You are on page 1of 133

Introduction Telecommunication: Telecommunications is a general term for a vast array of technologies that send information over distances.

Mobile phones, land lines, satellite phones and voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) are all telephony technologies -- just one field of telecommunications. Radio, television and networks are a few more examples of telecommunication. While most people associate telecommunications with modern technologies, the strict definition of the term encompasses primitive and even ancient forms of telecommunication. Among these is the use of smoke signals as a kind of visual telegraph. Puffs of smoke were time-released by smothering a fire with a blanket, then quickly removing and replacing the blanket. Widely used by the American Indians, smoke signals could communicate short messages over long distances, assuming a clear line of sight. Other forms of early telecommunications include relay fires or beacons. Used foremostly in warfare, relay fires required a handful of men posted along a range of hilltops, with the last man closest to the area where troop movement was expected. When armies were spotted in the distance, he would light a bonfire. The fire could be seen from a good distance away by the next man in the relay, who would in turn light his own bonfire, and so the fires were lit in succession along the range, creating an effective telecommunications signal that traveled back over several miles in a relatively short period of time. Finally, the last man in the relay would light a beacon to signal his army below that the opponent was en-route. The arrangement of a ship's flags and semaphores were other forms of telecommunications. A semaphore was a mechanical device atop a tower with paddle-like blades or flags. The device would be set in a specific position to communicate information. Throughout the 19th century, telecommunications devices became more sophisticated with the advent of electricity, leading to the telegraph, Morse code, and signal lamps. A signal lamp, the optical version of the telegraph, is a powerful lamp with shutters that block the light in long or short durations to

translate to the dots and dashes of Morse code. A heliograph is another optical telegraph -- a mirror used to reflect light to mimic a signal lamp. In the 20th century, telecommunications reached beyond our planet. In June 1969, the world watched and listened as astronauts walked on the moon. Twenty years later, in August 1989, we would see pictures of Neptune arrive back from the Voyager 2 spacecraft, riding radio waves that traveled over roughly three billion miles (4.8 billion km) to reach us in a matter of a few hours. Strides in telecommunications have changed the world immeasurably. While pockets of humankind were once isolated from each other, people now have multiple ways to see and hear what is occurring on the other side of the world in real time. Satellite technology, television, the Internet and telephony keep the globe connected in a humming buzz of interactive voices and pictures. In short, telecommunications has come a long way from smoke signals. In modern telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole. The components of a communications system serve a common purpose, are technically compatible, use common procedures, respond to controls, and operate in unison. Telecommunications is a method of communication (e.g., for sports broadcasting, mass media, journalism, etc.).

Basic Telecommunication System A communications subsystem is a functional unit or operational assembly that is smaller than the larger assembly under consideration. Examples of

communications subsystems in the Defense Communications System (DCS) are (a) a satellite link with one Earth terminal in CONUS and one in Europe, (b) the interconnect facilities at each Earth terminal of the satellite link, and (c) an optical fiber cable with its driver and receiver in either of the interconnect facilities. Communication subsystem (b) basically consists of a receiver, frequency translator and a transmitter. It also contains transponders and other transponders in it and communication satellite communication system receives signals from the antenna subsystem. Wireless Communication: Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or "wires". The distances involved may be short (a few meters as in television remote control) or very long (thousands or even millions of kilometers for radio communications). When the context is clear the term is is often simply shortened to to "wireless". be a Wireless of day. communications by generally considered branch

telecommunications. Wireless Communication is upgrading quite rapidly day Wireless devices are various types of fixed, mobile, portable two way radios, cellular telephones, wireless internet, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage doors, wireless computer mice and keyboards, satellite television and cordless telephones. Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light, visible light, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

In that distant era when utilities did not yet exist to provide electricity. the photophone also required a clear line of sight between its transmitter and its receiver. While Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun were awarded the 1909 Nobel Prize for Physics for their contribution to wireless telegraphy. and lasers had not even been conceived of in science fiction. now the term is used to describe modern wireless connections such as in cellular networks and wireless broadband Internet. Radio: The term "wireless" came into public use to refer to a radio receiver or transceiver (a dual purpose receiver and transmitter device). Edison deploys a system . Similar to free space optical communication. there were no practical applications for their invention. As this was before Maxwell work was understood. eight years before Hertz's experiments. It is also used in a general sense to refer to any type of operation that is implemented without the use of wires. when Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter invented and patented the photophone. Hughes. Early wireless work: David E.HISTORY OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION: Photophone: The world's first wireless telephone conversation occurred in 1880. Hughes' contemporaries dismissed his achievement as mere "Induction". which was highly limited by the availability of both sunlight and good weather. T. In 1888.g. radio. it has only been of recent years that Nikola Tesla has been formally recognized as the true father and inventor of radio. ultrasonic) that is used to accomplish the operation. a telephone that conducted audio conversations wirelessly over modulated light beams (which are narrow projections of electromagnetic waves). establishing its usage in the field of wireless telegraphy early on. It would be several decades before the photophone's principals found their first practical applications in military communications and later in fiber-optic communications. A. such as "wireless remote control" or "wireless energy transfer". In 1885. transmitted radio signals over a few hundred yards by means of a clockwork keyed transmitter. regardless of the specific technology (e. infrared. Edison used a vibrator magnet for induction transmission.

Some businesses charge customers a monthly fee for service. The experiments were not followed up by Hertz.of signaling on the Lehigh Valley Railroad. while others have begun offering it for free in an effort to increase the sales of their goods. APPLICATIONS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY: Security systems: Wireless technology may supplement or replace hard wired implementations in security systems for homes or office buildings. WiFi: Wi-Fi is a wireless LAN technology that enables laptop PCs. In 1891. They can be used anywhere that there is a cellular telephone site to house the equipment that is required to transmit and receive the signal that is used to transfer both voice and data to and from these instruments. Practical applications of wireless radio communication and radio remote control technology were implemented by later inventors. the demonstration of the theory of electromagnetic waves by Heinrich Hertz in 1888 was important. These instruments use radio waves to enable the operator to make phone calls from many locations worldwide. .n. The theory of electromagnetic waves were predicted from the research of James Clerk Maxwell and Michael Faraday. Several Wi-Fi hot spots have been popular over the past few years. Television remote control: Modern televisions use wireless (generally infrared) remote control units. In the history of wireless technology. PDAs.11 a. such as Nikola Tesla. Technically known as IEEE 802. Edison obtained the wireless patent for this method using inductance.b. Hertz demonstrated that electromagnetic waves could be transmitted and caused to travel through space at straight lines and that they were able to be received by an experimental apparatus. Wi-Fi is less expensive and nearing the speeds of standard Ethernet and other common wire-based LAN technologies. Jagadish Chandra Bose of India around this time developed an early wireless detection device and help increase the knowledge of millimeter length electromagnetic waves. Cellular telephone (phones and modems): Perhaps the best known example of wireless technology is the cellular telephone and modems. and other devices to connect easily to the internet. Now radio waves are also used.g.

high quality devices. the most common are amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. some even incorporating Bluetooth. to make it possible to separate out the signals at the receiving end. Initial concerns about the security of wireless keyboards have also been addressed with the maturation of the technology. many manufactures of computer peripherals turned to wireless technology to satisfy their consumer base. highly limited transceivers to mediate between a computer and a keyboard and mouse. . These systems have become so ubiquitous that some users have begun complaining about a lack of wired peripherals. While doing modulation a carrier signal. An unmodulated signal is known as a carrier. To give the identity i. forcing them to use less optimal peripherals because the optimum one is not available in a wired version. Had all the audio signals been radiated in the same frequency range. This has become especially prevalent among scientists who use trackballs as the number of models in production steadily decreases. The need for modulation aroused due to following reasons: • • Difficulty in radiating the audio signal due to antenna size. Computer Interface Devices: Answering the call of customers frustrated with cord clutter. Many scientists have complained that wireless technology interferes with their experiments. there would have been a mess at the receiving station.Wireless energy transfer: Wireless energy transfer is a process whereby electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load that does not have a built-in power source. without the use of interconnecting wires. Originally these units used bulky. Wireless devices tend to have a slightly slower response time than their wired counterparts. however more recent generations have used small. Modulation: Modulation is the process in which some characteristics of the high frequency signal is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. carrying information is required. which is a pure sine wave and modulating signal.e. Out of the various types of modulation techniques. however the gap is decreasing.

Amplitude Modulation In amplitude modulation the amplitude of carrier wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. In line communication. • Two independent side bands Vestigial Sideband: It is used for video transmission. . A trace of sideband is transmitted usually with full carrier. which is introduced at the receiver.• • In digital communication different modulation techniques are used for spectral efficiency. It is used for commercial broadcasting. As carrier is present along with the transmitted signal. Carrier is transmitted at low level for tuning purposes. m = Vm / Vc Forms of Amplitude Modulation Double sideband full carrier: In this carrier & both sidebands are transmitted. • Single sideband full Carrier: In this one of the sideband is suppressed thus there is saving of bandwidth & 25% power. Distortion in the modulated signal occurs. the vestigial sideband and single sideband with full carrier is of importance to us. there is no necessity of generating a carrier at the receiver. • Single sideband with reduced carrier: This is used in maritime communication. the amplitude of carrier wave shall be less than the amplitude of modulating signal. Modulation Index The modulation index of amplitude-modulated wave is given by the ratio of amplitudes of Modulating voltage to carrier voltage. Out of the above. It is difficult for all the receivers to possess the carrier source of exactly the same frequency. modulation is necessary for multiplexing i. Thus in amplitude modulation.e. to send the different signals in the same frequency band over the same cable. • Single sideband with suppressed carrier: In this only one side band is transmitted without carrier. The reason is if the carrier is suppressed then it will be required at the time of demodulation in the receiver. if the amplitude of modulating voltage is greater than that of the carrier signal.

Advantages & Disadvantages of FM The main advantages of Frequency Modulation over Amplitude Modulation are: Improved signal to noise ratio (about 25dB) w. In the simplest digital modulation . PSK Modulation Digital signals basically have two amplitude states binary 0 and 1 corresponding to phases of 00 & 1800.r. which is known as “spectral efficiency”.t.e. Frequency deviation δ = KVmfc Modulation Index Modulation index = Deviation / Modulating frequency = KVmfc / fm From the above formula we find that modulation index is function of both amplitude and frequency of modulating signal. Less radiated power Well defined service areas for given transmitter power Disadvantages of Frequency Modulation: More Bandwidth requirement More complicated receiver and transmitter Digital Modulation The objective of digital modulation is to bring the base band signal (modulating signal in digital form) onto the RF carrier using the minimum bandwidth. thus it is immune to noise. the transmission capacity for digital signals has to be accommodated in existing frequency plans that were originally defined for analog transmission. is defined in bits/s/Hz (transmission capacity/ RF carrier bandwidth). Furthermore. Economical use of the frequency spectrum is a particular concern of the digital modulation in view of the fact that a digital telephone channel requires 16 times more bandwidth than its analog counterpart i. If the amplitude of modulating signal is increased modulation index also increases.Frequency Modulation Frequency modulation is a process in which the frequency of the carrier is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. Deviation The amount by which carrier frequency is varied from its un-modulated value is called deviation and the rate at which this deviation takes place is equal to the frequency of modulating signal. As the amplitude of the carrier remains constant it does not play any role at the time of demodulation & any variations in the amplitude has no effect on the original signal. This bandwidth economy. digital telephone channel requires 64KHz. against 4KHz for an analog telephone channel. after demodulation. to man made interference Smaller geographical interference between neighboring stations.

A 140Mbps base band thus requires a bandwidth of 140/4 = 35 MHz. 16 PSK is no longer practical. However 16 QAM cannot be used for the transmission of 140Mbps in the 2.5 bits/ s / Hz. 6. Each higher PSK modulation mode requires a better signal to noise performance. 4. A 2 Mbps base band modulated with 2 PSK thus requires an RF carrier with a bandwidth of 2 MHz. Consequently. It is thus known as m-QAM. Thus a 1 MHz RF carrier is needed to transport a 2 Mbps signal. 16 different signals states are detected and amplitude & phase shift modulated on the RF Carrier. QAM is combination of phase shift keying and amplitude modulation of the carrier. which is difficult to achieve. The next logical step to 64-QAM has to be made. quadrature amplitude modulation is used. so the spectral efficiency is 1 bit/ s /Hz. It is therefore known as phase shift keying modulation. Implementation of 128QAM. Similarly there is 8PSK having the spectral efficiency of 3 bits/ s/Hz.mode. In this case. resulting in a spectral efficiency of 6 and enabling the transmission of a 140Mbps signal in 23 MHz bandwidth. which fits with sufficient selectivity in the 29/30MHZ RF Channel spacing. shifting the carrier phases in 900 steps and resulting in a spectral efficiency of 0. Two carriers 90 degrees out of phase hence quadrature are amplitude modulated by a digital signal (base band) with a finite number m of amplitude levels.2 and 8GHz bands with an RF Channel spacing of 29/30 MHz. Quadrature Amplitude Modulation For higher spectral efficiency. with a spectral efficiency of 7bits/Hz and 256 QAM with a spectral efficiency of 10 have already been realized . A first improvement is obtained by using 4PSK or quaternary PSK also known as QPSK modulation. this two state condition is keyed on the RF carrier by shifting the phase of the carrier. and are subsequently added to one another. In two state PSK or 2 PSK. resulting in spectral efficiency of 4. the binary signal is converted into a quaternary signal and the four possible phases of the quaternary signals are keyed onto the RF Carrier. With 16 QAM. shifting the carrier phase by 180 degrees requires one hertz of the carrier frequency for each bit of the base band.

where the used modulation and coding scheme (MCS) is adjusted according to the channel condition to the most suitable one. which contains indication of the coding scheme. The carrier symbol rate (270. while a GMSK signal carries only 1 bit per symbol. By introducing the second modulation method.833 Kbps) of standard GSM is kept the same for 8-PSK and the same pulse shape as used in GMSK is applied to 8-PSK. The modulation identification is based on different phase rotation characteristics in the GMSK and 8-PSK training sequence. and in DL. the symbol-by-symbol phase rotation is π /2 whereas in the 8-PSK training sequence.A Quarature Amplitude Modulated signal for the values given in the table is shown in the slide above. there is a need to blindly recognize the transmitted modulation in the mobile station receiver (DL). no prior information is sent to the receiver but the receiver should be able to find out the used MCS based on the blind modulation identification. 8-PSK. the set of 8-PSK training sequence has identical information content (the same 26 bit sequence) as the GMSK training sequence. The increase in data throughput does not come for free. the rotation is 3π /8. GMSK The enhancement behind increasing the data rate is the introduction of the 8-PSK (octagonal Phase Shift Keying) modulation in addition to the existing GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying). This was found to be a good compromise between the linearity requirement of the 8-PSK signal and the overall radio network performance. An 8-PSK signal is able to carry 3 bit per modulation symbol over the radio path. The GMSK spectrum mask was the starting point for the spectrum mask of the 8-PSK signal but along the standardization process. Otherwise. the price being paid in the decreased sensitivity of the This affects the radio network planning and the highest data rates can only be provided with limited coverage. This is due to the characteristics of the EDGE link quality control. The decoding of the RLC/MAC header field. the 8PSK spectrum mask was relaxed few dB in the 400 KHz offset from the center frequency. In the GMSK training sequence. .

906 ms. by drifting into a splatter in the other user’s segment. Each location interacts in the sub band within the allotted bandwidth. 8000 such frames are transmitted in one sec. Sufficient guard band is allocated between segments to ensure that one user will not interfere with another. Time Division Multiple Access Time division multiple access (TDMA) is digital transmission technology that allows a number of users to access a single radio-frequency (RF) channel without interference by allocating unique time slots to each user within each channel. There are three different methods that permit this simultaneous multi usage. All the 32 slots are combined & transmitted in 125 ms. The duration of each slot is 3. Each station is assigned a segment of that usable/allotted bandwidth. Each such slot carries the digital data of one channel. Let us consider the E1 frame. From the above explanation we find that single frequency is used to transmit .Pulse code modulation is the example of TDMA. the allotted bandwidth is shared between different locations. In another slot digital data from other stations can be accommodated. Different Multiple Access technologies are: • FDMA • TDMA • CDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access System • In FDMA. Access system refers to the manner in which a number of stations may use a repeater or may interact with a central station (or any input output device) simultaneously. which consists of 32 time slots from 0 to 31.Multiple Access Multiple access is the connection of a switching center to two or more users by separate access lines using a single message routing indicator or telephone number.

the entire frame& within the frame different slots are allotted to different users at various stations.

Code Division Multiple Access In Code division multiple access, the user is neither allotted a dedicated frequency in the frequency spectrum, nor a slot of time to send and receive messages. In Code division multiplex access, all the users uses same frequency and are free to send at any instant of time. Since all the users uses same frequency band so the signals of one user may interfere the other users and acts as noise According to Shanon” and Hartley law, explains that ‘if a constant signal to noise ratio is to be maintained for a given data rate, bandwidth of the channel has to be increased. Therefore in CDMA, the signal of one user is encoded by a separate code, which only the receiver knows, and the band width is spread. The advantage of CDMA is that the signal can be propagated and received in noisy environment. Spread Spectrum Technique In spread spectrum technique, just the opposite of what we try to accomplish to conserve the bandwidth by packing as many bits as possible in 1 Hz of bandwidth by using different type of digital modulation schemes occurs. With spread spectrum we do the reverse by spreading the information (data) signal over a very wide bandwidth. If we are spreading a voice channel over a very wide frequency band, it would seem that we are defeating the purpose of frequency conservation. With spread spectrum, multi-users can transmit on the same frequency with minimal interference between any two users. In order to identify or separate the signal of each user, a different key variable (Code) is used. At the receiver, the CDMA signals are separated using a correlate that accepts only signals from the selected key variable or binary sequence code used at the transmitter, & then dispreads its spectrum. CDMA signals with unmatched codes are not de-spread and only contribute to noise. CDMA provides an increase in capacity 15 times that of its analog counterpart & can handle digital formats at the specified input bit rate such as facsimile, data and paging. In addition to power required to overcome interference is comparatively low. Gain and Loss

In telecommunication the signal strength is commonly judged by its power at any point. Parameters like the Gain of an amplifier, Insertion Loss offered by an attenuator, is described in decibel (dB) units.

The gain of this black box is given by the ratio of Output power P2 to Input power P1 and is denoted by ‘G’. Since gain is a ratio, it does not have any unit. dB Calculation – Thumb Rules We find that when the power is doubled, dB power gain is 3 dB. For other values, we can find out the corresponding value of dB by the following thumb rules: Gain or Power ratio dB 1 0dB 2 3dB THUMB RULE: (A) If the power ratio value is doubled then dB value is incremented by 3. For example: 4 6dB 4X2 = 8 6dB+3dB=9dB (B) If the Power ratio is multiplied by 10 then the dB value is incremented by 10. For example: 2X10 =20dB 3dB + 10 = 13dB To identify whether a particular dB value is Gain (increase in Power) or a Loss (reduction in Power), +ve and –ve sign is prefixed to the dB value to denote Gain or Loss respectively. dBm We have seen the units Bel (B) and Decibels (dB). If you noticed, these units are only ratios or relative units. These units do not define absolute power. For example: we cannot say that the output of an amplifier is 33dB - we can only say that amplifier has gain of 33dB. These units do not give any idea of the absolute power levels i.e. the actual power output of an amplifier etc. To express absolute power levels, we use a unit called dBm. This unit is used to describe power level relative to 1 mW (m in dBm stands for 1milli watt). dBm = 10 Log P2 (Power in milli watts) 1milliwatt To understand better, let us consider an amplifier whose output is 20 watts. We can calculate its power output (Po), in dBm, as: Po = 10 Log 20 X103 1mW 3 = 10 Log 20 X 10 = +43dBm

Let us try another example, where the input to a network is 0.0004W. We can calculate its Power Input (Pi), in dBm as: Pi = 10 Log10 0.0004 X 103 1mW = -4dBm (Approximately) The minus sign indicates that the value is less than the reference value of 0dBm or 1mW. dBW The unit dBW is used where very high power is to be represented such as for radio broadcasting and satellite transmitters. It is an absolute decibel unit and may be defined as decibel referred to 1Watt (Instead of 1 mW in dBm). Here , P1 = 1W Power level in dBW = 10 Log P2 P1 dBi is a unit used to denote the gain of a directional antenna. To understand the term better, let us briefly look at some antenna types: Antennae can be broadly classified into two major types • Omni directional or isotropic antenna • Directional antenna. In order to compare the performance of different types of directional antennae, a term Antenna gain or Directional Gain is used. In order to measure the antenna gain, it is compared with respect to isotropic antenna gain dBi = 10 Log P2 P1 Here P2 is the power at any point ‘I’ in the direction of radiation, due to directional antenna, and P1 is the power at the same point, (with same transmitter power), due to isotropic antenna. Thus an Isotropic antenna will give gain of 0dBi. The “i” in the term dBi denotes that the antenna gain is as compared to isotropic antenna.

Telecom Basics
What is Antenna? Radiate and receive radio wave ,convert high frequency current to electromagnetic wave when transmitting, and convert electromagnetic wave to high frequency current when receiving

The net effect is to focus the antenna’s energy toward the horizon. . The gain of an omni-directional antenna can be increased by narrowing the beamwidth in the vertical or elevation plane.Functions of the antenna Convert high frequency current to electromagnetic wave when transmitting Convert electromagnetic wave to high frequency current when receiving Antenna can not amplify the transmission power. just concentrate RF power to one direction Types of Antenna Resonant antennas Non-resonant antennas Omni-directional antennas Directional antennas Resonant Antennas  Resonant antenna lengths are multiples of half wavelength  Length of resonant antenna and the number of side lobes in its radiation pattern are directly proportional to each other Non-Resonant Antennas  The radiation pattern of a non-resonant antenna is unidirectional Omni-directional Antennas The omni-directional antenna radiates and receives equally well in all horizontal directions. Directional Antennas Directional antennas focus energy in a particular direction. Directional antennas are used in some base station applications where coverage over a sector by separate antennas is desired.

Point to point links also benefit from directional antennas. the degrading effect of noise on signals increase with bandwidth. Antenna efficiency: The total antenna efficiency accounts for the following losses: (1) reflection because of mismatch between the feeding transmission line and the antenna and (2) the conductor and dielectric losses Bandwidth requirements The carrier wave is a sine wave for almost any communication system. When the reference is a half wave dipole antenna. Beam Width: . is always greater than unity. however. in most communication systems it is important to conserve bandwidth to the extent possible. When the reference is a loss less isotropic antenna. and there is often competition among users for the same part of the spectrum. the bandwidth increases. Bandwidth in radio systems is always a scarce resource. the gain is less than the directivity. Yagi and panel antennas are directional antennas. As soon as the signal is modulated to transmit information. In addition. as we have seen. The directivity of any source. If the efficiency is not 100 percent. Not all frequencies are useful for a given communication system. A sine wave exists at only one frequency and therefore occupies zero bandwidth. the gain is expressed in dBi. the gain is expressed in dBd (1 dBd = 2. Antenna gain: Antenna directivity: The directivity of an antenna is given by the ratio of the maximum radiation intensity (power per unit solid angle) to the average radiation intensity (averaged over a sphere). Therefore. Antenna Parameters  Gain and Directivity  Antenna Efficiency  Beamwidth  Bandwidth  Polarization  Radiation Pattern Envelope The maximum gain of an antenna is simply defined as the product of the directivity by efficiency. other than isotropic.15 dBi ).

that which corresponds to a perfect impedance match. The minimum VSWR. vertical beamwidth is of great importance to RF Engineers as in combination will knowledge of both. one electric and one magnetic. Front to Back Ratio : The Front to Back Ratio is an important aspect of horizontal beamwidth. Front to Back Ratio = Back lobe level / Front lobe level. In general. Radiation Pattern The relative distribution of radiated power as a function of direction space is the radiation pattern of an antenna. The position and direction of the electric field with reference to the earth’s surface (the ground) determines wave polarization. Vertical polarization -. overall gain of an antenna can be defined if antenna efficiency is known. These two field are perpendicular to each other. By using the 650 or 900 antenna excessive overlap is avoided as excessive overlap can cause higher bit error rate and can degrade quality because of lot of hand over b/w adjacent sectors. The F/B typically varies 20dB and 45dB.This is what is known as "oscillation". which is very useful for rejecting c0-channel and adjacent channel interference as signal coming from the back of antenna may cause multipath interference which will increase bit error rate.e.. the greater the mismatch. is unity. Horizontal polarization —— the electric field is parallel to the ground. . the electric field is the same plane as the antenna's radiator. Both the horizontal and vertical beam width are of prime importance in selecting an antenna system. The higher the VSWR. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) VSWR is a measure of impedance mismatch between the transmission line and its load. The sum of the fields is the electromagnetic field.Antenna gain is defined by the horizontal and vertical beamwidth along the efficiency of the antenna and in general lesser the beam width higher the gain will be.the electric field is perpendicular to the ground. Polarization Radio waves are built by two fields. Energy flows back and forth from one field to the other . i. The beamwidth is defined the appending angle b/w the two pints on each side of the main lob direction where the radiated power is 3 dB lower than in the main direction. Besidetal beamwidth. Please note that a better gain will also be achieved for a reduced beam width.

VSWR = Reflected power / Transmitted power Return loss : 20 log (VSWR+1) /(VSWR –1) In base station antenna it is desirable to have low value of VSWR. The Earth's atmosphere is divided into three separate layers – the Troposphere. The temperature throughout this region is considered to be almost constant and there is little water vapour present. HF communication. Radio Propagation Model: Structure of Earth’s Atmosphere Since the radio waves are influenced by the earth’s atmosphere. This is the most important region of the atmosphere for long distance.7 miles (6 km) at the North Pole or the South Pole and 11. normally upto 1. as low VSWR means high quality. Space wave communication takes place in this layer. . The Troposphere is the portion of the Earth's atmosphere that extends from the surface of the Earth to a height of about 3. Types of Propagation Electromagnetic (radio) energy travels from a transmitting antenna to a receiving antenna.2 miles (18 km) at the equator. and the Ionosphere. The Stratosphere is located between the troposphere and the ionosphere. The temperature in this region decreases rapidly with altitude. Sky wave Ground waves are radio waves that travel near the surface of the Earth (surface and space waves). Virtually all weather phenomena take place in the troposphere. in three principal ways: 1.1 miles (50 km) to a height of about 250 miles (402 km).VSWR can also be taken as measure of return loss of the antenna. Sky waves are radio waves that are reflected back to Earth from the ionosphere. the existence and heights of these layers vary from time to time in a day.3. Some of these layers disappear in the night. The Ionosphere extends upward from about 31. It contains four cloud-like layers of electrically charged ions. Space wave 3. the Stratosphere. an understanding of the earth’s atmospheric structure is necessary. Ground wave 2.

There are various other considerations. We will go into this in detail in some of our advanced courses. Generally speaking:  Divide the available service area (where all coverage is required) into small areas.Space waves are radio waves that travel in straight lines.  Allot the different set of frequencies to all the adjacent channels of the center cell. While Planning for frequency reuse. Use the same set of frequencies for cells at the specified specified radius. Cellular Mobile Communication Cellular Concept Frequency Re-use This principle of reusing a set of frequencies in different cells of the coverage area is the main concept of Cellular Technology. · Mobility · Convenience . to decide the size of the cells and also where which frequency set is to be used. distance with Advantages over wire line Telephony. such as adjacent channel interference. the network planner has to define at what distance the frequency can be reused again and how much should be the radius of the cell.

but switched ON. Because of the short distance covered by each transceiver. The system detects this and instructs the neighboring cells to listen out for the signal and transfers the phone into the appropriate cell. . notification for a mobile about incoming call. the strength of the signal between the base station and the mobile will weaken and the level of the noise will increase. will be tracked continuously by the signaling messages in the control channel. channel assignment messages. And. In this way the network can keep a record of the current location area of each cell phone. The MSC holds information on the location of the active mobiles. may use a large number of small power transmitters.· Flexibility In cellular telephone system. each covering a small area. As the Mobile subscriber moves form one cell to another. cellular mobile system. The network will check the unique identity number that is transmitted by the Mobile station. when there is an incoming call. Calls can be terminated on a Mobile station. frequencies. A MS that is not in use. Unlike conventional systems. irrespective of the location of the Mobile station in the coverage area. the network only needs to page the MS in that particular area. Cellular Radio Principles Some major Cellular principles. the particular channel frequency can be used over and over in multiple non-adjacent cells. Control channel information contains information about Network identities. Calls can be originated from a mobile station subscriber for any other subscriber of the network (Also those of PSTN network). Call originations and terminations and Hand-Offs are below Registration and Location A unique identity is given for each MS that is registered in a network. like Registration.

MS transmits its identity and the telephone number to the MSC. in turn. locks onto it . upon detecting the idle control channel. and quality of the signal. The system continuously monitors the signals received from the MS engaged in the calls. The MSC connects the voice channel to the required route enabling the caller to monitor the ringing tone and commence conversation. The MS retunes to the frequency assigned on receipt of the message from MSC. The mobile unit recognizes its own identification on a strong set up channel.Call Initiation Mobile originated call Once a number is dialed. Each cell site transmits the page on its own setup channel. The . The MSC. Call Termination As soon as the mobile user transmitter is turned OFF. checks the signal strength. When the signal falls below a preset threshold. the system will check whether any base station can receive the MS with stronger signal. The mobile unit also follows the instruction to tune to an assigned channel and initiates user alert. The MTSO. Mobile terminated call The PSTN recognizes the dialed number as a mobile and forwards the same to the MTSO. sends a paging message to certain cell sites. after receiving the call request. cell site receives a signal and it frees the voice channel on both sides. and responds to page. If there is. validates the status and commences to route the call. the system will allocate a radio channel for the call on the new base station and cell phone will be asked by a signaling message to switch to the new frequency. Handoff This is a process of automatically changing the frequencies as the mobile unit moves into a different frequency zone so that the conversation can be continued in the new frequency zone without redialing.

cell splitting makes it possible of matching the density of available channels to the spatial density of demand for channels. while in fig b. To prevent the blockage of the system cell splitting is used. So. the original cell site is not used. Blockage occurs when a user attempts to make a call and the system is so loaded that the call cannot be completed. If this is not done.whole process takes a few seconds to complete and a break in conversation is for hardly 200. To increase traffic handling capacity within the original F1 boundary. Let us assume that the cell designated as F1 in the figure has reached capacity. I3 . and cell splitting is another concept. the cell is split into four cells. and C6 . B6 . Usually the new radius is one-half the original radius. it is: New cell radius = Old cell radius/2. the original cell can be split into smaller cells. When traffic density starts to build up and the frequency channels Fi in each cell Ci cannot provide enough mobile calls. Cell Splitting System blockage As the traffic within a cell increases towards the point where service quality is affected. As the demand continues to grow the original coverage area may ultimately be split into small cells. There are two ways of splitting: In fig a. the cell can be split into smaller cells. then based on the above equation . but all within the original cell boundary. Additionally. This technique of frequency reuse and cell splitting makes the cellular system unique and makes it possible to meet the important objectives of serving a large number of customers in a small coverage area using a small spectrum allocation. The motive behind implementing a cellular mobile system is to improve the utilization of efficiency. A measure of telephone system performance is the amount of blockage that occurs within the system. a single cell is now divided into a number of cells. “blockage” will increase. H3 .300ms. The frequency reuse scheme is one concept. As traffic grows within a cell a condition is reached where it is desirable to revise the cell boundaries in order to handle more traffic.

In fact. the term "spectrum" was originally limited to light. The electromagnetic spectrum extends in both directions from the visible range. Physicists of the 17th through 19th centuries were the first to realize that what we think of as white light is really a broad range of different colors of light from the brightest red at one end to the deepest purple at the other. lower-frequency "light" includes • .= 4 x ----------------- Spectrums: • • • • Understand the frequency ranges in the Radio Frequency spectrum Learn about the usage of the spectrum Review the need for frequency management Overview frequency management process Radio Frequency Spectrum • Perhaps the most familiar part of the electromagnetic spectrum is the Visible Light Spectrum.New cell area = Old cell area/4 Let each new cell carry the same maximum traffic load of the old cell. in reality. and cosmic rays. higher frequency "light" includes ultraviolet. white light is a spectrum of different colors. Shorter-wavelength. The light with which you are reading this page is. radiation covering part of the electromagnetic spectrum. then: New traffic load Unit area traffic load unit area --------------------. xrays. Longer-wavelength. Thus.

and that a wire carrying an alternating current is surrounded by electric and magnetic fields varying in intensity at the same frequency as the electric current.first infrared light then. Usage of the Spectrum • • • • • • • • • • Broadcasting Services Mobile Communication Services AM and FM Radios VHF and UHF Television Stations Paging Systems Trunked Radio Systems Aeronautical Communications Satellite and Microwave Communication System Policy . . the wire radiates energy that propagates just as do light waves with a frequency and wavelength corresponding to the frequency of the alternating current in the wire. Furthermore.making in Radio Frequency Management Preparation of Radio Frequency Plans Frequency Management Process Making policies and criteria for appropriate radio frequency assignment. as wavelengths become longer and longer. radio waves. • The early physicists also found that electrons traveling through wires are surrounded by both electric and magnetic fields.

Preparing radio frequency plans for each band to attain most uses and avoid interference of frequencies. • Inspect the technical specifications of radio communications equipment Inspection the technical specifications of radio communications equipment and accessories to be manufactured to ensure efficiency of communications. . manufacture and sell radio communications equipment or accessories. prevent illegality of utilization of frequencies and protect national security against harmful interference. • Radio Frequency Assignment Managing and assigning radio frequencies in accordance with the plans and allocating • Radio Communications Licensing Issuing. private enterprises and private individuals according to laws and regulations in order to ensure orderly and efficient uses of frequencies. export. and protection of national security against harmful interference. private enterprises and private individuals. • Radio Frequency Monitoring and Direction-Finding Inspecting the use of radio frequencies of government agencies. as well as the licenses to establish radio communications stations and radio operator licenses for government agencies. • Radio Communications Coordination Regional coordination committees are formed for quick processing of frequency assignments and Licensing. Mobile Station Power Classes (GSM 900) . revoking and suspending the radio communications licenses which are the licenses to import.

each giving a 2db reduction. Whenever the lower of these two limits is reaches. Manufacturers can provide up to 15 steps. BTS power control requirements are less rigid than for the MS. on the uplink or the downlink. further power control is inhibited in that direction. Typically 6 steps giving a total range of 12dB are used. Adaptive power control is not applied to the BCCH carrier on a BTS. implying the probable need for future handover.8W (29dBm) 3. there are also software parameter values set for both the MS and the BTS. In addition to these hardware limits to transmitted power.2mW (5dBm) 3. After combining losses are accounted for actual power radiated will be much lower.2mW (5dBm) 3. This carrier is continuously transmitted at the BTSs maximum power in all timeslots. .Class Maximum TX Power Minimum TX Power Power Steps (*) 1 (20W) Deleted from3.2mW (5dBm) specifications 2 3 4 5 8W (39dBm) 5W(37dBm) 2W (33dBm) 0. All other carriers at the site may be subject to adaptive power control on a timeslot basis.2mW (5dBm) 3.2mW (5dBm) 18 17 15 13 Base Station Power Classes for GSM BTS Typical maximum power out of a transceiver for most manufacture would be 40-60W.

INTRODUCTION TO GSM GSM ARCHITECTURE 2. Such interfaces are the Air interface (MS-BSS). These functional units are implemented into various hardware components.1 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM: GSM is divided into two separate entities the Switching System (SS) and the Base Station System. where all systems functions are realised. Figure 2. Each of these contains a number of functional units.1: GSM Architecture Functional units within the system are separated by interfaces. the Abis interface (BTS-BSC) and .

2 Base Transceiver Station: Each cell has a Base Transceiver Station (BTS) operating on a set of radio channels.3 Base Station Controller: A base station controller (BSC) controls a group of BTS’. and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver . BSC can be implemented as a stand-alone node or as integrated with the MSC. cell configuration data.1. These are different from the channels used in neighbouring cells to avoid interference. The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network. 2. BSC controls such information as handover and power control. The SS Includes the Following Subsystems:  Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC)  Visitor Location Register (VLR)  Home Location Register (HLR)  Authentication Centre (AUC)  Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The Base Station System (BSS) includes:  Base Station Controller (BSC)  Base Transceiver Station (BTS)  Transcoder Rate Adapter Unit (TRAU). However before undertaking to study the main functional components a brief overview of the complete system is deemed necessary. The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS.the A interface (BSC-MSC).1. It is a highcapacity switch that provides functions such as handover. 2.

AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the . Due to this we need a number of databases in the network to keep track of the MS. common channel signalling. he will be registered in the HLR of that operator. public data networks (PDN) and possibly. there will be information about the location of the MS. The originator hardly ever knows where the called MS is. The most important of these databases is the Home Location Register (HLR). Furthermore. This information changes as the MS moves around. various private networks. i. The problem arises when we want to make an MS terminated call. such as supplementary services and authentication parameters. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. both used for security reasons.5 Databases: The above-mentioned units are all involved in carrying out speech connections between an MS and for example a subscriber in a PSTN.1. such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN).stations. 2.1.4 Mobile services Switching Centre: A number of BSC’ are served by a MSC which controls calls to and from other telephony and data communication systems. The HLR contains subscriber information. A number of BSC's are served by an MSC. The function of the AUC is provided the HLR with authentication parameters and ciphering keys. The MS will send location information to its HLR. network interfacing. in which MSC area the MS resides presently.e. Authentication Centre (AUC) is connected to the HLR. integrated services digital network (ISDN). It also performs such functions as toll ticketing. public land mobile networks (PLMN). If it were not for the possibility of making calls to an MS we would not need any further equipment. and others. thus providing means to make a call. When someone buys a subscription from one of the GSM operators. he will be registered in the HLR of that operator. 2. The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system.

The Visitor Location Register is a database containing information about all the MS’s currently located in the MSC area. the VLR will have the information needed for the call set-up without having to interrogate the HLR each time. if the mobile station makes a call. The VLR is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. later on the MS wants to make a call. As soon as an MS roams into a new MSC area.confidentiality of each call. interrogating the HLR where the MS is registered can do this. The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. 2. 2. the VLR connected to that MSC would request data about the MS from the HLR.7 Mobile Station: . The VLR can be seen as a distributed HLR. The VLR will also contain more exact information about the location of the MS in the MSC area. The HLR will reply with the address to the current MSC area. If. the VLR will have the information needed for call set-up without having to interrogate the HLR each time. The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. The GMSC will have to find the location of the searched MS. When the call reaches that MSC. The gateway is often realised in an MSC. At the same time the HLR will be informed in which MSC area the MS resides. the VLR connected to that MSC would request data about the mobile station from the HLR. The call can then switched through. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world. It can be any one of the MSC in the GSM network. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC. then the VLR will know in more detail where the MS is.6 Gateway: A gateway is a node used to interconnect two networks. the exchange in the PSTN will connect the call to a gateway.1. Later. Now the GMSC can re-route the call of the current MSC. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area. If someone in a fixed network (PSTN) wants to make a call to a GSM subscribe.1.

The objective of the OMC is to offer the operator cost-effective support for the centralised regional and local operational and maintenance activities required for a cellular network. The main purpose of the OMC is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different O&M organisations. The authentication of the subscription is done by parameters from AUC. We need a database that contains the unique hardware identity of the equipment. the MS cannot get access to the GSM network. The mobile station is piece of equipment. an IC-card. except for emergency traffic. SIM and the mobile equipment together make up the mobile station. which can be vehicle installed. . 2. portable or hand-held.g. An non-type-approved MS can also be barred in this way. In GSM there is a small unit called the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Without SIM. This enables the MSC to check the validity of the equipment. which is a separate physical entity e. the Equipment Identity Register (EIR). The internal O&M functions of both SS and BSS can be reached from the OSS by means of X. This then raises the problem of stolen MS’. The EIR is connected to the MSC over a signalling link.1. the subscriber can use another MS as well as his own. since it is no use barring the subscription if the equipment is stolen.8 Operation and Maintenance: The Operations and Maintenance Centre is connected to all equipment in the Switching System and to all the BSC’s. also called a smart card. While the SIM-card is connected to the subscription and not to the MS.In GSM there is a difference between the physical equipment and the subscription.25 Links.

locate and correct faults and breakdowns in the system. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralised. BSC. in such a case OMC’s are linked together. HLR and others (BST’s are accessed through BSC's). It also provides means to modify the network once a reaction to a given problem is decided. thus. on the other hand it provides a man-machine interface for the operation personnel. According to Telecommunications Management principles. interference. regional. This feature helps to find the bottlenecks and problematic areas in the system. dropped calls. A GSM network can include several OMC’s. handovers. The network element that is in contact with BSS and NSS machines is called Operation and Maintenance Centre (OMC). and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. etc. It collects and displays alarms from all network elements and. too. The OSS enables the operator to continuously check the quality of the service provided for users through measuring parameters like traffic. An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organisations. congestion. An OMC typically consists of a database for network data and a couple of workstations Which are in charge of managing the OMC database and are in connection with other network elements. . allows the operator to detect. on the one hand the OSS is linked to major network elements such as the MSC. OMC plays an important role in the daily maintenance. The Operation Subsystem enables the operator to monitor and control the GSM network.The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system.

and the internal signalling can be used instead. It has two functional parts: the exchange system and the subscriber and terminal equipment databases.1. Authentication Centre (AUC) and the Equipment Identity Register. including a subscriber's service profile. This makes signalling between the two nodes over the GSM network unnecessary. Another functional unit of the NSS is the Voice Mail System (VMS) that does not actually fit in either of the above functional parts and is not defined by GSM specifications. . location information. Voice mail and FAX mail. The MXE is the node handling SMS service. HLR can be implemented together with the MSC/VLR or implemented as a stand-alone node. and activity status. The exchange system comprises the Mobile Services Switching Centre (MSC) and potentially other service centres. These services are optional in GSM. so the whole node is optional and does not belong to the basic system structure. the Short Message Service Centre (SMSC). Cell broadcast. The AUC & EIR are either implemented as stand –alone or as a combined AUC/EIR node. The HLR is considered the most important database.2.9 Switching System: The VLR is mostly built into the MSC. such as e. he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator.g. Home Location Register (HLR). The subscriber and terminal equipment databases contain the Visitor Location Register (VLR). The main role of the network and switching subsystem is to manage communications between GSM users and other telecommunications network users. When an individual buys a subscription from one of the PCS operators. decreasing the signalling load over the network. The HLR is a database used for storage and management of subscriptions. as it stores permanent data about subscribers.

Nevertheless. can serve the subscriber or towards external networks such as e. These functions include location registration. paging. In this case. The role of the Short Message Service Centre for written messages is identical to the role of the gateway MSC for incoming speech and data calls. and alert the SMSC if a user becomes reachable again. The GSM specifications do not exactly define all the protocols related to the SMSC and. which does not require the end-to-end establishment of a traffic path. leave some freedom for the manufacturer. which are in charge of fetching the location information and of routing the calls towards the MSC that. the PSTN. The MSC is also a gateway for communicating with other networks. the handover procedure and transferring encryption parameters and dual tone multi frequency signalling. ISDN. The difference between the MSC and an ordinary telephone exchange is that the MSC has additional functions to take into account the allocation of radio resources and to cope with the mobility of subscribers. one or more MSC's are designated as gateway MSC’s.g. PSPDN or CSPDN. Its main function is to co-ordinate the setting-up of calls to and from GSM users within its service area. It should be emphasised that the short message service is the only service in GSM. thus. what needs adaptation. The IWF is basically transmission protocol adaptation equipment that adapts the GSM transmission peculiarities to those of the partner networks such as PSTN. Short messages make use of signalling channels (namely the SDCCH and the SACCH .The MSC performs the basic switching and routing functions within the NSS. This is carried out by the interworking functions (IWFs). The NSS usually contains more than one MSC. each SMSC should include lower layer protocols which enable the delivery of short messages between the mobile station and the SMSC as well as other protocols which interrogate the HLR searching the address of the subscriber when reachable.

and by requesting the visited MSC/VLR to provide a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN). The MSISDN is the directory number that is dialled in order to contact a mobile. The HLR identifies whether a given teleservice or bearer service can be provided for a subscriber. therefore. This means that subscribers have different MSISDN's for different services. Information on supplementary services is not necessarily stored in the HLR. each controlling a number of cells and being in charge of temporarily storing subscription data for the subscribers currently situated in the service area of the corresponding MSC(s). another database function is realised in GSM: the Visitor Location Register (VLR).channels). AUC and SIM. Beside HLR. The IMSI is the unique identification number of a SIM card. It defines the service of a subscriber and not the subscriber’s telephone equipment. including at least the address of the visited MSC/VLR and the identification of the local MS. as well as of holding data on their location at a more precise level than the HLR. In GSM cells are grouped to compose location areas. Each time a mobile crosses the boundary of two location areas or it is switched on in a different . VLR's are connected to one or several MSC's. The HLR enables to forward calls towards the MSC/VLR within the service area of which the moving subscriber is situated by storing some location information. It is allocated and cross referenced with MSISDN at initial subscription and stored in the HLR. Two numbers belong to each subscriber in the home location register: the Mobile Station International ISDN number (MSISDN) and the International Mobile Station Identity (IMSI). The HLR is a database that contains subscriber-specific information relevant to the provision of telecommunications services and the current location. they can be transmitted even when the mobile is engaged in full circuit communications. used within the GSM network.

location area than the one where it was last successfully registered. each call set-up attempt and before performing activation. Here their unique International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number refers to. By doing so. Three different lists are used for IMEI's in the EIR. registration. the authentication of the GSM subscriber identity can be applied at each registration. The AUC is the network element that stores the KI number on the network side. Voice Mail . The AUC is actually a functional subdivision of the HLR but it can be a separate network element. MS’s. deactivation. the grey list is for terminals that need to be observed for some reason and finally the black list includes the IMEI's of mobile stations which need to be barred. either because they have been stolen or because of severe malfunctions. it attempts to register the subscriber by performing a location updating procedure. supports encryption and handles supplementary services and short messages. It contains encryption parameters and a random generator as well. The GSM specifications identify a network element specific to MS management. information on the subscriber is fetched from the HLR to the VLR. During location updating. VLR takes part in the authentication and handover procedure. too. The white list includes the range of IMEI's allocated to type approved mobile equipment. called Equipment Identity Register. or erasure of supplementary services. The management of security data for the authentication of subscribers is carried out in the Authentication Centre (AUC). In order to protect the network against unauthorised use. It is a database that contains information about mobile terminals. The principle of authentication is to compare the subscriber authentication key (the so-called KI number) on the network side with the KI in the SIM without ever sending it. The result of the last location update attempt is stored in the SIM.

The Voice Mail System enables to store voice messages. Incoming calls can be forwarded into the subscriber’s voice mailbox when he is busy, is out of the coverage, is switched off, does not answer or activates unconditional call forwarding into his voice mailbox. Some VMS's can also provide an intelligent alert system. Repeated delivery calls can inform the subscriber of a new message in his voice mailbox. The timing of such calls follows a timing matrix of which the rows correspond to the possible reasons why the call was forwarded into the voice mailbox. When the GSM system contains an SMSC, delivery calls can be combined with short messages: a short message is delivered to the customer subsequent to receiving a message in his voice mail box and delivery calls are only activated if the short message was unsuccessfully delivered. From architectural point of view the VMS is divided into message storage units (Winchester’s) and call message and alarm management units.

2.1.10 TRAU:
The Trans coder rate adopter unit functionally belongs to the BTS. The TRAU enables the use of lower rate (32, 16 or 8 kbps) over the Abis interface instead of the 64kbps ISDN rate that the MSC is designed to handle. The TRAU can be located at the BTS, the BSC or immediately before the MSC. GSM Identities In order to allow a mobile subscriber free movement in the GSM Network and in the GSM visited networks,the GSM system requires a little different numbering system compared to analogue mobile networks or a fixed network. The numbering system implemented in the GSM network also takes security security aspects into account.These numbers are concerned with Mobility management security management and subscriber administration

IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity. IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity. MSISDN TMSI MSISDN MSISDN Numbers are the directory numbers of the Mobile subscribers. The structure of the GSM directory number, also called MSISDN because it is part of the same numbering plan as ISDN numbers. Subscriber may have more than one MSISDN due to the fact that the MSISDN actually defines the service used, not the telephony equipment For a mobile terminating call, the number dialed by the calling party is MSISDN number, this does not refer to a telephone line or location, but points to some HLR. For all mobile terminating calls, HLR is interrogated by the GMSC, which tells the routing information to GMSC, thus the call is routed to respective MSC. Within the GSM network, a mobile is identified by IMSI, the corresponding IMSI number is produced by the HLR for MSISDN. The maximum length of the MSISDN number can be 15 digits, prefix not included. Example : +358 50 5009999 CC Country code 358 50 5009999 Mobile Station International ISDN Number Temporary Mobile Station Identity.

NDC National destination code SN IMSI Subscriber Number

Uniquely identifies subscriber in a GSM PLMN. The International Mobile subscriber Identity is a 15 digit number(GSM

Recommendation), allotted by the network operator . The mobile subscriber is identified by the IMSI, by its home network as well as by other networks. The visited Network identifies the subscriber’s Network by MCC & MNC part of

the IMSI. The network uses this number for identification and also for security reasons.This is defined by the operator(partly) and it is stored in the HLR,VLR ,the AUC and the SIM. HLR is the place where both IMSI and MSISDN are tied together This number is stored in the SIM card & protected against changes Compared to the MSISDN,the mobile subscriber has only one IMSI but may have many MSISDN numbers.

IMSI is exclusively for the internal business of the Network. It is composed of 3 parameters MCC Mobile country code MNC Mobile network code 3 Digits 2 Digits

MSIN Mobile subscriber Identification number 10 Digits maximum

MSRN It is composed of 3 parameters CC NDC SN Country code National destination code Subscriber Number

The MSRN & MSISDN have the same format but there is a difference.In MSRN,the subscriber Number is the address to the serving MSC.

It is not allocated permanently to a subscriber & its purpose is only to route the call to visited MSC.e. While the MSISDN gives the routing information for the GMSC to MS with in the same PLMN. but it is used exclusively between the Home PLMN & visited PLMN. which contains the subscriber’s record and location information of the subscriber (address of the visited MSC/VLR) i.  When a mobile terminated call lands in the home GMSC/MSC.  The home HLR also contains the MSRN.164 numbering plan. where the subscriber is currently located. MSRN is not visible to the GSM users or calling subscriber. it is not located in the home network.e.  If the MSRN number is not available in the Home HLR.MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number) number is important when the Mobile station is roaming in the other network i.  There is pool of MSRN in the MSC/VLR.  When the call reaches the visited MSC. it is linked with the IMSI. but MSRN gives the routing information about the second leg of the call i. provided by the visited MSC/VLR at the time of location updating by the MS. using the MSRN as the address. the MSC can retrieve the IMSI from its records can go ahead with the establishment of the call towards the mobile station.e. TMSI  The temporary Mobile Subscriber identity is an alias for the subscriber . respective HLR is interrogated. Both MSISDN & MSRN are the routing numbers and part of the CCITT E. then it interrogates the visited MSC/VLR to get the routing information. from GMSC to the visited MSC.

 TMSI is allocated by the network on the Location area basis i. and is released when it leaves that location area.  BCCH and other control channels are not ciphered and ciphering takes place only when the network has identified the subscriber. TMSI increases the subscriber confidentiality and is known only within the serving MSC/VLR area. where more than twice as many mobile stations may be paged in a single message. there is some bootstrap period. To prevent this TMSI is used and .  The short length of the TMSI allows spectrum saving on the radio path. but not in the HLR. compared to paging using IMSI (since the TMSI is shorter).  Advantages  Using TMSI. security increases as real subscriber identity is hidden. When a subscriber moves to a dedicated mode.  A TMSI is first allocated to a mobile station the first time it registers in the location area. during which the network doesn’t know the identity of subscriber. This is especially the case for paging messages (For mobile Terminating calls).  The TMSI is stored in the subscriber’s record held by the MSC/VLR. there is possibility of monitoring the movement of MS.identity used in order to avoid sending the IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) in clear on the radio path. During this period.  TMSI provides the protection to the subscriber about the current location of the MS to be monitored. when using the TMSI.e. therefore cannot cipher. as the MS moves from one location area to another location area. it keep on changing.

Such . it is not allowed to be used except for emergency calls.exchanged between the network and MS> IMEI International Mobile Equipment identity  By performing the IMEI check procedure the network knows what mobile equipment use the network  Basically an operator may have 3 lists of mobile stations hardware: black. Badly designed or damaged equipment may not only degrade the quality of service for its user but also to other users of the network.  The grey list contains mobile station hardware which is potentially faulty or suspect.  The white list is composed of all number series of equipment identities allocated in any GSM network. This number does not tell the information of the subscriber. which is called IMEI (International Mobile equipment Identity. The correct functioning of the Mobile is the concern for the Network Operator.e.white and grey  When a mobile station hardware is on the black list. I. the mobile station hardware on the grey list is under observation.  IMEI has a length of 15 digits:  TAC  FAC  SNR  SP Type approval code Final assembly code 6 digits 2 digits 6 digits Manufacturer serial number Spare for future 1 digit The hardware of the Mobile station is called Mobile Equipment which is allotted a unique 15 digits number.

which are attributed to a mobile station. MS send the following information to Network Revision Level Identifies the phase of the GSM specifications that the mobile complies with RF Power compatibility The maximum power that the MS is able to transmit. The procedures on the radio interface are such that the mobile station does not send its IMEI at its own. used for power control and handover preparation. Frequency Capability Indicates the frequency bands the MS can receive and transmits. This information is held in mobile power class number. the network must determine the IMEI of this mobile station. Ciphering Algorithm Indicates which ciphering algorithm is implemented in the MS. There is only one algorithm A% in GSM phase 1 but Phase 2 specifies 8 algorithms A5/0 to A5/7. Short Message Capability Indicates whether the MS is able to receive short messages. When maintenance activities detect a problem. During the IMEI Check.interfering mobiles are detected by the network by its IMEI. CGI Cell global Identity CI Cell Identity MCC Mobile country code MNC Mobile network code LAC Location area Code CI identifies the cell within a location area and has a length of a maximum of .

It is the area in which the subscriber is paged.identifies the GSM PLMN of that country LAC identifies a Location Area within a GSM PLMN.16 bits Location Area The location area is a group of cells. GSM Services  Various types of services in GSM System. enabling 65536 different location areas to be defined in one GSM PLMN. Each LA is served by one or more base station controllers. – Teleservices – Bearer Services – Supplementary Services – Short Message Services – Broadcast Message Services . LAI Location Area Identity LAI has 3 parameters MCC Mobile country code MNC Mobile network code LAC Location area code MCC is a 3 digit code MNC is a 2 digit code . The maximum length of an LAC is 16 bits. yet only by a single MSC Each LA is assigned a location area identity (LAI) number.

authentication procedure is unsuccessful.Telephony . All security functions apply to all Teleservices.Emergency calls • Short Message Service Speech . derived from telephony. Speech Services Telephony Speech. establishment of bi-directional speech calls with . Telephony is a Teleservices offering a “normal”. This service enables a GSM user.Cell broadcast • • Voice mail Facsimile Transmission Telephony is the most important service provided by the GSM.. i.Mobile Originated . traditional call.e. the call may be rejected.Teleservices Major Teleservices supported by GSM network • . Emergency calling is a distinct service. for instance.Mobile Terminated . if.

The only exception is Speech. Emergency call Emergency calls is separate service because it is handled in a bit different way in the network It allows the user of a mobile station to reach a nearby emergency service through a simple & unified procedure by dialing “112” through his GSM mobile telephone. Mobile Terminated SMS’s are point-topoint services. from one subscriber to another. Mobile Originated In the case of a Mobile Originated SMS.e. Emergency Calls. Mobile subscriber is able to receive a short message during the call. Mobile Originated and Mobile Terminated SMS’s are point-to-point services. i. Short Message Service (SMS). the network receives and stores the message in the SC. no matter if the security procedures are unsuccessful.another GSM user or PSTN subscriber reachable through PSTN network. From the network point of view. from one subscriber to another. this service requires a dedicated unit called Service Centre (SC) which is located in the NSS and has a signaling connection to the MSC. . The GSM network recognizes digit sequence ‘112’ as an emergency call which is handled as described.e... In the case of a Mobile Terminated SMS. i. There is no need to have SIM card or registration with the network operator to avail the emergency service. the network sends the message stored in SC further to the receiving Mobile subscriber. Mobile Terminated The short Message Service is a service enabling the Mobile Subscriber to receive and send short text format messages. It is defined that a recognized emergency call is tried to be connected through. Short Message Service (SMS).

Call Control: Which handles the procedures concerning call control? Eg. 2. between the MSC and the BSC. Abis-Interface: The Abis interface responsible for transmitting traffic and signalling information between the BSC and the BTS. Connection Management(CM): 1. Um interfaces.Interface The interface between MSC and MS is called A. GSM Channels . signalling and traffic. Setup. which includes the handover procedure. 4. Mobility Management(MM) : Mobility management handles functions for authentication. Radio Resources Management : It contains the functions concerning the radio link. allowing up to eight conversations to be handled simultaneously by the same carrier. maintain and release the radio connection between the network and the mobile station. Call waiting. Here we find the capability to establish. RR (Radio Resource Management). Short Message Service : Enables the MS to handle short message transfer to and from the network. This interface is the radio interface between the mobile station and the network and uses layer three messages. On layer three messages we have the division of message types into CM (Connection Management). The TDMA techniques used to divide each carrier into eight time slots. The A interface provides two distinct types of information. Supplementary Services: Which handles such as call bearing. The Air interface uses the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technique to transmit and receive traffic and signalling information between the BTS and MS. These time slots are then assigned to specific users. Um (Air) Interface: This is the interface between the mobile station and the Base station. Abis. On these interface only three layers are defined A-interface: A interface between the BSC and the MSC. identification and others concerning the mobility of the mobile station. location updating. change of bearer service. Call forwarding etc? 3. MM (Mobility Management).

location updating or make call access(originating). . to able the mobile synchronise to the frequency (Doqnlink only). Reads only by idle at least once every 30 secs (Downlink only) FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel): To tell the mobile that this is the BCCH carrier. uplink only.8kpbs. MAIO. 2) Access Grant Channel (AGCH).5Kbps or sending data rate at 11. Logical channels again divided into two types there are Traffic channel and Control channels Traffic Channels: Used for speech and data. 3) Page Channel (PCH) RACH (Random Access Channel) : The RACH is used to send a channel request to the network to setup a call. either with traffic or dummy burst. Physical channel: One timeslot on one carrier is called physical channel Logical Channel: Information carried by physical channels is called logical channels. ARFCN(BCCH). Logical channels are mapped on physical channel. Half rate is used for speech at 6. training sequence number. Used for sending information to the mobile like CGI (Cell Global identity). Timing Advance. AGCH (Access Grant Channel): This channel is giving the acknowledgement and immediate assign a SDCCH channel. Control Channels: Control channles are used by the MS to establish communication with the network in the idle mode and also in initiating calls to enter the dedicated mode. The control cahnnels are grouped as Broadcast Control channels (BCCH). Common Control Channels(CCCH) and Dedicated Control Channel(DCCH). BCCH carriers of the neighboring cells. it contains frame number and BSIC ( Base Station Identity Code) CCCH (Common Control Channel) : The CCCH is subdivided into the 1) Random Access Channel (RACH).4kbps. Timeslot 0 of the BCH carrier contains logical control channels. SCH (Synchronisation Channel): Carries information for frame synchronisation. again traffic channels is divided into two types of rate one is Full rate and Half rate. The BCH carrier has all 8 time slots continuously on. timeslot number. 2) SCH. maximum output power allowed in the cell and other broadcast messages like barred cell.HSN downlink only. Broadcast Control Channels: BCCH channel is divided into three types of channel they are 1)BCH. used for responding the paging(terminating) by asking for a signalling channel. Full rate is used for speech at 13Kbps or sending data rate at 22. BSIC.There are two types of channels such as Physical channel and Logical channel. 3)FCCH BCH(Broadcast channel): Each cell has one carrier designated as a BCH carrier. LAI (Location Area Identity).

such as power control instructions and specific timing advance instructions. is the swicting of an on-going call to a different channel or cell. Handovers: Handover is the process in which. On the forward link. SACCH is used to send slow but regularly changing control information to each mobile on that ARFCN. Handover. authentication. . Work by stealing traffic bursts. Cells under the control of different BSCs. or hanoff ass it is called in North America. DCCH (Dedicated Control Channel): The DCCH is subdivided into the 1) Standard –alone Dedicated channel (SDCCH). during the active mode of MS and the call will continue. It is used to send fast message like hand over message.PCH (Paging Channel) : Used for paging the mobile. as well as BCH measurement results from neighbouring cells. There are four types of handover in the GSM system. both uplink and down link. this channel is for both uplink as well as downlink. ciphering. 2) Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH). it contains the MS identity number. The execution and measurement required fro handover form one of basic functions of RR management. the IMSI or TMSI and downlink only. till the MS disconnects the call. which involve transferring a call between: • • • • Channels (timeslots) in the same cell Cells (Base Transceiver Stations) under the control of the same Base Station Controller (BSC). SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel): This channel is used to transfer signal while MS have ongoing conversation on traffic or while SDCCH is used. 3) Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) SDCCH (Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel): This channel is used to call setup. but belonging to the same Mobile Services Switching Centre (MSC). and Cell under the control of different MSCs. reason could be an incoming call or an incoming short text message. location update and SMS. FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel): This channel is associated with TCH only. The reverse SACCH carries information about the received signal strength and the quality of the TCH. the service to the subscriber is transferred from the serving cell to another cell.

Preamble With the current exponential growth in radio based communication throughout world. It is then necessary to calculate the diameter of the first fersenal zone (the major addative elements of the radio wave in . microwave links are increasingly being employed over more difficult paths. modified to show the Earth’s curvature and the increase in that curvature due to refraction of the miceowave radio wave. It is not easy to identify a particular radio tower (or building) at these distances. say those of 10kms or more between antenna positions. These on-costs include de-installation . To this path profile are added features such as trees and buildings. man-made earth works not detaild in survey maps. even with binoculars. One mistake in a contract could cost more than the profit margin. A microwave radio links is usally engineered on the basis of there being a clear lineof-sight(LOS) between the antennas at opposite ends of the link. and occasionally. particularly at the higher frequeincies. Line-of-sight(LOS) surveys form an important part of ther engineering considerations for the planning of microwave radio links. a path profile being a cross section graph of counters between antenna positions. A microwave link installed over a non-viable path involves a lot of on-costs. re-engineering for alternative communications. Matters are not quite so simple for longers links. requiring graeter accuracy in LOS survey methods. often a simple check as to whether a site can be seen from the roof of a building. possible-using binocular is all that is needed. project delays. unless that tower is in a landmark position and the visibility is very clear. and damage to reputations. For short paths. Microwave engineering procedure has been to check the radio profiles.

waveront theory) and add this to the graph to ensure there is sufficient clearance over any potential obstructions along the path during refraction fades ( the effect of an increase in the Earth’s curvature due to atmospheric conditions). waveguide runs can be longer allowing the RF unit to be mounted remotely from the antenna. . Optionally. Furthermore. digital radio relay systems in the microwave and milli metric bands provide economic transmission options. The based band shelf provides the interfaces to the traffic data and thereby to outside world. if based outdoors. an indoor or outdoor mounted radio frequency(RF) transceiver and a parabolic antenna. The RF transceiver. coupledn with the advantages of rapid deployment and network control and ownership. lower frequency products. Typical Microwave radio systems and network considerations Modern digital microwave radio systems provide a feasible technical solution for telecommunications transmission links at distances up to 80km ( much greater distances are achievable under specila path engineering conditions) and can carry capacities up to N x 155Mbps. particularly in wireless based networks. and in the latter case. Such systems are increasingly being deployed in both cellular and fixed telecommunications networks. Each terminal transmits and receives information to and from the opposite terminal simultaneously providing full duplex operation. to ensure the link will meet its performance objectives. Mounting the RF unit outdoors allows the system to be designed with minimum use of waveguide. the baseband unit is co-located with the RF unit typically in a 19 inch or slim rack whereas modern products allow the baseband and RF unit to be separated by up to 300 meters of commercially available coaxial cable. In older. A typical microwave radio terminal consists of an indoor mounted base bend shelf. can be mounted directly behind the parabolic antenna separated by a shot run of waveguide.

utilizing only one frequency channel per link. and the frequency inefficiency of this technique is therefore a major consideration in many parts of the world. Space diversity requires use of additional antenna. A protected terminal provides full duplication of all active elements. The following lkist can be considered as insight into some of the planning processes required for microwave radio systems. Microwave terminals are available in non-protected and protected configurations. bothe the RF transceiver an the base band components. which also apply to microwave radio relay systems. MHSB systems are available using one single-feed antenna per terminal. There are many general principles applying to planning a transmission network of leased lines or self-provide cable-based systems. MHSB thus seems an efficient protection scheme in relation to equipment and frequency usage. Frequency diversity can be achieved with one antenna per terminal configured with a dual-pole feed. Both space diversity and frequency diversity provide protection against path fading due to multipath propogation in addition to providing protection against equipment failure. Such techniques are typically only required in bands below 10 GHz. There will . in addition to a few specifics for microwave systems. reduces losses. space diversity. which must be separated vertically in line with engineering calculations. i. It is alsi the normal protection scheme at the higher frequencies where multipath fading is of negligible concern.which saves on costs. Frequency diversity has the disadvantages of reqiring two frequency channels paer link. and reduce efforts in installation and commissioning.e. A number of protection schemes are available including frequency diversity. specially for long paths over flat terrain or over areas subject to atmospheric inversion layers. The transmission section of the netwok is a critical compnenet of any network and care must be taken to plan it accordingly. MHSB protection can be used at frequencies below 10 GHz if the path conditions are suitable. and monitored hot standby (MHSB).

taking into account overall network availability required and network integrity as a function of the topology chosen. free-space attenuation in the frequency management authorities will very likely regulate the EIRP. or attenuation due to the atmosphere.e. Preliminary path budgets are normally calculated either in the form of a spreadsheet. Establish line-of-sight. this also means that frequency re-use distances are shorter: essentially.obviously be variations due to specific operating conditions and objectives of different operators. Also. Path availability of a specific microwave link is a factor of a number of components in relation to the path budget which will take into account net output power expressed as an equivalent isotropic ally radiated power (EIRP) figure at the antenna. and therefore this should not be considered a definitive list. the distance between links operating on the same frequency can be shorter without fear of interference. Microwave path availabilities. As a result using lower frequency bands for longer paths and higher frequencies for shorter paths can make most efficient use of the frequency spectrum. as this has an effect on frequency reuse and management. planning is an iterative process. the shorter the achievable distances. or using software tools available from equipment manufacturers. • • • • • Produce preliminary network design. i. However. Determine local frequency availability and regulations relating to frequency management. . and the following list does not necessarily follow sequentially in every case. Path availability targets should also be established and the user should calculate its taret availability. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves dictate that the higher the frequency the greater the free space loss. Select sites.

and with the unaided eye or binoculars. . radio LOS equate to optical LOS: you’re at the location of the antenna at one end of the link. In many cases. The term Line of Sight (LOS) as applied to radio links has a pretty obvious meaning: the antennas at the ends of the link can see each other. you can see the antenna (or its future site) at the other end of the link. there is a clear transmission path between the two nodes of the link. at least in a radio sense.e. and we’ve only scratched the surface here) Line of sight propagation It is fundamental to the correct performance of a microwave radio link that line-of sight is available.Microwave Radio Propagation (Radio awe propagation is a vast topic. i. In other cased. we may still have an LOS path even though we can’t see the other end visually.

namely by creating a path profile. but it is definitely not a sure thing. the answer is yes. There are other factors too. to the horizon).This is because the radio horizon extends beyond the optical horizon. but if there is a direct path between the antennas. buildings. . or by surveying the actual path. then we still have radio LOS. valleys etc) and the coverage of the earth (trees. Proximity of obstructions 4. which we have just considered? In some cases. Does having LOS mean that the path loss will be equal to the free space case. The surface of the earth varies in height above sea level (mountains. Refractivity effects of the atmosphere 3. which are to be considered in establishing LOS path. Noise and Interference from other systems Earth Curvature and LOS Range Curvature of the earth limits how far we can see an object on the earth (i.e. Absorption and scattering of the atmosphere 6. Reflections 5. There are two ways of establishing line-of-sight. A path profile is established from topographical maps.) all form obstacles to LOS transmission. Earth Curvature (Earth Bulge”) 2. Impediments to Microwave LOS propagation The limitations imposed by terrestrial radio wave propagation (as opposed to free space propagation) are as follows: 1. Radio waves follow slightly curved paths in the atmosphere. which doesn’t pass through ay obstacles. transmission wires etc. or how above the earth an object beyond the horizon must be if it is be seen.

The ITU model for refractivity N is given. pressure “P”and water vapor partial pressure ”e”.000 km the microwaves bend towards the earth but with a radius greater than that of the earth i. Radio Refractive Index Variations in the atmosphere density cause the radio waves to refract in the atmosphere. . With respect to the grazing angle of the ray to the local horizontal.e. relates to Flat earth case. The effective radius of the earth is increased from ‘ruby a factor k to ---“re”= k*r In an ITU-R standard atmosphere k=4/3 but atmospheric conditions vary such that k may typically vary say from k=2/3 (sub refraction where rays bend upwards) to k for super refraction where the ray has the same curvature as the earth and could theoretically propagate right around the world). The value of k=infinitive. not straight lines but in circular arcs. For a standard atmosphere the value of r is =25.These have to be added to the curved earth to determine the necessary height of antennas to ensure microwaves LOS. The troposphere refractive index “n” varies only slightly with temperature “T”. This gradient causes microwaves to propagate. hence the refractive index is characterized by a related quantity refractivity. earth radius 6371 km Rather than deal with curved radio rays it is convenient to subtract the curvature of the ray from both ray and the earth to deal with an effective earth curvature” and straight rays. with a radius “r”.

thus shortening the radio horizon and reducing the clearance over obstacles along the path. However. Result from some LOS surveys. which is used to account for this phenomenon: when the path profile is plotted. suggest a value of K=4/3 (instead of K=7/6) might be more appropriate figure to use for optical LOS surveys. A more serious concern is sub refraction. 3. the ray bend more then normal and the horizon is extended : in extreme cases. the paths of the radio waves can be plotted as straight lines. as such fades are usually quick and fast.When designing a microwave radio link one must plan for LOS clearance of ground obstructions using the effective e earth radius “re”=kr. This will generally go unnoticed. for expected values of “k”the earth bulge is then calculated as h at (d1.3 Proximity of Obstructions . In super refraction. it leads to the phenomenon known as ducting. we reduce the curvature of the earth’s surface. If we choose the curvature properly. in which the bending of the rays is less than normal. and possibly even an outage due to deep fading signal beyond the fade margin provided at designating stage. unusual weather conditions can change the refractivity profile dramatically.thus the often-heard term “4/3 earth radius” in discussions of terrestrial propogation. then there will be a number of operational links that do not meet their performance objectives during refractional links that do not meet their performance objectives during refraction fades to K=2/3.d2) point ={0.1. This may lead to increased path loss. Hence there may not be signal to antenna and link suffers from receive signal fading. Under normal conditions. If K=4/3 is the appropriate value to use.078 (d1* d2)} /k meters where d1 is the distance of point from one end and d2 is the distance of same point from other end of path. this is just an approximation that applies under typical conditions-as VHF/UHF experimenters well know. the gradient in refractivity index is such that real world propogation isequivalent to straight-line propogation over an earth whose radius is greater than the real one by a factor of 4/3. This can lead to several different conditions. using recently developed and more powerful surveying tools. There is a convenient artifice. where the signal can propagate over enormous distances beyond the normal horizon.

but Fresnel zones are threedimensional. In fact. despite The face that this point is in “line of sight” of the source assuming as “knife edge” diffraction.The same considerations apply when the objects limiting path clearance are to the side or even above the radio path. we are dealing only with the “negative height”. 20 dB would be a better estimate in many cases. it is sufficient to have 60% of the first Fresnel clearance. since this will still give a resultant. but more often than not. the obstacle will be rounded (such as a hilltop)or have a large flat surface (like the top of a building). In such cases. This is sometimes a reasonable approximation of an object in the real world. So. For most practical purposes. zero clearance (grazing) case. Since we are considering LOS paths in this section. . it is essential to provide sufficient clearences over the obstructions all along the path as well the proximity of the beam propagating. It has been shown (theoretically and experimentally) that if a clearance measured in Fresnel Zones ( usually one zone clearance is sufficient) is maintained over the whole of the path then diffractive effects are minimised Fresnel zones are defined as Ellipsoids of revolution about LOS path.in facts.Keep in mind that this is only a two-dimensional representation. this means that the top of the obstacle is small in terms of wavelengths. which decreases the received signal.In order to establish LOS it is not sufficient to provide grazing clearance of the earth bulge and any obstructions on the earth surface only. The reason is diffraction off the surface or any obstructions can lead to destructive interference. A radio path has first Fresnel zone clearance if . So. or otherwise depart from the knife-edge assumption. no objects capable of causing significant diffraction penetrate the corresponding ellipsoid. the path loss for the grazing case can be considerably more than 6 dB. Fresnel zone clearance can be pretty important on real-world paths. At a position which is level with the top of the obstacle. only the first Fresnel zone needs to be considered. which is very close to the free space value. the signal power density is down by some 6 dB. Basically.

such as trees. the size of the Fresenl Zone increases. behave differently in response to environmental conditions.Fresnel divided the path into several zones based on the phase and speed of the propogating waves. . Also. The first six-thenths of the first Frensel zone must be clear of obstructions to ensure a strong.Radio line-of-sight is not the same as optical line-of-sight (that is. A French physicist Augustin Fresnel. that encroach within more than four-tenths of the first Fresnel zone will weaken a microwave signal and may prevent communication across the radio link. reliable radio link is also referred to as 0. the ability to see one end of a link from the other). therefore. Therefore.6 F1 clearence. The size of each Fresnel Zone varies based on the frequency of the radio signal and the length of the path. As the length of the path increases. Microwaves have a lower frequency than visible light and. the individual waves that make up a radio signal do not travel at the same phase velocity. As frequency decreases.the size of the Fresnel zone also increases. Radio line-ofsight requires more clearance than optical lines-of-sight to accommodate the characteristics of microwave signals. An electromagnetic wave does not travel in a straight line: the wave spreads out as it propagates. defined the propogation of a radio wave as a three-dimentional elliptical path between the transmitter and receiver. buildings. A Fresnel Zone’s radius is greatest at the midpoint of the path.Fresnel Zone The endpoint of a Microwave link must have unobstructed radio line-of-sight. the midpoint requires the most clearance of any point in the path. Objects. or hills.

Figure below illustrates a path that does not provide adequate Fresnel zone clearance. The path has optical line-of-sight but the treetop encroaches more than 40% into the first Fresnel zone.

Fresenal zone calculations
For first Fresnel zone clearance, the distance h from the nearest point of the obstacle to the direct path must be at least

FORMULA

Where d1 and d2 are the distances from the tip of the obstacle to the two ends of the ratio circuit. For convenience, the clearance can be expressed in terms of frequency: FORMULA H = 17.3 sqrt ( (d1*d2)/(f*(d1+d2))) Where f is the frequency in GHz, d1 and d2 are in km, and h is in meters. Effects of Atmospheric Refraction Radio waves move slower through substances of greater densities. This causes a wave to bend or refract as it travels through substances of different densities. Since the density of the earth’s atmosphere decreases as altitude increases, the bottom of a radio wave travels through a denser atmosphere and moves more slowly than the top of the wave. This causes the radio signal to refract or bend towards to earth,s surface following the curvature of the earth. Refraction varies with environment conditions, such as humidity, temperature, barometric pressure, and air density. The refraction index, or K factor, describes how a ration wave bends in relation to the earth’s surface. In general, a path profile will use K=4/3 to determine the effects of refraction on a proposed ration link. FORMULA H = (d1*d2)/12.75k H d1,d2 Effective Earth Curvature in mtr Kms

K

Earth Radius Factor Effective Earth Radius/True Earth Radius

Valkues of K: 4/3, 2/3, ½, 1 Dependent on surface refractivity

Recommended Clearance Criteria 3.1.4 Reflections Ground reflections can be a major cause of fading. An LOS may have adequate Fresnel zone clearance, and yet still have a path loss, which differs significantly, from free space under normal refraction conditions. If this is the case, the cause is probably multipath propogation resulting from reflections (multipath also poses particular problems for digital transmission systems- we’ll look at this a bit later, but here we are only considering path loss). One common source of reflections is the ground. It tends to be more of a factor on paths in rural areas; in urban settings the ground reflection path will often be blocked by the clutter of buildings, trees, etc.In paths over relatively smooth ground or bodies of water, however, ground reflections can be a major determinant of path loss. It should also be kept in mind that the reflection point is not as the midpoint of the path unless the antennas are at the same height and the groung is not sloped in the reflection region- just the remembered the old maxim from optics that the angle of incidence equals the angel of reflection. Reduce or even remove the effects of reflections by adjusting antenna heights to move reflection points from areas of higher reflectivitiy to areas of lesser reflectivity (woods, highly broken ground etc) Notice that there is a large different in reflection amplitude between horizontal and vertical polarization and that vertical polarization and that vertical polarization in

. no reflection loss). other factors such as mounting constraints and rejection of other sources of multipath and interference also enter into the choice of polarization). the angle of incidence of the ground reflection would only be about T 0. for longer-range paths. these angels will only occur on very short paths..General gives rise to a much smaller reflected wave. the phase change is a function of the angle of incidence and the ground charecteristics. in radio transmission the angle of incidence is normally measured with respect to a tangent to that reflecting surface rather than a normal to it). ground reflections are always bad news. Perhaps more surprisingly. both polarizations will give reflection amplitudes nearly unity (i. For very short paths. the angle of incidence tends to be of the order of one degree or lessfor example. In other words. but for vertically polarized waves. there will be very little difference in performance between horizontal and vertical polarization.11 degrees. In such a case. it is usually worthwile to try both polarizations to see which works better (of course. for shorter paths. or paths with extraordinarily high antennas. horizontal polarization will generally give rise to a stronger reflection. there will also be a phase reversal in both cases. The upshot of all this is that for most paths in which the ground reflection is significant (and no other reflections are present). for a 10 km path over smooth earth with 10 m antenna heights. unlike in optics. So . switching to vertical polarization may provide a solution. However. For typical paths. HorIzontally polarized waves always undergo a phase reversal upon reflection. If it turns out that this causes cancellation rather than enhancement. the difference is large only for angles of incidence greater than a few degrees(note that. Serious problems with ground reflections are most commonly encountered with radio links across bodies of water. in practice.e.

the angle of incidence may be much larger than zero. it may be possible to adjust the antenna locations so as to move the reflection point to a rough area of land. When the reflecting surface is vertical. Therefore.Spread spectrum techniques and diversity antenna arrangements usually can’t overcome the problems. In such cases.1. On long links. you have a permanent “flat fade” over a very wide bandwidth. like the side of a building. horizontal polarization will generally result in weaker reflections and less multipath than vertical polarization in these cases. unlike the ground reflection case. however. The “ground reflection” on a particular path may be from a building rooftop rather than the ground itself.5 Absorption and scattering of the atmosphere Atmospheric changes and multipathing can cause fades in the signal level that must be accounted for overall link designing. In other cases. which scatters the signal rather than creating a strong specular reflection. which is transmitted with horizontal polarization effectively.g.. . Other Source of Reflections Much of what has been said about ground reflections applies to reflections from other objects as well. are a different story. which are well off to the side of the direct path. 3.in essence. whicle the direct path is unimpaired. vertically polarized signals tend to produce lower-amplitude reflections than horizontally polarized signals when the angle of incidence exceeds a few degrees. This is a frequent occurrence in urban areas. reflections from objects near the line of the direct path will almost always cause increased path loss. Reflections from objects. but the effect is much the same. This means that horizontal and vertical polarization may behave quite differently. where the side of buildings can cause strong reflections.the solution lies in siting the antennas (e. a signal. away from the shore of the body of water) such that the reflected path is cut off by natural obstacle. has vertical polarization as far as the reflection is concerned.

and there are a nuber of variables involved. Isolated trees are not usually a major problem. 0. the attenuation is of the order of 0. but a dense forest is another story.1dB/m at 500 MHz. 0.. Attenuation from fog only becomes noticeable(i. the attenution is somewhat lower for horizontal polarization than for vertical.3 dB/m at 2 GHz and 0. Snow is in this category as well. 0. Rain induced fading Multipath fading-extra power called fade margin allocated to allow for Appropriate depth fades Thermal radiation from sun Interference caused by precipitation scatter and ducting Cross polarization-induced crosstalk Rain Fading Heavy rain falls infrequently but can have a large effect a=on a microwave link particularly at and above 10GHz. sub as the specific type of tree le3aves are present or not.2 dB/m at 1GHz. attenution of the order of 1db or more) above about 30 GHz. but the difference disappears above about 1GHz.• • • • • • Background gaseous absorption that is an additional loss. The attenution depends on the distance the signal must penetrate through the forest .4 dB/m at 3 GHz. where a heavy rainfall may cause additional path loss of the order of 1B/km. At lower frequencies. . and it increases with frequency.e.05dB/m at 200 MHz. Rain attenution becomes significant at around 10 GHz. According to a CCIR repot. Attenution from Trees and Forests Trees can be a significant source of path loss.

fading margin. If the two waves are 180 degree apart when they reach the receiver. such as a body of water. path clearance. Multipath means that the radio signal can travel multiple paths to reach the receiver.This adds up to a lot of excess path loss if the signal must penetrate several hundred meters of forest. a flat stretch of earth. both signals are at the same point in the wave cycle when they reach the receiver) then the signal is amplified. If the two waves reach the receiver out-of-phase (that is. they can completely cancel each other out so that at radio does not receive a signal at all. they weaken the overall received signal. reflect radio signls. If the two signals reach the receiver inphase (that is.). especially if antenna is up near treetop level or keep them a good distane from the edge of the forest. the statistical probability of all above events are calculated and allowed for in the link design (distance. or absorbed by the object. A reflected wave causes a phenomenon known as multipath. . be reflected by the object. SA location where a signal is canceled out bu multipath is called a “null” or “downfade”. Multipath Fading As described earlier in the discussion of Fresnel Zone. multipath occurs when a reflected wave reaches the receiver at the same as the direct wave that travels in straight line from the transmitter. When a radio wave hits a physical object. etc. there is also significant propagation by diffraction over the treetops. Typically. Fortunately. it may penetrate the object. In commercial radio link planning. the two signals are at opposite points in the wave cycle when they reach the receiver). a radio signal is composed of individual waves that travel in different directions as the signal propagates. or a metal roof. Smooth surfaces. This is known as an üpfade”.

you shoulkd design a path so that the reflected signal is dispersed by an uneven surface before it reaches the receiver and cancels out the direct wave. the height of the transmitting antenna has been reduced so that the reflected signal is dispersed by rocky terrain. If necessary. Types of Antennas . In other words. you should design the path so its reflection point does not fall on a refletive surface.To avoid system failures. you can adjust the height or change the position of one or both antennas to move the reflection point so that it is blocked by an obstruction or strikes an uneven surface. In adjacent Figure. Global Mapper software helps to identify the location of a paths reflection point.

to maintain continuity. Here. We will discuss these interferences later in the section. antennas can be broadly classified into Transmitting and Receiving antennas. some topics may be repeated form the fundamentals. Antenna parameters like gain. we will talk about antennas that are specifically utilized in communications. in this unit.000 (42. Communications antennas can be specifically categorized into Earth Station antennas and Spacecraft or antennas. Certain forms of interference present specific problems for systems which are not encountered in other radio systems. the radio frequency at which it operates and the efficiency with which it focuses the radio waves. the gain of a 1 m antenna is about 16. let us take a re-look at some basic antenna parameters that we learnt in our fundamentals. Before we start talking about antennas. beam-width and sidelobes are revisited in the following. features of antenna design that control interference have to be specially designed.04 dbi). .000 (48.04 dbi) at its typical operating frequency (14 GHz). What we need to understand at this point of time is that due to these specific interferences. Many of the properties of antennas apply equally to both transmit and receive modes of operation. According to their function. A single antenna is also frequently used for transmitting and receiving signals simultaneously (duplex antenna). Antenna Gain The gain of the antenna depends upon the size of the antenna. However. For example. The antenna gain is proportional to the aperture area. A 2 m antenna at the same frequency would have a gain of 64.Types of Antenna We have already seen the different types of antennas (for microwave and land mobile applications) in our fundamentals. We will not cover the basic antennas and concepts in detail here. specifically those used in communications.

When transmitting with a 6 m antenna. It is usually expressed as the angle between the direction of radiation at which the beam strength falls to half of its maximum value.25 degrees at the typical transmit frequency (14 GHz) . the beamwidth is approximately 0. its beamwidth decreases.Antenna Beamwidth • • • As the antenna gain increases. for example.

Antenna Sidelobes ANTENNA RADIATION PATTERN 0 -5 -10 -15 MAINLOBE SIDELOBES ANGLE -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 RELATIVE RADIATED POWER Sidelobes spill energy while transmitting. No practical antenna is capable of achieving . means equally in all directions. The Isotropic Radiator Isotropic. generally speaking. Isotropic radiator is one that transmits equally in all directions. pick up noise while receiving.

but refer to the ratio of received power normalized to the maximum value. It is during this time that half-wave dipole antennas. The effective aperture is smaller than the physical aperture by a factor called illumination efficiency. If the wave could uniformly illuminate the physical aperture. For antennas which have easily identified physical apertures. It ranges between 0.5 to 0. They are: 1. Effective Aperture A receiving antennas also has directional properties described by the radiation patters.this feat. when highly directional antennas cannot be deployed. are used to maintain communications.8 and a conservative value used for calculations is 0. An Isotropic antenna is only hypothetical and its main use is as a standard for comparing practical antennas. Ground Base Towers .55. i. uniform illumination does not happen because the presence of the antenna in the wave path alters the field distribution. TYPES OF TOWERS: There are three types of towers which are commonly refereed as GSM standard towers. transmit equally in all directions. Half-wave Dipole Antenna It is a basic antenna type and finds limited but essential use in satellite telecommunications. or one of its variants.e. the effective aperture is related in a direct way to the physical aperture. An important concept used to describe the reception properties of an antenna is that of effective aperture. The near omni-directional property of the dipole (radiates in all directions except along the dipole axis itself) finds use in telemetry and command signals to and from the satellite. then it would equal the effective aperture. This communication is essential during the launch phase. However.

Roof Top Poles Ground Base Towers: GBT height ranges from 30 meters to 60 meters and above BSNL towers are up to 80 to 90meters.2. Roof Top Tower: RTT height ranges from 12meter to maximum 27 meters There is a GSM standard that the towers cannot be out of this range on the roof. Roof Top Towers 3. .

There is staderded way representing the height of the tower when we reach on the site The standered is: For GBT .ROOF TOP POLE: RTP are used when the height of the site over the roof is required from 3 to 9 meters. Poles are placed at the corners of the Roof so that the antennas can serve in the desired cluster.

deployments are implemented to provide coverage over a wide geographical area.e . 2) Note down the height of the Total tower.GBT 2) Note down the height of the Total tower.1) Note down the type of tower i. 5) Note down the AGL(Average ground level) = Building height + GSM Antenna height or Pole height.e. It is advantageous . These sites are established when the coverage is required in all 3 directions’ Limitations of Macro-cellular In the initial steps of a conventional cellular network. 3) Note down the heath of 3 GSM antennas.RTP 2) Note down the building height. it consists of 3 sectors which cover in 360 direction. 3) Note down the height of the Total tower. For RTT 1) Note down the type of tower i.RTT Note down the building height.e . 3) Note down the heath of 3 GSM antennas. 4) Note down the AGL(Average ground level) which define the height of GSM antenna from ground level.e . 4) Note down the heath of 3 GSM antennas. 4) Note down the AGL (Average ground level) = Building height + GSM Antenna height For RTP 1) Note down the type of tower i. TYPES OF Sites: Macro Site Micro Site IBS(In Build Systems) MCL(Mini Cell Layer) Wall Mount Macro Site: Macro Site is commonly refered as Full site i.

Initially the capacity increase is achieved through sectorisation and then through 'cell splitting' (sites with reduced coverage). Although macrocells can be used to provide in-building coverage. This restriction of propagation is achieved using 'downtilted' antenna systems. Additional cells are also deployed to meet increased coverage needs. which is not small enough to meet the capacity and coverage requirements of dense urban networks. The number of cells required increases until a saturation point is reached when the available frequency resource and the physical location of equipment limits what can be achieved with traditional cell planning techniques. Macrocells cannot provide the coverage and capacity performance required by the future cellular networks.for the operator to make these cells as large as possible in order to keep infrastructure costs to a minimum. operators look to provide more specific coverage and capacity focused on subscriber requirements. . These operational limitations restrict the minimum radius of a macrocell to about 500m. the ability to meet GSM specified levels are severely tested and restrict what can be achieved without significant degradation of network performance. frequency re-use patterns and propagation distances. As capacity requirements increase within digital cellular networks. As the mobile usage increase. These methods still require the use of expensive rooftop locations and suffer from interference problems as a consequence of the difficulties to predict the propagation patterns. cell sizes are reduced at a rapid rate. particularly as the use of handportables increases the expectation of the subscriber and extends the areas of cellular operations to within buildings. operators are required to reduce cell size to increase capacity. As the number of subscribers. The density of subscribers supported is a function of frequency allocation. the quality of coverage achieved does not meet subscribers expectations. and subsequently the traffic requirements increase. Adjacent channel and co-channel criteria are stretched in the small cell environment. Smaller cells also begin to stretch frequency re-use rules and the ability of locating carriers in close proximity to each other. This is a typical situation in a large urban area.

Propagation is primarily “line of sight” and radio path loss increases sharply as the receiver moves out of sight of the transmitter (i.” RF Signal Figure 1: Street Canyon propagation effect Micro-cells typically have a radius of 150-300 metres and exhibit transmission behaviour. by providing focused coverage and capacity over all or part of the macrocell coverage area. Micro-cells differ greatly from the conventional macrocell. which provides 'umbrella' coverage over a wide area. the main rays propagating within street canyons. experience less severe fading and effectively provide increased logical bandwidth resulting in a lower level of error transmission at high bit . Micro-cells offer improved propagation properties.e. which differs from conventional large or small cells. as you turn a street corner). Radio wave propagation is determined by diffraction and scattering around buildings.Micro-cells A “micro-cells' is defined as “a cell in which the base station antenna is generally mounted below rooftop level.

The location of the low-level (underlay) sites will be determined by the capacity and traffic requirements. by making use of the flexibility VendorA’s software provides. With a proper location of the antennae (6 metres to 2/3 the height of the building) the coverage provided is constrained by the surrounding buildings and the re-use pattern can be much tighter as the inter-micro interference can be controlled. Re-use patterns of 3 x 1 (three frequency sets for the whole two carriers system) have been implemented in some systems over the entire micro-cellular portion of the network. In the Vendor A multi-layer network approach. and base stations with different transmit power levels co-exist in close proximity. increasing the capacity through tighter frequency re-use and smaller cell sizes. minicell. Vendor A Micro-cellular System : Benefits The main goal of a Layered System is to solve the capacity problems of a network through a much more flexible and tighter re-use of the available frequencies in the lower layers. a complete micro-cellular network is deployed under the existing macro cell network. Cells of different sizes are overlaid. an improved and flexible coverage may be provided. The wide coverage area with high powered macro cells is considered as the Overlay network. providing the capacity where it is needed. micro-cells. The low powered micro-cells which are installed within the high traffic areas of the network can be considered as the Underlay network. Capacity figures over 300 erlangs/km2 have been achieved without any degradation in the quality of service offered. Micro-cells also require lower transmision powers than conventional macrocells. concentric cell or picocell layers. The way Vendor A has implemented its Layered System is extremely flexible as multiple layers can be defined in the system such as umbrella. Through the right choice of the micro-cells site locations. This is possible due to the street canyon effect dominating the RF propagation.rates. . macrocell. The macro cells will provide wide coverage and act as a "safety net" for mobiles moving between micro-cellular areas.

• Immunity to fading In a micro-cellular system the subscribers located in the streets will be in the line-of-sight (LOS) from the antenna. In addition. Apart from the high signal levels provided outdoors. the smaller the penetration loss. thereby increasing the quality of service offered to their customers. the mobile will be transmitting with low power values. the more perpendicular the incidence angles will be and. Further. the penetration loss to in-building areas will be less when the incidence angle is close to perpendicular. • In-building coverage Improved in-building coverage is provided even if the antennas are externally located. Further. the flexibility of locating microcells in areas of high traffic permits capacity to be tailored to non-homogenous traffic distributions. therefore. The smaller the coverage area of the micro-cells. • Reduction in mobile tx power As the received signal levels will typically be high in a micro-cellular network. This has two immediate . the fading will be also be smoother. when the incidence angle of a micro-cells in an in-building area is close to perpendicular.The main reason operators have decided to implement a Micro-cellular Layered System is to solve their capacity requirements. This is much smoother than the Rayleigh distribution which governs the fading in a standard Macro-cellular System. the fading experienced in the received signal will approximate a Rician distribution. there are other benefits gained with the deployment of a Micro-cellular Network: • Controlled Coverage Controlled coverage is inherent to a micro-cellular system. therefore the interference generated is also controlled. In this scenario.

So now elevations of all the points have been increased by the earth bulge factor. Add this to the profile. strategic buildings). lake/river/water path etc. • Calculate the required Fresnel zone clearance along the path. towers and metallic structures. internal antennas may be located within the building itself. The first Fresnel zone is defined as thelocus of points where . tall buildings . These ‘picocells’ may use the same micro-cellular software as it has been designed to facilitate this scenario. it is essential to apply it all along the path.e. Deciding Antenna height Antenna-Tower height In order to arrived at tower height for the given sites to estabilish LOS radio link. Normally. However.hills. • Calculate the earth bulge (modified for worst case refraction) and add this to the profile. • Introduction of Picocellular concept If total in-building coverage is essential (e.effects: less interference radiated in the uplink and extended battery life of the subscriber’s mobiles. following steps will be followed: • From survey maps or digital terrain files/data bases determine and plot the path profile • Add to this profile the terrain cover i. all details of trees.g. FZ clarance required will be maximum at the center of path.

It is advisable to select the path without reflection point present. This clearnces. after calculating height of tower. but for practical applications the radius F1 may be approximated by the formula Earth bulge • Select antenna heights to ensure LOS clearance along the path. • • Examine path for possible reflection points (check for all possible values of ‘k’.d3 – (d1 + d2) = λ / 2 . draw the beam connecting two antennas. This equation describes an ellipse. and again chack for the clearance criteria. Here. Examine the path for severe value of K also. will give the worst probability of outage due to change in atmosphere and there byreducing .

It is imporatnat to make note of potential future interruptions to the .• Adjust antenna heights to optimally position the reflections points (if possible) or consider diversity Typical Typical Path Profile A path survey can be undertaken by visiting sites and observing that the path is clear of obstruction.

67 shall be 60% for main antennas The maximum First Fresnel Zone Clearance for K=1. criteria controls the clearance in the central region.33 shall be 100% for main antennas. 100% F1 criteria control the clearance at the end of the path. The maximum First Fresnel Zone Clearance for K=0. and to control the additional which can occur at the lowest expected value of K. nearby airports and subsequent flight-path traffice. Many operators now specialized video products to assist in path surveys. which will work under all conditions on all path. TO achieve free space propagation conditions at the median value of K. It is not possible to specify a rigid set of clearance criteria. and any other transient traffic considerations. For heavy route. The line of sight from the antenna at A to the antenna at B must clear each point on this raised ground profile by atleast the reuired fraction of a Fresnel zone (Often 0. future building plans. However is maximum should be considerd.6 F1). This is to be applied over all physical objects all along the path.path such as tree or foliage growth. Some of the clearance criteria as used in many telecom systems are: • • • • The maximum First Fresnel Zone Clearance for K=1. clearance criteria is 100% F1 @ K=4/3 and 30% F1 @ K=2/3. . In this case. The minimum clearance criteria would be 60 F1 at K=4/3 and all other values of K should be checked on path for losses with the thermal fade margin.33 shall be 60% for diversity antennas The maximum First Fresnel Zone Clearance for K=0. 30% F1 @ K=2/3.67 shall be 60% for diversity antennas Take a minimum of 15 m as the minimum obstruction on the entire path. Where as.

There is a lot of considerations in conducting site surveys and these require a lot of knowledge and understanding to successfully conduct one. but a link. and allow as much clearance from obstacles along the path as possible. It’s also a good idea to build in some margin to allow for fading due to unusal propagation situations. Simple it may seem. Software Tools for Propagation Prediction Although there isd no substitute for experience and acquiring a “feel”for radio propagation. which has optical clearance. Line of Sight survey process It is essential to know the constraint associated with the LOS survey scope that can be categorize as time consuming factors. computer programs can make the job of predicting radio link performance a lot easier. but the whole story will be as complicated as one can think of in the long run. Not that you shouldn’t try and stretch the limits when the need arises.The excessive tower heights on the path may lead to multipath propagation and in turn behavior of link. antenna heights. For short-range links. as : Site survey considerations Site survey may seem to be an ordinary and routinary task as part of the implementation process of a cellular network. They are particularly handy for exploring “what it “scenarios with different paths. the effects of reraction can usually be ignored. Someone who wish to conduct site survey must have a thorough understanding of the .. in descending order.m etc. is preferable to one which doesn’t. The reliability of radio link will tend to be higher if you back off the deistance from the maximum which is dictated by the normal radio horizon. Gloabal Mapper 10 is one of the software tools being used widely in MW radio propagation analysis.

Other considerations may include aspects such as knowledge in the use of the planning tool (EET). Checklist of survey equipment is as follows: Checklist: . equipment configurations and functionalities. The job requires some of the most experienced surveyors to make sure the sites to be installed are on their right places doing the right things. Not just anybody can jump in to perform site survey especially when the project is a fast track and meeting a tough deadline. antenna systems and structural regulations just to name a few. Otherwise. The surveying stage must be done exactly right for the first time. This will leave the surveyor little or no option to get the things needed.which is a good advantage and some coordination skills. air interface. multi-lingual . This draws particular attention on the aspects of radio wave propagation. familiarity of the place.system to be implemented and how the system will work. all needed instruments must always be ready for site survey activities. As much as possible. This may imply packing everything in a very appropriate manner so as not to hamper the surveyor’s mobility while on the field. Instruments for site surveys Actual site surveys may require only a few pieces of instruments. but anything may happen while the surveyor is on the site. it will incur delays and entails more cost on the project.

the tip of the pointer is directed to the magnetic north. the compass scale will rotate around the fix reference marker to indicate the bearing. Steel case W Scale Eye-piece S N .Mast climbing equipment Gloves EET prediction plots (if available) A complete site survey checklist can be found COMPASS This is the most common and most used tool of the surveyor. The compass indicates the bearing of a certain direction referred from a particular point. the surveyor may not be able to perform a complete site survey. Normally. As the compass is moved.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Digital Camera min 2Mpixel (extra memory card min 128Mb and extra batteries) or a Video camera GPS (with correct map datum setting) Maps Compass Inclinometer 10 or 50 meter tape measure Site survey document Computer Binoculars Office materials Safety equipment . When it is not available.

until the counter bearings are found.) + 180 Counter bearing = antenna bearing (value is ≥ 180 deg.180 Equation 1 Equation 2 .E Lace Hook Figure 1. Please see Figure 2. Move the compass around the proposed site to a clear area. it must be kept away from metallic structures (i. Example. the counter bearing should be 180 degrees. care must be taken when using the compass in order to accurately define a direction. Methods of taking antenna direction Back azimuth If clearance from metallic structures is not possible. towers. The pointer of the compass is a magnetic material. if the antenna bearing is 0 or 360 degrees. and others) within the immediate vicinity when taking a direction or bearing. First. back azimuth technique could be applied. It is simply done by adding or subtracting the antenna bearing by 180 degrees. approximately 50 m away from the site.e. determine the opposite or counter bearings of the antenna bearings using equations 1 or 2. Counter bearing = antenna bearing (value is ≤ 180 deg. Take note of the clear areas as reference points and mark them on the map or sketch. However. A typical handy and sturdy compass used for site surveys.) . metal water tanks. Use of this tool is very easy and straight forward.

towers.Compass is here Reference point (clear area) approx. etc. roads.) to be used as references. 50 m away Antenna bearing (0 degree) Counter bearing (180 degrees) Road 0 degree antenna location Proposed site location (building with metallic obstructions on top) Figure 2. Using this technique may require two people. Method of taking bearing by back azimuth technique. one on the site and one moving around with the compass and taking the readings. Using landmarks One of the most accurate methods to determine antenna directions is by the use of appropriate location map showing roads and buildings as it is independent of magnetic deviation. open fields. When on site. The antenna directions could be laid on the map using an angle measuring tool such as a protractor to help determine landmarks (buildings. . it will be easier to locate where antennas must be directed through the help of the reference landmarks.

Antenna direction Antennas Direction X Figure 3. Therefore. it is very important to set the GPS equipment to the correct map datum. Assuming all the antennas are oriented in the same direction. POSITIONING Map datum Map datum is a mathematical description of the earth or part of the earth that is necessary to correctly assign real-world coordinates to points on a map or chart. The result would eventually be the direction of the antennas. As a practice. Bearing measurement using 90 degree technique. take the reading of direction X by sighting through the back of the antennas using the compass. 90° technique From the figure below.The compass could be used to further check on the antenna directions. Since each datum is based on different assumptions and measurements. the acceptable error for antenna direction must be within ± 5°. a position calculated in one datum can differ by 600 meters or more from the same position calculated in another datum. . add or subtract the reading of direction X by 90°. This technique is usually applied to check on the direction of installed antennas.

The GPS instrument receives information from signals sent from the satellites. GPS instrument GPS stands for Global Positioning System. the GPS must be placed in unobstructed location to sight as many satellites as possible. . if in case the paper map has a different map datum. At least four satellites must be obtained to get accurate readings assuming correct map datum is set properly into the GPS. the GPS usually provides other information used for navigating depending on the type of GPS being used. In order to derive accurate coordinates of a location (usually termed as position fix or waypoint). An example of good GPS type is shown below. Aside from a fix.The map datum used should be the same as the one used for the digitized map in EET. GPS receiving antenna Figure 4. A GPS receiver unit with multi-function feature (Courtesy of Magellan Systems Corporation). Also. it should be noted as well.

route tracking capability. Waypoint tracking . GPS procedures Waypoint list Before going out for site surveys. Some GPS. The two waypoints (nominal and moving) must be displayed on the appropriate page or screen. very user-friendly. to determine if the site is off grid or not by simply comparing the logged nominal coordinates with the actual coordinates read on site. It is simply done by logging in the nominal coordinates of a site into the waypoint list and the actual waypoint will automatically be set as the moving waypoint. however. It would be quicker. take readings of site coordinates even if the site seems to be rejected on the first visit. Features such as battery saver. This function is recommended for site hunters to get as close as possible to the nominal site. The manual also describes detailed operation of the GPS.nominal In some GPS. Full-featured GPS is not necessarily the best unit for site survey. Such things are usually defined in the GPS manual. once on site. Likewise. large waypoint log. Site hunters must also have the same GPS type as the survey teams. it is possible to track down the location of the nominal site. may not have the said screen. make sure that all the nominal coordinates of the sites to be visited for the day are logged in to the waypoint list with corresponding site names or IDs.GPS features differ from one type to the other and it might be good to have one with required functionalities for site survey. vast map datum database. Track back by moving the GPS around until the moving waypoint is very close to the nominal waypoint. as will be shown on the screen. Scale on the screen can be changed . This will set standard results and avoid confusions in later site verifications. The saved coordinates will be used for future site verifications. In wide-scale surveying where more than one team will perform surveys. it is a good practice to have only one type of GPS equipment for each team. multiple coordinate system and time-and-date stamp are some of the basic functionalities needed.

Batteries If a number of sites are to be visited in a day. be sure to activate the battery saver function of the GPS or even better to bring extra batteries.to zoom in or zoom out to see the distance between the waypoints. Similarly. getting as close to the nominal site could be achieved by using an appropriate map. quality and auto-focus camera is preferable for site surveys because it will not require complex operation and focusing. DIGITALCAMERA The camera will be used to take photos of the sites to be surveyed. The nominal site can be marked on the map then find a building structure nearest to the nominal location. GPS antenna Nominal waypoint 1404 Moving waypoint WPT1 Figure 5. Weak batteries tend to cause inaccurate reading of coordinates from the satellites or it will take longer period to obtain a waypoint. When conducting site surveys. immediate obstructions. battery level is indicated on the GPS display to know if the batteries are weak or not. exact locations of the antennas and BTS cabinets. A handy. Example of tracking for the nominal site using the GPS. Normally. The photos will show surroundings of the site. always keep sufficient supply of memory cards and rechargeable batteries. Canon provides . site ID and outlook of the building. Other techniques can also be done for tracking. Make sure that battery level is always high.

it will show the directions where the antennas will be pointing. it is a must to take the panoramic view around the site. see Figure 6a. This will also picture the actual situation of the site for the benefit of other planners and decision makers who have not been to the site. Panoramic view In site surveys. The availability of a digital camera would be a good advantage because pictures taken on site can be interfaced directly into the computer as files. The camera should have a minimum 2 Mpixel raw resolution and a 128 Mb memory card to support 4 to 5 sites and minimum one extra rechargeable battery. Which means that an auto-focus camera has a normal capture angle of 36 to 40 degrees. This can be done by inserting corresponding markings such as sticking fingers out or pointing the compass as superimposed in the photos. The panoramic view will show the type of clutter on the surrounding environment including existing and upcoming obstructions. Figure 6b.compact user-friendly cameras that have built in functions for panoramic photos. This is usually done by tilting the camera vertically when taking the north direction and tilting it back horizontally for the rest of the view. This will make post processing of photos easier. The picture files can also be easily included as attachments to the reports and can be sent through e-mail to the main office. Normally. Similarly. This is especially convenient if the surveyor is far from the main office. This makes taking photos very irregular and may take more shots to complete a panoramic view. However. Camera eye window . the camera eye window must be positioned approximately side by side as shown in Figure 6. it only takes 9 to 10 shots for a complete panoramic view. Another method is to point a compass towards north and take the picture which includes the compass. When taking photos. there are cases where taking a panoramic view at a single point is not possible. It is always a practice to identify the north direction in the panoramic view. See Appendix 2.

location of RBS’s. .positions North South North (a) Panoramic view with only 5 shots represented. location of antennas. Compass (picture-imposed) North South North (b) Panoramic view with only 3 shots represented. Methods of taking the north direction in a panoramic view. Figure 6. VIDEO CAMERA A video camera is an excellent tool to be used in site surveys. building description. and others. The video camera can provide better and more accurate information about a site since the surveyor can orally describe the site while taking and recording the surrounding environment.

When used independently.20 meters from the base of the building. This is possible if the tape is longer than the building height. MEASURING TAPE This tool is used to measure distances or heights. A range finder with built in In-clinometer is preferable because exact height of obstacles is possible to measure from the preferred antenna position. Height measurements can be performed by combination of distance and angle measurements coupled with trigonometric calculation. Take the reading of the angle on the eye-piece of the clinometers. Methods are discussed as follows: • Establish an exact distance. say 20 meters. With both eyes opened. . It can be used independently or along with the clinometer for height measurements. • Stand at the end of the tape . from the base of the structure or building outwards to a clear space using a measuring tape. If not. CLINOMETER A clinometer is a more convenient tool for measuring heights. • Hold the clinometer on the right eye. use it together with the clinometer. Measurements can be done on the ground or near the base of a structure.RANGE FINDER A range finder (distance meter) is very useful to get precise distance to obstacles to get reliable measurements the range should be minimum 200m with a resolution of 1m. project the view upwards at the topmost or apex of the building. Make sure that the space selected have no passing vehicles. height measurements can be performed by stretching out the tape from the top of the building to down below the ground.

Height measurement using clinometer.• Calculate the building height using formula and by referring to Figure 7. Buildings h1 ∝ d = 20 m h2 Figure 7. .

in meters ∝ = angle read from the clinometer. or someone sick. This could be as simple as a pucture. there is little chance-up with the original plan unless this was planned for at the start. in meters LOS Process It is essential to know the constraint associated with the LOS survey scope: 1. a punctured ballon. and the field surveyor. Travel can be very time consuming when in some strange city. unfamiliar to both the office-based planner. resulting in much of the day spent in traveling. Access 4.Calculations: Building height = h2 + d tan ∝ Equation 3 where: h2 = height of surveyor’s eye level. Often this will result in requests for short LOS surveys. stopped by the police. And key surveys will often be prioritized at short notice. Weather Travel Travel is time consuming in any field works. Survey 5. a vehicle breakdown. In every case. Travel between sites 2. Contingency Los Survey plans go out the window the moment something goes wrong. a traffic hold-up. great distances apart. Contingency 3. . in degrees d = established distance using measuring tape.

They might have to drive the path to find the obstruction. available. Survey Most LOS survey only take a few minutes to complete when everyone is a site. It is waste of survey time to get surveyors to prove no LOS. Our attitude is tender at the price for the job which ahs to be done in the time scale. They then have to spend the next hour or so justifying their conclusion that there is no LOS. It is vital to make an appointmen t for a specific time. and people. Proving no LOS is usually done because Transmission Planning do not want to hear there is no LOS over particular key routes. In very large projects it may be down to the field survey manager to replan on reduced number of crews for the day after the contingency occurs. particularly for shot links in unfamiliar cities. experienced. it can be very time consuming to prove no LOS. Our problem is that we seldom have the luxury of bidding competitively with any spare capacity built-in our price. and you have to leave the pre-arranged surveys for another day. and when there is clear LOS between ends. it does not add to the completion of the whole project. conmplained to management. A lack of trust between the office and the field results in a massive waste of valuable time. We are seeing increased expamles of people bidding at silly prices where we know it will not be possible to complete the task in a time scale which known but not specified in the tender documents. A few minutes late and the access provider will have left site. Where there is no LOS. Good. . Try and fix a time for a site visit. Access The time-to-access a site is the product of local culture. surveyors will know there is no LOS in a very short time in minutes perhaps.The solution is to try and have spare equipment capacity. The time taken to survey is more dependent on th fortuitous Travel and Contingency factors( above) than anything else.

make a floor plan sketch and indicate north on the sketch. it should be possible with good planning to build in enough slack so than in periods of poor visiability it is possible to undertake only very short surveys. Try to establish a suitable antenna location and note measurements of the tower at the location. and trays . With even the very quickest of survey turn-round requirements. ducts. • • Measure location of exisiting antennas Find cable paths and check cable ladders. and take measurements Indicate the north direction on the sketch Select a location for the RBS equipment If the RBS is to be located indoors. Note heights of buildings Make a sketch of any exisiting tower Take measurements of tower legs. and height. distance between legs. Survey Report: Check at site visit The purpose of the site visit is to collect and record(on the spot) all data that may have an influence on the installation engineering and the site preparation and to make a report that will be the basis for an agreement on the confirmed Sysytem Design. The following actions should be taken on site: • • • • • • • • • • Fill in the address/location in the checklist Locate the site on the map Check that the allocated space is sufficient Make a sketch of the premises/rooftop including existing structures.Weather Weather will only affect LOS returs when there is no flexibility built into survey plans.

required antenna centerlines. A complete microwave path survey report shall be prepare based upon the data collected concerning eachj of the microwave paths. . terrain elevations and terrain obstructions for each of the microwave paths. antenna sized. The survey report shall conisit of several sections. site layout diagrams. The survey shall determine exact site coordinates. Included will be a path-by-path listing of the site coordinates. which will detail th microwave system configuration. obstructions measured in the field.• • • • • Measure the length of the cable way for antennas cables Find out fro where tha mains power can be supplied and if it has capacity for the increased load Investigate from where the transport network can be brought into the site Make a sketch of the layout of the earthing system and lightning protection system. nominal receive levels. site layouts. fade margins and multipath availability. Each of the microwave paths will be discussed as to the terrain features along the path and the clearance criteria used for the path. The first section shall consists of an introduction defining the basic purpose of the survey and any design considerations. antenna centerlines and signal clearances over the controlling terrain. The third section of the report shall include all site information collected in the field. Each of the profiles will indicate the terrain data from the Topographic maps.which detail the findings of the microwave field survey. All microwave path profiles shall be included in the fourth section of the report. Take photographes to back up the notes. which were taken into account at the time of the physical survey. frequency bands to be used. floor plans and site photographs. The data provided will consists of Topographic map details. ground elevations. The second section of the report shall consists of a system description.

diffraction losses and rainfall analysis where required.) Frequency Band Antenna Size Cable Type Frequency Channel Final Routing Diagram Path calculations Tower profile to indicate antenna heights Rack Profile Floor Plan Radio installation information Power Consumption Growth Consideration Following describes some of the survey process to establish coverage and LOS among many other methods . and nominal receive levels. In order to complete the final reportm the minimum following infroamtion is must: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Radio Type (power output. transmission line and losses for each site. Space Diversity. Frequency Diversity. Forward Error Correction. fade margins and multipath availability. antenna centerlines required. etc. The path performance calculations shall indicate the equipment used for the anlysis. antenna sizes. This analysis will include a listing of the recommended equipment to be sued at each site as well as a summary of the per path performance. The last section of the report shall provide a spreadsheet analysis of the system.The fifth section of the report shall contain all the calculations for each microwave path. reflection losses. MHBS. path performance calculations. This section will detail the microwave equipment analyzed.

it is evident. occasionally 30m or more. very good computer programmes. more detailed surveying is required. indicating information gathered by walking the path. some using topographic databases. contour information can be difficult to extract from maps for built-up areas Today. Ground information of interest is now referenced to the minimum height for line-ofsight between the ends of the link. Path profiles over built-up areas can be even less of a help. although more difficult to use in the manual production of path profiles. A seven storey office block. Many links have been installed on this engineering basis If you consider that a two-storey residential house is about nine meters high. contours are at five meter intervals. This method has the advantage of eliminating most of the inaccurate path information. and 1:500 000 top o maps/survey of India show controls at 10m intervals. Often this will involves only simple checks from each end. and are an improvement. with the theodolite at the other end of the link. plus a check to ensure the available antenna positions were sufficiently high to clear near-field obstructions. For 1:25 000 topo maps. is 21-25m high. were all that was needed for confidence. where LOS is not immediately apparent from map or computer studies. and are difficult to measure without access to spot. a path profile can quickly become no more than a first-guess. a lamp is used to mark one end. Tree are typically 10-25m tall. The first lamp and Theodolite were regularly carried out. the possibility of putting in a link is being considered.A check of the path profiles. For a relatively small number of links. In a Lamp and Theodolite LOS survey. A field visit is still necessary in most cases. typical of many centers. . that for a flat path. are available to overcome many of the foregoing problems. Futhermore. Increasingly.

(A) Photogram metric survey technology that satisfies the demanding line-of-sight (LOS) requirements of systems. This innovative technology blends traditionally microwave path survey techniques with photography and proprietary GIS software. and can be adapted to meet the specific requirements of the Wireless Carrier.Points in the centre of a path can be measured by doing 2 Los surveys from different tower heights The development of monochrome infra-red CCTV LOS swurvey systems. The distant antenna position is usually marked using an IR source. with the CCTV camera mounted at the intended antenna position. and increased the engineering confidence in the result. with remote control from ground level. It uses aerial photography and a high resolution stereoscope to select candidate hub buildings. The process is flexible. More importantly. and recorded via a video recorder. The result is a Survey methodology that provides system operators the benefits of accurate LOS determinations at substantial cost savings. . which have speeded up the time taken for LOS Surveys. mobilemast or existing-tower mounted. this can now be done in comfort from ground level. making the survey results very positive.

with only one trip to the roof. Used in conjunction with the coverage study database. A preliminary Survey Report each surveyed building should be prepared cosisiting of: a) Photos of buiding and rooftop details. b) The 28mm lens horizon photos for each hub surveyed. the LOS viewer allows the user to see correlating views of a building on a horizon photo and an othophoto all via a point-and-click process . Once a list of candidate buildings has been estabilished. similar to what could be achieved with a surveyor’s transit set up at the hub. the next step is identify the two best candidate buildings for each node. b) A street map locating the primary and alternate candidate buildings. The preliminary survey report assists the wireless carrier with leasing hub buildings that offer the best LOS visibility characteristics.An aerial photo site selection report is prepared for each city. approximate number of floors and aerial photo reference for ech candidate building. Survey team staff is to travel to the city. It consist of: a) A city map showing the proposed serive areas. all the data required to undertake a complete LOS analysis and deploy the last mile is to be gathered. The site selection report gives wireless carriers the information they need to properly assess the coverage( and therefore revenue) potential of candidate sites. In just a few hours. and survey the roofs of the short-listed buildings to confirm engineering suitability and horizon photos from the proposed antenna locations. etc. c) A location and preliminary shadow map for each candidate site showing blockage sectors caused by buildings . c) An aeirial photo showing the selected building locations. hills. The LOS viewer software enables the user to make angular measurements on the horizon photo images. d) A summary table giving the street location.

. The Engineer also takes a series of wide and narrow angle photographs of the horizon from each planned antenna location.The LOS process on the roof. and documents its prominent features. the field engineer takes measurements of the rooftop. Typically. in combination with the other survey data collected. The camera sees what the antenna will see. This information is provided on a rooftop sketech. GPS and other survey data are recorded. the wide-angle panorama is comprised of 28mm photos. The preliminary survey report provides a wide-angle horizon panorama for each prospective antenna location on the candidate hub building. The photographs. and in this way LOS path conditions are established. The panorama include azimuth reference points. and includes a precise indiacation of camera setup and proposed antenna locations. contain all of the information necessary to make complete LOS determinations at a later date.

i. Large Scale Blockages: A shadow map is presented on an orthopoto showing the areas where buildings.Line of sight from one end-B: Radial Distance is 11kms. . etc. the map showa areas that cannot be served from this hub location. The methodology provides the real world LOS data required for link implementation and is not subject to the errors and limitations of computer analysis using 3D building database models.. and permit viewing of real world LOS condition on any terrestrial path from the hub. Accuracy: LOS visibility from the hub antenna location to potential subscriber buildings is estabilsed by direct observation. The above method provides. terrain. Implementation Tool: LOS viewer and calinbrated phots can be directly used for planning system design and implementation.e. block visibility.

longitude and elevation AMSL). • • • • • • • • Site Locations Existing Tower Heights Existing Antenna Heights Torque Arm Locations Guy wire points Height of path obstructions Location & Ground cover at Suspected path Reflection .Information provided in the suvey report is gathered from in-office calculations. The grid maps provide a ready reference for sales staff. View Correlation and Proper Placement of Subsicriber Antenna: The LOS viewer quickly shows correlation between aerial and horizon views. identifying potential customer buildings that can be served from this hub location. RF path surveys-which is also describved the process as: Perform RF path surveys in order to verify wireless path analyses. RF Interference Sources: Paths to RF interference sources can be viewed on the horizon photos by inputting their site co-ordinate (latitude.Scale Reference Tool: Hub visibility coverage maps are presented as a series of othophoto grid maps showing street names and footprints of buildings with LOS visibility. and field survey work in which verifies. Use with RF interference programs: LOS coverage study data can be used to generate an exportable 3D database of LOS buildings fro use with RF interference programs. This permits the easy identification of viable locations for mounting the subscriber antenna prior to visiting the client site. map studies.

profiles and reliabilyt calculations. Typical tools being used in Survey • • • • • • • • Digital Transits/Theodolite Hankd0Held inclinometers Laser Distance Measurement Devices DGPS or Post Processing GPS receivers Computer Based Topographicla maps integrated with GPS unit Pentium Laptop Computers Digital Photographic Equipment Sceintific Calculators Site selection and planning There are economical and engineering benefits to be gained by maximizing sharing infrastructure and sites between the various typoes of elements in the network. alser distance measuring devices and hand-held inclination measurement equipment. If precise locations are required. tower heights. and other data that is pertinent to the system. Also provides recommendations regarding antenna placement on tower layout drawings. Indicated as part of the report the type of terrain over which the path traverses. There are a number of specific items to bear in . particularly ad regards expensive civil infrastructure such as towers and equipment housings. coordinates. Therefore it si always critical when selecting sites that no specific network element is considered in isolation. appurtenances. uses standard surveying techniques to determine exact latitude and longitude. This ensures accuracies to within a couple of meters horizontally.Differential Global Positioning satellites (DGPS) or Post processed GPS readings verifies tower locations. picturesd. path elevation at critical points. Site elevations . vegetation and obstructions along the path. topographical maps of the sites. and path obstructions are determine using standard leveling techniques. suspected reflections points (If any) and other pertinent factors which may effect propagation or system performance. terrain elevation data. detailed site information.

If a site is in a rural or remote area. Required loading needs to be calculated if new tower installations are proposed. and these must take account of antenna wind and ice loading. both in relation o the weather and to the experience and qualifications of the maintenance staff.mind in the cse of microwave radio fixed links. Good microwaves sites. will be relatively high points to give maximum line-of-sight availability. or alternative transmission plans made. Attention should be given to future growth requirements in all areas. distances between the indoor unit and any other collected network should be evaluated. bear in mind the separation distances between the indoor unit and RF unit in addition to the distance between the RF unit and antenna. alternative sites should be located. calcuaotions are required ensures the increment loading can be accommodated within the tower specifications. It is good practice to inform landowners of any potential future growth to prevent problems at a later date. indoor equipment can be housed in the same equipment shelters and should be planned accordingly. If at all possible. If a site is unstable. If a new terminal is being added to an exisiting tower. particularly in relation to hub sites. Power requirements can be planned on this basis. Additionally. especially if the site is likely to develop into future hub. This information should be fed back into the network plan as it can affect microwave routing and path planning. share any towers or poles required between the wireless or cellular equipment and the microwave fixed link outdoor equipment. particularly in times of inclement weather. the service access should always be considered. . Likewise. When considering cable routing. Attention should be given to access to tower mounted elements.

who was present at which site. find out where the survey was done from and to. see what the report nsaid at this time.How to esatbilsh the quality of LOS? The best principles of quality control. as applicable to line-of-sight surveys is to go back and look at the originals LOS survey again. This is quality control vis ‘Traceability”. . how the survey was carried out. and what we should do to ensure we do not make a similar mistake again. maybe years after the event.

Best maps for the task have been shown to be 1. “special Awareness” is a skill gained with experience that renders a compass superfluous. the sun is over there and it is now 10am. Electricity cables. In certain geographical areas. A sighting compass with marking to a fraction of a degree. rooftop structures. supported by the daily task shown on a printout in Map Grid. An digital compass is also available. sometimes known as a marching compass. and road maps are useful for getting to site. the presence of iron ore in the ground can result in the compass pointing 180 degrees the wrong way. Proven paths should subsequently be marked with a green highlighter. The guys at the other end tell me they are down in clutter but have . Such marked-up maps become part of the QA records process. due to residual magnetic reversals. (Also known as ‘Spidres’).000 topographic maps. the more misleading a tool it can become. “The building we are on is on the South side of the street. all affect the local magnetic variation. used where unknown magnetic variation is present. can be next to useless for LOS surveying. during the earths history. Compass Any experienced and skilled LOS surveyor will treat a compass almost with contempt. and internal building structure using steel. the site we looking for is to the NE. reliance on compass reading will lead to survey results being incorrect. Any compass is no better than a tool to enable a quick confirmation of what should already be known. with the required path survey requirements marked with a permanent black line and showing link or survey request number. and failed paths highlighted in red/pink.Survey equipment to be carried by individual LOS Surveyors Maps Every LOS survey crew should be in possession of a set for the area in which they are working. so the site we are looking for must be in this direction. City Maps are required in some areas. Unless that variations is known. The more sophisticated the compass.50.

Stand at point X. It should never be left on top of a television set. Take a bearing of an object (Say Point Y) about 100m away. and should be thrown away the first time any problem is found. individual personal choice should come into play here. get stolen or damaged. Do not use compass near a metallic body. . will provide a reference bearing from which other bearing may be determined using map and protractor. but for such a personal item. a cheap compass along with a spare is probably the best. Level the compass properly. The compass should be oil-damped and free of bubbles. Place the compass on the ground or some object to reduce the effect of hand vibrations. or simply get left in the car. Where a building is known to be full of magnetic variation. a special tool consisting of a square tube of brass or aluminum and fitted with a tripod mount. at a distant known-location. Measurement are affected by following features. In such circumstances. by sighting down the center of the tube. Allow the Compass Needle to settle down before talking a reading. Expensive compasses come with a calibration certificate to one degree. It is useful for such a tool to be available to a team in-territory. Even the cheapest compass is generally accurate to one degree. known as an ‘orienteering compass’ is a superb tool foe LOS.a clear view in my direction. so it will take me a few moments to find them bring their light up”. Say this bearing id P. A compass with a built-in protractor. or known landmark. and aimed. away from the heavy metallic objects. Compasses get left on rooftops. It should be small enough to be carried in the pocket without difficulty. which is the same calibration stated on the packaging for a “silva” compass. Calculation of Local effect. The SILVA compass is the preferred tool for most LOS surveyors.

P = 18-2=16◦ Correct Bearing of X. Tools Required Digital Altimeter Watch Qty. The local effect. However this requires that there be available a reference point called Bench Mark (BM). Say is P=18◦ and Q=194◦ (It should have been 198.|P-Q| Correction the reading is (180 -|P-Q|)/2 Example. temperature and other atmospheric parameters are identical in both the areas. 2 Scientific Calculator Qty. if there is no local effect). This is to ensure that the rate of change of pressure. 180 .Go to the pint Y and take a bearing of point X.000 topo Maps. Qty. 2 Altimeter should not be used to measure substantial height differences of more than 100 meters. These are usually obtained from 1:50. Q = 196+2= 196◦ AL TIMETER FOR MEASURING AMSL OF SITE Digital Altimeter can be used to measure the Elevation of a point with 1 – meter accuracy. Correction is {180 – (194-18)}/2 =2◦ Correct Bearing of Y. the elevation of which is known. 2 . The BM and the points where elevation is to be measured should not be far away than say 5 km. say this bearing is Q.

During the MAP study phase.12Place both the Altimeters on BM and adjust the reading the both altimeters to show 731 m. In case there is no BM in close proximity of the place of interest. Team B goes to the site X notes the reading at 5-minute point and comes back to BM.12 732 734 732 . It is agreed that both the teams will take measurements only when the watch is at 5-minutw points. The table below should be used to compute the elevation of point X. The co-ordinate helps in reaching the BM. Secondary BM should be established near the place of interest. Allow the Altimeter to stabilize for a minute before taking a measurement. Table A: Reading of Team A Rows column No.Do not keep the altimeter in direct sun light there by avoiding the unnecessary heating of the altimeter. synchronize the watch of both the teams. This ensures that both the teams are taking measurement at same point in time. co-ordinates and elevation of the BM near the places whose site elevation are to be determined. Team A should stay at BM and note the reading of altimeter at 5-minute interval. 1 2 3 4 A 01:05 PM 01:05 PM 01:15 PM 01:20 PM & Time Site Altimeter Temperature e D 34 34 34 33 Description Reading B C At Site BM 731 731. Procedure This procedure requires two altimeter and two teams say team A and team B. should be recorded for ready references. where the field conditions have changed drastically or it is difficult to recognize the exact place for BM. Assume that we want to measure the elevation of point X and elevation of the nearest available BM is 731.

One way to mark the site is to fire a lamp towards the ‘seeing’ end. . Site Altimeter Temperatur e e After Applying After Applying e m Q R At site BM 731 731. with a black rim around a 5”dia reflector.5 01:25 PM 730 32 Table B: Reading of Team B Rows & Time column No. Reflector diameters and design of the reflector had a great effect on range.12 At site X At site X At site Y At site Y At site BM 685 34 684 679. although the continuous hold-up time is only 20 mins. A powerful searchlight/ spot lamps can also be used. These yellow-coloured lamps. have been proven in thousands of surveys.95 783 32 780 782. These lamps are cheap and easily replaced. which may be many kilometers away. we want to be able to prove we can ‘see’ the distant end. Often the distance site is not sufficient visibly to be recognized even by the best of telescopes. Hand held 6 volt 50 watt tungsten filament spotlights resulted in the best LOS survey lamp to date.39 ◦c S 34 M T 731 Correction m U Description Reading Correction Temperatue 20 21 22 23 24 25 P 01:05 01:11 PM 01:15 PM 01:18 PM 01:20 PM 01:24 PM Lamps In a line-of-sight survey. one lamp per crew will last all day in a good team.

These lamps have a 500 Watt. require lenses of different focal lengths. these lamps can be left behind to save repeat visit to site. in an LOS photo taken using refractive. might otherwise be obtained. a NAVLAS lamp with an external battery is ideal. The result is a better quality photo. mains powered. Aluminium Garden Flood Lights. in most conditions. The pattern is wide angle in the horizontal. but are more expensive and heavier. Cameras and Lenses Cameras are needed during LOS surveys for the following purposes: • • • • Record “Front Elevations from Street Level” for Reporting (24mm) Record potential dafety Hazards at every site (28mm) Panoramic photo sets ( 8 X 38/40mm ) Record “Proof of LOS” by means of photo of a lamp at a distant site (400–600 mm ) Each of these applications. due to the different refraction effect on different colours. 500mm catadioptic (mirror) lenses are available cheaply from highstreet distributors. The space for such a lamp includes the requirement to attract attention at 7 Nautical Miles (not using binoculars) at sea. in the two latter applications above. thus freeing-up a crew. Zoom lenses are often considered a cheap alternative to multiple fixed lenses. which is of an avoidable poorer quality than. With the addition of a flasher unit set to “wink-off” at present intervals. strip filament. or glass. The result. lenses is always a photo. but at the expense of quality. and perhaps a timer to switch off overnight. For long distances an 18” Francis Searchlight has been used with some surveyors. obtainable from any Garden Supplier. (shown in brackets above ). The solution is to use “mirror”lenses. .For longer (medium) distances. Otherwise these lamps are very popular. Refractive telephoto lenses always produce something called “chromatic aberration”. which internally-reflect all colours the same. and somewhat narrower in the vertical. is a very useful product for LOS surveying.

one digital and one stills. THE ODALITE FOR MEASURING HEIGHT OF DISTANT OBJECT Theodolite can be used to measure the height of distant object very precisely. How ever. Remote controls are essential for mast and pole applications. and be lightweight. and easily replaceable in the field. whilst the still camera is able to resolve the lamp on thousands of molecules. a digital camera does have the advantage of not needing a postal system to get the photos back to the office. trying to resolve lenses. The Canon EOS 5000 has proven to be ideal. and with its ability to store 30 images on a single floppy disc. A single pixel is generally considered insufficient. This requires that the distant object should be visible from a reference point whose coordinate and elevation is known. often at 9. over a mobile phone? However. but may need to be updated as models change. where the digital camera is only able to resolve the lamp on a single pixel. taking many MB/s. Few manufacturers make cameras with electronic remote control these days. High-resolution digital camera files. Digital cameras can be timesaving when only short hops are involved. not even the best digital cameras can reproduce the resolution of a “stills”. . cheap as possible. (excluding end-to-end los). is a very useful additional tool for field survey use. There comes a point with increasing distance. Cameras will get damaged and “lost” during surveying. who has report-in from the field. and models change all the time. both using the some focal length lenses. whilst the stills camera can resolve much smaller images. Consider 2 cameras. trying to resolve the same diameter lamp over the same distance. Camera.6 Kb/s. particularly where it is intended to utilize a rooftop-stub. The chosen stills SLR camera kit should have motor drive with remote control.It is often though Digital cameras are ideal for LOS surveying. 4 or more pixels are required (ie above noise level) For the pixel to be resolved on a print. The digital camera finds a use in more-general site photography. are of little use to the field surveyor.

Y D Km Hr Hp m m m h2 m Theodolite Height above AGL at R h1 Horizontal Angle Between RP & X Deg Min Sec Precautions The accuracy of the measurement depends on the accuracy of distance between R & P. When D is more than 1 Km. The expected errors are very small and can be ignored. A theodolite with 20`` resolution is good D can be calculated. Or alternatively. This is helpful.This comes in very handy when the critical points on the path cannot be visited as in case of distant mountain peaks. when there are no nearby BM’s and some visible known height hills can be found. the height of reference point can be measured if the height of the Distant object is known. Assumptions See Fig 1 and Fig 2 Site 1 Site 2 Reference Point Distant Object Reference Known Ht Hills Distance Between R and P Elevation of R Elevation of P P height w. resolution of theodolite and the accuracy with which theodolite is balanced.r. coordinates of distant object can be taken from SOI topo maps and the coordinates of R can be obtained with GPS. R A B R P X. if the coordinates of R & P are known.t. .

say X is visible. Fix the Horizontal movement of theodolite. Point Theodolite at X. between Site A and Site B from where P and some other reference hill peak. Take coordinate of X from SOI Topo map. Find distance and Azimuth of RX and RP. Move telescope horizontally by angle α. 1 Compute Hp as shown below.Measuring Ht of Critical point On a slope Of A hill.0675*D*D 0. The cross section RP is shown in Fig.0675*D*D is called atmospheric correction factor. Move the telescope in vertical plane so that the cross hair bisects the highest point. Obtain Approximate Coordinate of p from SOI Topo Map. Find α by subtracting azimuth RX and RP. This is our critical point P. Go to some point on LOS using cross Track function of GPS. Set Theodolite at R. Now vertical angle of theodolite is О. Zero Horizontal reading on theodolite. . Hp=HR+h1+D*1000*tanО-0. This is our reference point R.

Hr=Hp-h1-D*1000*tanО+0.0675*D*D .If the height of R is not known it can be calculated using reference hill X. whose height is known. Refer to Fig 1 and replace point P by point X in the figure. in the following manner.

particularly overseas. Call this point where you are standing as R. . and is therefore to be used only with care. have found to be very easy to spot. Go backward step by step so that the angel in inclinometer reads 45 Degree. INCLINOMETER Inclinometer can be used to measure the height of an abstacle like Trees. on which to mount a xenon beacon such as used by the emergency services. Such simple equipment should be carried per crew. Other alternatives include a 12m push-up telescopic mast. It has been found that the use of a survey flag can speed-up considerably. at all times. Qty1. on a diagonal. Qty 1. multiple surveys to centre site. Tower and building very quickly (less than 5 minutes) Inclinometer Measuring Tape. Beacons and Power Supplies It is often useful to be able to prove LOS only exists at some distance above a rooftop. carried in an ex-mil gas mask case.Ties-downs are essential for safety. Powered by a motorcycle battery. but can be easily mistaken for a base of football hooligans. such arrangements are quick and simple. The Union jack is an ideal flag. similarly arranged. Flags. 100 m How to measure: Decide the highest point on the tree (say P). The easiest way to do this is for each crew to carry in their vehicle a set of poles. Go close to the tree and bisect P with inclinometer. Contrasting bright colours. and available in the car.Poles.

and there is waiting for connection. when working in areas with congested cellular coverage. Call this h2. Tree Height (h1) is H1-h2+D Communications In a cellular roll-out. or having to use your roaming phone to get a connection. They can also reduce project costs considerably. Water & First Aid Kit .Find point Q on the ground. PMR and CB radios are useful in such circumstances. which is just below P. Measure the observers Eye level (where inclinometer is kept) to ground. LOS surveyors will often find themselves working in areas where cellular converge has yet to be provided. Calculate Of Tree Height.Measure distance PQ with measuring tape.

casual clothing. ina bodydrying environment. baseball hats and coveralls attract a more professional identity. Boots and Shoes Boots should not be used on rooftops due to the danger of damaging the surface. and it is not usual to see LOS personnel in dirty. old. Helmet A Petzel sports helmet should be carried. Corporate. Ladder A ladder of at least 3 m length should be carried by each crew accessing sites. for ease of transport. polo shirts. or for washing hands. Such cuts easily go septic and should be treated immediately. The ideal ladder for the purpose is either of collapsible or telescopic construction. The addition of a helmet-lamp can be useful. Soft-soled trainers should be used instead. Of particular concern are the small cuts to the hands caused by new galvanized steelworks. for use as an eyewash. Clothing LOS on rooftops can be a very dirty job.Safety boots should be used at all other locations. by all who are likely to want to access rooftop sites. . A small towel is useful. Safety Ropes and associated Usage equipment. Access is often little more than a crawl and helmets can be a must.A bottle of boiled water. Failure to carry such a ladder should be considered an offence under Health and Safety. Each LOS surveyor should carry a small first-aid kit at all times. and for carrying to where required for use. should be carried by all who work on rooftops. looking like someone who had a vehicle breakdown on the way to a day out at the beach. Drinking water is also a must.

in the local language or languages. and these guys will often be entering site through premises of a 3rd party. Team Equipment It has been found that the following Team Equipment can be very useful: • • • • • 30 m Trailer Mast. masts and other structures are likely to be found. More detailed reporting is best undertaken on return to accommodation in the field and after photos have been developed and printed. Such a letter can save the arrest or detention of LOS staff. suitably loaded. of 400-600 VA. at all times. To this end smiple proformas should be available to all LOS surveyors. Reporting Reporting should be hand-written on a proformas s before leaving site. with fuel container Large first aid kit Tow Ropes . with remote kit Generator. Climbing Certificates should also be carried at all times Identity Cards Every LOS Surveyor should wear an identity card at all times. carried on car roof. A “Silent-running” Generator. who they are working for. sealed A4 format. Likewise where existing towers. The equipment being used will at sometime be a cause for concern. addressed and logo from the in-country network operator (or nearest)stating what their task is. (Would you let someone into your house without an ID card?) Letter of Authority Every LOS Crew should carry a ‘Letter of Authority’. at all times. To this end each LOS surveyor should have his own laptop computer.Some “Greenfield” rooftops are fitted with safety lines at a very early stage. and giving a phone number for confirmation. towed behind a suitable vehicle 15m pump Up Clarke Mast “Surveyor”. and each individual should have suitable Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) available. and with them.

for multiple battery charging.• • • • • • Self Recovery equipment (Winches. slings. and a suitable trailer. ropes. gas. mains extension leads with adaptors. Cameras have to be mechanical only. Tripods • • Other Points • • High visibility jackets (Saturn Yellow) are useful for road-side stops and for rooftop surveying. one per vehicle. likewise have to be carried at all times. While these forward looking statements represent our best current judgment on what the future holds. Health and Safety policy documents of both the service provider and the site owner. and a holding rope Multiple outlet. Intrinsically safe sites may be limited to Diesel-Engine Vehicles only. 100 Watt). as per statutory requirements Dynamic safety rope and ancillaries. Flags and cubecorner reflectors (as used with laser range finders) Theodolites have proven useful in such sites. This presentation contains predictions. and has to be carried at all times. no battery or mains equipment. The site copy is the responsibility of the crew leader at site. and no non-IS Hand-Lamps. etc) Fire extinguishers Inverters per vehicle (Mains supply per vehicle. Compulsory road safety equipment. estimates or other information regarding the company’s operations which are forward looking in nature. for minor (missed) battery charging in an emergency on route to site. where appropriate. or invitation to make an offer. they are subject to risks and uncertainities that could cause actual results to differ . or to buy any security issued by the company. Balloon (Blimp). • • Many sites require a permit-to-work. Safe Harbour Neither the information nor any opinion expressed in this presentation constitutes an offer.

2) Global Mapper software. No liability for any loss will arise with the company as a result of the action taken on the basis of information contained herein. 3)You will be provided with 3 to 4 nominal values of existing sites(old site) and nominal value of new site We have to make LOS from one old site to new site Hardware Tools 1) Magnetic Compass : This compass is used to find the azimuth of microwave antenna 2) GPS(Global Positioning System): GPS is used to know the distance from old to the new site. This presentation is prepared for general purposes only and does not have any regard to the specific investment objectives. latitude and longitude values of geographical location.e. Int Software Tools 1)SRTM file : This file consists of Nominal Value i.materially and may involve risk and uncertainty. How to use Global Mapper Software to find LOS First open Global Mapper software a window will open as shown . financial situation and particular needs of any specific person.

Click on open your own data files Here select the SRTM file In this select the give nominal value Example N017E78 for Hyderabad Location By doing this you will find the location area of N017E78 on you Map as shown below .

Click at any point on the map a window with name View Shed Setup will open Here enter the name of the site i. New Site .25 then click on Transmitter Location as shown below. . select Transmitter elevation 0 meters and View radius as 0.Now select the view shed tool in order to place the site on the give nominal value.e.

You can see the site on your map at the nominal you have entered as shown. .Here select Geographical location icon and type the give nominal value of new site as shown below Then click on OK button.

.Repeat the same steps for old site or exiting site. Note down the distance. Then select the 3D path profile/ Line of site Tool Click on the old site and drag till the new site and right click a window with name Path profile/Line of sight will open as shown. Now select the distance icon in order to check the distance from old site to the new site as shown below.

as shown below. Click on ok. And if the distance is grater than 10km then the frequency should be 7GHz. You will see .Here click on Line of Sight button a window with name Setup Line of Sight/ Earth Curvature as shown Here enter the height of microwave antenna of old site in the “ from sight elevation” and enter the predicted height of the new sight in the “To Sight Elevation” . If the distance between the two site is less than 10km then the frequency should be 15GHz.

Repeat this step until you see minimum clearance as 16Meters.Here you have to get the minimum clearance should be 16Meters. After doing this if you don’t find minimum clearance 16meters leave the site and move to the next Old site. . and repeat the same steps. If not cliclk on line of sight button and increase the “To Sight Elevation” by 3 Meters.

And. you must pay attention to details regarding variability of refractivity. Also.. so using the opposite polarization can often provide some protection from them. which can be achieved . and less probability of interference. It is always worthwhile to rty both polarizations. . but horizontal polarization will often be superior to vertical. Even with LOS. and thus require less clearance over obstacles to avoid diffraction losses. interfering signals from pagers and the like tend to be vertically polarized. may result in lower overall path loss on LOS paths (providing that you can keep the fed line losses under control). and may provide lower path loss in some non-LOS situations (e.Conclusion Always strive for LOS conditions. The tighter focusing of energy. and less multipath . Fresnel zone clearance and avoiding reflections from the ground and other surfaces. There are advantage to going higher in frequency . It will generally provide fewer multipath in urban areas. which can be achieved. the higher bands have more bandwidth available for high-speed data. Use as much antenna gain as is practical. of course. due to the higher antenna gains. Higher frequencies also have smaller Fresnel zones. into the microwave bands.g. attenuation from trees at VHF and lower UHF).

Website: www. medicine. since diffraction losses. increase with frequency. and attenuation from natural objects such as trees. and when there is little probability of success. though./or microwave should be more careful about the hazards of this radiation than ordinary people. It has been reported that. industry. radio. As it is known. Equipment utilizing this form of energy is using in telecommunications. Many people do not take care about the hazards of microwave and radio frequency radiation. hand wireless etc. We believe that people occupationally exposed to RF and. commerce. radio. It’s very useful. radio-frequency(RF) and microwave(MW) energy play very important role in our daily life. electromagnetic radiation such as radio frequency and microwave. Radio propagation is seldom 100% predictable. alters some functions of biological systems.However. and one should never hesitat to experiment.atspl. and astronomy. The application of radio frequency and microwave energy are numerous and there is an increasing deman for these technologies. research and at home ( for example: microwave oven. television. the advantage may be lost in non-LOS situations. to be equipped with enough knowledge to know what techniques to try.com .).