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You are on page 1of 12

**3, SEPTEMBER 2009 683
**

Adaptive Grid-Voltage Sensorless Control Scheme

for Inverter-Based Distributed Generation

Yasser Abdel-Rady Ibrahim Mohamed, Member, IEEE, Ehab F. El-Saadany, Senior Member, IEEE,

and Magdy M. A. Salama, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—This paper presents an adaptive grid-voltage sensor-

less control scheme for inverter-based distributed generation units

based on an adaptive grid-interfacing model. An adaptive grid-

interfacing model is proposed to estimate, in real time, the inter-

facing parameters seen by the inverter and the grid-voltage vector

simultaneously. Areliable solution to the present nonlinear estima-

tion problem is presented by combining a grid-voltage estimator

with an interfacing parameter estimator in a parallel structure.

Both estimators adjust the grid-interfacing model in a manner

that minimizes the current error between the grid model and the

actual current dynamics, which acts as a reference model. The

estimated quantities are utilized within the inner high-bandwidth

current control loop and the outer power controller to realize an

adaptive grid-voltage sensorless interfacing scheme. Theoretical

analysis and simulation results are provided to demonstrate the

validity and usefulness of the proposed interfacing scheme.

Index Terms—Adaptive identiﬁcation, digital current

control, distributed generation (DG), grid-voltage sensorless

control, pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) inverters.

I. INTRODUCTION

D

RIVEN BY economical, technical, and environmental

reasons, the energy sector is moving into an era where

large portions of increases in electrical energy demand will be

met through widespread installation of distributed resources or

what’s known as distributed generation (DG) [1]. Unlike large

generators, which are almost exclusively 50–60 Hz synchronous

machines, DG units include variable frequency (variable speed)

sources (such as wind energy sources), high-frequency (high

speed) sources (such as microturbines), and direct energy con-

version sources producing dc voltages (such as fuel cells and

photovoltaic sources). The majority of the distributed resources

are interfaced to the utility grid via dc–ac inverter systems

[2], [3]. However, the control performance of the interfacing

system depends on the interfacing impedance seen by the in-

verter and the grid voltage at the point of common coupling

(PCC).

To reduce system’s cost and to increase its reliability, it is

highly desirable to realize a grid-interfacing scheme with the

minimumnumber of sensing elements. Along with the reliability

and cost enhancements, signiﬁcant performance enhancements

Manuscript received May 19, 2007; revised December 22, 2007. First pub-

lished June 16, 2009; current version published August 21, 2009. Paper no.

TEC-00170-2007.

The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engi-

neering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo ON N2L 3G1, Canada (e-mail:

yasser_rady@ieee.org).

Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TEC.2008.2001448

can be obtained by eliminating the grid-voltage sensors in an

inverter-based DGinterface. Among these are: 1) the elimination

of the residual negative sequence and voltage feedforward com-

pensation errors (the injected currents are so sensitive to minute

variations in the reference voltage vector, which highly depends

on the feedforward compensation control) and 2) the positive

contribution to the robustness of the power sharing mechanism

in paralleled inverter systems, where the power-sharing mecha-

nism is generally based on open-loop controllers.

Recently, grid-voltage sensorless techniques have been inves-

tigated especially in three-phase pulsewidth-modulated (PWM)

voltage-sourced converter systems [4]–[9], where the basic

number of sensors needed is ﬁve (two ac currents and voltages,

and the dc-link voltage). By avoiding the use of grid-voltage or

grid-current measurements, the number of sensors is reduced. It

is commonly desirable to use grid-voltage sensorless schemes,

where an inherent overcurrent protection is provided. Different

sensorless interfacing schemes have been reported. The posi-

tion of the grid-voltage vector is estimated in [4] by modify-

ing the proportional-integral (PI) current regulator and using a

model-based observer. The principle of direct power control is

applied to realize voltage sensorless control of a PWM rectiﬁer

system [5]. The dc-link voltage information is considered the

only measured variable in a PWM active rectiﬁer in [6], and a

state–space observer is proposed to estimate unknown quanti-

ties. However, the control algorithm is very complex, and the

stability is not veriﬁably guaranteed under parametric uncertain-

ties. An input current model-based observer is proposed in [7]

for input current estimation in PWM converters. A direct con-

trol of the converter instantaneous current, based on the direct

power control, and the estimation of the line voltage waveform

is proposed in [8].

However, the aforementioned voltage-sensorless control

schemes assume precise knowledge of the interfacing

impedance parameters at the PCC. On the distribution level,

distribution systemparameters are time-varying and directly im-

pact the performance of the control and estimation algorithms.

For example, the current delivered by a grid-connected inverter-

based DG unit passes though a ﬁlter inductor and possibly a

coupling transformer. Interfacing parameters, such as the equiv-

alent inductance and resistance of the coupling transformer,

ﬁlter inductors, and connection cables, vary with temperature,

transformer saturation, cable overload, and other environmental

conditions. On the other hand, depending on the grid conﬁgura-

tion, a large set of grid impedance values (as DG is commonly

installed in weak grids such as remote areas with radial distribu-

tion feeders) challenge the stability and control of the interfacing

0885-8969/$26.00 © 2009 IEEE

684 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 24, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2009

scheme [10]–[14]. In particular, there is a strong trend toward the

use of current control for grid-connected PWM inverters in DG

systems [2], [15], due to the need to control both the harmonic

content and the power factor of the current. In this approach,

it is commonly desired to design the inner current control loop

with high-bandwidth characteristics to ensure accurate current

tracking, shorten the transient period as much as possible, and

force the voltage-source inverter (VSI) to equivalently act as

a current source ampliﬁer within the current loop bandwidth.

In addition, the current controller should not allow system un-

certainties and disturbances, such as preexisting grid-voltage

distortion and parameter variations, to drive harmonic currents

through the inverter. However, if the current control loop is

designed with high-bandwidth characteristics (e.g., deadbeat

control performance [16]–[20]), the sensitivity of the dominant

poles of the closed-loop current controller becomes very high to

uncertainties in the total interfacing inductance and resistance.

In addition, in a current-controlled DG interface, the sensitiv-

ity of the current controller to system uncertainties remarkably

increases when the grid voltage is estimated [19], [20], where

the grid-voltage estimator dynamics will be dependent on sys-

tem parameters. These facts challenge the stability and con-

trol effectiveness of a grid-voltage sensorless current-controlled

system.

Motivated by the aforementioned limitations, this paper

presents an adaptive grid-voltage sensorless interfacing scheme

for inverter-based DG units based on an adaptive grid-

interfacing model. A novel adaptive grid-interfacing model

is proposed to provide real-time estimates of the interfacing

(impedance) parameters seen by the inverter and the grid-

voltage vector simultaneously. The adaptive model utilizes a

grid-voltage estimator in parallel with an interfacing parame-

ters estimator. Both estimators adjust the grid-interfacing model

in a manner that minimizes the current error between the grid

model and the actual current dynamics, which acts as a reference

model. Due to the nonlinear nature of the estimation problem

and the periodic time-varying nature of the grid voltage, the grid-

voltage estimator utilizes a neural network (NN) based adapta-

tion algorithm, which works as a real-time optimization agent.

The self-learning feature of the NN adaptation algorithm allows

a feasible and easy adaptation design at different operating con-

ditions [21]–[24]. In the proposed scheme, the online weight

adaptation rules are synthesized in the sense of Lyapunov sta-

bility theory [25]. This approach guarantees the stability of the

learning algorithm in a systematic manner. The estimated grid

voltage can be regarded as a quasi-input signal; hence, undis-

turbed model is yielded. Relying on the undisturbed model, a

simple parameter estimator is used to estimate unknown inter-

facing parameters by minimizing the parameter estimation error

by an iterative gradient algorithm offered by the projection al-

gorithm (PA) [26]. The estimated quantities are utilized within

the inner high-bandwidth current control loop and the outer

power controller to realize an adaptive grid-voltage sensorless

interfacing scheme. Theoretical analysis and simulation results

are provided to demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the

proposed interfacing scheme.

Fig. 1. Grid-connected three-phase VSI with an inner current control loop and

LC ﬁlter.

II. MODELING OF THREE-PHASE CURRENT-CONTROLLED

GRID-CONNECTED VSI

Acommon topology of a grid-connected three-phase current-

controlled VSI with an LC ﬁlter is depicted in Fig. 1, where R

and L in Fig. 1 represent the equivalent resistance and induc-

tance of the ﬁlter inductor, the coupling transformer (if any),

and the equivalent grid resistance and inductance seen by the

inverter, respectively, C is the ﬁlter capacitance, and v

s

is the

grid voltage. To impose an arbitrary current in the inductive R–L

impedance, a current controller is usually adopted to shape the

voltage applied on the inductor so that minimum current er-

ror is achieved. A PWM scheme would ensure that the inverter

voltage is free fromlow-order harmonic distortion. However, the

high-frequency current distortion due to the switching frequency

must be attenuated to cope with the power quality standards for

connection of an inverter to the grid [27]. Also, the current con-

troller should not allow system uncertainties and disturbances,

such as preexisting grid-voltage distortion and parameter varia-

tions, to drive harmonic currents through the inverter. The ﬁrst

requirement can be achieved with the second-order LC ﬁlter,

while the second requirement calls for a robust current regula-

tion scheme. Arobust current regulation scheme, which satisﬁes

these requirements, is presented in Section IV.

In the stationary reference frame αβ, the current dynam-

ics can be reasonably represented by the following state–space

equations:

˙ x = A

c

x +B

c

(v −v

s

) , y = Cx (1)

with

x = [ i

α

i

β

]

T

, v = [ v

α

v

β

]

T

, v

s

= [ v

sα

v

sβ

]

T

and

A

c

=

¸

−

R

L

0

0 −

R

L

, B

c

=

¸

1

L

0

0

1

L

, C =

¸

1 0

0 1

ABDEL-RADY IBRAHIM MOHAMED et al.: ADAPTIVE GRID-VOLTAGE SENSORLESS CONTROL SCHEME FOR INVERTER-BASED DG 685

where A

c

, B

c

, and C are the system matrices of continuous

time system (1); v

α

, v

β

, i

α

, and i

β

are the α- and β-axis in-

verter’s voltages and currents; v

sα

and v

sβ

are the α- and β-axis

components of the grid-voltage vector.

Since the harmonic components included in the inverter out-

put voltage are not correlated with the sampled reference cur-

rents, the PWM VSI can be assumed as a zero-order hold circuit

with a transfer function H(s)

H(s) =

1 −e

−sT

s

(2)

where T is the discrete-time control sampling period and s is

the Laplace operator.

For digital implementation of the control algorithm, the cur-

rent dynamics in (1) can be represented in discrete-time with

the conversion H(s) in (2) as follows:

i

αβ

(k + 1) = Ai

αβ

(k) +B{v

αβ

(k) −v

sαβ

(k)} (3)

where A, B are the sampled equivalents of A

c

, B

c

. If the

continuous system is sampled with interval T, which is at least

ten times shorter than the load time constant, then the matrices

of the discrete-time system A, B can be obtained by Euler’s

approximation as follows:

A = e

A

c

T

≈ I +A

c

T =

¸

1 −

T R

L

0

0 1 −

T R

L

(4)

B =

T

0

e

A

c

τ

dτ · B

c

≈ B

c

T =

¸

T

L

0

0

T

L

. (5)

Considering the physical constraints, the preceding model is

subjected to the following limits. The load current is limited

to the maximum continuous current of the inverter or to the

maximum available current of the inverter in a limited short-

time operation. Also, the load voltage is limited to the maximum

available output voltage of the inverter depending on the dc-link

voltage.

III. ADAPTIVE GRID-INTERFACING MODEL

A. Estimation Algorithm

Generally, any implementation strategy of a model-based

grid-interfacing scheme is by nature parameter dependent. In

particular, accurate knowledge of the interfacing parameters

R, L, and the grid voltage is required in order to implement

a high-performance voltage-sensorless interfacing scheme.

Fig. 2 shows the proposed estimation algorithm. The algo-

rithm utilizes an adjustable current dynamics reference model

in the stationary reference frame, which runs in parallel with

the actual inverter current dynamics; the later acts as a reference

model. The grid-voltage estimator utilizes an NN-based adap-

tation algorithm, which employs a three-layer feedforward NN

to work as a real-time optimization agent for the present esti-

mation problem. The estimated grid voltage can be regarded as

a quasi-input signal, which can be included in the model excita-

tion voltage; hence, undistributed model is yielded. Relying on

the undistributed model, a simple parameter estimator is used

to estimate unknown interfacing parameters by minimizing the

Fig. 2. Proposed estimation algorithm.

parameter estimation error by an iterative gradient algorithm

offered by the PA.

To estimate the grid-voltage vector, suppose that the

impedance parameters R and L are exactly known; and let us

construct an adjustable model with the following input/output

relation:

˙

ˆ x = A

c

x +B

c

(v

∗

− ˆ v

s

) (6)

where superscripts (ˆ) and (

∗

) denote estimated and reference

quantities, respectively. Assuming that the nonlinearities associ-

ated with the inverter operation—particularly the blanking time

and the voltage limitation effects—are properly compensated,

the actual voltage components can be replaced with the refer-

ence ones, denoted by v

∗

in (6). This assumption is justiﬁed by

considering that the inverter’s switching period is much smaller

than the circuit time constant. As a result, the direct measure-

ments, which are affected by the modulation and acquisition

noise, are avoided.

The convergence of the adjustable model in (6) can be

achieved with an appropriate adaptation algorithm using the

estimation error. The dynamics of the estimation error vector

e ≡ x − ˆ x = [ e

α

e

β

]

T

can be obtained as

˙ e = B

c

(ˆ v

s

−v

s

) . (7)

A three-layer NN, as shown in Fig. 3, which comprises an

input layer (the i layer), a hidden layer (the j layer), and an

output layer (the k layer), is adopted to implement the proposed

NN-based adaptation algorithm. The inputs of the NN adapta-

tion algorithm are e(k) and ∆e(k), whereas the output is the

estimated grid-voltage vector ˆ v

s

. The connective weights of the

NN are adjusted online to adjust the model in (6) so that that

the estimation error in (7) is minimized. The signal propagation

and the fundamental function of each layer are summarized as

follows:

686 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 24, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2009

Fig. 3. NN structure.

Input layer:

net

i

= x

i

, O

i

=

O

α

i

O

β

i

T

= f

i

(net

i

), f

i

(ϕ) = ϕ

i = 1, 2 (8)

where x

1

= e(k) and x

2

= (1 −z

−1

)e(k) are the network in-

puts.

Hidden layer:

net

j

=

¸

i

W

α

ji

O

α

i

¸

i

W

β

ji

O

β

i

T

O

j

=

O

α

j

O

β

j

T

= f

j

(net

j

), f

j

(ϕ) =

1

1 + e

−ϕ

(9)

j = 1, . . . , 4

where W

ji

=

W

α

ji

W

β

ji

T

are the connective weights be-

tween the input and the hidden layers and f

j

is the activation

function.

Output layer:

net

k

=

¸

j

W

α

kj

O

α

j

¸

i

W

β

kj

O

β

j

T

O

k

=

O

α

k

O

β

k

T

= f

k

(net

k

), f

k

(ϕ) = ϕ

k = 1, 2 (10)

where W

kj

=

W

α

kj

W

β

kj

T

are the connective weights be-

tween the hidden and the output layers.

The selection of the NN learning algorithm dictates the net-

work performance. Recently, several NN learning approaches

have been proposed based on Lyapunov stability theory [28].

This approach guarantees the stability of the learning algorithm

in a systematic manner. In the present online learning algo-

rithm, the weight adaptation rules are synthesized in the sense

of Lyapunov stability theory.

A discrete-time Lyapunov candidate function is selected as

V

e

(e(k), k) =

1

2

e

T

(k)e(k). (11)

The Lyapunov’s convergence criterion must be satisﬁed such

that

V

e

(k)∆V

e

(k) < 0 (12)

where ∆V

e

(k)is the change in the Lyapunov function.

The stability condition in (12) is satisﬁed when ∆V

e

(k) < 0

as ∆V

e

(k) is deﬁned as an arbitrary positive, as shown in (11).

For the error dynamics in (7), and with the chosen Lyapunov

function, the sensitivity of the controlled system is not required

in the online learning algorithm. On the other hand, complex

identiﬁcation techniques are needed to identify the Jacobian of

the controlled plant in the traditional back-propagation learning

algorithm [22], [23]. The learning algorithm aims at evaluating

the derivatives of the Lyapunov energy function with respect to

the network parameters so that ∆V

e

(k) < 0 is satisﬁed. Accord-

ingly, the output layer weights W

kj

are updated as follows:

∆W

kj

(k) = −η

kj

∂

˙

V

e

∂ˆ v

s

∂ˆ v

s

∂O

k

∂O

k

∂net

k

∂net

k

∂W

kj

= −η

kj

B

¸

e

α

(k)O

α

j

e

β

(k)O

β

j

¸

(13)

where η

kj

is the learning rate of the connected weight vector

W

kj

.

Similarly, the hidden layer weights are updated as follows:

∆W

ji

(k) = −η

ji

∂

˙

V

e

∂net

k

∂net

k

∂O

j

∂O

j

∂net

j

∂net

j

∂W

ji

= −η

ji

B

e

α

(k)W

α

kj

f

¸

i

W

α

ji

O

α

i

O

α

i

e

β

(k)W

β

kj

f

¸

i

W

β

ji

O

β

i

O

β

i

¸

¸

¸

(14)

where η

ji

is the learning rate of the connected weight vector

W

ji

.

The update rules in (13) and (14) provide an iterative gradient

algorithm designed to minimize the energy function in (11).

Since the gradient vector is calculated in the direction opposite

to the energy ﬂow, the convergence of the NN is feasible.

In the aforementioned analysis, it has been assumed that the

interfacing parameters R and L are exactly known. However, in

practical applications of the control system, the actual parame-

ters a = 1 −TR/L and b = T/L are assumed to be unknown,

and they should be adjusted in real time by a parameter estimator

that can provide estimated values ˆ a and

ˆ

b.

With the NN grid-voltage estimator, the estimated grid volt-

age can be regarded as a quasi-input signal, which can be used for

feedforward control. Subsequently, the following undistributed

model can be derived from (3) as follows:

i

αβ

(k + 1) = Ai

αβ

(k) +Bu

∗

αβ

(15)

where u

∗

αβ

= v

∗

αβ

− ˆ v

sαβ

is the equivalent excitation voltage.

Due to the decoupling symmetry of the system matrices A

c

and B

c

in the stationary reference frame, there are only two

parameters to be estimated: a and b; therefore, either the α- or

the β-current dynamics can be used in the estimation phase. By

this method, the computational demand is reduced. Using the

α-axis current dynamics,

i

α

(k) = ai

α

(k −1) + bu

∗

α

(k −1) = R

T

(k −1) θ(k) (16)

ABDEL-RADY IBRAHIM MOHAMED et al.: ADAPTIVE GRID-VOLTAGE SENSORLESS CONTROL SCHEME FOR INVERTER-BASED DG 687

where R(k −1) = [ i

α

(k −1) u

∗

α

(k −1) ]

T

is the input/

output measurement vector and θ(k) = [ a(k) b(k) ]

T

is a pa-

rameter vector. The dynamics in (16) can be used in a re-

cursive estimation process to provide an estimate

ˆ

θ(k) =

[ ˆ a(k)

ˆ

b(k) ]

T

of unknown plant parameters. The estimation er-

ror {i

α

(k) −R

T

(k −1)

ˆ

θ(k)} will be produced mainly by pa-

rameter variation. Therefore, this error can be used to adaptively

adjust the estimated parameters in a manner that minimizes the

error. At this condition, the estimated parameters will converge

to their real values. To achieve this objective, an iterative gradi-

ent algorithm based on the PA is used. The PA suits the present

estimation problem, where rapid parameter estimation with low

computational complexity is required.

The parameter vector

ˆ

θ(k) is recursively updated using the

PA [23] as follows:

ˆ

θ(k + 1) =

ˆ

θ(k) +

rR(k −1){i

α

(k) −R

T

(k −1)

ˆ

θ(k)}

ε +R

T

(k −1)R(k −1)

(17)

where r ∈ [0, 2] is a reduction factor and ε is a small value to

avoid division by zero if R

T

(k −1)R(k −1) = 0.

The estimate

ˆ

θ is used to update the adjustable model param-

eters in (6); therefore, an unbiased grid-voltage estimate ˆ v

s

can

be obtained. The estimated grid voltage is fedforward to (15)

resulting in equivalent excitation signal to cancel the voltage

disturbance. As a result, the unbiased parameter estimate

ˆ

θ can

be reliably obtained. Using the preceding recursive process, the

grid voltage and the interfacing parameters will quickly con-

verge into their real values. The estimated quantities can be

reliably used to realize an adaptive grid-voltage sensorless con-

trol scheme.

B. Convergence Analysis

The estimation scheme is based on parallel estimators strat-

egy to linearize the present nonlinear estimation problem. The

main potential of the parallel estimation strategy is the inher-

ent decoupling of the disturbance parameter estimation prob-

lems; therefore, the augmented nonlinear error dynamics are

avoided and both estimators can be designed separately [25],

[29]. Accordingly, two Lyapunov function candidates for the

error vector [ e

α

e

β

]

T

and the parameter estimator error vector

˜

θ(k) ≡ θ(k) −

ˆ

θ(k) are utilized. The total Lyapunov function

is selected as

V

T

(e

α

(k), e

β

(k),

˜

θ(k), k)

= V

1

(e

α

(k), e

β

(k), k) + V

2

(

˜

θ(k), k)

=

1

2

e

α

(k)

2

+ e

β

(k)

2

+

˜

θ(k)

T

˜

θ(k). (18)

The Lyapunov’s convergence criterion must be satisﬁed such

that

V

T

(k)∆V

T

(k) < 0 (19)

where ∆V

T

(k) = ∆V

1

(k) + ∆V

2

(k)is the change in the total

Lyapunov function.

The stability condition in (19) is satisﬁed when ∆V

T

(k) < 0

as V

T

(k) is deﬁned as an arbitrary positive as shown in

(18).

First, the change in the Lyapunov function ∆V

1

(k) is given

by

∆V

1

(k) = V

1

(e

α

(k + 1), e

β

(k + 1)) −V

1

(e

α

(k), e

β

(k)) < 0.

(20)

The change in the error ∆e

α

(k) and ∆e

β

(k)due to the adap-

tation of the weight vector W

kj

can be given by [30]

¸

∆e

α

(k)

∆e

β

(k)

=

¸

e

α

(k + 1) −e

α

(k)

e

β

(k + 1) −e

β

(k)

=

∂e

α

(k)

∂W

α

k j

∆W

α

kj

∂e

β

(k)

∂W

β

k j

∆W

β

kj

¸

¸

.

(21)

Since

∂e

α

(k)

∂W

α

k j

∂e

β

(k)

∂W

β

k j

T

= bη

kj

¸

O

α

j

O

β

j

¸

then the following incremental error dynamics can be obtained:

¸

∆e

α

(k)

∆e

β

(k)

= −b

2

η

kj

¸

e

α

(k)

O

α

j

2

e

β

(k)

O

β

j

2

¸

. (22)

Accordingly, ∆V

1

(k) can be represented as

∆V

1

(k) = e

α

(k)∆e

α

(k) + e

β

(k)∆e

β

(k)

+

1

2

∆e

α

(k)

2

+ ∆e

β

(k)

2

= −b

2

η

kj

e

α

(k)

2

O

α

j

2

1 −

b

2

η

kj

O

α

j

2

2

−b

2

η

kj

e

β

(k)

2

O

β

j

2

¸

¸1 −

b

2

η

kj

O

β

j

2

2

¸

.

(23)

To satisfy the convergence condition ∆V

1

(k) < 0, the learn-

ing rate η

kj

should satisfy

0 < η

kj

<

2

max

k

b

2

O

α

j

(k)

2

, b

2

O

β

j

(k)

2

. (24)

Since 0 < O

α

j

< 1 and 0 < O

β

j

< 1, j = 1, . . . , R

kj

, where

R

kj

is the number of weights between the output and hidden

layers, then by the deﬁnition of the usual Euclidean norm in

n

,

O

α

j

≤

R

kj

and O

β

j

≤

R

kj

.

The change in the error ∆e

α

(k)and ∆e

β

(k) due to the adap-

tation of the weight vector W

ji

can be given by

¸

∆e

α

(k)

∆e

β

(k)

=

¸

e

α

(k + 1) −e

α

(k)

e

β

(k + 1) −e

β

(k)

=

∂e

α

(k)

∂W

α

j i

∆W

α

ji

∂e

β

(k)

∂W

β

j i

∆W

β

ji

¸

¸

.

(25)

688 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 24, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2009

Further,

∂e

α

(k)

∂W

α

j i

∂e

β

(k)

∂W

β

j i

¸

¸

= b

W

α

kj

f

¸

i

W

α

ji

O

α

i

O

α

i

W

β

kj

f

¸

i

W

β

ji

O

β

i

O

β

i

¸

¸

therefore, the following incremental error dynamics can be

obtained:

¸

∆e

α

(k)

∆e

β

(k)

= −b

2

η

ji

e

α

(k)

W

α

kj

2

f

¸

i

W

α

ji

O

α

i

2

(O

α

i

)

2

e

β

(k)

W

β

kj

2

f

¸

i

W

β

ji

O

β

i

2

O

β

i

2

¸

¸

¸.

(26)

Accordingly, ∆V

1

(k)can be represented as

∆V

1

(k) = e

α

(k)∆e

α

(k) + e

β

(k)∆e

β

(k)

+

1

2

∆e

α

(k)

2

+ ∆e

β

(k)

2

= −b

2

η

ji

e

α

(k)

2

M

α

ji

2

1 −

b

2

η

ji

M

α

ji

2

2

−b

2

η

ji

e

β

(k)

2

M

β

ji

2

1 −

b

2

η

ji

M

β

ji

2

2

(27)

where

M

α

ji

2

M

β

ji

2

¸

¸

=

W

α

kj

2

f

¸

i

W

α

ji

O

α

i

2

(O

α

i

)

2

W

β

kj

2

f

¸

i

W

β

ji

O

β

i

2

O

β

i

2

¸

¸

¸.

To satisfy the convergence condition ∆V

1

(k) < 0, the learn-

ing rate η

ji

should satisfy

0 < η

ji

<

2

max

k

M

α

ji

(k)

2

,

M

β

ji

(k)

2

. (28)

Provided that f

j

(ϕ) ∈ [0, 1] and f

j

(ϕ) = f

j

(ϕ) −(f

j

(ϕ))

2

,

then max

f

j

(ϕ)

**= 1/4. Therefore, the following inequalities
**

can be deduced:

M

α

ji

(k)

2

≤

W

α

kj−max

2

O

α

i−max

2

16

M

β

ji

(k)

2

≤

W

β

kj−max

2

O

β

i−max

2

16

. (29)

Since the weights update rules are synthesized in the direction

opposite to the energy ﬂow, the weights between the hidden and

output layers are bounded. Since the parameters of the NN are

bounded, the convergence is guaranteed.

Second, the change in the Lyapunov function for the param-

eter estimator ∆V

2

(k) is given by

∆V

2

(k) = V

2

˜

θ(k + 1)

−V

2

˜

θ(k)

< 0. (30)

By using the parameter estimation error dynamics with the

update law (17), ∆V

2

(k) can be evaluated as

∆V

2

(k) =

˜

θ(k) −

rR(k −1)R(k −1)

˜

θ(k)

ε +R

T

(k −1)R(k −1)

2

−

˜

θ(k)

T

˜

θ(k)

=

r

˜

θ(k)

T

R(k −1)

2

ε +R

T

(k −1)R(k −1)

×

¸

−2 +

rR

T

(k −1)R(k −1)

ε +R

T

(k −1)R(k −1)

. (31)

Now, if ε > 0 and 0 < r < 2 are assumed, the bracketed term

in (31) is negative, and consequently, the stability condition in

(30) is satisﬁed and the following convergence properties are

satisﬁed:

θ(k) −θ

o

≤ θ(k −1) −θ

o

≤ θ(0) −θ

o

, k ≥ 1

(32)

lim

k→∞

R(k −1)

˜

θ(k)

T

ε +R

T

(k −1)R(k −1)

= 0 (33)

where θ

o

is the parameter vector obtained at perfect convergence

of the estimator.

Using the aforementioned conditions, it can be shown that

∆V

T

(k) = ∆V

1

(k) + ∆V

2

(k) < 0, and it follows that the aug-

mented error is monotonically nonincreasing. Therefore, the

convergence is guaranteed and the estimates can be reliably

used in the control system design.

IV. PROPOSED CONTROL SCHEME

Fig. 4 shows the proposed adaptive grid-voltage sensorless

control scheme for a current-controlled PWM-VSI. The scheme

consists of the proposed adaptive grid-interfacing model, which

provides real-time estimates of the interfacing parameters and

the grid-voltage vector at the PCC; a current control loop, which

is realized in the rotational reference frame to null the phase

errors, and an average power controller to generate the reference

current vector.

A. Current Control Loop

The inner current loop is necessary to obtain high power

quality in grid-connected inverters. Currently, there is a strong

trend toward fully digital control of power converters based on

deadbeat current control techniques [16]–[20]. As compared to

other current control techniques, such as the hysteresis control

scheme, ramp comparison, and stationary and synchronous PI

control schemes [16], deadbeat controllers offer the potential

for achieving the fastest transient response, precise current con-

trol, zero steady-state error, the lowest distortion, and the full

compatibility with digital-control platforms [18]. However, as

a high-bandwidth model-based controller, the deadbeat current

control scheme shows a high sensitivity to plant uncertainties. In

addition, the sensitivity to system uncertainties increases when

the grid voltage is estimated. To alleviate this limitation, the

ABDEL-RADY IBRAHIM MOHAMED et al.: ADAPTIVE GRID-VOLTAGE SENSORLESS CONTROL SCHEME FOR INVERTER-BASED DG 689

Fig. 4. Proposed control scheme for the DG interface.

outputs of the estimation unit are used to redesign the deadbeat

controller in real time.

In the synchronous reference frame that rotates syn-

chronously with the grid angular speed ω

1

, and by using the

time-delay compensation method developed in [28], the current

dynamics can be controlled to yield a deadbeat current control

response, in the presence of system delays with the following

control law:

v

∗

dq

(k + 1) =

1

b

¸

i

∗

dq

(k + 2) −A

dq

A

dq

i

∗

dq

(k)

+b

¸

v

∗

dq

(k) −v

sdq

(k)

¸¸

+v

sdq

(k + 1)

(34)

where

A

dq

=

¸

a −Tω

1

Tω

1

a

.

Using the estimated quantities, the control voltage can be

adaptively calculated as follows:

v

∗

dq

(k + 1) =

1

ˆ

b

¸

i

∗

dq

(k + 2) −

ˆ

A

dq

ˆ

A

dq

i

∗

dq

(k)

+

ˆ

b

¸

v

∗

dq

(k) − ˆ v

sdq

(k)

¸¸

+ ˆ v

sdq

(k + 1)

(35)

where

A

dq

=

¸

ˆ a −Tω

1

Tω

1

ˆ a

.

To achieve higher dc-link voltage utilization and lower distor-

tion in the output current, the space vector modulation (SVM)

technique is employed to synthesize the control voltage in (35).

B. Power Control

To ensure high power quality, the outer power control loop

should offer a relatively slowly changing current reference tra-

Fig. 5. Proposed voltage-sensorless power controller.

jectory. Since the required power transient response is much

slower than the current dynamics, the reference current can be

ﬁltered to ensure high-quality inductor current.

Based on the time-scale separation between the power and

current dynamics, the output power variation depends only on

the variation of the grid voltage within the control cycle. Us-

ing the active and reactive power references p∗ and q∗ and

grid-voltage components v

sq

and v

sd

, the reference currents are

calculated as follows:

¸

i

∗

d

i

∗

q

=

1

v

2

s

¸

v

sd

−v

sq

v

sq

v

sd

¸

p

∗

q

∗

. (36)

To compensate for the ﬁlter-capacitor current component, the

inductor current references are calculated by adding a simple

feedforward compensation term as follows:

¸

i

∗

d

i

∗

q

=

1

v

2

s

¸

v

sd

−v

sq

v

sq

v

sd

¸

p

∗

q

∗

+

1

Z

c

¸

v

sd

v

sq

(37)

where Z

c

is the capacitor impedance.

The voltage-sensorless power controller can be realized using

the estimated voltage components as

¸

i

∗

d

i

∗

q

=

1

ˆ v

2

s

¸

ˆ v

sd

−ˆ v

sq

ˆ v

sq

ˆ v

sd

¸

p

∗

q

∗

+

1

Z

c

¸

ˆ v

sd

ˆ v

sq

. (38)

690 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 24, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2009

Fig. 6. Developed Simulink model of the proposed DG interface with a microturbine source.

To provide a sufﬁcient attenuation gain for the harmonic con-

tent in the reference current vector, a low-pass ﬁlter (LPF) is

adopted and digitally implemented as follows:

¸

ˆ

i

∗

df

(k)

ˆ

i

∗

qf

(k)

=

2σ −T

2σ + T

¸

i

∗

df

(k −1)

i

∗

qf

(k −1)

+

T

2σ + T

¸

i

∗

d

(k) −i

∗

d

(k −1)

i

∗

q

(k) −i

∗

q

(k −1)

(39)

where i

∗

df

, i

∗

qf

are the ﬁltered d- and q-axis reference current

components, respectively, and 1/σ is the ﬁlter cutoff frequency.

It should be noted that the ﬁlter cutoff frequency should be low

enough to provide sufﬁcient attenuation of current reference

harmonics caused by voltage harmonics. At the same time, it

should be high enough to provide a reasonable dynamic response

of the power control loop. Fig. 5 depicts the structure of the

proposed voltage-sensorless power controller.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

To evaluate the performance of the proposed control scheme,

a 10-kV·A three-phase grid-connected microturbine DG inter-

face incorporated with the proposed control scheme, as reported

in Fig. 4, has been used. The system parameters are as follows:

grid phase voltage = 120 V at 60 Hz, grid resistance = 0.05 Ω,

grid inductance = 0.2 mH, dc-link voltage = 500 V, nominal

interfacing inductance L

o

= 2.5 mH, nominal interfacing re-

sistance R

o

= 1.0 Ω, nominal ﬁlter capacitance C

o

= 45 µF.

The LC-ﬁlter parameters are chosen to attenuate the switching

frequency components in the output current much below the

nominal fundamental current component. An attenuation factor

50–70 dB can be selected as a design constraint to cope with

standards in [27]. The developed Simulink model of the overall

DG interface is shown in Fig. 6. The real-time code of the pro-

posed control scheme is generated by the real-time workshop

(RTW), under Matlab/Simulink environment. The TMS320C30

Fig. 7. Robustness of the conventional and proposed current controllers with

measured and estimated grid voltage.

digital signal processor (DSP) has been chosen as an embedded

platform for real-time digital simulation experiments. The esti-

mation and control algorithm is coded as a Matlab S-function

written in C++. The C++ S-function facilitates straightfor-

ward real-time coding via the RTW. The execution time of the

current control interrupt routine is about 130 µs. Subsequently,

a control period T = 150 µs is selected. With this setting, a safe

CPU load coefﬁcient 86% and a switching frequency 6.7 kHz

have been obtained. As these ﬁgures reveal, the processing de-

mand of the proposed control scheme is relatively modest for a

DSP system, making it possible to achieve quite high switching

frequencies. It should be noted that the control period is mainly

dependent on the instruction time of the hardware. Further, code

optimization is another factor in determining the execution time

of the control interrupt service routine.

The proposed interfacing scheme is initially tuned using the

nominal system parameters. For the adaptive estimation unit,

r = 0.65, ε = 0.001, and an initial parameter vector:

ˆ

θ(0) =

[a

o

, b

o

] = [0.94, 0.06] are chosen. The initial parameter vector

is set to the nominal value.

ABDEL-RADY IBRAHIM MOHAMED et al.: ADAPTIVE GRID-VOLTAGE SENSORLESS CONTROL SCHEME FOR INVERTER-BASED DG 691

Fig. 8. Performance of proposed and conventional current control with 20%mismatch in L. (a) and (b) Phase-a steady-state current response and the corresponding

spectrum of the conventional controller. (c) and (d) Phase-a steady-state current response and the corresponding spectrum of the proposed controller.

Fig. 9. Dynamic performance of the proposed adaptive estimation unit. (a) Phase-a current command and the corresponding output current. (b) Actual and

estimated grid voltages. (c) Estimated interfacing resistance. (d) Estimated interfacing inductance.

To verify the feasibility of the proposed controller, differ-

ent operating conditions have been considered. Some selected

results are presented as follows.

A. Stability and Robustness to Parameter Variation

The stability and robustness of the inner current control is

mainly affected by parameter variation. The sensitivity to pa-

rameter variation increases when the grid voltage is estimated.

Fig. 7 shows the change in the radius of the pole with maximum

amplitude (in the z-plane) versus the uncertainty in the interfac-

ing inductance, for both the conventional deadbeat current con-

troller [17] and proposed controllers. Two cases are considered,

Fig. 10. Current control performance with the nominal inductance and 50%

reduction in R.

692 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 24, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2009

Fig. 11. Dynamic performance of the proposed interfacing scheme. (a) Step response in the active power. (b) Reactive power response due to zero command. (c)

Generated reference d-axis current and output phase-a current. (d) Output phase-a current and grid voltage.

ﬁrst when the grid voltage is measured and second when the

grid voltage is estimated. It can be seen that the conventional

deadbeat current controller is driven into instability with about

10% mismatch in L when the grid voltage is measured. When

the grid voltage is estimated, the conventional deadbeat con-

troller becomes unstable at only 5% mismatch in L. On the

other hand, the proposed controller is stable at any value of the

load inductance, as shown in Fig. 7. This is due to the self-tuning

feature, which enables the “redesign” of the deadbeat controller

in real time at different load parameters. When both parameters

R and L and the grid voltage are reliably estimated and used for

the self-tuning control, the stability of the deadbeat controller

becomes independent of system parameters.

Fig. 8(a) shows the phase-a steady-state current response

obtained with the conventional deadbeat controller with 20%

mismatch in L. In this scenario, the d-axis current command is

set to 20 A at t ≥ 0.0167 s, and the q-axis current command

is set to zero. Sustained oscillations in the current response are

obvious in Fig. 8(a). These oscillations are indeed the result of

the instability of the control system. The control loop limiter

constrains the magnitude of these oscillations. Fig. 8(b) shows

the corresponding current spectrum. The total harmonic distor-

tion (THD) is 66.12% up to 8.16 kHz (i.e., up to the 136th

harmonic). This result does not meet the IEEE Standard 1547

requirement of THD [27], which is below 5%. Fig. 8(c) shows

the phase-a steady-state current response obtained with the pro-

posed current controller with 20% mismatch in L. It is clear that

the algorithm is stable and the output current tracks its refer-

ence command precisely. The corresponding current spectrum

is given in Fig. 8(d). In this case, the THD up to 8.16 kHz is

0.95%.

B. Dynamic Performance of Proposed Estimation Unit

To evaluate the performance of the proposed adaptive esti-

mation unit, uncertainties in the interfacing parameters as 60%

mismatch in L and 50% mismatch in R are considered. Fig. 9

depicts the dynamics of the proposed adaptive estimation unit.

In this scenario, the d-axis current command is set to 20 A at

t ≥ 0.0167 s, and the q-axis current command is set to zero.

Fig. 9(a) shows phase-a current response with the proposed cur-

rent controller. It can be seen that the actual current tracks its

reference trajectory precisely with zero steady-state error, zero

overshoot, and with a rise time around 280 µs. Fig. 9(b) shows

the estimated grid phase voltage. The estimate converges to its

real value within 2.5 ms. Fig. 9(c) shows the estimated interfac-

ing resistance. The estimate smoothly converges in less than 2

ms to the expected value 1.5 Ω. Fig. 9(d) shows the estimated

interfacing inductance. The estimate smoothly converges in less

than 2 ms to 4.15 mH that is the total inductance seen by the

inverter.

The control performance is examined with the nominal inter-

facing inductance and 50% reduction in R, which yields 100%

increase in the power circuit time constant. The current control

performance is shown in Fig. 10. Stable control performance

with high power quality is preserved due to the self-tuning

control.

C. Power Control

To evaluate the performance of the overall control system, a

step change in the demanded active power from 0 to 5.2 kW

is given at t ≥ 0.2 s, while the reference reactive power is set

to zero to maintain a unity power factor. Fig. 11(a) shows the

reference and actual active power. It can be seen that the active

power output of the inverter can be correctly estimated and the

actual power follows its reference correctly. Fig. 11(b) shows the

reactive output power. The reactive power is well regulated to

its reference value. Fig. 11(c) shows the reference d-axis current

component and the output phase-a current. The actual current

tracks its reference trajectory precisely with zero steady-state

error and zero overshoot. Because the injected power is only

ABDEL-RADY IBRAHIM MOHAMED et al.: ADAPTIVE GRID-VOLTAGE SENSORLESS CONTROL SCHEME FOR INVERTER-BASED DG 693

active, the output current appears in phase with the estimated

grid voltage, as shown in Fig. 11(d).

The reported results indicate that the proposed scheme results

in an adaptive grid-voltage sensorless operation and robust cur-

rent and power tracking responses even under the occurrence of

large uncertainties in the interfacing parameters.

VI. CONCLUSION

In this paper, an adaptive grid-voltage sensorless control

scheme for inverter-based DG has been presented. An adap-

tive grid-interfacing model has been designed to estimate, in

real time, the interfacing parameters seen by the inverter and

the grid-voltage vector simultaneously. A reliable solution to

the present nonlinear estimation problem is presented by com-

bining a grid-voltage estimator with an interfacing parameter

estimator in a parallel structure. The estimated quantities have

been utilized within the inner high-bandwidth current control

loop and the outer power controller to realize an adaptive grid-

voltage sensorless interfacing scheme. Theoretical analysis and

simulation results have been provided to demonstrate the va-

lidity and usefulness of the proposed interfacing scheme. The

proposed adaptive grid-interfacing model is independent of the

type of the current controller; therefore, it can be used to en-

hance the robustness of the existing controllers. In addition, the

proposed grid-voltage sensorless interfacing scheme is inher-

ently self-commissioning/self-tuning and guarantees high con-

trol performance, without the constraint conditions and detailed

prior knowledge of the interfacing parameters at the PCC.

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Jan. 1995.

Yasser Abdel-Rady Ibrahim Mohamed (M’06)

was born in Cairo, Egypt, on November 25, 1977. He

received the B.Sc. (with honors) and M.Sc. degrees

in electrical engineering from Ain Shams University,

Cairo, in 2000 and 2004, respectively, and the Ph.D.

degree in electrical engineering from the University

of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, in 2008.

He is currently a Research Associate in the De-

partment of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

University of Waterloo. His current research interests

include distributed energy resources interfacing and

control, high-performance motor drive systems for aerospace actuators, and ro-

bust and adaptive control theories and applications.

Dr. Mohamed is an Associate Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUS-

TRIAL ELECTRONICS.

694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 24, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2009

Ehab F. El-Saadany (M’01–SM’05) was born in

Cairo, Egypt, in 1964. He received the B.Sc. and

M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from Ain

Shams University, Cairo, in 1986 and 1990, respec-

tively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineer-

ing from the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON,

Canada, in 1998.

He is currently an Associate Professor in the De-

partment of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

University of Waterloo. His current research inter-

ests include distribution system control and opera-

tion, power quality, power electronics, digital signal processing (DSP) applica-

tions to power systems, and mechatronics.

Magdy M. A. Salama (S’75–M’77–SM’98–F’02)

received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees fromCairo Uni-

versity, Cairo, Egypt, and the Ph.D. degree from the

University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, in

1971, 1973, and 1977, respectively, all in electrical

engineering.

He is currently a Professor and the University

Research Chair in the Department of Electrical and

Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo. His

current research interests include the areas of the op-

eration and control of distribution systems, power

quality analysis, artiﬁcial intelligence, electromagnetics, and insulation sys-

tems. He has consulted widely with government agencies and industrial plants.

Prof. Salama is a Registered Professional Engineer in the Province of

Ontario.

In the stationary reference frame αβ. the sensitivity of the current controller to system uncertainties remarkably increases when the grid voltage is estimated [19]. Due to the nonlinear nature of the estimation problem and the periodic time-varying nature of the grid voltage. The adaptive model utilizes a grid-voltage estimator in parallel with an interfacing parameters estimator. and force the voltage-source inverter (VSI) to equivalently act as a current source ampliﬁer within the current loop bandwidth. To impose an arbitrary current in the inductive R–L impedance. Grid-connected three-phase VSI with an inner current control loop and LC ﬁlter. Relying on the undisturbed model. 3. where R and L in Fig. The ﬁrst requirement can be achieved with the second-order LC ﬁlter. the gridvoltage estimator utilizes a neural network (NN) based adaptation algorithm.. Fig. 0 1 L v s = [ vsα 0 . A novel adaptive grid-interfacing model is proposed to provide real-time estimates of the interfacing (impedance) parameters seen by the inverter and the gridvoltage vector simultaneously. However. the high-frequency current distortion due to the switching frequency must be attenuated to cope with the power quality standards for connection of an inverter to the grid [27]. 1 represent the equivalent resistance and inductance of the ﬁlter inductor. C= . this paper presents an adaptive grid-voltage sensorless interfacing scheme for inverter-based DG units based on an adaptive gridinterfacing model. In the proposed scheme. while the second requirement calls for a robust current regulation scheme. in a current-controlled DG interface. the coupling transformer (if any). 1. which acts as a reference model. II. such as preexisting grid-voltage distortion and parameter variations. which works as a real-time optimization agent. [20]. due to the need to control both the harmonic content and the power factor of the current. which satisﬁes these requirements. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are provided to demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the proposed interfacing scheme. Motivated by the aforementioned limitations. In particular. shorten the transient period as much as possible. These facts challenge the stability and control effectiveness of a grid-voltage sensorless current-controlled system. The estimated grid voltage can be regarded as a quasi-input signal. 1. to drive harmonic currents through the inverter. the online weight adaptation rules are synthesized in the sense of Lyapunov stability theory [25]. Both estimators adjust the grid-interfacing model in a manner that minimizes the current error between the grid model and the actual current dynamics. where the grid-voltage estimator dynamics will be dependent on system parameters. the current dynamics can be reasonably represented by the following state–space equations: x = Ac x + B c (v − v s ) . a simple parameter estimator is used to estimate unknown interfacing parameters by minimizing the parameter estimation error by an iterative gradient algorithm offered by the projection algorithm (PA) [26]. if the current control loop is designed with high-bandwidth characteristics (e. hence. In addition. VOL.g. it is commonly desired to design the inner current control loop with high-bandwidth characteristics to ensure accurate current tracking. In this approach. to drive harmonic currents through the inverter. This approach guarantees the stability of the learning algorithm in a systematic manner. MODELING OF THREE-PHASE CURRENT-CONTROLLED GRID-CONNECTED VSI A common topology of a grid-connected three-phase currentcontrolled VSI with an LC ﬁlter is depicted in Fig. In addition. Bc = 1 L y = Cx (1) vsβ ]T 1 0 0 1 iβ ]T . [15]. and the equivalent grid resistance and inductance seen by the inverter. the current controller should not allow system uncertainties and disturbances. undisturbed model is yielded. The estimated quantities are utilized within the inner high-bandwidth current control loop and the outer power controller to realize an adaptive grid-voltage sensorless interfacing scheme. However. NO. such as preexisting grid-voltage distortion and parameter variations. C is the ﬁlter capacitance. Also. the current controller should not allow system uncertainties and disturbances. A robust current regulation scheme. respectively. there is a strong trend toward the use of current control for grid-connected PWM inverters in DG systems [2]. a current controller is usually adopted to shape the voltage applied on the inductor so that minimum current error is achieved.684 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. is presented in Section IV. SEPTEMBER 2009 scheme [10]–[14]. and vs is the grid voltage. The self-learning feature of the NN adaptation algorithm allows a feasible and easy adaptation design at different operating conditions [21]–[24]. ˙ with x = [ iα and Ac = −R L 0 0 −R L . deadbeat control performance [16]–[20]). A PWM scheme would ensure that the inverter voltage is free from low-order harmonic distortion. the sensitivity of the dominant poles of the closed-loop current controller becomes very high to uncertainties in the total interfacing inductance and resistance. v = [ vα vβ ] T . 24.

2. the current dynamics in (1) can be represented in discrete-time with the conversion H(s) in (2) as follows: H(s) = iα β (k + 1) = Aiα β (k) + B {v α β (k) − v sα β (k)} (3) Fig. the direct measurements. The convergence of the adjustable model in (6) can be achieved with an appropriate adaptation algorithm using the estimation error.: ADAPTIVE GRID-VOLTAGE SENSORLESS CONTROL SCHEME FOR INVERTER-BASED DG 685 where Ac . The load current is limited to the maximum continuous current of the inverter or to the maximum available current of the inverter in a limited shorttime operation. The estimated grid voltage can be regarded as a quasi-input signal. Also. the preceding model is subjected to the following limits. Estimation Algorithm Generally. as shown in Fig. Relying on the undistributed model. which can be included in the model excitation voltage. and iβ are the α. Fig. the later acts as a reference model. III.and β-axis inverter’s voltages and currents. parameter estimation error by an iterative gradient algorithm offered by the PA. and an output layer (the k layer). 2 shows the proposed estimation algorithm. which comprises an input layer (the i layer). are avoided. then the matrices of the discrete-time system A. suppose that the impedance parameters R and L are exactly known. which runs in parallel with the actual inverter current dynamics. a simple parameter estimator is used to estimate unknown interfacing parameters by minimizing the where superscripts (ˆ) and (∗ ) denote estimated and reference quantities. respectively. a hidden layer (the j layer). ADAPTIVE GRID-INTERFACING MODEL A. vβ . The connective weights of the NN are adjusted online to adjust the model in (6) so that that the estimation error in (7) is minimized. B c . (7) A three-layer NN. The algorithm utilizes an adjustable current dynamics reference model in the stationary reference frame. accurate knowledge of the interfacing parameters R. For digital implementation of the control algorithm. 3. the actual voltage components can be replaced with the reference ones. As a result. and the grid voltage is required in order to implement a high-performance voltage-sensorless interfacing scheme. the PWM VSI can be assumed as a zero-order hold circuit with a transfer function H(s) 1 − e−sT (2) s where T is the discrete-time control sampling period and s is the Laplace operator. denoted by v ∗ in (6). is adopted to implement the proposed NN-based adaptation algorithm. and let us construct an adjustable model with the following input/output relation: ˙ ˆ ˆ x = Ac x + B c (v ∗ − v s ) (6) Considering the physical constraints. B are the sampled equivalents of Ac . vsα and vsβ are the α. Since the harmonic components included in the inverter output voltage are not correlated with the sampled reference currents. L. which employs a three-layer feedforward NN to work as a real-time optimization agent for the present estimation problem.and β-axis components of the grid-voltage vector. which is at least ten times shorter than the load time constant. the load voltage is limited to the maximum available output voltage of the inverter depending on the dc-link voltage. The grid-voltage estimator utilizes an NN-based adaptation algorithm. iα . Proposed estimation algorithm. where A. B can be obtained by Euler’s approximation as follows: A = eA c T ≈ I + Ac T = T 1− 0 TR L 0 1− T L TR L (4) (5) B= 0 eA c τ dτ · B c ≈ B c T = 0 T L 0 . whereas the output is the ˆ estimated grid-voltage vector v s . undistributed model is yielded. This assumption is justiﬁed by considering that the inverter’s switching period is much smaller than the circuit time constant. which are affected by the modulation and acquisition noise. In particular. Assuming that the nonlinearities associated with the inverter operation—particularly the blanking time and the voltage limitation effects—are properly compensated. any implementation strategy of a model-based grid-interfacing scheme is by nature parameter dependent. If the continuous system is sampled with interval T . B c . vα .ABDEL-RADY IBRAHIM MOHAMED et al. The signal propagation and the fundamental function of each layer are summarized as follows: . hence. To estimate the grid-voltage vector. The dynamics of the estimation error vector ˆ e ≡ x − x = [ eα eβ ]T can be obtained as ˙ v e = B c (ˆ s − v s ) . The inputs of the NN adaptation algorithm are e(k) and ∆e(k). and C are the system matrices of continuous time system (1).

A discrete-time Lyapunov candidate function is selected as 1 Ve (e(k). several NN learning approaches have been proposed based on Lyapunov stability theory [28]. (12) ˆ where u∗ β = v ∗ β − v sα β is the equivalent excitation voltage. 3. The update rules in (13) and (14) provide an iterative gradient algorithm designed to minimize the energy function in (11). as shown in (11). 24. However. the convergence of the NN is feasible. The learning algorithm aims at evaluating the derivatives of the Lyapunov energy function with respect to the network parameters so that ∆Ve (k) < 0 is satisﬁed. in practical applications of the control system. . complex identiﬁcation techniques are needed to identify the Jacobian of the controlled plant in the traditional back-propagation learning algorithm [22]. the output layer weights W k j are updated as follows: ∆W k j (k) = −ηk j ˙ ∂ Ve ∂ˆs ∂O k ∂netk v ∂ˆs ∂O k ∂netk ∂W k j v α eα (k)Oj β eβ (k)Oj Fig. By this method. . On the other hand. NN structure. In the aforementioned analysis. Since the gradient vector is calculated in the direction opposite to the energy ﬂow. Hidden layer: netj = α O j = Oj i α Wjα Oi i β Oj T i β Wjβi Oi T where ηk j is the learning rate of the connected weight vector W kj . SEPTEMBER 2009 The stability condition in (12) is satisﬁed when ∆Ve (k) < 0 as ∆Ve (k) is deﬁned as an arbitrary positive. 3. In the present online learning algorithm. which can be used for feedforward control. Accordingly. With the NN grid-voltage estimator. The selection of the NN learning algorithm dictates the network performance. 2 α O i = Oi β Oi T = −ηk j B = fi (neti ). there are only two parameters to be estimated: a and b. Recently. 4 where W j i = Wjα Wjβi are the connective weights bei tween the input and the hidden layers and fj is the activation function.686 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. therefore. iα (k) = aiα (k − 1) + bu∗ (k − 1) = RT (k − 1) θ(k) (16) α . the weight adaptation rules are synthesized in the sense of Lyapunov stability theory. the hidden layer weights are updated as follows: ∆W j i (k) = −ηj i ˙ ∂ Ve ∂netk ∂O j ∂netj ∂netk ∂O j ∂netj ∂W j i α α α α eα (k)Wk j f i Wj i Oi Oi = −ηj i B β β β β Oi eβ (k)Wk j f i Wj i Oi (14) where ηj i is the learning rate of the connected weight vector W ji. the sensitivity of the controlled system is not required in the online learning algorithm. Subsequently. fj (ϕ) = 1 1 + e−ϕ (9) j = 1. T fk (ϕ) = ϕ (10) k = 1. k) = eT (k)e(k). 2 (11) The Lyapunov’s convergence criterion must be satisﬁed such that Ve (k)∆Ve (k) < 0 where ∆Ve (k)is the change in the Lyapunov function.or the β-current dynamics can be used in the estimation phase. either the α. the following undistributed model can be derived from (3) as follows: iα β (k + 1) = Aiα β (k) + Bu∗ β α (15) = fj (netj ). 2 β α where W k j = Wk j Wk j are the connective weights between the hidden and the output layers. α α Due to the decoupling symmetry of the system matrices Ac and B c in the stationary reference frame. [23]. the actual parameters a = 1 − T R/L and b = T /L are assumed to be unknown. the estimated grid voltage can be regarded as a quasi-input signal. fi (ϕ) = ϕ (8) (13) where x1 = e(k) and x2 = (1 − z −1 )e(k) are the network inputs. For the error dynamics in (7). Output layer: netk = j α α Wk j Oj β Ok T i β β Wk j Oj T T α O k = Ok = fk (netk ). . VOL. it has been assumed that the interfacing parameters R and L are exactly known. and they should be adjusted in real time by a parameter estimator that can provide estimated values a and ˆ ˆ b. Using the α-axis current dynamics. the computational demand is reduced. i = 1. This approach guarantees the stability of the learning algorithm in a systematic manner. Input layer: neti = xi . . and with the chosen Lyapunov function. Similarly. NO.

The total Lyapunov function is selected as ˜ VT (eα (k). ∂ e β (k ) ∆Wjβi ∂ W jβi . As a result. (23) β − b2 ηk j eβ (k)2 Oj 2 2 To satisfy the convergence condition ∆V1 (k) < 0. k) + V2 (θ(k). . The PA suits the present estimation problem. the estimated parameters will converge to their real values. the unbiased parameter estimate θ can be reliably obtained. The estimation er[ a(k) b(k) ˆ ˆ ror {iα (k) − RT (k − 1)θ(k)} will be produced mainly by parameter variation. Convergence Analysis The estimation scheme is based on parallel estimators strategy to linearize the present nonlinear estimation problem. the change in the Lyapunov function ∆V1 (k) is given by ∆V1 (k) = V1 (eα (k + 1). θ(k). therefore. Using the preceding recursive process. the learning rate ηk j should satisfy 0 < ηk j < 2 maxk b2 2 α Oj (k) . To achieve this objective. (22) Accordingly. ˆ The estimate θ is used to update the adjustable model paramˆ eters in (6). First. Rk j . The main potential of the parallel estimation strategy is the inherent decoupling of the disturbance parameter estimation problems. 2] is a reduction factor and ε is a small value to avoid division by zero if RT (k − 1)R(k − 1) = 0. β α Oj ≤ Rk j and Oj ≤ Rk j . this error can be used to adaptively adjust the estimated parameters in a manner that minimizes the error. . Therefore. B. eβ (k + 1)) − V1 (eα (k). [29]. (25) where ∆VT (k) = ∆V1 (k) + ∆V2 (k)is the change in the total Lyapunov function. where Rk j is the number of weights between the output and hidden layers. therefore. The estimated quantities can be reliably used to realize an adaptive grid-voltage sensorless control scheme. k) ˜ = V1 (eα (k). (20) The change in the error ∆eα (k) and ∆eβ (k)due to the adaptation of the weight vector W k j can be given by [30] ∆eα (k) ∆eβ (k) Since ∂ e α (k ) α ∂Wk j ∂ e β (k ) β ∂Wk j T = eα (k + 1) − eα (k) eβ (k + 1) − eβ (k) ∂ e α (k ) = α ∂Wk j α ∆Wk j . j = 1. (21) ∂ e β (k ) β β ∆Wk j ∂Wk j = bηk j α Oj β Oj then the following incremental error dynamics can be obtained: ∆eα (k) ∆eβ (k) = −b ηk j 2 α eα (k) Oj β eβ (k) Oj 2 2 . The change in the error ∆eα (k)and ∆eβ (k) due to the adaptation of the weight vector W j i can be given by ∆eα (k) ∆eβ (k) = eα (k + 1) − eα (k) eβ (k + 1) − eβ (k) ∂ e α (k ) = ∂ W jαi ∆Wjα i . At this condition. . an iterative gradient algorithm based on the PA is used. b2 β Oj (k) 2 .: ADAPTIVE GRID-VOLTAGE SENSORLESS CONTROL SCHEME FOR INVERTER-BASED DG 687 where R(k − 1) = [ iα (k − 1) u∗ (k − 1) ]T is the input/ α output measurement vector and θ(k) = [ a(k) b(k) ]T is a parameter vector. eβ (k)) < 0. Accordingly. 2 (18) The stability condition in (19) is satisﬁed when ∆VT (k) < 0 as VT (k) is deﬁned as an arbitrary positive as shown in (18). The dynamics in (16) can be used in a reˆ cursive estimation process to provide an estimate θ(k) = ˆ ]T of unknown plant parameters. two Lyapunov function candidates for the error vector [ eα eβ ]T and the parameter estimator error vector ˜ ˆ θ(k) ≡ θ(k) − θ(k) are utilized. k) = 1 ˜ ˜ eα (k)2 + eβ (k)2 + θ(k)T θ(k). the grid voltage and the interfacing parameters will quickly converge into their real values. where rapid parameter estimation with low computational complexity is required. The estimated grid voltage is fedforward to (15) resulting in equivalent excitation signal to cancel the voltage ˆ disturbance. eβ (k).ABDEL-RADY IBRAHIM MOHAMED et al. ∆V1 (k) can be represented as ∆V1 (k) = eα (k)∆eα (k) + eβ (k)∆eβ (k) + 1 ∆eα (k)2 + ∆eβ (k)2 2 2 α = −b2 ηk j eα (k)2 Oj 1− 1 − α b2 ηk j Oj 2 β b2 ηk j Oj 2 2 . eβ (k). then by the deﬁnition of the usual Euclidean norm in n . an unbiased grid-voltage estimate v s can be obtained. (24) The Lyapunov’s convergence criterion must be satisﬁed such that VT (k)∆VT (k) < 0 (19) β α Since 0 < Oj < 1 and 0 < Oj < 1. . the augmented nonlinear error dynamics are avoided and both estimators can be designed separately [25]. ˆ The parameter vector θ(k) is recursively updated using the PA [23] as follows: ˆ rR(k − 1){iα (k) − RT (k − 1)θ(k)} ˆ ˆ θ(k + 1) = θ(k) + T ε + R (k − 1)R(k − 1) (17) where r ∈ [0.

and an average power controller to generate the reference current vector. if ε > 0 and 0 < r < 2 are assumed. which is realized in the rotational reference frame to null the phase errors. ∂ e α (k ) ∂ W jαi ∂ e β (k ) ∂ W jβi = b α Wk j f β Wk j f i α α Wjα Oi Oi i By using the parameter estimation error dynamics with the update law (17). PROPOSED CONTROL SCHEME Fig. 3. = −b2 ηj i β eβ (k) Wk j f f α α i Wj i Oi β β i Wj i Oi 2 (26) Accordingly. NO. To alleviate this limitation. ε + RT (k − 1)R(k − 1) (31) . Currently. (29) 16 Since the weights update rules are synthesized in the direction opposite to the energy ﬂow. 24. the learning rate ηj i should satisfy 0 < ηj i < 2 maxk 2 Mjαi (k) . VOL. the weights between the hidden and output layers are bounded. Therefore. a current control loop. (28) Provided that fj (ϕ) ∈ [0. 4 shows the proposed adaptive grid-voltage sensorless control scheme for a current-controlled PWM-VSI. and stationary and synchronous PI control schemes [16]. In addition. the deadbeat current control scheme shows a high sensitivity to plant uncertainties. Since the parameters of the NN are bounded. such as the hysteresis control scheme. the sensitivity to system uncertainties increases when the grid voltage is estimated. there is a strong trend toward fully digital control of power converters based on deadbeat current control techniques [16]–[20]. Current Control Loop The inner current loop is necessary to obtain high power quality in grid-connected inverters. 1] and fj (ϕ) = fj (ϕ) − (fj (ϕ))2 . the convergence is guaranteed. The scheme consists of the proposed adaptive grid-interfacing model. and the full compatibility with digital-control platforms [18]. the following incremental error dynamics can be obtained: ∆eα (k) ∆eβ (k) α eα (k) Wk j 2 2 2 2 α (Oi )2 β Oi ε + RT (k − 1)R(k − 1) × −2 + rRT (k − 1)R(k − 1) . which provides real-time estimates of the interfacing parameters and the grid-voltage vector at the PCC. IV. Using the aforementioned conditions. then max fj (ϕ) = 1/4. As compared to other current control techniques. SEPTEMBER 2009 Further. the stability condition in (30) is satisﬁed and the following convergence properties are satisﬁed: θ(k) − θ o ≤ θ(k − 1) − θ o ≤ θ(0) − θ o . ramp comparison. A. ∆V1 (k)can be represented as ∆V1 (k) = eα (k)∆eα (k) + eβ (k)∆eβ (k) 1 + ∆eα (k)2 + ∆eβ (k)2 2 = −b2 ηj i eα (k)2 Mjαi − b2 ηj i eβ (k)2 Mjβi 2 Now. the following inequalities can be deduced: 2 Mjαi (k) 2 ≤ ≤ α Wk j −m ax 2 α Oi−m ax 2 16 2 β Wk j −m ax β Oi−m ax 2 . and consequently. where θ o is the parameter vector obtained at perfect convergence of the estimator. the convergence is guaranteed and the estimates can be reliably used in the control system design. ˜ R(k − 1)θ(k)T ε + RT (k − 1)R(k − 1) k≥1 (32) k →∞ lim =0 (33) 1− 1− b2 ηj i 2 Mjαi 2 b2 ηj i Mjβi 2 2 2 (27) where α Wk j β Wk j 2 2 Mjαi Mjβi 2 2 2 2 = f f α α i Wj i Oi i β Wjβi Oi α (Oi )2 β Oi 2 . Second. as a high-bandwidth model-based controller. deadbeat controllers offer the potential for achieving the fastest transient response. the lowest distortion. the change in the Lyapunov function for the parameter estimator ∆V2 (k) is given by ˜ ˜ ∆V2 (k) = V2 θ(k + 1) − V2 θ(k) < 0.688 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. it can be shown that ∆VT (k) = ∆V1 (k) + ∆V2 (k) < 0. the bracketed term in (31) is negative. and it follows that the augmented error is monotonically nonincreasing. However. zero steady-state error. the To satisfy the convergence condition ∆V1 (k) < 0. Mjβi (k) 2 . (30) Mjβi (k) . Therefore. ∆V2 (k) can be evaluated as ˜ rR(k − 1)R(k − 1)θ(k) ˜ ∆V2 (k) = θ(k) − T ε + R (k − 1)R(k − 1) = ˜ r θ(k)T R(k − 1) 2 2 β β β i Wj i Oi Oi ˜ ˜ − θ(k)T θ(k) therefore. precise current control.

B. 5. Based on the time-scale separation between the power and current dynamics. In the synchronous reference frame that rotates synchronously with the grid angular speed ω1 . outputs of the estimation unit are used to redesign the deadbeat controller in real time. Power Control To ensure high power quality. the current dynamics can be controlled to yield a deadbeat current control response.: ADAPTIVE GRID-VOLTAGE SENSORLESS CONTROL SCHEME FOR INVERTER-BASED DG 689 Fig. Using the estimated quantities. the space vector modulation (SVM) technique is employed to synthesize the control voltage in (35). the reference currents are calculated as follows: i∗ d i∗ q = 1 2 vs vsd vsq −vsq vsd p∗ q∗ . the outer power control loop should offer a relatively slowly changing current reference tra- + 1 Zc vsd vsq (37) where Zc is the capacitor impedance. vsq ˆ (38) . in the presence of system delays with the following control law: 1 ∗ i (k + 2) − Adq Adq i∗ (k) v ∗ (k + 1) = dq dq b dq + b v ∗ (k) − v sdq (k) dq + v sdq (k + 1) (34) where Adq = a T ω1 −T ω1 . Proposed voltage-sensorless power controller. Since the required power transient response is much slower than the current dynamics. and by using the time-delay compensation method developed in [28]. Using the active and reactive power references p∗ and q∗ and grid-voltage components vsq and vsd . the control voltage can be adaptively calculated as follows: v ∗ (k + 1) = dq 1 ∗ ˆ dq ˆ i (k + 2) − Adq Adq i∗ (k) ˆ dq b ˆ + v sdq (k + 1) ˆ + ˆ v ∗ (k) − v sdq (k) b dq (35) where Adq = a ˆ T ω1 −T ω1 . 4. (36) Fig. Proposed control scheme for the DG interface. The voltage-sensorless power controller can be realized using the estimated voltage components as i∗ d i∗ q = 1 vs ˆ2 vsd ˆ vsq ˆ −ˆsq v vsd ˆ p∗ 1 + Zc q∗ vsd ˆ . a jectory. the output power variation depends only on the variation of the grid voltage within the control cycle.ABDEL-RADY IBRAHIM MOHAMED et al. the inductor current references are calculated by adding a simple feedforward compensation term as follows: i∗ d i∗ q = 1 2 vs vsd vsq −vsq vsd p∗ q ∗ To achieve higher dc-link voltage utilization and lower distortion in the output current. a ˆ To compensate for the ﬁlter-capacitor current component. the reference current can be ﬁltered to ensure high-quality inductor current.

Robustness of the conventional and proposed current controllers with measured and estimated grid voltage. 24. The C++ S-function facilitates straightforward real-time coding via the RTW. For the adaptive estimation unit. 7. digital signal processor (DSP) has been chosen as an embedded platform for real-time digital simulation experiments. i∗ are the ﬁltered d. a low-pass ﬁlter (LPF) is adopted and digitally implemented as follows: ˆ∗ (k) idf 2σ − T i∗ (k − 1) df = ˆ∗ (k) 2σ + T i∗ (k − 1) iqf qf + T 2σ + T i∗ (k) − i∗ (k − 1) d d i∗ (k) − i∗ (k − 1) q q (39) where i∗ . With this setting.2 mH.65. The initial parameter vector is set to the nominal value. a 10-kV·A three-phase grid-connected microturbine DG interface incorporated with the proposed control scheme. It should be noted that the control period is mainly dependent on the instruction time of the hardware. The proposed interfacing scheme is initially tuned using the nominal system parameters. As these ﬁgures reveal. VOL.94. 6.and q-axis reference current df qf components. grid resistance = 0. respectively. code optimization is another factor in determining the execution time of the control interrupt service routine. The LC-ﬁlter parameters are chosen to attenuate the switching frequency components in the output current much below the nominal fundamental current component. 5 depicts the structure of the proposed voltage-sensorless power controller. nominal ﬁlter capacitance Co = 45 µF. To provide a sufﬁcient attenuation gain for the harmonic content in the reference current vector. and an initial parameter vector: θ(0) = [ao . It should be noted that the ﬁlter cutoff frequency should be low enough to provide sufﬁcient attenuation of current reference harmonics caused by voltage harmonics.7 kHz have been obtained. V. At the same time. nominal interfacing inductance Lo = 2.5 mH. ˆ r = 0. grid inductance = 0.690 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. SEPTEMBER 2009 Fig. a safe CPU load coefﬁcient 86% and a switching frequency 6. The execution time of the current control interrupt routine is about 130 µs. dc-link voltage = 500 V.001. and 1/σ is the ﬁlter cutoff frequency.0 Ω. NO. The TMS320C30 Fig. Developed Simulink model of the proposed DG interface with a microturbine source. 0.05 Ω. bo ] = [0. nominal interfacing resistance Ro = 1. 4. 3. Subsequently. Further. SIMULATION RESULTS To evaluate the performance of the proposed control scheme. ε = 0. 6. under Matlab/Simulink environment. it should be high enough to provide a reasonable dynamic response of the power control loop. has been used. The developed Simulink model of the overall DG interface is shown in Fig. Fig. a control period T = 150 µs is selected. An attenuation factor 50–70 dB can be selected as a design constraint to cope with standards in [27]. The real-time code of the proposed control scheme is generated by the real-time workshop (RTW). The estimation and control algorithm is coded as a Matlab S-function written in C++.06] are chosen. The system parameters are as follows: grid phase voltage = 120 V at 60 Hz. making it possible to achieve quite high switching frequencies. as reported in Fig. the processing demand of the proposed control scheme is relatively modest for a DSP system. .

To verify the feasibility of the proposed controller. Dynamic performance of the proposed adaptive estimation unit. (c) and (d) Phase-a steady-state current response and the corresponding spectrum of the proposed controller. Fig. Fig. 8. Stability and Robustness to Parameter Variation The stability and robustness of the inner current control is mainly affected by parameter variation. (c) Estimated interfacing resistance. Some selected results are presented as follows. (a) Phase-a current command and the corresponding output current. Fig. A. (d) Estimated interfacing inductance. 7 shows the change in the radius of the pole with maximum amplitude (in the z-plane) versus the uncertainty in the interfacing inductance. The sensitivity to parameter variation increases when the grid voltage is estimated. Two cases are considered. . 9. Performance of proposed and conventional current control with 20% mismatch in L. 10. (a) and (b) Phase-a steady-state current response and the corresponding spectrum of the conventional controller.: ADAPTIVE GRID-VOLTAGE SENSORLESS CONTROL SCHEME FOR INVERTER-BASED DG 691 Fig. (b) Actual and estimated grid voltages. Current control performance with the nominal inductance and 50% reduction in R.ABDEL-RADY IBRAHIM MOHAMED et al. different operating conditions have been considered. for both the conventional deadbeat current controller [17] and proposed controllers.

3. C. 9(b) shows the estimated grid phase voltage. B. the conventional deadbeat controller becomes unstable at only 5% mismatch in L. It can be seen that the active power output of the inverter can be correctly estimated and the actual power follows its reference correctly. The estimate smoothly converges in less than 2 ms to the expected value 1. Fig. 11. 8(a) shows the phase-a steady-state current response obtained with the conventional deadbeat controller with 20% mismatch in L. 9 depicts the dynamics of the proposed adaptive estimation unit.16 kHz (i.95%. 8(d). The actual current tracks its reference trajectory precisely with zero steady-state error and zero overshoot. 9(c) shows the estimated interfacing resistance. These oscillations are indeed the result of the instability of the control system. 9(a) shows phase-a current response with the proposed current controller. Fig.5 Ω. The reactive power is well regulated to its reference value. 11(c) shows the reference d-axis current component and the output phase-a current. In this scenario. (c) Generated reference d-axis current and output phase-a current. On the other hand. 11(b) shows the reactive output power. the d-axis current command is set to 20 A at t ≥ 0. Fig. 8(c) shows the phase-a steady-state current response obtained with the proposed current controller with 20% mismatch in L. Fig.. In this case. the stability of the deadbeat controller becomes independent of system parameters. VOL. (a) Step response in the active power.5 ms. It can be seen that the actual current tracks its reference trajectory precisely with zero steady-state error. and the q-axis current command is set to zero. 8(a). which yields 100% increase in the power circuit time constant. Fig. 7. The control performance is examined with the nominal interfacing inductance and 50% reduction in R. The control loop limiter constrains the magnitude of these oscillations. Sustained oscillations in the current response are obvious in Fig. 24. (d) Output phase-a current and grid voltage. The total harmonic distortion (THD) is 66.692 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION.e.12% up to 8. This is due to the self-tuning feature. Fig.2 s. SEPTEMBER 2009 Fig. a step change in the demanded active power from 0 to 5. The estimate smoothly converges in less than 2 ms to 4. The current control performance is shown in Fig. the THD up to 8. The corresponding current spectrum is given in Fig.0167 s. while the reference reactive power is set to zero to maintain a unity power factor. 8(b) shows the corresponding current spectrum. ﬁrst when the grid voltage is measured and second when the grid voltage is estimated. and with a rise time around 280 µs. as shown in Fig. Stable control performance with high power quality is preserved due to the self-tuning control. up to the 136th harmonic). uncertainties in the interfacing parameters as 60% mismatch in L and 50% mismatch in R are considered. Fig. (b) Reactive power response due to zero command. Because the injected power is only . It can be seen that the conventional deadbeat current controller is driven into instability with about 10% mismatch in L when the grid voltage is measured.0167 s. zero overshoot. which is below 5%. Fig. 11(a) shows the reference and actual active power. which enables the “redesign” of the deadbeat controller in real time at different load parameters. Fig. When the grid voltage is estimated. In this scenario. the proposed controller is stable at any value of the load inductance. Fig. Dynamic performance of the proposed interfacing scheme.16 kHz is 0. Power Control To evaluate the performance of the overall control system. 9(d) shows the estimated interfacing inductance. When both parameters R and L and the grid voltage are reliably estimated and used for the self-tuning control. Fig. 10. It is clear that the algorithm is stable and the output current tracks its reference command precisely.2 kW is given at t ≥ 0.15 mH that is the total inductance seen by the inverter. and the q-axis current command is set to zero. NO. The estimate converges to its real value within 2. Dynamic Performance of Proposed Estimation Unit To evaluate the performance of the proposed adaptive estimation unit. This result does not meet the IEEE Standard 1547 requirement of THD [27]. the d-axis current command is set to 20 A at t ≥ 0.

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in 1998. artiﬁcial intelligence. Canada.Sc. 1973. He is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. power quality analysis.D. NO. His current research interests include distribution system control and operation. Waterloo. power quality. 24. Canada. in 1964. and M. and the Ph.Sc. Prof. and the Ph. and M. He has consulted widely with government agencies and industrial plants. degrees in electrical engineering from Ain Shams University. degrees from Cairo University. and mechatronics. and insulation systems. VOL. all in electrical engineering. University of Waterloo. Cairo. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Waterloo. respectively. El-Saadany (M’01–SM’05) was born in Cairo. Egypt. degree from the University of Waterloo. University of Waterloo. He is currently a Professor and the University Research Chair in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. digital signal processing (DSP) applications to power systems. Waterloo.D. in 1986 and 1990. power electronics. electromagnetics. Cairo. SEPTEMBER 2009 Ehab F. Salama is a Registered Professional Engineer in the Province of Ontario. and 1977. ON. Egypt. He received the B.694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. A. 3. ON.Sc. Salama (S’75–M’77–SM’98–F’02) received the B. Magdy M.Sc. in 1971. His current research interests include the areas of the operation and control of distribution systems. respectively. .

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