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Course overview
SAN fundamentals is a web-based course introducing the fundamentals of Fibre Channel storage area networks (SANs) in a vendor-neutral perspective. It includes basic information about Fibre Channel SAN terminologies, concepts, components, and topologies. The course begins with key concepts of a SAN. It reviews SAN components and how they solve business problems. SANs are compared to the networked-attached and direct-attached storage solutions to illustrate the benefits. The three main Fibre Channel topologies—point-to-point, arbitrated loop, and switched fabric —are covered, including the switch or fabric topology, logging in to a fabric, cascading switches, switch initialization, and zoning, as well as Fibre Channel cabling technology. To help reinforce learning objectives, the course includes a learning check at the end of each module and a knowledge challenge at the end of the course.

Course objectives
Upon completion of this training, students should be able to:  Explain Fibre Channel SANs and components, and compare SANs to a direct-attached storage (DAS) and a network-attached storage (NAS).  Describe the Fibre Channel architecture, characteristics, and operation including naming and addressing.  Describe Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop topology with its operation and benefits.  Describe switch topology with fabric operation and zoning concepts.  Describe fiber optic technology and compare Fibre Channel cabling options and connectors

Introduction to Fibre Channel SAN: Objectives
After completing this module, you should be able to:  Define and explain a basic SAN, how it solves business problems, and the differences between direct-attached storage (DAS), network-attached storage (NAS), and storage area network (SAN).  Identify the various SAN hardware and software components.

What is a SAN?
A SAN is a high-speed (1 to 2Gb/s data transfer rates, with the future of 10Gb/s) network with heterogeneous (mixed vendor or platforms) servers accessing a common or shared pool of heterogeneous storage devices. SAN environments provide any-to-any communication between servers and storage resources, including multiple paths. The parts of a SAN are:  Client layer — The clients are the access point of a SAN.  Server layer — The major components in this layer are the servers, the HBAs, including the GBICs, and the software drivers that enable HBAs to communicate with the fabric layer.  Fabric layer — This is the middle layer of a SAN, the network part of a SAN, where hubs and switches tie all the cables together into a logical and physical network.  Storage layer — This is where all the data resides on the disk drives.

Storage Network Industry Association (SNIA) statement

SNIA defines a SAN as "A network whose primary purpose is the transfer of data between computer systems and storage elements, and among storage elements. A SAN consists of a communication infrastructure which provides physical connections, and a management layer which organizes the connections, storage elements, and computer systems so that data transfer is secure and robust." Within this definition, there is no mention of Fibre Channel. SNIA recommends using the term Fibre Channel SAN when the network is based on Fibre Channel technology. Although a SAN typically references Fibre Channel, it can be based on other technologies such as Enterprise System Connection (ESCON) and iSCSI, which is a protocol that enables a server to access storage through an Ethernet network adapter. For more information on SNIA, refer to the website at:

SAN history and business challenges
Historically, information technology companies have taken a segmented approach with storage. Specific servers executed specific applications, and each system was directly attached to the storage it required. As the need for faster and bigger storage grew, users purchased more drives for their arrays or replaced older technologies with newer, faster ones. Today, businesses are faced with several challenges:    Exponential storage growth Zero downtime requirements Convenient scheduling of downtime to add capacity Solution To answer some of the challenges businesses face, SAN storage is external and can be shared without impacting system performance or the primary network. SANs provide a:    Secure implementation of storage I/O methods over network transports. High-speed, scalable, robust network of servers and storage devices. Storage service that: • Connects to servers enterprise-wide. • Centralizes data. • Moves data automatically for availability and replication. • Provides accelerated data access. • Supports advanced storage management. • Provides for highly-available configurations. Natural platform for server clustering applications.

Distance example: • 100m (60 miles) with copper cabling (used for shorter distances) • 500m with multimode fiber optic cabling (used for medium distances) • 10km with singlemode fiber optic cabling (used for longer distances)  Speed — Fibre Channel permits theoretical speeds of 10Gb/s and higher with Fibre Channel cabling (five times faster than SCSI and LAN data transfers). Efficiency Several factors contribute to the efficiencies of SANs:  Reliability — Fibre Channel transports data with a very low error rate. Fibre Channel continues to evolve and enhance performance and distance characteristics. a SAN should be beneficial. Sometimes the benefits do not justify the costs for small companies. If you have more than 16 servers. Fibre Channel SANs offers these additional benefits. However.  Increased I/O performance — SANs operate faster than internal drives or devices attached to a LAN. A bit error rate (BER) of 1 x 0 to 12 is the minimum acceptable rate. which takes less room in the data center.  Performance — Distance and speed  Efficiency — Reliability and nondisruptive scalability  Manageability — More devices supported with less people  Connectivity — Any-to-any connections  Cost effectiveness — Serverless backups and tape library sharing  Modular scalability — Dynamic capacity  Consolidated storage — Sharing of centralized storage Performance  Distance — Fibre Channel permits hosts and devices to be connected to locations 10km (6 miles) apart. smaller servers. Distance capabilities are dependent on Fibre Channel cabling types which is discussed in the Fibre Channel Cabling module. and scalability. which are covered in more detail on the next pages. A good guideline is the use of 16 servers. manageability.SAN benefits SAN benefits provide high return on investment (ROI) and reduce the total cost of ownership (TCO) by increasing performance.  Disaster recovery capabilities — SAN devices can mirror the data on the disk to another location. . Some key benefits of SANs are:  Reduced data center rack and floor space — Because you do not need to buy big servers with room for many disks. SANs are not for everyone. you can buy fewer.

One I/O operation can take place without waiting for another one to finish. wrong cables. The complexity of installation and configuration increases as additional devices are placed within the SAN. outdated drivers. signal loss. patch panel problems  Unsuitable drivers — Wrong drivers.  Online storage migration capabilities — Storage can be dynamically allocated and reallocated among hosts without interruption. problems can still occur to make a SAN inefficient. interfaces support only themselves. missing drivers  Untrained staff — Incomplete training. . driver interaction with other software. SAN provides the ability to combine many of these tasks under one management platform. not monitoring or responding to problems Manageability The more complex the network.  Elimination of server downtime while adding storage — Using Fibre Channelbased storage.  Tape libraries and backup devices require software to run and schedule the backups. resulting in improved storage usage. load balancing. and storage file access. I/O operations are unbundled from dependence on the physical interconnections.  Switches are managed for system maintenance and to enhance performance. storage resources can be added or deleted without interrupting the production environment. For example:  Poor design — Improper bandwidth. damaged cables. In Fibre Channel. latency issues. the more complex the management tasks. congestion  Cabling problems — Inconsistent labeling practices. Fibre Channel supports simultaneous use of multiple interface protocols. pushing projects with limited resources.  Storage requires a software interface to manage redundant array of independent disks (RAID). no SAN team  Incomplete management software — Not setting up the right alarms and notifications.  Servers require file security. poor vendor support. Inefficiency Though SANs can be very efficient. Independent I/O operations — Typically. For example:  Users require continuous connectivity and access.

. This enables a SAN device to connect and communicate with multiple SAN devices simultaneously.Press Ctrl+P to print this page.  Arbitrated loop — SAN devices are connected in the form of a ring. Connectivity SANs are scalable from two to 14 million ports in one system.  Switched fabric — SAN devices are connected using a fabric switch. with multiple topology choices such as:  Point-to-point — A dedicated and direct connection exists between two SAN devices.

and recall. This reduces duplication of hardware costs to store the copies. but another intelligent device can transfer the data. the introduction of LAN-free and serverfree data transfers largely eliminate server cycles to manage tasks such as backup and recovery. Serverless backup This type of backup enables a direct backup from disk to tape. In addition. without going through the host that offloads data from the network. Tape library sharing Providing tape drives to each server is costly. Data sharing SAN data sharing reduces the need to hold multiple copies of the same file or database. Modular scalability . archive.Cost effectiveness Several features of Fibre Channel SANs enable cost effectiveness. Server reductions By moving data to SAN-attached storage subsystems. SANs enable greater connectivity of tape drives and tape libraries. especially at greater distances. The host initiates the process. the servers themselves might no longer need to be configured with native storage. It also enhances the ability to implement cross-enterprise applications such as e-business. which could be inhibited when multiple data copies are stored. and it also involves the added administrative overhead of scheduling the tasks and managing the tape media.

in most cases. Primary storage is increasingly an important part of an enterprise information technology infrastructure. and reduces the cost of additional hardware devices. Consolidated storage Consolidating storage (primary and secondary) in a SAN and sharing the resource across multiple servers reduces the cost of storage management. Storage solutions For companies to continue being successful. Storage can be internal or external:  Internal storage — Internal storage consist of disks located within the host server that has a basic RAID controller.Modular scalability provides support for an unpredictable environment. Nondisruptive Capacity can be dynamically scaled on demand—without disrupting ongoing operations—providing maximum flexibility to accommodate business growth. Additional hardware and its administration would be required for each additional device. A storage solution is a fully integrated and tested storage-product configuration consisting of a combination of hardware. enabling changes to the infrastructure as business needs evolve. using SCSI and Fibre Channel technologies. and services—all of which focus on solving specific customer business problems. software. The disks themselves.  External storage — External storage connects to a physically separate storage cabinet or shelf. . Companies continually need larger amounts of data storage. External enclosures provide electrical isolation to disk units and in some cases can provide additional RAID support. are the same as those used in external storage shelves. The interface is through an HBA located in the host server normally using a Fibre Channel interface. This diagram shows how three servers can use one storage device instead of three DAS devices that can be costly. The similarities continue in the support of all the SCSI or Fibre Channel standards as well as optional RAID levels. data storage has become a business-critical consideration. SANs enable disk storage to be scaled independently of servers.

or the storage can be internal to the server. and NFS file systems. Requires a network interface card (NIC) on the server to access the storage. NAS       Requires network connectivity. Does not require the server to have a SCSI HBA and cable for storage access. NAS NAS is storage that resides on the LAN behind the servers. Supports FAT. Provides client access at the file level using network protocols. On the server side. . and network connectivity. so the server can communicate with the external storage. The storage itself can be external to the server connected by a cable to a controller with an external port. Some internal storage devices use high-availability features such as adding redundant component capabilities. Servers access the NAS the same way that clients do. NAS storage devices require special storage cabinets providing specialized file access. the SCSI HBA is no longer needed for storage access.  An HBA is being installed in the server. In the following diagram:  The DAS configuration starts with a server. security.  A storage disk drive is installed into a storage subsystem. Provides file-to-disk block mapping.Data storage solutions are:  Direct-attached storage (DAS)  Network-attached storage (NAS)  Storage-attached network (SAN) Storage solution comparison table DAS DAS is storage connected to a server. and network connectivity. NAS storage devices require special storage cabinets providing specialized file access. NTFS.  The server and storage are connected with cables. security.

. In this diagram. All block-level mapping is performed on the NAS. similar to attaching shares from server-attached storage. attach to the NAS as a share. including servers. the client request (the client can be a server) is within a TCP/IP header and is forwarded to the NAS device.Clients. Only the server requires a NIC to access the storage.

or many different storage devices. and storage devices.Advantages  Eliminates awkward HBA and RAID controller configuration and cost Is a plug-and-play device  Accesses by any device with a network connection  Supports many different operating systems that can access the NAS as long as these devices support the file system  Performs backups using NAS tape backup devices and NAS storage while using less storage resources  Provides the ability to transition from server-based storage to a SAN Disadvantages The disadvantages of NAS are what led to the acceptance of SANs. Storage connected to switches or hubs that connect to servers. SAN components include:     Client access to the LAN and SAN levels. Routers or bridges that connect and interface with tape libraries or backup devices. One server or many heterogeneous servers can share a common storage device. . connections.     Depends on the client LAN. SAN A SAN is a network composed of many servers. Servers connected to switches or hubs that connect to storage. including disk. tape. and optical storage. which makes it accessible only to devices on the LAN Limits LAN bandwidth Limits data handling capabilities Lower performance than a SAN SANs:  Enable handling of secure massive amounts of data without having to compromise the overall performance and integrity of the network. The storage can be located far from the servers that use it.  Successfully deal with the massive amounts of data that is stored and accessed on corporate networks.

The SAN advantage is that the same storage device can be accessed serially or concurrently by multiple servers. A device could be mirrored remotely across the SAN for high-availability configurations.  Server to server —This provides high-speed. Therefore.  Storage to storage — In this configuration of a SAN. without server processor intervention.  Fibre Channel provides a highly scalable bandwidth over long distances. Disadvantages of a SAN  Incompatibilities between vendors are not completely resolved in some implementations.  SAN solutions use a dedicated network behind the servers and are based on primarily Fibre Channel architecture. a SAN can avoid network bottlenecks. including switched parallel data paths to deliver high availability and high performance. high-speed transfers between servers and storage devices in the following methods:  Server to storage— This is the traditional method of interaction with storage devices.  Fibre Channel RAID is expensive when compared to parallel SCSI. a disk array could back up its data directly to tape across the SAN.  Clients with business-critical data and applications are concerned about high availability. high-volume communications between servers. Fibre Channel SANs help provide the no-single-point-of–failure configurations that business-critical customers require by being able to mirror data or cluster servers over a SAN.A SAN is different from traditional networks because it is created from storage interfaces. It supports direct. Fibre Channel has the ability to provide full redundancy. .

 Fibre Channel hardware implementations can be expensive. which are the fundamental requirements of a storage network. Storage solution comparison table DAS Applications Any NAS File serving SAN Storage for application servers General purpose Server and operating systems Storage devices General purpose Optimized Internal or external dedicated Management Labor intensive Data centers Workgroup or departmental Performance Network traffic Distance Speed High availability Cost None Bottlenecks Limited External directattached Centralized Workgroup or departmental External shared Low cost Increased network performance Limited distances Greater distances Improved bottlenecks Greater speeds Limited Offers no-single-pointof-failure storage and data path protection Affordable Higher cost. which generally occur during bulky operations. SAN components include:  Client layer  Host layer • Servers . Fibre Channel devices effectively combat the problems related to bandwidth. Hardware components offer different features to provide for a small SAN to a high-speed and high-volume SAN data center. A wide range of hardware and software products make up the components of a SAN. but greater benefits Centralized Small workgroup to enterprise data centers Higher bandwidth SAN components Fibre Channel SAN environments and components enable the development of solutions that provide high performance and high availability. such as backup and restore operations.

Dataless servers Data is moved from the servers to storage devices. The services. applications. This enables the servers to perform better because they now manage less data and can handle the server tasks. With a SAN. Clustering SANs support server clustering. the first SAN component that enhances performance is the implementation of the SAN server. you can purchase fewer and smaller servers than with other topologies that rely more on the servers to manage data. and resources running on any .  • HBAs Fabric layer • Hubs or switches • Bridges and multiplexers • Routers • SAN software • Fibre Channel cables Storage layers • Storage devices • Backup devices SAN servers After the client layer. Its the data that is important to the business. Clusters are a set of independent network servers working together to provide fault tolerance.

and provides more functionality than NICs. such as TCP/IP. which is a fast. HBAs also provide:  Support to the upper-level protocols. ensuring successful interaction between SANs and connected LANs. Role of the HBA The HBA in the SAN provides initialization of Fibre Channel devices and ports that belong to an arbitrated loop or fabric.  Can address more devices than SCSI or NIC counterparts. Fibre Channel hubs and switches Hubs The hubs on a storage network are used to implement the ring-like Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) topology.node in the cluster are available to all connected network users. and a single switch alone enables the creation of a small-scale SAN. a typical Fibre Channel hub can support up to 126 nodes. Fibre Channel HBAs:  Provide gigabit technology. and reliable data-encoding mechanism. such as servers and storage devices. extremely secure. enabling frames to be routed between SAN nodes at high speeds. Switches Switches provide many more connections than hubs and are used in FC-AL and switched fabric configurations.  Provide the ability for Fibre Channel frames to relay over gateways. Clusters are invisible to users and interact as though each were a single server.  Provide I/O connectivity to more devices over longer distances than SCSI. An HBA provides hard-coded. 64-bit World Wide Name (WWN) and World Wide Port_Name (WWPN) addresses to a SAN device and its ports.  Encoding of data as per the 8B/10B scheme. . HBAs compared to NICs HBAs are similar to NICs used in LANs and other non-SAN networks. Hubs have 7 to 12 ports that can be used to connect devices in a Fibre Channel configuration. They replace the traditional SCSI cards and interconnect SAN devices. They offer 8 to 16 ports. Role of the server   performance  Schedule backups Serve as the access point for the clients Provide load balancing and data caching to improve HBAs The next component in a SAN is the installation of the HBA in the server. Unlike the hubs used in traditional networks. Switches offer a dedicated bandwidth of 100Mb/s and above for each port.

These are used to connect an FC-AL loop to the rest of the fabric. they might not be able to perform protocol conversion. Gateways Fibre Channel gateways enable interconnect networks using different protocols and addressing methods over a wide area network (WAN). such as: • Fabric Login (FLOGI) — Enables nodes to be successfully initialized (allocated a unique address) in a switched environment. These devices transfer storage data between different networks by using various transmission media and addressing methods. . The estimated annual downtime for a director is barely five minutes.  Fabric switches — These switches are expensive and are predominantly used to implement the switched fabric topology. and the storage network. However. enabling communication between two nodes • Simple Name Server (SNS) — Helps a source node to discover the destination node within the fabric without causing unnecessary communication overhead  Registered State Change Notification (RSCN) that notifies Fibre Channel nodes about the changes in the existing topology Fibre Channel routers and gateways Routers Fibre Channel routers provide an interface among IP-based devices. LANs.  Directors — This is the most expensive category of switches. Other advanced services provided by Fibre Channel switches are:  Buffer-to-buffer flow control during transactions  Services.Fibre Channel switches are divided into three categories:  Loop switches — These switches are comparatively low cost. but they offer the best performance and maximum reliability.

Note: Bridges are also referred to as Fibre Channel SCSI routers. These parallel storage devices use original SCSI commands to enable SCSI initiators access to data blocks. . Parallel SCSI devices can be included in a SAN with the addition of a SCSI-Fibre Channel bridge. They perform a protocol conversion function between SCSI and Fibre Channel.Fibre Channel bridges and multiplexers Bridges Bridges provide the ability to connect parallel SCSI devices to a Fibre Channel network.

The fault-tolerance level and reliability of JBOD is lower than what is expected from an expensive storage system. The series of fixed disk drives are logically addressed as a single. Tape libraries store data from 10GB to several thousand terabytes of data. Tape libraries These are inexpensive storage solutions. Some array components can be replaced. They are a reliable storage solution. larger drive. fan assembly. providing distance and speed enhancements over SCSI. A SAN uses the following storage devices: Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD) A JBOD is a set of multiple storage disks acting as a single storage entity. JBOD data access is slow. Data stored on a JBOD is extended across multiple disks. They also offer high reliability for backup transactions. so that installation and replacement does not require downtime. power supply. and disk drive housings. A single array holds several drives. A multiplexer effectively uses the available network bandwidth. Storage devices Storage can be based on SCSI or Fibre Channel. Most vendors offer self-managing tape subsystems that makes tape libraries the ideal backup medium.Multiplexers Multiplexers are a special category of bridges that interleave signals from multiple devices and transmit them simultaneously through a single transmission medium. Storage arrays The storage array is an external drive enclosure containing a controller. Backup devices . Storage drives These are high-availability drives that store high volumes of data. Fibre Channel-based storage enables direct connection to the Fibre Channel network. producing an enormous amount of storage in a compact unit. providing failover capabilities.

and writing multiple magnetic tape cartridges. backup time. They meet the performance and capacity characteristics of a SAN environment. Autoloaders Autoloaders are ideal for applications that require highcapacity. configuration. SAN Software components SAN software is required to manage and troubleshoot a SAN environment. retrieving. SAN software is used to manage:  Hardware and software within the SAN (such as storage. to large tape libraries capable of handling hundreds of backup media. reading. and hubs)  Multiple storage enclosures  Multiple operating systems  Multiple vendors  Resources to be managed in different geographical locations SAN management functions include:  Device installation. switches. and monitoring  SAN resource inventory  Report utilities  Automated component and fabric discovery  Management of fabric configuration  Name services  Security management  Performance monitoring and load balancing At the storage level SAN management includes the management of:  Disks and disk arrays . Tape libraries A tape library is a high-capacity data storage system for storing.Backup and recovery system configurations can range from an external tape drive attached to the corporate server. and personnel resources are limited. high-speed tape backup where physical space.

bridges. A SAN might contain both heterogeneous servers and heterogeneous storage? Choose the correct answer. True False For help. gateways. switches. . see What is a SAN? 2. Tapes and tape libraries  Cabling  Hubs. and routers  Interswitch links  HBAs SAN software uses:  SCSI enclosure services that might impact FC-AL bandwidth  Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) At the enterprise level SAN software manages:  Storage  Networks  Servers  Desktops SAN software uses:  Web Based Enterprise Management (WBEM)  Common Interface Model (CIM)  Desktop Management Interface (DMI)  Java Application Management Interface (JAMI) Introduction to Fibre Channel SAN: Learning check 1. Which component is not a SAN layer? Choose the correct answer.

SAN NAS DAS For help. Fibre Channel permits hosts and devices to be up to 500m apart. How far can solutions span the distance? Choose the correct answer. see What is a SAN? 3. see Storage solutions 5.Client Server Storage Interlinks For help. see SAN benefits 4. Which data storage requires specific storage cabinets? Choose the correct answer. To over 10km To over 20km To over 30km To over 40km For help. Which solution provides for storage units to be very far from the servers? Choose the correct answer. .

HBA Disk array SAN management SAN switch For help. Which component offers high speed and can store up to several terabytes of data? Choose the correct answer. SAN NAS DAS For help.SAN NAS DAS For help. see Storage devices . see Storage solutions 6. see Storage solutions 7. Which data storage solution is the traditional method of attaching storage to hosts? Choose the correct answer.

HBA Disk array SAN management SAN switch For help. you should be able to:  Define Fibre Channel.  Identify the naming and addressing of Fibre Channel.  Identify Fibre Channel layers and what they represent. .8.  Define Fibre Channel basic terms. see Storage components 9. Tape libraries Optical libraries Autoloaders For help.  Identify how Fibre Channel ports are used.  Identify Fibre Channel framing protocol and how it functions. see Backup devices Fibre Channel basics: Objectives After completing this module.  List the features of Fibre Channel.  List the classes of service and how they relate to data transfer. What uses multiple tape drives and mechanisms to address large scale backup environments? Choose the correct answer. What provides initialization to Fibre Channel devices? Choose the correct answer.

switches. and classes of service. and is the simplest form of a fabric topology. storage devices. What is Fibre Channel? Industry requires an efficient and high-performance transfer of information between devices such as computers. .  Reliability — Fibre Channel is the most reliable form of storage communication. With Fibre Channel:  Hosts and applications see storage devices attached to the SAN as if they are locally attached storage. or routers.  Connections can be either optical fiber (for distance) or copper cable links (for short distance at low cost). List three basic Fibre Channel topologies. common services.  Fibre Channel Switched Fabric (FC-SW) — FC-SW provides the highest performance and connectivity of the three topologies. Protocols Fibre Channel uses three protocols:  Point-to-point — Devices are directly connected to other devices without the use of hubs. flow control. Fibre Channel features Fibre Channel has features that include:  Price:performance — Fibre Channel expense is offset by its high-speed bandwidth benefit.  Multiple protocols and a broad range of devices can be supported. They include definitions of physical interfaces such as cabling. switches. These standards define characteristics and functions for moving data across the network.  Identify Fibre Channel addressing and its benefits.  Identify Fibre Channel port connections and how they interface with hubs. and other devices. and 16 million nodes on an FC-SW and provides connectivity over several kilometers (up to 10km) when using optical fiber. connects with hubs.  Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) — FC-AL has a shared bandwidth. It has nondisruptive scalability and switch connection.  Hot pluggability — Fibre Channel drives can be installed or removed while the host system is operational. data encoding and link controls. Fibre Channel is a multilayered network based on a series of standards from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). data delivery in terms of frames. and signaling. and other peripherals. Fibre Channel supports 126 nodes on an FC-AL. and protocol interfaces. distances. distributed topology. This is crucial in high-end and heavy-use server systems where there is little or no downtime.

and security. cluster computing. HIPPI. failover. (refer to the Terms and Definitions section) to meet needs for storage connectivity. levels of scalability. and network interconnect.  Reassembles the received frames into a packet for delivery to a receiving device. and IEEE 802.  Congestion-free flow — The Fibre Channel flow control delivers data as fast as the destination buffer is able to receive it for high throughput data transfers. and other applications to run more efficiently. ESCON. and availability.2. management. addressing. providing customers with the highest bandwidth network interface technology in the industry. . remote replication. VI. IPI.  Full suite of services — The Fibre Channel set of storage network services include discovery.            Fibre Channel applications High-performance storage High-performance disk and tape I/O Large databases and data warehouses Storage backup systems and recovery Server clusters Network-based storage High-performance Workgroups Campus backbones Digital audio and video Networks Framing protocol Framing protocol is a communication procedure that:  Accepts data and divides it into frames for transmission. Cable lengths include: • 30m between nodes with copper cabling • 500m between nodes with multimode cabling and shortwave lasers • 10km between nodes with single-mode cabling and longwave lasers  Gigabit bandwidth — Both 1Gb and 2Gb solutions are available and backward compatible.  Loop resiliency — Fibre Channel provides high data integrity in multiple devices (including Fibre Channel RAID) on a loop. LUN zoning. Fibre Channel is a high-performing and flexible configuration.  Scalability — Moving from single point-to-point gigabit links to integrated enterprises with hundreds of servers. IP. Multiple topologies — Customers can develop a storage network with configuration choices at a range of price points. restore.  Multiple protocols — Protocols include SCSI.  Longer cable lengths — Fibre Channel maintains data integrity through long cables. This enables backup.

An F_Port. a tape backup device. An N_Port that contains arbitrated loop functions associated with arbitrated loop topology is called an NL_Port. All loop-hub ports are called L_Ports. The F_Port. is the Link_Control_Facility within the fabric (switch) that attaches to an N_Port. the way a client program specifies a particular server program on a computer in a network. Positions the data in the frames for improved performance and hardware efficiency. which stands for fabric loop port. The link is called the inter-switch link (ISL). so when two nodes are direct-attached it is through an arbitrated loop (NL_Port to NL_Port). A node can be a server or storage system. A node is a connection point. An E_Port is used for connecting fabrics (switches). A port is also a logical connection place and specifically. a port is a specific place for being physically connected to some other device. Fibre Channel ports N_port Fibre Channel description L_port NL_port F_port FL_port E_port G_port All node (server or storage) ports are called N_Ports. Frame specifications  2148-byte maximum frame size  4-byte SOF  24-byte header (destination and source addressing control fields)  0 to 2112-byte data  4-byte cyclic redundancy check (CRC)  4-byte EOF Fibre Channel ports On a computer or communication device. usually with a socket and plug of some kind. using a protocol. prefixed by a start of frame (SOF) delimiter and followed by an end of frame (EOF) delimiter. which stands for loop ports. that contains arbitrated loop functions associated with arbitrated loop topology is called an FL_Port. Each node must hold at least one port for providing access to other devices. or a video display terminal. or fabric port. It is either a redistribution point or an end point for data transmissions. N-port to N-port is uncommon. An N_Port attaches to an F_Port in a point-to-point protocol. A G_Port (generic port) can auto-discover its type. A frame is a string of data bytes. a node has programmed or engineered capability to recognize and process or forward transmissions to other nodes. In general. It automatically .

controls the flow of data.  If you plug a switch into a fabric switch. and software applications over Fibre Channel • FC-4 — Defines the mapping of the ULP to the Fibre Channel • FC-3 — Provides common services for multiple ports on a Fibre Channel node  Port level • FC-2 — Transfers frame formats. it becomes an E_Port. Fibre Channel layers Fibre Channel consists of multiple layers similar to the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) layers in network protocols. The functions of each layer are:  Node level • Upper-level protocol (ULP) — Provides the communication path for the operating system.  Plug a host port into a FL_Port and it becomes an NL_Port.  Plug a hub into a switch port and it becomes an FL_Port. drivers. performs sequence and exchange management.  Switch ports are usually G_Ports when nothing is plugged into them. it becomes an F_Port. and administers the topologies • FC-1 — Encodes and decodes data to transmit it through a physical media • FC-0 — Acts as an interface for the physical media .  If you plug a host port into the switch. or NL port. Switch ports Switch ports become a port type depending on what gets plugged into them. These layers communicate instructions for transmitting data.  The diagram shows how port names change depending on what devices are connected. N.configures itself as an E.

It provides an 8-bit byte to 10-bit byte character encoding scheme. Layer FC-1 FC-1 encodes and decodes data to transmit it through a physical media. and single-byte command code sets (SBCCS) or rules.Layer FC-4 The upper-layer protocol mapping FC-4 defines the mapping of the ULP to the other Fibre Channel levels. Its responsibility is the process of moving frames between ports. controls the flow of data. Each port on the FC-3 level knows which ports are busy and why. Layer FC-3 FC-3 provides common services for multiple ports on a Fibre Channel node. This protocol is concerned with the construction and management of frames. The FC-3 level is unaware of the topology of Fibre Channel or the signaling at the lower levels. HPPI. and administers the topologies. sequences. IP. Mapping rules provide clear instructions between ULP and the FC-3 and FC-2 levels to enhance interoperability among applications. Knowing which ports are busy enables the FC-3 level to route frames between two N_Ports. and exchanges. . The FC-3 level manages login information for all nodes and ports. such as SCSI-3. Layer FC-2 The FC-2 is the framing and signaling protocol that transfers frame formats. performs sequence and exchange management. It includes application protocols. This is handled by FC-1 and FC-2 levels. The SBCCS transforms data into Fibre Channel frames and back again.

and transceivers. connectors. The selection of a class of service depends on the type of data being transmitted. Framing classes of service Fibre Channel defines several communication systems called classes of service. It provides signaling. receiver. Class of service Class 1 Fibre Channel description  Dedicated connection  In-order delivery. Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 and 6 The following table summarizes the classes of service in Fibre Channel.This scheme converts an 8-bit byte into two 10-bit characters that are used to balance ones and zeros in a high-speed data transfer system. media. Layer FC-0 FC-0 is the physical interface for cables. and transmitter specifications. acknowledge first frame only  No flow control after first frame of connection Class 2  Connectionless  Frame switched  Out-of-order delivery possible  Acknowledge each frame  Buffer-to-buffer and end-to-end flow control for all frames .

However.Class 3  Frame switched  Out-of-order delivery possible  No acknowledgments  Buffer-to-buffer frame control for all frames Class 4  Connection oriented  Virtual circuit  In-order delivery Reserved  Connection oriented  Multicast service Class 5 Class 6 Class 1 Class 1 service establishes a dedicated connection. and notification of any transmission errors. The circuit is not dedicated. and guaranteed by the fabric. The maximum bandwidth available between the communication points is committed to the connection and is maintained as long as the circuit remains. no interruptions are tolerated and the frames can be delivered in the same order as they are transmitted. If the fabric is not a part of this implementation of Class 1 service. Features  Dedicated connection  Frame delivery acknowledgement  Constant circuit and full bandwidth  Frame arrival in order  Costly. This connection is established. retained. acknowledgement of data frame retrieval. This class of service is connectionless. Because the connection is guaranteed. the connection is treated as a special form of point-topoint protocol. it provides for the reassembly of the frames at the receiver. not widely implemented Class 2 Class 2 service does not guarantee the delivery of the frames in the same order as they were transmitted. Features .

Class 4:  Defines virtual circuits. Any recovery from errors or acknowledgement of successful data transmission is the responsibility of the ULP. No dedicated connection required  Acknowledgement of frame delivery provided  Frames can arrive out of order  In-order delivery can be requested during login  Notification of nondelivery of frames Class 3 Class 3 supports unacknowledged delivery of data frames. It is the responsibility of the fabric to make a best effort to deliver frames to the intended destination.  Is connection oriented.  Allows for the assignment of different quality of service parameters. .  A multicast server sends a single response.  Allows for the assignment of fractional bandwidth to virtual circuits. Class 6:  Multicast originator sends a single transmission to multiple destinations.  A multicast server accumulates responses. but does not issue a busy or reject frame if it is unable to make delivery to the destination N_Port. Features      Connectionless Nonnotification of delivery Error recovery provided by ULPs Low overhead and high performance Used in loop environments Classes 4 and 6 These two services are not widely implemented. Receiving N_Ports do not acknowledge receipt of valid data frames.

 Arbitrated Loop Physical Address (AL_PA) — A 1-byte value used in the Arbitrated Loop topology used to identify L_Ports. Two WWNs are assigned:  The N_Port node WWN is assigned for the HBA.  Acknowledgement frame (ACK) — Used for end-to-end flow control. The address can be considered analogous to a media access control (MAC) address. This value will then also become the last byte of the address identifier for each public L_Port on the loop. This guarantees uniqueness within a large.2 — The IEEE logical link control layer of the OSI model.  Arbitrated loop — One of the three Fibre Channel topologies. Terms and definitions The following terms are frequently used in Fibre Channel technology:  802. Ports arbitrate for access to the loop . Unlike the MAC address. An ACK is sent to verify receipt of one or more frames in Class 1 and Class 2 services.  The N_Port has a WWN assigned for each port on the HBA. the WWN is not used to transport frames across the network. Up to 126 NL_Ports and one FL_Port are configured in a unidirectional loop.Naming and addressing Each node has a fixed 64-bit worldwide name (WWN) assigned by the manufacturer. switched networked.

 Link service — A facility used between an N_Port and a fabric or between two N_Ports. a data transmission convention encompassing timing. Link services are used for such purposes as login. and data representation.  Fiber optic (or optical fiber) — The medium and technology associated with the transmission of information as light impulses along a glass or plastic wire or fiber. tape backup device.  IP — Internet Protocol.  Ordered set — A 4-byte transmission word. Ordered sets are used to distinguish Fibre Channel control information from data. a header.  IEEE — Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standards.  Close primitive signal (CLS) — Applies only to the Arbitrated Loop topology. storage system. a type of fiber jumper.  Link — Two adjacent unidirectional fibers (signal lines) transmitting in opposite directions. Any source or destination of transmitted data is a node.  Originator — An N_Port that originates an exchange. One fiber sends data out of the port and the other fiber receives data into the port. . It is not connected to a fabric. Ports with lower AL_PAs have higher priority than those with higher AL_PAs.  Nonparticipating mode — Where an L_Port enters the nonparticipating mode if more than 127 devices are on a loop and it cannot acquire an AL_PA. Each node must hold at least one port for providing access to other devices. An L_Port in the nonparticipating mode cannot generate transmission words on the loop and can only retransmit words received on its inbound fiber. but does not participate. sequence and exchange management.  Port — The connector and supporting logic for one end of a Fibre Channel link.  Public loop — An arbitrated loop connected to a fabric. The pair of fibers can be copper electrical wires (differential pairs) or optical strands.  Fabric — A set of one or more connected Fibre Channel switches acting as a Fibre Channel network.  End of frame (EOF) delimiter — An ordered set that is always the last transmission word of a frame.  HIPPI — High-Performance Parallel Interface standards.  Frame — The basic unit of communication between two N_Ports.  Primitive sequence — An ordered set transmitted repeatedly and used to establish and maintain a link.based on their AL_PA.  Responder — Where the N_Port is the exchange that the originator communicates with. and an ending delimiter (EOF). and maintaining connections. or video display terminal. the payload. An L_Port in this mode has acquired an AL_PA and is capable of communicating on the loop. using their associated transmitters and receivers.  Protocol —In a Fibre Channel SAN. It is sent by an L_Port.  Primitive signal — An ordered set used to indicate an event. formatting. which has a special character as its first transmission character. Frames are composed of a starting delimiter (SOF).  Private loop — An arbitrated loop that stands on its own. which is currently communicating on the loop to close communication with the other L_Port.  Participating mode — A normal operating mode for an L_Port on a loop. or primitive sequence. It is used to indicate that a frame has ended and indicates whether the frame is valid.  ESCON — Enterprise Systems Connection.  Buffer-to-buffer credit (BB_Credit) — Used for buffer-to-buffer flow control which determines the number of frame buffers available in the port it is attached to.  Node — A server. primitive signal. control. An L_Port can also voluntarily enter the nonparticipating mode if it is still physically connected to the loop. the cyclic redundancy check (CRC). An ordered set can be a frame delimiter.

It is used to indicate that a frame will immediately follow and indicates which class of service the frame will use.  VI — Virtual Interface. San topologies SAN devices connected by Fibre Channel can be arranged using one of three topologies: . The switch can make an electric connection between ports.  Start of frame (SOF) delimiter — The ordered set that is always the first transmission word of a frame. SAN — One or more Fibre Channel fabrics used to connect storage systems. or it can reroute packets through the switch.  Transmission character — A 10-bit character transmitted serially over the fiber.  Sequence — A group of related frames transmitted unidirectional from one N_Port to another.  Transmission word — A string of four consecutive transmission characters.  SCSI — Small Computer System Interface.  Special character — A special 10-bit transmission character. and management appliances. The special character is used to indicate that a particular transmission word is an ordered set. but is still considered valid. servers.  Sequence recipient — The N_Port that receives a particular sequence of data frames.  Switch — A device that connects the fabric using a virtual circuit or a virtual packet circuit. which does not have a corresponding 8-bit value. two fabrics (when redundancy is required in the storage networks). Typical SANs have one fabric (for environments where moderate data availability is required).  Sequence initiator — The N_Port that begins a new sequence and transmits frames to another N_Port. or even three or more fabrics (when an extremely large number of ports is required). Use caution with the terms fabric and SAN because many SANs have two redundant fabrics.

 Switched fabric — SAN devices are connected using a fabric switch. The fabric switch enables a SAN device to connect and communicate with multiple SAN devices simultaneously. Point-to-point In the point-to-point topology. FC-AL The FC-AL topology is a serial interface that creates logical point-to-point connections between ports on the loop. transactions are fast and relatively error free. Point-to-point — A dedicated and direct connection exists between two SAN devices. Communication bottleneck Before a source device can communicate with a target device. a SAN based exclusively on this topology is expensive for large enterprises. Several Fibre Channel arrays and multiple servers could be on the FC-AL. Devices can either transmit or receive. Disadvantages of point-to-point  Although a two-way communication path exists between two devices. there is a direct connection between the devices. Fibre Channel storage hub.  Arbitrated loop — The SAN devices are connected in the form of a ring. As a result. However. The bandwidth of that connection is dedicated entirely to that transaction. After it has control and the targeted port responds. the source device must log on to the network port of the target device by using a logon name and a password. Arbitration Each port on the arbitrated loop has its own identity and can arbitrate for control. but they cannot do both simultaneously. bidirectional communication occurs. The logon name and the password are set for a network port during the installation of network services on the target device. . A simplified FC-AL consists of a:    Server equipped with a Fibre Channel HBA.  SAN devices in a point-to-point network must be physically connected to communicate with each other. Fibre Channel storage array with a Fibre Channel array controller installed. only one path can be used at a time.

This eliminates unnecessary traffic on the other ports and reduces the need for retransmissions of data because of collisions. The hub provides bypass switching at each port. The hardware used to connect cables to ports in a SAN is called a Gigabit Interface Converter (GBIC). The routing table associates each port with the device attached to that port. it is bypassed. Fibre Channel storage switch. Routing tables The Fibre Channel switch routes data packets to their destination port based on a routing table. When a device on the arbitrated loop fails. The table is built as each Fibre Channel device periodically transmits its identity to the switch. High performance The FC-SW topology provides higher bandwidth because each packet is routed to its destination port. Fibre Channel port connection Ports have different names depending on how they are used with each device in a SAN. .Only one pair of ports on the loop can communicate at a time as a point-to-point connection. a single bus adaptor on hosts and devices support all of the listed port connections. Components A simplified FC-SW contains a:    Server equipped with a Fibre Channel HBA. which has to be manually configured. while the other ports on the loop act as repeaters. The switches automatically configure to the appropriate ports depending on what type of port on the host or device it is being connected to. Port and GBIC are interchangeable terms. Fibre Channel storage array. The only exception is the QL port. In many cases. This feature ensures continuity of the loop if any connected port should fail. A Fibre Channel port connection is where the cables are plugged. Switched fabric A Fibre Channel switch transmits each packet only to the port connected to the destination device. The GBIC is the physical connector and the port is the logical name. The mode of operation determines how the port is named. In the following table the E_Port is not shown for the switch because it connects only to another E_Port on another switch.

.  SNS — A server located on the switch that is used to keep track of WWNs and the associated 24-bit N_Port IDs. each port is assigned a WWN. Fibre Channel basics: Learning check 1. How far apart can Fibre Channel devices be if optical fiber is used as the physical medium? Choose the correct answer. If a node has more than one port.  WWN — A unique 64-bit address assigned to each node.  Port address — A subset of the WWN used by Fibre Channel networks that assign N_port and NL_port addresses. see What is Fibre Channel? 2. 1km 5km 10km 15km For help.  FLOGI — A protocol used between a node (server or storage) and the fabric to establish identification and capability parameters for subsequent communication.Host Ports N NLpub NLpri F switch Yes No No FL switch No Yes No QL switch No Yes Yes FC-AL hub No Yes Yes N Yes No No No Device NLpub No Yes Yes Yes NLpri No Yes Yes Yes Hub FC-AL No Yes Yes Yes Note: NLpub and NLpri are loop ports for private and public loops. What Fibre Channel gigabit bandwidths are available? Choose the correct answer. Fibre Channel addressing Fibre Channel addressing is identified by:  AL_PA — A 24-bit address that identifies a port. which are explained later in the course.

see Fibre Channel features 3. controls the flow of data. performs sequence and exchange management. and administers the topologies? Choose the correct answer. What is the maximum frame size? Choose the correct answer. 512 bytes 1024 bytes 2148 bytes 4296 bytes For help. see Framing protocol . Which Fibre Channel layer transfers frame formats. see Fibre Channel layers 4.1Gb and 2Gb 2Gb and 3Gb 3Gb and 4Gb 4Gb and 5Gb For help. FC-1 FC-2 FC-3 FC-4 For help.

How many WWNs are assigned to each node? Choose the correct answer. see Framing classes of service 6. answer. NL_Port F_Port FL_Port . One Two Three Four For help.5. Which Fibre Channel port is the Link_Control_Facility within the fabric (switch) that attaches to an N_Port? Choose the correct answer. Which framing class of service does not require acknowledgements? Choose the correct Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 For help. see Naming and addressing 7.

see Fibre Channel ports 8. In which topology are the SAN devices connected in the form of a ring? Choose the correct answer. Which Fibre Channel addressing mode determines network parameters? Choose the correct answer. FLOGI Port address WWN AL_PA For help. see Three basic topologies 9. answer. What are valid port names for switches used in an FC-AL topology? Choose the correct . Point-to-point Arbitrated loop Switched fabric For help. see Fibre Channel addressing 10.G_Port For help.

header. and EOF Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop: Objectives After completing this module.  Define FC-AL addressing and how it affects the arbitrated loop.  Describe FC-AL operation. CRC. payload. you should be able to:  Define Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL). QL. and N FL and QL FL. CRC. CLS. FL. see Fibre Channel port connection 11. header.F.  Describe FC-AL characteristics. and NLpub For help. What are the components of a frame? Choose the correct answer. and EOF SOF. and EOF SOF. SCS. SOF. CRC. What is FC-AL? .  Define arbitrated loops and switches.  List the advantages and disadvantages of FC-AL for storage. payload.  Define FC-AL loop initialization and how it affects the arbitrated loop.  Describe the relationship between the loop ID and the arbitrated loop physical address (AL_PA).

 Each port discovers if it is on a loop during initialization.FC-AL is a serial interface that:        Creates logical or virtual point-to-point connections between device ports.  This process continues until the last transmitter port connects back to the first receiver port. After a session is started (two devices communicating).  Has information flowing in one direction around the loop. Features  Many devices can be on a loop. but only the active link has the full bandwidth. they perform a loop initialization process where the physical addresses of the arbitrated loop are assigned.  Does not use centralized switching.  Every device participates in the loop initialization and receives a unique address. only one pair of nodes can be communicating on the loop at the same time.  Uses a minimum number of transceivers.  A loop can have as many as 126 ports. Devices in the arbitrated loop share access. This topology enables a single connection between one pair of ports at any point in time. the other devices connected to the loop must wait until the connection ends. which closes the loop. . but only two communicate at a time. There is no single permanent loop master. Therefore.  When nodes are added. Arbitrated loop process  The transmitter port on one node connects to the receiver port on another node.

therefore. changed back to an optical signal. The repeater does not buffer any of the information and. The signal is regenerated. and retransmitted. The receiver port receives the data. each node on the loop must operate at the same transmission rate Loop Port State Machine .Repeater function As the data is sent in one direction around the loop. which is changed back to a digital signal. from the transmitting port of a node to the receiver port of another node. each port on the loop functions as a repeater.

arbitration. LPSM states . and the opening and closing of loop communication circuits. The loop protocols include the loop initialization. These inputs cause the LPSM to progress through the states as the loop protocols are performed. The LPSM receives controlling inputs from the hardware and firmware of the loop port and from the ordered sets received from the loop interface.The Loop Port State Machine (LPSM) is responsible for performing the loop protocols.

the open originator can leave the transfer port and re-enter the open state to send frames to a different destination port. it enters the initializing state and starts the loop initialization process. it goes into the arbitration-won state (ARB_Won State). it is called the open originator. it enters the transmitted-close state (XMTD_CLS state) and then returns to the monitoring state. Arbitrating state — When a port needs access to the loop. After a port sends a CLS. it enters the receivedclose state (RCVD_CLS state) and then returns to the monitoring state. the port goes into an open-init state. Transmitted close state — Either port can send a close command (CLS) when frame transmission is completed. Opened state — When the destination port receives the open command. In this state. 5. . it is called the open recipient. the port goes into the monitoring state. 9. Open state — The port sends an open command to the destination port and enters the open state. Open-init state — When an operational loop is detected. where the rest of the loop initialization process occurs. 3. it enters the opened state. When a port is in the open state. Arbitration won state — When the port wins arbitration. 10. 4. the port goes into the old-port state. When a port is in the opened state. it enters the arbitrating state and starts arbitrating for control of the loop. The open originator can enter the transfer state when sending a transmit close to the destination port. and the FC-2 level is logically connected to the loop. 2. A port can enter this state only if it is in the open state (the open originator). Monitoring state — When the initialization process is finished. the port functions like an N_Port until the LPSM detects an operational loop. After the destination port closes the loop. 11. completing the loop circuit. and the FC-2 level is logically connected to the loop so frame transmission can start. In this state. Received-close state — After the other port receives the CLS. the port acts as a repeater.The LPSM consists of 11 states: 1. 7. 6. Initializing state — When a port is powered up. Transfer state — The last state a port can be in is the transfer state. 8. Old-port state — If no operational loop is detected.

. bits 0 through 7. or is removed for service. Arbitrated Loop physical address The AL_PA is a 24-bit address that identifies a port. the address is divided into two sections:  The first section. the eight least significant bits are used to identify a specific port. If the arbitrated loop is connected to a fabric. Although an arbitrated loop with the port-bypass circuit is a significant improvement. causing the entire loop to fail. it still does not completely ensure operation of the loop. To bypass the problem and enable the rest of the loop to continue operating as needed. If a device fails. represents a specific port.  The second section. It is not acceptable for the entire system to fail when a single device fails. is powered off. identifies a specific loop. bits 8 through 23. a failure of the loop or any device can be disastrous.Port-bypass circuit In a single-loop configuration. In a loop topology. Most configurations of this type use an electrical port-bypass circuit. a port-bypass circuit is used. the portbypass circuit automatically bypasses the failed device and enables the rest of the loop to continue operation. A port and its bypass circuit could fail.

3. The loop ID is numbered in ascending priority and AL_PA in descending priority. A higher AL_PA number equals a lower priority. the byte has positive disparity if there are more binary zeroes than ones.Every frame carries a 24-bit source address and a 24-bit destination address in the frame header. or neutral. Only 126 NL_Ports are enabled on an arbitrated loop. The loop ID and the AL_PA disparity properties can be positive. negative. AL_PA is assigned during the loop initialization Loop master generates and transmits AL_PA bit map has returned to the loop master Ports with no AL_PA value enter the nonparticipating mode Relationship between loop id and AL_PA The loop ID is the 8-bit loop address and the AL_PA is the 10-bit form of the encoded address. An 8-bit and 10-bit byte has negative disparity if there are more binary ones in the byte than binary zeroes. 4. 2. Conversely. This is required to eliminate clocking errors between sender and receiver. A higher loop ID number equals a higher priority. Port assignment sequence: 1. Neutral disparity is when the number of binary ones equals the number of binary zeroes. . Disparity The 8-bit and 10-bit encoded bytes have a property known as disparity.

. A LIP is used to:  Initiate a procedure that results in a unique addressing for all nodes.  Indicate a loop failure. and host bus adapters (HBAs). ensures that a loop resumes its normal activity whenever new devices are introduced into the loop. An ordered set is controlling data that the Fibre Channel protocol uses to communicate with a receiving device. such as hubs.  A new device is added to the loop and requires an AL_PA to be assigned to it. The device suspends all current operations and prepares itself for the loop initialization process. A loop device circulates one of the ordered sets within a loop.  A loop recovers from a failure.  The NL_Port of a device is changed. storage subsystems. Ordered sets include the start and end of frame bytes. Proper selection of loop devices. These ordered sets are also referred to as loop initialization primitives (LIPs). An understanding of the loop initialization process helps to repair loop failures that might occur when adding a device to the loop:  The hub is switched on and all currently active devices that are connected to the hub require an AL_PA to be assigned to them. Loop initialization primitives The loop initialization process is triggered when a loop device circulates an ordered set at least 12 times onto the loop.Loop initialization A loop performing a normal loop activity might fail when adding a device to the loop or changing the NL_Ports of loop devices. they enter the Open_Init state. Open initialization When loop devices receive one of the ordered sets.

The device circulates this message if it was active when the failure occurred. . Each loop device circulates an LISM frame that contains the port address and the worldwide names (WWN) of the device.AL_PS) Is circulated when a loop device is moved from one hub port to another. and AL_PS specifies the loop address that was previously assigned to the device. F8 indicates a loop-down state. powered off. The device circulates this ordered set because it would have lost its AL_PA when it was previously switched off. LIP (F8. LIP (F8. A LIP is generated when a device is unplugged from a hub or plugged into a hub. These features describe the notebook without the optional Port Replicator. The first occurrence of F7 indicates that the device is able to recognize itself within the loop. or powered on. The temporary loop master is responsible for carrying out the rest of the loop initialization process. one of the devices needs to be assigned as the temporary loop master. F7) Is circulated when the receiver of an HBA to which a loop device is connected fails. Loop master selection When all devices within the loop reach the Open_Init state. F8 indicates a loop-down state. F7 indicates that the loop device is able to recognize itself within the loop. Reset a specific node. AL_PS specifies the loop address that was previously assigned to the device. Ordered set LIP (F7. Loop initialization select master A loop initialization select master (LISM) procedure is used to determine the device that acts as the temporary loop master: 1. LIP (F7. The device circulates this ordered set to indicate that a topology change has occurred within the loop. The device circulates this message when it is switched on. AL_PS) Is circulated when the receiver of an HBA to which a loop device is connected fails. and F7 indicates that the device must be assigned an AL_PA. The second occurrence indicates that the device is yet to be assigned an AL_PA. F7) Event Is circulated by a loop device that is switched on.

This frame enables all loop devices that are yet to be assigned an AL_PA to select an AL_PA from the address map. 2. If the port address on the LISM is greater than its port address. AL_PA loop device assignment 1. Each frame consists of:  An address map of all possible 4-bit AL_PAs that can be assigned to the devices within the loop.  A status bit for each AL_PA that specifies whether or not an address has been assigned to any of the loop devices. The neighboring loop device picks up the LISM frame from the loop and compares the WWN of the LISM frame with its own WWN. the neighboring device replaces the port address on the LISM frame with its own port address and puts back the modified LISM frame into the loop. This frame enables all private loop devices to select the AL_PA that was previously assigned to them from the address map. ARB (F0). After the loop master receives the LIFA frame back. Position mapping . If the port address on the LISM is less than its own port address. 4. The loop master circulates a loop initialization fabric address (LIFA) frame. it circulates a loop initialization previous address (LIPA) frame. a loop device gets back its own LISM frame. This loop device then acts as the temporary loop master. it circulates the loop initialization soft address (LISA) frame. 4. AL_PA assignment The purpose of the loop initialization process is to assign an AL_PA to each of the loop devices. to notify the other devices about the completion of the LISM procedure. The neighboring device also checks whether the port address on the LISM frame is a valid FL_Port. After the loop master receives the LIPA frame back. This frame enables all NL_Ports that have a dual in-line package (DIP) switch or a jumpered address to select an AL_PA from the address map. After the loop master receives the LIHA frame back. 3. indicating that it has the maximum priority within the loop. The loop master circulates a special ordered set. it circulates the loop initialization hard address (LIHA) frame. The temporary loop master circulates a set of four frames that are used to assign unique AL_PAs to each of the loop devices. Therefore. the neighboring device puts the LISM frame back into the loop.  A header that defines which of the loop devices are accepted to select an AL_PA from the frame. This sequence is repeated until all devices circulate the same LISM frame within the loop. The public loop devices select the AL_PA that was previously assigned to them from the LIFA frame. 3.2. This frame enables all public loop devices that were assigned an AL_PA during the previous loop initialization process to select an AL_PA from the list.

appends its own AL_PA to the frame. When each loop device receives the CLS frame. it moves out of the open-init state and resumes normal activity. Additionally. 2. Positional mapping involves the following steps: 1. 5. A loop device can access the loop path according to the following factors:  Priority of the AL_PA loop devices  Status of an access variable that is stored in the LPSM of a loop device x-AL_PA of the arbitrating device A loop device wins an arbitration process if it receives back the ARB(x) ordered set that it transmitted. an arbitrating loop device that has the greatest priority wins the arbitration. The IDLE frames are circulated within the loop until a new communication process is triggered. no activity) within the loop. The loop master indicates the completion of the loop initialization process by circulating the CLS and IDLE frames (loop is closed. it recirculates the frame within the loop. Vendors who support Fibre Channel have incorporated an additional positional mapping subroutine in their products. Each loop device picks up the LIRP frame. Arbitration is the process by which a loop device determines if the loop path is free for it to communicate and gain control of the loop. 3. The temporary loop master circulates a loop initialization report position (LIRP) frame within the loop. 4. Positional mapping is used for diagnostic purposes and fine-tuning loop configuration. if two or more devices arbitrate simultaneously. 7.According to Fibre Channel standards. The loop initialization process terminates after the positional mapping process is complete. FC-AL operation A loop device must gain access to the loop before it can communicate with another loop device. . Note: An IDLE frame is transmitted over the loop path if the loop path is not being used by any other device and is free for data transmission. 8. and puts the LIRP frame back onto the loop. The position mapping subroutine is used to determine how devices are organized within the loop topology. the loop initialization process terminates after the AL_PA assignment is complete. Each loop device copies the LIRP frame. After the temporary loop master receives the LIRP frame back. 6.

Loop arbitration
Gaining access to the loop path A loop device performs the following sequence of steps to gain access to the loop path: 1. The loop device checks to see if the loop path is busy. 2. If the loop path is not busy, the device transmits an ARB(x) ordered set that contains its own AL_PA. The device transmits an ARB(x) ordered set even if another device currently owns the loop path. However, if frames are currently traversing the loop path, ARB(x) is issued only between two successive frame transmissions. 3. ARB(x) circles the loop and reaches the loop device that arbitrated, indicating that the loop path is free for data transmission. Then, the arbitrating loop device reaches the ARB_Won state and a subsequent OPEN state, and is ready for data transmission.

Simultaneous arbitration How lowest priority gains access

Simultaneous arbitration

If two or more devices arbitrate simultaneously, each of the arbitrating devices receive the ARB(x) ordered set that was sent by its neighboring arbitrating device. The arbitrating devices then compare the AL_PA on the received ARB(x) with their own AL_PA. If the priority of the AL_PA on the received ARB(x) is greater, it puts the ordered set back onto the loop. If the AL_PA on the received ARB(x) has a lower priority, the neighboring arbitrating device replaces the AL_PA with its own AL_PA and puts the modified ARB(x) ordered set back onto the loop.

How lowest priority gains access
Because high-priority devices win the arbitration process, low-priority devices are kept from gaining loop access. Loop access variables are used to ensure that low-priority devices also gain access to the loop path.

How lowest priority gains access: When a loop device wins an arbitration process, the loop access variable on its LPSM is set to zero. The device cannot arbitrate again as long as its access variable is zero.

To win a subsequent arbitration, a loop device performs these steps: 1. After a loop device wins an arbitration for the first time and completes data transmission, it transmits an ARB(F0) ordered set onto the loop. ARB(F0) has the lowest priority. 2. If no other device is currently arbitrating, the loop device receives back the ARB(F0) that it transmitted. This indicates that the loop path is free and no other device requires access to the loop path. Then, the state of the loop access variable on the loop device, which is currently competing for a subsequent arbitration, is set to one. 3. If another device starts arbitrating, it picks up the ARB(F0) ordered set from the loop, attaches its own AL_PA, and puts the modified ARB(x) onto the loop. As a result, the loop device, which is currently competing for a subsequent arbitration, does not receive the ARB(F0) that it transmitted.

Arbitrated loop and switches
FC-AL switch FC-AL can also be supported in a switch environment. The FC-AL switch provides increased performance and stability compared to the Fibre Channel hub technology. Based on a nonblocking switched backplane, the FC-AL switch offers enough switch 6yytyii

Public loop

If an active FL_Port is on the loop, it is considered a public loop; an arbitrated loop that is connected to a fabric. The public loop can accommodate up to 126 NL_Ports and one FL_Port. The FL_Port extends the number of nodes for communication. Using this port, a private loop can be connected to the public loop. This extended configuration uses Switched Fabric topology.

communication can be very slow. It is not connected to a fabric. . The Fibre Channel loop topology works well. The preceding figure shows two private arbitrated loops.Private loop If no active FL_Port exists on the arbitrated loop. Advantages and disadvantages of FC-AL for storage Advantages  FC-AL for storage is a low-cost solution for connecting peripherals and hosts.  It supports up to 126 NL_Ports per loop with practical implementations not greater than 60. provided the number of nodes connected to the loop is not very high. but act as repeaters on the loop. It is recommended that not more than 20 nodes be connected in a Fibre Channel loop. The private loop can accommodate up to 126 NL_Ports. an arbitrated loop that stands on its own. Nodes on loop 1 cannot communicate with nodes on loop 2.  A private loop does not contain an FL_Port. it is called a private loop. Disadvantages Because the number of nodes that make up the loop is very high.  The FC-AL hub and switch port bypass circuits enable hot-plug device repair. Private loop considerations:  Devices beyond 126 NL_Ports do not receive an AL_PA. Fibre Channel Switched Fabric might be a better solution because of the disadvantage of potential slow communication and no great advantages.

changed back to an optical signal. Select the correct statement regarding loop ID numbers and AL_PA numbers. Choose the correct answer. see FC-AL characteristics 2. What is the size of the AL_PA address that identifies a port? Choose the correct answer. see Arbitrated loop physical address 3.Fibre Channel arbitrated loop: Learning check 1. What FC-AL characteristic does this describe? Choose the correct answer. . which is changed back to a digital signal and the signal is regenerated. The receiver port receives the data. A higher loop ID number equals a higher priority and a higher AL_PA number equals a lower priority. 8-bit 16-bit 24-bit 32-bit For help. and retransmitted. Repeater function LPSM AL_PA Bypass circuit For help.

F7) LIP (F7.AL_PS) LIP (F8. fails? Choose the correct answer. What process must be executed when a new device is added to a loop requiring an AL_PA to be assigned to it? Choose the correct answer. to which a loop device is connected. A higher loop ID number equals a higher priority and a lower AL_PA number equals a lower priority. F7) LIP (F8. For help. LIP (F7. A higher loop ID number equals a lower priority and a higher AL_PA number equals a higher priority.A higher loop ID number equals a higher priority and a lower AL_PA number equals a higher priority. see Loop initialization 5. see Loop initialization primitives . What loop initialization primitive ordered set is circulated when the receiver of an HBA. AL_PS) For help. see Relationship between loop ID and AL_PA 4. Loop master selection AL_PA assignment Position mapping Loop initialization For help.

the neighboring device puts the LISM frame back into the loop. If the port address on the LISM is less than its port address.6. see Loop master selection 7. . What is the subroutine that is used to determine how devices are organized within the loop topology? Choose the correct answer. If the port address on the LISM is more than its own port address. One Two Three Four For help. see AL_PA assignment 8. The neighboring loop device picks up the LISM frame from the loop and compares the WWN of the LISM frame with its own. the neighboring device replaces the port address on the LISM frame with its own port address and puts back the modified LISM frame into the loop. How many frames does the temporary loop master circulate that are used to assign unique AL_PAs to each of the loop devices? Choose the correct answer. Select the correct statement regarding the sequence of steps to determine a temporary loop master. For help. Choose the correct answer. Each loop device circulates a WWN that contains the port address and the LISM frame of the device.

What is a public loop? Choose the correct answer. What is the loop access variable set to when a loop device wins an arbitration process? Choose the correct answer. . see Position mapping 9.Loop initialization Position mapping Loop master selection AL_PA assignment For help. see Loop arbitration 10. Zero One On Off For help. A loop that is inaccessible to other nodes that are not a part of the loop A loop that is not a part of the SAN fabric A loop that is not connected to any other loop A loop with an active FL_Port For help. see Public loop 11. How many NL_Ports can a private loop accommodate? Choose the correct answer.

Switched fabric topology A switched fabric is a flexible architecture that uses a group of switches connected through inter-switch links (ISLs) to provide access to all devices on the SAN.  Identify inter-switch link (ISL) operations. including fabric login and and simple name servers. In this diagram. you should be able to:  Describe the switch and fabric topology features and characteristics.  Act like routers with ports (only those ports communicating see the traffic). the switches are connected to provide access to other devices on the SAN.  Describe cascading switches. Fabric switches A SAN fabric can include a single switched fabric or hundreds of switched fabrics.  List the steps for Fibre Channel initialization. Each device has full bandwidth capability between itself and the switch. see Private loop Fibre Channel switched fabrics: Objectives After completing this module. Fabric switches:  Connect up to 16 million nodes. .  Determine the difference between load sharing and load balancing.Up to 32 Up to 64 Up to 126 Up to 252 For help.  List zoning characteristics and features.

Fabric features A switched fabric has features that help speed up communication within a fabric network. regardless of the routing algorithm used.  Provide electrical and logical isolation. Fibre Channel switches can communicate simultaneously through the Fibre Channel Switched Fabric (FC-SW) protocol. Buffering If a switch receives requests for data transmission from many devices simultaneously. the switch might not be able to route all the data simultaneously. the routing happens as soon as the frame enters the switch. many connections can be active at the same time.  The third MSB refers to the F-Port address. With the fabric topology. Fibre Channel addressing The N_Ports are assigned a unique 24-bit address:  The first most significant bit (MSB) submits to the domain address. the cut-through algorithm looks at the destination identifier (D_ID) of the frame and routes the frame to the proper port. which is the address of the fabric switch to which the device is connected. Because the D_ID is in the frame header. This enhances the performance of the switch. Provide high bandwidth (multiple paths are enabled concurrently). frames are buffered on the F_Port of the switch to which the transmitting and receiving devices are connected.  Are more expensive than hub configurations. When a frame enters the fabric switch. The routing algorithms discard the frames that they cannot process. In such cases.  The store-and-forward method reads the entire frame into a buffer before determining the exit port.  The cut-through algorithm is used in fabric switches to speed up data routing. The any-to-any connection service and peer-to-peer communication service provided by a fabric is fundamental to Fibre Channel architecture. Frame algorithms Fabric switches use either cut-through or store-and-forward algorithms to direct data from a source device to a target device. Any-to-any connection Ports on one node can communicate with ports on other nodes connected to the same fabric. Fabric element . which is the address of the port to which the device is connected.  The second MSB submits to the FL-Port (fabric loop) address.

and assigning addresses. This element is responsible for responding to fabric login requests. Fabric and loop comparison Description Ports Fabric NL and FL_Ports Loop N and L_Ports Arbitration Shared media Access FLOGI Communication One-to-one connections made between network nodes and switch ports Bandwidth High speed because of switches that can aggregate integrated circuitry and provide cut-through switching Network Supports services for services coordinating network activities Segmentation Yes Low speed because of loops configured with hubs and switches that do not support cut-through technology Requires connection to a fabric for access to the network activity services None . or hub) must be placed between ports.  Attach arbitrated loops. managing class of service for the fabric. they form a cooperative unit that is still a fabric. A fabric element is the smallest entity that can function as a complete fabric topology.  Serve as the root element for distributed fabric elements. ring. When multiple fabric elements are interconnected. It must have at least three F_Ports or FL_Ports to make routing decisions.In the fabric topology. A fabric element can:  Attach N_Ports. at least one active element (switch.

minimize the number of hops between devices that communicate in a SAN.  Each ISL constitutes a hop. When switches are connected by an ISL. The SAN switch configuration can have up to 239 switches in a fabric. Multiple physical ISL connections can exist between each port on the switch. For efficiency.  The current limit of active ISLs between two switches is eight. which provides the any-to-any device communications. The maximum number of hops in a fabric based on SAN switches is seven.  Hops are used during the design process to ensure that the fabric complies with design rules. ISL characteristics  Each connection involves two ports operating in E_port mode.or zoning Connections 224 nodes 126 NL_Ports Inter-switch link The connection between switches is called an Inter-switch link (ISL). . where a single hop is one or more ISLs between any two switches. they share data and information using the FC-SW protocol. ISL terms and operations Domain ID The domain ID identifies a switch in a fabric. Cascading the Fibre Channel switches and SAN switches requires compatibility mode addressing that reduces the number of addressable ports to 32. Hops Hops are data routing through the fabric.  Multiple ISLs between switches increase bandwidth when required by the environment.

The optimum path has the lowest associated cost. and then programs the hardware routing tables. Path determination A Fibre Channel switch compares a path based on a cost metric. Fabric topology software provides information on the fabric. The cost of a given path is the sum of the costs of all the traversed ISLs. Example: The cost metric of 200MB/s paths is 500. It computes the best path between any two switches in the fabric. their associated hop count. including all existing paths. Fabric shortest path first (FSPF) This dynamic path selection protocol provides for short convergence times when failures occur. Selected route A selected route is a map between an input port and an output E_port to reach the next hop. The protocol starts running automatically at restart time. This diagram displays two paths from the server to the storage system:  Path 1 goes directly from domain 1 (port 15) to domain 3 (port 7). FSPF features FSPF features include:  Fast computation of new paths in case of failure  Routing loop-free topologies at all times  Traffic load sharing over equivalent cost metric paths  High-priority FSPF frames  Completely flexible topology  Guaranteed in-order delivery during topology changes  Negligible bandwidth use by the FSPF frames . SAN switches enable user-defined static routes that can be defined for dedicated bandwidth. path 1 has a cost metric of 1000 compared to 2000 for path 2. and routing loop-free paths at all times.Path A path is a chain of switches from the source to destination that enables two devices to communicate. ISLs with a higher speed (such as greater than 100MB/s) have lower costs.  Path 2 goes from domain 1 (port 12) to domain 2 (port 3). and cost metric. The switch selects path 1. More than one path can be selected if multiple paths with equal costs exist. Although both path 1 and path 2 are valid. then from domain 2 (port 13) to domain 3 (port 0). The switch dynamically establishes routes based on the optimum paths.

The FSPF protocol makes minimal use of the bandwidth of the ISLs. broadcast. a switch transmits about 64 bytes every 10 seconds on each ISL in both directions. Same technology for unicast. This guarantees that a control frame is not delayed by user data on a congested link. without topology changes. In a stable fabric. the N_Port must go through a login procedure to establish the parameters of its operating environment. followed by a port login (PLOGI) to establish communication with another N_Port. The first step is the fabric login (FLOGI). . and multicast path selection FSPF frames have the highest priority in a fabric. This diagram displays the steps for the login process. Fibre Channel initialization Fabric switches offer the following services to detect and respond to topology changes:  Fabric login (FLOGI) service  Simple name server (SNS) service  State change notification service (SCNS Logging into fabric (FLOGI) In the fabric environment.

Switch fabric addressing Address limitations Fibre Channel port types Fibre Channel port table

Switch fabric addressing
Both fabric and N_Port logins to the fabric use similar procedures. They are distinguished by different destination (D_ID) and source (S_ID) identifiers. Both use the extended link service (ELS) commands to establish the login. Before data can be exchanged between ports, the N_Port must know:      What the interconnect topology is (point-to-point, fabric, or arbitrated loop). If there are other N_Ports in the environment. What classes of service are supported by the fabric. What service parameters are applicable. What error recovery procedures can be used.

Address limitations
The size of a fabric switch environment is practically unlimited. Only the number of N_Ports that can be identified in the frame header limits the number of ports that can attach to nodes in a fabric topology. Given that the field carrying this information (the destination address identifier field) contains 24 bits, the limit is just over 16 million addresses. Consider these points:  Only the number of present fabrics limit the total number of ports in a system.  A system can include more than one fabric, and a node can have each N_Port or NL_Port attached to a different independent fabric.  Each fabric is a closed address space with addresses that might duplicate those in other fabrics.  N_Ports or NL_Ports in one fabric cannot communicate directly with those in another fabric because there is no path to them. Ports can communicate through the Internet if bridges and routers are connected at the edges of the fabrics.

Fibre Channel port types

Fibre Channel port table Port Type N_Port Node NL_Port Node
F_Port FL_Port L_Port Fabric Fabric Loop

Usage Point-to-point or fabric Node connected to an arbitrated loop Fabric port Fabric connected to an arbitrated loop Hub port on an arbitrated loop A hardware facility that attaches to each end of the link and manages data transmission and reception. It is located within each port, contains a transmitter and receiver, and provides the logical interface to the node. The portion of the link control facility dedicated to receiving an encoded bit stream from the media, converting it into transmission characters decoded by using the rules specified by FCPH The portion of the link control facility dedicated to converting valid data bytes and special codes into transmission characters using transmission code rules. The Tx then converts these characters into a bit stream and transmits it into an optical or electrical transmission media. A generic switch port that operates in either E_Port mode or F_Port mode An inter-switch expansion port used to connect to an E_Port of another switch to build a

L_C_F (Link Control Loop Facility)

Rx (Receiver)

Tx (Transmitter)



SCN enables one N_Port to notify another N_Port of a change in port state. The nsAllShow command displays the port IDs of all devices in all switches in the fabric. which includes information about devices connected to the local switch and cached information about devices connected to other switches in the fabric. The nsShow command displays the local name server information.larger fabric 5 of 5 Simple name server service The simple name server (SNS) service provides information about devices connected to any switch in the fabric. This is achieved using RSCN. a server might be notified if a disk drive goes offline. State Change Notification The process of state change notification occurs when devices need to notify other devices of a change in state. The SNS service manages and registers objects in a database that relates various external device entities to each other. including:  Mappings between N and NL_port 24-bit Fibre Channel physical addresses  World Wide Names (WWNs)  IP addresses  Fibre Channel Class-4 device types  Initial processes associators External devices can register and query this information using the SNS function with the commands nsShow and nsAllShow. To handle this situation. This function enables external devices to discover other fabric-connected devices. An SNS resides on each fabric switch. The two methods used to accomplish this in a switched environment are:  State Change Notification (SCN) — This is the process of one switch notifying another switch of the state of a change in the topology. N_Ports register a request to be notified of a topology change.  Registered State Change Notification (RSCN) — Unfortunately not all N_Ports receive SCN notification. For instance. .

A single switch fabric can include a limited number of interconnected switches. providing that configuration parameters are the same or compatible. and cost-effective alternative to building larger fabrics. especially when preserving the nonblocking characteristic of the switch. Building a bigger switch might seem attractive.Cascading switches Cascading is an interconnection of Fibre Channel switches.  Enables hops between different models of Fibre Channel switches. Two options to increase connectivity are:  Increase the port count per switch.  Supports switches that can be serviced without interruption. scalable. Bigger switches can be justified only for mission-critical applications. but it can be cost prohibitive. . Cascading:  Is a reliable.  Connect multiple switches to build a cascaded fabric.  Enables fault-tolerant configurations that provide continued operation in the event of system failures.

port-1 were to fail. Load balancing sharing In a SAN. port-5. If the ISL between domain 1. the switches establish optimum routes between the domains based on the cost metric of the existing paths. .Cascading routes Using the FSPF protocol. port-3 and domain 3. port-2 to domain 2.  The optimum route from domain 1 to domain 3 is in port-3 out of port-5.  The optimum route from domain 1 to domain two is in port-3 out of port-11. servers and storage can have bottlenecks caused by data being used by one resource and not enabling the other resources to access it. These routes are then programmed into the routing tables of the switches. the switch would dynamically reconfigure the route to use the path from domain 1. one hop (1000 units). A third path from domain 1 to domain 3 is available at a cost metric of two hops (2000 units). one hop (1000 units). port-11 and domain 2. port-5 to domain 3.

Load sharing .Two methods are used to resolve these bottlenecks and performance concerns: load balancing and load sharing. Load balancing Load sharing Load balancing Load balancing enables a storage or server system to provide requested data when one storage or server system is busy and cannot handle the request. More than one HBA in the server is used to balance the I/O load to storage disks. Therefore. load balancing is provided between resources.

 If two devices are using one ISL and another ISL comes online. the switch will reroute one of the devices to the new ISL.  When multiple paths of equal cost are available. devices in different zones cannot. is enforced entirely by hardware. the switch allocates routes between source and destination in a roundrobin fashion to share the load across the available paths. Zoning types  Port-based zoning  Address-based zoning Port-based zoning Port-based zoning. the switch dynamically reconfigures the routes to use the remaining ISLs. Zoning has the potential to separate operating systems on the same fabric to secure storage devices against unauthorized servers.  If an ISL fails. It physically blocks access to the zone from outside the zone.Load sharing enables resources to share data across the servers and storage by dynamically rerouting or providing multiple paths.  Devices in the same zone see each other. also known as hardware zoning or hard zoning. A host or device can communicate only with other servers or devices within the same zone used to set barriers between operating environments.  Load sharing is conducted on a device basis. Zoning features Zoning divides the fabric into virtually smaller fabrics. Features  All devices connected to a fabric can be configured into one or more zones. Zoning is a licensed feature that comes standard with most fabric switches. and access only one another. Zone members "see" only members in their zones. . not a Fibre Channel frame basis. In this diagram:  Eight servers attached to Domain 1 must communicate with eight storage systems attached to Domain 2.

This form of zoning is the most flexible because it relates to the World Wide ID (WWID) and is independent of the port that the zone member is connected to. .  N_Port login — The N_Port login data is stored locally on each switch and is used to map the WWN in zone definitions to a physical port number. Address-based zoning on the SNS service does not impact switch performance because there is no change to the SNS access protocol. is based on the SNS and is enforced throughout the fabric. Address-based zoning Address-based zoning. also known as software zoning.Two databases used by port-based zoning are:  Zone configuration — The zone configuration database is replicated to all switches in the fabric using vendor-unique ISL commands.

see Switched fabric topology — Features 3. 126 227 8 million 16 million For help. F_Port L_Port N_Port NL_Port For help. Which port supports fabric switch direct connection? Choose the correct answer.Fibre Channel switched fabrics: Learning check 1. A switched fabric can connect up to how many nodes? Choose the correct answer. What is an inter-switch link (ISL)? Choose the correct answer. The connection between one or more switches The connection between two or more switches The connection between two or more servers . see Switched fabric topology 2.

How many switches can be supported by a SAN switch configuration in a fabric? Choose the correct answer. see Inter-Switch link — SAN switches 5. see Inter-Switch link 4. This is performed on every N_Port in the environment with which the N_Port communicates. This determines network parameters and is done once or twice depending on whether the fabric can assign port identifiers. see Logging into fabric (FLOGI) 6. . Which port address is used for a Fibre Channel switch? Choose the correct answer. This is performed on every L_Port in the environment with which the NL_Port communicates. Which statement correctly describes fabric login (FLOGI)? Choose the correct answer.The connection between two or more storage systems For help. For help. 220 239 269 284 For help.

Which of the following lists the two options to increase switch fabric connectivity? Choose the correct answer. see Switched fabric topology 7. For help. Increase the number of servers per switch and add storage to build a cascaded fabric. Increase the number of storage units per switch and connect multiple routers to build a cascaded fabric. Choose the correct answer. see Cascading switches 8. Load sharing enables resources to share data across the servers and storage by dynamically rerouting or providing multiple paths. see Load sharing vs load balancing 9. Devices in the same zone cannot see each other. True False For help. .8-bit port address 12-bit port address 16-bit port address 24-bit port address For help. devices in different zones can. Choose the correct answer. Increase the port count per switch and connect multiple switches to build a cascaded fabric.

you should be able to:  Describe the two types of Fibre Channel cabling used in a SAN implementation: • Copper cabling • Coaxial • Twinaxial • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)  Fiber optic cabling • Structure and composition of a fiber optic cable • Types of fibre optic cable • Connectivity • Grades of fibre optic cable • Dispersion • Graded index MMF cable • Fibre Channel cabling considerations  Identify the various connectors used in a SAN implementation. • GBIC • GLM • MIA . Port zoning State change notification Registered state change notification For help. see Zoning 10. Which is a method used to separate devices into virtual segments for performance or security purposes? Choose the correct answer.True False For help. see Zoning Fibre Channel cabling: Objectives After completing this module.

Copper cabling can be used for data transmission to distances up to 30m (98. Fibre Channel networks today operate at 1Gb/s or above. Fibre Channel works with both copper and optical cables. Copper cables characteristics Copper cabling is the time-tested method of interconnecting network nodes.  Identify distance. the cables were made from copper. It is best used for short distances such as within a building. which limited the distance between SAN devices. cabling types.• Connector for copper cabling  Compare copper to fibre optic cabling. the performance for all Fibre Channel cabling is rated at 100MB/s and above. The type of cable and the wavelength of light used determines the distance between devices. With the increasing use of Gigabit Ethernet.42 ft). However. Regardless of the type of medium used. Fiber optic The industry adapted fiber optic cables to increase the speed and distance that data could travel between SAN devices. Copper cables are rarely used in SANs today. and transceivers for 1Gb/2Gb Fibre Channel Cabling SAN cables are the physical links that connect all the different components of the SAN. The type of cable does not affect the speed of the network. Copper When Fibre Channel was first introduced to the market. . fiber optic cables are the most commonly used type of cable in Fibre Channel SANs. Fibre Channel cabling differs in the type of physical media used for data transmission. the older copper-based cables have been upgraded to support transfer rates of about 1Gb/s.

and spark-induced fires Two types of GBICs Types of copper cables GBICs There are two types of copper GBICs.A Fibre Channel device to a copper cable is incompatible.  Low bandwidth compared to fiber optic cabling  Possibility of short circuits. The transmitted signal is generated by the hub. or device. sparks. These connectors act as the interface between the Fibre Channel-based SAN devices and copperbased cables. which can instantly reduce the quality of the signal  High rate of signal deterioration (attenuation) if the signal has to traverse long distances  Affected by external noises  Distance limitations. and is passed through the GBIC to the receiver. This is where the copper gigabit interface converters (GBICs) and media interface adapters (MIAs) are used. switches. Characteristics  Inexpensive  No laser required (uses electrical pulses)  Shorter distance than optical fiber  Same throughput rates over supported distances as optical fiber Limitations  Exposure to electromagnetic induction (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). switch. Intercabinet (active) The active GBIC uses additional circuitry to implement the signals used by hubs. and devices to manage the operation and report status of the transmitter and receiver circuitry. . which is why copper cabling is recommended only for use inside a cabinet or a rack. Intracabinet (passive) Devices connect through passive GBICs and are closer in proximity of each other to lower the maximum transmitter voltage requirements for the reduced length cables. GBICs contain no circuitry to amplify the transmitted signal or buffer the received signal. The passive GBIC cannot report transmitter faults.

Types of copper cables The Fibre Channel standard defines four types of copper cables:     Coaxial Twinaxial Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Coaxial This type of cable comprises two conductors that share a common axis and are separated by an insulating plastic foam. This is the most commonly used Fibre Channel copper cabling. . Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) This type of cable comprises bundled pairs of wire shielded by a foil. These moderately expensive cables can support data transfer rates within the range of 16 to 155Mb/s.Press Ctrl+P to print this page. Twinaxial A twinaxial cable contains two inner conducting copper wires instead of one.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) A UTP cable lacks the shield that is present in an STP cable. UTP cables use RJ-45 connectors. As a result. the cable suffers from the effects of crosstalk. .

fiber optic cables can provide long distance connectivity of 10km (32. Fiber optic cables characteristics Unlike copper-based cables. contaminants. RFI.  The type and diameter of a fiber optic cable limits the maximum distances between servers and storage devices in a SAN installation.Fibre Channel cable terms To comprehend SAN characteristics. Connecting devices with various types of cables can lead to problems such as poor connections and damaged cables and connectors. Common Fibre Channel cabling terms to be aware of when configuring the SAN are:  Attenuation  Dispersion  GBICs  Macro bending  Micro bending  Refraction  Wavelength  Cone of acceptance  Numerical aperture These terms are defined on the following pages. Characteristics  Expensive compared to copper cabling  High bandwidth because light pulses can travel faster  Longer distances because optic light pulses can travel greater distances  Not affected by external noises Limitations  Fibre Channel supports various cable types. or any sort of axial or lateral movement to avoid a fiber optic cable from bending. chemicals. you need a general understanding of the different properties associated with Fibre Channel cabling. . They provide high bandwidths and are absolutely immune to short circuits. or magnetic fields. and spark-induced fires. These cables are an optical data transmission that is based on the fundamental principle of total internal reflection.808 ft). Fiber optic cables do not suffer from EMI. sparks.  Precautions have to be taken to protect all optical components from heat. Fiber optic cables have an extremely low rate of attenuation because light signals do not deteriorate over long distances.

it can transmit data signals over longer distances and at higher bandwidths. and allows you to handle the cable without touching the inner fiber made of glass. . It protects the cladding and the core. Hold and reflect the light beam through the core of the innermost layer. Fiber optic cables:    Transmit in the form of light pulses that travel down through the core. starting from the outside and proceeding inwards. The core has a higher RI than the cladding. The thickness of a fiber optic cable is comparable to that of a human hair. and other contaminants. For data to be transmitted as light pulses. It produces light that is monochromatic and is therefore referred to as pure. Reflect the light beam that travels down the core to the cladding. Core and cladding The core and the cladding differ in their refractive indices (RIs). How fiber optic cables work Structure and composition Types of fiber optic cables Comparing SMF and MMF cables Comparing cable length limitations Connectivity Cable labeling Grading How fiber optic cables work Fiber optic cable is based on the principles of optics. If a laser is pure. Pure laser The performance of an optical network depends on the glass that makes up a fiber optic cable and the light that carries the information to be transmitted. Structure and composition A fiber optic cable is made of glass that is drawn into a very thin strand several miles long. The jacket also provides protection against abrasion. A cross-section of a fiber optic cable reveals three layers. oil. Laser fiber optic cables are more expensive than copper cables.  Cladding — The cladding is made of pure silica. solvents. electrical signals must be converted into light signals at one end of a fiber optic cable and back to electrical signals at the other end of the cable.  Core — The core is made of germania-doped silica. This difference causes the total internal reflection of light and holds the light wave contained in the cable.  Jacket — The jacket is made of an acrylate coating. A laser is an example of a light source.

Therefore. spanning up to 10km.  The core diameter of SMF cables are only obtained at high costs. The main distinction between single-mode fiber (SMF) and multimode fiber (MMF) is the physical diameter of the core. Single-Mode fiber These cables provide a single path for the propagation of a light signal.  The single light-wave transmission eliminates any distortion that can result from overlapping light pulses.  SMF provides the least signal attenuation (weakening of signal) and the highest transmission speeds. along with increased bandwidth and longer distances. Shortwave lasers are used with multimode fiber for transmitting over medium distances. high cost is one of the major deciding factors. They are used to connect devices that are located over longer distances. Multimode fiber The diameter of multimode fiber is large enough to enable multiple streams of light to travel different paths from transmitter to receiver. when choosing an SMF cable. These cables provide multiple paths for the light signal to travel. .Types of fiber optic cables The two types of fiber optic cables are single-mode and multimode.

single-mode fiber is ordered and cut to specified lengths. Longwave lasers are used with single-mode fiber to transmit data over long distances. Because it is typically used for carrying signals over long distances. Comparing cable length limitations . The diameter of multimode fiber is large enough to enable multiple streams of light to travel different paths from transmitter to receiver.Comparing SMF and MMF cables The small diameter of single-mode fiber enables one coherent stream of light to travel a single path. step-index fiber. Single-mode fibers used in networking and data communications have a single-mode. Shortwave lasers are used with multimode fiber for transmitting over medium distances.

Connectivity Fiber optic cables connect to devices through small form factor (SFF) pluggable optic transceivers.Two factors determine the limit of the transmission distance capability of a fiber optic cable:  Data transmission rate — With an increase in the data transmission rate. and emit light pulses. The number of connectors used affects the transmission distance capability of a fiber optic cable. convert them. They receive information in the form of electrical digital signals.  Attenuation — Connectors reduce the strength of a signal. They transfer data through MMF cables. .640 ft). They transfer data through SMF cables. Note: A transceiver combines the functionality of a transmitter and a receiver into one package. Transceivers are attached to both the ends of the core of a fiber optic cable.616 ft).  Longwave (LW) laser — LW lasers provide connections for transferring data over long distances up to 20km (65. the transmission distance capability of each fiber optic cable type tends to decrease. There are two types of SFF transceivers:  Shortwave (SW) laser — SW lasers provide connections for transferring data over short distances: 2m to 500m (7 ft to 1.

orange. Grading minimizes the delay in the propagation of a light beam through the core of an MMF cable. This cable has a higher bandwidth than the simple MMF cable. .5/125 fiber. Example: Cables with core diameters 9µ. Graded-index MMF cable An MMF cable that has undergone grading is referred to as a graded-index MMF cable. Most MMF cables used in networking and data communications are the graded-index type. Data transmission distance < 300m (984 ft) Type of fiber-optic cable SFM or MMF Type of transceiver Any type can be used LW laser LW laser 300m to 500m (984 to 1. 175m (574 ft). The numbers on a label indicate that the diameter of the core Fibre Channel cable is 50µ and that of the cladding is 125µ.640 SFM ft) > 500m (1. 50µ. Cables are also colored differently to distinguish one from the other.5µ are colored yellow. The size of the cable decides the usable length of the cable. This helps to focus the light beam as it is transmitted down the core of a cable. and slate gray.Cable labeling The most commonly used fiber optic cable sizes are 50/125 fiber.640 ft) and 62. This table lists the Fibre Channel standard specifications for the types of fiber optic cables and transceivers that are best suited for a specified distance. 500m (1. and 62.640 ft) SFM Grading Grading varies the optical properties of the material of an MMF cable so that the resulting composition reduces dispersion.

and by the scattering of the molecules of the medium (silica). multimode fibers. . less expensive. Attenuation Attenuation is the loss of power as a signal travels over a distance and is specified in decibels per kilometer (dB/km). more expensive. For commercially available fibers. single-mode fibers. Power loss can result from:  Light absorption caused by material impurities. attenuation ranges from approximately 0. Attenuation is lessened with higher quality. Fibre Channel cable terms To comprehend SAN characteristics.561 ft).  Scattering and reflection at cable splices.For distances greater than 2km (6. The different types of dispersion are:  Scattering — Loss of light signal caused by microscopic impurities of the material. Dispersion Dispersion is the degree of scattering of the light beam as the beam travels along the fiber optic cable. a graded-index MMF cable requires high-powered lasers. Common Fibre Channel cabling terms to be aware of when configuring the SAN are:  Attenuation  Dispersion  GBICs  Macro bending  Micro bending  Refraction  Wavelength  Cone of acceptance  Numerical aperture These terms are defined on the following pages.  Macro bends (cable bends beyond the specified radius) and micro bends (cable wrapping or squeezing). It is increased with lower quality.  Light scattering caused by material impurities or by the defects at the core/cladding interface. This introduces problems such as modal noise and power fluctuations.5dB/km for single-mode fibers to 1000dB/km for large-core plastic fibers. you need a general understanding of the different properties associated with Fibre Channel cabling.

one for each optical fiber within the cable (link). It contains a laser device that emits a laser signal used for transmission along the fiber optic cable. The GBICs have two channels. each GBIC module is a full-duplex transmission device. GBICs The GBIC is a device that converts the electrical and optical signals used with the fiber-optic medium.50 inches). Modal dispersion is characteristic of multimode fiber. Chromatic dispersion — Loss of light signal caused by different wavelengths traveling at different speeds. By limiting the number of wavelengths of light (as in single mode fiber). Some rays follow a more direct route than others and arrive at the destination out of phase. the light loses some particles and attenuation increases. the chromatic dispersion is limited. .25 to 1. Macro bending Macro bending is the physical bending of the fiber cable past the specified radius (1. Therefore. As the fiber exceeds the specified radius.  Modal dispersion — Loss of light signal caused by different light rays traveling different path lengths within the fiber.

Refraction Refraction is the bending of light that takes place at a boundary between two materials having different indices of refraction. such as when a cable is wrapped with a tie or the cladding is squeezed. All electromagnetic waves are similar. only their wavelengths are different. Wavelength and cone of acceptance Wavelength A wavelength is the distance between any two successive crests (high points) of the light wave and is identical to the distance between any two troughs (low points) of the wave. Refraction is caused by a change in the speed of light as it passes from one medium to another. .Micro bending and refraction Micro bending Micro bending losses occur when the beam does not follow an entirely linear path. Micro bends in the axis of an optical fiber can dramatically reduce the transmission of light through it.

Numerical aperture The NA of the fiber defines which light can be transmitted and the light-gathering ability of the fiber. Light entering from outside the cone is not. A high NA makes it easier to inject more light into a fiber. but lowers the bandwidth. Imagine a cone coming from the core. NA has an important consequence. Light entering the core from within this cone is propagated by the total internal reflection. A high NA gathers more light. Larger cones have a larger NA. .Cone of acceptance Each type of fiber will only transmit light that enters the fiber core cone of acceptance. If a ray hits the core at an angle outside this cone. The cone of acceptance for multimode fiber is larger than that of a single-mode fiber. A lower NA reduces dispersion by limiting the number of modes. A lower NA tends to give the fiber a higher bandwidth. A lower NA increases bandwidth. A high NA enables greater modal dispersion by enabling more modes in which light can travel. which is also an indication of the relative light-gathering power of the fiber. the light will be reflected. The cone of acceptance parameter is the numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber.

The connectors available for Fibre Channel interfaces are:  SC connector — This is the standard connector for fiber optic cables. A unisex connector has both pins and sockets. Different GBICs are available for shortwave and longwave cables. which might result in a loss of signal quality. A shortwave GBIC is available for an MMF cable and a longwave GBIC is used with an SMF cable.  Female — The female connector has receptacles (sockets) into which the pins of a male connector can be inserted. the two types of connectors are referred to as:  Male — The male connector has pins.  Copper connectors — The standard and most commonly used connectors for copper cables are DB-9 and High Speed Serial Data Connector (HSSDC) connectors. It is a push-pull connector. You can change a GBIC from copper to fiber optic by plugging the copper cable on one side and the fiber optic cable on the other side. As a convention. which is also inexpensive. This means that if the cable is pulled. You can change or replace a GBIC when a product is operational and running.  ST connector — This has a simple plug-in that can be either male or female. two connector types are required to complete a connection. . the tip of the cable in the connector does not move out. GBICs use an HSSDC connector for copper devices. DB-9 connectors are inexpensive and allow the use of copper cabling.Connectors Usually. DB-9 connectors also allow upgrading a connection for fiber optic data transmission. GBIC A GBIC is a plug-in module that can be used to connect both copper and fiber optic devices to a hub or a switch.

5m: 2 through 500m per link (North America) .5MB/s 50mm diameter (preferred) or 62. Feature Compliance Baud rate Fiber shortwave Laser wavelength Optical connector interface Distance Details Fibre Channel FC-PH-2 physical layer option 100-M5SN-I 1062. The following table shows the shortwave GBICs specifications.5mm multimode fiber 780nm (non-OFC) Dual SC 50m: 2 through 300m per link (International) 62.GBIC shortwave GBIC shortwave is a shortwave version of the GBIC module that supports the multimode fiber.

GBIC longwave GBIC longwave is a longwave version of the GBIC module that supports the single-mode fiber.5MB/s 9mm single-mode fiber 1250nm Dual SC 10km per link (maximizes cable length per FC-AL to 25km) . Feature Compliance Baud rate Fiber longwave Laser wavelength Optical connector interface Distance Details Fibre Channel FC-PH-2 physical layer option 100-M5SN-I 1062. Longwave GBICs have the following specifications.

can be used to connect both copper and fiber optic devices. a GLM differs from a GBIC in that it cannot be changed while a device is powered on. GLMs can incorporate additional signaling functions and facilities for low-level diagnostics and management functions. like a GBIC. A GLM. However.Gigabit Link Module Gigabit Link Modules (GLMs) are modular media connectors that mount on hardware interfaces. Equipment using GLMs for shortwave can be modified to work with GLMs for longwaves by removing and replacing the GLMs. Fibre Channel copper connectors Fibre Channel copper connectors:  DB-9 • Well-known interface • Flange-mounted receptacle that has slightly better EMI characteristics  High Speed Serial Data Connector (HSSDC) • Unique interface that cannot be confused with existing serial or parallel interfaces .

Media interface adapter A media interface adapter (MIA) is a device used to convert electrical signals to optical signals and vice versa. To connect to optical devices.  Use an equalized cable with copper cable lengths of 25m or more. or devices that have different ground potentials. or switch detects a signal level of sufficient amplitude. The MIA is useful when extending the distance beyond the 30m copper limitation and connecting a copper interface to a Fibre Channel hub or switch. MIA benefits  Converts a copper-only HBA to multimode fiber  Uses standard dual-SC connectors  Extends the distance of the link from the HBA to a hub or switch MIA disadvantages  Is expensive.• • • • Impedance control Lower profile suitable for PCI and related applications Contacts immune to stubbing problems common in pin and socket products Higher life cycle Copper connector considerations Copper connector considerations:  Use FC-AL hubs that have excellent high-frequency jitter suppression. copper-only hubs . MIAs convert Fibre Channel copper to multimode fiber. The MIA receives power from the device through the DB-9 connector. adding substantially to the price of the copper interface  Is not manageable  Does not provide support for the HSSDC copper interface  Does not always receive power from DB-9 connectors  Is sometimes considered it a "kludge" (awkward or clumsy solution) approach by some manufacturers  Does not help alleviate high EMI from fully loaded.  Ensure common ground on all chassis (mandatory).  Do not use copper cables to interconnect hubs. A MIA uses the DB-9 connector for copper devices.  Use the active copper GBIC for cable lengths exceeding 13m. hub. switches.  Use the passive copper GBIC only with cable lengths less than 13m. and lowfrequency jitter tolerance.  Protect against potential electrostatic discharge (ESD) problems with the passive copper GBIC. Although a MIA is mostly used to connect to devices through HBAs. a MIA uses SC connectors.  Avoid crosstalk that can occur if the receiver of the passive GBIC. it can also be used with hubs and switches.

The MT-RJ is a variation of the reliable MTferrule connector series. simplicity and low cost. its highly reliable termination design. The duplex SC connector uses the same mating profile as the simplex design.Optical connectors SC The SC connector has a push/pull snap fit. ferruleduplex based. the favorite for FC is a robust. connector Primarily used has been a in the telecom perennial industry. connector system used in mainframe connectivity systems. MT-R Use a single ferrule that handles two fibers. SCs are found in 1Gb/s SAN infrastructure environments. A number of SC suppliers actually clip simplex SC connectors together to form the duplex version. connector duplex system. This is the first of the small form factor (SFF) connector designs. FDDI (MIC) ESCON This is a This is a ceramic ceramic ferrule-based. . the first major multifiber ferrule design. FC ST The FC The ST connector has (Straight a screw-on Tip) mating style.

MU connector An SFF connector that can be considered a smaller SC style connector. It is based on a 1. Their emissions cannot be tapped.25mm ceramic ferrule and is available in simplex. Using 6 to 12 fiber MT ferrules. they are easier to work with than copper cables. 12 and higher fiber counts. duplex.LC The LC is a SFF ceramicbased connector used with most 2Gb/s SAN infrastructure environments. the MMC connector finds its way into high-density interconnect applications in the telco and data center cabling environment. Distance Fiber optic cabling supports long distances. MTP/MPO The MTP/MPO is a multifiber connector design capable of supporting 4. SMC The SMC connector is based on the MT ferrule and incorporates design features of the ESCON type connector. resulting in three body lengths on jacketed and unjacketed 12 fiber ribbon cable. but the core size between two nodes must be the same. You can overrule this limitation when fiber optic cables are connected through a hub or a switch. This limitation applies only when fiber optic cables are connected directly. Fiber optic cables are more resistant to crushing and cutting than copper cables. 8. Advantages of fiber optic over copper cable  High bandwidth  EMI immunity . Their flexibility makes them easier to handle. MMC The MMC connector is the industry's first viable 72fiber connector. 10. This makes them a secure medium for carrying confidential data. and higher gangable styles. Flexibility Although fiber optic cables are actually fibers made of glass. Comparing fiber optic and copper cables Security Fiber optic cables do not radiate electromagnetic energy. It has several configuration styles to allow for internal and external applications.

amplifying circuitry to increase signal strength over long distances. the prices of fiber optic cables are becoming more competitive with their copper counterparts. However. Currently.125GHzshortwave).125Gb/s Serial Optical Transceiver Small Form Factor-Pluggable-2 (SFP-2) 125GHz-SW (2. with 10Gb/s in development. the data rate of the incoming signals is 2.0625Gb/s. Transceivers for Fibre Channel A transceiver is a device that connects cabling to devices on any network or system and makes data transmission possible between devices.125Gb/s. This transceiver is the 1. 1Gb/s and 2Gb/s transceivers are available. The Removable Serial Transceiver module is designed to provide 2.125 or 1. The fundamental design is composed of a:  Transmitter section that consists of a laser and its drive circuit.  Receiver section that consists of a photodiode and its accompanying amplification circuit.  When high (a logical one).0625 or 2. the data rate of the incoming signals is 1. Safety from sparks and short circuits  Data security  Easy to install and handle  More reliable  Data transmission to longer distances  Lightweight Costs A copper cable is less expensive than a fiber optic cable. A transceiver was designed to provide gigabaud capability for Fibre Channel bandwidth and other protocols that use the same physical layer. Transmitter signal interface and control electrical interface pins indicate the data rate of the incoming optical and electrical signals.0625Gb/s data rate capability for Fibre Channel and other protocols that use the same physical layer. .  When low (a logical zero). Most transceivers have built-in.

telecommunication networks. LC Duplex connector The LC Duplex connector is a duplex tight-buffered.5 inches. 50/125mm fiber optic cable assembly with LC Duplex connectors at one end and SFF LC Duplex connectors on the other end. LC cabling LC cabling  The bend radius of any cable (electrical or fiber optic) must not be less than 1.0625Gb/s and 300m at 2. The optical power levels.125Gb/s Fibre Channel standard without an external control signal. A pluggable module that has a 2 x 10 electrical surface-mount connector assembly with the SFP-2 125GHz-SW transceiver features a serial ID module. The serial ID module can store up to 128 bytes of vital product data. should be avoided. such as patch panels. and other communication networks.125Gb/s. This source enables data transmission over optical fibers at distances up to 500m at 1. The unit is a Class 1 laser-safe product. multimode. The optical receiver can receive input data at rates up to 2.125Gb/s.  2Gb/s to 1Gb/s connections and HSV controller to 1Gb/s switches require new cables (LC-SC). The transceiver can be used in applications for data communication networks.Cabling and connectors The appropriate fiber optic cable is a 50/125µ multimode fiber with a LC Duplex connector.125GHz-SW transceiver uses a short wavelength (850nm) Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) source. Each such connection causes a certain amount of signal loss ("insertion loss").0625Gb/s Fibre Channel specification and 2.  Additional intermediate optical connections. The transceiver complies with the 1. . Optical fiber cables can be connected and disconnected without shutting off the laser transmitter.  2Gb/s to 2Gb/s connections and HSV controller to Fibre Channel drive enclosures come with a solution package (LC-LC). Cabling requirements  2Gb/s connections use a smaller form factor than 1Gb/s connections. are at eye-safe levels. under normal operation. The SFP-2.

. Fibre Channel cabling: Learning check 1. 50/125m fiber optic cable assembly with low metal SC Duplex connectors at one end and SFF LC Duplex connectors on the other end. Note: Connector keys transmit and receive polarity only. multimode. The connector keys do not differentiate between single-mode and multimode connectors. Which type of cable uses an RJ-45 connector? Choose the correct answer.SC Duplex connector The SC Duplex connector is a duplex tight-buffered.

Coaxial cable Fiber optic cable Shielded twisted pair cable Unshielded twisted pair cable For help. answer. see Copper cables 2. What is a jacket on a fiber optic cable made of? Choose the correct answer. . Silica Germania-doped silica Pure glass An acrylate coating For help. Which type of cable supports the longest distances between devices? Choose the correct Single-mode fiber optic Multimode fiber optic Copper For help. Which connector has a simple plug-in that can be either male or female? Choose the correct answer. see Fiber optic cables — Comparing SMF and MFF cables 4. see Fiber optic cables — Structure and composition 3.

Choose the correct True False For help. You can change or replace GBICs when the system is up and running. see Connectors — Media Interface Adapter (MIA) 7. see Connectors — GBIC 6. . Which data rate identifies the speed of incoming high optical and electrical signals from a transceiver signal interface? Choose the correct answer. Which connector does a media interface adapter (MIA) use to connect to copper devices? Choose the correct answer.SC ST Copper For help. answer. see Connectors 5. SC connector ST connector DB9 connector DB10 connector For help.

0625Gb/s 1.125Gb/s 2.1.1625Gb/s 2.225Gb/s For help. see Transceivers for Fibre Channel .