO dinitrogen oxide originally the names of the anions of particular oxo NOz nitrogen dioxide acids.” and also. 2.g. number or stoichiometric valence of the element.hyphen the names of the elements to w i h they hc atomic it should be designated by the termination refer.23).d anions. deca. e. and -ite are u s e d s e e 3.224. + Nitrogen sulfide has been taken out of the examples. second set of examples in 5. particularly when the name characteristic or central element (as indicated in includes a numerical prelix with a diEerent signifi1. + I n accordance with the organic nomenclature rules and 2.-The proportions o the constituents ~ S C ! f complexes which are as a d e considered as binary may be indicated indirectly by Stock’s system.g.16. In this case the name of a negatively charged When it is required to indicate the number of complex should be formed from the name of the entire groups of atoms. octa. use cf names such as chloroplatinate may also be applied to complexes which are positive (cf.3.16. Such a polyatomic group is designated a readily understood. hendeca.252. The prefix mono may generally be omitted. ar.-1n inorganic compounds it is generally Beyond 12.xvceri r:onmc-taIs I t A ciilploying ti. etc. by Roman numerals representing the oxidation Thus. Anionic ligands are indicated by the termination Greek tris. should Nz04 dinitrogen tetraoxide now designate quite generally a negative group conNzSs dinitrogen pentasulfide taining sulfur or phosphorus. It should be pointed out. cmnplex. that compounds are given names according to 2. Greek prefixes are replaced by Arabic possible in a polyatomic group to indicate a chur. appear in Section 7 . and dodeca) preceding without 2. tri-Uranium octaNa [ S O 81 sodium trioxofluorosulfate oxide.tri. irrespective of its oxidation state (the Fe304 triiron tetraoxide designation of the oxidation state is discussed in UsOe triuranium octaoxide later rules) and the number and nature of the MnOp manganese dioxide ligands. the names sulfate.3. pounds of the nonmetals.5528 ~RNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIEDCHEMISTRY Vol. i t is recommended that “or Latin” however. However.24. not trioxosulfur. Although the terms sulfate. SOa. i .22. but this is not always necessary. For zero the Arabic 0 wi!l be used.251 .hexa.. respectively. The coordination principle applied in this rule because of t h e frequent. and Section 5). sulfur trioxide.” etc. prefxes. to compounds containing organic ligands the Grst sentence and that “nona” replace “ennea. Ca [PCh]z calcium bis(hexachlorophosphate) Examples : In indexes it may be convenient to italicize a Naz [Sod sodium tetraoxosulfate numerical prefix a t the beginning of the name and Nap [SO31 sodium trioxosulfate connect it to the rest of the name with a hyphen. neutral 2.-If the electronegative constituent is poly. theses if necessary. di. e.23. and in other cases trivial names may be used (cj. that the principle is quite generally ap. used for the equilibrium mixture of NO2 and NzOr. phosphate.

does not affect indexing and should not lead to confusion. selenonium. is to be known as the oxonium ion when it ASH3 arsins k H 4 diamine is believed to have t i constitution.2531. + While the committees favor the extended use of the Stock In some languages names of the type “Chlorwassembff” are in use and may be retained if national nomenclature committees so wish. when they are not required in the particular circumstances.13. they suggest that in some cases the system of Ewens and Bassett (designation of the aggregate charge of a complex ion by an Arabic numeral in parentheses following the name. arsonium. + 3. quickchloride lime. Natronhydrat.14. (water. Examples : [A€(HzO)a]*+ the hexaaquoaluminum ion [CoCl(NH3)6]’+ the chloropentamminecobalt ion For so” important polyatomic cations which fall i this section.32.-Th preceding principle should apply also to polyatomic cations corresponding to radicals for which special names are given in 3. it is suggested that it be replaced by soda ash.32. ets. See comment at 1. Examples : Cu + the copper(1) ion Cu2+ the copper(I1) ion I+ the iodine cation + For I+. ammonia.Nov. for U 0 2 + the name uranyl(V1) ion in place of dioxouranium(VI) ion. Because soda is an ambiguous term.151).e. except as provided by 2.. to be limited to more than one kind of atom. 2. 3.--“ Functional” nomenclature (such as “nitric anhydride” for &Os) is not recommended apart from the name acid to designate the acid function (Section 5). oxonium perchlorate. Examples : sodium sulfate instead of sodium tetraoxosulfate aluminum sulfate instead of a l u ” ( I I 1 ) sulfate potassium chloroplatinate(1V) instead of potassium hexachtoroplatinate(1V) potassium cyanoferrate(II1)instead of potassium hexacyanoferrate(II1) phosphorus pentaoxide instead of diphosphorus pentaoxide 3.253.. similar to the use as superior notations with formulas) is adaantageous and should be abmed as an aiternate (d.323). 6. TrivialNames Examples : phosphonium.32). while not desirable in any one context. these indications are not generally neceSSary with elements of essentially constant valence. etc. Other functional derivatives o acids f are naqed as such in the Rules (5. 3. Cations 3. and acids (Section 5 ) and for hydrogen compounds iodonium ions. and they should be eliminated from Pb112Pb1V04 dilead(I1) lead(1V) oxide or tri.21.3.3). e. + Apparently there is no objection to acid anhydride as a 3 NAMES FOR IONS AND RADICALS . class name (cf. iodide(1) cation is more consistent with recommeoded practice. such as soda. whether are approved the parent itself is a known compound or not: for B a s diborane example (CHa)rSb+. Organic ions derived For some other hydrogen compounds these names parent cations should beby substitution in these named as such. telluronium.26. are harmless in industrial and popular literaFeCL iron(II1) chloride or ferrum(Il1) ture.-Monatomic cations should be named like the corresponding dement. and hence heteratomic would be a more precise term.. Mixed use o the f two systems. these names should be used without change or s u E x . as for example hs SbHa stibine in H*O+ClO*-. Chile saltpeter. PLtrely trivial names. . but a d incorrect scientific names such as l chloride sulfate of magnesia. without change or s&. Certain well-establismd trivial names for oxo oxonium. which i in fact the monohydrated s PHI phosphine PtH4 diphosphine proton. free from false scientific FeC& iron(I1) chloride or ferrum(I1) implications.3. hydrazine) are still acceptable.223.-Names for polyatomic cations derived by addition of protons to monatomic anions are formed by adding the ending -onium to the root of the name of the anion element. 3. oxidation numbers. The ion H30+. sulfonium..g.11) pounds of the ACS in a report not yet published.3.14.-In systematic names it is not always necessary to indicate stoichiometric proportions. SiH4 sifane SizHs disilane. .3. 5. 2. 5 2seems and .32 may n n be used alternatively.11.--The following systems are in use but are not recommended : 22531. sodium muriate. stibonium.3. Mo nz manganese(1V) oxide carbonate of lime.13.1960 advantageous. For instance. should be avoided under a l l BaO2 barium(I1) peroxide circumstances. radical names given i 3. In many instances it is permissible to omit the numbers of atoms.2532.17and comment a t 7. The widely 2. Examples: NO+ the nitrosyl cation NO%+ the nitryl cation Polyatomic here and in 3. the tetramethylstibonium ion.3.-The system of indicating valence by means of tihe suExes .technical and patent literature. It is agreed that nitryl and not nitronium should be used in all cases (cf.o m and -ic added to the root of the name of the cation may be retained for elements exbibiting not more than two valences. 2.-Polyatomic cations formed from monatomic cations by the addition of other ions or neutral atoms or molecules (ligands) will be regarded as complex and will be named according to the rules given in Section 7. lead tetraoxide + For B& (omitted in the Rules) borane rather than the IL[Ni(CN)4] potassium tetracyanomcollate(0) previous€yused bo& has been recommended by the Advi&[Fe(CN)a] potassium hexacyanoferrate(I1) sory Committee on the Nomenclature o Organic Boron Comf Na2[Fe(CO)4] sodium tetracarbonylferrate(.1.12. Cf. Examples : DEFINITIVE FOR NOMENCLATURE RULES OF INORGANIC CHEXXSTRY 5529 names of the elements (or Latin Toots) is considered notation.12.

the hy. however.and OZH. the Commission recombut see little reason for encouraging retention of the term hydro.selenide ion Te2. Atoms and groups attached to apply. OHN3azide ion hydroxide ion 3. Examples : hydrazinium. ion should not be called the hydroxyl ion. HD- ... which is used quite generally when the anion of the acid is monatomic 3.carbide ion Iiodide ion Si4. but should be retained..-1ons such as SH. for exare preferred to nitrate acidium ion. by solution of alu+.221. per-.-Polyatomic Anions. This agrees with 6. 3.223.17. and CH3COOH2+. 13triiodide ion N2H3hydrazide ion 3. may be retained.153.-The names for monatomic anions shall fixes (hypo-.antimonide ion Brbromide ion C4.. for example. long been customary to ignore the name of this element altogether in anions and to indicate its pres3.15L-The name ammonium for the ion NH4+ + Cf.-Certain polyatomic anions have names for other uses: this would lead to inconsistencies ending in -ide..fluoride ion Asa. does not conform to 3.252 and the use of Stock notation with the same manner as other ligands (2. by adding -ium to the name of the compound to 3.15. All “fused” names (as hydrogensulto acids.14. respectively.e. as methyl. in aqueous solution. see Section 5) and someconsist of the name (sometimes abbreviated) of the times also by the suffix -ite in place of -ate. the hydration is of no particular importance to the matter under consideration. acetonium.have been written as two words in this version. aluminate and zincate ions are formed.-1t is quite practicable to treat oxygen in + Cf. but it has ions or radicals in 3. FH2+is the fluoronium ion. be used. the hexahydroxoantimonate (V) organic. a rule on the written form of the names of compounds Chem. the termination -ide should indeterminate degree of hydration. e.2. This decision does not release the word nitronium 3. imidazolium. Examples : dioxanium..32). These are when the rules are applied to other elements.-The names for other polyatomic anions H2NOz+. hydroxide.comment a t 6. etc. ions the name of the base (if necessary omitting a final may be formed in analogous manner. respectively. In the case of cations formed by adding protons + Cf. 3. that the termination -ate. 2. etc. guanidinium.16. for example. the central atom shall generally be treated as ligands + I n accord with present practice. work and spectroscopy. and names such as hydrosuEde are not needed. but definite ions such as CHoOHz+ and (CH&OH+ should be named as derivatives of the oxonium ion.-Where more than one ion is derived from This applies also when the exact composition of one base.222. The names uronium and thiouronium. 82 hydride ion Na. . NzH5+and N z H B ~ their the anion is not known. Education. etc.-cations formed by adding protons to non. and 3. in a complex (cf. their names are to be formed by fide here and methylisocyanide in 5. comment a t 2. HONHs+. The name hydroxyl is reserved for the OH group when pyridinium. see J. HzNO3+. as.comments at 1. charges may be indicated in their names as the minum hydroxide or zinc hydroxide in sodium hydrazinium(l+) and the hydrazinium(2+) ion.the nitrite acidium ion. the simpler term hydrogen ion may be used. For example. (Sb(OH)6 1 -.33) in the original version For adding the word acidium to the name of the corre.22. glycinium. sponding anion.152.arsenide ion C1chloride ion Sba. though in. Anions ence and proportion by means of a series of pre3. the nitrate acidium ion. The termination -ite has been used to denote a element.5530 INTERNATIONAL OF PURE UNION AND APPLDD CHEMISTRY VOl. Note.21. anilinium.2.silicide ion Ozoxide ion Ba. and not that of the acid itself.phosphide ion F. CH*COOHo+ is ample. however. 1336-8 (1931). for example. 3.hydroxyl-ammonium.24 and Section 7) as.telluride ion Expressions of the type “chlorine ion” are used particularly in connection with crystal structure + The committees concur in oxonium for the ion H*O+.2. 3. however. The OH-e or other vowel). Thus used term hydronium should be kept for the cases where it is wished to denote an indefinite degree of hydration of the proton. 8. consistent with this rule.S22disulfide ion amide ion droxylammonium ion.mends that whenever the charge corresponds with nium ion because hydrogen ion adequately designates an that indicated above.32 regarding *H D. If. nitric acidium ion.13 and 3.nitride ion deuteride ion Pa. etc. with the termination -ide.+ Superoxide is well established in English for On-and no nitrogenous bases may also be given names formed advantage is seen in changing to hyperoxide.24).boride ion Szsulfide ion Se2. ion.-1ons from Nitrogen Bases. 3.4ubstituted ammonium ions derived 0 2 2 NH2imide ion peroxide ion from nitrogen bases with names ending in -amine 0 2 NH2amide ion hyperoxide ion will receive names formed by changing -amine to 0 3 ozonide ion NHOH. The latter also may be used for the indefinitely solvated proton in nonaqueous solvents.12 and 3.neutral or positively charged. the cation fluoride ion Cz2acetylide ion name is to be formed by adding the ending -ium to Names for other polysulfide. For example. called the hydrogen sulfide ion and the hydrogen peroxide ion.14 will for complex anions. shall consist of the name of the central atom with the acetate acidium ion.and dimethyloxonium ions.will be which the proton is added. polyhalide.-When the nitrogen base is known by a HFzhydrogen diCNcyanide ion name ending otherwise than in -amine.15 and 1.32. whether free or as a substituent (cf.g. respectively.224. 3. as. 3.

Names such as the above should be used only to designate compounds containing these discrete groups.. manganite. nitroyl may be a better model for many other languages.32. Although the word nitryl is firmly established in E n g h h . not copper chromite. The use of the Stock notation in only one example (phosphoryl(II1) chloride) seems confusing.42).-A radical is here regarded as a group of atoms which occurs repeatedly in a number of different compounds. for example. . and azido in the last column) and by greater attempt a t uniformity with organic usage. + For phosphite names see comment at 6. nitrilo.-Certain radicals containing oxygen or other chalcogens have special names ending in -yl. respectively. 5.5). plumbite.24. the compounds NOCl and NOClO. uranyl Np01 neptunyl PuOt plutonyl C10 chlorosyl ClO. Some of the terms (as nitride and amide) listed as anions are used also of covalent compounds. respectively. per-.224 or derived from the adds listed in the table in 5. The list of names for ions and radicals on page 5543 gives an extensive selection of radical names at present in use in inorganic chemistry. A single atom may function like a radical as defined above and may be named similarly. etc. or a plumbate(11) is formed in the solution. It might be clearer t o indicate stoichiometric proportions. Cu(Cr02)rr copper(I1) chromium(II1) oxide..2. SbOg.214. are quite unambiguously denoted by the names nitrosyl chloride and nitrosyl perchlorate. The Commission considers it desirable to reduce this diversity and recommends that formulas or systematic names be used to denote all new radicals. c. A number of other names ending in -ite have been used. tellurite. vanadyl(IV). but in many cases such compounds are known in the solid state to be double oxides and are to be treated as such (qf.4). Radicals analogous to the above containing other chalcogens in place of oxygen are named by adding the prefixes thio-. and the Commission approves the provisional retention of HO hydroxyl NO2 nitryl1 CO carbonyl PO phosphoryl NO nitrosyl VO vanadyl + Caution is urged in the use of some of these radical names: Vanadyl. Most of these radical names (except hydroxyl and thionyl) can be regarded as derived from the names of acids which have lost all of their hydroxyls (analogous t o -yl or -0y1 organic acid radical names) by the use of -yl and -0syl for radicals from -ic and -0us acids. Where there is reason to believe that a definite salt with a discrete anion exists. so sulfinyl (thionyl) SO. 6. The use of thionyl and sulfuryl should be restricted to the halides. for example. respectively. VO may be vanadyl(V). 3.diphosphite (pyrophosphite) PH202hypophosphite AsO. seleno-. instead of introducing new trivial names. 3. and accordingly different names often have been assigned to the same group. nitryl hydrogen disulfate s*osclF pyrosulfuryl chloride fluoride SOg(N& sulfonyl azide SOsNH sulfonyl imide IOoF iodyl fluoride By using the same radical names regardless of unknown or controversial polarity relationships..2arsenite SOP sulfite &Ob2disulfite (pyrosulfite) &Or2dithionite &On2thiosulfite &Osaselenite clopchlorite c10hypochlorite (and correspondingly for the other halogens) The Commission does not recommend the use of any such names other than those listed. thiophosphoryl trichloride (cf. stannite. antimonite. the oxidation number of the characteristic element should be indicated by means of the Stock notation. see the list of adds (table in 5. Concerning the use of prefixes hypo-. and vanadyl(II1). chloryl c10* perchlory1 (and similarly for other halogens) 1 The name nitroxyl should not be used for this group since the name nitroxylic acid has been used for H I N ~ . a stannate(II). SnO.214). in 6. In like manner. phosphoryl (mono)chloride. Names such as bismuthyl and antimonyl are not approved because the compounds do not contain BiO and SbO groups.g. Examples: COClp carbonyl chloride NOS nitrosyl sulfide PON phosphoryl nitride PSC4 thiophosphoryl chloride POCl phosphoryl(II1) chloride N02Hs10. Examples: PS thiophosphoryl CSe selenocarbonyl In cases where radicals may have different valences.24 and in Sections 5 and 7. etc. also the naming of VOSO. ferrite. These polyatomic radicals always are treated as forming the positive part of the compound. the name is formed in accordance with 2. it is preferable to use the system given in 2. e.g. By dissolving. for example. 1960 DEFINITXVE RULES FOR NOMENCLATURE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF 5531 (similarly for other actinide elements) lower oxidation state and may be retained in trivial names in these cases NOSnitrite N202'hyponitrite N002peroxonitrite PHOsaphosphite P2H20sa. e.31. or PbO in sodium hydroxide an antimonate(III).3. names can be formed without entering into any controversy. this is implied in the footnote about nitroxyl. Sometimes the same radical fulfils different functions in different cases. sulfonyl (sulfuryl) W 6 pyrosulfuryl seo sel&yl SeOt selenonyl CIQ chromyl UO. Radicals 3.g. For all new compounds and even for the less common ones listed in the table in 3. as chloro and oxo. Thus.. such compounds are to be designated as oxide halides (6. For example. these can be distinguished as uranyl(V1) and uranyl(V). The list of names for ions and radicals following the R l s ue is very useful and can be made more so by additions (as of dithio.Nov. respectively. has been used for VOI as well as for VO (cf. the uranyl group UOg may refer either to the ion U0z2+or to the ion U02+.

atoms hydrazine. and NHCt dichloramine. the is solely or partially caused by replacement. o which many are important in the f chemistry of coordination compounds (Section 7). 3. groups together with oxygen atoms to a sulfur atom.-A general notation for the berthollides.33.. 82 phosphoryl triamide in 5. hydrazido. In connection with the berthollides the concept of a characteristic or ideal composition is frequently used. If only part of the homointermetallic compounds. amide.24). or the Eke. and other geneity range is referred to. In one case it may be necessary to use a definition based upon lattice geometry and in another to base it on the ratio of valence electrons to atoms. Other substitutive names (derived from “sulfonic acid” as a name for HSOaH) are fluoro.or atomic groups which replace each other are sepcording to the principles of inorganic chemical arated by a comma and placed together between nomenclature these compounds should be called parentheses.2. the major constituent nonstoichiometric compounds (berthoUides) should be placed first.and hydroxylaminesulfonic acids. Czn The direction of the deviation may be indicated when required: -MoC2 (excess carbon) -FeS (iron-delicient) . be used to indicate the structure type--see 6. (Li2. the formation of “conjunctive names.g. CRYSTALLINE PHASES OF VARIABLE denotes the complete range from pure Ni to pure COMPOSITION Cu. To draw attention to such differences +he prefix names of radicals as substituents in organic compounds have been listed together with the inorganic names in the list of names printed at the end of the Rules. For the “ing of partial amides sented when one or other of the two atoms o h cy. (The mineral name may..-For a phase where the variable composition in only a few cases in inorganic chemistry.5532 phOSghoryl(II1).g. e. should agree w t the nomenclature of organic ih chemist-ry. For example the symbol (Ni.Cl) comprises the range from Isomorphous replacement. i.52. etc. 4.) Examples: -FeS.34. such names are formed by adding hydroxyl. likewise K(Br. interstitial solutiorw. (In special cases it may also be printed above the formula. in the following cases : NH&l is called chloramine.Mg)Clz denotes the homogeneous be capable of varying in composition over an a p phase from LiCl to MgCl2 where the anion lattice preaable range. and at other times it is impossible to say whether a phase corresponds to a characteristic composition or not. since strictly logical names tend to become inconveniently cumbersome. also 5. thus the name calcite refers to a particular mineral (contrasted with other minerals of similar composition) and is not a term for the chemiml compound whose composition is properly expressed by the name calcium carbonate. it vacant positions (combination of substitutional and may obey the law of constaut composition very interstitialsolution) receives an analogous notation closely. From a more fundamental point of view.--It should be noted that the same radical may have M e r e n t names in inorganic and organic chemistry.tfuric acid and amidosulfuric acid might be considered to be substitutive names derived by substitution of hydroxyl groups in sulfuric acid. The latter should be used only when mavoidable (e. e. Mineralogical names should be used only to designate actual minerals and not to define chemical composition. is to put the sign (read as circa) before the formula. If possible the formula ought to be written so These are not true “conjunctive names” since sulfonic that the lmt of the homogeneity range are repreiis acid is not a compound. pure KBr to pure KC1. Sometimes one can state several characteristic compositions. ixriinodisulfonic acid.) 4.-For the present. imide. for indexing). which can be used even when the mechanism of the variation in composition is unknown. A unique definition of this concept seems to be lacking. In spite of these difficulties it seems that the concept of a characteristic composition can be used in its present undehed form for establishing a system of notation for phases of variahle composition.L-If an intermediate crystalline phase occurs Substitution accompanied by the appearance of in a two-component (or more complex) system.. structure remains the same but one vacant cation A substance showing such a variation is called a position appears for every substitution of 2Li+ by berthtoll&. These names should preferably be rephced by the following FSOJH fluorosulfutic acid ClSO3H chlorosulfuric acid NH2sOd-I amidosdfuric acid NH(S0&)2 imidodisulfuric acid N(SO&I)s nitridotrisulfuric acid Names such as chlorasu.” is also met 4. Organic chemical nomenclature is t o a large extent based on the principle of substitution.34) or to use phosphorosyl for The restriction of the use of thionyl and sulfuryl to the halides w s agreed upon at a joint meeting of the inorganic a andorganic nomenclature commissions of the IUPAC in 1951. It also seems possible to use the concept even if the characteristic composition is not included in the known homogeneity range of the phase.and chlorosulfonic acid.. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF AND APPLIED CEEWSTRY Vol.Cu) 4.g. “sulfuric acid” in this connection standing as an abbreviation for “trioxosulfuric acid.4. as in the case of sodium chloride. - .. molybdenum dicarbide (excess carbon). replacement of hydrogen atoms by other atoms or groups. or it may For example. 4. as occurs for example with FeS. Such “substitutive names” are extremely rare in inorganic chemistry. aminosulfonic acid. Mg”. Names o purely organic f compounds. Ac. and nitrilotrisulfonic acid. These names may be retained in the absence of better terms.and hydroxylamidodfuric acid. however. however (see 2. they are used. groups is lacking.e. mainly formulas should be used for berthollides and solid solutions. and may be written in the style of iron(1I) s a d e (iron-deficient) .3.” Another organicehemid type of nomenclature.

is used tc denote a O6 (x = 0. other to some extent and the notation would be Most of the common acids are oxo acids.g.4 are not required in in -ate or in -ite may also be treated as in 5. In other parts of in5.36Fe3 ~0.3&.21 and 3.1. 5. and a phase of the com.O acids that long-established names will have to be Nal-. The -011s acid position M which has dissolved a variable amount names are restricted to acids corresponding to the of water can be written M(HzO).4 will be This nomenclature may also be used for less comgiven the formulas Ca. this case. may systematic manner. It is a long-established custom not to indicate these oxygen atoms.221 will be named as binary and pseudoAzB1-z. the Ag and Cd atoms can replace one an.ferrate are preferable. which should allow new compounds to be named in a more should always be used in more complex cases. the mechanism of solu. tutional and interstitial or subtractive solution can 5.)5. which has the characteristic formula systematic names of the type hydrogen hexacyanoAg5C&. hydrogen Examples : Ni. For the compound HNs the name hydrogen azide This shows immediately that the total number of atoms in the lattice is constant. and Na.A&)AbOn represents the homogeneous phase from the spinel MgAlaOc (= Mg&Oa) to the spinel form of A l e 0 8 (= .-A still more complete notation. When this notation is used. On the The present rules are aimed a t preserving the same basis a notation for the plagioclases would be more useful of the older names while attempting to guide further development along directions which (NaSi..cases tion is more clearly understood if one writes H4B204 hypoboric acid Lik 0. over the actual physical position of Ca2+. Names for these acids may be derived from the names of the anions as in Section 2.65Fel.35Ti2+ .Ca. In such cases.Cul-. Ag-Cd system. e.o w LiCl and MgClz becomes LiZzMgl-. the homogeneous phase between formed by using the terminations -ic acid and .g.YF)FZ. -ite anions listed in the table in 3.e. e.mon acids. The other examples given in 4. chloride.0~.Cal.is recommended in preference to hydrazoic acid. a phase Acids giving rise to the -ide anions defined by involving simple substitution may be written 3. hydrogen cyanide. shows that it cannot con.. Thus. Many of the compounds which now according to for the other halogens 1 some definiti0r. If it is desired to show + Polyatomic means heteratomic here. Oxo Acids.. ~ contain only oxygen atoms bound to the characterFurther examples : istic atom.-For the oxo acids the ousic Likewise a solid solution of hydrogen in palladium notation to distinguish between different oxidation can be written as PdH. The where cation substitution is accompanied by inter.). 4. 5.a+& instead of Li3. LiczFe&Ti2(1-. this may be done by substituting e for x . a particular composiFurther distinction between different acids witk tion can be indicated by stating the actual value of the same characteristic element is in some case: the variable x. as opposed to that the variable denoted by x can attain only small pseudobinary. values. For example. 1960 DEFINITIVE RULESFOR NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC CED~MISTRY 5533 ing and it would have been most satisfactory to abolish them also for those compounds generally called acids. . Cf. Acids Derived from Polyatomic Anions be shown in an andogous way.-The prefix per IS used to desipnzte organic chemistry functional names are disappear. In the case of the y-phase of the hexacyanoferrate ions.. The commas and Acids giving rise to anions bearing names ending parentheses called for in 4.comment at 3.g.224. It is mainly for these Fel. sulfuric acid to sulfate. ACIDS HOC1 hypochlorous acid (and simiiarli. If i t is desired to introduce the value lower oxidation state. hexacyanoferric acids correspond to SiZ+&I2-. Probably the best way of doing effected by means of prefixes. would be represented by the of established custom. A12Ale0. Thus chloric acid correMg&l~~1-z~Als012.nomenclature of acids has. and which tain more Mg than that corresponding to MgAl204 phosphorous acid to phosphite.%O Fel. H4P206 hypophosphoric acid HPHzOZ hypophosphorous acid 5.35). and it appears impossible to formula (Ca. but names more in accordance with custom are For example. and RBr.Nov. e. hydrogen sulfide.Clz and the acid corresponding with the anion terminations -ate phase between MgAl204 and A I 2 0 3 can be written and -ite. general formula.12.21f. and it does not imply that YF2+takes known substances. binary compounds of hydrogen..2. and may be retained in thew of x into the formula itself.21.sponds to chlorate..W03 (sodium tungsten bronzes) retained.~o Ha202 hyponitrous acid Til. hydrogen sulfate instead of sulfuric acid. w r The formula (Mg3. Most other acids may be considered as For x = 0 each of these formulas corresponds to a coordination compounds and be named as such.1..states is applied in many cases.s are called acids do not fall into the classical province of acids.212.higher oxidation s t a t ? and K I X ~ oc rc-ained.5. however. be constructed by indicating in a formula the vari5.Al)SizAlOs. however.S CUZ.S b Fel.-The prefix hypo. they Ags f z C d S 2. ( x = 1). This notation s t o u l ~ this is to put the value in parentheses after the not be extended beyond the cases hsted below.F~-.Y1-. characteristic composition. It is important to note that systematize acid names without drastic alteration this formula is based purely on considerations of of the accepted names of many important and wellcomposition. a long history stitial addition of F-. The solid solutions between CaFa and YFs. Binary and Pseudobinary Acids ables that define the composition..Cll-. respectively. Combined substi.

to d i s h it from HsReOs.5). metaboric acids (HsSiOa). retention of well-established ones or the use of formulas is urged (specially for HNO.-The prefixes ortho. to distinguish it from HReOa. 7. Such acids can now generally be regarded as the simplest cases of isopoly acids (cf.has been used to designate an acid formed from two molecules of an ortho acid minus one molecule of water. of which salts have been described. prefix peroxo. respectively.. perchloric acid. to distinguish it from HsMnO4. hexahydroxoantimonate(V) ion in 3. for example. The prefix pyro.) until structures are known.. Hae04. trioxodinitrates(II). HSIO. These salts are to be designated system a t i d y as oxonitrates(1). Trivial names should not be given to such acids as HNO.is preferable. 7.have been TABLE I1 used to distinguish acids m e r i n g in “water conNAIUES FOR Oxo ACIDS tent. niobic acid. + The use of orthoperiodic acid and orthotelluric acid is approved. HlReOd orthoboric acid or (mono)boric acid metaboric acids trimetaboric acid hypoboric acid carbonic acid cyanic acid isocyanic acid fulminic acid orthosilicic acid metasilicic acids nitric acid peroxonitric acid nitrous acid peroxonitrous acid nitroxylic acid hyponitrous acid (ortho)phosphoric acid diphosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid triphosphoric acid polyphosphoric acids metaphosphoric acids trimetaphosphoric acid tetrametaphosphoric acid peroxo(mono)phosphoric acid peroxodiphosphoric acid hypophosphoric acid diphosphoric(II1. see comment at 5.22 and 5. and similarly for the other hexahydroxy.-The prefix peroxo.heptaoxodirhenic(V) acid HzNOt dioxonitric(I1) acid instead of nitroxylic acid. H2N204. HClOd. H2N203.the systematic name elements in Group VII. For the analThe prefix per. 5. manganic(V) acid HRe04 tetraoxorhenic(VI1) acid. ctc. although in these ches also the preiix di.213. HReO.223). clc.23). bismuthic acid.(cf. HaNaG. and uranic acid may be used for s~bstances with indehite “water content” and degree of polymerization. telluric acid.might be preferable (cJ. indicates substitution of -0. 82 If hexahydroxoantimonic acid is considered a trivial name. stannic acid.. metasilicic acids (HPOa)* metaphosphoric acids For the acids derived by removing water from orthoperiodic or orthotelluric acid. wolframic acid. HI04tetraoxoiodic(VI1) acid. The names germanic acid. vanadic acid. and H4Rez07. pentaoxorhenic VII) acid H2Re04 tetraoxorhenic(V1) acid. HIOr HI0 HMn04 HaMnOd HTcOI HaTcO. tetraoxorhenic(V) acid.22.should not be confused with the ogous use of peroxo and peroxy.” These names are approved HaBOa orthoboric acid H&iO4 orthosilicic acid HaPo4 orthophosphoric acid HJOe orthoperiodic acid HeTeOs orthotelluric acid (HBOz). needs further study because of confusion in the literature. . 5. tetraoxodinitrates(II1) .g. trioxorhenic(V) acid.may be retained for pyrosulfurous and pyrosulfuric acids and for pyrophosphorous and pyrophosphoric acids.214. Systematic cwrdinationtype names in the case of these nitrogen acids.-The accompanying Table I1 contains the accepted names of the oxo acids (whether known in the free state or not) and some of their thio and peroxo derivatives (5..(see 5.22).and meta. tantalic acid.V) acid phosphorous acid diphosphorous or pyrophosphorous acid hypophosphorous acid arsenic acid arsenious acid hexahydroxoantimonic acid sulfuric acid disulfuric or pyrosulfuric acid peroxo(mono)sulfuric acid peroxodisulfuric acid thiosulfuric acid dithionic acid sulfurous acid disulfurous or pyrosulfurous acid thiosulfurous acid dithionous acid sulfoxylic acid polythionic acids selenic acid selenious acid (0rtho)telluric acid chromic acid dichromic acid perchloric acid chloric acid chlorous acid hypochlorous acid bromic acid bromous acid hypobromous acid (0rtho)periodic acid iodic acid hypoiodous acid permanganic acid manganic acid pertechnetic acid technetic acid perrhenic acid rhenic acid 5.by -0-0. molybdic acid.312). for example H2Mn04 manganic(V1) acid. when used in conjunction with the trivial names of acids. e. the systematic names should be used. imply a structure that is ruled out by our present state of knowledge.22. antimonic acid. but the question of names for HIO. The prefix pyro. rh + Unless trivial names clash with good nomenclature p a tices or are ambiguous.5534 INTERNATIONAL PURE AND APPLIEDCHEMISTRY UNION OF Vol. Peroxo Acids. For the less common of these acids systematic names would seem preferable.

-The names for amides may be derived from the names of acids by replacing acid by amide. e. Examples : NH2SOSH amidosulfuric acid or sulfamidic acid NHzPO(OH)t amidophosphoric acid or phosphoramidic acid (NH&PO(OH) diamidophosphoric acid or phosphorodiamidic acid Abbreviated names (sulfamide. hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(II1) or tetrachloroauric(II1) acid hydrogen tetrachloroplatinate(11) or tetrachloroplatinic(f1) acid hydrogen hexachloroplatinate(IV) or hexachloroplatinic(1V) acid hydrogen hexacyanoferrate(I1) or hexacyanoferric(I1) acid hydrogen hydridodioxo0uorophosphate or hydridodioxofluorophosphoric acid hydrogen hexafluorophosphate or hexafluorophosphoric acid hydrogen hexafluorosilicate or hexafluorosilicic acid hydrogen hexachlorostannate(1V) or hexachlorostannic(1V) acid hydrogen tetra0uoroborate or tetrafluomboric acid hydrogen dihydroxodi0uoroborate or dihydroxodifluoroboric acid hydrogen tetraphenylborate or tetraphenylboric acid It is preferable to use names of the type hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(II1).g. Cf. Esters. names ending in -amidic acid may be used: this is an alternative to naming the compounds as complexes.or lower-valent form of the element as well as t o the acid (a possibility that does not arise. 5. at 7. not disodium sulfate). methyl sulfate would be used instead of dimethyl sulfate. diethyl hydrogen phosphate. Acid Halides.and telluro. dimethyl sulfate. 5. In other cases these compounds are named as oxide halides according to rule 6. In this borderline between organic and inorganic chemistry organicchemical nomenclature principles prevail.-The names of acid halides are formed from the name of the corresponding acid radical if this has a special name.312). phosphamide.may be used in a similar manner. as in indexes.g. peroxysulfuric acid or trioxoperoxosulfuric(V1) acid.-Acids containing ligands other than oxygen and sulfur are generally designated according to the rules in Section 7.-Anhydrides of inorganic acids generally should be given names as oxides.32. 1960 Examples : HNO4 H8POs HcPzOs H&Or HA08 DEFINITIVE RULES NOMENCLATURE FOR OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY peroxonitric acid peroxophosphoric acid peroxodiphosphoric acid peroxosulfuric acid peroxodisulfuric acid 5535 + Peroxy. + + For the use of hydrido in the fifth example see comment + The use of adjectives from names of inorganic acids may lead t o confusion because an -ic or -ous adjective (as chromic) may refer t o a higher. Chloro Acids.23. q. etc. Functional Derivatives of Acids Functional derivatives of acids are compounds formed from acids by substitution of OH and sometimes also 0 by other groups. however.g. etc. Examples : SOz(NH& sulfuric diamide or sulfonyl diamide PO(NH2)a phosphoric triamide or phosphoryl triamide If not all hydroxyl groups of the acid have been replaced by NHz groups. 5.33. If. Examples: H&OZ thiosulfurous acid H&Og thiosulfuric acid HSCN thiocyanic acid 5. sulfides. Acid Anhydrides. e.. phosphoryl chloride. a name based on the nomenclature for coordination compounds should be used. The intention of the statement “organicchemical nomenclature principles prevail” is not clear. e.g. Example : (CH& [Fe(CN)s] tetramethyl hexacyanoferrate(I1) or or F~(CN)Z(CH~NC).) and to the naming of inorganic salts (e..31.. fluorosilicic acid.g. since most of the examples given in the sections immediately following are not named according t o organic practice. e. as recommended in the 1940 Rules (inorganic). Such names as methyl s sulfate are better for alphabetic listing. However. no objection i seen to the more specific name. e. For some of the more important acids of this type abbreviated names may be used. sulfamic acid) are often used but are not recommended. MoOZCI2. dinitrogen pentaoxide.. 5. or from the names of the acid radicals. molybdenum dioxide dichloride. 5. 5. 5. It is not necessary that the use with trivial names conform with the use of peroxo denoting a co6rdinated ligand. 7.3. it is desired to specify the constitution of the compound.. sodium sulfate..Nov. chloroplatinic acid. with adjectives from names of organic acids).33.] dicyanotetrakis(methy1 isocyanide)iron(II) According t o common organic practice for esters (ethers. . Amides. not nitric anhydride or nitric acid anhydride. Thio Acids. + When more than one oxygen atom can be replaced by sulfur the number of sulfur atoms generally should be indicated HaPOaS monothiophosphoric acid H8PO& dithiophosphoric acid H2CS3 trithiocarbonic acid H A & trithioarsenious acid HAsS4 tetrathioarsenic acid The prefixes seleno.-Esters of inorganic acids are given names in the same way as the salts.-Acids derived from oxo acids by replacement of oxygen by sulfur are called thiu acids (cf.41. of course.g.312..34.24. is more acceptable than peroxo to organic chemists. sulfuryl chloride. 3. NzO.

Triple Salts. Accordingly there seems to be no reason for retention of the name nitrile (and nitrilo. If the salt contains only one anion.] sodium hydrogen phosphite 6. Enorganic anions containing two or mow e! ments.g.g..g. Examples : NaHC03 sodium hydrogen carbonate NaH2POI sodium dihydrogen phosphate NaH [PHO.222. 7312. It seems safer to cite even nonacidic hydrogen present. one element o d y ) inorganic miom. Na2PH03. and the Commission wishes to emphasize that any which do not conform to these Rules should be discarded. 6. An acceptable systematic name for NH&O&I would be ammonia-sulfur trioxide.1.(unless the ion has a specitic name).324.3.’ sevecrh a a n p i e ).32.324). ammonium) a t the end of their appropriate group.34. Simple Salts Simple salts fall under the broad definition of binary compounds given in Section 2.333. I n the f i f t i and sixth exan anion like PHOa*. in names the principles embodied in Seciioc 2 shall be applied. because of current usage. Hydration of Cations. phosphorus nitride dichloride. Nitriles.-The cations of each valence group shall be arranged in order of decreasing atomic number. 1 &33.35. e Cf. The number so implied concerns the amber of b k d s s cation present and f not t E c tota. where hydro denotes addition of hydrogen t o unsaturated compounds..--hiOnS. “hexaaquo” or “tetraaquo” before the name of the simple ion. parentheses can be used.324.--Cations.2). Nonacidic hydrogen shall be either not explicitly cited (cj. 6.6H20 ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate NaZn(U0~)3(CzHaGz) s.g.323. Apart from this exception.and 0%4.4 6. Acidic Hydrogen. 6. 6. 6.322. 6.-When hydrogen isconsidered to be present as a cation its name shall be cited last among the cations.-1n iormulas all the cations shall precede the anions. For ‘‘>..or coordination-type names. According to 2. SALTS AND SALT-LIKE COMPOUNDS Among salts particularly there persist many old names which are bad and misleading.. triple. Salts Containing Acid Hydrogen (“Acid” Salts’) Names are formed by adding the word hydrogen.e. in keeping with its probable structure.comment at 7. with the polyatomic radical ions (e. 6. [Cf.2. but if it is necessary to draw attention specificallyto the presence of a particular hydrated cation this may be done by writing.-Owing to the prevalence of hydrated cations.1 namber oi such ion?.-Anions are to be cited in this roup order i. . Simple (. (their equivalents in t’ac language concerned) may be added immediately after the anion name. in 6. all complex ions should be placed after the simple ones in the appropriate valence group. f The retention o sulfamic acid and sulfamide as trivial f names is favored by the committees.g.3. to denote the replaceable hydrogen present.. 82 Names of the type phosphoramidk acid are recommended i the report of the Advisory Committee on the Nomenn clature of Organic Phosphorus Compounds of the Division of Organic Chemistry of the ACS published in 1952. (hydrogen carbonato). Cf. For salts 5.335. Actually acidic hydrogen will in most cases be bound to an anion and shall be ated together with this (6.333. other thar OHc? .33. it seems unnecessary to disturb the cation order in order to allow for th i s. acidic hydrogen shall be ated in the same place whichever view is taken of the function of this hydrogen.322. e. etc.2 and 6. E2. comments at 6. 4. many of which are in reality complex. and 7. 6. 6 3 Double Salts. Examples : potassium magnesium fluoride TlNa(N0a)z thallium(1) sodium nitrate or thallium sodium dinitrate KNaCOa potassium sodium carbonate NHrMgPO4.24 with more than one anion see 6..412.g. The use of hydro (as in hydrocarbonato) is not scceptable because of conflicts with organic usage. 6. is included in the name of the anion and is not explicitly cited (e. as in naming ligands. though not given the list a t the end of the Rules.33) in inorganic chemistry.6.4HzO sodium ammonium hydrogen phosphate tetrahydrate + The use of “fused” hydrogen names (as hydrogenwbonate in the original version) is not acceptable in English.3 11). and their names are formed from those of the constituent ions (given in Section 3) in the manner set out in Section 2. but are not as acceptable to the inorganic nomenclature committees as a whole as the amido.-The s u f b -nitrile has been used in the names of a few inorganic compounds. .22 such compounds can be designated as nitrides. In those language where cation names are placed after anion names the adjectives double. etc.2. c f .l(VI’ or nonaacetate ehnuld be specified C 3 32. (PNCl&. in + Cj. triethyl phosphite in 7.. 3.5536 INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PITRE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY VOl. Anions of @rTd& a c i u an2 ot-ganic ~ s t stances exertkg I’ Acid W ~ I P W J T ~ : ..--Cations shall be arranged in order of increasing valence (except hydrogen.. amples. C . e. + Nitrilo is used in organic chemistry. e. +Alphabetical order would be simpler here and even for 6.6Hz0 sodium zinc triuranyl acetate hexahydrate N a [Zn(HzOhI(UOz)dGHaOzb sodium hexaaquozinc triuranyl acetate NaNHdIP04.321 5. the present practice of running hydrogen as a separate word is preferred and has been followed throughout this version. e. however. trimeric phosphonitrile chloride. The nanacidic hydrogen present. 6. either triurauyl. sodium phosphite).as!c” salts: see 6. other than H. 6.321. 02-and OH.31. immediately in front of the name of the anion. in the phosyhite ion. for example.in that order} 3 ..2) 01 designated hydrido (4. If necessary for clarity.

Thus C O P should precede C1-04~-. such substances preferably should be named double. oxychlorure originally evolved for the compounds within t h i s narrow definition has proved useful for a much wider de cuivre. because disulfate. may be retained in such cases. 6.A103.. these LiAlMn1V*04(OH)( ganese(1V) tetraoxide should be regarded as double salts containing 0 “ tetrahydroxide and OH. class of compounds. . and Section 6. anions containing the smallest number of atoms shall be cited h t .8H20 zirconium oxide (di)chloride ture rules as accepted coiirdination compounds. Oxide and Hydroxide Salts [ hdydroxoaluminate ] (“Basic” salts. 6. because such substances may exist in solution and in the solid state (cf.g. ilmenite. ??lis does not mean that names such as titanates or aluminates should always be abandoned. tris. and LaGaOs aSl have the same structure as perovskite. except that when the type name is also the mineral name of the substance itself then the italics should not be used (cf. designate isopoly anions.A120. the system of nomenclature moved from current practice that the present system of using oxy.g. CaCr03. the inclusion of 0 i that n list beiig taken as referring to all oxygen anions apart from 02-(ie.. CuClz.34. La. and in the case of two ions containing the same number of atoms they shall be cited in order of decreasing atomic number of the central atoms..2).NaF. e.2.3 may be applied in 7. YAl03. Within group 4.g. which is sometimes named after some well-known mineral of the same group (e.of that corresponding to the oxidation number o the atom A. perovskite.5. D E F ~ T I VRULES FOR NOMENCLATURE E OF INORGANICCHEWSTRY 5537 + The rommittees consider it preferable to cite El- last in 6.nH20 or dicalcium aluminum ~ ( O H ) r .-When required the structure type may be added in parentheses and in italics after the name. Double Oxides atld Hydroxides The terms “mixed oxides” and “mixed hydroxides” are not recommended.52. Oza-. such names as other atoms (B) or groups (C) to a number in excess f “oxyde et chlorure double de cuivre” are so f a r re.16.. each having its own characteristicstructure type. hiinitions In some languages the citation in full of all the In its oldest sense the term cohdination c m separate anion names presents no trouble and is strongly recommended (e.). Names such as calcium titanate may convey false implications and it is preferable to name such compounds as double oxides and double hydroxides unless there is clear and generally accepted evidence of cations and oxo or hydrovo anions in the structure. 1960 accordance with usage.1. COORDINATIOIV COMPOUNDS its entirety. CuSno?. CaTi03. formerly oxy and hydroxy salts) LiAI(OH)r.251.-Within group 3 the ions shall be cited in the order given in 2.]z ( t r i ) d c i (&)~ 6.. Examples : NaNbOo sodium niobium trioxide (perwskdf? type) MgTiOa magnesium titanium trioxide (dmenife type) FeTiOt irOn(I1) titanium trioxide (ilmenite) 4Ca0. It is not always essential to give the numbers of all the anions.41.7.332.4. pound is taken as referring to molecules or ions in to the exclusion of the oxy form wherever possible. it should be cited last among the cations. which there is an atom (A) to which are attached In some other languages. triple. CaTiO3.Nov. and the latter should precede s 40 ’.51.2NazSO4 or N&lF (Sod)z (hexa)sodium chloride fluoride (bis)sulfate w(PO4)a (penta)calaum fluoride (tris)phosphate The parentheses in these eases mean that numerical prefixes may not be necessary. 5. the octahydrate . 6. should be used in connection with anions. The multiplicative numerical prekes bis. etc. 6.. Any compound formed by addition o one or several ions and/or molecules to f BiOCl bismuth oxide chloride one or more ions or/and molecules may be named LaOF lanthanum oxide fluoride according to the same system as strict co6rdination vom4 vanadium(1V) oxide sulfate compounds. within groups 3 and 4 as wl as 5.[Al(OH). triphosphate. Use of the Prefixes Oxy and Hydroq. etc. If it is not known to which anion the hydrogen is bound.42.anions. el 6. and for the purposes of nomenExamples : clature the restriction “in excess . However.-In the double oxides and hydroxides the metah shall be named in the same order as for double salts (6. provided the valences of all the cations are either known or indicated. spinel). NaNbOa.3Cu(OH)sor The effect of this is to bring many simple and Cus(OH)&21 dicopper trihydroxide chloride w&-known compounds under the same nomenclaZrOcls.and hydroxy-. + Cf. 4. + “Multiple” has been used in English as a class term including double.333.-The stoichiometric method is the most practicable for indicating the proportions of the constituents.tZMnOzor l t i m aluminum dimanihu 6. 6. oxides or hydroxides as the case may be. copper oxide chloride).. 3.-For the purposes of nomenclature. ~ H z O hydroxide hydrate but Ca. oxidation numMg(0H)Cl magnesium hydroxide chloride ber” is to be omitted. . however. triple. (oxides or the &e).comment at 7.. Within group 5 the anions shall be cited in alphabetical order. etc. + Again alphabetical order would be simpler. comment at 6.-Acidic hydrogen should be cited together with the anion to which it is attached. Thus. Many double oxides and hydroxides belong to several distinct groups.223). Cf. Examples : NaCl. etc. etc.32).

their number being designated by the terms morwnucleur. For further details concerning the names of ligands see 7.22.331). where parentheses are given in the Rules. Names for Ligands 7. The intention seems to be to include under 3 monatomic ions (Le. Indication of Valence and Roportion of Constituents.251. comment at 6.252). 7. and -ato.is preferably named last. 7. Complex cations and neutral molecules are given no distinguishing termination. or bridged complex since bridging group is in common use. respectively. The system extends also to many addition compounds. Under 4 the insertion of “inorganic” between “Polyatomic” and “anions” is recommended. are polycentric. A group containing more than one potential coordinating atom is termed a multidentate ligand. as illustrated in examples under 7.-The anionic ligands shall be cited in the order 1. A polynuclear complex is a complex which contains w e than one nuclear atom. 7.321: potassium trichloro(ethy1ene)platinate(II).24.. The use of parentheses wherever there is any possibility of ambiguity should be stressed. Alphabetical order is strongly recommended for simplicity a t least within 3 and 4.2. and all other atoms which are directly attached to A are known as codrdinating atoms. 7.332..25. etc.- 7. In names the central atom@) should be placed after the ligands.. Oa-. trans. + Some dissatisfaction + It is considered preferable to place the whole complex in brackets.5538 INTERNATIONAL OF PURE UNION AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY Vol.23.311)and are definitely required with two-word names for ligands recommended instead of the fused names of the original version (6. I n the United States the Greek-Latin hybrid terms polydentate and monodentate seem to be used more than the all-Latin multidentate and unidentate. Formulas and Names for Complex Compounds in General 7. first: anionic ligands next: neutral and cationic ligands 7.3.-The oxidation number of the central atom is indicated by means of the Stock notation (2. Terminations. Other simple anions (. and the formula for the whole comn plex entity (ion or molecule) should be placed in brackets [ 1. 2.where only rare uses are involved. the final -e is replaced by -0. in other words to exclude N.31 1.-Neutral and cationic ligands shall be cited in the order given first: water. etc. Order of Citation of Ligands i Comn plexes. ligands following as prescribed i 7.412: di-p-carbonyl-bis { carbonyl(triethy1 n Since brackets denote complexes. ammonia (in that sequence) then: other inorganic ligands in the sequence in which their coordinating elements appear in the list given in 2. The whole assembly of one or more central atoms with their attached ligands is referred to as a complex.3 1. 7. Parentheses might also be helpful with “thiocyanato” preceded by a numerical prefix (see last example in 7. etc.e. the anionic and neutral. in the sevas enth example i 7. In the rules which follow certain terms are used in the senses here indicated: the atom referred to above as (A) is known as the central or nuclear atom. however. whether inorganic or organic. 5. with the definition of co6rdination compounds was expressed. the number of potential coordinating atoms being indicated by the terms unidentate. Possible replacements for polynuclear.-Formulas and names may be supplemented with the prefixes cis. + F o r the inorganic ligands alphabetical order again is recommended.324). one atom-rather than one elementonly).16 last : organic ligands in alphabetical order. + H. bidentute. 7.giving -idol 4 0 . 7. OH.-The names for anionic ligands. A chelate ligand is a ligand attached to om central atom through two or more coordinating atoms. Is.. phosphite)cobalt) braces can be used in formulas or names where needed in order to avoid the use of two sets of parentheses (braces were so used in some but not all such cases in the original version). Atoms (B) and groups (C) are called ligands. (2. not first (cf.223). but not essential with only one central atom or with complex ions or nonionic complexes.-Anionic Ligands. H2. Central Atoms. Central atom or center of coordination is to be preferred to nuclear atom because of other senses of nucleus. etc. especially of a n atom. one element only) 4 Polyatomic anions . end in -0 (see.2. because brackets may be needed sometimes for indicating cotlcentrations. especially when more t4an one central atom is present. etc. where they have been added in this version. though the broad definition (last sentence of first paragraph) was generally approved..3. Organic anions in alphabetical order The sequence within categories 3 and 4 should be that given in 6. In general.251).2). etc. while a bridging group is attached to more than otte atom. which may be an uncharged molecule or an ion of either polarity. dinucleur. Examples: Li [AlHd] lithium tetrahydridoaluminate Na [BHd sodium tetrahydridoborate K [OSNCls] 2 potassium nitridopentachloroosmate(V1) OCZHS [Co(NHn)s(NH3)4] diamidotetraamminecobalt(II1) ethanolate [CONS(NHII)~] so4 azidopentaamminecobalt(I11) sulfate Naa[Ag(SdUl sodium bis(thiosulfato)argentate(I) [Ru(HSQa)i(NHa)J bis(hydrogen sulfito)tetraammineruthenium (11) NH4 [Cr(SCN)d(NH&l ammonium tetrathiocyanatodiamminechromate(II1) 4 For “ethanolate” in the fourth example “ethoxide” may be preferred. if the anion name ends in -idel -itel or -ate.24 and 3.-Complex anions shall be given the termination -ate (cf..25. and tetra(pyridine)platinum(II) tetrachloroplatinate(II). Alternatively the proportion of constituents may be given by means of stoichiometric prefixes (2.23. 82 result is to reduce the diversity of names and avoid many controversial issues. etc.252. 7. .(in that sequence) 3.-In formulas the symbol for the central atom(s) should be p1aced-W (except in formulas which are primarily structural).19).21.. because it should be undmtood that there is no intention of implying that any structural analogy necessarily exists between Merent compounds merely on account of a common system of nomenclature. .

Examples : K [AgF41 potassium tetrafluoroargentate(II1) KZ [NiFs] potassium hexafluoroniccolate(IV) Ba [BrRI 2 barium tetrafiuorobromate(II1) Na [UCLI sodium tetrachloroaluminate c s [IC41 cesium tetrachloroiodate(II1) K [Au(OH)rI potassium tetrahydroxoaurate(II1) K [CrOF4] potassium oxotetrafluorochromate(V) KZ [Cr(0)~02(CN)2(NHdl potassium dioxoperoxodicyanoamminechmmate(V1) Na [BH(OCHs)aI sodium hydridotrimethoxoborate KZ [Fe&(NO)J dipotassium dithiotetranitrosyldiferrate L =HL ~ ~ h ..comment at 7.-The name of the co6rdinated molecule or cation is to be used without change. Examples : [CoCt(CAN202)21 dichlorobis(dimethylg1yoxime)cobalt(11) (cf.322. etc.. Ti agrees with [PtClr { H~NCHZCH(NH~)CH~~NHI)] C1 organic practice. 7. 1960 D ~ m RULES m FOR NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 5539 7.-Linands derived from organic comDounds i organic practice. etc. Examples: [N~(CSI~NSOZ)~] bis(dimethylglyoximato! nickel(I1) '\ / N rEo\Ag. The general use of this name will prevent confusion between the two interpretations of disulfide as &*or two Sa. ate(I1) The -0 of a negative ligand should not be elided before anhs other vowel (chlordmate. no proton is lost. such in complex formation by loss of a proton. analogy with chloro. the systematic names methanethiolato. 7.32. but wvhich function as propanetriamine t o 1.4pentanedione instead of from acetylacetone. are called methoxo.313) cis. etc.. However. + I n the fifth example. however.22. and euphony that ate(I1) hydro be added t o the list of modhied forms of names for [Fe(dipy)d Ch anionic ligands and that hydrido be abandoned (4. Such -at0 terms are especially misleading in the last two examples. ( recognizes the usefulness of the invariable -o ending for tris(ethy1enediamine)cobalt (111) sulfate anionic ligands.3 diamin0propyla"onium)platiIt should be pointed out here as well as in the list of names num(I1) chloride for ions and radicals a t the end of the R l s that the apue proved organic name for unsubstituted HS is mecapto (not [Cr(CsHdWd thiol. the ligand must be treated as neutral-see 7. t o the hydrocarbon potassium trichloro(ethy1ene)platinate(11) or radicals excepted from the rule of -0 endings for anions potassium trichloromonoethyleneplatin(7.23-triaminopropane. For CHS-.02] " \ [cU(cfid&)t] bis(acetylacetonato)copper(II) bis(8-quinolinolato)silver(I1) / [ ~ o C=' HO - " 'O=HC / o ~ bis(4fluorosalicylaldehydato)copper(II) ~ By analogy with hydroxo.32.4 ~ ~ 1 ato)cobalt(Il + Although according t o 3.3-triaminopropane)zinc iodide parture from organic usage by using hydroxo.311).2. except in the special cases provided for in 7.312. bipyridine is preferred to dipyridyl 7.2. are used. not the aldehyde or imine part t o which it is attached. should be treated as anionic and given the ending -ato. instead of hydroxy. &. methoxy. etc.33 the name for the ligand in the second example should be derived from the systematic name 2. These members therefore [PtC4(C J U I favor adding hydroxy. chloroiodo).ligands. For the use of peroxo. If. 5. methoxo. also t r i s ( dipyridyl)iron(11) chloride examples in 7. the co6rdmation subcommittee questions the use of the termination -at0 rather than plain -0 especially in cases where the -ate terms (asdimethylglyoximate) are not accepted organic practice. &.324). some members of the general committees do not see a sliarp enough distinction between such ligands [Zn{NHnCHtCH(NH&!H2NHt) 21 It and the same groups in organic compounds to justify a debis( 1. dichloro(2.-These anions do not follow exactly the above rule. see comment at 6. and in the seventh example 1.. CHsO-. acetylacetonato perhaps conveys better the idea that it is the enol form that is involved.-Neutral and Cationic Ligands. etc. While the Subcommittee on W r d i n a t i o n Compounds [CO&I . j. methoxy.322.disulfide disulfido) CNcyanide cyano 1 The name thio has long been used t o denote the ligand Sa.. as also given in the list) and for the alkyl..in an oxo acid ' or its anion.[PtClt(EtiP)t] cis-dichlorobis(triethylphosphine)platinum(II) [CUC~~(CHINH~)~] dichlorobis(methy1amine)copper (11) [ptPY4l [PtCd tetra(ppdme)platinum(II) tetrachloroplatin+ It is strongly recommended on the basis of past and present usage. modified forms have become established : Ffluoride fluor0 (ndfluo) c1chloride ChlOrO Brbromide bromo Iiodide iodo 02oxide oxo OH hydroxide hydroxo 02peroxide peroxo HShydrogen sulfide thio10 $32sulfide thiol (sulfido) (but:Sz*. etc.so.321. e&.Nov.3n not normally called acids.313. - .and arylhexakis(pheny1 isocyanide)chromium substituted radicals methylthio.when it can be regarded as replacing 0. Cf. where the -at0 belongs with the hydroxyl part of the name. nickel derivative given in 7.

etc. -1 for boron in coordination complexes are calied “aquo” and h K[B(c&)i]. and nitrito (+NO).S’ and dithiooxalato-O.-Anions derived from hydrocarbons are given radical names without 6 .” thus keeping potassium tetraphenylborate the -0 termination consistently for anionic ligands K [SbCLCdh] alone.S)platinum(II) Kz [R( N0z)d potassium tetranitroplatinate(I1) Na~[Co(Nodd sodium hexanitrocobaltate(II1) [Co(NOz)a(NHs)aI 1) Wtrotria“inecobalt( 1 1 [Co(ONO)(NHs)sISO4 nitritopentaamrmn ecobalt(II1) sulfate - . if the radicals were counted as neutral ligands. Examples : potassium tetrakis(phenylethynyl)niniccolate(O) [Cr(HzO)dCla [Fe(CO)r(CsCsH6)21 hexaaquochromium(II1) chloride or hexaaquotetracarbonylbis (phenylethynyl)iron (11) chromium trichloride Fe(C&)z [M(OH)(HzO)d bis(cyclopentadieny1)iron(I1) the hydroxopentaaquoalu“ ion [Fe(C6%)21 c1 [cO(mi)s]CIS04 bis(cyclopentadienyl)iron( 111) chloride hexaamminecobalt(II1) chloride sulfate [Ni(NO)( C d W [COC~(NH~)~~CL nitmsylcyclopentadienylnickel chloropentaamminecobalt(II1)chloride + The use of radica! names such as cyclopentadienyl in the [CoCIs(NHs) 2 { (CHa)zNH1I with the use trichlorodiammine(dethylamine) cobalt (111) examples does not seem consistent (“ferrocene”).-The groups NO. On the other hand. see comment at 1. Thus the anion in the last example in 7. and these are distinguished as dithioiixalato-S.-Altemative Modes of Linkage of Some Ligands.” respectively.) 7. For niccolate. In computing the oxidation number these radicals are treated as neutral. ae. in the original version. CO.322. potassium bis(dithioijxalato-S.312 (where NO is known to be positive) would by this system be named dithiotetranitrosyldiferratel2-). (Cf. Examples: Na2 [Fe(CN)6NOl disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate KS [Fe(CN)rCOI tripotassium pentacyanocarbonylferrate K [Co(CN)(C0)Z(N0)1 potassium cyanodicarbonyhitrosylcobaltate(0) HCo(C0)r hydrogen tetracarbonylcobaltate( -I) [Ni(CO)z(PhaP)zJ dicarbonylbis(tripheny1phosphine)nickel (0) [Fe end [Fe(C0)41 tris(ethylenediamine)iron( 11) tetracarbonylferrate (-11) WZ(CO)IO [(CO&Mn-Mn(co>~-l or decacarbonyldimanganese(0) or bis@entacarbonylmanganese) The necessity of arbitrarily considering these group as always neutral can be avoided by not using the oxidation number but instead the stoichiometric proportions (as in some of these examples) or the Ewens-Bassett system (cf. etc. are to be called nitrosyl. and the Commission has decided to retain “aquo” as an Kz [ c ~ ( G H ) s l exception.5540 INTERNATIONALOF PURE APPLIEDCHEMISTRS UNION AND Vol.323.g. The consistent introduction of the ending -0 would in this case lead to unfamiliar n m s e. carbonyl. pentaquo. second example. “ammine. thionitrosyl.6. respectively.g. the central atom would have to be given C H 4 H z N(CHs)2 dichloro(2-N.12. thiocyanato ( S C N ) and isothiocyanatc (-NCS). comment at 2.. but have been changed in this version to hexaaquo. phenylato or phenido for Cab-. In some cases m e r e n t names are already in use for alternative modes of attachment. as the old form is so widely used. Thus the dithiooxalato group may be attached through S or 0.O‘. for example.hexaaxmmnium.-Water and ammonia as neutral ligands an unumal oxidation number. 7. given with two a’s separated by a hyphen in 7.-Where ligands are capable of attachment by different atoms this may be denoted by adding the symbol for the atom by which attachment occurs a t the end of the name of the ligand. and thiocarbonyl.. 82 + Hexaquo. This matter is presumably part o the whole organometallic problem to be f dealt with by the new IUPAC joint organic-inorganic subcommittee. are counted as but negative when computing the oxidation number.324. Examples: K z [ N iS-CO) J (Y .. However. and CS. for the sixth example iron(I1) ++ cyclopentadienide is preferred by some.33. potassium triethynylcuprate(1) E [Ni(c~c+H~hl . In these cases existing custom may conveniently be retained. of Stock notations. Examples : In the tentative rules it was proposed to change K [B(CsHd41 the old-established “aquo” to “aqua. instad of 1 1 1. as.S’)niccolate(II) I 7. 7.N-dimethylaminoethyl2-aminoethyl sulfide-N’. are used in the examples in the original version. when linked directly to a metal atom. NS.252). potassium pentachloro(pheny1)antimonate(V) many regarded the change as too pedantic. nitro (-NOz). for conformity with the latest approved organic practice. e.. respectively.

i o d o . the number shall be indicated by adding a subscript numeral to the p.which leads to the simple name cesium catena-p-chloro-dichlorocuprate( 11). at least until isomers are found. for example.. and sym-trans.. it may be necessary to place it immediately after the atom referred to and not after the ending -ate. the substance would be called cesium copper(I1) chloride (as a double salt). Extended Structures.p 3 . This system of notation allows simply of distinction between. Wvl).and heteropoly anions by giving the number of atoms in parentheses is not practicable in more complicated cases.Nov. wolframophosphate. not phosphowolframate. a s p ..41.] n.-Bridging Groups. If the oxidation number has to be given. 7.[(CuCl. The method formerly recommended for naming iso..t e t r a ~ ~ u m LbHSiWUOm.. trans.. 1 .. symcis. Isopoly Anions The structure of many complicated isopoly anions has now been cleared up by X-ray work and it turns out that the indication of the several p-oxo and oxo atoms in the name does not convey any clear picture of the structure and is therefore of little value. 7.1960 DEFINITIVE FOR NOMENCLATUREINORGANIC CHEMISTRY RULES OF chlo- 5541 [a (NHsIsI e12 [NCS) dithio6xalato.. The central atom or atoms should be cited last in the name and h t in the formula of the anion (d.g. If the structure were in doubt.21).t e(~ triethylarSinecopper(1)] -~ hexaammonium hexamolybdotellurate hepta[ B ~ ~ ( ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ) s ] hydrate ~ . When all atoms have their "normal" oxidation states (e..-Where bridging diCate-%water causes an indefinite extension of the structure it is best to name compounds primarily on the basis KS.-If the number of central atoms bound by one bridging group exceeds two. It is also capable of extension to much more complex and unsymmetrical structures by use of the conventional prefixes cis.5. For the time being it is sufficient to indicate the number of atoms by Greek prefixes. in order to avoid ambiguity. 5. etc. Two or more bridging groups of the same kind are indicated by di-p-.. e. it is not necessary to give the numbers of the oxygen atoms. 741.7HzO t e t r a .MP"VODOS~ hexapotassium enneamolybdomanganate(1V) of their over-all composition.. I ~ ~ & - di-p-chloro-dichlorobis( triethylarsine)diplatinum(I1) (three possible isomers: asym. Examples: [(NEL)t&-OH-Cr(NHdd CL p-hydroxo-bis { echromium(I1i)} chloride This may be expressed in the formula (Cs+). the l s is shown) at CN S SCN CN di-p-thiocyanato-dithiwyanatobis( tripropylphosphine)&platinum(II) I(CO)~~(CO)~~(CO)SI tri-p-carbonyl-bis(tricarbonyliron) [(CO)s?e(SEt)2Fe(CO)d di-p~thanethiolato-bis(tri~~nyliron) [(CSHS) (CO)Fe(CO)~Fe(CO)(C~)l di-p-carbon yl-bis(carbonylcyclopenbdieny1iron) [(CO){ P ( O E ~ ) ~ ] ~ ( C O ) I ~(p(0Et)sII (CO) di-p-carbonyl-bis( carbonyl(triethy1phosphite)cobalt] Examples: [Au(CN)(csH7)~]4 (N+)&'W+ro cyclo-tetra-p-cyano-tetrakis(dipropylgo1d) tmmmomum dodecawolframophosphate [CuI(EtsAs)lr (NI%)sT~osOu. 7.a c . + Thioijxalato in the original version has been changed to 74 Di.).o x ~ h ~ .15-water K&gaVloO~.c c 1 ~ c 1 c 1 ' ~ I c 1 ~ 1 .g.16HaO dipotassium dimagnesi~m decavanadate-16water 76 Heteropoly Anions . p-disulfide (one 52 bridge) and di-p-sulfido (two S bridges). and sym where necessary. Cf. .p . however.412. ~ c 1 c 1 I I adding the Greek letter p immediately before its name and separating t i from the rest of the comhs plex by a hyphen.42. comment on catena at 1 4 . Examples: Kfi0.and Polynuclear Compounds .r dipotassium disulfate K&Om dipotassium trisulfate NasPSOlo pentasodium triphosphate KzCrrOla dipotassium tetrachromate NaaB407 disodium tetraborate Nasos sodium pentaborate Ca&tO?ou tricalaum heptamolybdate Na7HNbsOd5Ha0 heptasodium monohydrogen h d o b a t e . if all the others are indicated. A bridging PUP shall be indicated by isothiocyanatopentaa"inecobalt(II1) ride having the composition represented by the formula CsCuCt has an anion with the structure: [ . thus the compound L(CB~)~P /\/\ 7.24HtO trilithium (mono)hydrogen dodecawolframo7.

12 for stand on wolframate and wolf8Kr... etc. quartz. e. from usual seen for deviating here hexahydrate) organic practice by using multiplicative p&es with simple names: tetrae-ol is just as clear as tetrakisethanol. etc. be termed etherates. and isopoly cations also 8-(hydrogen sulfide)-46-water are being investigated.5 and 7...g. the use of hydrate terms in examples in 6. calcium chloride-6-water (or calcium chloride as No reason can beare considered acceptable).251 for nona instead of ennea (fourth example). of crystallization.calcium chloride with 6 water.. but not in the original for greater ease in reading. e&.4CtHsOH aluminum chloride-4-ethanol or -tetrakiseth. 2AsCla tetramethylammonium tetrachloroarsenate(III)-2-(arsenic trichloride) CaCL8NHa + The coordination subcommittee would prefer not to have sections 7. tetrakis.. zinc blende. tris.NOCI or NO[AlCtl The names of addition compounds may be formed aluminum chloride-nitrosyl chloride or nitrosyl by connecting the names of individual compounds tetrachloroaluminate by hyphens (short dashes) and indicating the number of molecules by Arabic numerals. and was Examples: formerly regarded as. &hydrate. as well CaClz. ammonia. the name for a salt of water.diethyl ether-boron trifluoride (note that organlc usage favors ethyl ether over diethyl ether). what is now known as a hydroxide. The use of short dashes ("en" dashes) instead of hyphens NaZC03.2PCh or [ptClz(PCl~)~] bound in an unspecified way. AlCla.(hydrogen sulfide).(C&)zO boron trifluoridecliethyl ether Minerals occunkg i nature With similar comn BFa. ents. the names are given accordAccording to the commonly accepted meaning of ing to 7.136-water compounds. compound of alupounds containing ether. and the formulas and names can of Arabic figures to indicate position of substitu. Parentheses can always be 3-cadmium sulfate-&water used if there is danger of any ambiguity. and 2. Those that are lattice compounds and those of unknown structure do not really belong in 7.46Hz0 ramo. however. etc. 8-krypton-46-water Isopoly and heteropoly are not separate words in the original version. the name FeS01. thus. Le.2 and 7 3 ..BFs.6 included under 7 and recommends that calcium chloride-8-ammonia they should be studied by a special subcommittee. "hydrate" would be. POLYMORPHISM BS. 6Brz. Chemists and BFa. The committees like hydrate and ammodate and see no Examples: P advantage in dropping them (d. Some 8HzS.5542 INTERNATIONAL OF PURE UNION AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY Vol.EtrN or [BF@trN)I the added molecules are organic. and 3CdSO&HzO dimethanol as brsmethanol.16H9.3PCla bismuth trichloride-3-(phosphorus pentachloride) TeCh. should not minum chloride with 4 ethanol.7H20 or [Fe(H2O)a)SOI. 6-dibromine-46-water The ending -ate is now the accepted ending for 8CHCla.) instead of Arabic figures + Only some so-called "addition compounds" are known t o to avoid confusion with the organic-chemical use be codrdination compounds. Analogously addition com. wurtzite. one exception has to be recognized. the ending -ate.136H~O anions and should generally not be used for addition 8-chloroform-16. I it needs to be shown that added molecules f However. 16Ha0 heptapotassium dodecawolframocobalt(I1)cobalt (111) 16-water ateKaPVzMoioOm tripotassium decamolybdodivanadophosphate . AICla.between version) makes in the examples here.324.~CO''CO"'W~~O~~. it i s boron trifluoride-triethylamine or Wuororecommended to use multiplicative numeral pre(triethylamine) boron fixes (bis. ammoniates.Ht)iO.6H10 hexahydrate. Cf. and uistobalite.comment at 1. anol 8.2PC4 tellurium tetrachloride-2-(phosphorus pentachloride) (CHa)(INAsCL.H3PO4 metallographers have designated polymorphic modboron trifluoride-phosphoric acid NasPVzMolsOsz hexasodium 18-mol ybdodiphosphate(V) N~P'I'zMoizO~i tetrasodium dodecamolybdodiphosphate(II1) K. etc. ate decahydrate) It is considered preferable by some to place the electron donor first in both the formulas and name: (C.H~O hydrate has now a very firm position as the name iron(I1) sulfate heptahydrate or hexaaquoironof a compound containing water of crystallization (11) sulfate monohydrate and is allowed also in these Rules to designate water PtCL. Alcoholates are the s a h of alcohols These names are not very different from a pure and this name should not be used to indicate alcohol verbal description which may in fact be used.46HzO cyclic isomers are already known.10HzO the names (as sodium carbonate-10-water (or sodium carbon. it is considered to platinum(I1) chloride-2-(phosphors trichlobe preferable even in this case to avoid the ending ride) or dichlorobis(phosphors trichloride)-ate by using the name "water" (or its equivalent platinum(I1) in other languages) when possible.46HzO 77 Addition Compounds . 82 BiCla. etc. When BF8.2CHsOH positions have Merent names according to their boron trifluoride-bismethanol crystal structures. form part of a complex.show such structures. tridymite.

methoxo ethoxo methanethiolato ethanethiolato cyano cyanato thiocyanato and isothiocyanato selenocyanato selenccyanate tellurocyanato tellurocyanate carbonato carbonate hydrogen carbonate hydrogen carbonato acetato acetate oxalato acetoxy acetyl Although some additions might be made to this list. trithiazyl) nitrido azido imido amido hydroxylamido hydrazido nitrosyl nitro nitrito nitrato hyponitrito phosphido illlip0 ZlmIllO hydroxylamino hydrazino nitroso nitro (NSh P PO NO: N&8 phosphorus PS phosphoryl thiophosphoryl phosphorow hypophosphito phosphito phosphato arsenato carbonyl carbonyl methoxy ethoxy methylthio ethylthio cyano cyanato thiocyanato and isothiocyanato selenocyanato PHtQ PH4 AS04 P4 o CH:O CfiO CH9 CiHrS CN OCN SCN vo co cs vanadyl carbon monoxide carbonyl thiocarbonyl methoxyl ethoxyl cyanogen methanolate ethanolate methanethiolate ethanethiolate cyanide cyanate thiocyanate SeCN TeCN COI HC4 CHaCOt acetyl acetyl CH:CO oxalate Ct01 1 If necessary.LIST OF NAMES FOR IONS AND RADICALS t o certain dHerences between organic and inorganic nomenclature. 5.comments at such rules as 3.2. especially in the last col umn.312.31.36. and a few changes suggested. no attempt has been made t o do so a t this time.g. oxidation state is to be given by Stock notation. as cation or cationic radical^ 5543 In inorganic chemistry substitutive names seldom are used.. 6. + .3 32. but the organicchemical names are shown to draw attention Atom or SOUP Name M p11 neutral molecule anion BS ligand as prefix for substituent in organic compounds H F c1 Br I c10 clot ClOI clod monohydrogen monofluorine monochlorine monobromine monoidie chlorine dioxide hydrogen chlorine bromine iodine chlorosy1 chloryl perchloryl iodosyl iodyl I: IO 0 01 hydride fluoride chloride bromide iodide triiodide hypochlorite chlorite chlorate perchlorate h ypoiodite oxide OS+ peroxide Os-: hyperoxide hydroxide hydrogen peroxide sulfide hydrogen sulfide disulfide hydrido fluoro chloro bromo iodo hypdorito chlorito chlorato fluoro chloro bromo iodo 101 monoBxygen dioxygen hydroxyl (perhydroxyl) monosulfur (SUlfhYdrgl) disulfur sulfur monoxide sulfur dioxide sulfur trioxide oxo peroxo hydroxo hydrogen peroxo thio ( s d d o ) thiol0 disulfide sulfito hydrogen sulfito thiosulfato sulfato seleno selenito selenato telluro iodoso iodyl or iodoxy oxo or keto P OY WX hydroxy hydroperoxy thio thiol or mercapto sulfinyl sulfonyl HO HO¶ S HS SI SO. Cf. SO: so sulfinyl (thionyl) sulfonyl (sulfuryl) SIQ se HSG so4 selenium seleninyl selenonyl selenium trioxide tellurium chromyl uranyl neptunyl plutony 1 americyl sulfoxylate sulfite hydrogen sulfite thiosulfate sulfate selenide selenite selenate telluride SeO sa e sa e Te CrO: seleno seleninyl selenonyl telluro UOI NpOt PUOI Am01 N N8 mononitrogen NH NO NS NHl NHOH NlI4 NOI ON0 nitride azide imide amide hydroxylamide hydrazide nitrite nitrate hyponitrite phosphide hypophosphite phosphite phosphate arsenate nitrogen oxide nitrogen dioxide nitrosyl nitryl thionitrosy 1 thiazyl (c.and 7.

..4 2.. . . . it is doubtful whether this system would commend itself to chemists where 8.. . .. ..17. . Compound names . difticdties are encountered when the binary system A-B is studied .. .. .. .. . 7 .. 1 .. Names of compounds ... ......... ... . ..7. ..... Substitutive names . . .. . .... . If the arb nomenclature is used for two substances A and B. ..... =bodycentered f. . . 2 2 Nonstoichiometric compounds . . . .251 6. .. . . .. rva 4.. . . ..quartz. .. .. and convey a maximum of information to the reader . 4 Isopoly acids... .31 5 7. .. ... .... .4.. . 2 .. . ...7 1.21 page 5543 3 6 R Tiil names ........ salts . .. .. ... .... .. thereby causing confusion.. and is likely to continue to be of use in the future in cases where the existence of polymorphism is established. . Rule No 5.. . Amides . The rules suggested here have been framed as a basis for future work.. . ... .e. Electronegative constituent .... . . A uds . .24. Radicalname .251. 7 . Addition compounds .. . .. ..3 "Functional" nomenclature .. . . ... .. = tetragonal 0-rh .. ... ... page 5543 Ion list . .L-For chemical purposes (i. . ... .... . etc..21 5..... . . .. . ....32 2. . 4.. .. ... ... . 5. .. .13 Molecular formula . .. 8. . . 1 ...1 1.. . . Anions . . For example.. . .. . . . .. .. . 1 3 .15 Isotopes .. . . .) corresponds to zinc blende or sphalerite.. .. . . . .. . ice... .7 2 7 4 8 . . .. . .. . =trigonal mon .... ...52. .. .19.. .. 2. 8. . 1 6 .. .. . . ... . Chloro acids . .. 8 1. .... . .4 Hydroxide salts .2. . . ..... . . 5. but this system often breaks down because many structures are not referable to a type in this way .. . 8.. INDEX T O THE 1957 IUPAC INORGANIC Acid anhydrides.. . .. . 7 . Berthollides . . .. 5. but a t low temperature only as AuCd(o-rh... . ... 3. . .. . zinc sulfide(cub....... ..5 Isopolyanions . . Co6rdination compounds .. ..23 2.15 Isomorphous replacement.. .2. ... .. . . . . . .. . .. .. 2. ..) or as AuCd(CsCZ-type). The method is similar to the use of trivial names. . .. .. ... .24 2... Electropositive constituent. . . 8. . .. .. . 2 . . . .1 2... . = hexagonal trig.. ... . . = orthorhombic hex . .. . .. = face-centered tetr . . .. ...... .2..7 Ligands . .. Stock's system . 2.. . .. . . . .22 7. s m os of elements . and some investigators have designated as a the form stable a t ordinary temperatures.. . . . .2..41 3. when particular mineral occurrences are not under consideration) polymorphs should be indicated by adding the crystal system after the name or formula.. ..32.... . . ..... ... .. .).. .. and some have even changed an already established usage and renamed a-quartz 8. . . . as its structure cannot be referred to a type. . . ... .. .. 1... ....2 5...) or ZnS(cub. .. .. .. . . ..2.. 3 . ..... should be regarded as provisional. 2. 4 Numerical prehes .... .. . . . .1.. . . ... . ... .. . . . . . ...33 Formulas of compounds . 8 Mineralnames. . 2 Functional derivatives of acids . .. .cub.. ..1 is suEaent. . 2 Names of elements ...... . . . Solid solutions .. .. ...... . . 6 6. ... Thus. ..252. . . . .22 2.. ..32 5..22 Prefixes .. ... and it is hoped that experience in their use may enable more sp&c rules to be formulated at a later date. .-Crystallographers may find it valuable to add the space-group. . .4imple well-known structures may also be designated by giving the typeampound i italics n in parentheses... The Commission considers that these abbreviations might with advantage be standardized internationally : cub. .24. .. . 2 .. . ..34 3..iron. . . .. .... ... while others have used a for the form stable immediately below the melting point. . 4 4 Interstitial solutions . A rational system should be based upon crystal structure. 1 5. .. . =triclinic Slightly distorted lattices may be indicated by . . . . . .. .. ..251.7. .. 5 . 3 Esters . . 3 2 . . 3 . . .. 7.. . . . . . . . ... . . .. .. Empirical formula . . ... . Allotropes . Thio acids. .. Cf. . ... . . = cubic c.. Regrettably there has been no consistent system..3 Mass indication on at . etc. ..... . .. . .. . . .. . . . ... 1.. . .. .... . ... Element group names . . . .. . Stoichiometric proportions .. .. ... . and the designations a. . Complexes .. . . The designations should be as short and understandable as possible.... . . . 1.... . ....) to wurtzite .. .. . 2. cations . . Thus.. . for example. .. . ..... .. .. . . ... ..... .. 2.. 5.. .. .3 . ... .. . . . AuCd above 70" may be written as AuCd(cub. .4 5.. . .. ..4. .. .. . . 2 ..2 4 2. but not the structures underlying it.22 3..5542 INTERNATIONAL OF PURIE UNION AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY RULES Vol. . slightly distorted face-centered cubic lattice would be expressed as -f. Acid halides .. .. .35 Nid e s . .. .... . . . . .3 5... .2. .. ... Intermetallic compounds . ... . . ... ... .)...... .. 7. . or as trivial names . ... . . y bl Systematic names . .33 1. .. ... ..4 5. . Double oxides .12 Endings for names ... ... . . ... .. Binary compounds between nonmetals . . . .. . .52. . - Double hydroxides .5 and 6. . .. and ZnS(hex. Isotopically labeled compounds ... .. . .3. . . .. ... . . . 2 ... . 6. . .. .. . 82 Scations with Greek letters or with Roman numerals (a. ... ..... Ions from nitrogen bases ... .213 7. . 6. . . ... ....24. . . . Nonmetal binary compounds . .. = monoclinic tric.. . .. Charge indication on atomic symbols ... a use of the circa sign. . .. .2532 Heteropoly anions . ..16.. . ... . .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . s Salt-like compounds .. Bridging groups .3. 1 Elements . .... 3 Ion names .. .

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