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Executive Summary of the Study on Information Security and E-trust in Spanish Households

Annual report 2010 (15th wave)

INFORMATION SECURITY OBSERVATORY

Objectives and methodology
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  To compare users' perception of computer security with the real situation.  To analyse the change of security and e-trust indicators over time.  To direct initiatives and public policies towards improving security and generating a climate of confidence in the Information Society
OPINION

STUDY METHODOLOGY
Online panel

REMOTE AUDITING

iScan

Quarterly surveys of users

Monthly scans of computers

 n = 3,571 (4th Quarter 2010)  n= 50,351 (from Dec 2006)  13 data collections

 8,578 computers (4th Quarter 2010)  180,902 computers (from Dec 2006)  49 data collections

Perception vs. Reality
(Evolutionary readings)

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Technical information
Sample Population Spanish Internet users over 15 years of age with frequent access to the Internet from home. Sample 3,571 users 8,578 remote analyses Sample distribution Multi-stage sampling with stratification by Autonomous Region and size quotas by household, age, gender, work activity and home size. Information collection Online interviews Online analysis of computers Fieldwork October to December 2010 Sampling error In accordance with the criteria of simple random sampling for dichotomous variables in which p=q=0.5 and for a confidence level of 95.5%, the sampling error for n=3,571 is ±1.68%.
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Contents

 Main results  Security measures and habits  Security incidents  Users' reaction to security incidents and their consequences  e-trust in Spanish households  System of information security indicators

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Main results

Security measures and habits
 In the last quarter of 2010, that majority of users stated that they used automated security measures:antivirus programmes (92.9%), operating system updates (80.5%) and passwords (79.9%). The change in the use of security measures between 2006 and 2010 has been positive, with significant growth in 2009. In particular, there was increased use of backup copies, deleting temporary files and cookies and increased uptake of electronic ID. 85.3% of Spanish Internet users accessed social networking sites in the fourth quarter of 2010. These users were increasingly conscious of their privacy, only allowing friends and contacts (67.0%) or only some of their friends (16.3%) to view their profiles.

Security incidents
  The final three months of the year saw all-time lows in the proportion of computers storing malware, at around 50%. Among the different types of malware, Trojans unmistakably continue their upward trend with 39.8% of computers found to be infected.

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Main results

Users' reaction to security incidents and their consequences
 Users face security incidents when browsing. Among the consequences suffered in the fourth quarter of 2010 are loss of data (stated by 7.7% of users), need to format the hard drive (12.3%) and hardware damage (7,1%). As a result of these incidents, 39.1% of users changed their Internet browsing habits. The reactions among these Internet users take two forms: on the one hand, changes to security measures and tools, and on the other, changes in the use of Internet services.

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e-trust in Spanish households
 During the last three months of 2010, 39.6% of users stated that, in general, they have “quite a lot” of confidence in the Internet and 44% have “sufficient” confidence. These values are in line with the statements made throughout the year. Lastly, users would use online services more if they got instructions on how to protect their computers and browse securely, as stated by 47.2%.

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Security measures and habits Security measures and habits
Stated use of automated security measures (%)
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2010Q1 Antivirus programmes Firewalls Anti-spam programmes Anti-fraud programmes 2010Q2 2010Q3 2010Q4 OS and programme updates Pop-up window blocking programme Anti-spy programmes Parental control programmes 35.1% 38.3% 92.3% 80.7% 81.4% 74.5% 67.8% 65.0% 91.7% 80.9% 80.0% 72.9% 68.4% 65.0% 40.5% 38.3% 92.5% 80.7% 81.3% 72.5% 68.9% 63.9% 41.4% 37.4% 92.9% 80.5% 79.7% 69.1% 70.4% 62.8% 41.6% 38.4%

The data referring to content filter programmes (parental control for minors) is presented for the sub-sample of Internet-connected users with young children (20.7%).

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Security measures and habits Security measures and habits
Stated use of non-automated security measures (%)
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2010Q1 2010Q2 2010Q3 2010Q4 Removing temporary files and cookies Backing up files Hard disk partitioning Regular use with restricted permissions Electronic signature digital certificates Passwords (computers and documents) Making copies of system recovery disks Searching for computer security information Electronic ID: Document or data encryption 80.0% 78.9% 63.3% 60.6% 48.7% 49.0% 38.5% 28.0% 21.7% 19.9% 79.5% 79.5% 65.1% 62.6% 48.8% 48.2% 38.7% 29.8% 22.4% 22.2% 79.3% 79.2% 61.7% 60.3% 45.9% 46.8% 37.7% 30.7% 21.1% 21.7% 79.9% 79.5% 62.2% 58.9% 48.8% 49.3% 40.9% 29.9% 22.5% 23.5%

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Security measures and habits

Security measures and habitssecurity measures in the next 3 months Stated intention to use automated and non-automated
(data from 2010Q4) (%)
Antivirus programmes OS and programme updates Firewalls Removing temporary files and cookies Passwords (computers and documents) Pop-up window blocking programme Anti-spam programmes Anti-spy programmes Making copies of system recovery disks Backing up files Hard disk partitioning Searching for computer security information Parental control programmes Anti-fraud programmes Regular use with restricted permissions Electronic signature digital certificates Electronic ID: Document or data encryption 0% Currently In the next 3 months
92.9% 80.5% 79.7% 79.5% 79.9% 70.4% 69.1% 62.8% 58,8% 62,2% 49,3% 48,8% 41,6% 38,4% 40,9% 29,9% 23,5% 22,5% 16.9% 24.1% 20.3% 23.6% 13.0% 22.1% 31.5% 21.1% 4.3% 2.8% 10.9% 8.6% 9.5% 10.9% 12.9% 7.6% 5.7% 14.3% 13.0% 14.5% 15.6% 19.4% 23.4% 16.6% 16.3% 21.6% 21.7% 14.4%

33.8% 27.1% 38.1% 38.0% 46.2% 48.0% 45.1% 56.4%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

I will probably not use them
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The data referring to content filter programmes (parental control for minors) is presented for the sub-sample of Internet-connected users with young children (20.7%).

Security measures and habits

To facilitate reading the chart, the percentage corresponding to the most frequently cited reason for each of the tools is shown in red. The data referring to content filter programmes (parental control for minors) is presented for the sub-sample of Internet-connected users with young children (20.7%).

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Security incidents
Computers storing malware (%)

iScan
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 78.2% 76.2% 76.5%

72.1% 62.7% 61.5% 54.7% 54.0% 51.1%

Lineal (Evolution of Malware Trend)

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Security incidents
Malware incidents by category (% of all scanned computers)
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

iScan

Adware

Spyware

Worms

Tools

Heuristics

Others

Trojans

Viruses

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Security incidents Security number of malicious files and unique malware variants incidents Total
14000 12,027 12000 10,712 10000 8000 6000 5,096 4000 2000 0 4.671 4.574 4.379 3.909 10,587 10,482 9,104 8,527 7,756 7,296 7,042 7,347 6,661 6,432

iScan

3.451

3.696

3.350

3.334

3.506

3.187 3.105

Number of malicious files

Unique malware variants

Number of detections of each unique malware variant, Dec 2010
2500 2,287

iScan

2000

1500

1000

500

413 143 83 4 detections 54 5 detections

33 6 detections

0 1 detection 2 detections 3 detections

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Security incidents Security incidents
Risk level for all computers (%)
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 39.0% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 4.5% 4.5% 4.6% 5.5% 5.4% 13.6% 13.8% 13.3% 13.3% 12.4% 12.1% 10.3% 9.7% 10.1% 9.3% 8.9% 8.8% 4.2% 37.7% 34.9% 37.5% 35.8% 34.9% 38.0% 39.8% 38.2% 38.1%

iScan

34.7%

37.3%

5.9%

5.1%

4.7%

5.1%

5.4%

4.6%

Low risk

Medium risk

High risk

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Consequences and reaction to incidents
Type of action* taken after suffering a security incident by users who change their security habits and measures (%)
I have updated my security programmes I have changed my passwords I have started making backup copies I have changed security programmes I have installed a security tool for the 1st time I have stopped downloading files I have stopped shopping online I have stopped using online banking I have stopped using Internet services Others 0% 2009Q4 2010Q3 25.6% 28.3% 21.5% 25.2% 8.5% 10.1% 13.4% 13.1% 9.9% 6.7% 5.8% 5,0% 5.3% 4.6% 0.9% 1.4% 20% 40% 2010Q2 60% 80% 2010Q1 100%
* Multiple response
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50.8% 52.1% 47.1%

Consequences and reaction to incidents

How security incidents are resolved (%)
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
I know where to get the I can resolve my computer I ask a relative or friend for help to resolve them information I need to find security issues myself with out what is wrong and guidance from someone resolve it myself with more expert knowledge in the subject I take my computer to a technical assistance service

46.3%

46.1%

25.6% 15.1% 16.9%

25.3% 13.0% 11.6%

2010Q1

2010Q2

2010Q3

2010Q4
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e-trust in Spanish households

Perception of the number of security incidents compared to 3 months ago (%)
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 9.6% 0% 2010Q1 2010Q2 2010Q3 The same as 3 months ago There are more than 3 months ago Less than 3 months ago or they have disappeared 11.4% 10.2% 7.0% 2010Q4 44.3% 46.6% 47.5% 48.5% 46.1% 42.0% 42.3% 44.5%

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e-trust in Spanish households

Perception of the number of security incidents compared to three months ago between 2007 and 2010 (%)
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 49.5% 30% 20% 10% 11.0% 0% dec-07 dec-08 There are more than 3 months ago Less than 3 months ago or they have disappeared dec-09 The same as 3 months ago dec-10 10.6% 9.9% 9,5% 49.2% 45.2% 44,4% 39.5% 40.2% 44.9% 46,1%

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e-trust in Spanish households

Perception of the severity of security incidents compared to 3 months ago (%)
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 7.8% 2010Q1 More severe than 3 months ago 7.6% 2010Q2 7.7% 2010Q3 9.5% 2010Q4 Less severe than 3 months ago 47.4% 50.5% 50.0% 44.4% 44.8% 41.9% 42.3% 46.1%

As severe as 3 months ago

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e-trust in Spanish households

Perception of the severity of security incidents compared to three months ago between 2007 and 2010 (%)
100% 90% 31.8% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 8.7% 0% dec-07 More severe than 3 months ago dec-08 8.1% 7.8% dec-09 7,0% dec-10 Less severe than 3 months ago 59.5% 57.6% 48.0% 48,5% 34.3% 44.3% 44,5%

As severe as 3 months ago

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e-trust in Spanish households

Measures demanded from Government

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System of information security indicators

INTECO Security Indicators System (Households)
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Tools and security measures indicator 2010Q1 Security E-trust indicator behaviour and habits indicator Malware incidents indicator Equipment at high risk indicator Computers with high dissemination potential indicator 8.3 8.5 38.4 38.8 69.1 68.9 68.9 77.1 70.4 56.1 76.6

52.4

2010Q2

2010Q3

2010Q4

PROTECTION INDICATORS

INCIDENT/RISK INDICATORS
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Final conclusions

2010 comes to an end with a very positive assessment in relation to malicious code. The malware incident indicator dropped to 52.4 in the fourth quarter of 2010, a new all-time low. This drop is based on the fact that the lowest levels of infection were recorded each month in the last quarter. In the last quarter of 2010, up to 72.3% of users stated they use social networking sites on a regular basis, a new record high that is repeated each wave. The focus must be on security in these social networking sites. Users are increasingly careful with their privacy in these sites, reaching a new high of up to 67% who state that their profile can only be seen by friends and contacts. The e-trust that users have in the Internet remains at satisfactory and constant levels: 39.6% of users stated that they have quite a lot of confidence in the Internet, and this confidence is sufficient for a further 44%. Users are aware of the dangers of the Internet in general and of social networking sites in particular. However, 46.1% of those surveyed stated that the number of incidents at present is less than three months ago, and for 44.5%, current incidents are less serious.

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