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Muhammet YAMAN

, Hamit SARUHAN

, Faruk MEND

(1) Technical Education Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Duzce, Turkey, M.S., Dr. (2) Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey, Dr. ABSTRACT In this study, a non-conventional algorithm namely genetic algorithm is presented for minimization of power-loss of worm gear mechanism with respect to specified set of constraints. Number of gear tooth, friction coefficient, and helix (thread) angle of worm are used as design variables and lineer pressure, bending strength of tooth,and deformation of worm are set as constraints. The results for minimization of power-loss of worm gear mechanism are presented to provide a comparison with analytical method. The results showed that the genetic algorithm is useful and applicable for optimization of mechanical components design. The genetic algorithm is an efficient search method which is inspired from natural genetics selection process to explore a given search space. Keywords: Genetic algorithm, power optimization, worm gear mechanism ÖZET Bu çalışmada, sınır şartları verilen bir sonsuz vida karşılık dişlisi mekanizmasının güç kaybı minimizasyonunu uygun bir şekilde hesaplayan ve geleneksel olmayan bir optimizasyon metodu olan genetik algoritma kullanılmaktadır. Karşılık dişlisinin diş sayısı, sürtünme katsayısı ve vida eğim (helis) açısı tasarım değişkeni; çizgisel basınç kontrolü, eğilme gerilmesi kontrolü ve vida milinde deformasyon kontrolü sınırlama fonksiyonu olarak kullanılmıştır. Genetik algoritma ile elde edilen sonuçlar, analitik çözümle elde edilen sonuçlarla karşılaştırılmıştır. Sonuçlar, genetik algoritmanın makine parçalarının optimizasyonunda kullanışlı ve uygulanabilir olduğunu göstermiştir. Genetik algoritma, doğal genetikteki seçim işlevlerinden esinlenerek, verilen çözüm uzayında optimum çözüm arayan ve etkin çözümler sunan bir araştırma tekniğidir. Anahtar kelimeler : Genetik algoritma, güç optimizasyonu, sonsuz vida ve karşılık dişlisi 1. INTRODUCTION Up to now, many numerical optimization algorithms have been devoleped and used for design optimization of engineering problems to find optimum design. Solving engineering problems can be complex and a time consuming process when there are large numbers of design variables and constraints. Hence, there is a need for more efficient and reliable algorithms that solve such problems. The improvement of faster computer has given chance for more robust and efficient optimization methods. Genetic algorithm is one of these methods. The genetic algorithm is a search technique based on the idea of natural selection and genetics [1]. In this paper, the results found by genetic algorithm are compared with the analytical method. 2. GENETIC ALGORITHM Genetic algorithm (GA) maintains a population of encoded solutions, and guide the population towards the optimum solutions [2]. Fitness function provides a measure of performance of an individual how fits. Rather than starting from a single point solution within the search space as in traditional optimization methods, the genetic algorithm starts running

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Adress, corresponding author, A.I.B.U. Technical Education Faculty, Machine Design and Construction Departmant, Konuralp Yerleskesi, Duzce, 81620 Turkey E-mail: muhammet_y@ibu.edu.tr Tel:0 380 541 33 44 / 1072

The newly created individuals replace the existing generation and reevalution is started for fitness of new individuals. START Input: Design variable coding Initial population Objective function Generation: 1 Perform selection Parent I Parent II NO Perform crossover Perform mutation Temporary population full? Perform other genetic operator YES Updating existing generation Evaluation Termination criteria satisfied? YES Write final results END NO Generation=Generation+1 Figure 1. selction. After the evaluation of individual fitness in the population. the genetic operators.with an initial population which is coding of design variables. Then an iterative process starts until the termination criteria have been run across. The flow chart of genetic algorithm is shown in Figure 1. Other genetic operators are applied as needed. Flow chart for the genetic algorithm . The loop is repeated until acceptable solution is found. and fitness of initial population individuals are evaluated. GA selects the fittest individuals and eliminates the unfit individuals in this way. An initial population is chosen rondomly at the beginning. crossover and mutation are applied to breed a new genaration.

γ n is helix angle. µ is friction coefficient. Z g is number of gear tooth. Po . In this study. The worm and worm gear are used for power and motion transmission of non-cross shaft and used for propulsion system in load transmission [4].6]. Po = Fn (cos α n cos γ n − µ sin γ n ) where. m a z g ww 2 i (2) Fn is normal force represented Equation (3). Transmission rate is 1/15. Pi . Fn = Ft1 cos α n sin γ n + µ cos γ n (3) . rarely may be reverse [5. Problem Setup For Analytical Solution and Genetic Algorithm The effort in this study is the use of the genetic algorithm method in the optimum design of worm gear for minimum power loss shown in Figure 2. α n is pressure angle. In the worm gear system because of friction. the shafts angle is 90 . b w2 Fr2 Fr2 Ft1 Fa2 Fr1 Fa1 w1 Front view a Ft1 R φe Fn γn Fn. acceptable deflection of worm shaft. generally propulsion reach from worm shaft to worm gear. The materials used for the worm is hardened steel (42CrMo4) and for worm gear is bronze (GzSnBz12) o [5]. The objective function is the power loss with respect to constraints such as linear pressure worm gear tooth.1. ∆P Equation (1). formulated as: (1) ∆P = Pi − Po where.3. ma is module. Shematic of a single-enveloping worm gearset Power loss. input power. bending stress of gear tooth for acceptable deflection. propulsion shaft is worm shaft.Cosαn Left side view Fa1 Top view L Figure 2. output power represented with Equation (2) [6]. PROBLEM STATEMENT 3. In the worm gearset. ww is angular velocity of worm. missing power is turned to heat. In the design of gearset. and i is transmission rate. and three thread worm.

These constraints define the boundaries of the feasible and infeasible design space domain. bending stress of gear tooth and deflection of worm shaft under the load. The propulsion mechanism of worm gear system is electrical engine. n is number of revolution tour of Ft1 = worm. The objective function is formulated as: FObj = F (z g . γ n . Table 1.05 15 o ≤ γ n ≤ 25 o (7) (8) The coefficients used in formulas and input values used for a sample design optimization are given in Table 1.2. friction coefficient. 3.4 −0 4 200 330 7 3 71 55 22.4..2 Pi (4) 2π n dow 60 where.03 ≤ µ ≤ 0. 21 ≤ z g ≤ 80 (6) gear tooth number friction coefficient helix angle 0. Coefficients and input values for sample design practice Definition Input power Number of revolution tour of worm Transmission rate Center distance of worm gear pair Distance between of worm shaft bearings Module number of worm teeth Worm diameter Bottom of teeth diameter of worm Pressure angle Elastisity module Inertia Symbol Unit KW rpm mm mm mm mm mm derece N/mm 4 mm 2 Values 11 720 Po n i a L ma zw do w df w 15 +0.10 449000 3.5 o 4 αn E Ι 21. Ft1 is tangential force represented in Equation (4). µ ) ≤ 0 (9) . Objective Function It is desired to obtain the lowest power loss of worm gear mechanism subject to linear pressure worm gear. and helix angle. do w is worm diameter.3. µ ) = Pi − Fn (cos α n cos γ n − µ sin γ n ) ma z g ww 2 i (5) 3. The constraints considered for the optimum design of the power loss of worm gear are the following: g j = (zg . γ n . Design Variables and Parameters The design variables vector consists of gear tooth number. Constraints Constraints are conditions that must be met in the optimum design and include restrictions on the design variables.

6 ≤ 0 bo g ma z g Ft 2 g 2 ( x) = − 30 ≤ 0 πma bog (11) (12) df w FtR1 L3 g 3 ( x) = − ≤0 1000 48EI where. negative fitness function values and 3. g 3 ( x ) is acceptable deflection of worm shaft [6]. Ft 2 is axial force of worm gear represented with Equation (14).. γ n .j = 1. g )] j j j =1 2 (19) F is an arbitrary large enough that is greater than F (z g .NCON (number of constraints) (10) g1 ( x ) = Ft 2 2. the fitness of corrosponding solution is penalized. µ ) + PF NCON [ ] (18) PF = where ∑ r [max (0. (14) (15) (16) Ft 2 = Fn (cos α n cos γ n − µ sin γ n ) bog = 0.45(do1 + 6ma ) FtR1 = Ft1 + Fr1 where 2 2 Fr1 is radial force represented with Equation (17).... The penalty coefficients. design variables vector. (17) Fr1 = Fn sin α n The genetic algorithm is unconstrained optimization procedure. and thus kept with in feasible regions of the design space by increasing the value of the objective function when constraint violations are encountered. µ ) . a measure of the performance of an individual. The penalty function is represented with Equation (19). The fitness function. γ n . Binary coding. g 2 ( x) is bending stress of gear tooth. γ n . Construction of Design Variables In this optimization problem. for the j -th constraint have to be judiciously selected. is generally used although other coding schemes . µ ) + PF to exclude PF is the penalty function [7]. The genetic algorithm requires the design variables of the optimization problem to be coded. r j . x = (z g .5 − 3. represented with Equation (18). In case of any violation of constraint boundary. as a finite length strings. which is used to bias the selection process in favour of the most fit members of the current population.5. bo g is width of worm gear represented with Equation (15) and FtR1 is total radial force with Equation (16).. represents a solution T that minimizes the objective function. (13) g1 ( x) is represents linear pressure worm gear tooth. FitnessFunction = F − F (z g . The first step for applying the genetic algorithm to assign design problem is encoding of the design variables.

These strings are represented as chromosomes. A guideline for an appropriate population size is suggested by Goldberg represented in Equation (22). z g .x( i ) lower ) (2l . This design string is composed of 27 ones and zeros.65.1)]d (i ) + x(i ) lower where d (i ) represents the decimal value of string for design variables which is obtained using base-2 form. an initial population set is randomly assigned. respectively. the string of 27-bit string length represents one of 2 alternative individual solutions existing in the design space. The binary string representation of the variables.1} . Each design design variables has a specified range so that x( i ) ≤ x(i ) ≤ x(i ) .05 25 Precision 1 0. Population size influences the number of search points in each generation.03 15 Upper limit 80 0. xupper and xlower are the upper and lower bound for design variables. γ n .20.x(i ) lower ) / ε ] + 1 Where The design variables are coded into the binary digit variables can be computed from the Equation (21). Coding of binary design variable vectors into binary digits Design variables vector Lower limit 21 0. Design variables are represented in different level of precision. is estimated from the Equation (20) [8]. The continuous design lower upper variables can be represented and discretized to a precision of the binary strings. The number of the digits in (20) 2 l ≥ [( x( i ) upper . an optimal population size of 85 maybe used. crossover. {0. and mutation. 21. l . Design Variables Gear tooth number ( z g ) 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Friction coefficient ( µ ) 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 Helix angle ( γ n ) 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 Concanated variables head-to-tail 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 In Table 3. The genetic algorithm then proceed by generating new solutions with bit operations utilizing the genetic algorithm operators such as selection.l (22) For a string length of 27bits. an initial population is needed to be assigned randomly at the beginning. ε . µ . in Table 3 gives an example of a chromosome that represents design ( ) variables accordingly. .1 o String length 9 9 9 zg µ γn To start the algorithm. Table-2 gives description of these mapping. 27 PopulationSize = 1. For running the genetic algorithm. This set of initialized population is potential solution to the problem.have been used.See Table 4. The physical value of the design (21) [( x(i ) upper . Table 2. Table 3.0001 0. The binary string representation for the design variables.

In single point crossover. are selected for crossover and the genetic algorithm decides to mate them. In Table 5. 85 Randomized binary string 1 0 . . The Genetic Algorithm Operators In a genetic algorithm. 0 1 0 0 .6. 0 3. 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 . which occurs around crossing point that is selected randomly. . The Cycle starts again with selection. Crossover is very important in the success of the genetic algorithm. Each pair of the parent creates two Child as described in the method of single point crossover shown in Table 5. . Genetic Algorithm Operators [10] Each of these operators is explained and demonstrated in following: the selection operator used in this study is a tournament selection. 1 0 1 1 1 . . . the strings. The crossover point has been chosen at position 17. cuts two chromosomes in one point and splices the two halves to create new ones. A set of starting population Number of Individual 1 2 . Tournament selection approach works as follows and shown in Figure 4: a pair of individuals from mating pool is rondomly picked and the best fit two individuals from this pair will be chosen as a parent. 0 1 1 1 . 0 0 1 0 . . 0 0 0 1 1 . Elitism 1 2 1 1 Selection 2 Crossover Mutation 2 ----n ----n ----n Current generation Temporary generation Next generation Figure 3. . 0 1 1 . . 1 0 0 0 0 . . there are four basic operators for creating the next generation shown Figure 3 [10]. A single point crossover operator is used in this study. . Parent I and Parent II. 0 0 1 0 1 . 1 1 0 . . This operator is primary source of new candidate solutions and provides the search mechanism that efficiently guides the evolution through the solution space towards the optimum. The newly created strings are Child I and Child II. 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 1 . . 1 1 0 1 0 . The parent exchanges the sub-strings. 1 0 0 1 0 . . .Table 4. This iterative process continues until specified criteria are met [12]. . . 0 0 1 0 1 . 1 1 1 1 . . 0 0 1 0 .

Table 5. elitism. This ensures the genetic algorithm to converge to appropriate solution. For this study. Mutation is basically a process of random altering a part of individual to produce a new individual by switching the bit position from a 0 to a 1 or vice versa. mutation operator is used. In other words. mutation probabilities of different values were tested for the genetic algorithm performance. The setting parameters of genetic algorithm for this study are chosen as follows: . Elitism forces the genetic algorithm to retain the best individual in a given generation to proceed unchanged into the following generation [3]. elitism is a safeguard against operation of crossover and mutation operators that may jeopardize the current best solution. the results show that the mutation probability of 0. which may diversity lost by repeated application of selection and crossover operators. Mutation rate is defined as the percentage of the total number of bits in the population. Single point crossover Crossover point 17 Parent I Parent II 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 The new strings Child I Child II 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 Current Population Two selected different string Fittest string go ahead temporary population Low fit string go back current population Selected strings Temporary population Figure 4. is added to the genetic algorithm. Tournament selection Preventing the genetic algorithm from premature convergence to a non-optimal solution. A specialized mechanism.005 gives preferable results compared to others. Thus. The probability of mutation is that five bit in every thousands will be mutated.

881 KW z g =45 . Values of design variables at 69-th genaration.0305 15. Figure 6. µ =0.5o.362 KW 0. The programme.280 o Genetic algorithm 44 0. γ n =22. 4.005. As can be seen from the results. population size = 85.246 o 1. The results compared with results of analytical method. Figure 5. Comparison of the results Design Variables Number of teeth of worm gear ( z g ) Friction coefficiet ( µ ) Helix angle ( γ n ) Minimum power loss The starting point of analytical method. and helix angle is 15. It has been shown that design variables take on values o as: number of gear teeth is 44. devoleped in MATLAB 7.Choromosome length = 27. friction coefficient is 0. crossover probability = 0.0390 16. Design variables have been got different values and take on minimum value of objective function at 69-th generation shown in Figure 5. Figure 6 shows the plots of the normalized avarege and best fitness function values in each generation as optimization proceed. The results obtained are given in Table 6. RESULTS Figure 5 shows the 3-D plots of design variables values during the working of GA. shown in Table 6. Analytical method 46 0.5. Variation of variables through generations Table 6.0 for analytical method has been run several time for different values of design variables.0460. mutation probability = 0. .246 . and elitism = yes. the genetic algorithm produced much beter results than analytical method.0305. The overall results show that the best design converge 69-th generation and refine the design over remaining generations. number of generation = 100.

. Lausanne.E.. 1991 [7] SARUHAN H. [2] GOLDBERG.G.J. The MIT Press. IL. BUDYNAS. Lessons for the real world"....1998. Optimization and Machine Learning”. [3] MITCHELL. Massachusetts. "Makine Elemanları Cilt I-II”.. “Design Optimization of Mechanical System Using Genetic Algorithms”..R.TROTTET. CONCLUSIONS The aim of this study was to optimize power loss in worm gear system using the genetic algorithm and numerical optimization method. Addison-Wesley.A. "The Design of Innovation: Lessons from Genetic Algorithms. M. It can be concluded that the genetic algorithm that can be successfully and efficiently used for the worm gear system design. stanbul.: 7.2002 . 1997 [4] AKKURT. 2000 [5] SHIGLEY.. D.Cilt.. McGraw-Hill. 1989. 2. REFERENCES [1] GOLDBERG. 2004 [6] NICOLET.Sayı . UYGUR I. Urbana.316-330.. IlliGAL Report: 98004. “Mechanical Engineering Design”. D.E. Spes S. R. “Eléments de Machines”. Reading. p.. Birsen Yayınevi. Convergence process of the genetic algorithm for average and best fitness funtion 5.G. MISCHKE. M. “Genetic Algorithms in Search. E.”An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms”.SAU Fen Bilimleri Dergisi. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.E. C. The results showed that obtained the genetic algorithm provide better solution than those obtained from numerical optimization method.Figure 6.

. CHOW. 2004 . Deparment of Precision Instruments.. “Genetic Algorithms for Nonlinear Mixed Discrete-Integer Optimization Problems via Meta-Genetic Parameter Optimization”.T.Y. 1992 [9] WU.J. 1995 [10] HE.: Volume 7. CHU. C. “ Genetic Algorithms: An Optimization Technique”.Zonguldak Karaelmas University. 105-114. P. Engineering Optimization. Tsinghua University. F..Y. S. "Genetic Algorithms in Optimization Problems with Discrete and Integer Design Variables” Engineering Optimization. and HAJELA.. D. P. 19.[8] LIN.24.Beijing 100084 [11] SARUHAN H.137-159. 309-327. “Using Genetic Algorithms and Finite Element Methods to Detect Shaft Crack for Rotor-Bearing System”. GUO.. Technology. Issue 1.

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