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Reading & Decoding Skills

By Karen Hollowell, eHow Contributor Reading and decoding skills are taught along a continuum that begins in preschool and continues to be built upon and reinforced throughout school. These skills are introduced one at a time and then are used in combinations to teach a child the process of reading. Mastery of these skills is essential to ensure that a child progresses from basic reading to full comprehension of what he has read.

Concepts of Print
1. Before actually learning to read, children must gain a realization of how words are constructed. They need to understand that when certain letters are joined together, they make words, and when certain words are joined together, they express a thought. This concept is called print awareness. Children get much of this instruction informally from home and their environment. Most 3-year-olds can identify the signs for a McDonald's Restaurant or a Wal-Mart store because they have seen them many times. In school, they receive formal instruction of word structure in sentences and paragraphs.

Phonemic Awareness
2. Phonemic awareness is a reading skill that students use to hear sounds and be able to manipulate the sounds to make words. It is an oral skill in which children are taught to say the sounds for certain letters, then blend the letters together to say a word. Being able to hear sounds when they are spoken by someone else is just as important as being able to produce sounds. Children are taught phonemic awareness through activities like rhyming, phoneme deletion and substitution, and syllabification. If a child can produce beginning, medial and ending sounds of a given word, she has phonemic awareness.

Phonological Awareness
3. Phonological awareness involves the combination of sound and print awareness. Children

have phonological awareness when they know that sounds have a corresponding written letter that represents them. This skill is imperative for reading and spelling. When students understand the sound/letter relationship, they will be able to decode and read. This progresses from reading simple words with three or four sounds to more complex ones with suffixes, prefixes and letter blends. After mastery of decoding, students will be able to read sentences in a text.


eHow Contributor updated: February 23. In addition to being able to decode words. After a child can recognize sounds. proper expression and http://www. students should be able to do so quickly .html#ixzz3ozp9SBiG Decoding Skills in the Classroom By Lily Mae. The goal of fluency building is to improve automaticity. and read sentences fluently. decode and blend words. The primary skills are summarizing. sentences and paragraphs. Fluency is built as a child's opportunities for reading increase. When a student can read a text. All decoding and reading skills are taught so that children can learn to understand that text has meaning for them. increasing in complexity each year.ehow. and with accuracy. Reading fluency indicates a child's ability to read with appropriate speed for his level. then stories and books. This is the main goal of all reading instruction. predicting and questioning. which is the ability to read most words without effort or automatic decoding. 2011 Reading aloud promotes decoding skills. Read more: Reading & Decoding Skills | eHow.4. Decoding refers to the ability to identify the sounds that letters make in order to read words. and children should gain a mastery of this skill by second grade. retelling. Children begin fluency training by reading words. she will begin comprehending. Comprehension skills are taught from K-12. she has achieved comprehension. Comprehension 5. understand what she has read and apply it to other reading It is a skill that is essential for successful reading. Reading with expression and smoothness is also a component of fluency.

"at. they simply need to decode the beginning consonant sound to decipher the word. Repeat this process. Provide students with opportunities to practice decoding by engaging them in various reading activities. echo reading and guided reading are all activities that allow students to put their decoding skills to use.ehow. reciprocal reading. Teach students how to sound out unknown words. For example. Children can apply this skill to unknown words when reading. Read more: Decoding Skills in the Classroom | eHow. In order to foster this skill in beginning readers.yarn on the letter "Y. until the word is decipherable. encourage them to create several words from a given word family to reinforce the concept. allow teachers to offer help if needed and build fluency. There are several activities that teachers can engage their students in to promote successful decoding. f-r-o-g. present them with a variety of activities that encourage them to identify the sounds that different letters make. Encourage children to sort through objects and determine the letters they begin with. Such activities enable students to hear how words sound. choral reading. Reading aloud. Word families are a group of vowels and consonants that appear in a word after the initial consonant sound -. When reading. if you are teaching "op. mop and top." "it" and "op" are examples of word families." cotton on the letter "C: and pumpkin seeds on the letter "P. have them create different words by placing various consonants in front of it -. hop. Word Families 2. Point to each letter and lead students in pronouncing the individual letters." after children understand how to pronounce the family. The ability to decode one word family leads to the ability to decode many words. if they come across an unknown word that contains a known word family. The basis of decoding lies in letter-sound recognition. Make tactile letters by gluing different objects beginning with a specific letter on a cut out of the given letter -." for example. Letter-Sound Recognition 1. Blending Sounds http://www.html#ixzz3ozokI8dH .and with ease to become fluent readers. stating the sound each letter makes faster each time. Send students on a scavenger hunt to search for items that begin with a specified sound.pop. After teaching children the letters and sounds specific word families make. Write a simple word with a dash in between each letter. Reading 4. for

Group activities for language learning can also help to ease the pressure on students who may be struggling. An effective way to encourage decoding skills is to associate words with images.Third-Grade Decoding Activities By Sue Smith. 2011 Decoding is a key aspect of reading the written word. Decoding activities offer an effective way to focus on developing this skill in the classroom. Group Reading 2. so they will not feel under as much pressure as they would in some other types of activities. Reading a story with the class contributing as a group can help to forge decoding skills. linking these with the visual image of the written words themselves. This can be done using picture books or cards with words displayed next to the corresponding picture. Decoding is therefore an action that is key for children learning to read. A possible activity could be the creation of posters or some sort of classroom display. Decoding skills are an essential asset for children learning to read. ultimately allowing them to understand the meaning of the word in question. Painting a Picture 1. Contextual Activities . This type of task helps to focus on the conceptual understanding of the words in a story. with the class being led through each word item in an alphabetical sequence. The association of pictures with words promotes the conceptual aspect of language decoding and comprehension. eHow Contributor updated: January 28. Decoding is the process whereby language learners translate a written word into the spoken equivalent.

2011 Teaching the way prefixes and suffixes change the meanings of words will give your students an instantly larger vocabulary since they will be able to apply a myriad of prefixes and suffixes to the root words they already know. Read more: Third-Grade Decoding Activities | eHow. This reinforces the association of the written word to the concept.3. knowing the use and meaning of prefixes and suffixes will enable your students to decode unfamiliar words by stripping off the affixes and identifying the root word. not the least of which is reading funny stories in the classroom. children need to learn the techniques of phonics. Difficulty: Easy . A related activity is the use of lists or categories of words. as well as making everyone laugh.ehow. Using tools such as letter cards and allowing children to see these joined together to make words is therefore a valuable activity. encouraging children to identify members of a conceptual group. Moving Letters 4. then joining these together to create the more recognizable spoken word. eHow Contributor updated: January 6. you can create a game of Mad Libs and have the children try to fill in the blanks. You can use context in shared or group reading activities by encouraging children to ask questions about what's happening in a story. The use of moving or magnetic letters is helpful in decoding learning since you can focus on the sounds associated with each letter. This is a technique that impresses upon the learner the relationship between the written word and its Additionally. There are many ways to make learning to read fun. This involves making the sounds within the word first. In order to translate the written word into its spoken equivalent. This applies to any activity in which you can help children to use the sentence surrounding a word and perhaps the story in which the word occurs to deduce what the word is likely to be. Having Fun 5. Using context is a key strategy in teaching decoding skills.html#ixzz3ozoTjF8E How to Change Words With Prefixes & Suffixes By James Wood. To take this to a more interactive http://www. such as colors.

4. For example. Read more: How to Change Words With Prefixes & Suffixes | eHow. 3. de-. the root word "loved" can be made to mean the opposite with the prefix "un-" to yield the word "unloved"' It can also take a suffix to indicate ability with the suffix "able" to make "unlovable." Other common suffixes include: "-ous." Practice adding suffixes to different root words. prefixes and suffixes. 2010 ." 'Un-" means not as in "unremarkable."Practice adding the prefixes to different root words.html#ixzz3ozoLAslv How to Use Prefixes & Suffixes to Change the Meaning of the Root Word By Foye. 3 Describe the use of common suffixes. "-er" means one who does as in "runner.ehow.or im-" work with different roots.Instructions 1. eHow Contributor updated: December 2 Explain the basic prefixes and their meanings. Then reverse the process by taking lists of suffixes. For example." and "re-" means again as in "relive. prefixes." which means a state of being as in 'happiness. 4 Practice dividing new words into prefix." 2." and "-able" means one who is able as in "wearable. Show how the different prefixes meaning "not" such as "un-. Show your students how the root word can be modified and changed by the addition of affixes." and "-ness. and suffix as a class. "Pre-" means before as in "precursor. and roots and joining them together in groups of two or three then having each group share their creations with the class (see Resources for lists of affixes and words). root." which means full as in 'melodious. http://www. then work on it in groups of two or three. 1 Identify the three word parts of English words: roots.

such as "ate" -. 3. "in" change the root word "dict" to "dictate. For example. Prefixes are added to the beginning of a root word while suffixes are added to the end. Greek." 4." according to Dictionary. such as "dict" -meaning "say. most root words originate from Latin. The prefix or suffix changes the meaning of a root word and makes the sentence grammatically correct." ." you get "inanimate.or "not" -. "anim.and suffix "ate" to the root word. such as "contra" -. by adding the prefix." The word now turns from "say" or "speak" into "to say" or "to speak. Difficulty: Moderately Easy Instructions 1.A root word is the simplest form of a word. 3 Add a suffix." meaning to "go against what you say" or "speak against. German and other languages." for example." or "anim" -.meaning "life. This changes the word to "contradict. A root word is the simplest form of a word to which you can add a prefix or suffix.""against" -. 1 Examine the root word you want to modify.meaning "to do" or "to make -. 2 Add a prefix. According to the 2006 learning packet from Skyline the root word "dict. 4 Combine prefixes and suffixes in a root word to give it a different meaning and make it grammatically correct." Its meaning changes from "life" to "to make lifeless. checking for its basic form.

if a suffix like "able" is added a word such as "love" or "like. 2011 It can be very tricky to teach the students the way the meanings of sentences are changed with the use of prefixes and suffixes.html#ixzz3ozo7gQMB How to Add Prefixes & Suffixes to Parts of Speech By RhiannaJ. The prefixes and suffixes will normally modify the root words. verb. Students know the root words and possess considerable vocabulary. There are eight parts of speech: noun. Difficulty: Easy Instructions Things You'll Need: • • List of prefixes and suffixes List of parts of speech Instructions 1." . but the prefixes and suffixes will increase that vocabulary in no time and will also give better understanding of the words to the students. eHow Contributor updated: January 27. pronoun. Here are a few steps to add prefixes and suffixes to the parts of speech. preposition. 2 Show the students some words whose meanings change with the addition of a Similarly." "in" to "consequential" or "non" to "negotiable" and get the opposite meaning.Read more: How to Use Prefixes & Suffixes to Change the Meaning of the Root Word | eHow. Add the prefix "un" to "loved. conjunction and interjection." you will come up with "lovable" or "likable. adjective. 2.ehow." "dis" to "like. 1 Show the students the list of parts of http://www.

Difficulty: Moderately Easy Instructions Things You'll Need: . 5 Divide some words into their three parts i-e prefixes. "pre" or "ante" as a prefix means before. "er. such as a "runner. For instance." "re" means again." "Ous" is another common suffix used in the English language to change nouns such as "melody" or "odor" to "melodious" or "odorous." "grayness." a "clarinetist" or a "magician. For instance." "ad" means "to" and "un" or "non" mean "not." "vastness. so students will have to learn which prefix to use with the root word. roots and suffixes and ask the students to work in groups and make some new words." 5." To change adjectives to nouns." an "actor. eHow Member free worksheets on prefixes and suffixes User-Submitted Article Make your own free worksheets on prefixes and suffixes to enhance learning using a simple language software. How to Make Free Worksheets On Prefixes and Suffixes By jenstewart. people often add "ness": "faithfulness. 4." Not all the prefixes can be used with all the words. "post" means "after. "sur" means "on. 3 Explain to them the meanings of some of the frequently used prefixes." "or" "ist" and "ian" are suffixes pointing to the person who does something. In the end ask the students to compare the words each group made with other groups and evaluate whether they understood the practice or not. 4 Explain the use of common suffixes to add in the parts of speech.3.

4 Now save your free worksheets on prefixes and suffixes so you can print them out to give to your students if you are a teacher. Teacher language syntax lesson worksheets on prefixes and suffixes can be found free over the worldwide web at different education resource sites or you can use a dictionary or thesaurus to create your own language word phrases. 3 Place these words into your software program and choose a visible font and use clear definitions that are also grade level appropriate for your prefix and suffix worksheets.html#ixzz3oziPsUG5 Tips & Warnings • • Make sure your worksheets on prefixes and suffixes are grade level appropriate in both language syntax and simple word definitions. you will need a reader program (like Adobe Reader 6 or higher) to download these words.• • • • • • • Computer with internet Language lessons software Adobe Reader 6 Dictionary or thesaurus pen paper ink jet or laser printer http://www. or children if you are a parent and you want to enhance your kids vocabulary and language syntax skill sets. 2. Use free clip art or graphics to encourage recognition and enjoyment. 2 If you decide to download free worksheets on prefixes and suffixes from your computer.ehow. . Try to use interesting material for your sentences that are of current interest to the students and throw in some more challenging ones to challenge their learning. Read more: How to Make Free Worksheets On Prefixes and Suffixes | eHow. 4. 1 To make free worksheets on prefixes and suffixes you must first decide on appropriate language phrases and definitions for appropriate grade level reading.

Prefix games and activities can help kids recognize common prefixes and their meanings. players can match the prefix "un" with the word "wrap." but not with the word "believe. For example. they more likely will understand an unfamiliar word. interactive prefix and suffix game for kids. Players must match prefixes and suffixes to their correct meanings to earn points. If kids know the meaning of prefixes." and "trans.• Try to use sentences that have a common theme and interesting to encourage interest and develop learning skills. and you can play your own games in the offers a including "tri.ehow. Prefix games provide interactive learning for students. Read more: How to Make Free Worksheets On Prefixes and Suffixes | eHow. Scholastic. children can play a game that allows players to build with prefixes. Scholastic Prefix and Suffix Game" "poly. Players must accept or reject blocks based on whether or not their prefixes match the base word on the ground. eHow Contributor updated: February 10.html#ixzz3oziFdofU Prefix Games for Kids By Lisa http://www. Players will learn the meaning of common prefixes." Prefix Memory Game . 2010 1. Prefix and suffix activities often go together. You can find a variety of free prefix and suffix games for kids online. At english-online." Pyramid Prefix Game 3.

You might include pairs such as "end" and "less. When the minute runs Players can only flip two cards at a requires players to match prefixes with their correct meanings. Students must write down as many words as they can that begin with that prefix. The prefixes memory game at manythings. Partner Words 5. Word Generating Contest 6. so each kid in the class or group can draw one. Read more: Prefix Games for Kids | eHow." "dis" or "re.html#ixzz3ozi5MdCw . Read a prefix aloud. such as "im. Offer students a chance to compete in this fun prefix game. Make sure that each prefix has a corresponding base word." "dis" and "belief" or "tri" and "cycle." Have each child draw one sticky note from the container and place it on his shirt.4. Then students must mingle until they find the prefix or base word that matches their sticky note. Make sure students have not simply made up words. You can play this game in your classroom or with a large group of kids.ehow. Write down enough prefixes and base words on sticky notes. collect the papers and see who has come up with the most words. and must remember the locations of previous prefixes and definitions ito find all the pairs." and set the timer for 1 minute.