Table of Contents

1.

Getting Started with HFSS
System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 Setting Up a Printer on Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

Welcome to HFSS Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
HFSS General Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 HFSS User Interface Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 Modeling Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 Materials Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 Ports Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 Meshing Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 Analysis Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 Optimetrics Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 Results Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 Scripting Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 Antennas in HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 Signal Integrity in HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 RF/Microwave in HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 Integrated Circuits in HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14

The HFSS Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Showing and Hiding Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15 Moving and Resizing Desktop Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16 Working with the Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 Working with the Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19
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Customize Toolbar Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19 Customize Toolbar Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20 Customizing the Tools Menu: External Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20 Working with the Shortcut Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
Shortcut Menu in the Toolbars Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22 Shortcut Menu in the 3D Modeler Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23 Shortcut Menus in the Project Manager Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-24

Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-24 Custom Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25 Working with the Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27 Exiting the Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27 Working with the Project Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
Working with the Project Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28 Setting the Project Tree to Expand Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28 Viewing HFSS Design Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29 Viewing the Design List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29 Viewing Material Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30

Working with the Properties Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30
Opening the Properties Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-31 Showing and Hiding the Properties Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 Setting the Properties Window to Open Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 Modifying Object Attributes Using the Properties Window . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 Modifying Object Command Properties Using the Properties Window . . . 1-33

Working with the Progress Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-33
Stopping or Aborting Simulation Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34 Viewing Distributed Analysis Subtasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34

Working with the Message Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34
Setting the Message Manager to Open Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35 Showing new messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35 Showing errors and warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35

Working with the 3D Modeler Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-36 Working with the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-37
Expand or Collapse Groupings in the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-38 History tree Grouping by Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-38 Select Objects in the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-39 Shortcut Menus in the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-39 View Item Properties in the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40 View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-41 Controlling the View of Objects in the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-42 Upgrade Version in History Tree Shortcut Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-42

Keyboard Shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-42

Using the Password Manager to Control Access to Resources . . . . . . . . . 1-44
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Running HFSS from a command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-45 Running from a Windows Remote Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-51 Windows HPC Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-52 Getting Started Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-53
Getting Started Guide: A Waveguide Tee Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-53 Getting Started Guide: Optimizing A Waveguide Tee Junction . . . . . . . 1-54 Getting Started Guide: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-55 Getting Started Guide: A 20 GHz Waveguide Combiner . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-55 Getting Started Guide: Floquet Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-55 Getting Started Guide: RCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-56 Getting Started Guide: Coax Tee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-56 Getting Started Guide: A Coax Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-57 Getting Started Guide: A Bandpass Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-57 Getting Started Guide: A UHF Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-58 Getting Started Guide: A Patch Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-58 Getting Started Guide:Silicon Spiral Inductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-59 Application Specific Modeling Guide: Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-60 Application Specific Modeling Guide: Spiral Inductors on Silicon Substrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-60

HFSS-IE Getting Started Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-62 HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-64 Example Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-66
Other Examples with Brief Descriptions in the Online Help . . . . . . . . . . 1-67 Tee and OptimTee Waveguide Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-68 Dielectric Resonator Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-70 Waveguide Combiner Example Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-71 cavity.hfss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-72 Optiguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-74 Package Example Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-76 Antennas on Mast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-77 Parametric Sweep of a Coax Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-78 Coaxial Resonator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-79 Connector - Terminal Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-81 Corporate Feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-83 Helical Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-84 Package Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-86 Small Array of Planar Flared Dipole Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-88 Pyramidal Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-89 Ring Hybrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-91 Tune a Coax Fed Patch Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-94
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Unit Cell of a Phased Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-96 Via Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-98

Copyright and Trademark Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-100

2.

Getting Help
Conventions Used in the Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 Searching in Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Using WebUpdate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 Obtaining Information About the Software and Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Emailing a Help Page Title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7

3.

Working with HFSS Projects
HFSS Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Creating Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Opening Example Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Opening Recent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Opening Legacy HFSS Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Legacy HFSS Project Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6

Closing Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Saving Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Saving a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 Saving the Active Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Saving a Copy of a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Renaming a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Saving Project Data Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Save Before Solve Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 Recovering Project Data in an Auto-Save File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13

Deleting Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14 Undoing Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15 Redoing Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16 Updating Design Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17 Managing Projects and Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Copy and Paste a Project or Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 Rename a Project or Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 Delete a Project or Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18

Validating Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Modeler Validation Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20

Exporting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Exporting 2D Geometry Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
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Exporting 3D Model Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22 Exporting Graphics Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24 Exporting Data Table Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25

Importing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
Importing 2D Model Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26 Importing GDSII Format Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
Tech File Colors with RGB Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29

Importing 3D Model Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-51 Importing DXF and DWG Format Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-53 Importing Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-55 Importing Data Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-56 Importing HFSS Plot Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-57 Importing Plot Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-57

Inserting a Documentation File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-59 Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-60 Previewing the Printout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-61 Changing the Page Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-62 Saving Project Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-63 Setting Options in HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64
Setting General Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64
General Options: Project Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64 General Options: Default Units Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-65 General Options: Analysis Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-65 General Options: RSM Service Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-67 General Options: WebUpdate Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-67 General Options: Miscellaneous Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-67

Setting HFSS Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-68
HFSS Options: General Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-69 HFSS Options: Solver Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-70 Setting Solver Settings Using VB Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-71

Setting HFSS-IE Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-72
HFSS-IE Options: General Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-72 HFSS-IE Options: Solver Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-73

Setting Fields Reporter Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-74 Setting Report2D Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-75
Report 2D Options: Curve Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-75 Report2D Options: Axis Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76 Report2D Options: Grid Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76 Report2D Options: Header Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76 Report2D Options: Note Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-77 Report2D Options: Legend Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-77
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Report2D Options: Marker tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-77 Report2D Options: Marker Table Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-78 Report2D Options: General Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-78 Report2D Options: Table Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-79

Setting Modeler Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-79
Modeler Options: Operation Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-80 Modeler Options: Display Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-80 Modeler Options: Drawing Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-82

Report Setup Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-83

Working with Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-85
Adding a Project Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-85 Intrinsic Variables in a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-87 Deleting Project Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-88 Adding a Design Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-88 Add Array of Values for a Design Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-91 Editing a Design Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-92 Deleting Design Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-93 Adding Datasets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-94 Modifying Datasets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-95 Defining Mathematical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-95 Defining an Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-96
Using Valid Operators for Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-97 Using Intrinsic Functions in Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-97 Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-99 Using Dataset Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-100

Assigning Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-100 Choosing a Variable to Optimize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-100 Including a Variable in a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-101 Choosing a Variable to Tune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-102 Including a Variable in a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-102 Exporting Variables for Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-103

4.

Setting up an HFSS Design
Inserting an HFSS Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 Selecting the Solution Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3

5.

HFSS Transient
Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 Transient Network Analysis Input Signal Tab: a Time Profile . . . . . . . . . 5-5 Duration Tab for Transient Solution Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 Saved Fields Tab for Transient Solution Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8

Contents - 6

Active or Passive Excitations in HFSS Transient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9 Transient Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11 Selecting the Report Type in HFSS Transient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 Procedure for Viewing Transient Radiated Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14

6.

HFSS-IE
Inserting an HFSS-IE Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 Assigning HFSS-IE Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 Assigning Excitations in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6

7.

Drawing a Model
Setting Units of Measurement for the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 Drawing Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Drawing a Straight Line Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 Drawing a Three-Point Arc Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6 Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7 Drawing a Spline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8 Drawing a Polyline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9 Assigning a Cross Section and Dimensions to a Polyline . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11 Inserting Line Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13 Drawing an Equation-Based Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14 Drawing a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15 Drawing an Ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15 Drawing a Rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17 Drawing a Regular Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17 Drawing an Equation-Based Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18 Drawing a Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19 Drawing a Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20 Drawing a Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21 Drawing a Regular Polyhedron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22 Drawing a Cone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22 Drawing a Torus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23 Drawing a Helix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-24 Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section Using a User Defined Primitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25 Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross-Section Using a User Defined Primitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-26 Drawing a Spiral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27 Drawing a Spiral using User Defined Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-29
Contents - 7

Drawing a Bondwire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-30 Drawing a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31 Drawing a Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31 Creating Segmented Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-32
Segmented Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-32

Drawing Non-Model Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-33
Selecting Non-Model Drawing Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34 Changing an Object to Non Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34

Drawing a Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34

Model Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-36
Analysis Options Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-37 Analyzing the Surface Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-38 Model Analysis dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-38
Objects Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-39 Object Misalignment Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-40 Surface Mesh (Single/Pairs) Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-41 Last Simulation Mesh Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-42

Design Settings for HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-43 Design Settings for HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-45 Setting the Temperature of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-46 Heal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-47
Healing Non-Manifold Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-48 Setting the Healing Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-51 Stitch Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-52 Align Selected Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-53 Remove Selected Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-53 Remove Selected Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-53

Creating a User Defined Primitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-55
User Customization through User Defined Primitives (UDPs) . . . . . . . . 7-57

Modifying Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-59
Assigning Color to Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-60
Setting the Default Color of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-60 Setting the Default Color of Object Outlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-60

Assigning Transparency to an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-61
Setting the Default Transparency of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-61

Copying and Pasting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-61 Import a Model from the Clipboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-62 Copy Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-62 Deleting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-63
Deleting Start Points and Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-63

Delete Last Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-64
Contents - 8

Cutting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-64 Moving Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-64 Rotating Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-64 Changing the Orientation of an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-65 Mirroring Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-65 Offsetting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67 Duplicating Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67
Duplicating Objects Along a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-68 Duplicating Objects Around an Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-68 Duplicating and Mirroring Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-69

Scaling Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-69 Sweeping Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-70
Sweeping Around an Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-70 Sweeping Along a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-71 Sweeping Along a Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-72 Sweeping Faces Along Normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-73 Thicken Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-73

Wrap Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-73 Covering Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-74 Covering Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-75 Uncovering Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-75 Detaching Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-75 Detaching Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-75 Creating a Cross-Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-76 Connecting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-76 Moving Faces or Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-76
Moving Faces Along the Normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-77 Moving Faces Along a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-78 Moving Edges Along Normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-79

Uniting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-79 Subtracting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-80 Creating Objects from Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-81 Creating an Object from a Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-82 Creating an Object from an Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-83 Splitting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-83 Separating Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-85 Converting Polyline Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-85 Rounding the Edge of Objects (Fillet Command) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-86 Flattening the Edge of Objects (Chamfer Command) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-87 Imprinting an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-87 Imprint Projection commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-89
Contents - 9

Purge History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-90 Generate History to Reproduce Portions of Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-90

Selecting Items in the 3D Modeler Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-93
Selecting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-93
Selecting Several Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-94 Selecting Objects by Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-95 Select By Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-95 Selecting All Objects in a History Tree Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-97 Setting the Default Color and Transparency of Selected Objects . . . . . . . . 7-98 Setting the Default Color of Highlighted Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-98 Creating an Object List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-99 Reassigning Objects to Another Object List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-99 Using or Viewing List Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-100

Selecting Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-100
Selecting All Faces of an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-101 Selecting Faces by Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-102 Selecting Faces by Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-102 Face Selection Toolbar Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-103 Creating a Face List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-103

Selecting Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-104
Selecting All Edges of an Object or Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-105

Selecting Vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-106 Selecting Multi (a Mode for Selecting Objects, Faces, Vertices or Edges) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-107
Controlling the Selection in Multi Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-107

Clearing a Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-108 Selecting the Face, Edge, Vertex, or Object Behind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-108 Selecting Objects by Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-109

Assigning Coordinates to New Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-111
Setting the Reference Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-111 Defining Cartesian Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-111 Defining Cylindrical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-112 Defining Spherical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-113 Using Absolute Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-114 Using Relative Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-114

Choosing the Movement Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-116
Moving the Cursor In Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-116 Moving the Cursor Out of Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-117 Moving the Cursor in 3D Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-117 Moving the Cursor Along the X-Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-118 Moving the Cursor Along the Y-Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-119 Moving the Cursor Along the Z-Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-119
Contents - 10

Choosing Snap Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-120
Snap Setting Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-121

Measure Modes for Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-122
Measuring Position and Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-123

Setting Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-126
Setting the Working Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-127 Creating a Relative Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-127
Creating an Offset Relative CS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-127 Creating a Rotated Relative CS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-128 Creating an Offset and Rotated Relative CS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-128

Creating a Face Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-129
Automatically Creating Face Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-130

Modifying Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-130 Expressing Cartesian, Cylindrical, or Spherical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . 7-131 Deleting Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-132

Setting the Drawing Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-133

8.

Assigning Boundaries
Zoom to Selected Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3

Assigning Perfect E Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 Assigning Perfect H Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 Assigning Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Assigning Radiation Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 Assigning PML Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Creating PMLs Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11 Creating PML Boundaries Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15 Modifying PML Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15

Assigning Finite Conductivity Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17 Assigning Finite Conductivity Boundaries in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19 Assigning Symmetry Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21 Assigning Master Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-22 Assigning Slave Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24 Assigning Lumped RLC Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26
Vector Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-27

Assigning Screening Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-28
Get Impedance from External Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-29

Assigning Layered Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-31 Assigning Aperture Boundaries in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-33
Contents - 11

Assigning Infinite Ground Plane Boundaries in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-34 Assigning Layered Impedance Boundaries in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-35 Designating Infinite Ground Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-37 Modifying Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-38 Deleting Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-39 Reassigning Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-40 Reprioritizing Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-41 Global Material Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-42 Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-43 Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-44
Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations in the Active View Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-44 Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations in Every View Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-45

Reviewing Boundaries and Excitations in the Solver View . . . . . . . . . . . 8-46 Setting Default Values for Boundaries and Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-47

9.

Assigning Excitations
Zoom to Selected Excitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3

Assigning Wave Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Assigning Wave Ports for Modal Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 Assigning Wave Ports for Terminal Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9 Auto Assign for Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10

Manually Assigning Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12 Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13

Assigning Lumped Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Assigning Lumped Ports for Modal Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18 Manually Assigning Lumped Ports for Terminal Solutions . . . . . . . . . . 9-19

Assigning Floquet Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-21
Floquet Ports: Lattice Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24 Floquet Port: Modes Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24

Defining an Integration Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-26
Guidelines for Defining Integration Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27 Duplicating Integration Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27 Modifying Integration Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28 Setting up Differential Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28

Assigning Incident Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-32
Incident Plane Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-33 Incident Hertzian-Dipole Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-34
Contents - 12

Incident Cylindrical Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-35 Incident Gaussian Beam Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-36 Incident Linear Antenna Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-38 Far Field Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-39
Setup Link for Far Field or Near Field Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-41 External Data File for Far Field Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-42 Translation of Source Relative to Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-43

Near Field Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-45

HFSS-IE Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-47 Assigning Voltage Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-48
Modifying Voltage Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-48

Assigning Current Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-50
Modifying Current Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-50

Assigning Magnetic Bias Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-51 Setup Link Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-53 Modifying Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-54 Deleting Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-55 Reassigning Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-56 Duplicating Excitations with Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-57 Showing and Hiding Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-58 Setting the Impedance Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-59 Renormalizing S-Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-60 De-embedding S-Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-62

10.

Assigning Materials
Solving Inside or on the Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4 Assigning DC Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5 Searching for Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
Searching by Material Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7 Searching by Material Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7

Adding New Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Assigning Material Property Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10 Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11 Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11 Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12 Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-13

Defining Variable Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14 Defining Frequency-Dependent Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14
Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Piecewise Linear Input . . . . . 10-17
Contents - 13

Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Debye Model Input . . . . . . . . 10-18 Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Multipole Debye Model Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19 Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Djordjevic-Sarkar Model Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22 Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-23

Specifying Thermal Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-25 Defining Material Properties as Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-26 Defining Functional Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-26

Assigning Materials from the Object Properties Window . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-27 Viewing and Modifying Material Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28 Validating Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30 Copying Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-31 Removing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-32 Exporting Materials to a Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-33 Sorting Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-34 Filtering Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-35 Working with Material Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36
Working with Ansoft’s System Material Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36 Working with User Material Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36 Editing Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36 Configuring Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36

11.

Modifying the Model View
View Options: 3D UI Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3 Rotating the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4 Panning the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5 Zooming In and Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Zooming In or Out on a Rectangular Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6

Fitting Objects in the View Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Fitting All Objects in a View Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8 Fitting a Selection in a View Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8

Hiding Objects from View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9 Showing Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10 Active View Visibility Dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 Rendering Objects as Wireframes or Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
Setting the Default View Rendering Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13

Setting the Curved Surface Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14 Using Clip Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-16
Contents - 14

Modifying the View Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
Applying a Default View Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20 Applying a New View Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-21 Removing an Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-21

Modifying the Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-22 Setting the Projection View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-23 Setting the Background Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-24 Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25
Showing or Hiding the Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25 Show the Axes for Selected Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25 Enlarging or Shrinking the Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25 Showing or Hiding the Triad Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25

Choosing Grid Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-26
Setting the Grid Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-26 Setting the Grid Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-26 Setting the Grid Density and Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27 Setting the Grid’s Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27 Setting the Grid Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27

12.

Defining Mesh Operations
Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement on Object Faces . . . . . . . . . 12-3 Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement Inside Objects . . . . . . . . . . 12-4 Assigning Skin Depth-Based Mesh Refinement on Object Faces . . . . . . 12-5 Modifying Surface Approximation Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7 Specifying the Model Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9 Reverting to the Initial Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11 Applying Mesh Operations without Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12 Specifying Initial Mesh Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13 Deleting All Previously Assigned Mesh Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15 Viewing List of Mesh Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16 Reassigning a Mesh Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-17 Viewing Mesh Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-18

13.

Specifying Solution Settings
Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 Add Dependent Solve Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4 Renaming a Solution Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5 Copying a Solution Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6 Setting the Solution Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Contents - 15

Solving for Ports Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8 Setting the Minimum Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9 Setting the Number of Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10 Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters for HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
Setting the Maximum Number of Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11 Setting the Maximum Delta S Per Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12 Setting the Maximum Delta Energy Per Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12 Setting the Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13
Specifying Convergence on Real Frequency Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13

Specifying Expressions for Adaptive Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13 Specifying a Source for the Initial Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
Clearing Linked Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-19

Setting Lambda Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-19 Setting Lambda Refinement for HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-20 Setting the Percent Maximum Refinement Per Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-20 Setting the Maximum Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21 Setting the Minimum Number of Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21 Setting the Minimum Number of Converged Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21 Setting Matrix Convergence Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22 Setting the Order of Basis Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23 Enable Iterative Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24 Enable Use of Solver Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24 Balancing Resources for Solver Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-25 Use Radiation Boundary on Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26 Port Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26 Enable Thermal Feedback from ANSYS Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-27 Produce Derivatives for Selected Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-29

Adding a Frequency Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-31
Selecting the Sweep Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-32
Options for Discrete Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33 Options for Fast Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33 Options for Interpolating Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33 Setup Interpolating Sweep Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-34 Setting the Error Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-35 Setting the Maximum Number of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-35 Interpolation Basis Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-36

Specifying the Frequency Points to Solve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-37
Specifying Frequency Points with a Linear Step Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-37 Specifying a Linear Count of Frequency Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-38 Specifying a Logarithmic Spaced Frequency Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-39 Specifying Single Frequency Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40
Contents - 16

Change the Value of an Existing Frequency Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40 Deleting Frequency Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-41 Inserting Frequency Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-41 Choosing Frequencies for Full-Wave SPICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-42 Guidelines for Calculating Frequencies for Full-Wave SPICE . . . . . 13-43 Requirements for Full-Wave SPICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-44

Disabling or Enabling a Frequency Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-45 Disabling and Enabling an Analysis Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-46 Specifying the Number of Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-47 Specifying the Desired RAM Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48 Specifying the Hard Memory Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-49

14.

Running Simulations
Solving a Single Setup or Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3 Running More Than One Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3 Monitoring Queued Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6 Remote Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10

Distributed Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12
Configuring Distributed Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12 Editing Distributed Machine Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-13 Selecting an Optimal Configuration for Distributed Analysis . . . . . . . . 14-17

Monitoring the Solution Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-18 High Performance Computing (HPC) Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-20
Scheduler Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-20 What a Scheduler Does . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-21 Installation of Ansoft Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-22
Firewall Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-23 Installation Directory Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-23

Ansoft Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-23 Integration with Microsoft Windows® HPC Scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-24
Windows® HPC Job Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-25 Windows® HPC Task Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-26 Windows® HPC Job Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-28 Selecting Computation Resource Units (Job Unit Type) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-29 How to Select the Windows® HPC Job Unit Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-30 Windows® HPC Job Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-30

Submitting and Monitoring Ansoft HPC Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-31
Submitting and Monitoring Jobs Using the Ansoft Submit HPC Job Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-32 The Ansoft Submit HPC Job Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-35
Contents - 17

Specifying the Number of Compute Resource Units for HPC Jobs . . . . . 14-37

Integration with Platform’s Load Sharing Facility (LSF) . . . . . . . . . . . 14-38
Installation of Ansoft Tools on LSF Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-39 Integration of Ansoft Products with LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-41 LSF Job Submission Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-41 LSF Command Used to Launch Remote Engine Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-42 Submitting Ansoft LSF Batch Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-42 Current Working Directory with LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-42 Quoting Ansoft Command or Arguments for LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-43 bsub Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-43 Monitoring Ansoft LSF Batch Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-43 Terminating Ansoft LSF Batch Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-44 Example LSF bsub Command Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-44 Known Issues for LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-48 Troubleshooting for LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-49 Workarounds for LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-50

Integration with PBS (Portable Batch System) Professional from Altair Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-50
qsub Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-52 Monitoring Ansoft PBS Batch Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-53 Example PBS qsub Command Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-53

Integration with Sun Grid Engine (SGE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-55
Monitoring Ansoft SGE Batch Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-58 Ansoft Desktop -monitor Command Line Option for SGE . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-58 Example SGE qsub Command Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-59 Issue with qrsh (SGE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-61 Issue with MainWin Core Services for SGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-61

Command Line Enhancements for Ansoft Desktop Products . . . . . . . . 14-63 Integrating Ansoft Tools with Third Party Schedulers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-65
Build Information for Scheduler Proxy Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-65 Implementation Details for Custom Scheduler Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-66 IsProductLaunchedInYourEnvironment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-66 GetTempDirectory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-67 GetMachineListAvailableForDistribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-67 LaunchProcess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-68 GetUseRsmForEngineLaunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-69 GetThisJobID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-70 GetSchedulerDisplayName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-70

Testing Your Scheduler Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-71
Testing IsProductLaunchedInYourEnvironment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-72 Testing GetSchedulerDisplayName and GetThisJobID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-72 Testing GetTempDirectory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-72 Testing GetMachineListAvailableForDistribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-72
Contents - 18

Testing LaunchProcess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-73 Testing GetUseRsmForEngineLaunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-73

Troubleshooting Custom Scheduler Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-73
None of the Proxy Functions are Called . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-74 Troubleshooting IsProductLaunchedInYourEnvironment Function . . . . . 14-74 Troubleshooting GetSchedulerDisplayName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-74 Troubleshooting GetThisJobID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-75 Troubleshooting GetTempDirectory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-75 Troubleshooting GetMachineListAvailableForDistribution . . . . . . . . . . . 14-75 Troubleshooting LaunchProcess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-75 Troubleshooting GetUseRsmForEngineLaunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-76

Changing a Solution Priority for System Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-77 Aborting an Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-78 Re-solving after Modifying a Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-79 Re-Solving after ANSYS Thermal Link Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-80

15.

Optimetrics
Parametric Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3 Setting Up a Parametric Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Adding a Variable Sweep Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Specifying Variable Values for a Sweep Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6 Synchronizing Variable Sweep Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6

Modifying a Variable Sweep Definition Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7 Overriding a Variable's Current Value in a Parametric Setup . . . . . . . . 15-8 Specifying a Solution Setup for a Parametric Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Specifying the Solution Quantity to Evaluate for Parametric Analysis . . . 15-9 Setup Calculations for Optimetrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-9 Specifying a Solution Quantity's Calculation Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11

Viewing Results for Parametric Solution Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11 Using Distributed Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-12 Adding a Parametric Sweep from a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-13

Optimization Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
Choosing an Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
Quasi Newton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15 Pattern Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18 Sequential Non-linear Programming (SNLP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-20 Sequential Mixed Integer NonLinear Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21 Genetic Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-22

Optimization Variables and the Design Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-23

Setting Up an Optimization Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-24
Optimization Setup for the Quasi Newton Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-25 Optimization Setup for the Pattern Search Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-26
Contents - 19

Optimization Setup for the SNLP Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-27 Optimization Setup for the SMINLP Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-28 Optimization Setup for the Genetic Algorithm Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . 15-29 Setting the Maximum Iterations for an Optimization Analysis . . . . . . . 15-30 Cost Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-31
Acceptable Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32 Cost Function Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32 Adding a Cost Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32 Adding/Editing a Cost Function Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-34 Specifying a Solution Quantity for a Cost Function Goal . . . . . . . . . 15-35 Setting the Calculation Range of a Cost Function Goal . . . . . . . . . . . 15-35 Setting a Goal Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-36 Specifying a Single Goal Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-36 Specifying an Expression as a Goal Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-37 Specifying a Variable-Dependent Goal Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-37 Goal Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-37

Modifying the Starting Variable Value for Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . 15-39 Setting the Min. and Max. Variable Values for Optimization . . . . . . . . 15-39
Overriding the Min. and Max. Variable Values for a Single Optimization Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-40 Changing the Min. and Max. Variable Values for Every Optimization Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-40

Step Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-40
Setting the Min. and Max. Step Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42

Setting the Min and Max Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42
Equalizing the influence of different optimization variables. . . . . . . . . . . 15-43 To set the Min and Max Focus values: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-43

Solving a Parametric Setup Before an Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-43 Solving a Parametric Setup During an Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-44 Automatically Updating a Variable's Value After Optimization . . . . . . 15-44 Changing the Cost Function Norm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-44
Explanation of L1, L2 and Max norms in Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-45 Example of a More Complex Cost Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-47

Advanced Genetic Algorithm Optimizer Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-48

Sensitivity Analysis Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-51
Selecting a Master Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-51

Setting Up a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-52
Setting the Maximum Iterations Per Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-53 Setting Up an Output Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-53
Specifying a Solution Quantity for an Output Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-54 Setting the Calculation Range of an Output Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-55

Modifying the Starting Variable Value for Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . 15-55
Contents - 20

Setting the Min. and Max. Variable Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-56
Overriding the Min. and Max. Variable Values for a Single Sensitivity Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-56 Changing the Min. and Max. Variable Values for Every Sensitivity Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-57

Setting the Initial Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-57 Solving a Parametric Setup Before a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 15-57 Solving a Parametric Setup During a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 15-58

Statistical Analysis Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-59 Setting Up a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-60
Setting the Maximum Iterations for a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 15-60 Specifying the Solution Quantity to Evaluate for Statistical Analysis . 15-61 Setting the Solution Quantity's Calculation Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-62 Setting the Distribution Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-62
Overriding the Distribution Criteria for a Single Statistical Setup . . . . . . 15-63 Changing the Distribution Criteria for Every Statistical Setup . . . . . . . . . 15-64 Statistical Cutoff Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-65 Edit Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-66

Modifying the Starting Variable Value for Statistical Analysis . . . . . . 15-67 Solving a Parametric Setup During a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 15-68

Tuning Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-69 Tuning a Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-70
Applying a Tuned State to a Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-72 Saving a Tuned State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-72 Reverting to a Saved Tuned State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-73 Resetting Variable Values after Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-73

Saving Field Solutions for Optimetrics Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-74
Saving Field Solutions for a Parametric Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-74 Saving Field Solutions for an Optimization Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-74 Saving Field Solutions for a Sensitivity Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-75 Saving Field Solutions for a Tuning Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-75 Saving Field Solutions for a Statistical Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-76

Copying Meshes in Optimetrics Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-77 Adding an Expression in the Output Variables Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-78 Excluding a Variable from an Optimetrics Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-79 Modifying the Value of a Fixed Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-80 Linear Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-81
Setting a Linear Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-81 Modifying a Linear Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-82 Deleting a Linear Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-82
Contents - 21

Running an Optimetrics Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-84 Viewing Analysis Results for Optimetrics Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-85
Viewing Solution Data for an Optimetrics Design Variation . . . . . . . . 15-85 Viewing an Optimetrics Solution's Profile Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-86 Viewing Results for Parametric Solution Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-86
Plotting Solution Quantity Results vs. a Swept Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-87

Viewing Cost Results for an Optimization Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-87
Plotting Cost Results for an Optimization Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-88

Viewing Output Parameter Results for a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . 15-88
Plotting Output Parameter Results for a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 15-88

Viewing Distribution Results for a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-89
Plotting Distribution Results for a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-90

Link to Design Xplorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-91

16.

Post Processing and Generating Reports
Viewing Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
Viewing Convergence Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
Viewing the Number of Completed Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3 Viewing the Max Magnitude of Delta S Between Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3 Viewing the Output Variable Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4 Viewing the Delta Magnitude Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4 Viewing the Magnitude Margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5 Viewing the Phase Margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5 Viewing the Max Delta (Mag S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5 Viewing the Max Delta (Phase S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6 Viewing the Maximum Delta Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6 Plotting Convergence Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7

Viewing a Solution Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7 Viewing Matrix Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9
Selecting the Matrix Display Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-10 Exporting Matrix Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11 Renaming Matrix Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14 Reordering Matrix Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14 Exporting Equivalent Circuit Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14 Exporting W-element Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17

Viewing Mesh Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17 Viewing Eigenmode Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-18 Deleting Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-19 Deleting Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-19

Export Transfer File for ANSYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-21
Exporting the Model Geometry to ANSYS Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-24 Creating the Thermal Link Coupling File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-24
Contents - 22

Scaling a Source's Magnitude and Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-27
Guidelines for Scaling a Source's Magnitude and Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-29 Ports and Edit Sources Behavior for Transient Network . . . . . . . . . . . 16-30

Creating Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-31
Creating Phase Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-31 Creating Frequency Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-32 Creating Geometry Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-33 Controlling the Animation’s Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-34 Exporting Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-35

Creating Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-37
Creating a Quick Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-38 Creating a New Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-39
Context Section for Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-41 Using Families Tab for Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-42

Modifying Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-44 Modifying the Background Properties of a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-46
Modifying the Legend in a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-48 Creating Custom Report Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-49

Selecting the Report Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-50 Selecting the Display Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-51
Creating 2D Rectangular Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-52 Creating 2D Rectangular Stacked Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-54 Creating 3D Rectangular Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-56 Creating Rectangular Contour Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-57 Creating 2D Polar Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-58 Reviewing 2D Polar Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-60 Creating 3D Polar Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-60 Creating Smith Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-61 Creating Smith Contour Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-62 Creating Data Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-64 Creating Radiation Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-66 Delta Markers in 2D Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-67

Plotting in the Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-67
TDR Windowing Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-72

Working with Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-77
Editing Trace Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-78 Editing the Display Properties of Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-79 Adding Data Markers to Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-81 Discarding Report Values Below a Specified Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-82 Add Trace Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-83 Removing Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-84 Copy and Paste of Report and Trace Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-84
Contents - 23

Copy and Paste of Report and Trace Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-85

Sweeping a Variable in a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-86
Sweeping Values Across a Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-86 Sweeping Values Across a Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-87

Selecting a Function for a Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-88 Selecting Solution Quantities to Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-92 Selecting a Field Quantity to Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-94 Selecting a Far-Field Quantity to Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-95 Plotting Vertical Cross-Sections of Far Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-100 Plotting Horizontal Cross-Sections of Far Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-100 Selecting a Near-Field Quantity to Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-101 Selecting an Emission Test Quantity to Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-102 Plotting Imported Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-103 Setting a Range Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-103
Eye Measurement Range Function Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-104

Perform FFT on a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-105
FFT Window Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-106 Apply FFT to Report Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-108

Perform TDR on Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-109

Specifying Output Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-110
Adding a New Output Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-110 Building an Expression Using Existing Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-111 Deleting Output Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-112

Derivative Tuning for Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-113 Port Field Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-115 Plotting Field Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-117
Overlaying 3D Polar Plots on Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-119 Plotting Derived Field Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-120 Creating Scalar Field Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-121
Modifying SAR Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-121

Creating Vector Field Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-122 Modifying Field Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-122 Setting Field Plot Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-123
Modifying Field Plot Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-125 Setting the Color Key Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-126 Moving the Color Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-127 Modifying the Field Plot Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-127 Modifying Vector Field Plot Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-129 Setting the Mesh Visibility on Field Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-130 Modifying Scalar Field Plot Isovalues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-130 Mapping Scalar Field Plot Transparency to Field Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-131 Modifying Markers on Point Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-131
Contents - 24

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-158 Mag Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-138 The Calculator Stack . . . . 16-134 Setting Field Plot Defaults . . . . . . . . 16-156 ∇ (Gradient) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-139 Enlarging the Register Display Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-155 Max Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-133 Saving a Field Overlay Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-158 Matl Command . 16-159 Dot Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-140 Stack Commands . 16-136 Opening the Fields Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-138 Registers . . . . . . . . . . 16-154 d/d? (Partial Derivative) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-132 Setting a Plot's Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-154 Min Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 . . . . . . . 16-146 Function Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-134 Deleting a Field Overlay Plot . . . 16-147 Read Command . . . . . . 16-152 Vec? Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-148 Steps for Calculating the Complex Vector Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-145 Number Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-140 Input Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-157 Vector Commands . . . . . . . . . .Modifying Line Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-157 Scal? Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-139 Units of Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-133 Opening a Field Overlay Plot . . . . . 16-157 Log Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-156 Ln Command . . . . 16-134 Using the Fields Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-153 (Square Root) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-141 Geometry Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-136 Context Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-151 Scalar Commands . . . . . . . . . . 16-148 Output Vars [Input for Eigenmode problems] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-153 Pow Command . . . . . . . . 16-159 Contents . . . . . . . 16-153 Trig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-146 Geom Settings Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-144 Constant Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-154 (Integral) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-141 Quantity Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-152 1/x (Inverse) Command . . 16-148 General Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6 Guidelines for Seeding the Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-179 Computing Antenna Parameters . 17-3 Size of Mesh Vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5 Seeding the Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-177 Defining a Regular Antenna Array . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-167 Named Expression Library . . . . . . . . . 16-160 Divg Command . . . . . . . . 16-160 Curl Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-160 Tangent Command . . . . . . . . 17-7 Surface Approximation Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-183 Setting Mesh Plot Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cross Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-164 Export Command . . 16-162 Output Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-161 Unit Vec Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4 The HFSS Solution Process . . . . . . 16-179 Exporting Antenna Parameters and Maximum Field Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-172 Setting up a Near-Field Line . . . . . . 17-9 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical Notes The Finite Element Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-173 Computing Maximum Near-Field Parameters . . . . . . . 16-168 Exiting the Fields Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-163 Write Command . . . . . . . . . 17-8 Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximation Settings . . . . . . . . . . 16-183 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-175 Setting up a Far-Field Infinite Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2 Basis Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-161 Normal Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-7 Skin Depth-Based Mesh Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2 Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-163 Value Command . . . . . . . . Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5 The Mesh Generation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-181 Plotting the Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6 Length-Based Mesh Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . .26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-176 Defining Antenna Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-178 Defining a Custom Antenna Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-171 Setting up a Near-Field Sphere . . 16-170 Radiated Fields Post Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9 Meshing Region Vs. . . . . . . . . 17-2 Representation of a Field Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-165 Calculating Derived Field Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-163 Eval Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 17-21 Direct Matrix Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-16 Calculating the VI Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-21 Matrix Solvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-30 Calculating the Quality Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-29 Eigenmode Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-14 Multiple Ports on the Same Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-31 Field Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-21 Max Delta (Phase S) . . . . . . . . . 17-19 Maximum Delta E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-18 Calculating the Relative Permittivity (Epsilon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-17 Complex Propagation Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-20 Max Delta (Mag S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-26 Fast Frequency Sweeps . . . . . . . . 17-16 Impedance Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-31 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-17 Calculating Terminal Characteristic Impedance Matrix . . . . . . . . 17-20 Maximum Delta Frequency . 17-20 Magnitude Margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-21 Iterative Matrix Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-12 Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-18 The Adaptive Analysis Process . . . . . . . . . 17-30 Calculating the Resonant Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-23 Single Frequency Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-26 Discrete Frequency Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-14 Calculating Characteristic Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-14 Port Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-22 Guidelines for Using the Iterative Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-25 Frequency Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-27 Interpolating Frequency Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-22 Multiprocessing and the Iterative Solver . . . . . . 17-20 Phase Margin . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10 Port Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-28 Solution Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-23 Iterative Matrix Solver Technical Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-18 Maximum Delta S . . . . . . . . . . 17-12 Mesh Refinement on Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-15 Calculating the PI Impedance . . . . . 17-19 Percent of Tetrahedra Refined Per Pass . . . 17-16 Calculating the PV Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-11 Excitation Fields . . . . . .Model Resolution . . . 17-11 Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-13 Degenerate Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-17 Calculating the Effective Wavelength (Lambda) . . . . . . .

. . 17-54 Calculating the Z-Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-33 Calculating the SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-36 Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-63 Custom Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-67 Spherical Polar . . 17-45 Domain Decomposition Method . . . . . . . . . 17-31 Field Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Field Overlay Plots . . . . . . . . 17-44 References for Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-34 Transient Solution Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-61 Theory of the Array Factor Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-57 Maximum Near-Field Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-60 Array Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-68 Ludwig-3 Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-55 Radiated Fields . . . . . . . 17-37 Materials in Time Domain . . . . . . . . . 17-61 Regular Uniform Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-39 Excitations in Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-62 Scan Specification for Regular Uniform Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-63 Power Normalizations . . 17-32 Specifying the Phase Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-54 Alternative Matrix Characterizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-48 Computational Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-33 Peak Versus RMS Phasors . . 17-55 Passivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-59 Maximum Far-Field Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-47 Basic DDM Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-68 Axial Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . 17-52 Renormalized S-Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-47 Computational Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-66 Polarization of the Electric Field . . . . 17-52 Post Processed S-Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-36 Local Time Stepping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-65 Antenna Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-54 Calculating the Y-Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-68 Polarization Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-50 S-Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-68 Circular Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-49 Integral Equation Method Used in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-39 Analysis Setup in Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-56 Spherical Cross-Sections . . . . . . . . . . 17-53 De-embedded S-Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-69 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-102 Finite Conductivity Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-91 Five: Aligning Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-83 Bondwires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-95 Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-96 Units of Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-74 Radiation Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-80 Terminal Characteristic Impedance Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-97 Radiation Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-103 Symmetry and Port Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-90 Four: Removing Small Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-81 Geometric Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-95 Object Overlap Settings for Complicated Models . . 17-100 Tensor Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-95 Post Processing for Complicated Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-93 Handling Complicated Models . . . . . . . . 17-76 Modes to Terminals Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-75 Calculating Finite Thickness Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-84 Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-70 Peak Directivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-71 Peak Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-103 Perfect E Vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-98 PML Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . 17-72 Radiated Power . . . . . 17-99 Material Tensors Applied at PML Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-101 Boundaries at PML Surfaces . . . . . . . .Max U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-94 Geometry Imperfections and Complicated Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-77 Calculating the W-Elements . . . . . . . . . . . 17-73 Incident Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-86 Two: Healing after geometry import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-72 Accepted Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-86 One: Healing during geometry import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-74 Decay Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-79 Terminal-Based Models for Circuit Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-83 Healing and Meshing . . . . . . . . 17-71 Peak Realized Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-102 Symmetry Boundaries . . . 17-92 Six: Troubleshooting if meshing still fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perfect H Symmetry Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-104 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-96 Perfect E Boundaries . . . . 17-96 Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-87 Three: Removing Object Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-94 Interface Options for Complicated Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 17-108 Surface Roughness Calculation for Impedance Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-133 Deembedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-122 Formula Summary for HFSS Floquet Modes . . . . . . . . . . 17-129 Linear Antenna . . 17-111 Scattered and total field formulation pros and cons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-104 Master and Slave Boundaries . . . . . 17-106 Screening Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-104 Calculating the E-Field on the Slave Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-132 Non-uniform Applied Bias Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-126 Evanescent Plane Wave . . . . . . 17-130 Voltage Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-132 Uniform Applied Bias Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-140 Contents . . . . 17-108 Infinite Ground Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-131 Magnetic Bias Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-140 Relative Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-107 Layered Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-116 Mode Alignment . . . . . 17-128 Cylindrical Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-131 Current Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-112 Summary for Total and Scattered Fields . . . . . . . . 17-118 Differential Pairs . . . . . . . . . . 17-133 Materials Technical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-117 Lumped Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-109 Frequency-Dependent Boundaries and Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-106 Lumped RLC Boundaries . . . . 17-110 General Approach for Scattered and Total Field Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-114 Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-111 Where the Solvers Apply Scattered or Total Field Formulations . 17-128 Magnetic Spherical Wave (Magnetic Hertzian Dipole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-115 Wave Ports . . . . . . . . . . . 17-127 Electric Spherical Wave (Electric Hertzian Dipole) . . . . . . . . 17-115 Mode Polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-120 Computing Differential Pairs . . 17-107 Impedance Calculation for Layered Impedance Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Symmetry and Multiple Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-120 Floquet Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-129 Gaussian Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-122 Incident Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-118 Terminals . . . . . 17-116 Analytic Port Types . . . . . 17-109 Implicit Boundary Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-126 Plane Wave . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2 Integration with ANSYS 13. . . 17-145 Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-147 Anisotropic Materials and Ports . . . . . . . . . 19-12 Multiphysics Coupling on Workbench with ANSYS Thermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-142 Lande G Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-13 Multiphysics Coupling on Workbench with ANSYS Structural . 19-3 Workbench Data Integration Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-14 Multiphysics Coupling between Ansoft Field Systems on Workbench 19-15 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-148 Debye Materials . . . 17-149 18. . . 17-148 Frequency-Dependent Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-6 Adding New Ansoft Analysis Systems . . . . . .31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-143 Delta H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-10 Performing Parameter Studies in Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-142 Magnetic Loss Tangent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2 Running a Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-142 Ferrite Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSYS Workbench Integration Overview Integrating Ansoft Products with ANSYS Workbench13. . . . . . . . . . . 17-143 Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors . . Glossaries Contents . . . . . . . . . . 17-144 Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors . 19-9 Analyzing Ansoft Models in Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8 Editing Ansoft Models in Workbench . . . . . . Scripting Recording a Script . . .0 after Ansoft Product Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7 Importing Ansoft Projects into ANSYS Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1 Integration with ANSYS 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-141 Dielectric Loss Tangent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-146 Anisotropic Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-145 Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors . . . . . . . 17-143 Anisotropic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2 Stopping a Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1 Stopping Script Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-142 Magnetic Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2 Pausing and Resuming a Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 During Ansoft Product Installation . . . . .Relative Permittivity .ANSYS Multiphysics Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-12 Ansoft . . . . . . . . . . . 19-11 Scripting in Workbench . 17-141 Bulk Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32 .Contents .

HFSS allows you to specify whether to solve the problem at one specific frequency or at several frequencies within a range. radiated near and far fields. for open boundary problems. or resonances. and boundaries. As you set up the problem. HFSS then generates the necessary field solutions and associated port characteristics and S-parameters. specify material characteristics for each object. Note If you are using the Eigenmode Solution solver. Getting Started with HFSS 1-1 .1 Getting Started with HFSS HFSS is an interactive software package for calculating the electromagnetic behavior of a structure. of a structure. The software includes post-processing commands for analyzing this behavior in detail. and identify ports and special surface characteristics. materials. Generalized S-parameters and S-parameters renormalized to specific port impedances. The eigenmodes. you can compute: • • • • Basic electromagnetic field quantities and. Using HFSS. You are expected to draw the structure. HFSS calculates the resonances for the model based on the geometry. you do not need to specify sources for the problem. Characteristic port impedances and propagation constants.

HFSS 13 requires at least FLEXlm for Ansoft v10. HFSS displays a warning message if the license file expires within 15 days.5 license server. For the temp directory. or if the project directory or the temp directory does not exist. please contact Ansoft. Note Note Windows Supported Platforms • • • Windows XP Professional (32-bit and 64-bit) Windows Server 2003 (32-bit and 64-bit) Windows Vista Service Pack 1 (32-bit and 64-bit) 32-Bit System Requirements Minimum System Requirements Processor: All fully compatible 686 (or later) instruction set processors. On all systems when you run HFSS for the first time (that is.HFSS Online Help System Requirements HFSS supports the following operating systems: • • Windows Linux For details regarding which revisions of each of these operating systems are supported. consult the read me file shipped with this release of the software by clicking the link below: . with no project directory specified in the registry). 500 MHz Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software): 200 MB RAM: 512 MB Recommended Minimum Configuration Processor: All fully compatible 786 (or later) instruction set processors. All operating systems must have 32-bit OpenGL libraries installed regardless of whether the OS is 32-bit or 64-bit. HFSS displays a dialog that asks you to set the project and temp directories. Note If you attempt to run HFSS and get a message reporting a corrupted license file. 1 GHz Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software and temporary files): 500 MB RAM: 2 GB Increasing RAM on 32-Bit PC 1-2 Getting Started with HFSS . memory and disk requirements and known issues at the time of shipping. as well as. there is a comment asking you to ensure that adequate disk space is available.8.

nvidia. 2. available for download at http://www. Type bcdedit /set increaseuserva 3072 in the Command Prompt window and press Enter. Open a Command Prompt window. Intel Xeon with Intel EM64T support. Type bcdedit /deletevalue increaseuserva in the Command Prompt window and press To delete the increaseuserva setting. Ansoft will attempt to assist with any problems or questions you may have but cannot guarantee full compatibility with Windows Vista. which will revert the OS back to 2GB: 1. Getting Started with HFSS 1-3 . If you type bcdedit from a Windows command prompt. you can take advantage of potentially all the installed RAM up to a limit of 3GB on 32-bit machines.41 or greater video driver. 64-bit System Requirements Minimum System Requirements: Supported processors: AMD Athlon 64. you will see the current values for the Boot Manager and Boot Loader. Intel Pentium 4 with Intel EM64T support Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software): 200 MB RAM: 2 MB Recommended Minimum Configuration (for Optimal Performance) Supported processors: AMD Athlon 64. then you will not see this line in the boot loader output. Intel Pentium 4 with Intel EM64T support Video card: 128-bit SVGA or PCI Express video card Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software and temporary files): 700 MB RAM: 8 GB Increasing RAM on a 32-Bit Windows Vista PC Warning Windows Vista (32-bit and 64-bit) is supported in limited capacity for this release.ini switch (/3GB) to tell the OS that 3 GB is to be used for application space and only one GB for the OS kernel and related overhead.com. Intel Xeon with Intel EM64T support. To set increaseuserva to 3GB: 1. Doing so also requires setting up the appropriate OS boot. You must edit its value using the bcdedit utility. you should also download Version 40. On Windows Vista. Note If you are using the NVIDIA Quadro2 MXR/EX video card on Windows 2000 or Windows XP. AMD Opteron. 2. If you do not have increaseuserva set. Open a Command Prompt window. the /3gb switch has been replaced with an option called increaseuserva. AMD Opteron. If you are running the Windows Vista 32-bit Operating System.HFSS Online Help Users with the appropriate Windows OS can take advantage of potentially all the installed RAM up to a limit of 3 GB on 32-bit PCs.

HFSS Online Help Enter. right-click on it. Intel Pentium 4 with Intel EM64T support Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software): 200 MB RAM: 2 MB Recommended Minimum Configuration (for Optimal Performance): Supported processors: AMD Athlon 64. Intel Xeon with Intel EM64T support. Linux If you attempt to open an HFSS v9 project in Linux. Note You must edit this value as an administrator. 32-bit System Requirements Minimum System Requirements: Processor: All fully compatible 686 (or later) instruction set processors. find the Command Prompt in the Windows Start menu. To do this. AMD Opteron. This must be done using the -BatchSave command on a nonLinux system running HFSS v11. 1-4 Getting Started with HFSS . 2 GHz Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software and temporary files): 700 MB RAM: 4 GB 64-bit System Requirements Minimum System Requirements: Supported processors: AMD Athlon 64. 500 MHz Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software): 200 MB RAM: 512 MB Recommended Minimum Configuration (for Optimal Performance): Processor: All fully compatible 786 (or later) instruction set processors. 1. AMD Opteron. launch the MainWin control panel. Intel Xeon with Intel EM64T support. Supported Platforms • • Red Hat Enterprise Linux v4 and v5 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server v10 and v11. To do this. you must first configure a printer. See the discussion here. Intel Pentium 4 with Intel EM64T support Video card: 128-bit SVGA or PCI Express video card Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software and temporary files): 700 MB RAM: 8 GB Setting Up a Printer on Linux To print from Ansoft software on Linux. If you have User Access Control enabled. you receive an error message that the project must first be converted to HFSS v11. Run mwcontrol & in the installation subdirectory. then you must start the command prompt in elevated mode. and choose Run as Administrator.

5. 2. Click Next. If your printer is not listed. 9. 11. use the Back button to return to the appropriate dialog and correct the entry. 8. With a print queue setup. select it. Select the Let the wizard search for printers radio button and click Next. Then double-click on the Add New Printer icon. Click Next. 3. This starts the Add Printer Wizard. 13. you will need to cancel and get someone with root permission to setup a printer queue on your machine (and then you will need to come back and run this wizard later). The Printer Name dialog appears. 7. Getting Started with HFSS 1-5 . 10. you can run 'System Settings/Printing' to launch printconf-gui (as root). verify the printer setup information. Double-click on the Printers icon to start the MainWin Printers panel. The Choose PPD File dialog appears. Change the Print Command only if instructed to do so by your user administrator. click Finish to complete the setup of your printer. If the information is correct. Note 6. In the Identify your Unix Printer dialog do one of the following: • • If your printer is listed. Choose whether you would like to print a test page and click Next. Enter a Name to identify the printer.HFSS Online Help The MainWin Control Panel appears. 4. Choose whether this printer should be the default and click Next. In the Finish Adding New Printer dialog. Click Next. Click Next. and the printer added. On Red Hat Linux. Select your printer manufacturer and model from the list or use the Choose File button to browse to a PPD file provided by your printer manufacturer. you should then see the printer when running the software. 12. On Solaris you setup a new print queue by running "lpadmin" (as root). If the information is incorrect. The Print Command dialog appears.

Click for Introduction to HFSS: Fundamental Principles. .HFSS Online Help Welcome to HFSS Online Help Click for help on these topics. Click for help on HFSS Process Flow topics: Go to HFSS General Quick Links. HFSS User Interface Setting Up an HFSS or HFSS-IE Design Modeling Boundaries and Ports Analysis Results Example Projects 1-6 Getting Started with HFSS HFSS-IE Solution Types Materials Meshing Optimetrics Scripting Ansoft Website . HFSS General Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. Concepts and Use.

search the full help text. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. and then click on any menu command. create a custom list of favorite topics. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. With the Online Help Index tab selected.HFSS Online Help For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. With the Online Help Search tab selected. create a custom list of favorite topics. or window for help on that selection. search the full help text. navigate the help topic hierarchy. navigate the help topic hierarchy. search the help index. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. and then click on any menu command. Subtract objects. icon. Modeling Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. Measuring Objects Setting Modeler Drawing Options Selecting Items in the Modeler Window Drawing Objects Choosing the Cursor Movement Mode Getting Started with HFSS 1-7 . or window for help on that selection. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. With the Online Help Search tab selected. icon. Set the model’s units of measurement. HFSS User Interface Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. Assign transparency to an object. search the help index. The HFSS Desktop Setting Options in HFSS Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes HFSS-IE Showing and Hiding Windows Customize Toolbar Options Working with Short Cut Menus Running HFSS From a Command Line Moving and Resizing Desktop Windows Working with Variables For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. With the Online Help Index tab selected.

With the Online Help Search tab selected. or window for help on that selection. or window for help on that selection. Modifying the Model View Importing Files Modifying Objects Creating a User Defined Primitive For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. create a custom list of favorite topics. icon. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. search the full help text. With the Online Help Search tab selected. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. and then click on any menu command. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. Assigning Materials Searching for Materials Assigning Material Property Types Defining Frequency Dependent Material Properties Defining Functional Material Properties Assigning DC Thickness For detailed information on these and many other topics: Solve Inside or On a Surface Adding New Materials Defining Variable Material Properties Defining Material Properties as Expressions Viewing and Modifying Material Attributes • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog.HFSS Online Help Drawing Bondwires Keyboard shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window. With the Online Help Index tab selected. search the full help text. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. and then click on any menu command. navigate the help topic hierarchy. search the help index. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. 1-8 Getting Started with HFSS . create a custom list of favorite topics. Materials Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. search the help index. With the Online Help Index tab selected. navigate the help topic hierarchy. icon.

or window for help on that selection. With the Online Help Index tab selected. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. or window for help on that selection. icon. With the Online Help Search tab selected. navigate the help topic hierarchy. search the full help text. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. create a custom list of favorite topics. search the help index. icon. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. Getting Started with HFSS 1-9 . search the full help text. Defining Mesh Operations Plot the finite element mesh Detecting and Addressing Model Problems Handling Complicated Models to Improve Meshing Specify the initial mesh settings For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. search the help index.HFSS Online Help Ports Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. With the Online Help Search tab selected. Assigning Excitations Assigning Wave Ports for Modal Solutions Assigning Wave Ports for Terminal Solutions Floquet Port Incident Wave Current Source Defining an Integration Line Linking to External Sources Lumped Port Auto Assign Terminals Zoom to Selected Excitation Voltage Source Magnetic Bias Defining a Differential Pair For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. navigate the help topic hierarchy. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. Meshing Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. create a custom list of favorite topics. and then click on any menu command. With the Online Help Index tab selected. and then click on any menu command.

With the Online Help Search tab selected. icon. and then click on any menu command. search the full help text. Specifying the Analysis Options Configuring Distributed Analysis Selecting an Optimal Configuration for Distributed Analysis Specifying Output Variable Convergence Adding a Frequency Sweep Running Simulations Ansys Workbench Integration Overview For detailed information on these and many other topics: Remote Analysis Specifying Solution Settings Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters Setting the Order of Basis Functions Options for Interpolating Sweeps High Performance Computing Integration • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog.HFSS Online Help Analysis Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. With the Online Help Index tab selected. search the help index. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. 1-10 Getting Started with HFSS . Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. Optimetrics Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. and then click on any menu command. navigate the help topic hierarchy. icon. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. or window for help on that selection. create a custom list of favorite topics. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. Running an Optimetrics Analysis Parametric Overview Setting up an Optimization Analysis Tuning a Variable Setting a Range function Adding a cost function Getting Started Guide: Optimizing Waveguide T-Junction For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. navigate the help topic hierarchy. or window for help on that selection. Optimetrics Setting up a Parametric Analysis Setting up a Sensitivity Analysis Setting up a Statistical Analysis Setup Calculations for Optimetrics.

search the full help text. navigate the help topic hierarchy. Recording a Script Stopping Script Recording Stopping a Script Running a script Pausing and Resuming a Script Scripting Guide For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. or window for help on that selection. navigate the help topic hierarchy. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. and then click on any menu command. Getting Started with HFSS 1-11 . search the help index. icon. create a custom list of favorite topics. or window for help on that selection. View solution data Plot field overlay Create 2D or 3D reports of S-parameters Plot the finite element mesh Create animations Setting up a Near Field Sphere Export Tranfer File for ANSYS For detailed information on these and many other topics: Creating Reports Scale an excitation’s magnitude and modify its phase. With the Online Help Search tab selected. Scripting Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. Results Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. Working with Traces Using the Fields Calculator Radiated Fields Post Processing Setting up a Far Field Infinite Sphere • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog.HFSS Online Help • • • With the Online Help Index tab selected. icon. search the help index. search the help index. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. With the Online Help Index tab selected. With the Online Help Search tab selected. With the Online Help Index tab selected. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. and then click on any menu command. search the full help text. create a custom list of favorite topics.

The HFSS Antenna Design Kit is a stand-alone GUI-based utility which automates the geometry creation. Antennas in HFSS Click graphics for descriptions of the following HFSS and HFSS-IE antenna examples: Click for HFSS Application Modeling Guide: Antennas.HFSS Online Help • • With the Online Help Search tab selected. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. and post-processing reports for over 25 antenna elements. solution setup. This tool allows antenna designers to efficiently analyze common antenna types using HFSS and also assists new users in learning to use HFSS for antenna design. The design kit can be integrated into the HFSS user interface or launched from the standard Windows menu. Click for the download site for the HFSS Antenna Design kit. search the full help text. create a custom list of favorite topics. All antenna models created by the design kit are ready to simulate in HFSS. 1-12 Getting Started with HFSS .

HFSS Online Help Signal Integrity in HFSS Click graphics for descriptions of the following HFSS signal integrity examples: RF/Microwave in HFSS Click graphics for descriptions of the following HFSS RF/Microwave examples: Getting Started with HFSS 1-13 .

HFSS Online Help Integrated Circuits in HFSS Click the graphics for examples of modeling integrated circuits in HFSS: Also see: Application Specific Modeling Guide: Spiral Inductors on Silicon Substrate 1-14 Getting Started with HFSS .

and by resizing and moving windows. the Message Manager. Showing and Hiding Windows The View menu contains commands that let you show and hide the windows that comprise the desktop. the Project Manager. toolbars. Click a link below to view more information about that desktop component. Getting Started with HFSS 1-15 . and a status bar. and the Progress window.HFSS Online Help The HFSS Desktop The HFSS desktop consists of several windows. The shortcut menu in the toolbar area also lets you show and hide each desktop window. by choosing which windows to display. 3D Modeler window Menu bar Toolbars Project Manager Property window Message Manager Status bar Progress window Related Topics Getting Help Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes Keyboard shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window. You can show or hide the Status Bar. You can customize the appearance of the desktop customizing or moving the toolbars. the docked Properties window. a menu bar.

You can place a window next to another. the docked Properties window. for sizing the desktop. and the Progress window. • • 1-16 Getting Started with HFSS . click the triangle in the window title bar. 2. Over the inner-edges. To expand a window to fill the horizontal or vertical space it shares with another window.HFSS Online Help You can also close the windows by clicking the "x" in the window title bar. If you drag the window to the center of the 3D Modeler window. you can place it there as a floating window. As you drag the rectangle to different parts of the desktop. the Project Manager. the triYou can also resize the windows in two ways. the changes in dimension show when you have reached a location where you can place the window. the cursor changes to a double bar with arrows pointing each direction. bottom. left. When you expand a window. To move one of these windows: 1. 3. Click and hold on the title bar. If a window does not share a horizontal or vertical space with another. Press and drag to size the window. the triangle appears as inverted and any other windows in the same horizontal or vertical space are compressed to only the title bar. This can be at the top. To size a desktop window. as well as above or below another. Drag the cursor towards the region where you want to place the window. Over the outer-edges. place the cursor over an edge of the window. the Message Manager. A rectangle shape follows the cursor. and side of the modeler window. Related Topics HFSS Desktop Moving and Resizing Desktop Windows Moving and Resizing Desktop Windows You can customize the appearance of the desktop by moving and resizing the Status Bar. for sizing a window within the desktop. the cursor changes to a line with arrows pointing each direction. Release the mouse button to place the window.

HFSS Online Help angle does not appear. Related Topics Desktop Showing and Hiding Windows Working with the Menu Bar The menu bar enables you to perform all HFSS tasks. drawing objects. Use the Edit menu commands to modify the objects in the active model and undo and redo actions. Getting Started with HFSS 1-17 Project menu Draw menu . Use the Project menu commands to add an HFSS or HFSS-IE design to the active project.and two-dimensional objects. or three-dimensional objects. two-. press Shift+F1. define datasets. view. and sweep one. and modify the model view. customizing the desktop. Use the Draw menu commands to draw one-. and then click the command or toolbar icon. and define project variables. Use the View menu commands to display or hide desktop components and model objects. To open a help topic about an HFSS menu command. such as managing project files. modify 3D Modeler window visual settings. which appear at the top of the desktop: File menu Edit menu View menu Use the File menu commands to manage HFSS project files and printing options. and setting and modifying all project parameters. HFSS contains the following menus.

run and record scripts. assign materials to objects. and copy Ansoft 2D Modeler files and 3D Modeler files. Use the HFSS menu to setup and manage all the parameters for the active project. 1-18 Getting Started with HFSS . manage the 3D Modeler window’s grid settings. arrange the material libraries. define a list of objects or faces of objects. Use the Window menu commands to rearrange the 3D Modeler windows and toolbar icons. export. HFSS menu Tools menu Window menu Help menu Related Topics Getting Help Keyboard Shortcuts for General Purposes Keyboard shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window. Most of these project properties also appear in the project tree. and modify many of the software’s default settings. control surface settings. and set the units for the active design. update project definitions from libraries. Use the Help menu commands to access the online help system and view the current HFSS version information. perform boolean operations on objects.HFSS Online Help Modeler menu Use the Modeler menu commands to import. customize the desktop’s toolbars. Use the Tools menu to modify the active project’s material library.

Click Tools>Customize. click Reset All. On the Customize dialog box. Related Topics Working with Toolbars Customize Toolbar Commands Getting Started with HFSS 1-19 . with those currently selected being checked. The field lists the available toolbars. and then click the toolbar button or a command in the shortcut pull-down list. To the right of the field are three buttons: New. click a toolbar button or click a selection on the shortcut pull-down list. Use the OK button to close the dialog. -. 2. This displays the Customize dialog with the Toolbars tab selected. Reset -. Select Tools>Customize. or the Cancel button to close without making changes. To display a brief description of the toolbar button. Right-click the history tree. Hint To modify the toolbars on the desktop..HFSS Online Help Working with the Toolbars The toolbar buttons and shortcut pull-down lists act as shortcuts for executing various commands.launches the New Toolbar dialog that lets you specify a new toolbar name.this resets the toolbar display to match the original defaults. 3. To execute a command. Uncheck any buttons to remove toolbar icons. Check the buttons to add additional toolbars to the desktop. To reset to toolbars to the default positions and settings: Related Topics Customize Toolbar Options Customize Toolbar Commands Customize Toolbar Options To customize the Toolbar displays by using the toolbar list: 1. You can drag these to convenient locations. do one of the following: • • • Click Tools>Customize. move the pointer over the button or shortcut pull-down list. press Shift+F1. New toolbar icons are added to new rows as you click them. and then click Customize on the shortcut menu. Reset All -..This resets the toolbar display to apply your current selections. 4. To open a help topic about a toolbar button’s functionality.

You can specify the command line arguments to the program and the directory in which it will be run. Select Tools>Customize. or the Cancel button to close without making changes. 2. Command buttons let you Add new commands and Delete selected commands. The icons for the currently selected toolbar are shown to the right of the field. 4. Related Topics Customize Toolbar Options Working with Toolbars Customizing the Tools Menu: External Tools Customizing the Tools Menu: External Tools To add an executable to the Tools menu: 1. 2. Select from the Categories list to display the icons you want to add to the toolbar. The Categories field lists the available toolbars. Use the OK button to close the dialog. Drag the icons from the Customize dialog to a location on the desktop toolbar. and called Reflective on the Tools menu. 3.exe program added to the tools menu.HFSS Online Help Customize Toolbar Commands To customize the Toolbar by dragging icons: 1. If a User Tools menu item has been defined. This displays the Customize dialog with the Commands tab selected. This example shows the Reflective. its contents are displayed. and Move Up and Move Down commands. Click Tools>External Tools This displays the Customize User Tools Menu dialog. 1-20 Getting Started with HFSS .

Project Directory. or across the network.exe program added to the Tools menu as Run My Script.this displays [new tool] as text you will replace with the text you want to appear in the User Tools menu. File Extension. To add a custome Tools menu entry.this field accepts command arguments from the > button menu selections for File Path.] displays a dialog that lets you navigate folders in your desktop. use the cscript. click the Add button in the Customize User Tools Menu dialog. The command line argument to the csscript. Assuming you have a script to generate custom reports called report. 4. File Directory.exe program to execute your script.vbs. You can also add scripts to the Tools menu. This enables the following fields: Menu Text field -. Related Topics Scripting Getting Started with HFSS 1-21 . Initial Directory -. An ellipsis button [. Click OK to add the External Tools menu to HFSS or Cancel to close the dialog without changes. You can also name the directory in which it will be run.. The ellipsis button {. Command field -.. Arguments field -.] lets you navigate to the file location. File Name..HFSS Online Help 3.this will display the external executable.this field specifies the initial directory for the command to operate..vbs. This example shows the cscript.exe program is report. or Temp Directory.

etc. and mesh operations. rotate.). assign materials. excitations. assign and edit boundaries. and customize the toolbars. and in the Project Manager window. analyze. and. insert far. add. and customize the toolbars. Note All of the commands on the shortcut menus are also available on the menu bar. edit project definitions. If you select particular objects in the history tree. the shortcut menu lists the commands that you can apply to the selected object or objects.and near-field radiation setups. add optimetrics analyses. To access the shortcut menu in the toolbars area: 1-22 Getting Started with HFSS .HFSS Online Help Working with the Shortcut Menus A variety of shortcut menus — menus that appear when you right-click a selection — are available in the toolbars area of the desktop. create postprocessing reports. Shortcut menus in the Use the shortcut menus in the Project Manager window to manage Project Manager window HFSS project and design files and design properties. and manage solution setups. perform boolean operations. Shortcut menu in the toolbars area Shortcut menu in the 3D Modeler window Use the shortcut menu in the toolbars area of the desktop to show or hide windows or toolbars. Shortcut menus in the History Tree Use the shortcut menus in the History tree to expand or collapse groupings. or mesh operations to objects. in the 3D Modeler window. Shortcut Menu in the Toolbars Area Use the shortcut menu in the toolbars area of the desktop to show or hide windows or toolbars. Use the shortcut menu in the 3D Modeler window to select. magnify. change the view. run Ansoft’s Maxwell SPICE. and work with field overlays. boundaries. excitations. and move options (zoom.

and work with field overlays. change the view. boundaries. assign materials.). excitations. or mesh operations to objects. To access the shortcut menu in the 3D Modeler window: Getting Started with HFSS 1-23 . etc. rotate.HFSS Online Help • Right-click in the toolbars area at the top of the desktop. magnify. Shortcut Menu in the 3D Modeler Window Use the shortcut menu in the 3D Modeler window to select. perform boolean operations. then the Project Manager window is currently visible on the desktop. A check box will appear next to a command if the item is visible. For example. which enables you to modify the toolbar settings on the desktop. Click Customize to open the Customize dialog box. and move options (zoom. if a check box appears next to the Project Manager command.

HFSS Online Help • Right-click in the 3D Modeler window (grid area). you can assign boundaries to selected objects. name. or vectors. from the shortcut menu for the Boundaries icon. 1-24 Getting Started with HFSS . and use the PML Setup wizard to create a perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary. in the project tree has a shortcut menu. show or hide a boundary’s geometry. review information for all the boundary assignments for the active design. Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes The following keyboard shortcuts apply to HFSS in general • • • • • • • F1: Help F1 + Shift: Context help F4 + CTRL: Close program CTRL + C: Copy CTRL + N: New project CTRL + O: Open.. remove all boundary assignments. CTRL + P: Print. change the priority of a previously assigned boundary... Shortcut Menus in the Project Manager Window Each node. For example. or item..

use Tools>Keyboard Shortcuts. save and load assignment files. Getting Started with HFSS 1-25 .HFSS Online Help • • • • • • • CTRL + V: Paste CTRL + X: Cut CTRL + Y: Redo CTRL + Z: Undo CTRL + 0: Cascade windows CTRL + 1: Tile windows horizontally CTRL + 2: Tile windows vertically To customize the shortcut assignments. create new shortcuts. Related Topics Keyboard Shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window Custom Keyboard Shortcuts Custom Keyboard Shortcuts Click Tools>Keyboard Shortcuts to display a dialog that lets you view existing assignments.

UserLib. Select the Category and Command. including HFSS and HFSS-IE. 4. it is displayed on the Shortcuts for the selected command field. 6.. For example.HFSS Online Help Selecting a Command category lists the available commands for that category. 1-26 Getting Started with HFSS . The field displays the keystrokes you make. You can use the Remove button to disable the shortcut for the selected command.. 2. 3. button to display a browser window to locate the desired file.. To create a new shortcut key: 1. When you have made the assignments you want to make. If you want disable a current assignment for the selected command. When you have made keystrokes. Ctrl + p or Alt +o. place the cursor in the Press new shortcut key field. If a limited context exists. using an aks suffix for Ansoft Keyboard Shortcut file. you can use the Load. or Project folder. The Use new shortcut in field displays Global by default. Buttons on the browser window let you designate the file location as Use Path. Clicking the Save. Syslib. the Shortcuts for selected command field and the Remove button are greyed out. the dialog enables the Assign button. Personallib. the menu will offer a selection. If the selected command does not have an assigned shortcut. button displays a browser window that lets you navigate the file structure and assign a name. You can save the assignments to a named file. Related Topics Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes Keyboard Shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window 5. You can OK the current settings. To assign a keyboard shortcut.. or Reset to Default. which means that the shortcut will apply to all applicable contexts. If you combine keystrokes these are displayed with a “+” between them. If you have an existing aks file. If the command has an assigned shortcut. click Remove.

A pull-down list to enter a point’s absolute. which is referred to as the project tree. Each project ultimately includes a geometric model. A check box appears next to this command if the status bar is visible. or spherical coodinates. relative. cylindrical. Working with the Project Manager The Project Manager window displays the open project’s structure. If simulations are running. a message informs you that if you continue. The Project Manager window displays details about all open HFSS projects. Depending on the command being performed. and field solution and post-processing information. and Z coordinate boxes. It displays information about the command currently being performed. -27 . To display or hide the status bar: • Click View> Status Bar. cartesian. HFSS does a clean abort before going on with the Exit. The model’s units of measurement. If you say OK.Working with the Status Bar The status bar is located at the bottom of the application window. its boundary conditions and material assignments. the status bar can display the following: • • • X. Y. the simulations will be aborted. Exiting the Desktop To exit the desktop. use File>Exit.

A check box appears next to this command if the Project Manager window is visible. Under the Project Options tab. do one of the following: • • Click View> Project Manager. A check box appears next to this command if the Project Manager window is visible. where n is the order in which the project was added to the current session of HFSS. Related Topics Viewing HFSS Design Details Setting the Project Tree to Expand Automatically You can set the project tree to automatically expand when an item is added to a project. select Expand Project Tree on Insert. -28 . Related Topics Working with the Project Tree Shortcut Menus in the Project Manager Window Working with the Project Tree The project tree is located in the Project Manager window and contains details about all open HFSS projects.To show or hide the Project Manager window. The Options dialog box appears. 1. Expand the project icon to view all the project’s HFSS design information and material definitions. 2. Right-click in the toolbars area on the desktop. as shown below: The top node listed in the project tree is the project name. and then click Project Manager on the shortcut menu. It is named Projectn by default. Click Tools > Options>General Options.

and near-field setups added to an HFSS design. Displays any Optimetrics setups added to an HFSS design. Radiation Note Displays far. Expand the design icon in the project tree to view all of the specific data about the model. currents.Viewing HFSS Design Details Once you insert an HFSS design into a project. including its boundary conditions and material assignments. Displays the mesh operations specified for objects or object faces. These folders store the project’s plots and can be customized. Plot folders are listed under Field Overlays. It is named HFSSModeln by default. double-click the design setup icon that you want to edit. See Setting Field Plot Defaults for information on how to customize the plot folders. A dialog box appears with that setup’s parameters. which you can then edit. which are used to specify the sources of electromagnetic fields and charges. The HFSSModeln node contains the following project details: Boundaries Displays the boundary conditions assigned to an HFSS design. Mesh operations are optional mesh refinement settings that are specified before a mesh is generated. Excitations Mesh Operations Analysis Optimetrics Results Port Field Display Field Overlays To edit a project’s design details: • In the project tree. where n is the order in which the design was added to the project. A solution setup specifies how HFSS will compute the solution. Displays any post-processing reports generated. The Design list is a dialog that with tabs to let you view the following -29 . Displays the excitations assigned to an HFSS design. Displays the solution setups for an HFSS design. it is listed as the second node in the project tree. or voltages on objects or surfaces in the design. Viewing the Design List You can use the HFSS>Design List command or the Design List icon to view a dialog with tables of the design properties. which specify the field behavior at the edges of the problem region and object interfaces. and field solution and post-processing information. Displays all port fields in the active model. which are representations of basic or derived field quantities on surfaces or objects. Displays field overlay plots.

or the 3D Modeler window. A solution setup specifies how HFSS will compute the solution. it displays the properties of any item you select in the Project tree. depending on the selection. Displays the mesh operations specified for objects or object faces. Related Topics Adding New Materials Working with the Properties Window The Properties window displays the attributes. The Properties window enables you to edit an item’s properties. the history tree. you can still open an undocked Properties window for any item in the project tree. depending on the type of item selected. You select View>Properties Window to remove the docked properties window. -30 .Model Boundaries Displays the objects that comprise the model and their properties. which specify the field behavior at the edges of the problem region and object interfaces. By can choose to show or hide a docked Properties window as part of the desktop. or properties. the history Tree. Excitations Mesh Operations Analysis Setup Viewing Material Definitions The definitions node is listed at the bottom of the project tree and displays all of the material definitions that are assigned to the objects in the active model. will vary. currents. or the 3D Modeler window by double-clicking. which are used to specify the sources of electromagnetic fields and charges. or voltages on objects or surfaces in the design. the History Tree. The properties. You can move move and resize the docked Properties window within the desktop to suit your workstyle. of an item selected in the project tree. Displays the solution setups for an HFSS design. Mesh operations are optional mesh refinement settings that are specified before a mesh is generated. The tabs available in the Properties window will also vary. Displays the excitations assigned to an HFSS design. and the ability to edit them in the Properties window. or the 3D Modeler window. Displays the boundary conditions assigned to an HFSS design. When you have a docked Properties window. Regardless of the whether you display a docked Properties window.

3. When you are finishing making changes. you can also view an object's properties if you have the Properties window displayed within the desktop. The Properties window for that object appears. Select the object whose properties you want to view. Rather than opening a separate window.Related Topics Opening the Properties Window Showing and Hiding the Properties Window Setting the Properties Window to Open Automatically Modifying Object Attributes using the Properties Window Modifying Object Command Properties Using the Properties Window Opening the Properties Window 1. click OK. Click Edit>Properties. 2. Related Topics Showing and Hiding the Properties Window Setting the Properties Window to Open Automatically Modifying Object Attributes using the Properties Window Modifying Object Command Properties Using the Properties Window -31 .

and then click Properties on the shortcut menu. Select the object for which you want to edit its attributes by clicking it in the view window or clicking its name in the history tree. However. clear the check box to disable the attribute. Click the attribute. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. and then select a new setting from the menu that appears. A check box appears next to this command if the Properties window is visible. Click the Drawing tab. Related Topics Setting the Properties Window to Open Automatically Setting the Properties Window to Open Automatically To set the Properties window to open after an object is drawn. The Modeler Options window appears.Showing and Hiding the Properties Window To show or hide the Properties window on the desktop. Hereafter. if you draw an object in Dialog mode. Click Tools >Options>Modeler Options. Under the Attribute tab in the Properties window. Depending on the attribute type. 2. the Properties window will open. A check box appears next to this command if the Properties window is visible. 2. 3. after you draw an object in point mode. Select Edit property of new primitives. this setting is ignored. Related Topics Showing and Hiding the Properties Window Modifying Object Attributes Using the Properties Window 1. edit the object attribute. you can edit it by doing one of the following: • • • • Select the check box to apply the attribute. do one of the following: • • Click View> Property Window. Click the button and then edit the current settings in the window or dialog box that appears. Click in the field and edit the numeric values or text. do the following: 1. Related Topics Modifying Objects Modifying Object Command Properties Using the Properties Window -32 . Right-click in the toolbars area at the top of the desktop. and then press ENTER.

properties will be displayed under the Command tab. You can also modify many of the unit settings for a command property. clear the check box to disable the property. In general. Related Topics Modifying Objects Modifying Object Attributes using the Properties Window Working with the Progress Window The Progress window monitors a simulation while it is running.). If you select multiple commands. normal position. the Progress window is displaying the progress of a discrete frequency sweep. -33 .). edit the command’s properties. In the history tree. radius. Click in the field and edit the numeric values or text.Modifying Object Command Properties Using the Properties Window The Command tab in the Properties window displays information about an action selected in the history tree that was performed either to create an object. only the common. etc. such as position values (base position. which is nearing completion: To display or hide the Progress window. etc. Under the Command tab in the Properties window. Press and hold CTRL to select multiple commands. or shared. do one of the following: • Click View> Progress Window. In the image below. start position. and then press ENTER. and then select a new setting from the menu that appears. such as the Edit>Duplicate>Mirror command. the command properties that you can typically modify are the numeric values. Click the attribute. Depending on the property type. select the command for which you want to edit its properties. you can edit it by doing one of the following: • • • • Select the check box to apply the property. 1. and various other coordinate values. Hint 2. or to modify an object. such as the Draw>Box) command. Not all command properties can be modified. size values (height. Click the button and then edit the current settings in the window or dialog box that appears.

Related Topics Stopping or Aborting Simulation Progress Viewing Distributed Analysis Subtasks Stopping or Aborting Simulation Progress To abort progress. and select Hide Subtask Progress Bars. This selects the intere- -34 . To hide the child progress bars: Working with the Message Manager The Message Manager displays messages associated with a project’s development. If you right click in the Message Manager window. only the main progress bar is displayed. right-click in the Progress window. This can be helpful for sending the messages to application engineers. To stop the simulation cleanly between time steps. Related Topics Aborting an Analysis Viewing Distributed Analysis Subtasks While a distributed analysis is running. A check box appears next to this command if the Progress window is visible. right-click in the Progress window. and select Abort. A check box appears next to this command if the Message Manager is visible. Right-click the progress window. while the child progress bars (or subtasks) remain hidden. By default. you can right-click on an intersection error message in the Message window. you see a popup menu that lets you: • • • • Clear the messages for the current model. and then click Progress on the shortcut menu. you can access parent and child progress bars. Copy the messages to the clipboard. and select Go to reference from the shortcut menu. such as error messages about the design’s setup or informational messages about the progress of an analysis. To display or hide the Message Manager: • Click View> Message Manager. Error messages contains timestamps with a precision of seconds.A check box appears next to this command if the Progress window is visible. To show the child progress bars: • • Right-click the progress window. and select Show Subtask Progress Bars. Details. You can toggle between showing and hiding the child progress bars. • Right-click the history tree. After you run a validation check. This brings up a information dialog with the project and design for specific message. and select Clean Stop.

Click Tools>Options>General Options. Click the Project Options tab. Under Additional Options. 2. Under Additional Options. Click OK. Related Topics Showing new messages Showing errors and warnings Setting the Message Manager to Open Automatically Setting the Message Manager to Open Automatically You can set the Message Manager to open automatically to show new messages and errors and warnings. 4. The General Options dialog box appears. The General Options dialog box appears. Related Topics Showing new messages Showing errors and warnings Showing new messages You can set the Message Manager to automatically be brought up when a new message appears. select Expand Message Window Tree on errors and warn-35 . 1.secting objects. select Show Message Window on new messages. 3. 2. 1. 3. Showing errors and warnings You can set the Message Manager to automatically expand when an item is added to a project. Click Tools>Options>General Options. Click the Project Options tab.

and the history tree. and then manipulate them to create 3D objects. Related Topics Modifying the Model View Keyboard shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window. The 3D Modeler window consists of the model view area. do one of the following: • • Insert a new HFSS design into the current project. Double-click an HFSS design in the project tree. For more information. For more information. You can modify the view of objects in the 3D Modeler window without changing their actual dimensions or positions. The model you draw is saved with the current project when you click File>Save. You can create 3D objects by using HFSS’s Draw menu commands or you can draw 1D and 2D objects. Objects are drawn in the 3D Modeler window. see Modifying the Model View. or grid.ings. Working with the 3D Modeler Window The 3D Modeler window is the area where you create the model geometry. Click OK. It appears to the right of the Project Manager window after you insert an HFSS design to a project. as shown below: History tree Model view area (grid) To open a new 3D Modeler window. see Drawing a Model. -36 .

Displays all point objects included in the active model.Working with the History Tree The history tree in the 3D Modeler window lists all the active model’s structure and grid details. See Drawing a Straight Line for information on how to draw a line object. By default. Displays all the sheets in the model 3D design area. you can change this by selecting the Objects icon in the history tree and right-click to display the shortcut menu with the Group Objects By Material checkbox. Displays all line objects included in the active model. You can perform the following tasks with the history tree. By default HFSS groups objects by material. HFSS groups sheet objects by boundary assignment. See Drawing a Point for information on how to draw a point object. • • • • • • • • • Expand or Collapse Groupings in the History Tree Group Items by Material in the History Tree Select Objects in the History Tree Use Shortcut Menus in the History Tree View Properties for History Tree Objects View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects Control the View of Objects in the History Tree Select All Objects in a History Tree Group Upgrade Version Lists all invalid objects Displays all the model’s objects and a history of the commands carried out on each object. You can change this by selecting the Sheet icon in the history tree and right-click to display the shortcut menu with the Group Sheets by Assignment checkbox. -37 The history tree contains the following model details: Invalid Objects Sheets Lines Points .

Creating a face list is a convenient way to identify a specific set of surfaces for a field plot or calculation. and xz planes.Coordinate Systems Displays all the coordinate systems for the active model. HFSS places such objects in an Unclassified folder in the history tree. In addition. Related Topics Grouping Items by Material in the History Tree Selecting Objects in the History Tree History tree Grouping by Material In addition. Planes Lists Displays the planes for all the coordinate systems. See Setting Coordinate Systems for more information on this model detail. Related Topics Purge History Generate History Selecting Several Objects Creating an Object List Expand or Collapse Groupings in the History Tree You can expand or collapse object groupings in the history tree by left clicking the + or . or wire some imported objects may have mixture of these. See Creating an Object List Note While objects created in HFSS can always be classed in the history tree as either a solid. 2D and 3D objects are listed separately in the history tree. a list called "AllObjects" appears. sheet.respectively. By default. yz. default planes are created on its xy. Creating an object list is a convenient way to identify a group of objects for a field plot or calculation. right-clicking on Objects lets you specify whether or not the Objects are sorted by material (the default is to sort by material. Displays the object or face lists for the active model. right-clicking on any group icon opens a pull-down to expand all groupings or collapse all groupings. Related Topics Select Objects in the History Tree -38 .) When the objects are sorted by material. When you create a coordinate system.

That is. nonmodel objects. You can use CTLR-click to make multiple selections. This lets you select at one time all solids. if the hierarchy is closed under the selection. and then SHIFT-Click to select all in the range. -39 . or all unclassified objects. You can also right click on any History tree object or grouping and right click to display a shortcut menu with a Select All command. This can be useful for complex objects. sheets. lines.Select Objects in the History Tree Selecting objects in the History tree also selects them in the View window. if the object of interest is inside or behind others. object. The shortcut menus for model objects are most extensive. You can also use click and drag the mouse to make rubber band selections. any operand parts are ignored and do not interfere with cut and paste operations. You can select a range of objects by a click on the first. when it may be easier to find the objects of interest by name or material. Only visible objects are selected. Related Topics Group Items by Material in the History Tree Shortcut Menus in the History Tree If you select particular objects in the history tree. right-click displays a shortcut menu lists the commands that you can apply to the selected command. or objects.

Click the item’s name in the history tree.In other cases. Related Topics View Properties for History Tree Objects View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects View Item Properties in the History Tree To view the properties of an item in the history tree: • • • Click the item’s name in the history tree. Double-click on an item in the history tree to display a Properties window. you can only view properties. The item’s properties appears in the docked Properties window. and double right click to display a shortcut menu. or expand or collapse hierarchy. Related Topics Purge History Generate History Selecting Several Objects Selecting All from a History Tree Grouping -40 . Then select Properties to display the Properties window.

You can look at the fields in the Properties dialog to see any editable fields for that command.View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects The history tree also lists the history of all commands carried out a model’s objects. Related Topics Select Objects in the History Tree Purge History command Generate History command Modifying Objects -41 . such as coordinate system. In these cases. As an alternative to deletion. you can delete those commands from the history tree as a way of undoing those operations. “CreateBox” or “Subtract. This undoes the effect of a command on an object without removing it from the History tree. coordinates. such as Edit>Arrange>Move. you can check Suppress command in the Properties window for that command. line type. For some commands. Here is a history tree from the waveguide combiner example. Selecting a command in the history highlights the object in the Modeler window and shows that object’s properties (if available) in the docked Properties dialog. selecting them in the history tree enables the X (delete) icon on the toolbar and the Edit>Delete menu. or boolean operations. for example.” This history is displayed in the order in which it occurred. or units.

Controlling the View of Objects in the History Tree To control the view and visibility of an object such as a box or PML. the following keyboard shortcuts apply to the 3D Modeler Window • • • B: Select face/object behind current selection F: Select faces mode O: Select objects mode -42 . The Modeler by default opens the legacy project in previous (what ever that the project was saved with) ACIS version so that you don't see side effects of slight topology changes between ACIS versions. If you want you can use Upgrade Version to move the operation to use latest ACIS code. Typically this applies when a needed fix is available with new ACIS version. Related Topics Working with the History Tree Keyboard Shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window By default. The short cut menu contains the following commands: • • • • • • Fit in Active View Hide in Active View Show in Active View Fit in All Views Hide in All Views Show in All Views Related Topics Purge History Generate History Selecting Several Objects Upgrade Version in History Tree Shortcut Menu By right-clicking on an operation icon in the history tree in the Modeler window. you can see the Upgrade Version command. right click on an object in the history tree display the short-cut menu and select View.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • E: Select edges mode V: Select vertices mode M: Multi select mode CTRL + A: Select all visible objects CTRL + SHIFT + A: Deselect all objects CTRL + D: Fit view CTRL + E: Zoom in. Related Topics Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes Custom Keyboard Shortcuts -43 . screen center SHIFT + LMB: Zoom in / out Alt + LMB: Rotate model Alt + SHIFT + LMB: Zoom in / out Alt + 2xLMB: Sets model projection to standard isometric projections (cursor must be in corner of model screen N/NE/E/SE/S etc) F6: Render model wire frame F7: Render model smooth shaded Note LMB means Left Mouse Button To customize the shortcut assignments. use Tools>Keyboard Shortcuts. screen center CTRL + F: Zoom out.

When you have selected the appropriate resource. This displays the Enter Passwords dialog. Any existing resources in the selected directory will appear. Enter Password and confirm for Full Access or for Execute Only Access. This displays the Password Manager dialog Click the New button. To access the Password Manager. 3. To Encrypt a Resource 1. 3. This displays the Password Manager dialog. specified passwords correctly. This displays the Password Manager with the resource listed. -44 . click Tools>Password Manager. the same password can apply to multiple resources. For convenience. and encryption of those resources. Click Tools>Password Manager. This does not require you to enter a password. chose Ansoft Library files. For HFSS. This displays a File browser window Select the appropriate Files of Type filter.lib) and Ansoft Library files. Specify the name of the resource that you want to protect and click OK. 2. click OK. The choices are Circuit files (*. Select an existing resource to highlight it and enable the Encrypt button. 4. 2. To Specify a New Password Protected Resource 1. This encrypts the resource.Using the Password Manager to Control Access to Using the Password Manager to Control Access to Resources HFSS lets you specify library resources that require password access. and. but it is still encrypts the library. This dialog has radio buttons to let you: • • 4. if necessary. This opens the New Encrypted Resource dialog. click OK. Use Ansoft Password (for execute only). Once you have selected a radio button.

and the -ng option (no graphics). and the -WaitForLicense option. -MachineList list=“<machine1>. Additional parameters for batch solves include the following. The conversion from version 9 to version 10 must be done under Windows. The settings persist only for the current session.batch solve all Optimetrics setups for design with the name given under the project. if there are indeed spaces. The quotes must enclose the entire argument including the Nominal or Optimetrics part. the -Logfile option. If parallel solve is possible. the -Logfile option. one or none must be used as arguments after hfss. You can run this command with the -Iconic option. The same is true of the design name. [designName] . -Local | -Remote | -Distributed Perform the -Batchsolve on a local machine. solve all adaptive setups. RunScriptandExit). or Solaris before those projects can run on a Linux system.The setupname is case insensitive.batch solve all nominal setups for design with the name given under the project. [designName]:Optimetrics . All command-line arguments are case-insensitive.. .ng option (no graphics). the . -BatchSolve By default. This is primarily intended for converting version 9 projects to version 10 when you intend to subsequently run them on a Linux platform. [designName]:Nominal:[setupname] . Links to the valid options for each run command are listed and/or linked to descriptions. sweeps.batch solve the specified Optimetrics setup for design with the name given under the project. and the full path to the project. or as a distributed solve using a specified machine list (see below). Command-line syntax hfss <options> <run command> <project name/script name> Run Commands The following command line run commands are available in HFSS.batch solve all setups for design with the name given under the project. [designName]:Nominal . RunScript.Running HFSS from a command line Running HFSS from a command line HFSS includes line arguments that can be included when launching from a command line or terminal prompt.” | file="<machine list file path> " -45 . -BatchSave <project file name> Saves a named project to the current version. a remote machine. you can use the -Distribute option in conjunction with -BatchSolve.. <machine2>. as well as Optimetrics setups found in the project file. BatchSolve. This ensures that spaces in the path or project will not be an issue. You can run this command with the -Iconic option. HP.batch solve the specified nominal setup for design with the name given under the project. The setupname is case insensitive. [designName]:Optimetrics:[setupname] . It is good practice to put quotes around the path to the HFSS executable. Of the commands (BatchSave.

you do not specify the machine names after the the flag because the names are provided by the scheduler. it is ignored if neither -BatchSolve nor -BatchSave command line options are specified. In this case. Notes: • • Multiple registry settings may appear in a single -batchoptions value.exe -batchsolve -batchoptions _ "'HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessors'=4 _ 'Desktop/ProjectDirectory'='C:\\projects\\test'"_ projectname. You can override such registry entries via the -batchoptions command line. but this feature is available for all desktop products. When you use a file to define the machines available for a distributed solve you should list the machine addresses or names on separate lines: 192. The registry setting overrides may be specified on the command line. This feature is available for all desktop products. separated by whitespace The -batchoptions value must be enclosed in double quotes if it contains any whitespace -46 . -machinelist num=4 -batchoptions “'<option1>' '<option2>'.” All options that are specified through Tools>Options dialogs go to the user-level registry.168..2 (etc) -MachineList num = <numb distributed engines> In a scheduler environment. • • • • The registry path separator is the slash "/" Registry key pathnames are enclosed in single quotes Registry string values are enclosed in single quotes Backslashes in registry key values must be escaped with another backslash Example with registry settings specified on the command line hfss. in the Windows HPC environment.1.168. For example. The settings persist only for the current session. These overrides apply only to the current Desktop session. or may be in a file with the file pathname specified on the command line.Running HFSS from a command line -MachineList file=“<machine list file path>” You can use either form of the MachineList option to indicate the machine(s) on which to run a distributed batchsolve.1.. you can write the number of distributed engines as follows. The following examples use hfss. you can specify the number of distributed engines that should be used for distributed processing. The -batchoptions command line option is only valid for batch jobs.hfss This command line overrides the values of the HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessors and Desktop/ProjectDirectory registry settings.1 192.

the registry paths specified on the command line or in the batchoptions file are relative paths. The paths are relative to the current version of the current product.0/HFSS/Preferences/ NumberOfProcessors HKCU/Software/Ansoft/HFSS/12.hfss where file filename contains: $begin 'Config' 'HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessors'=4 'Desktop/ProjectDirectory'='C:/projects/test' $end 'Config' This command line overrides the values of the HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessors and Desktop/ProjectDirectory registry settings. For example. menu item.exe -batchsolve -batchoptions filename projectname.0Desktop/ProjectDirectory When to Use the -batchoptions Desktop Command Line Option Many analysis parameter settings may be done using the GUI. If the examples above are used with HFSS version 12. The -batchoptions Desktop command line option allows you to override the parameter values set in the -47 . then the following table shows the relative and absolute paths of the registry overrides in the above examples. When running a batch analysis.. These overrides apply only to the current hfss session. Relative Path HFSS/Preferences/ NumberOfProcessors Desktop/ProjectDirectory Absolute Path for HFSS 12. Note • • The -batchoptions filename value must be enclosed in double quotes if it contains whitespace The $begin 'Config' and $end 'Config' lines are required • • The -batchoptions filename value must be enclosed in double quotes if it contains whitespace The $begin 'Config' and $end 'Config' lines are required -batchoptions Uses Relative Registry Paths When using the -batchoptions command line option. a number of HFSS options may be set using the HFSS Options dialog box. These parameter settings include the following solver options (not a complete list): • • • • NumberOfProcessors NumberOfProcessorsDistributed MemLimitSoft: (Desired RAM Limit) MemLimitHard: (Maximum RAM Limit) These values of these parameters are saved in the registry when HFSS is not running. these parameters will take the values from the registry..0 HKCU/Software/Ansoft/HFSS/12.Running HFSS from a command line Example with registry settings specified in a file hfss.0. which is brought up by the Tools>Options>HFSS Options.

You can use the -ScriptArgs option to add one or more arguments to this command and can use the -Iconic option.168.1. For example. The values specified using the -batchoptions command line option only apply to the batch job. during non-graphical analysis.0/hfss. Error and fatal messages are logged to the standard error stream.adsn" C:\HFSS\hfss. Progress. Examples: C:\HFSS\hfss.1. hfss -ng -BatchSolve -Distributed -machinelist num=2 _ -batchoptions _ "'HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessorsDistributed'=2 _ 'HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessors'=2 'HFSS/Preferences/UseHPCForMP'=1 'HFSS/Preferences/HPCLicenseType'=pool" OptimTee. Schedulers intercept these streams and provide commands for display of this output . then the number of processors for distributed processing or for non-distributed processing could be affected by an interactive HFSS job running on the same host as the same user.2" _ -batchsolve design_transient:Optimetrics "C:\distrib_project.192.exe" _ -Iconic -Queue _ -LogFile "H:\HFSS\_HFSSQueue\fence-v2__Array with Fence4.1.168.exe -distributed _ -machinelist list="192.hfss" "c:/Program Files/Ansoft/HFSS13. -RunScriptAndExit <script file name> -48 .see individual scheduler documentation for specifics.log" _ -BatchSolve "Array with Fence4:Nominal" "H:\HFSS\fence-v2.Running HFSS from a command line registry with values specified on the command line or in a file. If the -batchoptions value is not specified.hfss -Monitor You can monitor progress and messages on standard output.hfss" -RunScript <script file name> Run the specified script. and do not affect the parameter values in the registry. warning and info messages are logged to the standard output stream.exe -batchsolve HFSSDesign1:Nominal _ "C:\Project1. you could specify the following command to ensure that this analysis uses 2 processors for distributed processing and 2 processors for non-distributed processing.

Example: C:\HFSS\hfss. You can also use the -Iconic option. with the name <project_name>.Running HFSS from a command line Run the specified script and exit. the -Logfile option. <project file> Open the specified project on start up. -WaitForLicense Wait for unavailable licenses (use along with -BatchSolve or -RunScriptAndExit). you can still specify the -Help and -Iconic option. -LogFile <log file name> Specify a log file (use in conjunction with -BatchSave or -BatchSolve or -RunScriptAndExit run commands). -49 . -Distribute Distribute a batch solve to multiple machines. and the -WaitForLicense option. This option must be combined with the BatchSolve run command and must be specified before it in the command line.log.hfss" -Help Open a window that displays the different command-line options. Options The following options can be associated with one or more of the run commands. -ng Run HFSS in non-graphical mode (use along with -BatchSave or -BatchSolve run commands). If -BatchSolve is also set. -ScriptArgs <scriptArguments> Add arguments to the specified script in conjunction with -RunScript and -RunScriptAndExit. the project will be solved.exe -distribute -batchsolve _ HFSSDesign1:Optimetrics:ParametricSetup1 "C:\Project1. -Iconic Run HFSS with the window iconified (minimized). See Distributed Analysis for more information on distributed analysis. Note The <project file> must be the last command line entry. it will be written to the directory in which the script or HFSS project is located. This can be used with all or none of the run commands. If no log file is specified. <none> If you do not specify a run command with hfss on the command line. This is only used when none of the four run commands are used. You can use the -ScriptArgs option to add one or more arguments to this command.

Windows® HPC Task Properties Command Line Enhancements for Ansoft Desktop Products -50 .vbs Here.Running HFSS from a command line ScriptArgs looks at the single argument after it and uses those as script arguments. and Setup1 will not be understood by HFSS. HFSSDesign1 is taken as the first argument.exe -runscriptandexit "c:\project1. HFSSDesign1 is taken into HFSS as the first argument. Without the quotes. and Setup1 is the second argument.vbs _ -scriptsargs "arg1 arg2 arg3" Related Topics Running a Script. You can pass multiple arguments to scriptargs by surrounding the script arguments in double quotes. hfss -scriptargs HFSSDesign1 Setup1 -RunScriptAndExit c:\temp\test.vbs Example: c:\hfss\hfss. For instance: hfss -scriptargs "HFSSDesign1 Setup1" -RunScriptAndExit c:\temp\test.exe -RunScriptAndExit C:\scripts\test.vbs" -scriptargs "Setup1" Example: C:\hfss\hfss.

Related Topics Remote Solve Modifying the Model View -51 . Remote OpenGL performance will be slower in general. Graphics card and driver quality helps. This is to avoid display/opengl instability during the switch. there are some performance and behavior issues to consider. Grid will not be turned off while viewing a plot from a remote desktop. All 3D windows will be closed when you switch from remote PC to a console or from a console to remote. The mouse over highlights on 2D plots may appear as not totally overlapping the line color or as thin dotted lines. These issues are due to the interaction of bandwidth/opengldrivers/remote-terminal-protocol • • • • Showing axes when interactively drawing objects will slow the performance.Running from a Windows Remote Terminal Running from a Windows Remote Terminal When running HFSS or HFSS-IE from a remote terminal.

You must pass in a -distributed flag as part of the Ansoft command line arguments if you want to run a distributed simulation. Related Topics High Performance Computing (HPC) Integration -52 . Ansoft products must be accessible from the same directory on all machines. You can then click Tools>Windows HPS> Submit HPC Job to submit the batch commands for the job. The Ansoft command line syntax is documented here. The supported HPC software is described in the Ansoft Installation Guide. Before running a job you must you Tools>Windows HPC>Select Head Node to designate the head node of a cluster.Windows HPC Commands Windows HPC Commands Ansoft’s HPC Integration allows you to submit jobs directly using Ansoft’s command line arguments for batchsolves.

This guide will lead you step-by-step through creating. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using HFSS version 12 for the first time. A brief Application Specific Modeling Guide: Antennas. Getting Started Guide: A Waveguide Tee Junction Open the PDF: .Getting Started Guides Getting Started Guides The HFSS installation includes getting started guides that describe the following designs. solving. Guides for HFSS Transient are here. A list of example projects included with the HFSS installation is located here. An Application Specific Guide: Spiral Inductors on Silicon Substrate: Guides for HFSS-IE are here. and analyzing the results of a T-shaped waveguide with an inductive septum. This type of -53 .

you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS using Optimetrics: • • • • • • • • • • • Create a basic parametric setup. Validate a design’s setup. Update an existing field overlay plot with new results.Getting Started Guides structure is used to split an incoming microwave signal into two outgoing signals. Getting Started Guide: Optimizing A Waveguide Tee Junction Open the PDF: . Solve an optimization analysis. you will set up and solve a parametric analysis. This Getting Started guide is written for Optimetrics beginners as well as experienced users who are using Optimetrics version 3 for the first time. view a plot of cost values versus solved iterations. By following the steps in this guide. Assign variables to a model’s design parameters. Create a phase animation of results. The waveguide’s transmission and reflection of the signal will depend on the position of the septum. You will use Ansoft’s Optimetrics software to find an optimal position for the septum. During an optimization analysis. Prior to performing the optimization. Related Topics Optimetrics -54 . Modify a model’s design parameters. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • • • • • Draw a geometric model. Run an HFSS simulation using the optimal variable value. Create a 2D x-y plot of power distribution results. Create a field overlay plot of results. Create an optimization setup. Create a geometry animation. which includes defining a cost function and setting the range of variable values for an optimization. Specify solution settings for a design. Create a 2D x-y plot of S-parameter results. You must have completed Getting Started with HFSS: A Waveguide T-Junction before you begin this guide. Solve a parametric analysis. Create a 2D x-y plot of S-parameter results. Specify a variable to be optimized. By following the steps in this guide. Run an HFSS simulation.

Getting Started Guides Getting Started Guide: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna Open the PDF: . Create a phase animation of results. Modify a model’s design parameters. By following the steps in this guide. Run an HFSS simulation. Specify solution settings for a design. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. Specify solution settings for a design. and analysis of a two-way. -55 . This guide leads you step-by-step through creating. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • • • • • Draw a geometric model. Getting Started Guide: Floquet Ports Open the PDF: . Modify a model’s design parameters. Create a 2D x-y plot of S-parameter results. Create a field overlay plot of results. solution. Run an HFSS simulation. Validate a design’s setup. Create a phase animation of results. low-loss waveguide combiner. Validate a design’s setup. Assign variables to a model’s design parameters. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. By following the steps in this guide. Assign variables to a model’s design parameters. solving. and analyzing the results of a dielectric resonator antenna problem. Create a 2D x-y plot of S-parameter results. This manual guides you through the setup. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • • • • • Draw a geometric model. Getting Started Guide: A 20 GHz Waveguide Combiner Open the PDF: . Create a field overlay plot of results.

Getting Started Guide: RCS Open the PDF: . This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. The simulation solves for the fields in an arbitrary volume. solution. you will learn how to setup Floquet ports in HFSS. Validate the design setups. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • • • • • Draw the geometric models. By following the steps in this guide. solution. you will learn how to setup RCS problems. This manual guides you through the setup. and analysis of two different models using Floquet ports.Getting Started Guides This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. Create plots for these geometries for a Normalized Bistatic RCS and Monostatic RCS. Getting Started Guide: Coax Tee Open the PDF: . This manual guides you through the setup. Create the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) Boundaries Add the Excitation Setup Mesh Operations Specify solution setting for the design. It guides you through the steps of creating and simulating a coax tee. By following the steps in this guide. Create the geometry setups for monostatic and bistatic infinite spheres. This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS. Run HFSS simulations. Coax Dielectric • • Coax Center Pin Outer Boundary -56 . By following the steps in this guide. and analysis a simple radar cross section (RCS) problem.

This includes the use of relative coordinate systems as an aid to building the model. -57 . It also uses boolean and sweep operations. Getting Started Guide: A Bandpass Filter Open the PDF: .Getting Started Guides • Coax Shield Getting Started Guide: A Coax Connector Open the PDF: . It guides you through the process of creating a coax connector. This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS.

Getting Started Guide: A UHF Probe Open the PDF: . It includes the use of duplicate around axis commands. Getting Started Guide: A Patch Antenna Open the PDF: . It guides you through the process of creating a bandpass filter.Getting Started Guides This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS. and the use of a ground plane and radiation boundaries. It includes the use boolean operations. -58 . This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS.

Getting Started Guides This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS. Related Topics Example Projects Getting Help Getting Started Guide:Silicon Spiral Inductor Open the PDF: . This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS. -59 . It includes the use of Perfect E and Radiation boundaries and Output Variables in generating plots. It includes the use of Perfect E and Radiation boundaries and a Radiation Pattern plot.

Related Topics Antennas in HFSS Application Specific Modeling Guide: Spiral Inductors on Silicon Substrate Open the PDF: . This brief manual provides guidelines for modeling antennas in HFSS. Related Topics Getting Started Guide: A Silicon Spiral Inductor Drawing a Spiral Using User Defined Primitives -60 .Getting Started Guides Related Topics Example Projects Application Specific Modeling Guide: Spiral Inductors on Silicon Substrate Application Specific Modeling Guide: Antennas Open the PDF: . This Application Specific Modeling Guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 13 for the first time. This Application Specific Modeling Guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 13 for the first time. This brief manual provides guidelines for modeling spiral inductors in HFSS.

Getting Started Guides Drawing a Spiral Setting the Reference Point -61 .

Add the excitation and infinite ground plane. Create the geometry setups for infinite spheres. Create plots for RCS. -62 . This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS-IE beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. Run HFSS-IE simulation. Run HFSS-IE simulations. Open the PDF: . Create the geometry setups for infinite spheres. This manual guides you through the setup. solution. Add the Excitation Specify solution setting for the design. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS-IE: • • • • • • Draw the geometric models. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS-IE: • • • • • Draw the geometric models.HFSS-IE Getting Started Guides HFSS-IE Getting Started Guides The HFSS-IE installation includes the following getting started examples: Open the PDF: . By following the steps in this guide. This manual guides you through the setup. By following the steps in this guide. solution. you will learn how to setup RCS problems. and analysis a simple radar cross section (RCS) problem. By following the steps in this guide. and analysis a simple monocone antenna problem. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS-IE beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. Specify solution setting for the design.

By following the steps in this guide. -63 . you will learn how to setup HFSS-IE antenna problems.HFSS-IE Getting Started Guides • Create a plot for the radiation pattern.

solution. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • Draw the geometric models. Run HFSS Transient simulations. and analysis of a transent horn antenna problem. Create field plots. By following the steps in this guide. and analysis of a time delayed response problem for a coax bend. -64 . This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS Transient beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 13 for the first time. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • • • Import the model Add the boundaries and the excitation Specify solution setting for the design. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS Transient beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 13 for the first time. By following the steps in this guide. Related Topics Transient Solution Type Open the PDF: . you will learn how to setup trancient antenna problems. This manual guides you through the setup. Open the PDF: . By following the steps in this guide.HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides The HFSS Transient installation includes the following getting started examples. This manual guides you through the setup. Add the boundary and excitation. solution. View reports Create the geometry setups for infinite spheres.

Create a plots and animate a field overlay. Specify solution setting for the design. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • Draw the geometric models. Run HFSS transient simulation. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS Transient beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 13 for the first time. Create a plots. Run HFSS transient simulation. solution. including the use of Output Variables. and analysis of a . you will learn how to setup HFSS transient problems.HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides • • • Specify solution setting for the design. By following the steps in this guide. you will learn how to setup HFSS transient problems. By following the steps in this guide. Related Topics Transient Solution Type Open the PDF: . Add the boundaries and excitation. Related Topics Transient Solution Type -65 . This manual guides you through the setup. By following the steps in this guide.

Example Projects Example Projects Your HFSS installation includes an example directory containing a projects folder including the following projects: Getting Started Guide Projects: (See associated Getting Started Guides) Related Topics Other Examples with Brief Descriptions in the Online Help Opening Example Projects -66 .

For further examples.Example Projects Other Examples with Brief Descriptions in the Online Help The following example projects have brief descriptions in the online help. see Getting Started Guides and look at the Ansoft Website Related Topics Example Projects Getting Started Guides -67 .

2 inches closer to Port 2.Example Projects Tee and OptimTee Waveguide Projects The Getting Started folder in the Examples/Projects folder contains the versions of the waveguide t-junction modal solution project described in Getting Started with HFSS: A Waveguide T-Junction. The animated Mag_E1 plot of the E-field when the septum is located 0. • parametric analysis -68 . The second version of the wave guide t-junction demonstrates the use of the Optimetrics. and Getting Started with HFSS: Optimizing a Waveguide T-Junction Using HFSS with Optimetrics. including : • • • • the Modeler parameterization of a design feature setup and analysis the use of the Reporter and field animation. The waveguide T-junction illustrates the basic HFSS features.

Use of output variables. plot of cost values versus solved iterations. See Getting Started Guides. -69 .Example Projects • • • • • • variable for optimization an optimization setup a cost function Optimization analysis.

Example Projects Dielectric Resonator Antenna The dra_diel directory in the Example/Projects folder contains the modal solution project described in Getting Started With HFSS: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna. the use of symmetry and radiation boundaries mesh operations lumped ports modifying the impedance multiplier because of symmetry animation of a field plot -70 . See Getting Started Guides. This design demonstrates the use of: • • • • • • boolean operations on geometries.

This project has an associated Getting Started Guide.Example Projects • setting up an infinite sphere and computing antenna parameters Waveguide Combiner Example Project The wg_combiner project is located in the Example/Project folder. . The waveguide combiner project demonstrates: • • finite conductivity boundary condition symmetry boundary condition -71 . See Getting Started Guides.

cavity.hfss The cavity model is in the Examples/Projects directory. -72 . solution data plot creation and analysis a phase animation.Example Projects • • • • • wave ports integration lines in wave ports.

Example Projects This model provides: • • • an example of a Eigenmode solution. a field plot a Vector_E plot -73 .

and height Optimization setup Parametrics setup Sensitivity setup Statisitcal setup. This provides examples of: • • • • • • • • a Perfect H Boundary wave ports project variables for length. with distribution criteria Port field display -74 . width.Example Projects Optiguide This optiguide project is a modal solution project located in the Examples/Projects folder.

Example Projects -75 .

This project provides an example of: • • • • • a terminal solution project multiple materials radiation boundary lumped ports with terminals Interpolating sweep -76 .Example Projects Package Example Project The packagehfss project is located in the Examples/Projects folder.

-77 .1 m high. simulated in HFSS-IE.Example Projects • Port field display Antennas on Mast Description .Three dipole antennas mounted on an aluminum mast. The excitations are lumped ports and the mounting structures are modeled by the polystyrene rods. The dipoles are modeled using 2D objects with a PerfE boundary. Note under Boundaries in the Project tree. The mast is mounted on an infinite ground plane. InfGndPlane1. Model .The mast is 3.

Post Processing Antennas Mounted on a Mast After solving.The walls of the coax use the default outer PerfE boundary. Set Scaling Factor to 1 for all three ports. -78 . The variable here is bend_angle and it controls the angle of the top half of the bend. Before viewing the fields make sure all three antennas are excited. Matrix Data. This is the θ = 90o pattern cut. Two teflon supports with inner radius compensation are included in the model. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties.Adapt at 0. The inner conductor is copper. The ports are assigned to the faces of the coax so port2 will automatically move with the coax body as the angle is changed.9 GHz.This is a model of an air-filled coax bend. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Go to HFSS-IE>Fields>Edit Sources and uncheck all Terminated options. To view the induced currents on the mast. Note To view a port or boundary. double click on Radiation Pattern 1 under Results in the Project tree. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. and Mesh Statistics. Model .Example Projects Setup . double click on Mag_J1 under Field Overlays>J Fields. Parametric Sweep of a Coax Bend Description . select the desired item in the Project Tree. To view the radiation pattern shown.

To view all variations right-click on Mag_E1 and select Animate. double-click on XY Plot 1 under Results in the Project tree. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. only the first mode is computed. The eigen solver computes the resonant frequency and Q of the model.. Swanson Jr. For maximum accuracy. Coaxial Resonator Description . you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog.1 to 5 GHz.. To view the solution data for different bend angle values. This example was taken from Microwave Circuit Modelling Using Electromagnetic Field Simulation (D. Matrix Data. double-click on Mag_E1 under Field Overlays>E Field.90o every 10o. and then select bend_angle for the swept variable in the setup pane.] net to the design variation box and select the variation of interest. To see the shade plots of the electric field.Example Projects Setup . select the desired item in the Project Tree.There are no defined sources in an eigen solution so you need only select the number of modes to compute and the convergence criteria.. Hoefer). To view the S Parameter frequency plots for all five bend_angle variations. To verify that this has been set for the -79 . You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence.Adapt at 5 GHz and do an interpolating sweep from 0. Then click OK. For this model.A coaxial cavity. Post Processing Coax Bend After solving. and Mesh Statistics.17 x 107 mho/m. In the Select Animation window select New. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window.A coaxial resonator model showing how to use the Eigenmode solver. Model . Walls are defined to have σ = 6. Setup . W. we need to use curvilinear elements. click on the ellipsis [. The defined Parametric sweep in bend angle sweeps from 50 . Note To view a port or boundary.

you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Eigenmode Data to display the Solution dialog. go to HFSS>Mesh Operations> Initial Mesh Settings. Note Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties.Example Projects model. Coaxial Resonator Post Processing After solving. select the Eigenmode Data tab on the Solution dialog. You also view the Solution tabs for Profile. Convergence.* -80 . and make sure “Apply Curvilinear Elements” is checked. and Mesh Statistics. To view the resonant frequency and Q.

right-click on E Field under Field Overlays in the Project tree. Model .a simplified model of a four pin section of a connector. * Data computed using a mode matching program are given in the reference. and select Update Plots. The results presented are f0 = 1.the connector is configured with lumped ports on each end of the two inner pins.Example Projects To view the shade plot. This is a driven terminal design. A radiation boundary is applied to the surrounding airbox. The two outer pins are each grounded at both ends. The boards are FR4 and the connector body is modfied epoxy. -81 . Connector .Terminal Example Description .87 GHz and Q = 5592.

Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. Note To view a port or boundary. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. An interpolating sweep is also included that has an upper frequency of 5 GHz and uses DC extrapolation at the low end. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. and Mesh Statistics. -82 . double click on XY plot1 in the Project Tree under Results.Driven Terminal Solution with adapt at 5 GHz. Matrix Data. To view the S parameter plot show below. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. select the desired item in the Project Tree.Example Projects Setup . Connector Post Processing After solving.

you can view solution data by right-clicking on the Setup and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Export to HFSS was used to create this project.A microstrip 8 way corporate feed.Example Projects Corporate Feed Description .The traces are defined as 2D objects with a finite conductivity boundary of copper. Matrix Data.5 Ghz and use Mixed Order for the Order of Basis function. select the desired item in the Project Tree. It is highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed. -83 . There is a surrounding air box with a radiation boundary on the top and sides. Setup . Model . It is a Driven Terminal design. and Mesh Statistics. Note To view a port or boundary.Adapt at 7. Corporate Feed Post Processing After solving. The sources are all lumped ports with a 50 Ohm impedance. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. The model was originally created in Ansoft Designer.

A smaller virtual object is defined as the integration surface for radiated field calculations. Helical Antenna Description . To see a phase animation of this field plot. This is surrounded by an air box with a radiation boundary. double click on MagE1 in the Project tree under Field Overlays>E Field. right click on MagE1. The antenna is designed to run at 3.a coax fed helical antenna with a dielectric support on a finite ground plane.5 GHz. and select Animation. shown below.* -84 . Then click OK in the dialog.Example Projects To view the shade plot of the E field.

see the antenna design kit at www. *For a further discussion on using integration surfaces and for more on creating sample antenna designs. double click Results . double-click on Results . Setup . and set the transparency and scale as desired. Matrix Data.5 GHz and use mixed order for Order of Basis function. You can create a helix similar to this by using Draw>User Defined Primitive>SysLib>Segmented Helix. To view 3D plot of the antenna gain.adapt at 3.com/hfssantennadesignkit. select the desired item in the Project Tree. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog.Radiation Pattern 2. in the Project tree. To overlay the 3D plot on the model.Radiation Pattern 1. To view a 2D plot of the circular polarization pattern for this antenna in the φ = 0o cut. The coax port is internal and is capped by a conducting object. -85 . look in the Project Tree under Results and double click on 3D Polar Plot 1. Since this model has open air regions and the tightly spaced helix it is a good choice for mixed order. Note To view a port or boundary.Example Projects Model . You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. and Mesh Statistics. in the Project tree. Check Visible for 3D Polar Plot 1.the support is made of Teflon and the ground has as thickness of 0. click HFSS>Fields>Plot Fields>Radiation Field to display the Overlay radiation field dialog. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. Post Processing After solving.ansoft. To view a 2D plot of the total gain.5 in.

select the desired item in the Project Tree. and Mesh Statistics. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence.driven terminal setup with an adapt frequency of 2. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. Package Section Description .a model of a section of a complex package. The opposite ends terminate in ports at the solder balls.the model is two traces of a larger package. Matrix Data.Example Projects You can add markers to the Radiation Pattern plots by right-clicking on the plot window and choosing Marker>Add Marker. Setup . Note To view a port or boundary. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. An interpolating sweep is also included that has an upper frequency of 2. Model . The model was created using Ansoft Links from an ANF file and is a driven terminal design.5 GHz. At one end are the bond wires that are excited by lumped ports. Package Post Processing After solving.5 GHz and uses DC Extrapolation at the lower end. -86 . The substrate is FR4 and a radiation boundary has been applied to the surface of the surrounding airbox.

the surface current density. -87 . To view the shade plot of jsurf. right click on Jsurf under Field Overlays in the Project Tree and select update.Example Projects To view the S parameter plot show below. on one of the package planes. double click on XY plot1 in the Project Tree under Results.

9 GHz. Matrix Data. A radiation boundary is defined on an air box that is not show here.The elements use a teflon substrate with 1. Model .A five element array of flared dipole antennas with a trough reflector. Post Processing Small Array of Planar Flared Dipole Antennas After solving. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. A post processing variable has been defined that controls the element to element source phases.The post processing variable is called phase_shift.6 mm thickness.Example Projects Small Array of Planar Flared Dipole Antennas Description . allowing the resulting beam to be easily steered.Adapt at 1. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. select the desired item in the Project Tree. The excitations are lumped ports. To view the φ = 90o radiation pattern double click on Radiation pattern 1 under Results in the Project tree. and Mesh Statistics. Note To view a port or boundary. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Setup . As stated the relative element-to-element phase shift in degrees for this array is controlled -88 .

A pyramidal horn designed to operate at 10 GHz. The easiest way to adjust the phase_shift variable is to click on the design name. You will see the design variable displayed in the Properties window. go to HFSS>Fields>Edit Sources where you will see the offset phase. The feed is an x-band waveguide. -89 . To verify this.Example Projects by the phase_shift post processing variable.This project uses PMLs for its radiation boundary. defined as multiples of the variable phase_shift. You can change the value of phase_shift in this window. in the Project tree. Pyramidal Horn Description . The plot shown here is for a setting of 30o. HFSSDesign2.

Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Setup . you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. Their visibility. To overlay the 3D plot on the model.Adapt at 10 GHz. To view 3D plot of the antenna gain. select the desired item in the Project Tree. Pyramidal Horn Post Processing After solving. click HFSS>Fields>Plot Fields>Radiation -90 . by default. and Mesh Statistics.02" wall thickness and is defined as PEC. has been turned off. look in the Project Tree under Results and double click on 3D Polar Plot 1. Matrix Data. PMLs are included in the model and are defined on the faces of air_box. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window.The horn has 0.Example Projects Model . Note To view a port or boundary. The port is internal to the solution region and is capped by a PEC object (cap).

Check Visible for 3D Polar Plot 1.a ring hybrid that can be used as a splitter. and set the transparency and scale as desired. Power input to the Sum port splits equally between Ports 2 and 3 in phase while power input to Difference Port splits with 180o phase shift.Example Projects Field to display the Overlay radiation field dialog. and double click on Radiation Pattern 1 A shade plot showing the fields on the Y-Z plane has also been created and can be viewed by rightclicking on E Field under Field Overlays and selecting Update. It -91 . Ring Hybrid Description . look in the Project Tree under Results. To view a 2D plot of the dB gain total.

Default outer boundary boundary (PerfE) is defined on the remaining faces. The substrate is 40 mil Duriod 5880. Setup . the model includes an output variable called Diff_port_phase that computes the difference in phase between ports 2 and 3 when the Difference port is excited. In that case. double click on Mag_E1 under E Field under Field Overlays. The trace is a 2D object with a PerfE boundary. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence.Adapt at 10 GHz with interpolating frequency sweep from 8 to 12 GHz. To view plots of S parameter data you can open XY Plot 1.Example Projects can be used as a power combiner with power input to Ports 2 and 3. and Mesh Statistics. The ports are defined on four of the faces of the substrate. Model . the sum of the two inputs will be seen at Sum port and the difference at Difference port.Post Processing After solving.This is a hybrid designed to operate at 10 GHz using stripline transmission lines. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. Note To view a port or boundary. Selecting an object in the History tree also displays its properties. For a plot of Diff_port_phase. select the desired item in the Project Tree. To view a shade plot. Also. Ring Hybrid . -92 . It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed. Matrix Data. open XY Plot 2.

To view a phase animation of the resulting shade plot. -93 . using HFSS>Fields>Edit Sources. right click on MagE1 and choose Animation from the menu.Example Projects To view the shade plot as shown. change excitations so that ports 2 and 3 are excited by equal amplitude and phase.

5 to 2 GHz.8 GHz. and Mesh Statistics. this variable will be computed. Derivatives of the S parameter w. The air filled coax has an internal port that is capped by the PEC ground plate.r.8 mm is computed.The patch. -94 .Adapt at 1. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. The variable feed_pos controls the value of X for the coax location in millimeters. Model . The design variable. The antenna is shorted on one end. Post processing for tuning a Coax Fed Patch Antenna After solving.r..t.t.Example Projects Tune a Coax Fed Patch Antenna Description . You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Setup . The derivative of the S parameter data w. and do an interpolating sweep from 1. feed_pos about the default value of 10. and ground plate are united into a single PEC object. shoulder. feed_pos. The surrounding air box with radiation boundary is not shown.A coax fed quarter wave patch antenna will be tuned using the Adjoint Derivatives. controls the location of the coax feed along the x direction. Matrix Data. This feature is enabled in the Derivatives tab of the Setup1 window.

As you adjust the slider.Example Projects To view the derivatives you can create a new plot by right clicking on Results and choosing Create Modal Solution Data Report>Rectangular Plot. the plot is recomputed using the derivatives. Adjust the Offset to -0. By right clicking on Results and choosing Tune Reports you can open the Report Tuning dialog shown. In a separate project. In the New Report Setup window. Related Topics Derivative Tuning for Reports -95 . the response for feed_pos = 10.2 to compare to the imported feed_pos = 10.3 and +0. To tune the design.5 and 11 mm was computed and the results from each was imported into this plot. double-click on XY Plot 2 under Results to open the plot shown. select feed_pos in the derivative box and select the desired quantities to plot.5 and 11mm results.

-96 .Adapt at 4. Note To view a port or boundary. Setup .27 mm thick. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Model . The conducting traces are 2D objects with PerE boundaries.5 GHz with an interpolating sweep from 2 to 5 GHz. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. Matrix Data.Example Projects Unit Cell of a Phased Array Description . The sides are two pairs of Master and Slave boundaries. The substrate εr = 6 and is 1.A unit cell of an infinite phased array of vivaldi antennas is simulated using linked boundaries and a Floquet port.the antenna is fed by a coax line with a wave port. and Mesh Statistics. The upper face of the unit cell is terminated in a Floquet port. Post Processing After solving. select the desired item in the Project Tree. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window.

Example Projects To view a plot of active S parameter seen at the feed. This design was analyzed in “Analysis of Periodic Structures via a Time-Domain Finite-Element Formulation with a Floquet ABC. To view the modes present on the Floquet port click on the desired mode under Port Field Display>Floquet Port 1 in the Project tree. and a vector plot of the mode will be displayed.E. 9b in the reference. pp 933944.R. You will see the plot computed here agrees nicely with Fig. IEEE Trans. AP. March 2006.” L. look in the Project tree and double-click on XY Plot1. Peterson et al. -97 ..

Matrix Data. It has a pair of microstrip lines that transition through the vias to a pair of striplines on a lower layer. This model was created using the Via Wizard. Likewise for the two striplines at the opposite end. Via Model Postprocessing After solving. see www. The conductors are copper and a radiation boundary is applied to the air box. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Setup . select the desired item in the Project Tree.a model of a differential via pair. -98 . and Mesh Statistics. Note To view a port or boundary.38 GHz with an interpolating sweep that has an upper frequency of 4.ansoft.Example Projects Via Model Description .adapt at 4. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties.the two microstrip lines are each assigned a terminal in the coupled microstrip port.38 GHz and uses DC extrapolation at the lower end. * To download the Via Wizard.com/3dviadesign. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. Mixed Order is set for Order of Basis Function. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog.* Model .

double click on XY plot1 in the Project Tree under Results.Example Projects To view the S parameter plot shown below. -99 .

SPECIAL. LOSS OF USE. THE LBNL SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES. © 2010 SAS IP Inc. Dept. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE. INDIRECT. through Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (subject to receipt of any required approvals from U. EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. EXEMPLARY. WHETHER IN CONTRACT. OR PROFITS. Q3D and Optimetrics are registered trademarks or trademarks of SAS IP Inc. Maxwell 3D. of Energy) All rights reserved. OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING. but not limited to. HFSS. 275 Technology Drive Canonsburg.com Technical Support: AnsoftTechSupport@ansys. Ansoft shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing. ANSYS Inc. Maxwell Strata. including. quad-double precision and arbitrary precision (also termed "multiprecision" or "multiple precision") software: Copyright (c) 2003. STRICT LIABILITY. or use of this material. INCIDENTAL. PA 15317 Tel: (+1) 724-746-3304 Fax: (+1) 724-514-9494 General Information: AnsoftInfo@ansys. Ansoft makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material. This document contains proprietary information which is protected by copyright..Copyright and Trademark Notices Copyright and Trademark Notices The information contained in the HFSS online help is subject to change without notice.S. All rights reserved. All rights are reserved. OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY. DATA. Concerning the use by HFSS 13 of LBNL double-double precision. The Regents of the University of California. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT. performance. HFSS-IE Full-Wave Spice. INCLUDING. BUT NOT LIMITED TO.com Ansoft. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. -100 .

INDIRECT. are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. EXEMPLARY. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTOR(S) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. Gifford All rights reserved. 3. OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY. DATA. 2. WHETHER IN CONTRACT. this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. Aaron D. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTOR(S) ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES. OR PROFITS. OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING. Neither the name of the copyright holder nor the names of contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. -101 .Copyright and Trademark Notices Third-party open source software notice: Secure Hash Algorithm Copyright © 2000-2001. INCLUDING. STRICT LIABILITY. LOSS OF USE. PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES. EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. with or without modification. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice. SPECIAL. INCIDENTAL.

and then To open a help topic about an HFSS dialog box. https://www1. it is extremely helpful to include very specific information about what steps were taken or what stages the simulation reached. open the dialog box. You can also contact your Ansoft account manager in order to obtain this information. E-mail can work well for technical support. This allows more rapid and effective debugging. press Shift+F1 or click click the command or toolbar icon. and then press F1. When reporting difficulties. do the following: • • • • • • Click Help>Contents Click Help>Index Click Help>Search Click Help>Scripting Contents Click Help>Scripting Index Click Help>Search Scripting You can also access help for the scripting commands via the menu bar: Context-Sensitive Help To access online help from the HFSS user interface. All Ansoft software files are ASCII text and can be sent conveniently by e-mail. do one of the following: • • To open a help topic about an HFSS menu command. Help Menu Commands To access online help from the menu bar.2 Getting Help Ansys Technical Support To contact Ansys technical support staff in your geographical area. PDF of Online Help for Printing Getting Help2-1 . please log on to the Ansys corporate website.com.anssys.

You can print ranges of pages encompassing topics and subtopics as needed.The pdf of online help provides a format and function better suited for printing than the chm. Open the PDF: . Getting Help2-2 .

The titles of publications. names of options and text boxes. Toolbar buttons are displayed after the command they execute. to type a space. For example. to type a space. For example.Keyboard entries when a name or a variable must be typed in place of the words in italics. "copy file name" means to type the word copy. For example. For example. . For example. Toolbar buttons serve as shortcuts for executing commands. "copy file1" means to type the word copy. "Press Shift+F1" means to press the Shift key and the F1 key at the same time. A single bullet indicates that the procedure has only one step. . and menu commands. . and then to type a file name. "Press Return" means to press the key labeled Return. • • The plus sign (+) is used between keyboard keys to indicate that you should press the keys at the same time.Conventions Used in the Online Help Conventions Used in the Online Help The following documentation conventions are used in the online help. Menu commands are often separated by carats.On-screen prompts and messages. . • • Procedures are presented as numbered lists. Bold type is used for the following: . "Click Draw> Line the Line command.Keyboard entries that should be typed in their entirety exactly as shown. " means that you can click the Draw Line toolbar button to execute Getting Help2-3 .Emphasis. and then to type file1. click File>Open. For example.Labeled keys on the computer keyboard. • Italic type is used for the following: .

and jump to topic locations by double-clicking on them.you can expand or collapse the hierarchy by clicking. A searchable index .you can search for indexed terms by typing the text field.Searching in Help Searching in Help The online help system provides four ways to search for information and navigate quickly: • • • • A hierarchical table of contents . A full text search . and search the entire online help. A favorites list .you can select topics that you use frequently to create a favorites list. Items are listed according to rank in discussing the search text. Getting Help2-4 . and you can jump to selected entries by double-clicking.you can type text.

The Webupdate shows the progress of the update. Click Close when done Getting Help2-5 . If an update is available. 4. Click Next to continue the update. You can choose to enable the checkboxes to install the update automatically and to save the update to disk. 2. Select the application of interest and click Next. the Next button is enabled. c. If you choose to update. b. enable the application checkbox to select it. a. This displays the WebUpdate dialogue. This displays the application and whether it is currently up to date and whether an update is available 3.Using WebUpdate Using WebUpdate To use WebUpdate: 1. Select Help>Launch WebUpdate. which lists the applications available for update.

Click Help>About Ansoft HFSS. The Save as type pull-down list is already specified as Export (*. d. Browse to the location where you want to save the information as a text file.txt). b. Click the Installed Components tab to view a list of software installed. 3. Type a name for the file in the File name text box. 5. Active Host Ids Active Servers Admin Directory Customer Number FLEXlm Version License Files Click Export. Click the Client License Settings tab to view information about the following: • • • • • • 4. listing information about the product. c. The Save As dialog box appears. 2. a. The About Ansoft HFSS dialog box appears. To export the software information: Click OK to close the About Ansoft HFSS dialog box. Getting Help2-6 . Click Save.Obtaining Information About the Software and Version Obtaining Information About the Software and Version To obtain information about 1.

The recipient copies the section title from the email and pastes it into the search field. Getting Help2-7 . 3. Go to a help page of interest in the online help. The recipient clicks the List Topics button. and selecting the Search pane. Click the Ansoft icon on the lower left corner of the help. The help launches an email. 5.Emailing a Help Page Title Emailing a Help Page Title To email a help page title from the online help chm: 1. Upon receiving the email. Supply an email address and send the email. The recipient can click the topic to go directly to the help page. 4. Select Search titles only. 7. the recipient follows the directions by opening the online help. This displays the topic. 2.. 6.

its boundary conditions and material assignments. Each design ultimately includes a geometric model. use the File menu commands to manage projects. A new project called Projectn is automatically created when the software is launched.3 Working with HFSS Projects An HFSS or HFSS-IE project is a folder that includes one or more HFSS models. the software may not be able to find information necessary to solve the model. or designs. In general. A design named Designn is automatically created for a new project. Working with HFSS Projects 3-1 . and field solution and post-processing information. If you move or change the names of files without using these commands. You can also open a new project by clicking File>New.

HFSS Online Help HFSS Files When you create an HFSS project.hfss file extension and stored in the directory you specify.asol HFSS project. Any files related to that project are also stored in that directory. Some common HFSS file and folder types are listed below: .hfssresults folder.hfssresults project_name. HFSS folder containing results data for a project. HFSS folder containing results data for a design.pjt . it is given an .anfp 3-2 Working with HFSS Projects .5 and earlier project.hfss design_name.hfssresults folder. The .hfssresults project_name. HFSS version 8. Ansoft PCB neutral file .asol file contains the database of all solved variations and where the resulting data is stored in the design. This file is stored in the project_name.hfssresults folder. It resides in the project.

Working with HFSS Projects3-3 . are stored under the project name in the project tree. such boundary and material assignments. It is named Projectn by default. A new project is listed in the project tree. A default design named Designn is added under the project. where n is the order in which the project was added to the current project folder.HFSS Online Help Creating Projects • Click File> New . Project definitions. You specify the name of the project when you save it using the File>Save or File>Save As commands.

Use the file browser to find the HFSS or HFSS-IE . Select the file you want to open. The project information appears in the project tree. By default. 2. You can also open a saved project by: • • • Dragging an HFSS or HFSS-IE project file icon to the HFSS or HFSS-IE icon. Click File> Open . HFSS or HFSSIE removes the automatically-created project.HFSS Online Help Projects Open a previously saved project using the File>Open command. 1. Double-clicking on an HFSS or HFSS-IE project file icon. files that can be opened or translated by HFSS or HFSS-IE are displayed. Related Topics Opening Legacy HFSS Projects Opening Example Projects 3-4 Working with HFSS Projects . Dragging an HFSS or HFSS-IE project file icon to the HFSS or HFSS-IE desktop. Click OK. If you open another project without editing the automatically-created project. 3. 4.hfss project file.

This displays a browser open to the Examples folder in the product install. HFSS or HFSS-IE removes the automatically-created project. Related Topics Example Projects Opening Recent Projects To open a project you recently saved in HFSS or HFSS-IE: • Click the name of the project file at the bottom of the File menu. The online help contains additional descriptions of these projects.doc Working with HFSS Projects3-5 ..HFSS Online Help Opening Example Projects You can directly access and open example projects included with product install by using File>Open Examples. You can select from various display styles for the folders and projects. If you open another project without editing the automatically-created project.

HFSS 10 can be used to translate earlier projects. Following are additional notes about the translation of various legacy project information. 2.5 or earlier. HFSS 10 files can be opened directly. Virtually all of the project’s pre-processing data is translated. Note that solution results and Optimetrics setup data are unavailable. however. double-click folders to find the one that contains the project. However saving them in 12 means they cannot be used in 10. click the location of the project. In the folder list. 3-6 Working with HFSS Projects . It does not open projects created in Ansoft HFSS version 8.HFSS Online Help Opening Legacy HFSS Projects HFSS 12 does not open projects created in Ansoft HFSS version 8. 3. the nominal model created for Optimetrics is translated.5 or earlier. 1. Click File> Open . Double-click the project you want to open. HFSS 10 can be used. In the Look in pull-down list. Legacy HFSS Project Translation HFSS 12 translates all HFSS 10 data.

functional material properties are translated. with the same orientation defined when the anisotropic material was assigned to the object in the legacy project. the model will be scaled slightly to fit the new units. For units unavailable in version 10. you can modify the geometry using version 10’s modeling features. Port impedance and calibration lines become integration lines in version 10.HFSS Online Help Model Geometry • The translated geometry’s construction history is unavailable. therefore. the nearest available units are used. Boundaries assigned to named interface selections or rectangle selections are not translated. Their properties are not modified. Functions defined in legacy projects become project variables in version 10. HFSS 10 will create a new 2D sheet object from the intersecting area and assign the boundary to that object. Object coordinate systems are created for objects assigned anisotropic materials in legacy projects. Area. both are translated.and volume-based mesh operations are translated as length-based mesh operations in version 10 by taking their square roots and cube roots. The coordinate system is defined at the same origin as the global coordinate system. If these have been changed from the default (15 deg). this affects the memory and CPU required to open the project. impedance lines are translated and calibration lines are ignored. such as yards. However. • • Excitations and Boundaries • • • Materials • • • • Mesh Operations • • Working with HFSS Projects3-7 . If the legacy project contained both impedance and calibration lines. Perfect conductors become regular materials with conductivity values of of 1E30. If the project contained both impedance and terminal lines. respectively. therefore the original object properties you defined cannot be modified in the Properties window. Nonlinear materials from legacy projects that have magnetic saturation values greater than zero are treated as ferrite materials in version 10. Mesh refinement operations performed on arbitrary boxes in legacy projects are ignored. The impedance lines will be ignored for Driven Terminal solutions and terminal lines will be ignored if the project is changed to a Driven Modal solution. View visualization settings apply to the saved design. For a boundary assigned to the intersection of two faces.

you must solve legacy HFSS projects again in version 10. Solution data is not translated. therefore these mode selections in legacy projects are ignored. the Number of Steps value specified in the legacy project is converted to the corresponding Step Size value in version 10. Solution Types Solution Setup • • • • • • Solutions • 3-8 Working with HFSS Projects . Driven solver projects that contained terminal lines are translated to Driven Terminal solution types in version 10. including design variables. The design’s initial mesh is used for the version 10 solution.HFSS Online Help Optimetrics • • Setup information. For example. 5 will be the value specified for the Maximum Number of Passes in version 10. therefore. Impedance-only and emissions-only solutions are not supported in version 10. and then request 2 adaptive passes. Saving dominant-only or higher-order-only mode S-matrix entries are not supported in version 10. the nominal model can be translated. however. Current meshes are not translated. is not supported. solve them. therefore these selections in legacy projects are ignored. Parameterizing a translated model is limited because geometry construction history is unavailable. For frequency sweeps. The total number of requested adaptive passes in the legacy project becomes the Maximum Number of Passes value in version 10. if you request 3 adaptive passes.

Working with HFSS Projects3-9 . you see a message saying that if you continue.HFSS Online Help Closing Projects To close the current HFSS or HFSS-IE project. select HFSS or HFSS-IE>Close. HFSS or HFSS-IE will abort before closing. If you OK. HFSS or HFSS-IE aborts the simulation and closes the project. This closes the project without exiting HFSS or HFSS-IE. If there you have a simulation running.

If you OK the warning. Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. Click File> Save As. Use the File>Save HFSShas a "Save before solving" setting located in the Tools>Options> HFSS or HFSS-IE Options menu. you see a warning that if you continue. Saving frequently helps prevent the loss of your work if a problem occurs. Save the active project with a different name or in a different location. HFSS or HFSS-IE aborts the simulation and saves the project. Save the active project in another file format for use in another program. 5. so the file retains the previous compatibility. it may not automatically save frequently enough for your needs. 3. the file is upgraded to the HFSSversion in which you are running the software. command to save the active project. 4. If the window has a Switch to saved option. for efficiency reasons. However. and then close the current file. Use the correct file extension for the file type. the project is only saved if it has been modified since its last save.HFSS Online Help Saving Projects Use the File>Save As command to do the following: • • • Save a new project. 2. do one of the following: • • 6. Click OK. If you have a simulation running. Warning Be sure to save geometric models periodically. 3-10 Working with HFSS Projects . In this case the file may no longer be compatible with previous versions. the file is not saved. HFSS saves the project to the location you specified. If you do not agree to the prompt. Leave the option selected to display the new file name. Related Topics Saving a New Project Saving the Active Project Saving a Copy of a Project Deleting Projects Saving a New Project 1. Although HFSS has an "auto-save" feature. HFSSwill abort the simulation. Cancel the Switch to saved selection to save the file under the new name without changing which file is displayed. If you agree to the prompt. Type the name of the file in the File name box. A prompt appears when you attempt to save a previously-versioned file. By default this is on.

it may not automatically save frequently enough for your needs. or to a new location: 1. Select Rename. Leave the field selected to display the new file name. Right-click to display the short-cut menu. 4. Select the project in the Project tree. Select the desired file extension for the file type. 3. Warning Be sure to save geometric models periodically. If the window has a Switch to saved field. Related Topics Saving a New Project Saving the Active Project Renaming a Project To rename an existing. Working with HFSS Projects3-11 . Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. Saving frequently helps prevent the loss of your work if a problem occurs. Related Topics Saving a New Project Saving a Copy of a Project Saving a Copy of a Project To save an existing. 5. 2. Type the name of the file in the File name box. 2. This activates the text field for the project name. a different file extension. Although HFSS has an "auto-save" feature. and then close the current file. Click File >Save As. 3. Cancel the Switch to saved selection to save the file under the new name without changing which file is displayed. do one of the following: • • 6. active project: 1. HFSS saves the project with the new name or file extension to the location you specified. active project with a new name. HFSS saves the project over the existing one. Click OK.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Saving the Active Project Saving a Copy of a Project Saving the Active Project • Click File> Save .

The auto-save file is stored in the same directory as the project file and is named Projectn. verify that Do Autosave is selected. The new project name appears in the directory and the project remains in the original location. HFSS or HFSS-IE counts it as an edit.hfss" will automatically be saved as "Project1. even when you undo a command. 3. an error message is displayed. HFSS or HFSS-IE deletes the auto-save file. Click Tools > Options>General Options. Click OK to apply the specified auto-save settings. To modify the auto-save settings: 1. this option is set at 10. For example. HFSS or HFSS-IE assumes that you have saved any desired changes at this point. Type the new project name and press enter. and solution analysis. HFSSautomatically saves project data after every 10 edits. Under the Project Options tab. including actions associated with project management.HFSS Online Help 4.auto by default. Auto-save always increments forward.auto" extension is appended to the original project file name. enter the number of edits that you want to occur between automatic saves. Related Topics Recovering Project Data in an Auto-Save File Save Before Solve Option The Tools> HFSS or HFSS-IE Options command displays a dialog with a checkbox for an automatic Save Before Solve option. This option is selected by default. The Options dialog box appears. you may be able to choose to re-open the original project file (Projectn.auto". In the Autosave interval box. after a problem occurs. Once the specified number of edits is carried out.hfss. This means that HFSS or HFSS-IE does not save solutions data or clear any undo/redo history. Warning When you close or rename a project. except solution data. The main purpose is to force a full save before running the solve. By default. If neither file is available. a "model-only" save will occur. If the original file is not available. An "edit" is any action you performed which changes data in the project or the design. therefore. Saving Project Data Automatically HFSSstores recent actions you performed on the active project in an auto-save file in case a sudden workstation crash or other unexpected problem occurs. 2. HFSSautomatically saves all data for the project to the auto-save file. With auto-save activated.hfss). By default. Note 4. 3-12 Working with HFSS Projects . an ". in an effort to recover the solution data. "Project1.hfss. where n is the order in which the project was added to the current session. When HFSS or HFSS-IE auto-saves. model creation. or open the auto-save file. attempting to open the file provides a message that the autosave is being used.

hfss project file for which you want to recover its Projectn. HFSS or HFSS-IE asks if you want solve without saving first. recovering data in an auto-save file is not reversible. In any case.hfss. Warning When you recover a project’s auto-save file you cannot recover any solutions data. crash recovery will work. Click File>Open. removing the results directory (solutions data) from the original project file as it overwrites to the auto-save file.auto auto-save file. Select Open project using autosave file to recover project data in the auto-save file.HFSS Online Help In the case where you start a solve while another solve is running. 3. If HFSS or HFSS-IE has crashed. which gives you the option to open the original project file or the auto-save file. and then select the original Projectn. recovering an auto-save file means you will lose any solutions data that existed in the original project file. and then click OK. This lets you do multiple solves. launch HFSSfrom your desktop. Recovering Project Data in an Auto-Save File Following a sudden workstation crash or other unexpected problem. Related Topics Saving Project Data Automatically Working with HFSS Projects3-13 . and the Save Before Solve option is set. HFSS or HFSS-IE replaces the original project file with the data in the auto-save file. you can start a new solve while running another without having to abort the running solve. and if you have not edited the project in between solves. The Crash Recovery window appears. 2. you can recover the project data in its auto-save file. you cannot recover the original project file that has been overwritten. To recover project data in an auto-save file: 1. Warning If you choose to recover the auto-save file. HFSS or HFSS-IE immediately overwrites the original project file data with the auto-save file data.

2. Select the project in the project tree. Click either Edit>Delete." 3. Click OK to delete the files or Cancel to retain them. or right click to display the short-cut menu and select Delete. 3-14 Working with HFSS Projects . A dialog displays the message: "The project selected and all its files will be deleted from the permanent storage medium. Click OK to proceed.HFSS Online Help Deleting Projects To delete a project: 1.

Note When you save a project. that is. Click Edit> Undo. or click the Undo button Your last action is now undone. and post-processing.HFSS Online Help Undoing Commands Use the Undo command on the Edit menu to cancel. do one of the following: • • Note 2. 1. such as drawing an object or deleting a field overlay plot. such as inserting a design or adding project variables. click the project icon. on the toolbars. model creation. the HFSS>Analyze command. the last action you performed on the active project or design. click the design icon. You cannot undo an analysis that you’ve performed on a model. Related Topics Redoing Commands Working with HFSS Projects3-15 . HFSS always clears the entire undo/redo history for the project and its designs. or undo. To undo the last action you performed on the active design. To undo the last action you performed on the active project. In the Project Manager window. This is useful for undoing unintended commands related to project management.

or click the Redo button Your last canceled action is now reapplied. model creation. Note When you save a project. and postprocessing. Click Edit>Redo. click the project icon.HFSS Online Help Redoing Commands Use the Redo command on the Edit menu to reapply. the last action that was canceled. HFSS always clears the entire undo/redo history for the project and its designs. In the Project Manager window. To redo the last action you canceled on the active design. click the design icon. or redo. To redo the last action you canceled on the active project. on the toolbars. 1. such as drawing an object or deleting a field overlay plot. You can redo a canceled action related to project management. such as inserting a design or adding project variables. Related Topics Undoing Commands 3-16 Working with HFSS Projects . or undone. do one of the following: • • 2.

click Close. A message appears telling you the update was successful. Click Update. 4. The Update Definitions dialog box appears. 5. select the types of definitions you want to show in the Item List list. • • 3. Click OK to close the message. 2. Click Tools>Update Definitions. Select the item you want to update from the Item List list.HFSS Online Help Updating Design Components To update components defined in the current design: 1. When you are finished updating definitions. Working with HFSS Projects3-17 . 6. Show Items with newer definitions Show All Items From the Show Types list in the List Options section. Click the Select All or Unselect All buttons to select or clear all items listed. Select one of the following two radio buttons.

3. the icon is removed from the project tree. Select a project or design in the project tree in Project Manage Window to enable the menu command Edit>Paste. 1. Click Edit>Copy. 2. Click Edit>Delete. 2. Select a project or design in the project tree in Project Manage Window to enable the menu command Edit>Delete. Press Enter to complete the rename. Confirm the warning box to complete the delete operation. The project or design is pasted under the selected project. To paste a project or design: Rename a Project or Design 1. Click Rename in the shortcut menu.HFSS Online Help Managing Projects and Designs Copy and Paste a Project or Design To copy a project or design: 1. Delete a Project or Design 3-18 Working with HFSS Projects . 1. Select a project or design in the project tree in Project Manage Window to enable the menu command Edit>Copy. Define the new name for the design by typing it directly into the Project Window. Click Edit>Paste. 3. 2. an icon is added to the project tree. Right click the design icon to display the shortcut menu. 2. 4. as shown. The project or design is copied for pasting. or the Delete key.

Click HFSS>Validation Check . HFSS checks the project setup.HFSS Online Help Validating Projects Before you run an analysis on a model. Indicates the step may require your attention. When you perform a validation check on a project. 3. To perform a validation check on the active project: 1. carefully review the setup details for that particular step and revise them as necessary. it is very important that you first perform a validation check on the project. The following icons can appear next to an item: Indicates the step is complete. Indicates the step is incomplete. View any messages in the Message Manager window. HFSS runs a check on all the setup details of the active project to verify that all the necessary steps have been completed and their parameters are reasonable. 4. and then the Validation Check window appears. View the results of the validation check in the Validation Check window. If the validation check indicates that a step in your project is incomplete or incorrect. 2. Working with HFSS Projects3-19 .

Select Modeler->Validation Settings. thereby prohibiting a design from proceeding to the meshing stage of an analysis. Some faults are flagged as model errors (basic entity check errors). There are three levels of model validation that a user can specify for a given design: Warning Only. or warning only. All model faults that are found during 3D Model validation are posted to the message window. strict. 3. The Strict entity check setting enforces a tighter tolerance for model faults than the "Warning Only" and "Basic" settings. Related Topics Model Analysis Analyze Objects Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh 3-20 Working with HFSS Projects . Click HFSS>Validation Check to run a validation check after you have revised any setup details for an incomplete or incorrect project step. • To set the Model Validation level: 1. The Basic entity check setting allows most models to pass 3D Model validation. You must either correct such errors before attempting to analyze the design under the Basic setting. These faults are posted in the message window as warnings. 2. This displays the Validation Settings dialog that lets you set the validation as basic.HFSS Online Help 5. Basic. or you must change the Model Validation level to Basic or Warning Only. Modeler Validation Settings Related Topics Modeler Validation Settings You can adjust the degree to which the software checks a model for faults that could jeopardize mesh accuracy. • • The Warning Only entity check setting allows all models to pass 3D Model validation regardless of any faults that are found (acis_entity check errors). This excuses non-manifold errors and most acis_entity_check errors. Choose the desired level of validation from the Entity Check Level drop down menu. Note that this setting affects only the "3D Model" stage of a design validation. Click OK to accept the selection and close the dialog. 6. and Strict. These errors must be corrected before attempting to analyze the design under the Strict setting. You can also click the Save as Default button to make the current selection the default. You can select the Restore Default button. or you must change the Model Validation level to Warning Only. Click Close.

HFSS Online Help Heal Healing State On: Validation Check Show Analysis dialog Align Faces Remove Faces Remove Edges Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Working with HFSS Projects3-21 .

dxf) format). Select Ansoft 2D Geometry Files (*. you must create a relative coordinate system to redefine the location of the origin.dxf) from the Save as type pull-down list. Related Topics Exporting 3D Model Files Exporting Graphics Files Exporting 3D Model Files You can export HFSS or HFSS-IE 3D models to 3D model file formats: To export a file to a 3D model format: 1.HFSS Online Help Exporting Files You can export the following types of files from HFSS or HFSS-IE: • • • • Ansoft 2D modeler files 3D model files Graphics files Data tables Related Topics Exporting Matrix Data Exporting Equivalent Circuit Data Exporting 2D Geometry Files When you export a file in a 2D geometry format (the Ansoft 2D Modeler (.sm2 or . 5. 3. The file is exported to the specified location with the appropriate file format. 2. See Creating a Relative Coordinate System for more information. the geometry located within the xy plane is exported. Enter the name of the file in the File name box. Click Modeler>Export to save the file in an Ansoft 2D Modeler format. 3.dxf format: 1. Select the desired 3D model file format from the Save as type pull-down list.sm2) format or the AutoCAD DXF (. 4. Note If you want to export a plane that does not coincide with the global xy plane. Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. 3-22 Working with HFSS Projects . 2. The Export File dialog box appears.sm2) or AutoCAD DXF Files (*. 4. Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. Type the name of the file in the File name box. Click Modeler>Export to save the file in a 3D model format. Click Save. To export a file to a .

other information is ignored. • • If the model has been defined with layers. the Layermap button opens a browser for you to open that file before export. There is a checkbox to specify whether to include the layer in the exported file. Unless you selected GDSII. AN additional license is required. and then click OK.iges. In a *. .9 to 4. the GDSII Export dialog appears.igs GDSII files Industry standard Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files.dxf. . Elevation in units.sm3. The *. Standard ACIS binary. If you selected . .layermap file can have the same format as the . Click Save.dwg .HFSS Online Help 5. those layers are listed by layer number in the table.stp 6. Industry standard AP203 STEP files.gds . Do the following: • 7.4 . If you selected GDSII. the file is exported to the specified location as a 3D model file. . AutoCAD Drawing Interchange Format files.sm3 .sab . .tech file used in GDSII import.sm2 . Click an ACIS version in which to export the model from the ACIS SM3 Version pulldown list. If you have defined a layer map file for the model. .x_b.layermap file is a text file that maps the GDSII layer numbers to layer names in the stackup. Layer Number.2.exp .1. Parasolid Text Files .layermap file.sat . The file is exported to the specified location as a 3D model file Extension Contents ACIS geometry solid model files.CATIA 4.step.Catia V4 Export Files . Ansoft 2D Geometry File Ansoft 3D Modeler files in ACIS version 2. Parasolid Binary Files. the Select Version dialog box appears. but it only needs the layer name and number in the file.x_t . Click Save. with columns for Layer Name.0 or greater. Working with HFSS Projects3-23 .model.model . An additional license is required. The *.

Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) files. check a radio button to select either No Limit to the number of vertices or Limit the number of vertices to a specified value. Click the OK button in the GDSII Export dialog to complete the export. Type the name of the file in the File name box. Graphics Interchange Format files.wrl Bitmap files. Contents To export a file to a graphics format: 1. specify a value or accept the default. 2. 5. Related Topics Exporting 2D Model Files Exporting Graphics Files Importing 3D Model Files Importing GDSII Format Files Export Results to Thermal Link for ANSYS Mechanical Exporting Graphics Files You can export the following graphics formats: Extension .tiff . Click Modeler>Export to save the file in a graphics format. 3. In the Polygon Vertices area. Related Topics Exporting 2D Model Files Exporting 3D Model Files 3-24 Working with HFSS Projects .gif .jpeg .HFSS Online Help • • 8. Tagged Image File Format files. The file is exported to the specified location as a graphics file. 4. For Arc tolerance.bmp . Select the desired graphics file format from the Save as type pull-down list. Joint Photographics Experts Group files. Click Save. Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. The file is exported to the specified location.

2. The file is exported to the specified location as a data table file. The Export plot data to file dialog box appears. Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. right-click on the data table.dat 5. Type the name of the file in the File name box.HFSS Online Help Exporting Data Table Files You must have an existing plot open to see the Report2D menu.csv . • Alternatively. and then click Export to File on the shortcut menu. Select one of the following file formats from the Save as type pull-down list: Extension . 4.tab . 1.txt . Contents Post processor format file Comma-delimited data file Tab-separated file Ansoft plot data file Click Save. Related Topics Exporting Matrix Data Exporting Equivalent Circuit Data Working with HFSS Projects3-25 . Click Report2D>Export to File. 3.

3.gds) or Ansoft 2D Geometry Files (*.gds .HFSS Online Help Importing Files You can import the following types of files to HFSS or HFSS-IE: • • • • • • 2D model files 3D model files Solution data files Data table files HFSS or HFSS-IE Plot Data Plot Data The import dialog contains a check box for the Heal command which is enabled by default. the file is added to the existing model. 2. The file is imported into the active Modeler window. To import a 2D model file: 1.sm2). this would be either GDSII Files (*.sm2 Contents GDSII is a standard file format for 2D graphical design layout data. Click Modeler>Import. 4. 3-26 Working with HFSS Projects . Ansoft 2D Modeler files. Related Topics Exporting Files Importing 2D Model Files You can read 2D model files directly into the active Modeler window: Note If you import a file into an active Modeler window that contains an existing model. The Import File dialog box appears. Extension . Use the file browser to find and select the file you want to import. Click Open. Select a file type from the Files of type pull-down list. it will not replace it. For 2D model files.

See Creating a Relative Coordinate System for more information. they will import into the current XY or XZ plane depending upon how they were originally created.sm2 files. If you want to import them in a specific orientation other than the current XY or XZ plane. The process for importing GDSII format files into the HFSS or HFSS-IE uses a single dialog box: GDSII Structures Panel Working with HFSS Projects3-27 . Related Topics Importing 3D Model Files Importing GDSII Format Files Importing GDSII Format Files See the introductory topic Importing 2D Model Files for the initial steps in the process of importing 2D data.HFSS Online Help Note When importing . you must first create a relative coordinate system with the planes in the desired orientation.

Use the Import check boxes in the All GDSII Layers panel to select the layers to import. The Descendants panel shows the sub-layouts in the selected top-level designs. 1. Use a text editor to create a text file that maps the GDSII layer numbers to layer names in the stackup. HFSS always flattens any hierarchical geometry in the GDSII. The default units is nm.tech suffix. Nodes Field GDSII supports nodes and boundaries as separate data types. GDSII layers are identified by layer numbers. General Field The Flatten hierarchy checkbox is automatically selected. The layer mapping file must have a . Descendants Panel The GDSII file is hierarchical and may contain many sub-layouts. 1. Layers for structurename Panel The Layers for structurename panel shows the layers for the (most recently) highlighted top level structure [structurename]. All Layers Panel The All Layers panel lists all the layers from all the structures in the file. To create and use the mapping. 2.tech format: • • • / is the comment character Units may be specified with a line UNITS <string> before the lines of layer information. The default is to convert data type nodes to data type boundary. you can create a mapping of the GDSII layer numbers to layer names in the design stackup. boundaries represent polygons. Clicking on the Select checkbox in the GDSII Structures panel both highlights the structure and selects that top-level structure to be imported. HFSS or HFSS-IE creates multiple designs under the current project. Import Method Field Use the radio button to select the import method as Script of Acis Layer Mapping Field If desired. When multiple structures are imported. Click on a structure name in the GDSII Structures panel to highlight it. Use the radio buttons to select Convert to boundaries or Ignore. Normally. The . Each layer is specified by a line that contains <import layer> <product layer> <layer color> <layer elevation> <layer thickness> where: 3-28 Working with HFSS Projects . HFSS can either convert objects that use the nodes data type to boundary types.HFSS Online Help The GDSII file may contain several top level structures. You can drag and drop the layers in the list to change the vertical stackup of layers. one for each of the GDSII structures. <string> is any of the allowed desktop length units. or can ignore them.

it is used as part of the name for objects imported from this DXF layer. 230}. FloralWhite RBG = { 255. 230}. 245. floral white RBG = { 255. 245}. 245. 240}. 245. In HFSS. 230}. This specifies the layout layer in Designer. 248. You can use the Save button to save a layer mapping file with the current settings. 220}. 245. 250.double <layer height> .double 2. For example: UNITS um / / -----------------------------------------------------------/ import# S12 TR S3 3. The file is imported into the active Modeler window. Working with HFSS Projects3-29 .A string from the choices listed here. antique white RBG = { 250. old lace RBG = { 253. <layer color> . GhostWhite RBG = { 248. 255}. 240}. OldLace RBG = { 253.the name to map the DXF layer to. Tech File Colors with RGB Values Color string choices with corresponding RBG values snow RBG = { 255. 240. AntiqueWhite RBG = { 250. gainsboro RBG = { 220. 235.the name of the DXF layer <destination layer> . Click OK. white smoke RBG = { 245. 215}. WhiteSmoke RBG = { 245. 220. 250}. destination signal12 trace signal3 Color blue red yellow Elevation 1100 6620 8150 Thickness 530 530 2000 / ----------------------------------------------------------- Click the Open button in the Layer mapping panel to locate and open an existing layer mapping file. 250. for example. 215}. 245}. 250. 248.HFSS Online Help <import layer> . blue2 <layer elevation> . 255}. 4. ghost white RBG = { 248. 235. linen RBG = { 250.

255}. 255}. 222. ivory RBG = { 255. lavender RBG = { 230. 222. 235. PapayaWhip RBG = { 255. 255. BlanchedAlmond RBG = { 255. 79}. 79. 240. 105}. bisque RBG = { 255. 0}. 196}. misty rose RBG = { 255. PeachPuff RBG = { 255. 79. 235. 181}. 105. 255. MistyRose RBG = { 255. 213}. 205}. 255}. 255. NavajoWhite RBG = { 255. 185}. 205}. 250}. 240}. DarkSlateGrey RBG = { 47. 105. 3-30 Working with HFSS Projects . lavender blush RBG = { 255. dark slate grey RBG = { 47. 250}. LemonChiffon RBG = { 255. 228. 79}. 205}. 228. 173}. 255}. 250. dim gray RBG = { 105. black RBG = { 0. 225}. DimGray RBG = { 105. 218. 248. 248. 228. lemon chiffon RBG = { 255. 245. 0. 240}. AliceBlue RBG = { 240. 79. 105. 230. mint cream RBG = { 245. 79}. honeydew RBG = { 240. 79}. 218. 173}.HFSS Online Help papaya whip RBG = { 255. 255. 255. 105}. 213}. 79. LavenderBlush RBG = { 255. 220}. DarkSlateGray RBG = { 47. 245}. white RBG = { 255. 255. cornsilk RBG = { 255. 239. 240. 250}. peach puff RBG = { 255. seashell RBG = { 255. 245}. 225}. 228. navajo white RBG = { 255. 238}. azure RBG = { 240. 105}. 205}. 250. 248. alice blue RBG = { 240. dim grey RBG = { 105. 239. 185}. moccasin RBG = { 255. MintCream RBG = { 245. blanched almond RBG = { 255. dark slate gray RBG = { 47.

104. cornflower blue RBG = { 100. 61. midnight blue RBG = { 25. MediumSlateBlue RBG = { 123. NavyBlue RBG = { 0. 153}. 211}. 255}. 238}. Working with HFSS Projects3-31 . 105. 255}. 128}. 211. 128. slate blue RBG = { 106. 153}. 0. 190. 105. 205}. slate gray RBG = { 112.HFSS Online Help DimGrey RBG = { 105. 136. 128. 153}. 211. 128. medium blue RBG = { 0. navy blue RBG = { 0. 205}. 211}. 139}. SlateBlue RBG = { 106. light slate gray RBG = { 119. light gray RBG = { 211. SlateGrey RBG = { 112. royal blue RBG = { 65. 211}. 225}. grey RBG = { 190. MidnightBlue RBG = { 25. 136. 128. 144}. 112}. 144}. 128}. 237}. 112}. 112. 190}. 144}. 153}. 190}. SlateGray RBG = { 112. gray RBG = { 190. LightSlateGray RBG = { 119. 112. 205}. light slate grey RBG = { 119. light grey RBG = { 211. 0. 149. 136. 211}. 136. LightSlateBlue RBG = { 132. MediumBlue RBG = { 0. 139}. DarkSlateBlue RBG = { 72. navy RBG = { 0. 0. 90. CornflowerBlue RBG = { 100. 149. 0. LightSlateGrey RBG = { 119. RoyalBlue RBG = { 65. 105}. 237}. 25. 190. 225}. 211. 61. medium slate blue RBG = { 123. 238}. 128}. 205}. slate grey RBG = { 112. 90. 25. dark slate blue RBG = { 72. LightGrey RBG = { 211. 255}. 104. 0. blue RBG = { 0. LightGray RBG = { 211. 144}. 0. light slate blue RBG = { 132. 211. 105.

222}. aquamarine RBG = { 127. 250}. 196. 191. sky blue RBG = { 135. 47}. 238. 230}. 160}. 144. cadet blue RBG = { 95. 255}. 216. 224. 191. LightSkyBlue RBG = { 135. 255. light steel blue RBG = { 176. 130. 255. 180}. 250}. 204}. deep sky blue RBG = { 0. 158. 170}. DarkGreen RBG = { 0. 222}. LightCyan RBG = { 224. SkyBlue RBG = { 135. 47}. 224. light sky blue RBG = { 135. CadetBlue RBG = { 95.HFSS Online Help dodger blue RBG = { 30. 144. 255}. 235}. 208}. 209. 238}. powder blue RBG = { 176. 100. 205. 206. 3-32 Working with HFSS Projects . SteelBlue RBG = { 70. 230}. 206. DarkOliveGreen RBG = { 85. 255. 100. 230}. turquoise RBG = { 64. 209. DarkTurquoise RBG = { 0. 206. dark turquoise RBG = { 0. 224. 196. 205. 216. dark olive green RBG = { 85. 180}. 255. 235}. MediumAquamarine RBG = { 102. 107. 255}. steel blue RBG = { 70. 230}. 209}. 212}. PowderBlue RBG = { 176. 107. 170}. DeepSkyBlue RBG = { 0. PaleTurquoise RBG = { 175. 238}. 0}. 130. 206. dark green RBG = { 0. pale turquoise RBG = { 175. light cyan RBG = { 224. 160}. 255}. 204}. 238. light blue RBG = { 173. 0}. 255}. LightBlue RBG = { 173. LightSteelBlue RBG = { 176. cyan RBG = { 0. medium aquamarine RBG = { 102. DodgerBlue RBG = { 30. 158. medium turquoise RBG = { 72. 206. 206. 209}. 255}. MediumTurquoise RBG = { 72. 255}.

50}. 255. 0}. pale goldenrod RBG = { 238. 34}. 107}. 152}. OliveDrab RBG = { 107. 50}. 210}. 152}. lime green RBG = { 50. green yellow RBG = { 173. 170}. 127}. 35}. LimeGreen RBG = { 50. 188. 205. 232. olive drab RBG = { 107. 127}. 251. 50}. 113}. 107}. 139. 87}. 250. 250. 179. 210}. LightSeaGreen RBG = { 32. 87}. YellowGreen RBG = { 154. 139. LightGoldenrodYellow RBG = { 250. 140}. pale green RBG = { 152. 47}. light sea green RBG = { 32. chartreuse RBG = { 127. forest green RBG = { 34. 183. 154}. 142. 252. 205. PaleGreen RBG = { 152. Working with HFSS Projects3-33 . 170}. 142. spring green RBG = { 0. 34}. 143}. medium sea green RBG = { 60. 47}. 255. 139. 232. medium spring green RBG = { 0. 35}. 255. DarkKhaki RBG = { 189. dark khaki RBG = { 189. 179. 50}. 178. MediumSeaGreen RBG = { 60. sea green RBG = { 46. 154}. 170}. 170}. 250. lawn green RBG = { 124. 255. 251. GreenYellow RBG = { 173. 255. green RBG = { 0. 139. 183. LawnGreen RBG = { 124. 0}. khaki RBG = { 240. 230. PaleGoldenrod RBG = { 238. 0}. 188. DarkSeaGreen RBG = { 143.HFSS Online Help dark sea green RBG = { 143. 250. light goldenrod yellow RBG = { 250. 178. SpringGreen RBG = { 0. MediumSpringGreen RBG = { 0. 205. ForestGreen RBG = { 34. yellow green RBG = { 154. 205. SeaGreen RBG = { 46. 143}. 0}. 252. 113}. 255.

LightYellow RBG = { 255. brown RBG = { 165. gold RBG = { 255. 140. 45}. 221. sienna RBG = { 160. coral RBG = { 255. 63}. 69. 11}. 92}. 30}. sandy brown RBG = { 244. 224}. 130}. 3-34 Working with HFSS Projects . LightSalmon RBG = { 255. 19}. 96}. 122}. 82. RosyBrown RBG = { 188. 0}. 143. IndianRed RBG = { 205. 92. 255. 114}. 165. 0}. dark salmon RBG = { 233. light goldenrod RBG = { 238. wheat RBG = { 245. 0}. SandyBrown RBG = { 244. 122}. DarkOrange RBG = { 255. dark orange RBG = { 255. 19}. 96}. peru RBG = { 205. 130}. 164. rosy brown RBG = { 188. 160. yellow RBG = { 255. 127. 135}. 222. DarkSalmon RBG = { 233. 34}. 140}. indian red RBG = { 205. chocolate RBG = { 210. 220}. 134. 32}. light salmon RBG = { 255. 133. 80}.HFSS Online Help light yellow RBG = { 255. 34. 224}. saddle brown RBG = { 139. 221. 255. 215. 180. 122}. DarkGoldenrod RBG = { 184. 92. 160. 42}. 164. 11}. 150. 0}. LightGoldenrod RBG = { 238. 134. salmon RBG = { 250. goldenrod RBG = { 218. beige RBG = { 245. 143. SaddleBrown RBG = { 139. 0}. orange RBG = { 255. 143}. 128. 122}. burlywood RBG = { 222. 255. 69. 150. 143}. firebrick RBG = { 178. 105. 140. dark goldenrod RBG = { 184. tan RBG = { 210. 184. 179}. 42. 245. 92}. 165.

dark orchid RBG = { 153. 147}. 71}. 85. purple RBG = { 160. 21. pink RBG = { 255. 32. PaleVioletRed RBG = { 219. 130. BlueViolet RBG = { 138. violet RBG = { 238. 219}. DarkOrchid RBG = { 153. 192. 85. 112. 21. 214}. MediumVioletRed RBG = { 199. LightCoral RBG = { 240. 128. 133}. 226}. tomato RBG = { 255. medium orchid RBG = { 186. blue violet RBG = { 138. 147}. 182. 180}. 0}. 211}. 105. dark violet RBG = { 148. 238}. Working with HFSS Projects3-35 . MediumPurple RBG = { 147. 99. 144}. 133}. MediumOrchid RBG = { 186. 144}. 128}. hot pink RBG = { 255. 69. magenta RBG = { 255. 0. 128}. 255}. deep pink RBG = { 255. 50. 20. 221}. medium violet red RBG = { 199. 48. 193}. 20. 204}. OrangeRed RBG = { 255. orange red RBG = { 255. 204}. 112. 211}. 0. 105. 69. pale violet red RBG = { 219. 147}. light pink RBG = { 255. 32. 0}. 0. 112. 211}. 96}. 203}. 32. 43. 240}. 112. LightPink RBG = { 255. 219}. 182. medium purple RBG = { 147.HFSS Online Help light coral RBG = { 240. 226}. HotPink RBG = { 255. 128. 50. 180}. 160. violet red RBG = { 208. red RBG = { 255. DeepPink RBG = { 255. 112. 0}. plum RBG = { 221. maroon RBG = { 176. 147}. VioletRed RBG = { 208. 43. 211}. 0. 193}. DarkViolet RBG = { 148. orchid RBG = { 218.

232. seashell3 RBG = { 205. 179. PeachPuff2 RBG = { 238. 183. 224}. seashell1 RBG = { 255. 201. 94}. snow4 RBG = { 139. seashell4 RBG = { 139. 229.HFSS Online Help thistle RBG = { 216. 134. 125. PeachPuff3 RBG = { 205. 175. 204}. ivory2 RBG = { 238. 137. 207. 136. ivory1 RBG = { 255. bisque1 RBG = { 255. 158}. NavajoWhite2 RBG = { 238. 173}. 205}. 250. PeachPuff1 RBG = { 255. 233. 183}. 177}. 191. 233. 191}. 131. 112}. 137. 216}. AntiqueWhite2 RBG = { 238. 245. 233}. 192. 255. 219}. 121. LemonChiffon2 RBG = { 238. NavajoWhite4 RBG = { 139. 201}. snow1 RBG = { 255. LemonChiffon4 RBG = { 139. 250. snow3 RBG = { 205. LemonChiffon1 RBG = { 255. bisque2 RBG = { 238. 250}. 191}. bisque4 RBG = { 139. 173}. 119. 120}. 139}. 239. NavajoWhite3 RBG = { 205. 200. LemonChiffon3 RBG = { 205. AntiqueWhite4 RBG = { 139. 205}. 120}. 185}. 107}. 222. 238}. 176}. 201. 218. seashell2 RBG = { 238. 222}. 137}. 203. 101}. 130}. 197. 228. AntiqueWhite3 RBG = { 205. PeachPuff4 RBG = { 139. 238. 223. bisque3 RBG = { 205. 213. cornsilk4 RBG = { 139. snow2 RBG = { 238. AntiqueWhite1 RBG = { 255. cornsilk1 RBG = { 255. 240}. 161}. cornsilk2 RBG = { 238. 220}. 149}. NavajoWhite1 RBG = { 255. 196}. 248. 3-36 Working with HFSS Projects . cornsilk3 RBG = { 205. 165}.

139. LavenderBlush4 RBG = { 139. 0. 193. 210}. 123}. 0. SlateBlue2 RBG = { 122. 144. 139}. RoyalBlue3 RBG = { 58. MistyRose2 RBG = { 238. blue2 RBG = { 0. 245}. 139}. 238}. DodgerBlue1 RBG = { 30. LavenderBlush1 RBG = { 255. RoyalBlue1 RBG = { 72. 205. 60. 131}. 134}. 238}. 238. 205}. 205. Working with HFSS Projects3-37 . 255}. honeydew4 RBG = { 131. SlateBlue3 RBG = { 105. azure3 RBG = { 193. azure4 RBG = { 131. 238}. 110. 139. 255}. 205}. 205}. 205. 238}. azure1 RBG = { 240. SlateBlue4 RBG = { 71. 64. blue1 RBG = { 0. 139}. 183. azure2 RBG = { 224. MistyRose1 RBG = { 255. 89. 197}. 255}. 255. 225}. 205}. 134. DodgerBlue3 RBG = { 24. RoyalBlue2 RBG = { 67. blue3 RBG = { 0. blue4 RBG = { 0. 118. 240}. LavenderBlush3 RBG = { 205. honeydew2 RBG = { 224. DodgerBlue2 RBG = { 28. 181}. 238. 139}. ivory4 RBG = { 139. 240. 184. 125. 116. 95. SlateBlue1 RBG = { 131. MistyRose4 RBG = { 139. 205}. honeydew1 RBG = { 240. 255. 228. 103.HFSS Online Help ivory3 RBG = { 205. DodgerBlue4 RBG = { 16. SteelBlue1 RBG = { 99. LavenderBlush2 RBG = { 238. honeydew3 RBG = { 193. 255}. 213. MistyRose3 RBG = { 205. 224}. 193}. 238}. 224. 131. 78. 0. 229}. 255}. 111. 0. RoyalBlue4 RBG = { 39. 193}. 255}. 131}. 139}. 139.

100. SlateGray2 RBG = { 185. 112. 123. 205}. LightCyan1 RBG = { 224. 139. LightSkyBlue3 RBG = { 141. 205. SlateGray4 RBG = { 108. 191. 182. LightSkyBlue2 RBG = { 164. 205}. SkyBlue1 RBG = { 135. 192. 3-38 Working with HFSS Projects . 139. 178. 139}. 238}. 131. SkyBlue4 RBG = { 74. 205}. 211. DeepSkyBlue1 RBG = { 0. 139}. LightBlue2 RBG = { 178. SkyBlue2 RBG = { 126. 239. 205}. 226. 255}. 255}. 205}. 225. 139}. 148. 139}. 255}. SteelBlue4 RBG = { 54. 154. LightCyan3 RBG = { 180. PaleTurquoise3 RBG = { 150. SkyBlue3 RBG = { 108. LightSkyBlue1 RBG = { 176. 238}. 139}. 238}. 123. 238}. LightBlue1 RBG = { 191. PaleTurquoise4 RBG = { 102. 192. 238}. 139}. DeepSkyBlue4 RBG = { 0. LightCyan2 RBG = { 209. 172. 139}. 205}. 255}. 238}. 238}. 139}. 205}. LightSteelBlue2 RBG = { 188. LightSteelBlue3 RBG = { 162. 123. 238. 205}. 211. 166. 139}. 226. 181. DeepSkyBlue3 RBG = { 0. LightCyan4 RBG = { 122. LightSkyBlue4 RBG = { 96. 223. DeepSkyBlue2 RBG = { 0. 255. 255}. 255}. 238}. LightSteelBlue1 RBG = { 202. 210.HFSS Online Help SteelBlue2 RBG = { 92. SlateGray1 RBG = { 198. 182. 255}. LightBlue4 RBG = { 104. 205. LightBlue3 RBG = { 154. 206. SlateGray3 RBG = { 159. 255}. 205}. 104. 238}. LightSteelBlue4 RBG = { 110. PaleTurquoise1 RBG = { 187. SteelBlue3 RBG = { 79. 238. PaleTurquoise2 RBG = { 174. 255.

DarkSeaGreen2 RBG = { 180. 205. SpringGreen1 RBG = { 0. 238}. aquamarine1 RBG = { 127. 205}. 205}. 159}. 255}. 205. DarkSlateGray1 RBG = { 151. DarkSlateGray4 RBG = { 82. turquoise3 RBG = { 0. 229. CadetBlue4 RBG = { 83. CadetBlue2 RBG = { 142. Working with HFSS Projects3-39 . 105}. 128}. 255. 118}. SeaGreen4 RBG = { 46. 134. 139. 139. cyan1 RBG = { 0. 155}. 205. 127}. 238}. 238. 255}. turquoise2 RBG = { 0. DarkSlateGray3 RBG = { 121. aquamarine2 RBG = { 118. SpringGreen3 RBG = { 0. 238. DarkSlateGray2 RBG = { 141. 139}. 148}. 144}. PaleGreen2 RBG = { 144.HFSS Online Help CadetBlue1 RBG = { 152. 170}. 124}. DarkSeaGreen1 RBG = { 193. 205. DarkSeaGreen4 RBG = { 105. 212}. 205}. 84}. 238}. 154}. 229. 134. DarkSeaGreen3 RBG = { 155. turquoise1 RBG = { 0. 238. 139}. 139. 198}. 102}. cyan3 RBG = { 0. 255. PaleGreen1 RBG = { 154. aquamarine4 RBG = { 69. 255}. 255. 205. 116}. 139. 139}. 255. 139. 255. 193}. SeaGreen3 RBG = { 67. 238. aquamarine3 RBG = { 102. 255. 245. PaleGreen4 RBG = { 84. 238}. 238. 197. 180}. CadetBlue3 RBG = { 122. 139. 238. 205. turquoise4 RBG = { 0. cyan2 RBG = { 0. 139}. 205}. SeaGreen2 RBG = { 78. 205. 87}. 255. SeaGreen1 RBG = { 84. 238. 197. PaleGreen3 RBG = { 124. SpringGreen2 RBG = { 0. cyan4 RBG = { 0. 255}. 245.

134. 238. green3 RBG = { 0. DarkOliveGreen3 RBG = { 162. 0}. 255. 129. khaki2 RBG = { 238. 224}. yellow2 RBG = { 238. 0}. 0}. 139. 205. 255. 112}. 246. OliveDrab4 RBG = { 105. 205. 209}. DarkOliveGreen4 RBG = { 110. 139. 61}. 69}.HFSS Online Help SpringGreen4 RBG = { 0. 62}. 230. 198. chartreuse4 RBG = { 69. 139. 201. 238. 205. 238. 130}. 143}. chartreuse1 RBG = { 127. 0}. DarkOliveGreen1 RBG = { 202. 255. 139}. 0}. LightGoldenrod1 RBG = { 255. 122}. LightYellow3 RBG = { 205. LightYellow1 RBG = { 255. green2 RBG = { 0. green1 RBG = { 0. 34}. yellow1 RBG = { 255. 236. 220. 139. OliveDrab1 RBG = { 192. 0}. 180}. 0}. 90}. 112}. 104}. khaki1 RBG = { 255. DarkOliveGreen2 RBG = { 188. 3-40 Working with HFSS Projects . LightGoldenrod2 RBG = { 238. 139. chartreuse3 RBG = { 102. khaki4 RBG = { 139. 205. 0}. 58}. 0}. OliveDrab3 RBG = { 154. 133}. 0}. yellow3 RBG = { 205. 255. chartreuse2 RBG = { 118. OliveDrab2 RBG = { 179. gold1 RBG = { 255. 78}. 115}. 50}. 139. 205. LightGoldenrod4 RBG = { 139. LightYellow4 RBG = { 139. 205. 255. LightGoldenrod3 RBG = { 205. LightYellow2 RBG = { 238. 238. 0}. 76}. yellow4 RBG = { 139. 238. 0}. khaki3 RBG = { 205. 0}. gold2 RBG = { 238. 0}. 139. 238. 255. 190. 215. green4 RBG = { 0.

wheat3 RBG = { 205. 85}. tan3 RBG = { 205. RosyBrown4 RBG = { 139. tan2 RBG = { 238. wheat4 RBG = { 139. 43}. 37}. sienna4 RBG = { 139. 58}. 193. 193. 155. 66}. 36}. 34}. 197. IndianRed4 RBG = { 139. goldenrod3 RBG = { 205. 173. 0}. 99. 58. RosyBrown1 RBG = { 255. 8}. 104. 106. RosyBrown2 RBG = { 238. IndianRed3 RBG = { 205. goldenrod2 RBG = { 238. 155. 115. 121. RosyBrown3 RBG = { 205. 90. wheat2 RBG = { 238. 180. 79}. gold4 RBG = { 139. 180. burlywood1 RBG = { 255. 125}. 106}. 173. 165. 149. 85. tan4 RBG = { 139. 105. 155}. 231. 180}. 185. 15}. 105. 155}. IndianRed1 RBG = { 255. DarkGoldenrod3 RBG = { 205. DarkGoldenrod2 RBG = { 238. 150}. 186. 71}. 130. 63}. chocolate1 RBG = { 255. 73}. 216. burlywood3 RBG = { 205. 145}. goldenrod1 RBG = { 255. 193}. 102}. 85}. 29}. 154. tan1 RBG = { 255. 105}. 0}. 99}. 12}. goldenrod4 RBG = { 139. wheat1 RBG = { 255. 20}. 57}. 71. 127. 170. burlywood4 RBG = { 139. DarkGoldenrod4 RBG = { 139. burlywood2 RBG = { 238. 133.HFSS Online Help gold3 RBG = { 205. Working with HFSS Projects3-41 . 126. 38}. 211. 14}. 101. sienna1 RBG = { 255. sienna2 RBG = { 238. 117. DarkGoldenrod1 RBG = { 255. 174}. 186}. IndianRed2 RBG = { 238. sienna3 RBG = { 205.

51. 98}. 92. orange4 RBG = { 139. 0}. 26. 130. brown2 RBG = { 238. 114. orange2 RBG = { 238. 0}. 66}. 69. 149. salmon1 RBG = { 255. 91. coral4 RBG = { 139. 29}. tomato1 RBG = { 255. 59. 118. 122}. brown3 RBG = { 205. 64}. 38}. 19}. 105}. 3-42 Working with HFSS Projects . DarkOrange4 RBG = { 139. brown1 RBG = { 255. 90. 51}. 127. 47}. 0}. DarkOrange2 RBG = { 238. chocolate4 RBG = { 139. 44}. 87. coral2 RBG = { 238. firebrick2 RBG = { 238. 84}. 69. 79. 0}. 140. 57}. 154. 48. 66}. 33}. firebrick1 RBG = { 255. 38}. 102. 0}. 76. orange3 RBG = { 205. chocolate3 RBG = { 205. 26}. DarkOrange1 RBG = { 255. 98}.HFSS Online Help chocolate2 RBG = { 238. 0}. 133. coral1 RBG = { 255. tomato2 RBG = { 238. 80}. LightSalmon3 RBG = { 205. tomato3 RBG = { 205. LightSalmon4 RBG = { 139. LightSalmon2 RBG = { 238. brown4 RBG = { 139. 48}. coral3 RBG = { 205. firebrick4 RBG = { 139. 38. 35}. 118. 0}. salmon4 RBG = { 139. LightSalmon1 RBG = { 255. 44. salmon3 RBG = { 205. 129. 57}. firebrick3 RBG = { 205. orange1 RBG = { 255. 114}. 99. 62. 59}. 106. 160. 112. 64. 0}. tomato4 RBG = { 139. 102. 35. salmon2 RBG = { 238. 71}. 69}. 165. DarkOrange3 RBG = { 205. 54. 86}.

Working with HFSS Projects3-43 . 0}. 158}. 93}. 20. pink4 RBG = { 139. DeepPink3 RBG = { 205. 140}. 173}. 48. 18. 181. red1 RBG = { 255. OrangeRed2 RBG = { 238. 80}. 96. maroon3 RBG = { 205. 106. red4 RBG = { 139. 58. PaleVioletRed1 RBG = { 255. HotPink2 RBG = { 238. 144}. DeepPink1 RBG = { 255. 10. 0. 108}. 50. 118}. 104. 185}. 0}. 120}. DeepPink2 RBG = { 238. HotPink4 RBG = { 139. LightPink3 RBG = { 205. 150}. 130. 144}. maroon1 RBG = { 255. LightPink4 RBG = { 139. LightPink2 RBG = { 238. 180}. 28. 0}. 99. red2 RBG = { 238. 169. VioletRed1 RBG = { 255. OrangeRed4 RBG = { 139. 0. PaleVioletRed2 RBG = { 238. PaleVioletRed4 RBG = { 139. 149}. pink3 RBG = { 205. 171}. VioletRed3 RBG = { 205. 179}.HFSS Online Help OrangeRed1 RBG = { 255. 137}. 184}. 0}. 110. HotPink1 RBG = { 255. 41. 159}. red3 RBG = { 205. 147}. PaleVioletRed3 RBG = { 205. pink1 RBG = { 255. 58. 69. 167}. 197}. 98}. 101}. 0. maroon2 RBG = { 238. 167}. 0}. 0}. 71. 0}. HotPink3 RBG = { 205. 137}. LightPink1 RBG = { 255. 62. pink2 RBG = { 238. 140. 55. 0}. 174. 145. 16. 162. 0. 98}. 64. DeepPink4 RBG = { 139. 95. 37. OrangeRed3 RBG = { 205. VioletRed2 RBG = { 238. maroon4 RBG = { 139. 52. 121.

233}. 255}. 238}. MediumPurple4 RBG = { 93. plum4 RBG = { 139. 187. 0. 255}. 34. purple2 RBG = { 145. 238}. 238}. 48. 82. 139}. grey0 RBG = { 0. thistle2 RBG = { 238. MediumOrchid4 RBG = { 122. orchid4 RBG = { 139. 225. MediumOrchid2 RBG = { 209. orchid3 RBG = { 205. purple3 RBG = { 125. 139}. magenta1 RBG = { 255. 139}. MediumPurple1 RBG = { 171. 0. plum1 RBG = { 255. 238}. 255}. plum2 RBG = { 238. 255}. 26. 205}. 122. 0}. 174. 205}. 0. 139}. 131. 71. 205}. 0. 50. DarkOrchid4 RBG = { 104. 238}. 62. 205}. 255}. 34. 130. DarkOrchid1 RBG = { 191. 139}. 105. 137}. 201}.HFSS Online Help VioletRed4 RBG = { 139. 181. magenta4 RBG = { 139. 238}. 121. thistle3 RBG = { 205. 210. MediumPurple3 RBG = { 137. 123. 0. 0}. 71. 205}. 238}. MediumPurple2 RBG = { 159. 0. orchid2 RBG = { 238. DarkOrchid3 RBG = { 154. 95. 255}. magenta3 RBG = { 205. 205}. 139}. thistle1 RBG = { 255. plum3 RBG = { 205. 150. purple1 RBG = { 155. 102. orchid1 RBG = { 255. 44. purple4 RBG = { 85. 102. 3-44 Working with HFSS Projects . 82}. 38. DarkOrchid2 RBG = { 178. 104. 250}. 58. MediumOrchid3 RBG = { 180. 255}. 205}. magenta2 RBG = { 238. 55. MediumOrchid1 RBG = { 224. thistle4 RBG = { 139. gray0 RBG = { 0. 139}.

gray2 RBG = { 5. 3}. 3. 18. 3}. 38}. grey2 RBG = { 5. Working with HFSS Projects3-45 . gray8 RBG = { 20. 31}. 33. gray9 RBG = { 23. 38}. gray12 RBG = { 31. gray13 RBG = { 33. 36. 8. grey10 RBG = { 26. 13. 31}. 28. 10}. 10. gray3 RBG = { 8. 10}. 13}. 33}. grey3 RBG = { 8. 28. 20}. 26}. 41. 38. 18}. grey14 RBG = { 36. 36. 41}. grey12 RBG = { 31. grey11 RBG = { 28. gray5 RBG = { 13. 15. 28}. gray14 RBG = { 36. 43}. 26}. grey9 RBG = { 23. 28}. grey13 RBG = { 33. gray15 RBG = { 38. 23. gray4 RBG = { 10. 38. 3. 20. gray17 RBG = { 43. grey8 RBG = { 20. 41}. 36}. 46. grey15 RBG = { 38. 33}. 20}. 18. 41. 15}. 26. 13}. grey7 RBG = { 18. 18}. grey1 RBG = { 3. gray7 RBG = { 18. 8. 20. 8}. gray6 RBG = { 15. 26. 46}. grey4 RBG = { 10. grey5 RBG = { 13. grey17 RBG = { 43. 43. 10. 43}. grey6 RBG = { 15. gray10 RBG = { 26. 31. 31. 23}. 5}. 8}.HFSS Online Help gray1 RBG = { 3. 15}. 5. 33. 15. 43. gray11 RBG = { 28. 36}. 13. 5. gray16 RBG = { 41. grey16 RBG = { 41. 23}. 5}. gray18 RBG = { 46. 23.

48. gray19 RBG = { 48. grey34 RBG = { 87. 71. grey32 RBG = { 82. 61}. 69}. 87}. 69. 51. 79. 74}. gray25 RBG = { 64. 46. 69. grey21 RBG = { 54. 87. gray24 RBG = { 61. gray23 RBG = { 59. 71}. 59}. gray21 RBG = { 54. grey35 RBG = { 89. 84}. 84. 64. 51}. grey19 RBG = { 48. 69}. grey20 RBG = { 51. 79. 64. gray28 RBG = { 71. 89}. 64}. 54}.HFSS Online Help grey18 RBG = { 46. grey30 RBG = { 77. gray34 RBG = { 87. 87}. 59}. 54. 89. gray32 RBG = { 82. 56. 51. grey23 RBG = { 59. grey25 RBG = { 64. 61}. 74. 61. 77. gray29 RBG = { 74. gray31 RBG = { 79. 51}. grey33 RBG = { 84. 77}. 82. 74. 66. 56}. gray22 RBG = { 56. grey22 RBG = { 56. 54. 89}. 71}. grey26 RBG = { 66. gray35 RBG = { 89. 61. 48}. 48}. 56. 84. gray27 RBG = { 69. 56}. 71. 77. grey28 RBG = { 71. 82}. 66. 87. 79}. 48. 59. 46}. 66}. 54}. 84}. grey27 RBG = { 69. grey29 RBG = { 74. gray33 RBG = { 84. grey31 RBG = { 79. 74}. 82}. 77}. 66}. gray26 RBG = { 66. 3-46 Working with HFSS Projects . 79}. grey24 RBG = { 61. gray20 RBG = { 51. 64}. 59. gray30 RBG = { 77. 89. 82.

122}. grey36 RBG = { 92. 115}. 102}. 117. 133}. grey45 RBG = { 115. 97. 97. 94}. 125}. 133. gray48 RBG = { 122. gray52 RBG = { 133. 112}. 94. gray39 RBG = { 99. 92}. 110}. 107. 112. 102}. 112}. 102. grey50 RBG = { 127. gray46 RBG = { 117. 115. grey52 RBG = { 133. 130}. gray40 RBG = { 102. grey46 RBG = { 117. 135. grey42 RBG = { 107. 125. grey38 RBG = { 97. 102. grey37 RBG = { 94. 97}. 112. grey44 RBG = { 112. Working with HFSS Projects3-47 . 115}. 127. gray49 RBG = { 125. gray43 RBG = { 110. 125}. 92. 110. 130}. 120. 130. grey49 RBG = { 125. 120. 99}. grey47 RBG = { 120. 135}. 117}. 94. 127}. gray41 RBG = { 105. 120}. 122. 92}. 107}. grey40 RBG = { 102. grey41 RBG = { 105. 115. 127. grey39 RBG = { 99. 107}. gray50 RBG = { 127. grey48 RBG = { 122. 133. gray37 RBG = { 94. 97}. 99}. 99. gray38 RBG = { 97. 105. gray45 RBG = { 115. gray47 RBG = { 120.HFSS Online Help gray36 RBG = { 92. 105}. grey51 RBG = { 130. 110. 117}. gray42 RBG = { 107. 107. 127}. 117. 133}. 105. 120}. 94}. gray44 RBG = { 112. 105}. 125. gray53 RBG = { 135. 99. 122}. gray51 RBG = { 130. 92. grey43 RBG = { 110. 110}. 122. 130.

gray56 RBG = { 143. gray57 RBG = { 145. grey57 RBG = { 145. gray55 RBG = { 140. 179. 3-48 Working with HFSS Projects . 150}. 150}. 140. grey59 RBG = { 150. 156. 158}. 163}. 171. 168}. 135}. gray64 RBG = { 163. gray65 RBG = { 166. 171}. grey56 RBG = { 143. 179}. 158}. grey63 RBG = { 161. 145. 176}. 148}. 168. grey67 RBG = { 171. 161}. 148}. grey69 RBG = { 176. 140. 158. grey60 RBG = { 153. 168}. 173. grey54 RBG = { 138. 173. gray66 RBG = { 168. 156. 179. grey58 RBG = { 148. 161. 168. 156}. gray68 RBG = { 173. 145. 145}. 166. gray60 RBG = { 153. 153}. 166}. 171. 138. 166}. 163. gray59 RBG = { 150. 163}. 161}. grey66 RBG = { 168.HFSS Online Help grey53 RBG = { 135. gray69 RBG = { 176. grey61 RBG = { 156. gray61 RBG = { 156. 158. 171}. 156}. grey70 RBG = { 179. 176}. 153}. 135. 140}. 143}. gray63 RBG = { 161. 143}. 150. grey62 RBG = { 158. gray54 RBG = { 138. 140}. 173}. gray58 RBG = { 148. 176. grey65 RBG = { 166. 176. 150. 148. grey64 RBG = { 163. 148. 161. 153. 143. 163. gray62 RBG = { 158. gray70 RBG = { 179. 138. 138}. grey55 RBG = { 140. 145}. grey68 RBG = { 173. 138}. gray67 RBG = { 171. 153. 166. 143. 179}. 173}.

199. 214}. 191. 186}. 199. 209}. grey77 RBG = { 196. 194. grey78 RBG = { 199. 217. 199}. gray82 RBG = { 209. 222. 181. 204. 196. 207. grey73 RBG = { 186. 207}. 224. grey76 RBG = { 194. gray80 RBG = { 204. gray83 RBG = { 212. 209}. 217}. 186}. grey85 RBG = { 217. grey81 RBG = { 207. 217. grey79 RBG = { 201. 212}. 191}. grey80 RBG = { 204. 189}. 219. 222}. 204. gray74 RBG = { 189. 194}. 224}. gray87 RBG = { 222. 196}. 184. grey87 RBG = { 222. 189}. 184}. 186. grey75 RBG = { 191. gray88 RBG = { 224.HFSS Online Help gray71 RBG = { 181. 209. 207}. gray81 RBG = { 207. 212}. 219}. 181}. 201. 219}. 214}. gray76 RBG = { 194. grey71 RBG = { 181. 191. 201}. gray75 RBG = { 191. 207. 222}. gray72 RBG = { 184. grey72 RBG = { 184. gray84 RBG = { 214. 217}. 189. 201. grey83 RBG = { 212. gray79 RBG = { 201. 204}. 214. gray78 RBG = { 199. 212. gray73 RBG = { 186. 196. 196}. 214. 219. 199}. 201}. 184}. Working with HFSS Projects3-49 . 212. gray77 RBG = { 196. 209. gray86 RBG = { 219. 191}. 189. grey82 RBG = { 209. 194. grey86 RBG = { 219. grey84 RBG = { 214. 194}. grey74 RBG = { 189. gray85 RBG = { 217. 204}. 222. 184. 186. 181. 181}.

grey91 RBG = { 232. 247}. gray91 RBG = { 232. 139}. grey99 RBG = { 252. grey95 RBG = { 242. 169. 139}. 242}. 252. 235. gray95 RBG = { 242. gray92 RBG = { 235. grey100 RBG = { 255. 227. 139. 229}. 169. 245. 252. 247. 139}. 227}. 169. 250. dark gray RBG = { 169. 255}. 227}. 242. DarkMagenta RBG = { 139. 240. 139}. 169. 227. 237}. 247. 240}. gray89 RBG = { 227. 229}. 245. 237}. 169}. 0. 237. 237. 229. 169}. 169}. DarkGray RBG = { 169. 242}. 245}. gray96 RBG = { 245. gray98 RBG = { 250. 255}. gray93 RBG = { 237. 229. grey98 RBG = { 250. DarkBlue RBG = { 0. 252}. 245}. 224. 240}. dark cyan RBG = { 0. 232. 250}. 235}. 232}. 242. 3-50 Working with HFSS Projects . dark blue RBG = { 0. 247}.HFSS Online Help grey88 RBG = { 224. 255. grey96 RBG = { 245. gray99 RBG = { 252. grey92 RBG = { 235. 235. 240. gray90 RBG = { 229. dark grey RBG = { 169. 252}. grey94 RBG = { 240. DarkGrey RBG = { 169. grey90 RBG = { 229. DarkCyan RBG = { 0. gray100 RBG = { 255. dark magenta RBG = { 139. 139}. 232}. 0. 0. grey97 RBG = { 247. grey89 RBG = { 227. 250}. grey93 RBG = { 237. 235}. 169}. gray94 RBG = { 240. 232. 139. 250. 139}. 0. 255. 224}. gray97 RBG = { 247.

For Natran and STL files.sm3 files. Click Open. For ProE files. 2. you can choose check to enable the Import Free Surfaces option. 144} Importing 3D Model Files You can read 3D model files directly into the active 3D Modeler window: Note If you import a file into an active 3D Modeler window that contains an existing model. The file is imported into the active Modeler window. see Technical Notes: Handling Complicated Models. Some file types permit you to Heal Imported Objects. Select the 3D model file you want to import or enter the name of the file in the File Name box. DarkRed RBG = { 139. For tips on dealing with very complex models. sheet. you can set the Model Resolution Length in Model Units. The default value (auto) comes from the Healing dialog Options tab with Manual Healing selected. Select the file type you want from the Files of type pull-down list. then the Healing Options dialog box opens. it will not replace it. allowing you to set parameters for the heal operation. or wire some imported objects may have mixture of these. Note While objects created in HFSS or HFSS-IE can always be classed in the history tree as either a solid. For STEP and IEGS files. See the table below and Healing an Imported Object. If you selected Heal Imported Objects with the Manual option selected for the import. Click Modeler>Import. 238. HFSS or HFSS-IE places such objects in an Unclassified folder in the history tree. 5. light green RBG = { 144. you can also check the model. LightGreen RBG = { 144. 0. Select any import options available for the selected file type. Use the file browser to find the file you want to import. This imports such surfaces as well as parts. • • • • • 4.HFSS Online Help dark red RBG = { 139. 0}. 0}. For Ansoft . you can specify a Stitch tolerance and units. To import a 3D model file: 1. 0. 144}. The Import File dialog box appears. Working with HFSS Projects3-51 . 6. the file will be added to the existing model. or accept the auto setting. 3. 238.

dwg .iges.sld .1 (Windows only).1 Ansoft 2D modeler files Ansoft legacy 3D model files AutoCAD Drawing Interchange Format files from version 2.asm* . The .CATPart . See Importing DXF and DWG Format Files.Pro/E 16 to Wildfire 4. Catia R4/R5 models.1 Ansoft 3D modeler files up to ACIS 19 Service Pack 2.model. NX to NX6.2 Unigraphics file 11 to 18. and material information in a tab delimited format.model .1 .0 . Industry standard Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files versions up to 5.2 Parasolid Files 10-20.CATPart .3. units.step. thickness.HFSS Online Help Extension . elevation. .gds . .tech Contents ACIS 19 Service Pack 2 geometry solid model files.1 NASTRAN format files.9 to 4.prt Standard ACIS binary.1.sm3 . Industry standard AP203 STEP files and AP214 (geometry only).2. 3-52 Working with HFSS Projects . .CATIA 4. .x_b .sat .nas . . which will include such surfaces as well as parts. .4 .1 Stereolithography format files.sm2 .igs GDSII files. the import dialog lets enable Import Free Surfaces. .CATIA V5 R2 through R19 .1 Pro/E model files.x_t.5 through 2009.stl .sab . For ProE models.prt*.tech file is an ASCII file that contains layer names.dxf. color.stp .

dxf or . 5. and Line Arc Circle Ellipse Solid Block Click Modeler>Import. Select the . None. 2. Polyline. or enter a numeric value directly in the entry box.dxf/.*.dwg model file you want to import. 4. See Healing an Imported Object. 2D Polyline. The Import File dialog box appears.5 through 2009. The types of entities imported are: • • • • • • 1. Automatic or Manual Healing available if desired. The entities are imported as 2 dimensional (not 3D). Click Open. Select AutoCAD Files (*.dxf. Use the file browser to find the file you want to import.tech file): Working with HFSS Projects3-53 .dwg) from the Files of type pull-down list.dwg model file (which may use an associated . 3.HFSS Online Help Extension Contents 1. To import a . Related Topics Importing 2D Model Files Importing DXF and DWG Format Files. 2. Defeaturing based on Model Resolution Length. Select Auto. Exporting 3D Model Files Technical Notes: Handling Complicated Models Importing DXF and DWG Format Files You can import AutoCAD versions 2.

Use the Include check boxes to specify which layers to import from the selected file. color. The tech file is a plain text file that includes units. 7. elevation. units um //Layer_Name BOTTOMLAYER MIDLAYER TOPLAYER Color purple green blue Elevation Thickness 0 500 1000 200 200 200 3-54 Working with HFSS Projects . layer names. the DWG/DXF Import dialog opens with the Layer Selection tab is displayed: The Input Layer Name field shows the name of the layer in the DXF/DWG file (not editable) 6. and thickness information. You can use the Open button for a browser window to locate a tech file.HFSS Online Help Initially.

and extraneous points along straight line segments. When you have completed selections on all tabs. Use the Objects check boxes to fine-tune the import: • • • Auto-detect closure causes polylines to be checked to see whether or not they are closed. Click the Options tab: 9. the modeler creates a polygon in the design. click OK on any tab. The features that are removed include: multiple points placed within the specified distance. For Import method. 10. Round coordinates to Decimal place rounds all imported data to the specified number of decimal points. The file is imported into the active Layout window. a polygon is created in the modeler. Import as 2D sheet bodies causes imported objects to be organized in terms of 2D sheets. If a polyline is closed. Self-stitch causes multiple straight line segments to be joined to form polylines. Working with HFSS Projects3-55 . Use the Override pulldown to select the layout units for the imported file (default is mm). 12. • • • 11. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Results>Import Solutions. thin or narrow regions (“thins” and “spikes”). Convert closed wide lines to polygons imports wide polylines as polygons. You have more flexibility to change the shape of such an object when it is imported as a polygon. Importing Solution Data 1. select Script or Acis. De-feature tolerance removes certain small features in the imported geometry to reduce complexity. If the resulting polyline is closed.HFSS Online Help 8. The Imported Data dialog box appears.

Click Import Solution. If the data in the table is complex. 7. Optionally. 6. right-click Results in the project tree and then click Import Solutions on the shortcut menu. Comma-separated. 4.HFSS Online Help 2. and then click OK. type a new name in the Source Name box or accept the default name. select the format — real/ imaginary. Click Load File. the headings of each column in the data file are listed. this option will be ignored. Click the solutions you want to import in the Available Solutions list. real imaginary). Optionally. 2. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Results>Import Solutions. In the File Name text box. 7. Optionally. or accept the default name. • Alternatively. HFSS will recognize complex data if the values are separated by a comma (e. The Imported Data dialog box appears.g. HFSS will recognize complex data if the values are separated by a space (e. but note that the file has not been imported yet. 1. type a new name in the Source Name box that indicates the origin or the data table. The Table Import dialog box appears. Click Import Table. 8. Optionally. Click the solution data you want to import. or magnitude/ phase — in which to import the data. You return to the Imported Data dialog box. or accept the default name In the All Columns list. Related Topics Viewing Matrix Data Importing Data Tables You can import data table files that contain data in the following formats: • • Tab-separated. Selecting the file with the file browser loads it. If the data is simple. 5. type the name of the data table file you want to import or click Browse and use the file browser to locate the file. Note that the file has not been imported yet. 3. imaginary). type a new name in the Table Name box that describes the data in the table. and then click Import. type the name of the solution file you want to import or click Browse and use the file browser to locate the file. 6.g. In the File Name text box. real. specify a new name for a column heading by doing the following: 3-56 Working with HFSS Projects . 3. 4. The S Parameter Import dialog box appears. 5.

Related Topics Adding Datasets Importing HFSS Plot Data Import Solutions can also import HFSS or HFSS-IE plot data. the first heading in the data table file is listed by default. In the Dependent Data Columns list. and then click OK. 11. On the HFSS or HFSS-IE menu click Results>Import Solutions. You return to the Imported Data dialog box. Click the Import Plot Data button The Read Plot Data file dialog opens. Click the data you want to import in the Current Imports list. 3. click a heading name and then click an arrow button to move it from one column to another. The Imported Data dialog box appears. 12. The imported files are listed in the Imported Data dialog. 2. Use the file browser to select the plot data file (*. b. and then click Set Column Name. If the data in the Dependent Data Columns list contains matrix data. In the Independent Data Columns list. 1. select Matrix Data. The solution data is now available for post processing. In the All Columns list. You need to have a report open for the Report2D menu to appear.csv) tab delimited files (. Click Import. 10. Optionally.dat). The heading appears in the Column Name box. On the HFSS menu click Report2D>Import Data. The heading is changed to the new name in every place it appears in the Imported Data dialog box. Importing Plot Data The Report2D> Import Data command lets you import plot data from comma delimited files (. Type a new name in the Column Name box. 9. click the heading you want to change. Working with HFSS Projects3-57 .tab) or Ansoft Plot Data files (*.HFSS Online Help a. If it contains field data. 1. You can choose to specify the file as Read Only. the second and subsequent headings in the data table file are listed by default. 4. select Field Data. This displays a file browser window. Related Topics Importing Plot Data. Click the Open button to import the file.dat) to open.

tab) or Ansoft Plot Data files (*. or the icons to navigate to the file location.csv) tab delimited files (. 3.HFSS Online Help 2. Specify the file name in the file name field. The file format field contains a drop-down menu listing the formats you can import. 4. Related Topics Importing HFSS Plot Data 3-58 Working with HFSS Projects . Click Open to import the file into the currently open Report. or select the file from those listed in the current directory. Use the Look In feature. These include comma delimited files (.dat). The imported traces appear in the Project tree under the current report. 5.

1. Working with HFSS Projects3-59 . This places the documentation file in the project tree. 2. Selecting the file and click OK. Click Project>Insert Documentation File. This opens a file browser dialog that lets you navigate your file system.HFSS Online Help Inserting a Documentation File You may want to add a documentation file to the project tree.

HFSS Online Help Printing The printing commands enable you to send an image of the active window to the printer. number of copies. To print the project: 1. or use the check box to Print to file. Related Topics Getting Help 3-60 Working with HFSS Projects . Click File>Print . Click Setup to define printer settings. set the print range. 3. Do one of the following: • • • Click OK to print the project. Click Cancel to dismiss the window without printing. You can also access the printer properties by clicking Printer in the Page Setup dialog box. You can change the printer (if other printer names are listed on the drop down). A dialog box similar to the following one appears: 2.

4. 2. The Print dialog box appears. To print the project after seeing the preview. click the Print button. To zoom in or out on the preview.HFSS Online Help Previewing the Printout To preview how the page will look when printed: 1. click the Next Page. The preview window appears. click Close. To navigate through the preview. Working with HFSS Projects3-61 . To close the preview and return to your project. Click File>Print Preview. and/or Two Page buttons. click the Zoom In or Zoom Out button. 3. Prev Page.

Click OK. Top. select either Portrait or Landscape. 2. 4. 3-62 Working with HFSS Projects . select a Size and Source for the paper. Under Paper. and Bottom text boxes. change the values as desired in the Left. 5. The Page Setup dialog box appears. You can also access the printer properties by clicking Printer in the Page Setup dialog box. Right. 3. Click File>Page Setup. Under Margins.HFSS Online Help Changing the Page Setup To set or change the page setup: 1. Under Orientation.

Select the icon Notes in the project tree. click Edit>Delete. you can insert a documentation file into a project with the Project>Insert Documentation Files command. Click OK to save the notes with the current project. This is useful for keeping a running log on the project. Double-click the Notes icon in the project tree. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Edit Notes The Design Notes window appears. . 2.HFSS Online Help Saving Project Notes You can save notes about a project. such as its creation date and a description of the device being modeled. click Delete from the shortcut menu. in which you can edit the project’s notes. Click in the window and type your notes. Right-click the icon Notes in the project tree. To add notes to a project: 1. To edit existing project notes: • The Notes icon is removed from the project tree. Working with HFSS Projects3-63 . 3. For project level documentation. To delete the existing notes for a design: 1. Note Notes are used to document aspects of designs only. 2. The Design Notes window appears.

Setting General Options To set general options in HFSS: 1. Report Setup Options. processor and RAM settings. or click the . Fields Reporter options. 3. HFSS-IE Options. 3-64 Working with HFSS Projects . such as field overlay and phase animation settings. you must check Override 3. displaying five available tabs: • • • • • • 2. If you modify SysLib. such as project options. 1. Enter the number of edits after which to save in the Autosave interval text box. save and delete options. For each directory. General Options: Project Options Tab These options are set on the Project Options tab of the General Options dialog box. line styles. and make the desired selections. Project. button to find and select the desired directory. the User Defined Primitives menu should reflect those changes on next startup or on Draw>User Defined Primitive>Update Menu. Modeler options. Click OK. such as fonts. snap modes and mouse sensitivity. 2. Report2D options. and colors. and drag and drop behavior.HFSS Online Help Setting Options in HFSS You can set the following options from the Desktop: • • • • • • • General options. b.. including advanced mode editing. To auto-save your project.. display colors and render settings. Syslib. such as default solution mode. The General Options window appears. or processor and RAM settings. UserLib. enter a path in the Directory text box. such as whether to duplicate boundaries. do the following in the Autosave section: a. the number of significant digits to display. Select the Do Autosave check box. units settings. and PersonalLib. Project Options Default Units Analysis Options RSM Service Options WebUpdate Options Miscellaneous Options Click each tab. labels. HFSS-specific options. Click Tools>Options>General Options. and analysis options. The default is 10. UserLib or PersonalLib paths through Tools>General options. such as cloning options. If you want to enter a directory path in the Temp Directory text box.

5. select a radio button to either Insert a design of type HFSS or Don’t insert a design. To reset the library directories to the default. 1.. 6. If you would like to select the machine to which to send the analysis immediately before anaWorking with HFSS Projects3-65 . the Queue all simulations checkbox. 7. click Reset Library Directory.HFSS Online Help to enable the path text field and the . 2. The type of design is HFSS or HFSS-IE. button for finding and selecting the desired directory. General Options: Default Units Tab These options are set on the Default Units tab of the General Options dialog box. For When creating a new project. 4. are grouped as Design Analysis Options for Design Type. Select the desired units from each of the following pull-down lists: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Length Angle Time Temperature Torque Magnetic Induction Frequency Power Voltage Current Speed Weight Resistance Inductance Capacitance Force Angular Speed Magnetic field strength Pressure General Options: Analysis Options Tab These options are set on the Analysis Options tab of the General Options dialog box. You can choose to specify a warning to be given when available disk space is less than a given amount in M bytes. Select or clear the Expand Project Tree on Insert check box. All but the last..

the number of processors and Desired RAM Limit settings. See Remote Analysis. and the default analysis machine is used. you can also control these selections via toolbar icons for: 4. enter the default analysis machine information either as an IP address. or a UNC name. Regardless of the machine(s) on which the analysis is actually run. and the default process priority settings are now read from the machine from which you launch the analysis. If you selected Distributed. or whether analysis should be distributed across multiple machines (Distributed). or clone an existing machine list.HFSS Online Help lyzing. see distributed analysis. Note 3. If the Queue all simulations option is selected. See Configuring Distributed Analysis. or add new list. When you have made a selection. you can select an distributed machine configuration list. Under Analysis Machine Options. See HFSS Options: Solver Tab. select whether the default analysis machine should be the local machine (Local). select Prompt for analysis machine when launching analysis. or edit. this setting is ignored. 3-66 Working with HFSS Projects . b. Related Topics HFSS Options: Solver Tab or HFSS-IE Options:Solver Tab for setting the maximum Number of Processors. remove. If you selected Remote. the lower field shows the enab led machines in the configuration. the desired RAM and Maximum RAM. a DNS name. Once configured. For more information. a. and the process priority. Select or clear the Queue all simulations check box. a remote machine (Remote). This allows subsequent projects to wait in a queue till the currently running project solves completely.

) • • The Ansoft Service should be running on this port for all distributed machines. The Send analysis request as option selection can be Service User or Specified User. by using the checkbox. Related Topics Remote Analysis General Options: WebUpdate Options Tab These options are set on the WebUpdate Options tab of the General Options dialog box. The Design type is HFSS or HFSS-IE. Working with HFSS Projects3-67 Report Update Options for Design Type: . Select or clear the Show Progress Window when starting a simulation check box.HFSS Online Help RSM Service Options Technical Notes: Handling Complicated Models Configuring Distributed Analysis Selecting an Optimal Configuration for Distributed Analysis General Options: RSM Service Options To launch all analyses as a specific user. (Note: If any of the remote machines are Unix-based. Select or clear the Ensure that new messages are visible in the Message Window Tree check box. Selecting Specified User enables the fields for user name. To change the Ansoft Service Port. click the Change button to display an editable dialog. Select or clear the Update reports on file open check box. Select one of the following from the Automatically check for updates every pull-down list: • • • • Never 30 days 120 days 180 days The last time the software was updated. you must specify the current user. You can also Disable access by remote machines. and domain information. password. as well as the last attempt. rather than the current user. do the following in the Remote Analysis Options section of the General Options. are displayed in the following two fields: • • Last update date Last update attempt date General Options: Miscellaneous Options Tab These options are set on the Miscellaneous tab of the General Options dialog box. General Options: • • • • • Select or clear the Show Message Window on new messages check box.

This path can be used by the HFSS Optimetrics feature for connecting to the Design Xplorer.update reports and plots as soon as data comes from the solver. Setting HFSS Options To set HFSS options: 1. For "LastAdaptive" or "Transient" the plot is updated at the end of the transient or adaptive solution. 3-68 Working with HFSS Projects . but a single update is done when the solve completes. Updating numerous reports may a significant amount of time. Dynamically update postprocessing data for new solutions. and make the desired selections. reports may be updated after each adaptive pass but field plots will not be updated until the solution is complete. all reports are updated after analysis of each variation has been completed. Immediately . After Each Variation . The time for that update is not included in the solve profile. For example.HFSS Online Help • • Select or clear Dynamically update reports and field overlays during edits. plots are updated at the end of each solution pass. 3. Never . Click Tools>Options> HFSS Options. especially as the mesh size increases. On Completion . This option balances report and field plot updating with solution time. Click OK. if you have one.only manual intervention updates reports. If selected. This option will have the greatest impact on the overall solution time but will have the most rapid updating of reports and field plots. This option will prevent updates from impacting the solution time. Updating reports during the analysis process can impact the overall time to solution. It means update most things immediately. displaying three available tabs: • • • 2. report plots and overlays update dynamically. Five options exist for updating reports during solutions: • Automatically . Note: Reports that are updated on completion are done after the solve has been completed. For "AdaptivePass" plot context. You may want to vary the times when your reports get updated relative to the impact on overall solve time. The HFSS Options window appears. Some types of reports and field plots may take a long time to update. The ANSYS Workbench Application Path lets you specify a path to an installation. General Options Solver Report Updating During Analysis Click each tab. Caution should be used in selecting this option.when performing an Optimetric or parametric analysis. • • • • The Animation setting lets you set a limit to Stop computing animation frames when available memory is less than a value in megabytes.as with Never.the default. The default is 100.

When this is not checked. Eigenmode Driven Modal Terminal Transient Transient Network Check or uncheck whether to Include ferrite materials Set the Solve Inside threshold values in Siemens/m. In the Assignment Options section. • Duplicate boundaries/mesh operations with geometry When this is checked. 5. Select or clear the following check boxes: • • • Save before solving Save Optimetrics field solutions Apply variation deletions immediately Working with HFSS Projects3-69 . the creation of boundaries and excitations displays a Properties dialog with tabs for different kinds of information. select one of the following from the Default solution type pull-down list: • • • • • 2. the commands to assign wave or lumped ports will automatically assign terminals.HFSS Online Help HFSS Options: General Options Tab These options are set on the General Options tab of the HFSS Options dialog box. To change the default solution type when you initially insert a project. The default is ascending alphanumeric. This can also be a User Specified order that defaults to creation order. In the Material Options section: • • 3. and speeds up the display for complex models. Unchecking this turns off boundary visualization. the creation of boundaries and excitations use Wizard to guide you through the process. In the Post Processing Options section: • • Set the number of processors to use for radiated fields post processing. you can duplicate a boundary or excitation when its geometry is pasted or duplicated. See Assigning Wave Ports for Terminal Solutions. When this is checked. This affects the order of the Matrix Data. 4. • Visualize Boundaries on geometry. Set the default Matrix sort order. select or clear the following two check boxes and settings. and is of interest depending on how port names are assigned for that design. • Auto assign terminals on ports When this is checked. 1. boundaries on geometries are displayed. • Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries When this is checked. See Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry.

The value specifies the maximum number of local processors to use. and the machine on which you are solving only has two processors. Regardless of the machine(s) on which the analysis is actually run. if you specify that you want to use 4 processors. Enter the Number of Processors to use. if you want to use as many processors as exist on each solve machine.HFSS Online Help HFSS Options: Solver Tab These options are set on the Solver tab of the HFSS Options dialog box. the solver considers the number of processors to be optional and reverts to a single processor solution if a multiple processor licence is not available. and enter values in the text boxes: • • Desired RAM Limit (MB) Maximum RAM Limit (MB) An environment variable allows you to override the desired RAM limit settings without permanently change the values set here. 3-70 Working with HFSS Projects . if you specify that you want to use 4 processors. or by HPC Pack licensing. you can set the number of processors to a high value. optimization. ANSOFT_DESIRED_RAM_LIMIT (value is the desired RAM usage limit. This applies to distributed solutions (parametrics. This is useful for unattended solves. Even though domains are distributed and may use multiprocessing. all of the settings on this panel are read from the machine from which you launch the analysis. the solve machine will only use two processors. and domains).The value specifies the maximum number of distributed processors to use. An environment variable allows you to override the number of processors without permanently changing the value set here. This applies to non-distributed solutions (including adaptive passes that come before distributed frequency sweeps ). For distributed solve. ANSOFT_NUM_PROCESSORS (value is the maximum number of processors to use) Enter the Number of Processors. To set the solver options for HFSS: 1. This is useful for unattended solves. 3. for instance when running a non-graphical batchsolve: • 2. Select one or both of the following check boxes. that you wish to place on the solvers) Select one of the following HPC Licensing Options. and the machine on which you are solving only has two processors. Distributed to use. The selection determines whether multiprocessing is enabled by an HPC license. the solve machine will only use two processors. This setting affects all HFSS projects for the current user and machine. they do not use distributed solve or multiprocessing licenses – all of this is included in the HPC licensing when solving domains. frequency sweeps. • • HPC HPC Pack Solution setups with domains always use HPC licensing. in MB. However. for instance when running a non-graphical batchsolve: • 4.

SetNumberOfProcessors <num> Working with HFSS Projects3-71 . 6. the HPC licenses take the place of the MP license. a hfssie_solve license is required in addition to the hfss_solve. without having to toggle the computer hardware usage settings. The following macros allow you to set these options: oDesign. Select one of the following from the Default Process Priority pull-down list: • • • • • Critical (highest) Priority (Not recommended) Above Normal Priority (not recommended) Normal Priority Below Normal Priority Idle (lowest) Priority You can set these values using VB Scripts. For HFSS problems with radiation boundaries and Use IE Formulation checked. we will always use HPC licenses for multiprocessing (even if you have NOT chosen "Enable multiprocessing using HPC" option). The HPC License Type determines the type and number of licenses that will be checked out for a given number of cores.HFSS Online Help HPC licensing is based on counting the total number of cores in a simulation. check Enable multiprocessing using HPC licenses. when solving a distributed solution across 10 nodes. So a simulation with twenty cores would require two “HPC Pack” licenses. For HFSS-IE problems an hfssie_solve license is required. the total number of cores is 2x10. For the HPC Pack type. If you are solving an HFSS Transient problem. and each additional pack enables four times as many cores. For the HPC type. So a simulation with twenty cores would require twenty HPC licenses. enabling up to 8x4. cores. We will only checkout a hfss_transient_solve license. one license will be checked out for each core in use.SetDesiredRamMBLimit <integer num in MB> oDesign. For example. a single pack enables eight cores. or twenty cores. This option causes HPC licenses to be used to enable multiprocessing even when solving problems that do not include domains. the solver will not checkout hfss_solve (regular solve license).SetMaximumRamMBLimit <integer num in MB> oDesign. desired RAM limit. Related Topics Configuring Distributed Analysis Setting Solver Settings Using VB Scripts Setting Solver Settings Using VB Scripts Being able to set the number of processors. and maximum RAM limit using VB scripts allows you to solve a project by running a VB script. 5. In this context. For HFSS Transient problems. or 32. For multiprocessing. with multiprocessing enabling 2 cores per node.

Use Excitations>Auto Assign Terminals. General Options Solver Click each tab. • • • • • • Save before solving Apply variation deletions immediately. and make the desired selections. Checking this saves disk space. Click OK.GetMaximumRamMBLimit() num = oDesign. See Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry. HFSS-IE Options: General Options Tab These options are set on the General Options tab of the HFSS-IE Options dialog box. b. No two terminals can touch each other Unassigned terminals (not assigned to any port) There are certain validation checks.HFSS Online Help limit = oDesign. Click Tools>Options>HFSS-IE Options. Visualize boundaries on geometry. Checking this uses more disk space. The HFSS-IE Options window appears.GetDesiredRamMBLimit() limit = oDesign.GetNumberOfProcessors() Setting HFSS-IE Options To set the HFSS-IE options: 1. This controls the display of boundaries. then you assign a lumped port. You have a choice to either: a. If this option is switched off. Manually assign a terminal. then the Assign Lumped port command will try to automatically assign the terminals on ports. Clear or check the following options: • Duplicate boundaries with geometry When this is checked. If this option is switched on. you can duplicate a boundary or excitation when its geometry is pasted or duplicated. 3. This will bring up a dialog box to get the input from the user to select the objects used for “reference” Lumped port can have only one terminal. displaying two available tabs: • • 2. Select any edge/face of conductor that is touching the port. like 3-72 Working with HFSS Projects . Save Optimetrics Field solutions. Auto-assign terminals on ports.

if you want to use as many processors as exist on each solve machine. and the machine on which you are solving only has two processors. When this is not checked. the solve machine will only use two processors. the creation of boundaries and excitations use Wizard to guide you through the process. and is of interest depending on how port names are assigned for that design. if you want to use as many processors as exist on each solve machine. 3. you can set the number of processors to a high value. or by HPC Pack licensing. for instance when running a non-graphical batchsolve: • 2. the solve machine will only use two processors. • • Default matrix sort order. The HPC License Type determines the type and number of licenses that will be checked out for Working with HFSS Projects3-73 .HFSS Online Help • Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries When this is checked. The selection determines whether multiprocessing is enabled by an HPC license. Enter the Number of Processors to use. and the machine on which you are solving only has two processors. the total number of cores is 2x10. optimization. Related Topics HFSS-IE Options:Solver Tab HFSS-IE Options: Solver Tab These options are set on the Solver tab of the HFSS-IE Options dialog box. • • HPC HPC Pack HPC licensing is based on counting the total number of cores in a simulation. when solving a distributed solution across 10 nodes. all of the settings on this panel are read from the machine from which you launch the analysis. The default is ascending alphanumeric. the creation of boundaries and excitations displays a Properties dialog with tabs for different kinds of information. This is useful for unattended solves. and frequency sweeps). To set the solver options for HFSS-IE: 1. ANSOFT_NUM_PROCESSORS (value is the maximum number of processors to use) Enter the Number of Processors. or twenty cores. This can also be a User Specified order that defaults to creation order. if you specify that you want to use 4 processors. For example. This affects the order of the Matrix Data. Select one of the following HPC Licensing Options. This applies to distributed solutions (parametrics. if you specify that you want to use 4 processors. For distributed solve.The value specifies the maximum number of distributed processors to use. For distributed solve. An environment variable allows you to override the number of processors without permanently changing the value set here. Distributed to use. Regardless of the machine(s) on which the analysis is actually run. with multiprocessing enabling 2 cores per node. This specifies the maximum number of processors to use. you can set the number of processors to a high value.

Click OK to accept the settings and close the dialog. 6.HFSS Online Help a given number of cores. 2. enabling up to 8x4. The Streamline drawing stopping criteria are: Fields magnitude on a streamline data point is <percentage> of maximum field value of entire model. the HPC licenses take the place of the MP license. to update the plot dynamically Never. So a simulation with twenty cores would require two “HPC Pack” licenses. Always or When the number of mesh elements is less that a value (default 5000). and each additional pack enables four times as many cores. Click Tools>Options>Fields Reporter Options. Set the default Phase Animation settings for Scalar Plots and Vector Plots. Click the Mesh Plot tab to set when dragging the clip plane. Select one of the following from the Default Process Priority pull-down list: • • • • • Critical (highest) Priority Above Normal Priority Normal Priority Below Normal Priority Idle (lowest) Priority Related Topics Configuring Distributed Analysis HFSS-IE Options: General Options tab Setting Fields Reporter Options To set the Fields Reporter options: 1. For the HPC Pack type. 4. 4. So a simulation with twenty cores would require twenty HPC licenses. cores. Streamline length is higher than <value> times of diagonal length of model bounding box. In this context. Click the Streamline tab to set the two Streamline drawing stopping criteria and the Streamline marker spacing. check Enable multiprocessing using HPC licenses. a single pack enables eight cores. Related Topics Creating Phase Animations 3-74 Working with HFSS Projects . The Fields Reporter Options dialog opens with the Phase Animation tab selected. Each of these accepts values for From and To in degrees. Specify whether to Group Field Overlays by Type (default. yes). 3. one license will be checked out for each core in use. This option causes HPC licenses to be used to enable multiprocessing. For the HPC type. or 32. and the number of steps. 5. 5. For HFSS-IE problems an hfssie_solve license is required. The streamline marker spacing the Number of markers per bounding box diagonal. For multiprocessing.

HFSS Online Help Plotting the Mesh Setting Report2D Options To set Report2D options: 1. vertical up triangle. vertical down triangle. Sym Freq -. Click each tab. Dot. you can set values for all curves by clicking the column header cell that contains the property title. Color -. vertical ellipse. You can use a Restore Defaults button. 1.select the symbol to display for the designated data points.use the check box to have symbols mark the locations of data points on the curve.select the options from the drop down menu. horizontal ellipse. horizontal left triangle. copy and paste values. Fill Sym -. Dash. 7. Arrows -. 2.set the symbol frequency by editing the integer value in the text field. Report 2D Options: Curve Tab These options are set on the Curve tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. and Dot dash. Right-clicking on a menu cell displays a context menu that lets you copy and paste entire rows.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field. Symbol -.use the check box to use arrows on the curve ends. 3. 2. The options are Solid. The Report2D Options window appears. 6.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Click OK. The sym style can be box. 4. . Right-clicking on a text field cell displays a context menu that lets you cut. 3. Working with HFSS Projects3-75 8. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Line style -. displaying ten available tabs: • • • • • • • • • • Curve Axis Grid Tab Header Tab Note Tab Legend Tab Marker Tab Marker Table Tab General Tab Table tab For properties controlled by checkboxes.use the check box to set the symbol display as a solid or as hollow. Width -. circle. and make the desired selections. Sym Style -. Click Tools>Options>Report2D Options. horizontal right triangle. 5.

OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog.set the color for the symbol by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. styles. The options are Solid. Report2D Options: Header Tab These options are set on the Header tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. sizes. styles. you can independently specify the following: 1. Auto Units -. Max Scale -.click on the cell to select from a menu of available units if you have not checked Auto Units. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Font color -. Not editable.lists the name or letter of the grid.use the check box to toggle whether to auto scale the axis. Sym Color -. and script. Line Color -. 6. 5. Dot. Color -. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog.if Auto Scale it not selected. colors.select the options from the drop down menu. For the Title and subtitle. and Dot dash. 1.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. Report2D Options: Axis Tab These options are set on the Axis tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. Min Scale -. 3. Color -.HFSS Online Help 9.this describes the axis to which the following options refer. 9. 7. Select a default or custom color and click OK. edit the real value to set the minimum value of the axis. sizes. Edit Font -. Units -. Axis Name -. Font -.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. 4. 2. 3-76 Working with HFSS Projects . effects. 3. colors. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts. Select a default or custom color and click OK. 2. Select a default or custom color and click OK.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Grid Name -. effects. 1. The dialog also contains a preview field. 2.use the check box compute the correct units for the axis. Auto Scale -. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. Line Style -. Dash. 8. and script.set the font color of the axis by double clicking to display the Set color dialog.if Auto Scale is not selected. Report2D Options: Grid Tab These options are set on the Grid tab of the Report2D Options dialog box.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. The dialog also contains a preview field. edit the real value to set the maximum value of the axis. Select a default or custom color and click OK.

Select a default or custom color and click OK. sizes. Select a default or custom color and click OK.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. 2. Text Color -.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Select a default or custom color and click OK. and script. 9. 1. 4. Show Trace Name -. styles.use the checkbox to toggle the visibility of the note border. Select a default or custom color and click OK. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts. 2. 3.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. effects. 3. Border Line Width -. 5. The dialog also contains a preview field. and script. Grid Color -. Select a default or custom color and click OK.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. colors. Select a default or custom color and click OK. 7. Marker Color -. sizes. 1. Background Color -. Border Visibility -. The dialog also contains a Working with HFSS Projects3-77 . Marker Font -. and script. Border Line Width -.HFSS Online Help Report2D Options: Note Tab These options are set on the Note tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. 2. Report2D Options: Marker tab These options are set on the Marker tab of the Report2D Options dialog box.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. 8. colors. 5.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Border Line Color -. 1. Show Solution Name -. The dialog also contains a preview field. Note Font -.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field. Background Visibility -. 7. Note Color -. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Background Color -.use the checkbox to toggle the visibility of the solution name.use the checkbox to toggle the visibility of the variation key. 6. effects.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. 6.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Text Font -. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. Select a default or custom color and click OK. effects. Border Line Color -. 4. Show Variation Key -.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. styles. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog.use the checkbox to toggle the visibility of the trace name. Select a default or custom color and click OK. styles.use the checkbox to toggle the background for the note on or off. colors. Report2D Options: Legend Tab These options are set on the Legend tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. sizes.

XMarker Color -.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field. d. Select a default or custom color and click OK. colors. Select a default or custom color and click OK.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Line Width -. c. and script. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. e. b. styles. sizes.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field. 4. effects.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. and script. The dialog also contains a preview field. Grid Color -. The dialog also contains a preview field. Select a default or custom color and click OK.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Select a 3-78 Working with HFSS Projects . Text Color -. 5.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field. 8. Line Color -. Border Line Color -. Border Line Width -. Select a default or custom color and click OK.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Report2D Options: General Tab These options are set on the General tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. Select a default or custom color and click OK. effects.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog.checkbox to show the intersection.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. sizes. 3. styles. Line Style -. 1. 6. a. Related Topics Modifying Markers on Point Plots Report2D Options: Marker Table Tab These options are set on the Marker Table tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. The options are Solid. f.use the following options to set the X Marker properties. Text Font -.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. X Marker -. Show Intersection -.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. 1. 3.set the precision for marker placement by editing the real value field. 2.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Box Background Color -. Dash. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts. Dot. XMarker Font -.HFSS Online Help preview field. g.select the options from the drop down menu. and Dot dash. 7. Precision -. Background Color -. Grid Line Width -. colors. Background Color -. Select a default or custom color and click OK.

3.set to 4 by default. Show Trace Name Show Variation Key Show Solution Name Capture Aspect Size Ratio -. Copy to Clipboard -. 2.set the table field width by editing the real value in the text field. b. c. 5. With Header With Tab Separator -. Working with HFSS Projects3-79 .use the checkbox to toggle scientific notation on or off. Field Width -. Highlight Color -.set the table precision by editing the real value in the text field.use the following properties to set the format: a.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog.this can be As Shown or Full Screen. displaying three available tabs: • • • 2. 3.this can be As Shown or White.use the drop down menus to specify the following properties: Report2D Options: Table Tab These options are set on the Table tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. Contrast Color -. The Modeler Options window appears. b.: a. b. sizes. a. Curve Tooltip Option -. effects.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. colors.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Use Scientific Notation -. Text Font -. Clipboard Option . Capture Background Color -.HFSS Online Help default or custom color and click OK. 2. Precision -. and make the desired selections. 1. Click OK. 3. c. and script. The dialog also contains a preview field. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts. 6. Accumulate Depth -.use the checkboxes to toggle the following properties: a. Operation Display Drawing Click each tab.use the following checkboxes to toggle the following properties for table copy operations. Format -. 4. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Setting Modeler Options To set modeler options: 1. styles.this improves copy and paste to a spreadsheet. b.

You can choose to leave the polyline as an uncovered object to perform further operations prior to creating a sheet object • • 4. For the Expand history tree on object select option: • • Modeler Options: Display Tab These options are set on the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. Clone tool objects before uniting Clone tool objects before subtracting Clone tool options before intersecting In the Coordinate System section. To specify when to clone tool objects. The Color window appears. To specify a default color for a 3D Modeler drawing object or action (such as on select): • Select the object or action from the Default color pull-down list and click the color button. If not checked. closed polylines become sheet objects. For the Select last command on object select option: • • 5. and are listed as such in the History tree. select or clear the Automatically switch to face coordinate system check box. If checked. This can be useful for speeding the display of multiple object selections. and current tree collapse/expand state is preserved If checked. or complex objects. Subtracting. the history tree is expanded after operations on object properties. or Intersecting objects. the modeler deletes tool objects when performing tasks such as Uniting. 3. you can select a face and when a new object creation is started. If not checked. the modeler operates within the user selected coordinate system. In the Polyline section. If not checked. only the object selected. you must manually create a Face Coordinate System before creating an object related to it. the modeler first creates a face coordinate system consistent with the selected face and the new object is created within the face coordinate system. 1. By default. select or clear the Automatically cover closed polylines check box. unchecked. even if the tree is collapsed for the item. keeping the object for subsequent operations. surface objects created with the Polyline command will be created with a cover so that they become sheet objects. closed polylines are listed under lines in the History tree. If checked. 3-80 Working with HFSS Projects . You may specify that the modeler makes a copy (clone) of the tool object before the operation.HFSS Online Help Modeler Options: Operation Tab These options are set on the Operation tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. By default. By default. With this selection. when you select an object in 3D view. If this option is enabled. selecting an object automatically opens the history tree. the history tree does not open on object selection. 1. select or clear the following check boxes in the Clone section: • • • 2.

so the rendering will be faster. The following figure shows an example history tree with an object selected and the outline view of that object in the Main window. 3. select WireFrame or SmoothShade from the Default view render pull-down list. and click OK. To specify the default for the View>Render setting for new projects. 4. 7. This is faster than shaded rendering. Under History operations visualization. Under Default tree layout. choose WireFrame rendering. For models with curved faces. When dealing with complicated geometries. select or clear the Group objects by material check box. Select or clear the Highlight selection dynamically check box. move the slider. The option lets you view an outline of each part that comprises an object when the given part is selected in the model history tree. For large models. To set the Default transparency. you may prefer to clear this selection to simplify the wire-frame display. 5. This can help you visualize an object that has been merged with another object. 8. Clearing this selection removes visualization of objects that are part of the model history. A change to the option takes effect only when you restart HFSS. this is faster and uses less memory. select or clear the Visualize history of objects check box. Working with HFSS Projects3-81 . Select or clear the Show orientation of selected objects check box. Select or clear Highlight UV Isolines. or enter a numerical value. Select a color for the selected object or action.HFSS Online Help • 2. 6.

The Operation Data Mode controls whether you draw new objects directly via the mouse. in pixels. Grid Vertex Edge Center Face Center Quadrant Arc Center Enter how near the mouse needs to be to click a grid item in the Mouse Sensitivity box. The specifies whether a Properties dialog appears on the creation of a new primitive. and all two and three dimensional objects. 3-82 Working with HFSS Projects . Select or clear the Show measures dialog check box. 4.mouse drawing. The Dialog mode drawing feature works with the equation based line. • Point mode .HFSS Online Help Modeler Options: Drawing Tab These options are set on the Drawing tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. select or clear the following check boxes in the Snap Mode section: • • • • • • 2. or whether a Properties dialog opens for you to enter dimensions for the object. 1. 3. To specify snap settings.

Click Tools>Options>Report Setup. To have a Properties dialog display whenever you create a new object in the modeling window. Specify the drag and drop behavior by clicking the radio button. You can also use F3 for Point mode and F4 for dialog mode.HFSS Online Help • 5. Use the text field to specify the maximum number of significant digits to use when displaying numeric values. • • Drag item data Drag item definition Working with HFSS Projects3-83 .enter dimensions in the properties dialog. check the box for Edit properties of new primitives. Report Setup Options To set Report setup options: 1. The Report Setup dialog appears. 3. Dialog . 2.

HFSS Online Help 3-84 Working with HFSS Projects .

You can manually include the symbol $ in the project variable’s name. There are two types of variables in HFSS: Project Variables A project variable can be assigned to any parameter value in the HFSS project in which it was created. mathematical expression. HFSS differentiates project variables from other types of variables by prefixing the variable name with the following symbol: $. Related Topics Defining an Expression Defining Mathematical Functions Assigning Variables Specify Expressions for Adaptive Convergence Specifying Output Variables Using Optimetrics for Design Analysis Choosing a Variable to Optimize Selecting Objects by Variable Exporting Variables for Documentation Adding a Project Variable A project variable can be assigned to a parameter value in the HFSS project in which it was created. You intend to optimize a parameter value by running an optimization analysis. You intend to run a parametric analysis. Design Variables A design variable can be assigned to any parameter value in the HFSS design in which it was created. From the Design Variables Properties dialog. Edit. you can Add.HFSS Online Help Working with Variables A variable is a numerical value. in which you specify a series of variable values within a range to solve. or Remove Design variables. You expect to use the same parameter value often. HFSS differentiates project variables from other types of variables by prefixing the variable name with the following symbol: $. Add Array. Variables are useful in the following situations: • • • • • You expect to change a parameter often. You intend to run a convergence on an output variable. You can manually include the symbol $ in the project vari- Working with HFSS Projects 3-85 . or mathematical function that can be assigned to a design parameter in HFSS. or HFSS will automatically append the project variable’s name after you define the variable.

In the Value text box. 2. variables are sorted in original order. 4. Additionally. You return to the Properties dialog box. If you did not specify the Unit Type and Unit. (or default) value for the variable. Updating the expression also changes the evaluated value display. the evaluated value is shown. noted by a triangle pointing up. a mathematical expression. In the Name text box. click Add. Click OK. type the quantity that the variable represents. though useful in many situations. include the units of measurement. Clicking against sorts in descending order. Clicking a third time sorts in original order. 5. If the mathematical expression includes a reference to an existing variable. By default. The quantity entered will be the current. Clicke Project>Project Variables. if you select the Unit Type as Resistance. Project variable names must start with the symbol $ followed by a letter. 6. noted by a triangle pointing down. or a mathematical function. For example. and then click Project Variables on the shortcut menu. The new variable and its value are listed in the table.HFSS Online Help able’s name when you create it. Variable names may include alphanumeric characters and underscores ( _ ). “None” is the default. you can also optionally. or HFSS will automatically append the project variable’s name with the symbol after you define the variable. the Units drop down lists a range of standard Ohm units. Similarly. The names of intrinsic functions and the pre-defined constant pi (π) cannot be used as variable names. Clicking once sorts them in ascending order. • Alternatively. If you include the variable’s units in its definition (in the Value text box). You can sort the project variables by clicking on the Name column header. tuning. 3. or statistical analysis. Any dependent variables also have evaluated values 3-86 Working with HFSS Projects . The units for a dependent variable will automatically change to those of the independent variable on which the value depends. cannot be the direct subject of optimization. this variable is treated as a dependent variable. type the name of the variable. The Add Property dialog box appears. Under the Project Variables tab. selecting Length as the Unit Type causes the Unit menu to show a range of metric and english units for length. If the value is an expression. sensitivity analysis. with no triangle. do not include the variable’s units when you enter the variable name for a parameter value. When you select a Unit Type. 1. Warning The quantity can be a numerical value. right-click the project name in the project tree. dependent variables. The Properties dialog box appears. In the Unit Type text box you can use the drop down menu to select from the list of available unit types. the choices in drop down menu for the Units text box adapt to that unit type.

2. Click OK. (Hz). value. F3 Fnoi Freq la. Optionally. Not settable by user. Optionally. 10. 9. Working with HFSS Projects 3-87 Unit mA Description Terminal current in user-defined model (A).HFSS Online Help changed. unit. type a description of the variable in the Description text box. 7. Variable to define parametric equation-based surface. Post processing variable. not settable by the user. the hidden variable will not appear in the Properties dialog box. Variable to define parametric equation-based curve. Post processing variables. select Hidden. Offset noise frequency in harmonic balance noise analysis. If you clear the Show Hidden option. and description cannot be modified when Read Only is selected. F2. The new variable can now be assigned to a parameter value in the project in which it was created. Optionally. Post Processing variable . Name _l1 to _l9 _t _u_. select Read Only. Frequency of circuit system analysis (Hz). not settable by the user. Frequency tones 1. Port Voltage in user defined model (V)._v _V1 to _V9 Ang Distance Electrical Degree F F1. lb mV Ang mm deg GHz GHz GHz GHz mA Electric degree of the rotating machine. The variable’s name. 3 in harmonic balance analysis. Related Topics Deleting Project Variables Defining an Expression Defining Mathematical Functions Exporting Variables for Documentation Intrinsic Variables in a Project The Properties dialog for the project also lists the intrinsic variables under the Intrinsic Variables tab. 8.

not settable by the user. IWave deg Theta Normalized Deformation. Distance OP Phase. 3-88 Working with HFSS Projects . Post processing variable. Time point in transient analysis Post processing variables. Post processing variables. Post processing variables. Click Project>Project Variables to display the Properties dialog with list of variables.Y. Vce. right-click the design name in the project tree. not settable by the user.Z ZAng ZRho rpm GHz cell deg ns mV mm deg mW deg mm Post processing variables. Phi R Rho Rspeed Spectrum Temp Theta Time Vac. not settable by the user. • Alternatively. and then click Design Properties on the shortcut menu. not settable by the user. not settable by the user. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. not settable by the user. Post processing variable. Remove all references to the variable in the project. not settable by the user. Speed of the machine. You can also add a variable defined with an array of values. not settable by the user. not settable by the user.HFSS Online Help Name Index Unit Description Post processing variable. including dependent variables. 1. A design variable can be assigned to a parameter value in the HFSS design in which it was created. not settable by the user. Post processing variable. IWave Phi. not settable by the user. not settable by the user. Analysis temperature (deg) Post processing variable. Not settable by the user. Save the project to erase the command history. Vds. Post processing variables. 2. Adding a Design Variable A design variable is associated with an HFSS design. Post processing variables. Select the variable and click Remove and OK. Vgs X. Vbe. Post processing variables. 3. Deleting Project Variables To delete a project variable: 1. 4.

if you select the Unit Type as Resistance. see Optimetrics. This section describes Add. In the Unit Type text box you can use the drop down menu to select from the list of available unit types. 4. Tuning. the Units drop down lists a range of standard Ohm units. noted by a triangle pointing up. 3. Initially. noted by a triangle pointing down. Variable names must start with a letter. Unit. variables are sorted in original order. The Add Property dialog box appears. type the name of the variable. A Show Hidden checkbox on the lower right of the Properties dialog controls the appearance of any Hidden variables . The names of intrinsic functions and the pre-defined constant pi (π) cannot be used as variable names. Use the links for descriptions of Add Array. Type. type the quantity that the variable represents. you leave the radio button with Value selected until you have defined a variable. The other radio buttons let you enable defined variables for Optimization. 5. the choices in drop down menu for the Units text box adapt to that unit type. Sensitivity or Statistics. Any existing Design variables are listed in the Properties dialog with the name followed by cells for Value. You can sort the project variables by clicking on the Name column header. include the Working with HFSS Projects 3-89 . . Clicking against sorts in descending order. For further discussion. selecting Length as the Unit Type causes the Unit menu to show a range of metric and english units for length. From the Properties dialog you can Add. Clicking a third time sorts in original order. 2. Evaluated Value. Selecting one of these radio buttons add a new column to the Variable definition row for which you can check or uncheck Include for regular variables for that kind of Optimetrics simulation. and may include alphanumeric characters and underscores ( _ ). Optionally. In the Name text box. Add Array.HFSS Online Help The Local Variables Properties dialog box appears. By default.. Similarly. Edit. For example. “None” is the default. In the Value text box. and Read-only and Hidden check boxes. Clicking once sorts them in ascending order. or Remove variables. When you select a Unit Type. with no triangle.Edit and Remove. Click Add. Description.

type a description of the variable in the Description text box. If the mathematical expression includes a reference to an existing variable. 8. a mathematical expression. cannot be the direct subject of optimization. the evaluated value is shown.HFSS Online Help units of measurement. dependent variables. Updating the expression also changes the evaluated value display. do not include the variable’s units when you enter the variable name for a parameter value. The new variable and its value are listed in the table. You return to the Properties dialog box. The units for a dependent variable will automatically change to those of the independent variable on which the value depends. though useful in many situations. Related Topics Add Array of Values for a Design Variable Editing a Design Variable Deleting Design Variables Deleting Project Variables Defining an Expression Defining Mathematical Functions Exporting Variables for Documentation 3-90 Working with HFSS Projects . sensitivity analysis. Optionally. The quantity entered will be the current (or default value) for the variable. Click OK. Note If you include the variable’s units in its definition (in the Value text box). Click OK. statistical. Complex numbers are not allowed for variables to be used in an Optimetrics sweep. Additionally. or a mathematical function. The new variable can now be assigned to a parameter value in the design in which it was created. or statistical analysis. this variable is treated as a dependent variable. sensitivity or tuning setups. Any dependent variables also have evaluated values changed. The quantity can be a numerical value. Note 6. tuning. 7. If the value is an expression. or for optimization.

HFSS Online Help Add Array of Values for a Design Variable A design variable is associated with an HFSS design.. Initially.. Unit. Add Array.Edit and Remove. right-click the design name in the project tree. Evaluated Value. 4.. Use the links for descriptions of Add. From the Properties dialog you can Add. button. 5. Edit. Select a Unit Type and Units from the drop down menus. Sensitivity or Statistics. Type. you can begin by clicking the Append Rows. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. 1.. The Add Array dialog displays... Specify a variable Name in the text field. Click the Add Array. A Show Hidden checkbox on the lower right of the Properties dialog controls the appearance of any Hidden variables. Description. Tuning. The other radio buttons let you enable regular variables for Optimization. Working with HFSS Projects 3-91 . Any existing Design variables are listed in the Properties dialog with the name followed by cells for Value. To specify the array with Edit in Grid Selected. and then click Design Properties on the shortcut menu. 2. This section describes Add Array. The Local Variables Properties dialog box appears. or Remove variables. • Alternatively.. Array variables cannot be enabled for Optimetrics use. and Read-only and Hidden check boxes. you leave the radio button with Value selected until you have defined a variable. 3. You can also add a variable defined with an array of values..

Edit. If you elected to edit the array Edit in plain text field in the Add Array dialog. or Remove variables. or Remove Row. From the Properties dialog you can Add. 7. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. Use the links for descrip- 3-92 Working with HFSS Projects . and then click Design Properties on the shortcut menu.) 6. This section describes Edit.HFSS Online Help button to display the Number of Rows dialog. You can edit the rows relative a row selection by clicking buttons to Add Row Above. When you have completed the array. Related Topics Design Variables Editing a Design Variable Deleting Design Variables Deleting Project Variables Defining an Expression Defining Mathematical Functions Editing a Design Variable A design variable is associated with an HFSS design. 1. All cells must contain a value. A design variable can be assigned to a parameter value in the HFSS design in which it was created. click OK to close the dialog. The Array variable is listed in the Design Properties dialog as a Local Variable. the bracketed and comma delimited format is used. Add Row Below. You can type any data value in the cells. Specify a value and click OK. The Local Variables Properties dialog box appears. right-click the design name in the project tree.. Add Array. • Alternatively. This displays a list of indexed data rows in the Add Array dialog. If you enter alphanumeric text in a cell it must be delimited by double quotes. (For Edit in plain text field. You can also add a variable defined with an array of values. see below. The array variable value field includes the array contents in brackets with the unindexed data values delimited by commas.

HFSS Online Help tions of Add. including dependent variables. Related Topics Design Variables Working with HFSS Projects 3-93 . Complete the edits and OK the dialog to apply them. Sensitivity or Statistics. Add Array and Remove. the Edit Array variable dialog for that variable opens. For further discussion. A Show Hidden checkbox on the lower right of the Properties dialog controls the appearance of any Hidden variables. you leave the radio button with Value selected until you have defined a variable. Any existing Design variables are listed in the Properties dialog with the name followed by cells for Value. Description. For regular variables. 4. Select the variable and click Remove and OK. Initially. Related Topics Design Variables Exporting Variables for Documentation Deleting Design Variables To delete a design variable: 1. 3. 2. Type. Tuning. Remove all references to the variable in the design. 3. and for array variables. the Add Property dialog for that variable opens. Select a variable to highlight it. and Read-only and Hidden check boxes. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties to display the Properties dialog with list of local variables. Selecting one of these radio buttons add a new column to the Variable definition row for which you can check or uncheck Include a regular variable for that kind of Optimetrics simulation. The other radio buttons let you enable defined variables for Optimization. see Optimetrics. Click the Edit button. Unit. Array variables cannot be Enabled for Optimetrics. Evaluated Value. 2. 4. Save the project to erase the command history.

They can be for various purposes. 1. The Add Dataset dialog box appears.coordinates by one of the following methods • • Import Dataset Type the x. For a Design level dataset. The dialog contains fields for the Dataset name. including to define frequency dependent port impedances or frequency dependent global variables. respectively.and y. click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Datasets. Delete Row .coordinates and adjusts the graphical display.adds a new row to the table below the selected row/ Append Row . the point is added to the plot. adjusting the display with each newly entered point. and boundary definitions. Swap X-Y Data . boundary definitions. Import Dataset . It also includes buttons for the following functions: • • • • • • • 3. Clicking the button opens a file browser window. click OK. or assigned to a material property value. Related Topics Adding a Design Variable 3-94 Working with HFSS Projects . This lists any existing datasets for the Project or Design level.and y-coordinates for the remaining data points in the dataset using the same method. When you are finished entering the data point coordinates. and a table for x.and Y. click Project>Datasets.and y-coordinates for the first data point in the row labeled 1. Export Dataset -.HFSS Online Help Deleting Project Variables Adding Datasets Datasets are collections of plotted data points that can be extrapolated into an equation based on the piecewise linear makeup of the plot. For a Project level dataset. Enter the x. Add Row Below . The dataset plot is extrapolated into an expression that can be used in parametric analyses. You can add datasets at either the Project Level or the Design level. Each plot consists of straight line segments whose vertices represent their end points. Clicking the button opens a file browser window.deletes the selected row or rows. The format is a tab separated points file. It contains a graphic display that draws a line for the coordinates you add. The Datasets dialog box appears. After you type a point’s coordinates and move to the next row.Type the x.adds a new row to the table above the selected row.coordinates. 4. Add Row Above . type a name other than the default for the dataset in the Name text box.and y.this provides a way to import data sets from an external source.this provides a way to export the current dataset to a tab separated points file. Click Add. A curve is fitted to the segments of the plot and an expression is derived from the curve that best fits the segmented plot. 5. 2.opens a dialog that lets you specify a number of rows to add to the table.this swaps the x. Optionally. The created expression is then used in piecewise linear intrinsic functions.

deg. When you are finished entering the data point coordinates.HFSS Online Help Modifying Datasets Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions Using Dataset Expressions Modifying Datasets 1. For Project level datasets. click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Datasets. > (greater than). Related Topics Adding Datasets Adding a Design Variable Modifying Datasets Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions Using Dataset Expressions Defining Mathematical Functions A mathematical function is an expression that references another defined variable. && (logical and). == (equals). click OK. acos. +. Phi. and Z are the rectangular (cartesian) coordinates. log (log to the base 10). sinh. 2. sqrt. A function’s definition can include both expressions and variables. all trigonometric expressions expect their arguments to be in radians. Y.(Unary minus). Theta. abs. . ceil. Phi. rad sin. Y. rand (returns a random number between 0 and 1). The Datasets dialog box appears. 5. R. If you do not specify units. The Edit Dataset dialog box appears. If you want to use degrees. The plot is adjusted to reflect the revised data points. Click the dataset name you want to modify. != (not equals). ** (exponentiation). The following mathematical functions may be used to define expressions: Basic Functions Intrinsic functions Trigonometric expressions /. -. *. Type new values for the data points as desired. Z. sqn. X. and the inverse trigonometric functions’ return values are in radians. asin. Optionally. For Design level datasets. R is the cylindrical radius. >= (greater than equals). ! (not). < (less than). lg (log to the base 2). and Rho must be entered as such. and Rho is the spherical radius. pow. ln (natural log). || (logical or) if. type a name other than the default for the dataset in the Name text box. exp. round. mod (modulus). tan. cosh. floor. 4. <= (less than equals). Working with HFSS Projects 3-95 . click Project>Datasets. and then click Edit. 3. Theta. cos. atan. tanh The predefined variables X. and Rho are the spherical coordinates.

These function names are reserved and may not be used as variable names.80665 2.HFSS Online Help you must supply the unit name deg. y_size = x_size + sin(x_size). 5x107 could be entered as 5e7. such as +. For example.25663706143582e-066 Permeability of vacuum (H/m) Numerical values may be entered in Ansoft’s shorthand for scientific notation. Cylindrical or Spherical Coordinates Defining an Expression Expressions are mathematical descriptions that typically contain intrinsic functions. tuning. though useful in many situations.14159265358979 6. Dependent variables. When the argument to a trigonometric expression is a variable. the units are assumed to be radians. cannot be the subject of optimization. such as sin(x). from the given unit to SI). Boltzmann constant (J/K) Speed of light in vacuum (m/s) Permittivity of vaccum (F/m) Electron Charge (C) Value Description 1. Name abs0 Boltz c0 elecq eta g0 mathE pi planck u0 -273. sensitivity analysis.These may not be reassigned a new value.854187817e-012 376. For example.6260755e-034 . Ratio of circle circumference . *. Related Topics Setting Coordinate Systems Expressing Cartesian. well as defined variables. -. As far as expression evaluation is concerned: units are conversion factors (that is. you could define: x_size = 1mm. The Constants tab of the Project Variables dialog lists the available pre-defined constants.15 1.730313461 9. Related Topics Defining Mathematical Functions Using Valid Operators for Expressions Using Intrinsic Functions for Expressions 3-96 Working with HFSS Projects .3806503E-023 299792458 8. Note also that the evaluated value of an expression) is always interpreted as in SI units. and arithmetic operators. and /. or statistical analysis.718281828 3. Defining one variable in terms of another makes a dependent variable.

HFSS Online Help Using Piecewise Linear Functions for Expressions Using Dataset Expressions Using Valid Operators for Expressions The operators that can be used to define an expression or function have a sequence in which they will be performed. as in previous software versions. and may not be used as variable names. The following list shows both the valid operators and the sequence in which they are accepted (listed in decreasing precedence): () ! ^ (or **) parenthesis not exponentiation (If you use "**" for exponentiation. it is automatically changed to "^".) * / + == != > < >= <= && || unary minus multiplication division addition subtraction equals not equals greater than less than greater than or equal to less than or equal to logic and logic or 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 1 2 3 Related Topics Defining an Expression Using Intrinsic Functions in Expressions HFSS recognizes a set of intrinsic trigonometric and mathematical functions that can be used to define expressions. Working with HFSS Projects 3-97 . Intrinsic function names are reserved.

returns 0 otherwise. variable) pwl_periodic(dataset_exp. Returns 1 if integer part of the number is odd. variable) sqrt(x) 3-98 Working with HFSS Projects .true_exp.HFSS Online Help The following intrinsic functions may be used to define expressions: Function abs sin cos tan asin acos atan atan2 asinh atanh sinh cosh tanh even Sine Cosine Tangent Arcsine Arccosine Arctangent (in range of -90 to 90 degrees) Arctangent (in range of -180 to 180 degrees) Hyperbolic Arcsine Hyperbolic Arctangent Hyperbolic Sine Hyperbolic Cosine Hyperbolic Tangent Returns 1 if integer part of the number is even.x) asinh(x) atanh(x) sinh(x) cosh(x) tanh(x) even(x) Syntax odd odd(x) sgn exp pow if pwl pwl_periodic sqrt sgn(x) exp(x) pow(x. returns 0 otherwise.y) if(cond_exp. Sign extraction Exponential (e ) Raise to power (x ) If Piecewise Linear Piecewise Linear for periodic extrapolation on x Square Root y x Description Absolute value (|x|) abs(x) sin(x) cos(x) tan(x) asin(x) acos(x) atan(x) atan2(y. false_exp) pwl(dataset_exp.

Related Topics Defining an Expression Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions The following piecewise linear intrinsic functions are accepted in expressions: pwl (dataset_expression. the software automatically changes it to "ln(x)". all trigonometric functions interpret their arguments as radians. If you use "log(x)" in an expression. variable) pwl_periodic (dataset_expression. variable) The pwl function interpolates along the x-axis and returns a corresponding y value.y) Note If you do not specify units. If you want values interpreted in degrees. supply the argument with the unit name deg. the units are assumed to be radians.) ln(x) log10 int nint max min mod rem Logarithm base 10 Truncated integer function Nearest integer Maximum value of two parameters Minimum value of two parameters Modulus Fractional part (remainder) log10(x) int(x) nint(x) max(x. inverse trigonometric functions’ return values are in given in radians.y) min(x.y) rem(x.y) mod(x. Related Topics Adding Datasets Adding a Design Variable Modifying Datasets Using Dataset Expressions Working with HFSS Projects 3-99 . When the argument to a trigonometric expression is a variable. The pwl_periodic function also interpolates along the x-axis but periodically.HFSS Online Help ln Natural Logarithm (The "log" function has been discontinued. Likewise.

but that has not been defined. 2.HFSS Online Help Using Dataset Expressions Dataset expressions take the form: dset((x0. See the HFSS online help about the specific parameter you want to vary to determine if can be assigned a variable. enabling you to define the design variable. Related Topics Adding Datasets Adding a Design Variable Modifying Datasets Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions Assigning Variables To assign a variable to a parameter in HFSS: • Type the variable name or mathematical expression in place of a parameter value in a Value text box.y0). and may also be assigned to variables. Each plot consists of straight line segments whose vertices represent their end points. enabling you to define the project variable. If the variable is a project variable. the Add Variable to DesignName dialog box will appear. 1. (xn. 3-100 Working with HFSS Projects . the Add Variable to Project dialog box will appear. A curve is fitted to the segments of the plot and an expression is derived from the curve that best fits the segmented plot. do the following: Clicke Project>Project Variables.. Dataset expressions are derived from a series of points in a plot created in the Datasets dialog box.. in which case the variable may be used as the second parameter to pwl and pwl_periodic functions. If you typed a variable name that included the $ prefix.. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to optimize. . If the variable is a design variable. The Properties dialog box appears. Related Topics Working with Variables Choosing a Variable to Optimize Before a variable can be optimized. If you typed a variable name that has not been defined. Note You can assign a variable to nearly any design parameter assigned a numeric value in HFSS. The created expression is then used in the piecewise linear intrinsic functions. you must specify that you intend for it to be used during an optimization analysis in the Properties dialog box.yn)) These expressions may be used as the first parameter to piecewise linear (pwl and pwl_periodic) functions. do the following: Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties.

Related Topics Setting up an Optimization Analysis Including a Variable in a Sensitivity Analysis Before a variable can be included in a sensitivity analysis. The Properties dialog box appears. For the variable you want to optimize. During optimization. or for optimization. Dependent variables cannot be included in a sensitivity analysis. select Include. override the default minimum and maximum values that Optimetrics will use for the variable in every sensitivity analysis. Click the row containing the variable you want to include in the sensitivity analysis. Optionally. Complex numbers are not allowed for variables to be used in an Optimetrics sweep. The selected variable will now be available for optimization in an Optimetrics setup defined in the current design or project. select Include. override the default minimum and maximum values that Optimetrics will use for the variable in every optimization analysis. Note 6. Optimetrics will not consider variable values that lie outside of this range. override the default initial displacement value that Optimetrics will use for the Working with HFSS Projects 3-101 7. do the following: Click Project>Project Variables. 5. Dependent variables cannot be optimized. 3. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to include in the sensitivity analysis. If the variable is a design variable. 5. Select the Optimization option above. Note 6.HFSS Online Help 3. or for optimization. statistical. 1. sensitivity or tuning setups. The selected variable will now be available for sensitivity analysis in a sensitivity setup defined in the current design or project. you must specify that you intend for it to be used during a sensitivity analysis in the Properties dialog box. Note 4. Note 4. 2. do the following: Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. For the variable you want to include in the sensitivity analysis. . Optionally. statistical. Complex numbers are not allowed for variables to be used in an Optimetrics sweep. the optimizer will not consider variable values that lie outside of this range. If the variable is a project variable. Select the Sensitivity option above. During sensitivity analysis. Optionally. Click the row containing the variable you want to optimize. sensitivity or tuning setups.

Note 4. If the variable is a design variable. 1. or for optimization. The Properties dialog box appears. Click OK. If the variable is a project variable. Complex numbers are not allowed for variables to be used in an Optimetrics sweep. 1. you must specify that you intend for it to be used during a statistical analysis in the Properties dialog box. Select the Tuning option above. Related Topics Tuning a Variable Example Projects: Tune a Coax Fed Patch Antenna Including a Variable in a Statistical Analysis Before a variable can be included in a statistical analysis. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to include in the statistical analysis. 2. If the variable is a project variable. Click the row containing the variable you want to tune. do the following: Click Project>Project Variables. 3-102 Working with HFSS Projects .HFSS Online Help variable in every sensitivity analysis. you must specify that you intend for it to be tuned in the Properties dialog box. If the variable is a design variable. 2. sensitivity or tuning setups. The selected variable will now be available for tuning in the Tune dialog box. Note 6. Optimetrics will not consider a variable value for the first design variation that is greater than this step size away from the starting variable value. select Include. do the following: Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. Dependent variables cannot be tuned. The Properties dialog box appears. 3. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to tune. Related Topics Setting up a Sensitivity Analysis Choosing a Variable to Tune Before a variable can be tuned. do the following: Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. do the following: Click Project>Project Variables. For the variable you want to tune. During sensitivity analysis. statistical. 5.

5. Click the row containing the variable you want to include in the statistical analysis.824547736mm 6. sensitivity or tuning setups. or for optimization.HFSS Online Help 3.8570192 7.824547736 0. The pasted variables appear in a tab separated column format. Complex numbers are not allowed for variables to be used in an Optimetrics sweep.45*$width Unit mm mm "Evaluated Value 14. Dependent variables cannot be included in a statistical analysis. override the distribution criteria that Optimetrics will use for the variable in every statistical analysis. Select the Statistical option above. select Include. Fields that do not contain values are left blank.8570192mm 7.68565864mm "Description Read-only false false false Hidden false false false Working with HFSS Projects 3-103 . Note 6. you can copy a a list of variables and their values to the clipboad. Optionally. Related Topics Setting up a Statistical Analysis Exporting Variables for Documentation By right-clicking in the Project Variables dialog. The selected variable will now be available for statistical analysis in a statistical setup defined in the current design or project. Note 4.: Name $width $length $height Value 14. statistical. You can then paste these variables elsewhere. For the variable you want to include in the statistical analysis.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Assigning Variables 3-104 Working with HFSS Projects .

Set the model’s units of measurement. (Optional) Set up any Optimetrics you want to run. Note that after you insert a design. follow this general procedure.4 Setting up an HFSS Design To set up an HFSS design. or voltages on objects or surfaces. Assign boundaries. Such idle notifications do not occur during solves. Run the simulation. 8. Note After a period of ildleness of 10 minutes. Specify how HFSS or HFSS-IE will compute the solution. view reports. 10. 4. which specify the field behavior at the edges of the problem region and object interfaces. 7. Select the solution type. Setting up an HFSS Design 4-1 . 5. 1. Insert an HFSS or HFSS-IE design into a project.sources of electromagnetic fields and charges. 6. 2. Draw the model geometry and assign material characteristics to objects. post-process results. A renewal of activity automatically requests a license. assign excitations . 3. For Driven solution-type designs. but they must be completed before a solution can be generated. 9. and create field overlays. HFSS gives up its license. View solution results. currents. you do not need to perform the steps sequentially.

Note Click the plus sign to the left of the design icon in the project tree to expand the project tree and view specific data about the model. The 3D Modeler window appears to the right of the Project Manager.HFSS Online Help Inserting an HFSS Design The first step is to insert an HFSS or HFSS-IE design to the active project. such as its boundary assignments. Related Topics Setting up an HFSS or HFSS-IE Design Setting the Project Tree to Expand Automatically 4-2 Setting up an HFSS Design . The new design is listed in the project tree. It is named HFSSDesignn or HFSS-IEDesignn by default. You can now create the model geometry. where n is the order in which the design was added to the project. To insert an HFSS or HFSS-IE design: • Click Project>Insert HFSS Design or Insert HFSS-IE Design .

Select one of the following solution types: Driven Modal For calculating the mode-based S-parameters of passive. This solution type results in a terminal-based description in terms of voltages and currents. Selecting Transient enables a radio button for Network Analysis. As you set up your design. The Eigenmode solver finds the resonant frequencies of the structure and the fields at those resonant frequencies. options available in the user interface will depend upon the selected solution type. Technical Notes: Solution Types Technical Notes: Transient Solution Theory Setting up an HFSS Design 4-3 . Typical applications include. time-domain reflectometry. 2. For calculating problems in the time domain. 1. such as ultra-wideband antennas. and for computing incident plane wave scattering. Your choice affects the options for the setup. It employs a time-domain (“transient”) solver. field visualization employing short-duration excitations. Eigenmode For calculating the eigenmodes.HFSS Online Help Selecting the Solution Type Before you draw the model for an HFSS project. of a structure. The Solution Type dialog box appears. or resonances. specify the design’s solution type. but are not limited to: Driven Terminal Transient • • • Related Topics Simulations with pulsed excitations. highfrequency structures with multi-conductor transmission line ports which are "driven" by a source. For calculating the terminal-based S-parameters of passive. Eigenmode designs cannot contain design parameters that depend on frequency. and transmission lines which are "driven" by a source. for example a frequencydependent impedance boundary condition. If you select Network Analysis the setup includes an Input Signal tab for the simulation. Some modal data is also available. electro-static discharge. Click HFSS>Solution Type. lightning strikes. high-frequency structures such as microstrips. waveguides.

HFSS Online Help 4-4 Setting up an HFSS Design .

(Note: before doing so. The Analysis Setup for the transient solver is different from that of the frequency domain. but are not limited to: • • • Simulations with pulsed excitations. For lossy metals. you can often change an existing Terminal Driven design into a Transient design and vice versa. For lossy dielectrics. electro-static discharge. The interface of HFSS Transient is much like the Terminal Driven solution type in the frequency domain. the port solver will launch an excitation that fits the lossless case. Your choice in setting the Transient solution type affects the options for the setup.) Notable differences for transient solution types are: • • • Materials cannot have arbitrary frequency dependence in a time-domain analysis. When lossy materials touch a port. This is inherent to most time-domain solvers. Saved fields can be visualized. Transient Network Analysis solution types . except for some restrictions in cases where certain frequency-domain options do not apply in the time domain.5 HFSS Transient HFSS Transient includes two solution types within HFSS. Two types of analysis setup are offered: a. lightning strikes.excitations are identical on all active ports and are simulated one at a time to facilitate the data collection. The 3D part of the simulation will take losses into account correctly. Therefore. you must remove the setups and solutions. Typical applications include. If you select Transient Network Analysis the setup includes a tab for the Excitation for the simulation. a Debye model is applied to ensure that the loss remain physical across the spectrum. and voltages and currents can be monitored. such as ultra-wideband antennas. time-domain reflectometry. Boundary conditions and definitions of ports or incident waves are almost the same. The geometry creation and the mesh are almost identical. field visualization employing short-duration excitations. a Padé approximation is used for the same reason. It employs a time-domain (“transient”) solver. HFSS Transient 5-1 .

Different ports can have different excitations. • Fields will only be saved on pre-selected surfaces. and voltages and currents can be monitored. No S-parameters or TDR results may be available. Transient solution types . All Active excitations are launched in one simulation.HFSS Online Help b. because saving all 3D fields for all times would take more disk space and I/O time than generally desired. but saved fields can be visualized. Related Topics HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient Transient Solution Theory Selecting the Report Type in HFSS Transient Procedure for Viewing Transient Radiated Fields 5-2 HFSS Transient .

7. Optionally check Import Mesh for mesh linking. 2. If the model contains a radiation boundary. For Adaptive solutions. the mesh for the transient simulation is generated by a regular frequency-domain simulation. you specify a Maximum Delta S. you specify a Maximum Delta Energy for convergence per pass. By checking the boxes you can enable the Start saving fields time. select the Input Signal tab to create a time profile. as shown in the figure. you can also specify the Maximum Number of Samples. For a Transient Network Analysis solution. 4. It uses mixed element orders and the iterative solver. you can select the Radiated Fields tab to if you intend to view radiated fields. 6. Use the Saved Fields tab to select the face or object lists for which to calculate fields. the setup includes a Radiated Fields tab. and Save fields at interval. Select the Duration tab to specify the simulation stop criteria. To add a Solution Setup for a Transient design: 1. For that simulation. Otherwise. Click HFSS>Analysis Setup>Add Solution Setup to open the Transient Setup dialog with the General tab selected. When you select an object list. Related Topics HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides HFSS Transient 5-3 . For Field Visualization solutions. 3. you also specify the focus of this setup as either Transient Network Analysis or Transient. you can specify: • • Maximum Number of Passes For Device characterization solutions. The Transient Network Analysis setup includes an Input Signal tab. the software decides on the appropriate frequency at which to perform the adaptive passes. 5.HFSS Online Help Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions When you specify the Transient solution type. If your design includes a radiation boundary.

HFSS Online Help Transient Network Analysis Solution Input Signal Tab: A Time Profile Saved Data Tab for Transient Solution Setup 5-4 HFSS Transient .

The profile includes two plots. The lower plot shows the energy spectrum of the upper plot You specify the function to use for the Profile by selecting from the drop down menu. Select the Input Signal tab of a Transient Network Analysis setup. all excitations are the same.HFSS Online Help Transient Network Analysis Input Signal Tab: a Time Profile A time profile defines the pulse used to excite a Transient Network Analysis solution type. HFSS Transient 5-5 . To create a time profile: 1. The upper plot shows the excitation of interest given the currently specified parameters. The Input Signal tab lets you select the Function set other parameters. For network analysis.

A Min Freq. The following table lists the available functions and the parameters that apply to the upper plot. of 0 Hz. Frequencies extracted Max Freq. Description A time profile that has as strong spectral content between the Min and Max frequencies.HFSS Online Help The wave plots are updated if you select a different function or edit the parameters. The energy spectrum plot parameters are always Frequency and Max Frequency. This changes the shape of the pulse. this time profile is specified by the rise time rather than the frequency range. This can be used for such purposes as extracting Sparameters in that frequency range. of 0 Hz. This also enables TDR output. For convenience. Function Broadband Pulse Upper Plot Parameters Min Freq. is allowed. TDR Rise Time Frequencies extracted This resembles a Sweep with a Min Freq. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions Transient Solution Theory Duration Tab for Transient Solution Setup Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient 5-6 HFSS Transient . however.

If you select the Auto Terminate radio button. The Transient Solver can run until the steady state criteria is reached. 2. you can also edit the Steady State Criteria value. The value is related to the maximum field remaining in the computational domain at a given time. 1.HFSS Online Help Duration Tab for Transient Solution Setup Use the Duration tab of the Transient Solution setup to specify the either Auto Terminate and/or At most time and periods. you can also specify and At most limit. given in either a Time or periods. Related Topics Transient Network Analysis Solution Input Signal Tab: A Time Profile Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient HFSS Transient 5-7 . Optionally. When the maximum field has fallen to this fraction of its all-time high. given in either a Time or periods. the simulation is considered complete and the analysis stops. or as an At least limit.

Patterns and 3D plots will also be supported. Such lists are convenient for specifying the most relevant components. the save interval.HFSS Online Help Saved Fields Tab for Transient Solution Setup The Saved Fields tab for a transient solution setup includes a an explanation that Transient fields will be calculated for the selected Object lists and Face lists. in reporter. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions Transient Network Analysis Solution Input Signal Tab: A Time Profile Transient Solution Theory Options Tab for Transient Solution Setup 5-8 HFSS Transient . If lists exist. Transient solutions support plotting rE. a real vector versus time. you can also choose whether to Start saving fields. and specify the Maximum Number of Samples.

because excitations can have individual profiles in a general analysis. The lower plot shows the energy spectrum of the upper plot. If you want to save simulation time. The following table describes the parameters for the upper plots. The lower plot parameters include the Min and Max frequencies. The passive ports will act as terminations. or current source) shall be “active” (with all ports active they each get an excitation one at a time. if you select Active. you can make only one or a few ports of interest “active”.HFSS Online Help Active or Passive Excitations in HFSS Transient In HFSS Transient. The upper plot shows the excitation of interest given the currently specified parameters. HFSS Transient 5-9 . For excitations in HFSS Transient solutions (and not HFSS Transient Network solutions). You will get only a partial S-matrix. plane wave. the time profiles are defined as part of the excitations. each excitation (port. The profile includes two plots. voltage. and a full S-matrix will be produced). you can specify additional parameters for the excitation. In this case. You specify “Active “ or “Passive by selecting radio buttons on the Transient tab for the excitation. The general Transient solution type has more time profiles.

The T0 parameter specified the start time of the pulse with the given Width and Amplitude. This changes the shape of the pulse. is allowed. The harmonic displays as a regular sine wave. Description A time profile that has as strong spectral content between the Min and Max frequencies. Harmonic Ramped Periods Amplitude Frequency Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions Transient Network Analysis Solution Input Signal Tab: A Time Profile Technical Notes: Transient Solution Theory Technical Notes: Excitations in the Time Domain Options Tab for Transient Solution Setup 5-10 HFSS Transient . Data Set Gassian Amplitude Max Freq. This can be used for such purposes as extracting Sparameters in that frequency range. Frequencies extracted Max Freq.HFSS Online Help Function Broadband Pulse Upper Plot Parameters Min Freq. of 0 Hz. T0 Amplitude Width See Adding Datasets for a description of how to create a dataset. A Min Freq.

2. click Export. This opens File browser winder that lets you specify a File name. you must first select Transient from the Simulation dropdown menu. location. To enable the display of transient data on the Transient tab. 4. You access is by clicking HFSS>Results>Solution Data. Then selecting from the Show dropdown menu. TDRz or Field Residual to display. you can select Input. To export the transient data. You can select which time step to display from the dropdown. 3. the Solution Data dialog includes a Transient tab. or check Show All. and data format.HFSS Online Help Transient Solution Data For Transient solutions. HFSS Transient 5-11 . 1. Output.

the format selections are: . Tab Delimited Data files.HFSS Online Help For Transient.dat .tab .txt Comma Delimited Data.csv . Ansoft Plot Data files Post Processing Files 5-12 HFSS Transient .

the Quantities include Input and Output related to the terminals in your design.HFSS Online Help Selecting the Report Type in HFSS Transient Creating a Report in HFSS Transient differs from standard HFSS in Solution selections. Related Topics Creating Reports HFSS Transient 5-13 . If the Solution Type is Transient. if you select Spectral. you can also select Spectral. the Category and Quantity lists offer different selections:. as well as TDRz and Residual. For Transient Network Solution type designs. VSWR. With Transient selected. including Terminal S Parameters. the Solution Context is Transient. and Port Zo. If the Solution Type is Transient Network Analysis.

if needed. Select this option to make radiated fields available from a given setup. 3. The setup dialog resembles the one for frequency domain. This applies to Transient with or without Network Analysis. Add a radiation boundary.HFSS Online Help Procedure for Viewing Transient Radiated Fields To display transient radiated fields: 1. Use this dialog to set up the Theta and Phi sampling and. Radiated field calculations will only be done for designs with radiation boundaries. This menu is enabled for designs with radiation boundaries. you can Insert Far Field Setup> Infinite Sphere. but without the Radiation Surface tab. If a radiation boundary is present the transient Solve Setup contains the Radiated Fields tab with a "Save time domain radiated fields" checkbox. the local coordinate sys- 5-14 HFSS Transient . 2. even if no setups are saving radiated fields. Under HFSS>Radiation.

For all other plots. the default is "Time" as the primary sweep. and the Time is set to a single value . In the Report dialog. as in Frequency domain. with Theta and Phi in Families set to single values corresponding to the first sample point. 4. the primary and secondary sweeps will be Theta and/or Phi. and Design. The Categories include rE. Once you have created a far field setup AND at least one setup has "Save radiated fields" selected.the start time. the Results menu will include Create Far Fields Report. For Rectangular Plot.HFSS Online Help tem. The Geometry selection will include all far field Infinite Sphere setups. Output Variables. with all submenus as in Frequency domain. You can create multiple Infinite Sphere setups in a single design. and Data Table. Rectangular Stacked Plot. 5. the Solution selection includes only setups with "Save radiated fields" checked. The rE quantities are as for fre- HFSS Transient 5-15 . Variables.

HFSS Online Help

quency domain, but all quantities will be real.

No matter what type of plot is generated, you can access the Time sweep and change the sampling, as with Field reports in Transient. For 3D patterns, you can overlay the pattern on the geometry, and to animate versus time, as is done in frequency domain. Once plots have been created, the reporter caches the base radiation field calculation. This means that subsequent plots will be generated more quickly. If you change the radiation setup, or invalidate solutions, the cache is cleared and the next plot takes longer. For Transient Network Analysis, the radiated fields are based on the setup in Edit Sources. If you change the source excitations that forces recomputation of the radiated fields. Output variables are supported, as for frequency domain. Related Topics HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides Creating Reports Plotting Field Overlays

5-16 HFSS Transient

6
HFSS-IE

HFSS-IE is a fullwave Integral Equation solver that calculates the “currents” on the surfaces of the objects in the model – both finite conducting and lossy dielectric objects are allowed. HFSS-IE is designed for large open problems. Application areas include:

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Radar cross Section (RCS) Antenna placement (for example, antenna on a vehicle) Stand alone antennas Coupling. EMI/EMC Works from within the standard HFSS desktop, sharing the GUI and the same 3D modeler and reporting features. Naturally open – no air volume or ABC needed Support for infinite ground plane Supports ground planes apertures Supports lumped gap and incident wave excitations. Supports discrete and/or interpolating frequency sweeps Near and far field calculations For larger models, HFSS-IE uses automated advanced matrix based compression techniques. Data link from HFSS available, which means that you divide appropriate models based on each solver’s advantages.

HFSS-IE features:

How HFSS-IE is different than HFSS HFSS uses the finite element method (FEM) to solve for the electromagnetic fields in the solution region. It meshes over the entire solution volume and solves for the electric field throughout that volume.

HFSS-IE 6-1

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HFSS-IE uses an integral equation (sometimes called method of moments = MoM) and solves for the currents on surfaces of objects. It creates a triangular surface mesh on all objects - it solves for the currents or equivalent currents on conducting and dielectric objects. The IE technique is by default an "open model" technique so no ABCs are needed. It can handle closed spaces, but that is typically not where it will be used. In addition HFSS-IE includes a true infinite ground plane. Related Topics HFSS-IE Options Inserting an HFSS or HFSS-IE Design Setting up an HFSS or HFSS-IE Design Assigning Excitations Assigning HFSS-IE Boundaries Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design HFSS-IE Getting Started Guides Technical Notes: Integral Equation Method Used in HFSS-IE

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Inserting an HFSS-IE Design
The first step is to insert an HFSS-IE design to the active project. To insert an HFSS-IE design:

Click Insert HFSS-IE Design

.

The new design is listed in the project tree. It is named HFSS-IEDesignn by default, where n is the order in which the design was added to the project. The 3D Modeler window appears to the right of the Project Manager. You can now create the model geometry. Note Click the plus sign to the left of the design icon in the project tree to expand the project tree and view specific data about the model, such as its boundary assignments.

Related Topics Setting up an HFSS or HFSS-IE Design Setting the Project Tree to Expand Automatically

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Assigning HFSS-IE Boundaries
HFSS-IE designs can include the boundaries listed in the table. HFSS-IE designs assume that the model is surrounded by some background material, so you do not have to draw an enclosing region with an absorbing boundary condition, as in HFSS. HFSS-IE assumes that the background material is vacuum. Perfect E Represents a perfectly conducting surface. This resembles the HFSS Perfect E boundary, but does offer selecting an infinite ground plane. Represents the effects of an infinite ground plane Represents holes in the design. Represents a resistive surface. Represents any combination of lumped resistor, inductor, and/or capacitor in parallel on a surface. Represents a structure with multiple layers as one impedance surface.

Finite Conductivity Represents an imperfect conductor. Infinite Ground Plane Aperture Impedance Lumped RLC Layered Impedance Related Topics Assigning Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Reassigning Boundaries Reprioritizing Boundaries Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Reviewing Boundaries and Excitations in the Solver View Setting Default Values for Boundaries and Excitations

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Assigning Excitations in HFSS-IE
Excitations in HFSS-IE are used to specify the sources of electromagnetic fields and charges, currents, or voltages on objects or surfaces in the design. You can assign the following types of excitation in an HFSS-IE design: Lumped Port Terminal Plane Incident Wave Far Field Wave Represents an internal surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. Represents a terminal. You can assign terminals manually or automatically. Represents a wave that propagates in one direction and is uniform in the directions perpendicular to its direction of propagation. A Far field wave is sufficiently far (that is, usually more than a wave length distance) from an antenna to approximate as a plane wave. Far field waves are mostly homogeneous. A Near Field wave is close enough to the antenna source for near field effects to occur, typically within a wave length. Near field waves tend to be evanescent, that is, non-homogeneous.

Near Field Wave

After assigning an excitation, you can modify it in some of the following ways, if applicable to the excitation type:

• • • • •

Change its properties. Delete it. Reassign it to another surface. Hide it from view. Modify the impedance multiplier.

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Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design
To add a new solution setup to a design: 1. 2. Select a design in the project tree. Click HFSS-IE>Analysis Setup>Add Solution Setup .

• •

Alternatively, right click Analysis in the project tree, and then click Add Solution Setup on the shortcut menu. If you have an existing setup, you can Copy and Paste it, and then edit parameters. Includes general solution settings. Includes settings for lambda refinement, adaptive analysis and solution options. Includes a list of expressions and output variables that you can use for convergence for adaptive analysis. Enables you to save the current settings as the defaults for future solution setups or revert the current settings to HFSS’s standard settings.

The Solution Setup dialog box appears. It is divided among the following tabs: General Options Expression Cache Defaults 3. 4.

Click the General tab. Enter a Setup Name or accept the default. The Enabled checkbox on General tab permits to you to disable a setup so that it does not run when you select Analyze All.

5. 6.

Enter the Solution Frequency and select the frequency units from the pull down list. If you are performing an adaptive analysis, enter 2 or more passes in the Maximum Number of Passes box.
For driven problems HFSS-IE always requires at least one adaptive pass. Entering 1 will also bypass adaptive analysis, generating a solution only at the solution frequency you specified.

7.

If ports exist, accept or set the Maximum Delta S per pass. If ports do not exist accept or set the Maximum Residual Error for convergence per pass. Maximum Residual Error is a stopping criterion for the adaptive solution. If the residual error is less than this value from one iteration to the next, the adaptive analysis stops. Otherwise, it continues until the requested number of passes is completed. In HFSS-IE this is an absolute value that functions like the Maximum Delta Energy, a relative value in HFSS that do not have ports. The default is 0.001.

8.

Click the Options tab. Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box, you can edit the following settings: a. b. c. Do Lambda Refinement Use Free Space Lamda Maximum Refinement Per Pass

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d. e. 9.

Minimum Number of Passes Minimum Converged Passes

Under the Expression Cache tab of the Solution Setup, you can edit the following settings: Adaptive Options: whether to use Output Variable Convergence (output variables must be defined for this to be enabled.) Add, Edit, Remove, or Remove all expressions. Also use selected expressions for convergence. Checking this enables the radio button and field for either Max Delta or Max Percent Delta. For expressions in the cache, you can directly edit the name, and, by clicking the Intrinsics field for an expression, you can edit the sweep values to which the expression applies.

10. Click OK. 11. Optionally, add a frequency sweep to the solution setup. Related Topics Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters Technical Notes: The HFSS Solution Process Copying a Solution Setup Renaming a Solution Setup HFSS-IE Feature

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6-8 HFSS-IE

7
Drawing a Model

After you insert a design into the current project, you can draw a model of the electromagnetic structure. The general strategy is to build the model as a collection of 3D objects. You can assign any single material to each 3D object. You can create 3D objects by using the modeler’s Draw commands or you can draw 1D and 2D objects, and then manipulate them to create 3D objects. Objects are drawn in the 3D Modeler window. You can also import objects from other systems. To open a new 3D Modeler window, do one of the following:

• • • •

Insert a new design into the current project. Double-click an HFSS design in the project tree. Click HFSS>3D Model Editor. Right-click the design name in the project tree, and then click 3D Model Editor on the shortcut menu.

If a 3D Modeler window for an existing design is not open, do one of the following:

The model you draw is saved with the current project when you click File>Save. Note If you access your machine via Remote Desktop, if HFSS is running and one or more modeler windows are open, those modeler windows automatically close. The message manager window displays a message indicating that HFSS closed the modeler windows.

When working with multiple projects, or when a project has multiple designs, you may have multiple Modeler windows available. To switch to the modeler window associated with a specific design: 1. 2. In the Project Manager window, select the Design of interest. Click HFSS3D Model Editor to focus the modeling window on the selected design.

If the menu command is unavailable, then the selected design is already in the modeler window.
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Related Topics Setting the Units of Measurement for the Model Drawing Objects Model Analysis Design Settings Setting the Temperature of Objects Creating a User Define Primitive Modifying Objects Selecting Objects Choosing the Movement Mode Choosing the Snap Settings Measure Modes for Objects Setting Coordinate Systems

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Setting Units of Measurement for the Model
You can specify the units of measurement for drawing geometric models. After the units of measurement have been specified, they are assigned to the objects in the 3D Modeler window. You can then choose to display the model’s dimensions in the new units, or rescale the model’s dimensions to the new units. To set the model’s units of measurement: 1. 2. 3. Click Modeler>Units. The Set Model Units dialog box appears. Select the new units for the model from the Select units pull-down list. Specify how the change in units affects the model:

• •

Select the Rescale to new units option to rescale the dimensions to the new units. For example, selecting centimeters (cm) as the new unit of measurement results in a dimension of 10 millimeters (mm) becoming 10 cm. Clear the Rescale to new units option (the default) to convert the dimensions to the new units without changing their scale. For example, selecting cm as the new unit of measurement results in a dimension of 10 mm becoming 1 cm.

Click OK to apply the new units to the model.

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Drawing Objects
You can draw one-, two-, or three-dimensional objects using the Draw commands. You can alter objects individually or together to create the geometry of your structure. In the Tools>Modeler Options, Drawing tab, you can set a default to either draw objects directly with the mouse or by invoking a Properties dialog in which you can enter the values for the object dimensions. The Dialog mode drawing feature works with the equation based curve, equation based surface, and all two and three dimensional objects. You can toggle to Point mode via the F3 function key and to Dialog mode via the F4 function key. When you use the Dialog mode for drawing objects the Edit property of new primitives setting is ignored. One-dimensional (1D) objects in the modeler include straight line, arc line, and spline segments, or a combination of these - called polylines. One-dimensional objects are open objects; their boundaries do not enclose a region, unless you connect their endpoints. They have length, but no surface or volume. Generally they are used as temporary objects from which to create 2D objects. Two-dimensional (2D) objects in the modeler include objects such as equation based surfaces, rectangles, ellipses, circles, and regular polygons. Two-dimensional objects are closed sheet objects; their boundaries enclose a region. You can create 2D sheet objects by covering the enclosed region.
In many applications (FSS, antennas) it is essential to calculate net power flow through a surface. You can also edit the properties of a polyline from the history tree to assign it a Cross Section property as line or rectangular. If you then assign it either a height or a width, the polyline becomes a sheet object.

By default, the history tree organizes sheet objects according to their boundary assignments. To change this, select the Sheets icon, and right-click to display the Group Sheets by Assignment checkbox. Within the calculator sheet objects are listed under surface. Three-dimensional (3D) objects in the modeler include objects such as boxes, cylinders, regular polyhedra, cones, spheres, torii, and helices. These objects have boundaries that enclose a region with volume. You can create 3D objects by manipulating 2D objects along a plane or by using the appropriate Draw commands. You can also edit the properties of a polyline from the history tree to assign it a Cross Section property as circle rectangular. If you then assign it an appropriate diameter or both height or a width,
the polyline becomes a 3D object.

By default, the history tree groups 3D objects by material. To change this, select the Objects icon, and right click to display the Group Objects by Material checkbox. While you draw objects you can also:

• • • • •

Select Movement Mode as 3D, In Plane, Out of Plane, Along X, Y or Z axis. Select Grid Plane as XY, YZ, or XZ. Set Snap Mode Set Reference Point for the movement mode Adjust the View

After you draw an object in the 3D Modeler window, you can modify the object’s properties, such as its position, dimensions, or color, in the Properties dialog box. Most model object properties can
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be assigned as Design variables when can then be manipulated during the solve to test their effect on the solution. For non-model objects, you can both Post Processing variables (default and Design variables,. Note If you access your machine via Remote Desktop, if HFSS is running and one or more modeler windows are open, those modeler windows automatically close. The message manager window displays a message indicating that HFSS closed the modeler windows.

Related Topics Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Modifying Objects Drawing a Region Setting the Temperature of Objects

Drawing a Straight Line Segment
To create an object with one or more straight line segments, use the Draw>Line command. 1. 2. Click Draw>Line . Select the first point of the line in one of the following ways:

• •

Click the point. You can accept the point or change it by editing its coordinates in the X, Y, and Z boxes in the status bar.

To delete the last point that was entered, click Undo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. After using the undo feature, you can also use Redo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. 3. Select the endpoint of the line by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. The endpoint serves as the start point for a subsequent line segment. To delete all points and start over, press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu. 4. Complete the line in one of the following ways:

• • •

Double-click the endpoint. Click Done on the context (right-click) menu. Press Enter.

If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line.

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5.

Click OK to close the Properties dialog. While drawing a polyline, you can switch between straight line, arc line, or spline segments using the Set Edge Type commands on the shortcut menu.

Note

Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments Drawing a Three-Point Arc Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Drawing a Spline Drawing a Polyline

Drawing a Three-Point Arc Line
In the modeler, a three-point arc line segment is an arced line defined by three points on its curve. Use the Draw>Arc>3 Point command to create a polyline object with one or more arc line segments. 1. 2. Click Draw>Arc>3 Point .

Select the start point of the arc in one of the following ways:

• •
3.

Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the X, Y, and Z text boxes.

Select the midpoint of the arc by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. To delete the last point that was entered, click Undo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. After using the undo feature, you can also use Redo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. To delete all points and start over, press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu.

4.

Select the endpoint of the arc by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. The endpoint serves as the start point for a subsequent arc line segment. If the endpoint is the last point of the polyline object, double-click the point to complete the polyline or click Done on the shortcut menu. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful

5.

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to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line. 6. Click OK. Based on the three points you specified, the modeler calculates the center point and radius of the arc and draws an arced line through the three points. Note While drawing a polyline, you can switch between arc line, straight line, or spline segments using the Set Edge Type commands on the shortcut menu.

Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Straight Line Drawing a Spline Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Drawing a Polyline Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments

Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line
In the modeler, a center-point arc line segment is an arced line defined by a center point, start point and angle. Use the Draw>Arc>Center Point command to create a polyline object with one or more center-point arc line segments. 1. 2. Click Draw>Arc>Center Point . Select the center point of the arc in one of the following ways:

• •
3.

Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar.

Select the start point, or radius, of the arc by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. To delete the last point that was entered, click Undo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. After using the undo feature, you can also use Redo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. To delete all points and start over, press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu.

4. 5.

Sweep the angle, or endpoint, of the arc by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. If the endpoint is the last point of the polyline object, double-click the point to complete the polyline or click Done on the shortcut menu. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, enabling you to modify the object’s attributes.

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6.

Click OK. While drawing a polyline, you can switch between arc line, straight line, or spline segments using the Set Edge Type commands on the shortcut menu.

Note

Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Straight Line Drawing a Spline Drawing a Polyline Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments Drawing a Three-Point Arc

Drawing a Spline
A spline is a curved line defined by three points. The modeler uses a natural spline type: a piece wise cubic spline with an end condition that has a derivative of zero. Use the Draw>Spline command to create a polyline object with one or more spline segments. 1. 2. Click Draw>Spline .

Select the spline’s start point in one of the following ways:

• •

Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar, and then press Enter.

To delete the last point entered, click Undo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu.After using the undo feature, you can also use Redo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. To delete all selected points and start over, press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu. 3. 4. Select the midpoint of the spline by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Select the endpoint of the spline by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. The endpoint serves as the start point for a subsequent spline segment. 5. Complete the spline in one of the following ways:

• • •

Double-click the endpoint. Click Done on the shortcut menu. Press Enter.

If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These
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commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line. 6. Click OK. While drawing a polyline, you can switch between spline, straight line, or arc line segments using the Set Edge Type commands on the shortcut menu.

Note

Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Polyline Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments

Drawing a Polyline
A polyline is a single object that includes any combination of straight line, arc line, or spline segments. The endpoint of one segment is the start point for the next segment. Use the shortcut menu’s Set Edge Type commands to switch between straight line, arc line, or spline segments while drawing a polyline.

In the Polyline section of Operation tab of the Modeler Options, select or clear the Automatically cover closed polylines check box. If checked, closed polylines become sheet objects, and are listed as such in the History tree. If unchecked, closed polylines are listed under lines in the History tree.

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Click Draw>Line

.

Right-click in the 3D Modeler window to access the shortcut menu, and then point to Set Edge Type. Click Straight, Spline, 3 Point Arc, or Center Point Arc depending on which type of polyline segment you want to draw. If you clicked Straight, follow the procedure for drawing a straight line. If you clicked Spline, follow the procedure for drawing a spline. If you clicked 3 Point Arc, follow the procedure for drawing a three-point arc line. If you clicked Center Point Arc, follow the procedure for drawing a center-point arc line.

5.

Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each segment of the polyline object. The endpoint of the previous segment serves as the start point for the next segment. The shortcut menu lets you do the following for each segment: Undo Previous Segment or Redo Previous Segment.

6.

Complete the polyline in one of the following ways:

• •
Note

Double-click the endpoint of the final segment. Click Done on the shortcut menu. To connect the polyline’s start and endpoints, click Close Polyline on the shortcut menu.

If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line. Notice that by going to the History tree selecting Create Polyline for that object, you can assign a cross section and dimensions to a polyline. 7. Click OK. If you select a polyline in the History tree, you can use the Measure mode to see the total length. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Drawing a Straight Line Drawing a Three-Point Arc Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Drawing an Equation-Based Curve
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Drawing a Spline Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments Generate History Setting Modeler Options: Operations Tab

Assigning a Cross Section and Dimensions to a Polyline
By viewing the History tree property of a polyline, you can assign either a line, circle or rectangle cross section to a polyline. This assignment enables editable dimension properties of width for a line, diameter for a circle, and height and width for a rectangle. To assign a cross section to a polyline: 1. In the History tree of the Modeler window, right-click on the polyline that you want to give a cross section. This selects the polyline, displays the polyline properties in the docked properties (if you have if displays) and displays a shortcut menu where you can choose Properties... to display the undocked Properties window for the polyline.

2.

In a Properties window (either docked or undocked) for the selected polyline click on None on the Type line under Cross Section to display the choices for Line, Circle, Rectangle.

3.

Select one of Line, Circle or Rectangle as the cross section.

Selecting Line causes the Cross Section area of the polyline properties to display editable fields for Orientation and Width.
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• •
4. 5.

Selecting Circle causes the Cross Section area of the polyline properties to display an editable field for diameter. Selecting Rectangle causes the Cross Section area of the polyline properties to display editable fields for Orientation, Width and Height.

If you select Line or Rectangle, you can edit the Orientation as Auto, X, Y, or Z. This provides the direction in which the dimension extends. Specify the dimensions and select the units for the Cross section. Type a value in the dimension field(s) and select units from the drop down menu. The dimensions must be reasonable relative to the specified shape and orientation of the polyline. If the polyline cannot be extended into current Orientation for the given dimension(s), you will receive a warning. If you receive a warning, check the Orientation, dimension and units. When the modeler can extend the dimensions legally, it displays the modified object, and lists it in the History tree as either a Sheet object (Line or one dimensional Rectangle) or as a Solid object (Circle or two dimensional Rectangle).

6.

You can modify the new polyline either by editing the properties, or by using the History tree to select one of the line objects that make up the polyline, and right clicking to display the popup menu showing commands to Insert, Delete, or display editable segment Properties.

A segment that you select in the Project tree is indicated in the Modeler window by a line in the dimensioned object. If you insert a new segment, it adopts the dimensions you specified for the polyline object. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Polyline Drawing an Equation-Based Curve Deleting Polyline Segments Inserting Line Segments
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Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Drawing a Straight Line Drawing a Three-Point Arc

Inserting Line Segments
You can insert line segments of various kinds for existing line objects. 1. Select the line object in the History tree (not the modeler window). This highlights the object and enables the Insert Line Segment commands in the Draw menu and short-cut menu. 2. 3. 4. Use the cascade menu from the Draw>Line Segment command to or the right-click menu to select whether to Insert Before Line Segment or Insert After Line Segment. Use the next cascade menu to specify the kind of segment to add. These can be: Straight, Spline. 3 Point Arc, or Center Point Arc. If you clicked Straight, follow the procedure for drawing a straight line. If you clicked Spline, follow the procedure for drawing a spline. If you clicked 3 Point Arc, follow the procedure for drawing a three-point arc line. If you clicked Center Point Arc, follow the procedure for drawing a center-point arc line. 5. 6. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each segment of the polyline object. The endpoint of the previous segment serves as the start point for the next segment. Complete the polyline in one of the following ways:

• •
Note

Double-click the endpoint of the final segment. Click Done on the shortcut menu. To connect the polyline’s start and endpoints, click Close Polyline on the shortcut menu.

The Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line. 7. Click OK.

Related Topics Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments

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Drawing an Equation-Based Curve
Any line that can be described by an equation in three dimensions can be drawn. 1. 2. Click Draw>Equation Based Curve . The Equation Based Curve dialog box opens. Type equations for X(_t), Y(_t), and Z(_t). You can also define an equation by doing the following: 1. 2. Click the ... button. The Edit Equation dialog box appears. Do one or more of the following to define the equation:

Note

• • • •
3.

Type a numerical value or expression directly in the text box. Select a function to insert from the pull-down list, and select Insert Function. Select an operator from the pull-down list, and select Insert Operator. Select a quantity from the pull-down list, and select Insert Quantity.

When you are finished defining the equation, click OK to close the Edit Equation dialog box and return to the Equation Based Curve dialog box.

Any unitless value input in equation based curve is taken as model units. For example, for Y(_t) = 1, the y value is taken as 1 model units (say mm). If a value has units, then it is converted to model units and used. For example, if we specify Y(_t) = 1cm, then y value will be correctly taken as 10mm. While parsing expressions, equation based curves convert each variable separately to model units and assume that the resulting expression is in model units. Equation based curves depend on the variable value library to correctly evaluate the units of expression.

• •
3. 4. 5.

Select a start value from the Start_t pull-down list. Select an end value from the End_t pull-down list. Select the number of points in the curve from the Points pull-down list. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line.

6.

Click OK on the Properties dialog box.

Related Topics Setting the Reference Point
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Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline

Drawing a Circle
Draw a circle by selecting a center point and a radius. Circles are drawn as true surfaces in the modeler. 1. 2. Click Draw>Circle . Select the center point of the circle in one of the following ways:

• •
3.

Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar.

Specify the radius by selecting a point on the circle’s circumference in one of the following ways:

• •

Click the point. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX, dY, and dZ boxes, where d is the distance from the previously selected point.

If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, enabling you to modify the object’s properties. 4. Click OK. If the Automatically cover closed polyline option is selected in the Modeler Options window, the circle will be covered, resulting in a 2D sheet object. Otherwise it will be a closed 1D polyline object. Note The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. However, the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects, but may not be ideal for all such objects. High-aspect ratio curves structures, such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections, may benefit from user control of the faceting values. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes, "Surface Approximations" and related sections, Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements, "Modifying Surface Approximations," and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Surface Approximation Creating Segmented Geometry Covering Lines

Drawing an Ellipse
Draw an ellipse by specifying a center point, base radius, and secondary radius.
Drawing a Model 7-15

" and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Related Topics Setting the Reference Point 7-16 Drawing a Model . or dZ box. If the current drawing plane is xy. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the center point in the dX. If the secondary radius is larger than the base radius. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. the ellipse’s longer axis will lie perpendicular to the default base radius direction. Click the point. "Modifying Surface Approximations. the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. resulting in a 2D sheet object. However. the Properties dialog box appears. may benefit from user control of the faceting values. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Click the point. 5. 2. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. Select the center point of the ellipse in one of the following ways: • • 3. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the center point in the dX. High-aspect ratio curves structures. Click OK. rotate or move the ellipse after drawing it. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. or dZ box. If the drawing plane is yz. Select the point in one of the following ways: • • 4. Click Draw>Ellipse . dY. To create an ellipse with an arbitrary orientation. If the base radius is larger than the secondary radius.HFSS Online Help 1. then x is the base radius direction. HFSS constrains mouse movement to the base radius direction. Otherwise it will be a closed 1D polyline object. but may not be ideal for all such objects. HFSS constrains mouse movement to a point on the plane orthogonal to the base radius direction. The Ratio value represents the aspect ratio of the secondary radius to the base radius. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. Specify the secondary radius of the ellipse. Specify the base radius of the ellipse. Note The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. dY. Select the point in one of the following ways: • • If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. then y is the base radius direction. the ellipse will be covered. If the Automatically cover closed polyline option is selected in the Modeler Options window. If the drawing plane is xz. then z is the base radius direction. Click the point. the ellipse’s longer axis will lie along the default base radius direction.

Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX. Regular polygons are useful for drawing faceted 2D objects. Specify the polygon’s radius. 2. in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. Otherwise it will be a closed 1D polyline object. dY. 4. 1. Drawing a Model 7-17 . 3. press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu. Select the first diagonal corner in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. Click OK. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Select the center point of the polygon in one of the following ways: • • 3. the distance from the center point to one of the polygon’s vertices.HFSS Online Help Modifying Surface Approximation Settings Creating Segmented Geometry Covering Lines Drawing a Rectangle Draw a rectangle (or square) by selecting two diagonally opposite corners. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. If the Automatically cover closed polyline option is selected in the Modeler Options window. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. resulting in a 2D sheet object. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Covering Lines Drawing a Regular Polygon A regular polygon is a 2D object with three or more equal sides. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. dY. 2. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the first diagonal corner in the dX. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. Select the second corner of the rectangle in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. To delete the selected point and start over. Click Draw>Regular Polygon . and dZ boxes. and dZ boxes. Click the point. the rectangle will be covered. the Properties dialog box appears. 1. Click Draw>Rectangle .

It is not measured from the center point to the midpoint of an edge. Click OK. 7-18 Drawing a Model . • Any unitless value input in equation based curve is taken as model units. You can also define an equation by doing the following: 1. Type a numerical value or expression directly in the text box.. and Z(_u. 2. and then click OK. then y value will be correctly taken as 10mm. The Edit Equation dialog box appears. _v). or the intersection of two edges. For example.. If a value has units. the polygon will be covered. the Properties dialog box appears.HFSS Online Help where d is the distance from the previously selected point. the y value is taken as 1 model units (say mm). click OK to close the Edit Equation dialog box and return to the Equation Based Surface dialog box. _v). for Y(_t) = 1. Do one or more of the following to define the equation: Note • • • • 3. The Equation Based Surface dialog box opens. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Select an operator from the pull-down list. For example. Select a quantity from the pull-down list. then it is converted to model units and used. 5. and select Insert Quantity. Otherwise it will be a closed 1D polyline object. Click the . if we specify Y(_t) = 1cm. Y(_u. 1. _v). button. The radius is measured from the center point to a corner of the polygon. and select Insert Operator. Type equations for X(_u. 2. Click Draw>Equation Based Surface . enter the Number of segments in the polygon. When you are finished defining the equation. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Covering Lines Drawing an Equation-Based Surface Any surface that can be described by an equation in three dimensions can be drawn. and select Insert Function. 4. Select a function to insert from the pull-down list. Note If the Automatically cover closed polyline option is selected in the Modeler Options window. In the Segment number dialog box. resulting in a 2D sheet object.

4. and dZ boxes. While parsing expressions. by selecting a center point and a radius. the Properties dialog box appears. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. a 3D circle. equation based curves convert each variable separately to model units and assume that the resulting expression is in model units. Specify the radius by selecting a point on the sphere’s circumference in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. Select end values from the End_u and End_v pull-down lists. Spheres are drawn as true surfaces in the modeler. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX. Equation based curves depend on the variable value library to correctly evaluate the units of expression. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Drawing an Equation Based Curve Drawing a Sphere Draw a sphere. Click Draw>Sphere . enabling you to modify the object’s properties.If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. Select start values from the Start_u and Start_v pull-down lists. Click OK on the Properties dialog box. the Properties dialog box appears. Select the center point of the sphere in one of the following ways: • • 3. Drawing a Model 7-19 . enabling you to modify the object’s attributes. 2. 1. dY. Click the point.HFSS Online Help • • 3. where d is the distance from the previously selected point.

2. may benefit from user control of the faceting values. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. dY. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. Select the point by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the dX. 1. radius. The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. Cylinders are drawn as true surfaces in the modeler. Click Draw>Cylinder . Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX. "Modifying Surface Approximations. Specify the cylinder’s height by selecting a point on the axis perpendicular to the base circle’s plane. HFSS draws a circular sheet object. However. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. but may not be ideal for all such objects. If you create a cylinder with a height of zero. Click the point. and dZ boxes. Click OK." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Note Drawing a Cylinder Draw a cylinder by selecting a center point. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. dY. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. and dZ boxes. the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. Click the point. High-aspect ratio curves structures. and height. Specify the radius by selecting a point on the base circle’s circumference in one of the following ways: • • 4. Note If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. Select the center point of the cylinder’s base circle in one of the following ways: • • 3. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. 7-20 Drawing a Model .HFSS Online Help 4. the Properties dialog box appears.

press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. and dZ boxes. Select the second corner of the base rectangle in one of the following ways: • • 4.HFSS Online Help 5. Click the point. However. may benefit from user control of the faceting values. To delete the selected point and start over. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the first diagonal corner in the dX. Specify the height of the box by selecting a point on the axis perpendicular to the base rectangle. then specifying the height. Select the point by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the dX. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. Click OK. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. and dZ boxes. the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. dY. 3. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Model 7-21 . The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. dY. 2. 5. Click OK. Click Draw>Box ." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Note Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Modifying Surface Approximation Settings Creating Segmented Geometry Drawing a Box Draw a box by selecting two diagonally opposite corners of the base rectangle. but may not be ideal for all such objects. the Properties dialog box appears. "Modifying Surface Approximations. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Select the first diagonal corner of the base rectangle in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. 1. High-aspect ratio curves structures.

2. Regular polyhedrons are useful for drawing faceted 3D objects. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. in one of the following ways: • • 4. Note If the Automatically cover closed polyline option is selected in the Modeler Options dialog box. The radius is measured from the center point to a corner of the polygon. It is not measured from the center point to the midpoint of an edge. Select the radius of the polyhedron. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Covering Lines Drawing a Cone Draw a cone by selecting the center point and radius of the cone’s base circle. enter the Number of segments in the polyhedron. Click the point. 1. the Properties dialog box appears. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. or the intersection of two edges. Click Draw>Regular Polyhedron . and dZ boxes. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Click the point. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked.HFSS Online Help Drawing a Regular Polyhedron In the modeler. each face has three or more equal sides. regular polyhedrons are 3D objects with regular polygon faces. . the distance from the center point to one of the polyhedron’s vertices. In the Segment number dialog box. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. 2. Click Draw>Cone . Select the center point of the cone’s base circle in one of the following ways: • • 7-22 Drawing a Model Click the point. 5. then specifying the radius of the cone’s top circle and the cone’s height. Cones are drawn as true surfaces in the modeler. Select the center point of the polyhedron in one of the following ways: • • 3. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX. Click OK. the polygon will be covered. 1. resulting in a 2D sheet object. Otherwise it will be a closed 1D polyline object. and then click OK. dY.

For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. Specify the height of the cone by selecting a point on the axis perpendicular to the base circle’s plane. and dZ boxes. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX. dY. 2. Click OK. Toruses are drawn as true surfaces in the modeler. but may not be ideal for all such objects. may benefit from user control of the faceting values.HFSS Online Help 3. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. "Modifying Surface Approximations. Select the point by clicking it or typing its coordinates in the dX. The modeler then sweeps a circle around a circular path. To create an apex. and dZ boxes. major radius. the Properties dialog box appears. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX. Specify the radius of the cone’s base circle by selecting a point on the base circle’s circumference. Click the point. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. However. Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. Click Draw>Torus . dY. and dZ boxes. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Note Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Torus Draw a torus by selecting its center point. Select the point by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the dX. Select the center point of the torus in one of the following ways: • • 3. High-aspect ratio curves structures. Select the point in one of the following ways: • • 4. and minor radius. select the same center point as the cone’s base circle. dY. 5. and dZ boxes. Click the point. The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. 6. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. Drawing a Model 7-23 Specify the major radius by selecting a point in one of the following ways: • • . 1. Specify the radius of the cone’s top circle by selecting a point on its circumference. dY.

the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. 5. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. Sweeping a 1D object results in a hollow 3D object. For Turn Direction. and click a unit in the pull-down list. 6. "Modifying Surface Approximations. The Helix dialog box appears. and Z text boxes. Sweeping a 2D sheet object results in a 3D solid object. Click Draw>Helix . 2. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. The initial radius of the helix is determined by the axis position relative to the object being swept. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. b. may benefit from user control of the faceting values. The helix length is determined when you enter the pitch and number of turns in the Pitch and Turns text boxes. Y. The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. The two points that describe the vector affect axis direction only and not the helix length. However. 1. 4. Select the endpoint by clicking the point or typing its coordinates relative to the start point in the dX. type the distance between each turn in the helix. Select the 1D or 2D object you want to sweep to form a helix. Click OK. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. 5. Specify the minor radius by selecting a point relative to the major radius point. and dZ boxes. the Properties dialog box appears. In the Turns text box. type the number of complete revolutions the object will make along the vector. a. 7-24 Drawing a Model . 3. Select the start point by clicking the point or typing its coordinates in the X. The major radius determines the diameter of the torus. dY. High-aspect ratio curves structures." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Note Drawing a Helix A helix is a 3D spiral object created by sweeping a 1D or 2D object along a vector. In the Pitch text box. select Right hand if the turn direction is clockwise and Left hand if the turn direction is counter-clockwise. The minor radius determines the diameter of the "donut hole".HFSS Online Help where d is the distance from the previously selected point. but may not be ideal for all such objects. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. 4. Draw the vector you want to sweep the object along.

For details about these commands see: Technical Notes.HFSS Online Help 7. the Properties dialog box appears. type a number for the increase in the radius and select the units from the pull-down list. "Modifying Surface Approximations. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. Drawing a Model 7-25 . 9. Specify the values for the following parameters: PolygonSegments Number of segments in the polygon cross-section. The first and last segments of the helix are half segments. The Create User Defined Part dialog box appears. An Info tab contains information about the user defined primitive. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. In the Radius Change per Turn text box. the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. StartHelixRadius The radius of a segmented helix is defined from the helix center of rotation to the center of the helix cross-section at segment transitions. Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section Using a User Defined Primitive Ansoft provides you with a DLL to define the parameters of a segmented helix with a polygon cross-section. 2. Click Draw>User Defined Primitive>SysLib>SegmentedHelix>PolygonHelix. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. its purpose. Enter zero (0) for true circle PolygonRadius Radius of the polygon cross-section. the date created and the version number. 1. After you set these values. However. See this figure. The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. Click OK. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. 8. High-aspect ratio curves structures. the selected object is swept along the vector to form a helix. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. The original object you swept is deleted. The Parameters tab permits you to edit the parameters. but may not be ideal for all such objects. may benefit from user control of the faceting values." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Note Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section using a User-Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross-Section using a User Defined Primitive. the company/author who created it.

Enter zero (0) for true curve. 2. The number of turns in the helix. RightHanded 3. Helix winding direction. SegmentsPerTurn The number of segments constructing each turn. The first and last segments of the helix are half segments. Helix winding direction. See this figure. The number of turns in the helix. Click Draw>User Defined Primitive>SysLib>SegmentedHelix>RectHelix. 1. Specify the values for the following parameters: RectHeight RectWidth Height of rectangular cross-section. 7-26 Drawing a Model . Enter non-zero value for righthanded helix. Enter zero (0) for true curve. An Info tab contains information about the user defined primitive. its purpose. Width of rectangular cross-section. RadiusChange Pitch Turns The radius change per turn of the helix. Click OK. Distance between helix turns. RightHanded 3. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Creating a User Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross Section Using a User Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross-Section Using a User Defined Primitive Ansoft provides you with a DLL to define the parameters of a segmented helix with a rectangular cross-section. Distance between helix turns. The Parameters tab permits you to edit the parameters. SegmentsPerTurn The number of segments constructing each turn. StartHelixRadius The radius of a segmented helix is defined from the helix center of rotation to the center of the helix cross-section at segment transitions. The Create User Defined Part dialog box appears. the date created and the version number.HFSS Online Help RadiusChange Pitch Turns The radius change per turn of the helix. the company/author who created it. Click OK. Enter non-zero value for righthanded helix.

Select the 1D or 2D object you want to sweep to form a spiral. . Select the endpoint by clicking the point or typing its coordinates relative to the start point in the dX. b. and dZ boxes. dY. 1. Click Draw>Spiral a. The Spiral dialog box appears. Select Right hand if the turn direction is clockwise and Left hand if the turn direction is Drawing a Model 7-27 . Draw the vector you want to sweep the object around: Select the start point by clicking the point or typing its coordinates in the X.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Creating a User Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section using a User-Defined Primitive Drawing a Spiral A spiral is a 2D or 3D spiral object created by sweeping an object around a vector. and Z text boxes. 4. Y. Sweeping a 1D object results in a 2D sheet object. 3. Sweeping a 2D sheet object results in a 3D solid object. 2.

Click a unit for the radius in the pull-down list. The original object you swept is deleted. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. the radius change was set at 2. 7-28 Drawing a Model . 6. 8. This 3D spiral was created from a 2D circle drawn at z = 0. In the Turns text box. In the Radius Change text box. type the number of complete revolutions the object will make around the vector. The turn direction was right hand. Click OK.HFSS Online Help counter-clockwise. the Properties dialog box appears. and the number of turns was set at 2. The selected object is swept around the vector to form a spiral. 5. The radius of the first turn is measured from the center point of the 1D or 2D object you are sweeping to the vector you drew. 7. type the difference in radius between each turn of the spiral.

its purpose. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. "Modifying Surface Approximations. may benefit from user control of the faceting values. the company/author who created it. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. 2. 1. The number of complete revolutions the object will make around the vector The width of the spiral. the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. the modeler draws a sheet object. the date created and the version number. The separation distance between turns. Hint To see newly created DLLs. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. This creates the primitive and displays the Properties dialog for the new object. click Draw>User Defined Primitive>UserLib. High-aspect ratio curves structures. The Parameters tab permits you to see edit the parameters. X location of the starting point. The Create User Defined Part dialog box appears. Y location of the starting point. Drawing a Model 7-29 . but may not be ideal for all such objects." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Spiral Using User Defined Primitives Drawing a Spiral using User Defined Primitives Ansoft provides you with a DLL to define the parameters of a rectangular spiral. Click Draw>User Defined Primitive>SysLib>Examples>RectangularSpiral. However. If you specify the height as zero.HFSS Online Help Note The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. The height of the spiral. click Draw>User Defined Primitive>Update Menu. Specify the values for the following parameters: Xpos Ypos TurnSep Turns Width Height 3. To see the primitives that you have created. Click OK. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. An Info tab contains information about the user defined primitive.

click the JEDEC modeling standard shape you want the bondwire to have: JEDEC 4-point. Enter the number of facets in the bondwire in the No. Select the bond pad point in one of the following ways: • • 3. Click OK. 7. Click Draw>Bondwire . JEDEC 5-point. and shows options for that type. Select the lead point by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. 4. 6. type a new value in the h2 text box. 8. b. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Technical Notes: Bondwires 7-30 Drawing a Model . The value describes the number of faces that make up the circumference of the bondwire. 9. or Low. Please see the topic Bondwires in the Technical Notes before drawing a bondwire. Include the height’s unit of length. Type the angle between the horizontal plane and the wire at the bond pad point in the alpha text box. 5. Optionally. It was calculated by HFSS based on the lead point you selected. The Type selection changes the dialogue bondwire graphic. 2. Type the angle between the horizontal plane and the wire at the lead point in the beta text box. 10. The minimum value is 3. In the diameter field. If you modify the value of h2. Include the height’s unit of length. the lead point will be modified. The Bondwires dialog box appears. In the Type list. 1. of Facets text box. If you selected JEDEC 5-point or Low do the following: a. Click the point.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Creating a User Defined Primitive Drawing a Spiral Drawing a Bondwire A bondwire is a thin metal wire that connects a metal signal trace with a chip. Enter the height between the bond pad and the top of the loop in the h1 text box. The value in the h2 text box is the height between the bond pad and the lead point. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. specify a diameter value and select the units from the pull-down menu.

The plane is created. Points are always considered non-model objects by the modeler. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. 1.HFSS Online Help Drawing a Point Drawing a point object within the problem region enables you to plot fields or perform field computations at that point. and dZ boxes. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Note You only need to draw a plane that does not lie on a pre-defined xy. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. and xz planes of the global coordinate system as well as any new coordinate system you create. Click Draw>Plane . Click Draw>Point . The plane is listed under Planes in the history tree. Select a normal point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. yz. Planes are always considered non-model objects by the modeler. The point is listed under Points in the history tree. 2. Related Topics Drawing Non-Model Objects Drawing a Model 7-31 . Type the coordinates of the point relative to the origin in the dX. and xz plane. You can plot fields or perform field computations on its surface. yz. 1. dY. Click the point. Select the point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. To delete the selected point and start over. Select the origin in one of the following ways: • • 3. Its center point is located at the origin you specified and oriented perpendicular to the normal point you specified. press ESC. 2. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Modifying Markers on Point Plots Drawing Non-Model Objects Drawing a Plane A plane object is a cutplane through the problem region. Default planes are created on the xy.

change the Number of 7-32 Drawing a Model . The figure below shows a comparison of a cylinder created with true surfaces and with segmented surfaces. ellipses. Line Segment See Segmented Objects See Converting Polyline Segments Segmented Objects To create segmented circles. 2. ellipse. Ellipse. Cylinder Polyline. Select the circle.HFSS Online Help Creating Segmented Geometry For some structures. The following model objects can be created as segmented structures: Circle. To convert an object from true surface to segmented. Arc. do the following: 1. In the command tab of the properties window (shown docked below). you may want to create segmented as opposed to smooth (or True) surfaces. and cylinders use the Number of Segments parameter on the Command Tab of the Properties dialog as shown below. or cylinder in the modeler window or in the history tree.

Drawing a Model 7-33 . ellipse. the line will be divided into 100 equally spaced points. see Specifying Variable Values for a Sweep Definition.HFSS Online Help Segments to an integer value of three or greater and press Enter. You can modify the number of points into which the line is divided in the Edit Sweeps dialog box.For more information. Note that when you create a value versus distance plot. Following are examples of using non-model objects to analyze a solution: • Draw a polyline along which to plot fields or perform field computations. Values of 1 and 2 are not valid values for the circle. define the object as non model. assuming it lies in the problem region. you can plot field quantities on it. by default. it will not affect the solution process. or cylinder command and will cause an error. This ensures that the object is used for analysis only. After drawing the object. Related Topics Modifying Surface Approximation Settings Creating Segmented Geometry Drawing Non-Model Objects If you want to create an object that does not affect the geometric model. You can assign output variables (default) and design variable as property values for non-model objects.

Related Topics Selecting Non-Model Drawing Mode Drawing Non-Model Objects Drawing a Region To draw a region encompassing the objects in the current project: 7-34 Drawing a Model . What do you want to do? Switch to non-model drawing mode. click Non Model on the drawing model pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar: 2. The object will not be included in the solution process. If the object lies in the problem region. which is always a non-model object. which is always a non-model object. Related Topics Changing an Object to Non Model Drawing Non-Model Objects Changing an Object to Non Model To modify an existing object to be a non-model object: 3. clear the Model option. Modify an existing model object to be a non-model object. Draw a plane.In the Properties dialog box. in order to plot fields or perform field computations at that point. Click Modeler>New Object Type>Non Model. Draw a point object. Selecting Non-Model Drawing Mode To switch to non-model drawing mode: 1. Draw the object. Alternatively. Objects you draw in non-model mode will not be included in the solution process. you can plot solution quantities on it.HFSS Online Help • • • • Draw a rectangle upon which to plot fields or perform field computations. Select the object you want to modify. Draw a volume box to analyze fields in areas of the problem region that are not occupied by an object or that consist of parts of several objects.

Selecting Pad all directions similarly leaves the Padding Percentage field as requiring a single value that affects all directions. Display Wireframe. Color. If you try to create a region that does not contain all of the objects in your model. The region is drawn. For the Padding data. Orientation. and Z coordinates. The Properties dialog for the region has a Commands tab that shows the coordinate system and Padding values. Click Draw>Region or click the icon on the tool bar. 3. click the Padding Data radio button as Pad all directions similarly or Pad individual directions. Model. the Properties window appears for the existing region. you can specify the Padding type by selecting Percentage Offset or Absolute Offset from the drop down menu. You can edit all of these values. and displayed in the History tree. Selecting Pad individual directions displays the Padding Percentage as a table of Positive and Negative X. click the check box to save the values as Default. Only one region can be created for a single project using the Draw>Region command. If desired. It is created using the current coordinate system. you can specify the Padding type by selecting Percentage Offset or Absolute Offset or Absolute Position from the drop down menu. relative offset. Drawing a Model 7-35 . Click OK to close the dialog and create the region. You can define the region padding as a percentage offset. and Transparency. 5. The region also updates automatically as your geometry changes. allowing you to change operation parameters and attributes. 4. and the Attributes tab includes properties for Name. This displays the Region dialog. the modeler automatically expands the region to cover all objects. 2.Y. selected. Material (Default. Specify the Padding values in the fields and select the units from the dropdown list.HFSS Online Help 1. Solve inside. permitting you to specify padding for each direction. vacuum). If you try to create a second region. In this case. or absolute offset. In this case.

1. the objects will be healed and the errors fixed. some features may not be enabled. Mis-aligned entities detection – detects pairs of faces from objects that can be aligned to remove object intersections. save a separate copy. 3. If you need to save the object history.HFSS Online Help Model Analysis For some models it may be beneficial to remove unnecessary small entities and to fix object misalignments to avoid potential mesh issues. The menu includes the following commands. The following errors can be present in models: (See Error Detection. These are non-manifold edges and vertices that are present in the model. Object pair intersection. This will replace the selected face/edge object by a tolerant edge/vertex respectively. 2. This improves the probability of mesh success. Depending on the design and the current selection. • • • • Analyze Objects Analyze InterObject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Show Analysis dialog Note Before running model analysis. This lets you focus on objects and object pairs that have errors and or warnings. When models pass the initial validity checks. After import. Mesh failure error display. Select the objects and invoke Modeler>Model Analysis>Analyze Objects. you must remove all command history for the selected object by using the Purge History command. 2. 4. The objects that fail should be analyzed by using the Modeler>Model Analysis>Analyze Objects menu item. Choose the objects that have "Invalid Entities Found" and Perform>Heal Objects.) 1. 3. In some cases the replacement of the face/edge by tolerant edge/vertex will fail. the initial analysis executes and the Model Analysis dialog is displayed. 4. This displays the Analysis Options dialog to allow you to specify settings for entity check level. you typically perform validation check. Select Modeler> Model Analysis to see the menu options. This is available for single object. This detects whether pairs of objects intersect. small face area and sliver face detection. 5. When you OK this dialog. mesh generation could still fail. object pairs and last simulation 7-36 Drawing a Model . choose the edges and faces and click on Delete. and small feature detection. Non-manifold topology. HFSS includes Model Analysis functions to help you evaluate models you have imported or created. Small feature detection – small edge length. In most cases. If errors still persist.

• • • 5. click the check boxes to enable and set the Detect Feature settings: • • • 4. See Modeler Validation Settings for more explanation. you also see this dialog. Clicking OK on this dialog displays the Model Analysis dialog which contains the results of the analysis. Small Edges. Detect Holes. and specify the Maximum Radius. Click the Properties tab to see a listing of the geometric properties of the selected object. Strict. Selecting Modeler>Model Analysis>Heal also displays this dialog. The setting can be Basic. and specify the Maximum Width. check the Perform Entity Check Errors checkbox. Select the object you want to analyze and click Modeler> Model Analysis>Analyze Objects. 2. This displays the Analysis Options dialog. area less than Sliver Faces. If. with the Analysis Options tab selected. length less than Small Faces. If desired. during Modeler>Import. Errors reported by the meshing module are reported to the user. Related Topics Set Material Override Analysis Options Dialog Healing Technical Notes: Removing Object Intersections Healing Non-manifold Objects Healing Options Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Analysis Options Dialog To perform analysis on an object according to specified features and tolerance values: 1. Detect Blends. and specify the Maximum Radius. which enables: Object Bounding Box Scale Factor Sliver Edge Width If desired set the Detect Small Entities features and tolerance values. 6.. 3.HFSS Online Help run (all objects in a model). Drawing a Model 7-37 . This enables the Check Level menu.. the Heal command is automatically applied to imported objects. By default. If desired. Detect Chamfers. you select Heal Imported Objects and Manual on the file browser dialog. Errors of type 3 and 4 should be resolved before you invoke the meshing for the model. or Comprehensive.

A submenu appears. 2. • 3. Analyzing the Surface Mesh To set the options to analyze the surface mesh: 1. Click OK to perform the analysis with the selected options. This dialog box allows you to set parameters to remove. displaying the results of the analysis. You can also open the Surface Mesh Analysis Options dialog box from the Model Analysis dialog box via the Perform pull-down menu on the Objects tab. Select one of the following from the submenu: • • • • Objects Objects Misalignment Surface Mesh Last Simulation Mesh The Model Analysis dialog box appears. This enables the Analyze Surface Mesh command in the menu. Select or clear the Perform Object Pairs Analysis check box. Select an object of interest. including diagnostic information relating to mesh issues. Selecting this option evaluates the mesh for all combinations of the selected objects. The Surface Mesh Analysis Options dialog box appears.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Heal Analysis Options Dialog Model Analysis dialog. Select or clear the Ignore Objects Separated by greater than check box. Related Topics Heal Model Analysis dialog. The Model Analysis dialog box appears. 5. 7-38 Drawing a Model . 4. Click Modeler> Model Analysis>Show Analysis Dialog. Select the Auto zoom to selection check box to automatically zoom to the item selected on the Objects tab. Selecting this option means that object pairs are disregarded from analysis if their separation is greater than the specified value. Model Analysis dialog This dialog contains results for all model analysis. To view the analysis options: 1. (This dialog box also appears automatically after clicking OK in the Analysis Options dialog box. 2. and enter a value in the text box. Click Modeler>Model Analysis>Analyze Surface Mesh.) 3.

column giving the analysis status of the listed objects. 5.small faces. Select any object name in the table which contains errors to display a set of radio buttons in the panel and a list of corresponding faces.the object was not selected for analysis.the object is non-existent.repairs invalid geometry entities for the selected objects within the specified tolerance settings. Note 3. Select the Perform button to list the commands that you can execute on the selected objects in the Results table.evaluates the object status. Objects can have the following status: • • • • • 2. • • Name .if this option is checked. Analysis not performed . Select the face. Last Analysis status . Auto Zoom to Selection -. Analyze Objects . • • Heal Objects . 1. Select the Delete button if you want to remove a selected face or edge entity. Make the desired changes on each tab in the Model Analysis dialog box. the modeler automatically zooms to the item selected in the Model Analysis dialog box. • • • • Heal Objects tab Objects Misalignment tab Surface Mesh (Single/Pairs) tab Last Simulation Mesh tab Click Close to close the Model Analysis dialog box. The results table contains the following information.Related Topics Analysis Options Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Objects Tab All results relating to model analysis of specific objects are presented under the Objects tab. Selecting this displays the Analysis Options Drawing a Model 7-39 . sliver faces and small edges that are optionally detected based on the tolerance limits specified in the Analysis Options dialog. 4. Null Body .the object contains no invalid geometry entities given the tolerance values specified in the Analysis Options dialog. Small entity errors . edge or vertex entity from the list to view the error description in the Description field. edges and vertices.these are api_check_entity() errors and non-manifold errors which Ansoft recommends that you fix before meshing.column listing the objects in the current design. Invalid entity errors .HFSS Online Help 4. Good . The Healing Analysis dialog will appear.

• Analyze Surface Mesh . Choose all the bodies that intersect with another body. Or you can run Modeler>Model Analysis>Analyze Interobject Misalignment.if this option is checked. 7-40 Drawing a Model . After validation check is performed. the modeler automatically zooms to the item selected in the table. Click OK to perform the analysis with the selected options.checking this causes the Model Analysis dialog to display a healing log which includes information about operations performed on an object during the healing process. and corresponding Misaligned Faces. Display Healing Log -.invokes a mesh for each selected object and reports analysis results under the Surface Mesh (Single/Pairs) tab. • • • Align Faces . From the Model Analysis dialog choose perform/Analyze Interobject misalignment. All misaligned face pairs corresponding to the analyzed objects are listed in the table.HFSS Online Help dialog. The results are reported under the Objects Misalignment tab. described in a list of Object Sets.this button removes all information from the tables. 1. If the analysis finds object pairs that can be aligned.determines any misalignments between two selected objects in the results table. Ignore objects separated by greater than a specified value . Auto Zoom to Selection -. the pairs of objects that intersect are chosen for analysis. Analyze Interobject Misalignment . Use the analysis results to find whether objects have faces that can be aligned. • • • • • Perform Object Pairs Analysis .select a face pair in the table and click the Align Faces button to align selected faces. they will be displayed in the Objects Misalignment tab. Selecting this option displays a dialog with radio buttons to select. Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Object Misalignment Tab The table in this panel displays results of an Interobject Misalignment analysis. Clear All Analysis Data .object pairs are disregarded from analysis if their separation is greater than the specified value.evaluates mesh for all combinations of the selected objects. It contains a list of Alignable Faces.

3. Surface Mesh (Single/Pairs) Tab The panel displays the results of a surface mesh analysis. Review the reports and fix the errors. Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Technical Notes: Removing Object Intersections Healing Non-manifold Objects Healing Options Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Set Material Override for HFSS Set Material Override for HFSS-IE Select by intersection error message.column listing object name or a pair of object names.if this option is checked.HFSS Online Help 2. Last Analysis Status . In some cases. Display Mesh Analysis log checkbox -checking this displays further details concerning each error to be listed. You can display results for: • • Note 2. Drawing a Model 7-41 Display options include: . • • • • • • • Mesh Success Mesh Failure Error Type . Individual Objects Object Pairs Auto Zoom to Selection -. You can select individual or multiple rows and perform Align Faces.column stating the meshing status of the object or object pair. Identify individual bodies and body pairs that fail to mesh. Error Detail . 5. 4. 1. The results table contains the following information: Object . the modeler automatically zooms to the object or object pair selected. Perform Mesh analysis on individual objects and object pairs.provide specific geometry information regarding mesh error location.this column gives the category of error that caused the mesh failure. face alignment will fail if the topology of the body changes by a large factor after alignment.

this column gives the category of error that caused the mesh failure.checking this causes the modeler to automatically zoom to objects or faces corresponding to the error. Display Mesh Analysis log checkbox -checking this displays further details concerning each error to be listed.checking this causes the modeler to automatically zoom to objects or faces corresponding to the error. Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Last Simulation Mesh Tab The table in this panel lists all model errors as viewed by the mesher. Display options include: Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing 7-42 Drawing a Model . • • • • Error Type . Error Detail .provide specific geometry information regarding mesh error location.HFSS Online Help • Auto Zoom to Selection -. Auto Zoom to Selection -.

the small object overrides the larger. the whole object disappears. and may have unexpected results. The outputs from the Djordjevic-Sarkar model are the expressions for permittivity and conductivity. the metal overrides the dialectric in the overlap region. but want to automatically apply a general-purpose frequency dependence to ensure causal solutions when solving frequency sweeps. check Enable material override. If metal intersects dialectric. the modeler considers any intersection between 3D objects to be an error. The purpose of this feature is to allow you to avoid doing explicit subtraction in the modeler. this feature is unchecked. These are defined as having a constant permittivity that is greater than one and a constant loss tangent that is greater than zero. the via does not have to be subtracted from the layers. These expressions. The materials are not modified in the design. To use this feature. and DC permittivity (none ). the part of the dielectric that is inside the metal is removed. (That is. The Set Material Override option allows some intersections to be resolved automatically in the mesh.) If objects with the same material overlap. The Design Settings dialog also contains checkboxes to Save As Default. Lossy Dielectrics Tab By default. the dielectrics are locally overwritten by the metals in the intersecting region. Related Topics Drawing a Model 7-43 .) All other intersections are treated as errors. DC conductivity (1e-12 S/m). In the meshing process. (That is. When reading legacy designs (HFSS 12 and earlier). are used in place of the material's constant properties. plus the standard default values of measurement frequency (1 GHz). This feature addresses cases where you only have simple constant material properties available. the small object is subtracted from the larger. Instead. When enabled the Djordjevic-Sarkar model is applied to all constant lossy dielectrics . HFSS automatically applies frequency dependent lossy materials for the solver and post processor. the metal object is subtracted from the dialectric. That is. The inputs to the Djordjevic-Sarkar model are the material's constant permittivity and loss tangent. plus zero loss tangent. One example application is a via that passes through many dielectric layers--with the option turned on.HFSS Online Help Design Settings for HFSS The HFSS>Design Settings command displays a dialog with tabs for Set Material Override and for automatic Lossy Dielectrics. the Djordjevic-Sarkar model is applied before the material is passed to the solver or used for post processing. Normally. Set Material Override Tab The Set Material Override tab includes text note and a checkbox to Allow metals to override dielectrics. Note Users must be careful: this setting changes the "ground rules" of the modeler. You can disable this feature on the Lossy Dielectrics tab. and if the dielectric is completely inside.

HFSS Online Help Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Materials Setting the Temperature of Objects 7-44 Drawing a Model .

Insulator Conductor in Siemens per meter The Design Settings dialog also contains checkboxes on each tab to Save As Default. the metal object is subtracted from the dialectric. the modeler considers any intersection between 3D objects to be an error.HFSS Online Help Design Settings for HFSS-IE The HFSS-IE>Design Settings command brings up a dialog with tabs for Material Thresholds and for Set Material Override. the whole object disappears. the dielectrics are locally overwritten by the metals in the intersecting region. The Set Material Override option allows some intersections to be resolved automatically in the mesh. Normally. check Enable material override. (That is. Note Users must be careful: these settings change the "ground rules" of the modeler. Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Materials Setting the Temperature of Objects Drawing a Model 7-45 . (That is. You can use the Material Thresholds tab to set the thresholds for: • Perfect Conductors in Siemens per meter. That is.) All other intersections are treated as errors.) If objects with the same material overlap. the small object overrides the larger. the small object is subtracted from the larger. In the meshing process. The purpose of this feature is to allow you to avoid doing explicit subtraction in the modeler. and may have unexpected results. To use this feature. the part of the dielectric that is inside the metal is removed. and if the dielectric is completely inside. the via does not have to be subtracted from the layers. One example application is a via that passes through many dielectric layers--with the option turned on. If metal intersects dialectric. the metal overrides the dialectric in the overlap region.

You can make multiple selections. This makes the table objects selectable. With the dialog enabled. Click Set to apply the value to the selected objects. you can use a scroll bar on the right of the table. To edit the material for an object. you can click on the material for the row. Related Topics Materials Set Material Override Specifying Thermal Modifiers 7-46 Drawing a Model . check Include Temperature Dependence. If the list is longer than the display. 6. 2.. To close the dialog and accept the changes. and then columns for Temperature and unit. then a checkbox to show whether that object has temperature dependent features. then the material. when the dialog is enabled. 3..HFSS Online Help Setting the Temperature of Objects To set the temperature of objects: 1. button. or click Set Default to make the specified values the default. Use the HFSS or HFSS-IE>Set Object Temperature command to display the Temperature of Objects dialogue. you can use the Select by name field. Click the edit button to display the Materials dialog. If you click Set Default. This dialogue includes a table of the objects in the design. The first column lists the object name. You can invert the sort direction in each column by clicking the header. Select the units from the drop down menu. The headers for the Object Name column and the Material column include sort direction arrows. and display a drop down menu listing the material and an Edit. 5. click OK. 4. To set the temperature for a selected object or objects. Enter the name of the object you want and click Select. Selected objects are highlighted. 7. type the value or an existing variable name in the text field. the row for the selected objects display the Temperature value and units. To enable the editing features.

that is. • • The menu command Modeler>Model Healing>Heal command applies to a selected object. Basic healing. The above actions are performed on the selected objects.) Note If you need to save the object history.sm3). including have non-manifold errors. Ansoft recommends that these be fixed before you invoke mesh generation. or Modeler>Model Analysis>Show Analysis dialog includes a Perform action menu with Heal Objects as a selection. (Also see Specifying the Model Resolution for defeaturing through the Auto Simplify and Model Resolution settings there. Healing can be invoked in different ways. These are: 3D Modeler file (*. two types of errors can occur – geometry errors and topology errors.igs).iges. Drawing a Model 7-47 . bodies that have errors. analysis is performed to determine its state (that is. and *. STEP file (*.) 3. blends. There is no guarantee that small feature removal will be successful. Feature Removal. This is done for all selected objects. edges and vertices are connected. Basic healing consists of fixing surface normals in the object and updating the orientation (to avoid having an object with negative volume). *. Advanced healing is not performed on objects that do not require it. Entity check.x_b). according to the Analysis Options settings.*. Basic Steps in the Heal Process There are several steps that are performed on selected objects. Selecting these formats enables a checkbox at the bottom of this window. If you choose objects for healing which have not been analyzed. the actions are performed on all selected objects.sat). *. (Use the Purge History command to remove unwanted history operations before using Heal. When models are imported. whether it has invalid entities. This is invoked on objects that require healing.HFSS Online Help Heal The Heal command provides a way to correct geometric violations and to remove specific kinds of small features. 2. stp).model.prt. and so forth). If you choose in the Healing Options to remove small holes. Some formats permit healing during Modeler>Import. ProE files (*. Invalid objects have all the above steps performed. small edges. • Any of these approaches leads to the same heal process. small entities." The Model Analysis dialog that appears after running Modeler>Model Analysis>Analyze Objects. IGES file (*.CATpart). 1. Advanced healing. and Parasolid file (*. "Heal Imported Objects. This is auto-heal. can be healed. Geometry errors are errors in definition of the underlying geometry while topology errors are errors in how the underlying components like faces.step. save a separate copy for that purpose before you heal the object. *. Imported objects which have only one operation on the history tree. small faces and/or sliver faces. chamfers. CATIA (*. 4.x_t. SAT file (*.asm).

HFSS Online Help While working on analyzing complex bodies. Related Topics Align Faces Remove Faces Remove Edges Technical Notes: Removing Object Intersections Healing Non-manifold Objects Healing Options Specifying the Model Resolution Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Healing Non-Manifold Objects Non-manifold objects. in simple terms. objects that intersect themselves (like the symbol for infinity in 2d) are clearly non-manifold. For example. The additional selection modes are available under Edit->Select and via the toolbar icons. In addition objects that touch themselves may be non-manifold such as when a 2D 7-48 Drawing a Model . In particular it is useful to find the connected faces for a face or edge or vertex. are non-physical objects or objects that cannot be manufactured. connected edges for a face/edge/vertex and connected vertices for a face/edge/vertex. it is sometimes useful to examine faces. edges and vertices.

or a 3D object touches itself at a point or edge. These cases are shown in the figure below. Drawing a Model 7-49 .HFSS Online Help object touches itself at a vertex.

7-50 Drawing a Model . Either do a union or a subtraction to remove the faces that contain the non-manifold edge. For example. or a pair of 3D objects connected by a 2D sheet object. either directly. The non-manifold edge is now removed. then the object will cause an error in the modeler or in the meshing system. 2. The criteria for manufacturability is a simple manifestation of a complex mathematical concept that must be adhered to in the solid modeling system. 5. a pair of 2D objects connected by a 1D line segment. Select the connected faces. Identify an edge that is non-manifold. When creating geometry. 4. To heal non-manifold objects: 1.HFSS Online Help Another type of non-manifold object has mixed dimensionality. If this is the case. You can use the Face selection toolbar icons. Create a small box to cover the non-manifold edge. Create a face coordinate system on the planar face. 3. These cases are illustrated below. You may also remove or add a small portion of the model. you should always consider whether or not the resulting operation will result in an object that could not be manufactured. or through boolean operations.

This enables a field for the Stitch Tolerance value. Remove Chamfers checkbox and Maximum Width value. Select the Feature Removal Options tab to specify the following: Here you can specify the following Feature Removal Options. which lists the geometric properties of the currently selected object. Heal Type as: Auto Heal (default). Click Modeler>Model Healing>Heal to open the Healing Options dialog. Related Topics Healing Technical Notes: Removing Object Intersections Healing Options Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Technical Notes: Mixed Dimensionality. A checkbox to select Perform Tighten Gaps A field to specify Tighten Gaps Within a given value in mm. You can also open the Healing Options dialog from the Model Analysis dialog via the Objects tab drop down menu. 1. Setting the Healing Options The Healing Options let you control how healing proceeds with respect to a variety of features and issues. • Tighten Gaps settings. 3. Surfaces. Perform Tolerant Stitching checkbox. Drawing a Model 7-51 . Healing Options Feature Removal Options Properties. The Healing Options dialog contains three tabs: • • • 2. Select the Healing Options tab on the Healing Options dialog to specify the following: • • Selecting Manual Heal enables the Manual Heal Options: • Perform Geometry Simplification This enables fields for Simplification Tolerance and Maximum Generated Radius values.HFSS Online Help 6. • • • Remove Holes checkbox and Maximum Radius value. and a checkbox to Stop After First Error. Remove Blends checkbox and Maximum Radius value. or No Heal. or Both. You can also select radio buttons to Simplify Curves. Manual Heal. Do for all the non-manifold edges.

The default value (auto) comes from the Healing dialog Options tab with Manual Healing selected. Small Faces Area e Less Than. Allowable Change in Volume checkbox. You can Control Object Properties Change according to the following settings: • • 4. less than a specified scale factor Sliver Edge Width. Click OK. Click OK to apply the specified Healing options and to open the Analysis dialog. less than a specified area. Length Less Than. 7-52 Drawing a Model . If the sheets are separated beyond the stitch tolerance. Select two or more sheet objects.HFSS Online Help You can specify the following Remove Small Entity Options: • • • Small Edges. stitching is not performed and a warning is issued. A short edge has a length less than the specified tolerance. You can give the tolerance as a absolute value or a factor of the bounding box containing the face. Related Topics Healing Stitch Sheets Technical Notes: Removing Object Intersections Healing Non-manifold Objects Specifying the Model Resolution Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Stitch Sheets Use the Modeler>Model Healing>Stitch Sheets command to stitch selected sheets. You may edit the value in the Stitch dialog or in the Healing Options. Sliver faces have a maximum distance among the long edges that is smaller than the specified tolerance and have at least one short edge and at most three long edges. Allowable Change in Surface Area checkbox. A long edge has a length greater than the specified tolerance. 2. 3. less than either: • • Object Bounding box Scale Factor. Select the Properties tab to view the geometric properties of the currently selected object. 1. and percent value. Click Modeler>Model Healing>Stitch Sheets This displays a Stitch dialog with a Maximum Stitch Tolerance field. 5. and percent value. This closes the dialog and attempts to perform stitching on the selected sheets. This enables the Stitch Sheets command on the Modeler>Model Healing submenu. less than a specified value. less than a specified value. Sliver Face Width Less Than.

you can correct the problem by one of the following methods. use a subtract operation to remove overlaps. You can also use the toolbar icon when you have made an appropriate edge selection Drawing a Model 7-53 . Boolean intersect shows the common portion between the bodies. In this case. Related Topics Align Faces Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Set Material Override Remove Selected Edges Use this Modeler>Model Healing>Remove Edges command to remove the selected edges. You can also use the toolbar icon when you have made an appropriate face selection If you find object-pair intersections that healing does not fix. 2. Use the Remove Faces command (Modeler>Model Healing>Remove Faces) or by performing Boolean subtract. or that can be fixed (by alignment). If overlap between objects is too large to be fixed by healing or by face alignment. You can also use the toolbar icon when you have made an appropriate face selection Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Remove Selected Faces Use the Modeler>Model Healing>Remove Faces command to remove the selected faces.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Healing Align Selected Faces Use the Modeler>Model Healing>Align Faces command to align the selected faces. 1.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Technical Notes: Error Types Technical Notes: Error Detection Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing 7-54 Drawing a Model .

3. Save myUDP.cpp from the UserDefinedPrimitives/Examples directory to this new directory. As an example.dsw. primitives customized to suit any application.h files from the UserDefinedPrimitives/Headers directory. Open the . Copy RectangularSpiral. In the UDPDir directory.dsp from the UserDefinedPrimitives/Examples directory to this new directory. or Draw>User Defined Primitive>Update Menu. e.dsp and myUDP. User-defined primitives are accessed using DLLs that you build and compile. Copy the UserDefinedPrimitiveStructures.dsp respectively. Rename the files to myUDP. When user defined primitives exist in your UserLib or Personal directory (given the paths specified in Tools>General Options Project Options tab).h and UserDefinedPrimitiveDLLInclude. The resulting directory structure will resemble the following: Drawing a Model 7-55 .dsp files in a text editor.. create a Headers subdirectory.dsw and myUDP. 4. call it UDPDir. create a Source subdirectory. b. The modeler includes example C++ source and header files that can be used to generate DLLs.dll using Microsoft Visual C++ Developer Studio: 1. d. Make sure the new file has write permission. Rename the file to myUDP.dsw and . and replace every occurrence of RectangularSpiral with myDLL. They must be included when you compile the DLL. create the primitive myUDP.dsw as a template: a. 2. Use the sample workspace RectangularSpiral. c. Make sure the new files have write permissions. Use the sample source file RectangularSpiral.cpp as a template: a. they appear in the Draw>User Defined Primitives>UserLib or PersonalLib menu. Create a directory to store all of the workspace information. b. The header files include information on the methods that are available for use in your source code.cpp. Newly created UDPs will appear after a restart. In the UDPDir directory. 6. c.HFSS Online Help Creating a User Defined Primitive The modeler allows you to generate user-defined primitives. Copy RectangularSpiral. Note 5. The files are located in the UserDefinedPrimitives/Examples subdirectory under the hfss13 directory.dsw and RectangularSpiral.

10.h UserDefinedPrimitiveStructures. the compiled library will work only on the operating system on which it was built. company/author who created it.dsp Headers/ UserDefinedPrimitiveDLLInclude.dsw using Microsoft Visual C++ Developer Studio. and an Info tab with the information from this data structure.HFSS Online Help UDPDir/ myUDP.so extension for Solaris and a . you see the Create Primitive dialog with a Parameters tab for setting the parameters.sl extension for HP-UX. click Draw>User Defined Primitive>Update Menu and then click Draw>User Defined Primitive>UserLib. When you select a primitive from your library. To view your primitives. 9. and edit the source code to create your desired primitive.cpp 7. Build myUDP. The resulting shared library will have a . This contains information about the udp. source. Copy the resulting file myUDP.h Sources/ myUDP. The UDP dll contains a data structure called UDPPrimitiveTypeInfo. You may also add additional headers and source files as appropriate. Note On UNIX. its purpose. As with the Windows DLL. and header files to build and compile a shared library using C++. 8.dll using the Win32 Release configuration. date created and the version number. Open myUDP. Related Topics Drawing a Spiral Using User Defined Primitives Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section Using a User-Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross Section Using a User Defined Primitive 7-56 Drawing a Model . you may use the same example directory structure.dsw myUDP.dll to the hfss13/userlib/UserDefinedPrimitives directory or the hfss13/personallib/UserDefinedPrimitives directory. and needs to be placed in the same hfss13/userlib/UserDefinedPrimitives directory.

To create a UDP. an existing DLL may be copied into the userlib>User Defined Primitives subdirectory which can be given the paths specified in Tools>General Options Project Options tab. In order to share UDPs between users.HFSS Online Help User Customization through User Defined Primitives (UDPs) User Defined Primitives (UDPs) allow users to add customized geometric modeling commands to the HFSS Desktop. see Creating a User Defined Primitive for requirements and the procedure for building a proper DLL. Placing an appropriately constructed DLL in this subdirectory and executing Draw>User Defined Primitives>Update Menu adds a new menu item in the Draw>User Defined Primitives menu to allow access to the UDP. UDPs are compiled libraries that can be added to the desktop interface and shared between users with common modeling needs. Related Topics Drawing a Spiral Using User Defined Primitives Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section Using a User-Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross Section Using a User Defined Primitive Drawing a Model 7-57 .

HFSS Online Help 7-58 Drawing a Model .

Duplicate objects. Separate objects. Change the Orientation of an object Mirror objects about a plane. What do you want to do? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Assign color to an object. Create an object from a face. Detach faces. Create an object from an edge. Subtract objects. Drawing a Model 7-59 . Cover lines. Delete objects. Assign transparency to an object. Detach edges. Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Copy and paste objects. Connect objects. Split objects. Uncover faces. Delete Last Operation Cutting Objects Move objects. Rotate objects. Cover faces. Scale the size of objects. Create objects from intersections. Sweep objects. Create a new object by taking a cross-section of a 3D object.HFSS Online Help Modifying Objects You can quickly modify the position. dimensions. Offset an object (move every face of an object). and other characteristics of objects created in the 3D Modeler window. Move faces or edges. Unite objects.

Click the color button beside the Default color pull-down list. The Color palette appears. 2. click the Attribute tab. In the Properties dialog box. Click Tools >Options>Modeler Options. Select a color from the Color palette. 2. Click Edit in the Color row. click View>Properties Window or use Edit>Properties. Rounding the edge of an object (Fillet) Flattening the edge of an object (Chamfer) Wrap Command Imprint Projection Commands Imprinting an Object View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects Purge History Generate History Select the object to which you want to assign a color. Select a color from the Color palette. 3. 3. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. and then click OK. Select Object from the Default color pull-down list. Click the color button beside the Default color pull-down list. 4. The color is assigned to the selected object. 7-60 Drawing a Model . Assigning Color to Objects 2. Any objects you draw after this point will be assigned the default color you selected.HFSS Online Help • • • • • • • • • 1. 3. Select Object Wire from the Default color pull-down list.Click the Display tab. 5. Setting the Default Color of Object Outlines 1. and then click OK. The Color palette appears. Convert polyline segments. The Color palette appears. Related Topics Setting the Default Color of Objects Setting the Default Color of Objects 1. Click the Display tab. 4. If the Properties window not visible on the desktop.

Move the slider to the left to decrease the transparency of objects. It can be the same design from which you copied the items. Objects are pasted relative to the current working coordinate system. Any objects you draw after this point will be assigned the default transparency you selected. 4. and then click OK. 2.HFSS Online Help 4. The objects are copied to the Clipboard. you can use the Import from Clipboard command. Click Edit>Copy . Related Topics Setting the Default Transparency of Objects Setting the Default Transparency of Objects 1. The outlines of any objects you draw after this point will be assigned the default color you selected. Select a color from the Color palette. Move the slider to the left to decrease the transparency of the object. click the Attribute tab. Click OK. In the Properties dialog box. Copying and Pasting Objects To copy objects and paste them in the same design or another design. click View>Properties Window or use Edit>Properties. The Set Transparency window appears. Select the objects you want to copy. 5. 3. 1. Move the slider to the right to increase the transparency of the object. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. Select the design into which you want to paste the objects. Click in the 3D Modeler window. Move the Default transparency slider to the right to increase the transparency of objects. The selected items are not deleted. 4. Select the object to which you want to assign a transparency. use the Edit>Copy and Edit>Paste commands. For data link purposes. Select the working coordinate system. a temporary storage area. To cut an item to the clipboard and deleting the original. Assigning Transparency to an Object 1. Note 2. If the Properties window not visible on the desktop. use the scissors icon on the toolbar. where you want to include the material assignments as well as the geometry. Drawing a Model 7-61 . Click the value in the Transparency row. 2.Click the Display tab. 5. 3.

the model for the current design must be empty. The image has to be copied to the clipboard. Select the objects you want to copy. Related Topics Setup Link Dialog Selecting Items in the 3D Modeler Window Copy Image You can import images of the 3D Modeler window or of Reports into any other application. To use a geometry with datalink. The geometry model is pasted from the Clipboard with the ID preserved. Click in the 3D Modeler window.HFSS Online Help 6. Items on the Clipboard can be pasted repeatedly. the geometry ID must be preserved. The objects appear in the new window. 1. The geometry model is imported from the Clipboard with the ID preserved. The items currently stored on the Clipboard are replaced by the next items that are cut or copied. To copy an image of the 3D Modeler window and paste into another application: 1. This enables the Edit>Copy Image command in the menu bar. Make the 3D Modeler window active. 2. Select the design into which you want to paste the objects. 7-62 Drawing a Model . 2. Objects are imported relative to the current working coordinate system. 5. a temporary storage area. so that it can be imported into the other application. you can use Edit>Select All or Ctrl-A. It can be the same design from which you copied the items. The selected items are not deleted. 6. To import a model from the Clipboard. Select the working coordinate system. 4. For selecting all objects. Click Edit>Copy . Click Modeler>Import From Clipboard. Click Edit>Copy Image. Click Edit>Paste . The objects are copied to the Clipboard. Related Topics Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry Import a Model from the Clipboard You can import a model to the Clipboard in order to use a geometry from a different design. or right click on the 3D Modeler window to display the shortcut menu and select Copy Image. 3.

reassign them to other objects. Select the objects to delete. 3. The enables the Edit>Copy Image command in the menu bar. select the polyline you want to edit. • Note Alternatively. 1. Select and open the application into which you want to paste the objects. or other parameters that were associated with the deleted object. Select and open the application into which you want to paste the objects. To maintain valid boundaries. Click Edit>Copy Image. The objects are deleted. click either Delete Start Point to remove the leading segments or Delete End Point to remove the following segments. Drawing a Model 7-63 . 2. 3. 2. excitations.HFSS Online Help The 3D Modeler window is copied to the Clipboard as an image. The designated segment is removed. press Delete. and paste the image. Make the report the active window. On the Edit menu or the shortcut menu. In the history tree. locate the polyline that contains the segment you want to delete. To copy an image of a Report to paste into another application: Related Topics Copy and Paste of Report and Trace Data Copy and Paste of Report and Trace Definitions Deleting Objects 1. and paste the image. the Delete Start Point and Delete End Point commands may be enabled. The report is copied to the Clipboard as an image. or right click on the Report window to display the shortcut menu and select Copy Image. Click Edit>Delete . In the history tree. and the line changes. 3. Expand this part of the history tree. 2. 1. These permit you to delete portions of the line. The segment is highlighted. Related Topics Deleting Polyline Segments Deleting Start points and End points Deleting Start Points and Endpoints If you select a polyline in the history tree.

Y. Type the angle to rotate the objects in the Angle box. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the anchor point in the dX. 2. y-. Select a target point in one of the following ways: • • All selected objects move the distance determined by the offset between the anchor point and the target point. Click Edit>Arrange>Move . Moving Objects 1. 4. and dZ boxes. Click Modeler>Delete Last Operation. Related Topics Undoing Commands Redoing Commands Cutting Objects 1. 2. Select the objects to rotate. 3. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. including removing that operation from the history. 7-64 Drawing a Model . Click Edit>Cut. Select the objects to cut. Select an arbitrary anchor point in one of the following ways: • • 4. dY. Click the point. This undoes the last operation. 2. or Z. . Select the object. To rotate objects about an axis: 1. and updating the context for the Undo and Redo commands. Rotating Objects Rotate objects about the x-. Enter the point’s coordinates in the X. Click the point. 3. or z-axis using the Edit>Arrange>Rotate command. The objects are copied to the Clipboard and deleted from the design. 2. Select the objects to move. Select the axis about which to rotate the objects: X.HFSS Online Help Delete Last Operation To delete the last operation on an object: 1. and Z boxes.Y. Click Edit>Arrange>Rotate The Rotate dialog box appears.

Changing the Orientation of an Object Each object has an Orientation property that specifies the coordinate system it uses is Global. You can select multiple objects.HFSS Online Help A positive angle causes the object to be rotated in the counter-clockwise direction. This property is useful in dealing with anisotropic materials. Click on the Orientation property. This command allows you to move an object and change its orientation. To change an object’s orientation. 4. Click OK. If no Orientations other than Global have been defined. Select the object or objects that you want to mirror. Y. or a user defined orientation relative to the Global coordinate. 3. none appear on the list. Define the coordinate systems you want to have available. or typing coordinates in the X. use the Edit>Duplicate>Around Axis command. Note The distance between the point on the mirror plane and the point along the normal does not matter — only the vector direction matters. You can do this by clicking a point. Open the properties window for the object. Changing the orientation of an object provides a way for objects made of the same material to be orientated differently. A negative angle causes the object to be rotated in the clockwise direction. The properties of anisotropic materials are specified relative to the objects orientation. The selected objects are rotated about the axis. 5. Drawing a Model 7-65 . Select a point on the plane around which you want to mirror the object. 2. and Z boxes in the status bar. To rotate and copy objects. The plane is selected by defining a point on the plane and a normal point. To mirror an object about a plane: 1. Related Topics Assigning Material Property Types Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Mirroring Objects Mirror an object about a plane using the Edit>Arrange>Mirror command. Click OK to close the dialog and apply the changes. and select from the Drop down list. 2. 3. Click Edit>Arrange>Mirror . 1.

the mirroring is relative to that point on the object. Clicking the mouse moves the object to location indicated by the outline. As you move the cursor. In the following example. the initial point is at a distance from the original object.. So the axis of rotation as you move the cursor is that corner. Related Topics Duplicating and Mirroring Objects 7-66 Drawing a Model . where d is the distance from the previously selected point. Select a second point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. To mirror and copy objects about a plane. The distance along the vector does not matter. The selected object is moved to the plane you specified and oriented relative to the normal point you specify. it drags a diamond-shape on a vector extending from the initial point. the outline moves to the coordinates. Hit the Enter key to complete the command. As you type in the values. the first point clicked after selecting Edit>Arrange>Mirror was on the right-rear bottom corner of the selected object. and dZ boxes. designated by the triad from which the handle for rotation extends to the dragging cursor. 4. In this second example.HFSS Online Help If you select a point on the object. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the first point in the dX. Moving the mouse rotates an outline of the object to new orientations. dY. use the Edit>Duplicate>Mirror command.

the first and third cylinders are not affected by the split. Click OK. but if you move the faces of the parent object. You can also create a single duplicate that mirrors the parent object about a plane. The command hierarchy in the history tree will show the duplication command. 4. its duplicates are not affected because this operation took place after the duplicates were created. The selected object’s faces are moved the distance you specified. 2. The child object can be designated as attached to the parent object. and then split the second cylinder. Operations performed on duplicates are independent. For example. that is. no ports or boundary conditions are duplicated. no ports or boundary conditions are duplicated. and then select a unit from the pull-down list. illustrating which commands affect all duplicates (those performed before the duplication) and which commands would not affect the duplicates (those performed after the duplication). Duplicating Objects You can duplicate objects within a design using the Edit>Duplicate commands. Click Edit>Arrange>Offset. Use the Surfaces>Move Faces>Along Normal command if you want to move just one or more faces of an object. The Offset dialog box appears. Duplicates a mirror image of the parent object about a plane. This command enables you to move every face of a solid object without having to individually select and move each face. if you duplicate a cylinder twice. For example. Duplicates are dependent upon the parameters of their parent object at the time they were created. 3. When creating duplicates. Duplicates the parent object around an axis. Choose from the following commands: Edit>Duplicate>Along Line Edit>Duplicate>Around Axis Edit>Duplicate>Mirror Duplicates the parent object along a straight line. they share the parent object’s history at the time of creation. if you modify the radius of a parent object’s hole. but if so. Type the distance you want to move the object faces from their origins. the parent object is duplicated along a line or around an axis the number of times you specify. Select the object you want to offset. creating a row of three. The child object can be designated as attached to the parent object. Drawing a Model 7-67 . To offset every face of an object: 1. The faces are moved a specified distance normal to their original planes. the change is applied to the holes of the object’s duplicates because they share the radius specification history. but if so.HFSS Online Help Offsetting Objects Move every face of a 3D object in a direction normal to its surface using the Edit>Arrange>Offset command.

dY. use the Edit>Duplicate>Around Axis command. 1. Click OK. in the Total Number box. Type the angle between duplicates in the Angle box. The Duplicate Along Line dialog box appears. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. 4. The duplicates are placed along the vector you specified. b. Select a second point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. Select the axis around which you want to duplicate the object: X. 3. . Type the total number of objects. a. use the Edit>Copy and Edit>Paste commands. The Duplicate Around Axis dialog box appears. This point defines the direction and distance from the anchor point to duplicate the object. or Z. Duplicating Objects Along a Line To duplicate an object along a straight line. A positive angle causes the object to be pasted in the counter-clockwise direction. A negative angle causes the object to be pasted in the clockwise direction. and dZ boxes. or z-axis. Select the object you want to duplicate. selecting an anchor point on the object’s edge or within the object makes it easier to select the duplication line. no ports or boundary conditions are duplicated for the child. Duplicating Objects Around an Axis To duplicate an object around the x-. 5. Specify the vector along which the object will be duplicated: Select an arbitrary anchor point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. 2. Click Edit>Duplicate>Around Axis . y-. 4. including the original. Y. Select the object you want to duplicate. Y. By option check the Attach to Original Object checkbox. 7-68 Drawing a Model . use the Edit>Duplicate>Along Line command. Note There is currently no method for dissolving the parent/duplicate relationship once a duplicate has been created. Click Edit>Duplicate>Along Line. 2. however. 1. or lie at an angle. 6. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the anchor point in the dX.HFSS Online Help To copy objects to another design. horizontal. and Z boxes. 3. Any point in the drawing region can be selected. If this is checked. Type the point’s coordinates in the in the X. The line along which the object is duplicated can be vertical.

the distance of each vertex from the origin is multiplied by the scaling factor. 2. and dZ boxes. If this is checked. You can alter an object’s proportions by scaling it in one direction. Note that a vertex located at the origin will not move. no ports or boundary conditions are duplicated for the child. 1. Related Topics Mirroring Objects Scaling Objects Scale an object’s dimensions in one or more directions using the Edit>Scale command. This command allows you to duplicate an object and specify the duplicate’s position. The plane is selected by defining a point on the plane and a normal point. 6. set a different working coordinate system to achieve the desired scaling. A line drawn from this point to the mirror plane will be perpendicular to the plane. To scale an object’s dimensions in one or more directions: 1. The object is duplicated around the axis at the angle you specified. Drawing a Model 7-69 . The scale of an object is determined by the distance of each of its vertices from the origin of the model coordinate system. When an object is scaled. . Type the total number of objects. The distance between the point on mirror plane and point along the normal does not matter. including the original. If necessary. if you specify a scaling factor of 2 in the X direction. 7. except that this command duplicates an object. Select the object you want to mirror. use the Edit>Duplicate>Mirror command. each vertex in the model will be moved so that the distance to its origin is doubled. For example. 2. Select a normal point on the plane in one of the following ways: Click Edit>Duplicate>Mirror • • Click the point. causing the object to be resized and/or moved. Select a point on the plane on which you want to mirror the object.HFSS Online Help 5. This command is similar to Edit>Arrange>Mirror. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. Click Edit>Scale. dY. Click OK. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the first point in the dX. rather than moves it. By option check the Attach to Original Object checkbox. Select the object to scale. A duplicate of the object appears on the plane you specified. only the vector direction matters 3. The Scale dialog box appears. in the Total Number box. oriented according to the normal point you specified. Duplicating and Mirroring Objects To duplicate and mirror an object about a plane.

You can also thicken sheets to make a 3D object. The object is scaled about the working coordinate system’s origin. You can also sweep one or more faces of a 3D object to create a new object. such as polylines. 3. Select the object you want to sweep. To sweep an object around an axis: 7-70 Drawing a Model . or any 2D object created in the 3D Modeler window. keep the following guidelines in mind: • • • 1. The object and the axis you are sweeping around must lie in the same plane. if you are sweeping an object around the z-axis. Before using this command. You can also sweep open 1D objects. y-.HFSS Online Help 3. For example. trapezoids. 4. 2. Click OK. Y. rectangles. or z-axis using the Draw>Sweep>Around Axis command. Objects that can be swept include circles. such as xz or yz. Type the scale factor for each axis. the object must lie in a plane that includes the zaxis. or along a path to create a 3D solid object. or Z. The Sweep Around Axis dialog box appears. Related Topics Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Sweeping Around an Axis Sweeping Along a Vector Sweep Along a Path Sweep Faces Along Normal Thicken Sheet Sweeping Around an Axis Sweep a 1D or 2D object around the x-. The normal of the object’s plane faces must be perpendicular to the axis around which you are sweeping. This results in open 2D sheet objects. Click Draw>Sweep>Around Axis. The object may not cross the axis around which it is being swept. Sweeping circles around an axis is a convenient way to create an open coil loop. polylines. See Sweep Faces Along Normal. along a vector. The 2D object need not be orthogonal to the sweep path. Select the axis you want to sweep the object around: X. Related Topics Modifying Object Attributes using the Properties Window Sweeping Objects You can sweep a 2D object around an axis. arcs.

The Properties dialog box appears. while a negative value results in an error. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Y.Draw the vector you want to sweep the object along: • • Click the point. If the sweep angle is 360 degrees. if the original object had sharp edges. Select the endpoint in one of the following ways: Click Draw>Sweep>Along Vector. which creates a true path. Sweeping Along a Vector Sweep a 1D or 2D object along a vector using the Draw>Sweep>Along Vector command. The draft type instructs the modeler how to fill in gaps created by expanding or contracting a profile with a draft angle.HFSS Online Help 4. The object is swept around the axis. The new object has the properties of the original object. or shape. dY. 1. Select one of the following draft types from the pull-down list. Projects and scripts from previous software versions are treated as if the number of segments were zero.Click OK. If the sweep angle is less than 360 degrees. This is the angle to which the object’s profile. The Sweep Along Vector dialog box appears. Type the number of segments in the Number of segments text box. and Z boxes. Type the draft angle. the new profile will have sharp edges. The edges of the new profile are extended along their natural curves until they intersect. Drawing a Model 7-71 . The default number of segments is zero. is expanded or contracted as it is swept. Type the draft angle. the number of segments is equal to the value specified. Select the start point by clicking the point or typing its coordinates in the X. 6. The value must be between -360 and 360 degrees. 7. Click OK. Extended Round Natural The edges of the new profile are extended with straight tangent lines until they intersect. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the start point in the dX. The facetting of the faces will be displayed. Type the angle to sweep the object through in the Angle of sweep box. A positive value results in a segmented sweep. 5. a. Select the object you want to sweep. For example. 2. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. b. The edges of the new profile are rounded. and dZ boxes. half segments appear at the ends. Note 8.

Type the angle of the twist in the path. The object is swept along the path. The new object has the properties of the original object. The other endpoint must lie in a plane perpendicular to the object being swept. 3. When you are sweeping an object along a path. To sweep an object along a path: 1. The Properties dialog box appears. Select the object you want to sweep. 3. The facetting of the faces will be displayed. 4. 4.HFSS Online Help This is the angle to which the profile is expanded or contracted as it is swept. The new object will have sharp edges like the original object The object is swept along the vector. Click OK. The new object will have rounded edges. 6. The new object will have sharp edges like the original object. Sweeping Along a Path Sweep a 1D or 2D object along a path that is defined by an open or closed polyline using the Draw>Sweep>Along Path command. This is the number of degrees the profile will rotate as it is swept through the complete path. The facetting of the faces will be displayed. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. The Sweep Along Path dialog box appears. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Type the draft angle. Select one of the following draft types from the pull-down list box: Extended Round Natural 7. Select one of the following draft types from the pull-down list box: Extended Round Natural The new object will have sharp edges like the original object. and then select the new polyline. keep in mind that one of the path’s endpoints must lie in the same plane as the object being swept. The new object has the name and color of the original profile. 2. The Properties dialog box appears. The polyline object used as the path is deleted. Create the polyline you want to use as a path. Click Draw>Sweep>Along Path. The new object will have sharp edges like the original object 7-72 Drawing a Model . 5. The new object will have rounded edges. This is the angle to which the profile is expanded or contracted as it is swept. Click OK.

3. 5. use the Modeler>Surface>Sweep Faces Along Normal command. 2. use the checkbox. 4. Click Select Faces on the shortcut menu. Select the sheet or sheets.) The sheet object must be in contact with the 3D object. It should have smaller dimensions than the 3D object. Wrap Command You can use Modeler>Surface>Wrap command to wrap a sheet object around a suitable 3D object (rectangular or segmented. Related Topics Moving Faces Along the Normal Thicken Sheet To thicken one or more sheet objects to make 3D objects: 1. 4. and removing rounded corners. Note that the adjoining faces will not be sheared or bent. The Thicken Sheet dialog appears. This command is useful for extruding faces. Specify the thickness by typing in the field. resizing holes. The dialog closes and the sheets are changed into 3D objects of the desired thickness. Type the distance you want to sweep the object face from its origin. 6. 6. The Sweep Faces Along Normal dialog box appears. the wrap is straightforward. Select the faces of the object you want to sweep. If the sheet object does not overlap the corners of the 3D object. 2. Click OK.HFSS Online Help Sweeping Faces Along Normal To create a new object by sweeping select 3D object’s face a specified distance in a direction normal to its original plane. 5. Click OK. A sheet object that overlaps corners Drawing a Model 7-73 . Click Modeler>Surface>Thicken Sheet. Specify the units by selecting from the drop down menu. To sweep selected object faces in a normal direction: 1. Click Modeler>Surface>Sweep Faces Along Normal. as shown in the figure. 3. If you want to thicken both sides. The face is swept the distance you specified to create a new object.

It is now a 2D sheet object that can be swept to form a 3D solid object. and regular polygons. The sheet object wraps around the 3D object. 3.HFSS Online Help may not wrap in straightforward fashion. If the object cannot wrap. and assign properties separately. use the Modeler>Surface>Cover Lines command. You can select the wrapped sheet object and the 3D object separately. Select the closed polyline object you want to cover. 2. 7-74 Drawing a Model . While it is possible. Select both objects. the Message window contains a warning and description. select the Automatically cover closed polylines option in the Modeler Options dialog box. depending on both the angle(s) involved. Click Modeler>Surface>Cover Lines. A closed polyline object can also be created by using boolean unite operations on two or more polylines. To wrap a sheet object: 1. The polyline object becomes a 2D sheet object. Related Topics Imprinting an Object Covering Lines To cover a closed 1D polyline object with a face. rectangles. To convert a closed polyline object to a sheet object: 1. Create a sheet in contact with an appropriate 3D object. If you delete the 3D object. Note If you want the modeler to automatically cover all closed polyline objects you draw. including circles. 2. ellipses. it is not recommended. the wrapped sheet retains the form it took when wrapped. The object is now covered. and the sheet object. You can wrap multiple sheets on the same 3D object. Click Modeler>Surface>Wrap.

2. Click Modeler>Surface>Uncover Faces. only the first face will be uncovered. When you then select that sheet body box and use the Cover Faces command. You can select multiple edges to detach. The selected face is now detached. leaving an open face on the object. 2. Drawing a Model 7-75 . The object faces are now covered. To uncover the face of a 3D object: 1.HFSS Online Help Covering Faces To cover object faces. For example. the solid box becomes a sheet with five faces. You can select multiple faces to detach. To cover the faces of objects: 1. 2. Select the faces of the objects you want to cover. resulting in two 2D sheet objects. Click Modeler>Surface>Detach Faces. Select the edge of the object you want to detach. To cover the face of a 2D or 3D object. Uncovering the surface of a 3D solid object results in an open 2D sheet object. Switch to edge selection mode: Click Edit>Select>Edges. Click Modeler>Surface>Cover Faces. If you select multiple faces. use the Modeler>Surface>Cover Faces command. The selected face is uncovered. Select the face of the object you want to detach. the box becomes a solid again with six faces. Detaching Edges The Modeler>Edge>Detach Edges command enables you to remove an edge of a wire object. 2. To detach the face of an object: 1. Detaching Faces The Modeler>Surface>Detach Faces command enables you to remove the face of a 3D object. for a box. Select a face of the object you want to uncover. when you select and uncover a face. Covering the face of an open 2D sheet object that had previously been uncovered results in a 3D solid object. Note You can uncover one face of a 3D object at a time. resulting in two separate wire objects. Switch to face selection mode: Click Edit>Select>Faces. Uncovering Faces Uncover a surface of a 3D object using the Modeler>Surface>Uncover Faces command. resulting in two separate objects. the faces must be united into a 3D sheet object. Switch to face selection mode: Click Edit>Select>Faces. To detach an edge of an object: 1.

To create a cross-section of an object: 1. Creating a Cross-Section You can take a cross-section of a 3D object to create a new 2D object. 3. Select the objects you want to connect. The first object you selected was modified to create the new object and all subsequently selected objects were deleted. resulting in multiple wire objects. This is done using the Modeler>Surface>Section command. To connect objects: 1. Related Topics Setting the Working Coordinate System Connecting Objects Use the Modeler>Surface>Connect command to perform the following operations: • • Connect two or more 1D polyline objects. reshape. Moving object faces enables you to resize. The selected edge is now detached. 4. or relocate an object. Click Modeler>Surface>Connect. Click Modeler>Surface>Section. The second and subsequent polylines selected are deleted. Make sure the working coordinate system you want to use for the cross-sectioning plane is set. HFSS will modify the first polyline you select to be a 2D sheet object that connects to the second and any subsequently selected polylines. The cross-sections are created as 2D closed polyline objects. Use this command to create cross-sections of 3D objects on the xy. Connect two or more 2D sheet objects. YZ. A closed polyline object is created from the object that was sliced by the selected axis. 2. The second and subsequent objects selected are deleted. yz. Note Only edges from wire bodies can be used in a detach edge operation. Select the section plane you will use to divide the object: XY. Click OK.HFSS Online Help 3. or ZX. sectioned object is unmodified. The original. 7-76 Drawing a Model . Moving Faces or Edges You can move the faces of a 3D object in a normal direction using the Modeler>Surface>Move Faces commands. 2. or xz plane. A new object is created that connects the objects you selected. Click Modeler>Edge>Detach Edges. Select the object from which you want to create a cross-section. HFSS will modify the first 2D object you select to be a 3D solid object that connects to the second and any subsequently selected objects.

1. If you have created a suitable face list. right-click on the list and click Select Assignment from the shortcut menu. To move an object face in a normal direction: 1. resizing holes. This command is useful for extruding faces. use the Modeler>Surface>Move Faces>Along Normal command. Click Modeler>Surface>Move Faces>Along Normal. use the Edit>Arrange>Offset command. as shown below. Type the distance you want to move the object face from its origin. Related Topics Moving Faces Along a Vector Offsetting Objects Moving Edges Along the Normal Drawing a Model 7-77 . Click OK. The Move Faces Along Normal dialog box appears. you can operate on faces on the list. Extruding Faces Resizing Holes Removing Rounded Corners To move every face of an object normal to its surface.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Moving Faces Along the Normal Moving Faces Along a Vector Offsetting Objects Moving Edges Along the Normal Moving Faces Along the Normal To move a 3D object’s face a specified distance in a direction normal to its original plane. and removing rounded corners. 2. 4. Click Select Faces on the shortcut menu. The faces that adjoin the original face are extended or shortened along their own planes to meet the new face. Note that the adjoining faces will not be sheared or bent. Select the face of the object you want to move. 3. The face will be moved the distance you specified.

Click Modeler>Surface>Move Faces>Along Vector. Click Select Faces on the shortcut menu. and Z boxes. dY. Select an arbitrary anchor point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. 3. Select the face of the object you want to move. and dZ boxes. This point defines the direction and distance from the anchor point to move the face.HFSS Online Help Moving Faces Along a Vector To move the faces of a 3D object a specified distance along a vector use the Modeler>Surface>Move Faces>Along Vector command. as shown below. This command is useful for relocating holes in an object. 4. If you have created a suitable face list. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. b. Each selected face is moved along the vector. selecting an anchor point on the object’s edge or within the object makes it easier to select the vector. Type the point’s coordinates in the in the X. The faces that adjoin the original face are extended or shortened along their own planes to meet the new face. Relocating Holes To move every face of an object normal to its surface. Y. right-click on the list and click Select Assignment from the shortcut menu. To move an object face along a vector: 1. use the Edit>Arrange>Offset command. you can operate on faces on the list. 2. Any point in the drawing region can be selected. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the anchor point in the dX. Related Topics Moving Faces Along the Normal 7-78 Drawing a Model . Select a second point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. Note that the adjoining faces will not be sheared or bent. Specify the vector along which the face will be moved: a. however. normal to its original plane. The face is moved along the vector you specified.

This option instructs the modeler to always keep a copy of the original objects being joined. The objects are united at the point of intersection. Click OK. 4. Select Clone before unite in the Modeler Options dialog box. use the Modeler>Boolean>Unite command. boundary. 1. a regular polygon.HFSS Online Help Offsetting Objects Moving Edges Along the Normal Moving Edges Along Normal To move a 2D object’s edge a specified distance in a direction normal to its original plane. The edge is extended or shortened along its own plane. The new object has the name. color. • • Copy the objects. Click Modeler>Boolean>Unite. a circle. This command is useful for extending or shrinking faces and resizing holes. Related Topics Select Edges. Select the edge of the object you want to move. Click Select Edge on the shortcut menu. Select the objects you want to join. 5. and material assignment of the first object selected. The objects are united. Moving Faces Along the Normal Moving Faces Along a Vector Offsetting Objects Uniting Objects To join two or more objects into one object. To move an object edge in a normal direction: 1. 3. The Move Faces Along Normal dialog box appears. or an equation based surface. use the Modeler>Edge>Move Edge command. do one of the following: . 2. If you want to keep a copy of the objects being joined to the first object selected. an ellipse. Type the distance you want to move the object face from its origin. and then paste them back into the design after uniting them. Click Modeler>Edge>Move Edge. The edge can be on a rectangle. 2. the objects being joined to the first object selected are not preserved for later use. Note By default. Note that the adjoining faces will not be sheared or bent. Drawing a Model 7-79 . The edge of the object is moved based on the value you specified.

and then type the name of the object from which you want to subtract it in the empty text box below the Blank Parts list. .HFSS Online Help Subtracting Objects 1. Alternatively. select an object name in either list and use the left and right arrow buttons to move the object name to the opposite list. This instructs HFSS to always keep a copy of the original objects being subtracted. Click Modeler>Boolean>Subtract The Subtract dialog box appears. Select the object from which you want to subtract other objects. Optionally. Hold down the Ctrl key and select the objects you want to subtract. 3. 2. Optionally. 6. 7-80 Drawing a Model . select Clone tool objects before subtract. type the name of object you want to subtract in the empty text box below the Tool Parts list. Objects listed in the Tool Parts list will be subtracted from the object or objects listed in the Blank Parts list. Click OK. 4. • 5.

Note By default. Creating Objects from Intersections To create a new object from the intersection of two or more objects. Select the objects from which you want to take the intersection. To create an object from an intersection: 1. and material of the first object selected. Select Clone before subtract in the Modeler Options dialog box. the objects being subtracted from the first object selected are not preserved for later use. Click Modeler>Boolean>Intersect The original objects vanish. A box subtracted from a cylinder. color. Warning 2. and then paste them back into the design after subtracting them. the result is a null object and both objects vanish. The cylinder was selected first. If the objects you selected do not overlap. do one of the following: • • Copy the objects. If you want to keep a copy of the objects being subtracted from the first object selected.HFSS Online Help The new object (or objects) retains the name. . This option instructs HFSS to always keep a copy of the original objects being subtracted. An intersecting box and cylinder. use the Modeler>Boolean>Intersect command. leaving only the new object that was formed from their intersec- Drawing a Model 7-81 .

Creating an Object from a Face The Modeler>Surface>Create Object from Face command copies a selected face. Right-click in the modeler window.The face is copied. do one of the following: • • Copy the objects. Note By default.HFSS Online Help tion. If you select multiple faces. Select Clone before intersect in the Modeler Options dialog box. resulting in a new 2D 7-82 Drawing a Model . To create a new object from a face: 1. An intersecting box and cylinder. 2. If you want to keep a copy of the objects that intersect the first object selected. Object formed from the intersection of the box and cylinder. each becomes a new object. and then paste them back into the design after creating the new object from the intersection. the original intersecting objects are not preserved for later use. Click Modeler>Surface>Create Object From Face. resulting in a new 2D sheet object. Select the object face you want to copy. and select Select Faces on the shortcut menu. This option instructs the modeler to always keep a copy of the original objects that intersect the first object selected.

Right-click in the modeler window. and select Select Edges on the shortcut menu. first select the faces. The edge is copied. The resulting object appears in the history tree as a line object. To do this. Related Topics Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Creating an Object from an Edge Creating an Object from an Edge The Modeler>Edge>Create Object From Edge command copies a selected edge. Next. Select the object edge you want to copy. those on the negative side of the plane. Then assign the boundary to the new object. Click Modeler>Edge>Create Object From Edge. or all pieces on both sides of the plane): . Select the object you want to split. 2. and then use the Modeler>Boolean>Intersect command to modify the object so that it includes only the intersection of the two faces. each becomes a new object. Select XY.HFSS Online Help sheet object. YZ. • • • Positive side Negative side Both Drawing a Model 7-83 . 4. If you select multiple edges. make sure the Clone before intersect option is clear in the Modeler Options window. Related Topics Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Creating an Object from a Face Splitting Objects To an object or objects that lie on the xy. Click Modeler>Boolean>Split The Split dialog box appears. yz. Hint This command is useful for assigning a boundary to the intersection of two faces. 2. 1. Select one of the following Keep fragments options to specify which object fragments you want to keep (those on the positive side of the selected plane. 3. use the Modeler>Boolean>Split command. resulting in a new 2D sheet object. and then create an object from them using the procedure above. or XZ as the Split plane. You can select more than one. To create a new object from an edge: 1. or xz plane. 3.

7-84 Drawing a Model . Other objects were ignored during the operation.e. By design. In complex geometries. both parts are retained. Also.. you may want to select everything and perform a split. Split objects crossing split plane Select this option so that objects of the selection that do not cross the split plane are preserved after the split operation is performed. A cylinder split along the positive side of the yz plane. operations are still performed on selected objects that do not cross the split plane (i. yielding the original object and an invalid object). Select one of the following Split objects options: • • Split entire selection Select this option if you do not want to preserve objects that are not crossing the split plane and still part of the selection. some objects not crossing the split may be deleted. depending on the options specified. 6. others are kept intact. The objects are divided as specified. Note In previous versions of the modeler.HFSS Online Help 5. The Split objects crossing split plane option allows you to identify selected objects that do not cross the split plane and ignore them for the operation. In some cases. only those objects that cross the split plane are split. splits in existing designs from previous versions are not changed. the split operation only affected the selected objects that crossed the selected split plane. For a multiple selection. Click OK.

Expand this part of the history tree. Converting Polyline Segments A polyline is a single object that includes any combination of straight line. 4. Spline segments to straight line segments. Drawing a Model 7-85 . 2. In the history tree. You can convert a polyline segment from one type to another. or spline segments. Straight line segments to arc line or spline segments. locate the polyline that contains the segment you want to convert. Select the desired polyline segment type from the pull-down list. Click Modeler>Boolean>Separate Bodies. The following conversions are supported: • • • 1. Select the object you want to separate.HFSS Online Help Separating Bodies To separate an object with multiple lumps into individual bodies: 1. and then click Properties. Arc line segments to straight line or spline segments. right-click the polyline segment operation you want to change. that were created from one object. In the history tree. arc line. In the Properties dialog box. The Properties dialog appears. each with one lump. The object is separated. To convert polyline segments: 3. 2. This figure shows two separate bodies. click in the Value text box of the Segment Type row.

Click OK to dismiss the properties panel and implement the changes. If segmented surfaces are desired. The dialog closes and the object is rounded by the radius value relative to the edge you 7-86 Drawing a Model . and select Select Edges from the shortcut menu. Click 3D Model>Fillet or click the fillet icon The Fillet Properties dialog is displayed. To switch to edge selection mode: • 1. It is the distance of the cross curve from the vertex at the end of the edge. the vertex is preserved but moved (if necessary). curved surfaces are treated as smooth (True) surfaces. The edges are replaced by quarter-cylindrical surfaces. By default. enter a number of 2 or greater in the Number of Segments parameter. Enter a value for the setback distance. Enter a value for the Fillet Radius in the text field and select units from the drop down menu. 2. The setback distance controls the shape of the vertex. one segment is created between the start point and midpoint and one segment is created between the midpoint and endpoint. Select the edge you want to change. Related Topics Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Creating Segmented Geometry Surface Approximation Rounding the Edge of Objects (Fillet Command) The fillet command rounds the object at the original edges and vertices. This means that the edges and vertices are going to be replaced by new rounded surfaces. If it is less than the fillet radius it has no effect. Note Converting an arc line or spline segment to a straight line segment results in two straight line segments.HFSS Online Help The polyline segment you selected is changed to the new type. so that the original faces of the object reconnect in a smooth manner. Right-click the desktop. To round the edge of an object: 5. 5. undo the change using the Edit>Undo command or press CTRL-Z. 6. The default is millimeters. This highlights the edge and enables the Fillet command. 3. otherwise. . of which the radius can be customized (see the Fillet Radius property). You can control the setback distance. The fillet command is disabled if an edge is not selected. If the changes are not what was expected. Click OK to apply the change to the edge. You will get an error if it is greater then the length of the edge. Vertices are replaced by more complicated new faces. Vertices are only going to be replaced by new rounded surfaces if all the edges connecting to the original vertex are selected. 4.

You can control the chamfer value. Click OK to apply the change to the edge. Type a value in the Chamfer value text box. so that the original faces of the object reconnect through the newly introduced flat surfaces. The edge is highlighted. This means that the edges and vertices are going to be replaced by new flat surfaces. and the Chamfer command is enabled. The Chamfer Properties dialog box closes. Vertices are only going to be replaced by new flat surfaces if all the edges connecting to the original vertex are selected. 4.HFSS Online Help selected. 2. Imprinting an Object The Boolean>Imprint command lets you imprint the geometry of one object upon another. Flattening the Edge of Objects (Chamfer Command) The chamfer command flattens the edges and vertices of the object. and select the units from the pull-down list. and the object is flattened by the radius value relative to the edge you selected. Click Modeler>Chamfer or click the Chamfer the selected edges icon on the Modeler Blending toolbar. 3. and select Select Edges from the shortcut menu. To switch to edge selection mode: • 1. For example. The chamfer command is disabled if an edge is not selected. Select the edge you want to change. otherwise. and then imprint the intersecting lines on the cylinder. To flatten an object's edge. The Chamfer Properties dialog box appears. the vertex is preserved but moved (if necessary). Drawing a Model 7-87 . you could draw a polyhedron intersecting a cylinder. Right-click the desktop.

This closes the dialog and performs the boolean imprinting. you can select the objects in lists. 2.HFSS Online Help You can select the faces of the imprinted surface separately and assign properties as needed. Select the intersecting objects. Click OK. If necessary. Click Modeler>Boolean>Imprint. If desired.. and use the arrow keys to move them. This displays the Imprint dialog in which you designate which objects are the Blank Parts. To imprint one object with another: 1. 3. 7-88 Drawing a Model . and which the Tool Parts.. you can clone the tool objects before the imprint operation.

You can select the faces of the imprinted object separately. If you select Along DirecDrawing a Model 7-89 .. If the surface is curved.HFSS Online Help After you perform the imprinting. If you select the Create <object> icon for the object. Click Modeler>Boolean>Imprint Projection>Along Normal or Modeler>Boolean>Imprint Projection>Along Direction. and edit properties as needed. the shape wraps. you can suppress the command via the Properties window. The changes applied to the object carry over to the imprinting. the dimensions of the projection will be affected. Related Topics View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects Imprint Projection Commands Imprint Projection commands The Boolean>Imprint Projection commands lets you project the form of one object to another surface. the projection occurs along the normal. 2. Select the intersecting objects. 1. If projected shape extends beyond the face of the receiving object. the History tree retains the Imprint Object command and the create command for the imprinted object If you select the Imprint command in the History tree.. The receiving surface can be curved or faceted. If you select Along Normal. you can edit the properties of that object.

you can suppress the command via the Properties window. circle. The changes applied to the object carry over to the imprinting. If there is an object for which you want to keep the history. Select Modeler>Purge History. You can use the Purge History command to remove the history of operations while not affecting the geometry itself. you can edit the properties of that object. or arc). the History tree shows the Imprint Object command and the create command for the imprinted object If you select the Imprint Projection command in the History tree. Related Topics Working with the History Tree Generate History Generate History to Reproduce Portions of Model If a polyline object (line. you should make a copy of the object for that purpose before purging. 7-90 Drawing a Model . spline. The history for each object is shown under its name in the model tree. Specify a distance and select units from the drop down menu and click OK. you see a dialog for specifying the distance for the projection. This closes the dialog and performs the boolean imprinting. After you perform the imprinting. This is useful when you wish to perform healing operations on the object. and the context for the Undo and Redo commands is updated. To purge the history: 1. Related Topics View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects Imprinting an Object Purge History Each object is a sequence of modeler-based operations. 3.The history for the model is purged.HFSS Online Help tion. Once you have defined a line by clicking two points. 2. you need to specify two points that describe the direction. or ellipse is imported or history was previously purged. Select the object. you can click on the polyline object and select Generate History to reproduce the individual line segments used to create the polyline in the model history tree. If you select the Create <object> icon for the object.

HFSS Online Help To reproduce the line segments in the model history tree: 1. Click Modeler>Generate History. Select the polyline object. Related Topics Purge History Draw Polyline Drawing a Model 7-91 .

HFSS Online Help 7-92 Drawing a Model .

faces. and then click Select Objects. Simply click an object in the view window or an object name in the history tree and it will be selected. edges or vertices) Coordinates in the drawing space. Select Faces. you can switch to it using one of the following methods: • • • • Press the shortcut key O. All commands you choose while an item is selected are performed on or in reference to the selected item. that object is highlighted. Selected objects become the color specified under the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. Click Edit > Select>Objects. Select Object from the pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Selection toolbar. What selection mode do you want to use? • • • • • • • • • • Select Objects. Selecting Objects By default. If the modeler is not currently in object selection mode. which indicates that it will be selected when you click. All other objects become relatively transparent. Right-click in the view window. When the mouse hovers over an object in the view window. you must first select it. Tooltips. This feature helps you distinguish between face-of-sheet-object pick versus sheet-object pick. Select By Area Select by Variable Select by History Tree Group Select by intersection error message. the modeler is in object selection mode. Related Topics Selecting Several Objects Selecting Objects by Name Selecting All Faces of an Object Creating an Object List Selecting the Face or Object Behind Drawing a Model 7-93 . Face_id in the case of faces. and so on). Select Vertices. indicate the type/ID of entity (object name in the case of objects. Select Edges.HFSS Online Help Selecting Items in the 3D Modeler Window To modify or learn more about an item’s properties. Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. as you hover the cursor over an entity.

Use View>Options to display the 3D UI Options dialog. Selected objects become the color that is specified for selected objects under the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. the selected objects are opaque and all other objects become relatively transparent. and click the objects in the view window that you want to select. edges or vertices) Select By Area Selecting Objects and Surfaces that Lie Inside Other Objects Clearing a Selection Selecting Several Objects 1.The settings for the relative opacity and transparency of selected and non-selected objects appear in the 3D UI Options dialog box. faces. including objects that are not currently visible.HFSS Online Help Select Edges. If you are selecting objects in the Modeler window make sure that the modeler is in object selection mode by pressing the shortcut key O. select AllObjects. In the History tree. By default. do one of the following: • Click Edit>Deselect All. This is an automatically created list that lets you selects all object. To deselect all objects. under Lists. and click the object names in the history tree that you want to select. In the History tree. Related Topics Selecting Objects by Name Selecting All Faces of an Object Creating an Object List Selecting the Face or Object Behind Select Edges. Use Tools>Options>Modeler Options to display the dialog and set the default color. Select several objects in one of the following ways: 2. • • • • • • Hold down Ctrl. Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. Hold down Ctrl. Click Edit>Select All to select all objects that were drawn in the active view window. 7-94 Drawing a Model . and then Shift-click to extend the selection of visible items. Press Ctrl+Shift+A. Select Vertices. Press CTRL+A or click Edit>Select All Visible to select all objects that are visible in the active view window. You can always select objects in the History tree. select a range of objects by first clicking one object to select it. Select Vertices.

However you can con- Drawing a Model 7-95 . Faces. Click Edit>Select>By Name By Name or in the toolbar. By default. select Object from the dropdown menu to the right of the icon. 2. The Select Object dialog box appears. Use the Ctrl key to select more than one. faces. edges or vertices) Select By Area Select By Area You can select items by area in the Modeler window clicking and rubber-band dragging around objects. and click the icon. Related Topics Selecting Several Objects Selecting Objects by Name Selecting All Faces of an Object Creating an Object List Selecting the Face or Object Behind Select Edges. type the name of an object you want to select in the empty text box. The object is selected. click the name of the object you want to select. Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. faces. Click OK. Select Vertices.HFSS Online Help Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. Alternatively. but not for Select Multi. only items with external surfaces are selected. edges or vertices) Select By Area Selecting All Objects in a History Tree Group Selecting Objects by Name 1. Edges. In the Name list. • 4. Make sure that the modeler is in object selection mode by pressing the shortcut key O. Select By Area works with Selection mode for Objects. and Vertices. 3.

Now when you left-click and drag around an area. and/or lines. object names. 3. 7.. 6. Check Object name filters to enable the Exclude and Include check boxes. and text fields in which you can specify object names. 5. If you click Save As Default. or object types.HFSS Online Help trol which objects to include or exclude from area selection based on material. the settings persist for the project until you change the settings and Save as Default again. Click Edit>Select By Area Filter to display this dialog: 2.. and those objects are shown as selected in the History tree. To do this: 1. Click OK to close the dialog. Sheets. Check Object type filters to enable the check boxes for including Solids.] button to display the Materials manager for selections. Check Hide unfiltered objects to make unfiltered objects transparent after selection. those objects which meet the filter criteria are highlighted in the Modeler window. Check Material filters to enable the Include and Exclude radio buttons. Use the text field to specify filters by name. 4. or use the ellipsis [. Related Topics Selecting Items in the 3D Modeler Window Selecting Several Objects 7-96 Drawing a Model .

Right click on the group for solids. Under each group. or unclassified objects to see a shortcut menu command that lets you Select All members of that category.HFSS Online Help Selecting Objects by Name Selecting All Faces of an Object Creating an Object List Selecting All Objects in a History Tree Group The history tree groups objects in several categories. you can also Select All for objects of same the material or parts of same assignment at once. Related Topics Selecting Several Objects Selecting Objects by Name Select By Area Selecting All Faces of an Object Drawing a Model 7-97 . sheets. This history tree has Group Objects by Material checked. This history tree groups Sheet objects by object. When you right-click on a solid grouping. the menu lets you check whether to group objects by assignment. lines. This history tree has Group Sheets by Assignment checked. this history tree has Solids grouped by object. Selected objects are highlighted in the modeler window view area. For example. non-model objects.

This features helps you distinguish between selected and non-selected objects. 2. 2.HFSS Online Help Creating an Object List Setting the Default Color and Transparency of Selected Objects Setting the Default Color of Highlighted Objects Working with the History Tree Setting the Default Color and Transparency of Selected Objects To set the color of objects when they are selected: 1. and click OK to apply the new transparency values. and then click OK. 2. Click OK. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. 7-98 Drawing a Model Setting the Default Color of Highlighted Objects . Click View>Options. To set the transparency of selected and non-selected objects: 1. Select a color from the Color palette. Click the checkbox for the value you want to change. Click Select on the Default color pull-down list. 1. Enter a new value. and then click OK to return to the Modeler Options dialog box. The Modeler Options dialog box appears. Any objects you select after this point will temporarily become the default color you selected. The When there is a selection region contains checkboxes for setting the transparency for selected and non-selected objects. By default. The 3D UI Options dialog appears. The default transparency for selected objects is 0. 6.9. Click Highlight on the Default color pull-down list. Click the color button beside the Default color pull-down list. which makes them highly transparent.1. The Color palette appears. Click the Display tab. 5. 4. which makes them almost opaque. 3. 4. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. the modeler shows selected objects as nearly opaque and shows non-selected objects as nearly transparent. This enables the value field. The Color palette appears. Click the color button beside the Default color pull-down list. 3. Select a color from the Color palette. The default transparency for non-selected objects is 0. Outlines of all object you hover over temporarily become the default color you specified above. The Modeler Options dialog box appears.

when plotting fields. (They appear in the history tree under Lists. and so forth. Creating an object list is a convenient way to identify and select a group of objects for a field plot or calculation. Then. 2.) 4. Fields will be plotted only at the intersection of the plane and the objects in the list. Select the objects you want to reassign. 2. for example. make sure that the modeler is in object selection mode by pressing the shortcut key O. first define a list of these objects. One of the properties is a list of objects contained in the list. Example: To plot the E-field on a surface formed by the intersection of the xy-plane and several objects. 3. Selecting it selects all objects. Objects in a list can still be treated as separate objects. the volume calculation only uses the geometry of the highest dimension in plots or integral. Select the objects you want to include in the list. Related Topics Reassigning Objects to Another Object List Using or Viewing List Objects Reassigning Objects to Another Object List You can assign objects after you have created object lists. It will be listed in the Geometry window of the Fields Calculator when you select Volume. To reassign objects to an existing object list: 1. Click Modeler>List>Reassign A dialog with the existing object lists is displayed. The object list is created with the default name Objectlistn. To rename the Object list. Drawing a Model 7-99 . Object lists are sorted in alphanumeric order. The same object can be included in several different lists. There is an automatically created list called AllObjects. Objects in a list can still be treated as separate objects. Click Modeler>List>Create>Object List. volume and sheet objects. The object list is treated as one volume when you plot and perform fields calculations. It is listed in the history tree under Lists. select the object list name from the Geometry window of the Fields Calculator. 3. If you are selecting in the Modeler window. This is not necessary for selecting in the History tree. Selecting an object list displays the properties of that list in the Properties window. The same object can be included in several different lists. Select the list to which you want to assign the selected object(s) and click OK. If you are selecting in the Modeler window.HFSS Online Help Creating an Object List Create an object list when you want to define a list of objects. To create an object list: 1. Creating an object list is a convenient way to identify and select a group of objects for a field plot or calculation. This is not necessary for selecting in the History tree. If a list contains mixed types of geometry. edit the Name property in the Properties window for the list. make sure that the modeler is in object selection mode by pressing the shortcut key O.

Related Topics Creating an Object List Using or Viewing List Objects Using or Viewing List Objects To view the objects included in an Object list: 1. replacing previous list members. Selecting Faces If the modeler is in face selection mode. For example. The Objects Property in for the List shows the objects contained in the list. The objects that are included in that list are highlighted in the modeler. In the model history tree. 2. Complete the operation. when you select Volume. 2. 4. To view the properties of the object list (including a list of the objects included): 1.HFSS Online Help The object is reassigned to the selected list. You also have the option to create face lists. or you can make face selections from a Face ID list in the By Face dialog. hold the CTRL key as you click the faces. you could select an object list and another object. and then click Select Faces. Right-click the list you want to select. The Properties window appears for that object list. 2. To select multiple faces. and click Select Assignment. expand the Lists tree. To use an object from a list in another operation: 3. The objects that are included in that list are highlighted in the modeler. Right-click the list you want to select. which define a list of object faces. and then specify one of the boolean commands (such as unite or subtract). Under Lists. Right-click in the view window. In the model tree. Click OK or Cancel to close the Properties window. The objects included are listed in the Objects row. and click Select Assignment. and click Properties. expand the Lists tree. It will be listed in the Geometry window of the Fields Calculator. expand the Lists tree. click an object face in the view window to select it. right-click the list object you want to view. and the properties appear in the desktop. Switch to face selection mode using one of the following methods: • • Press the shortcut key F. 3. 7-100 Drawing a Model . 1. The object list will be treated as one volume when you are plotting and performing fields calculations. and the properties appear in the desktop. Select any other objects you want to use in the operation. In the model tree.

no objects should be selected to start. Switch to face selection mode by pressing the shortcut key F. faces. select use the face selection toolbar icons. Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. Related Topics Selecting All Faces of an Object Selecting the Face or Object Behind Selecting Faces by Name Selecting Faces by Plane Creating a Face List Face Selection Toolbar Icons Select Edges. All other objects and faces become relatively transparent. Click Edit>Select>All Object Faces. The Face ID list is then populated with the faces in that object. Use Ctrl-click to select additional faces. Selecting a face ID from the list highlights the face in the 3D window. As another alternative. Select Face from the pull-down list to the right of the select objects icon Modeler Selection toolbar. To use the dialog. and click the icon. 2. that face is highlighted. faces. All the faces of the object are selected. in the 3D You can also select faces in the Select Multi mode. When the mouse hovers over a face in the view window. You can also use the By Face dialog to select from a list of faces associated with an object: 1. select Face or Multi from the drop-down icon. Selected faces become the color specified under the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. and then click All Object Faces on the shortcut menu. which indicates that it will be selected when you click. edges or vertices) Selecting All Faces of an Object 1. If an object is not selected. 4. or shift-click to select a range of faces. This contains a list of the available objects. 3. select the object (or objects. Click Edit>Select>By Face menu to the right of the or in the toolbar. all faces of those Drawing a Model 7-101 . • • Alternatively. Select an object in the Object Name list. If you selected multiple objects. 3. 2. edges or vertices) with the faces you want to select. Select Vertices. right-click in the view window. 4. This displays the By Face dialog. click a face on the object of interest. Optionally.HFSS Online Help • • Click Edit>Select>Faces.

The selected faces are highlighted. click the name of the object with the face you want to select. Left-click on a plane (Global:XY. Global:YZ. Related Topics Selecting Faces Creating a Face List 7-102 Drawing a Model . Selecting Faces by Plane To select a face that is aligned with a global plane. or Global:XZ) to display the selected global plane. Related Topics Selecting Faces Selecting the Face or Object Behind Creating a Face List Face Selection Toolbar Icons Selecting Faces by Name 1. The object’s faces are listed in the Face ID column. 1. 2. Alternative method: 1. In the Object name list. In the History Tree. The selected faces are highlighted. expand the Planes icon. Make sure that the modeler is in face selection mode by pressing the shortcut key F. use one of the following two methods. Click OK. 4. You can select more than one. expand the Planes icon. Click the face you want to select in the Face ID column. click Faces on Plane. 3. Click Edit>Select>By Name the right of the object selection The Select Face dialog box appears. 2. select Face from the dropdown menu to icon and click the icon.HFSS Online Help objects are selected. The face is selected in the view window. 3. Global:YZ. Related Topics Selecting Faces Creating a Face List or in the toolbar. 3. Make sure that the modeler is in face selection mode by pressing the shortcut key F. 2. Click Edit>Select>Faces on Plane. 5. Right-click on a plane (Global:XY. On the pulldown menu. In the History Tree. or Global:XZ) to select the global plane and display a pull-down menu.

Select connected faces selects faces connected to the current selection. The same face can be included in several different lists. connected edges for a face/edge/vertex and connected vertices for a face/edge/vertex. The additional selection modes are available under Edit->Select and via the toolbar icons. Select Vertices. It allows faces that are part of a "protrusion" to be selected.HFSS Online Help Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. it is sometimes useful to examine faces. edges or vertices) Creating a Face List Create a face list when you want to define a list of object faces. Related Topics Selecting All Faces of an Object Selecting the Face or Object Behind Selecting Faces by Name Selecting Faces by Plane Creating a Face List Select Edges. Selecting an object face enables the face selection icons in the toolbar. In particular it is useful to find the connected faces for a face or edge or vertex. Select face chain Select connected faces Select connected edges Select connected vertices You can use these icons to modify the selection: • • • • Select face chain selects faces that touch each other. faces. faces. Drawing a Model 7-103 . Creating a face list is a convenient way to identify and select a specific set of surfaces for a field plot or calculation. edges and vertices. Select vertices selects the vertices of the selected face or faces. Select connected edges selects the edges of the selected face or faces. Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. edges or vertices) Face Selection Toolbar Icons While working on analyzing complex objects.

It is listed in the history tree under Lists. 3. The face list is created. 7-104 Drawing a Model . the list order in the History tree changes for the new name. The face list will be listed in the Geometry window of the Fields Calculator. To change the name of a face list (for example. 2. select the list in the History Tree and Edit Properties. that edge is highlighted. Related Topics Selecting Faces Radiated Fields Post Processing Setting Up a Near-Field Sphere Setting up a Far-Field Infinite Sphere Selecting Edges If the modeler is in edge selection mode. you can make boundary assignments or execute the Move Faces geometry operations for faces on the list. Select the object faces you want to include in the face list. which indicates that it will be selected when you click. to a name describing the listed faces as ports or boundaries).HFSS Online Help To create a face list: 1. when you select Surface. Selected edges become the color specified under the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. click Edit>Select>Edges Press the “E” key to enter edge selection mode. If necessary. The lists appear in alphanumeric order. Click Modeler>List>Create>Face List. If you right-click on an existing face list and click Select Assignment from the shortcut menu. To select multiple edges. All other objects become relatively transparent. Make sure that the modeler is in face selection mode by pressing the shortcut key F. simply click an object’s edge in the view window and it will be selected. The face list will be treated as one selection of surfaces when you are plotting and performing fields calculations. Selecting an edge enables the following toolbar icons. hold the CTRL key as you click the edges. The default name is Facelistn. Editing the Name property changes the name. Switch to edge selection mode using one of the following methods: • • • From the menu bar. When the mouse hovers over an edge in the view window. Select Edge from the pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Selection toolbar.

Related Topics Moving Edges Along the Normal Selecting All Faces of an Object Selecting the Face or Object Behind Selecting Faces by Name Selecting Faces by Plane Creating a Face List Select Edges Select Vertices Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. Related Topics Selecting Faces Drawing a Model 7-105 . • • • • Select edge chain selects the edges that touch the selected edge. All the edges of the object or face are selected. 2. faces. If you selected multiple objects. right-click in the view window. Select connected faces selects faces touching to the current selection. • Alternatively. and then click All Object Edges or All Face Edges on the shortcut menu. edges or vertices) Selecting All Edges of an Object or Face This option allows you to select all edges of an object or face after first selecting the object or face. 1. Select connected edges selects the edges that touch the current selection. all edges of those objects are selected. You may also select a single edge of the object or face. Click Edit>Select>All Object Edges or Edit>Select>All Face Edges. Select the object or face with the edges you want to select.HFSS Online Help Select edge chain Select connected faces Select connected edges Select connected vertices You can use these icons to modify the current selection. Select vertices selects the vertices of the selected edge or edges.

• • • Select connected faces selects faces touching to the current selection. All other objects become relatively transparent. Select connected faces Select connected edges Select connected vertices You can use these icons to modify the current selection. Selecting a vertex enables the following selection icons. Select Vertex from the pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Selection toolbar. Press the “V” key to enter vertex selection mode. Select connected edges selects the edges that touch the current selection. which indicates that it will be selected when you click. To select multiple vertices. faces. When the mouse hovers over a vertex in the view window. Switch to vertex selection mode using one of the following methods: • • • Click Edit > Select>Vertices. Select vertices selects the vertices of edges that touch the current selection. hold the CTRL key as you click the vertices. simply click an object’s vertex in the view window and it will be selected. that vertex is highlighted. Related Topics Selecting All Faces of an Object Selecting the Face or Object Behind Selecting Faces by Name Selecting Faces by Plane Creating a Face List Select Edges Select Vertices Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. edges or vertices) 7-106 Drawing a Model . Selected vertices become the color specified under the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box.HFSS Online Help Selecting the Face or Object Behind Creating a Face List Face Selection Toolbar Icons Selecting Vertices If the modeler is in vertex selection mode.

you can make multiple selections. or Vertex selection by clicking the associated icon. You can also add the Mode selection menus from the Commands tab by selecting 3D Modeler Selection from the Category list. To select a vertex. Select 3D Modeler Selection mode from the toolbars list by checking it. 2. faces. This very useful in conjunction with Measure Mode. To select an edge. Drawing a Model 7-107 . To select a face. To select an object. Edge. Face. click near a vertex. and Vertex to the right of the Multi mode selection menu. Vertices or Edges) The Select Multi mode permits you to select objects. 3. When Multi is selected as the mode. This displays a dialog with check boxes for Object. Related Topics Controlling the Selection in Multi Mode Controlling the Selection in Multi Mode You can control the behavior of this mode by clicking Edit>Select Multi Mode Settings. between 10 and 20 pixels. Faces. as you hover the cursor over an entity. Edge. indicate the type/ID of entity (object name in the case of objects. click near an edge (and 10 pixels away from vertex). This adds the Mode selection menu and icons to the toolbar. You can also control the behavior of this mode by clicking the icons for Object. By holding down the Ctrl key. or edges. and dragging the icons to the toolbar. click little farther from edge. With Multi mode active: Tooltips. within 10 pixel radius.HFSS Online Help Selecting Multi (a Mode for Selecting Objects. Select Multi from the pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Selection toolbar. Enter Select Multi mode by one of the following methods: • • • • • • • • Press the shortcut key M. Unchecking a box cancels the selection behavior for that category. To add the Multi Mode selection menu and icons to the toolbar: 1. depending on where you click. This displays the Customize dialog with the Toolbars tab selected. Face. and so on). This feature helps you distinguish between face-of-sheet-object pick versus sheet-object pick. Face_id in the case of faces. vertices. for measuring the distances between different entities. Click Edit>Select>Multi. Edge. Face. click anywhere else on the interior of face. Select Tools>Customize. you can enable or disable Object. and Vertex. and then click Select Multi. Right-click in the view window.

edge. or object behind another selected face. This option is useful when you are trying to select a face. face. vertex. or object that is in the interior of a model. or when you do not want to change the model view to select an item. edge. Vertex. click a point away from the object name in the history tree. edge. The items are no longer selected. edge. do one of the following: • • • • Click the view window at a point where an object does not exist. or Object Behind To select the face. When there are multiple faces behind. Right-click in the view window and click Next Behind. Selecting the Face.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Selecting All Faces of an Object Selecting the Face or Object Behind Selecting Faces by Name Selecting Faces by Plane Creating a Face List Select Edges Select Vertices Selecting the Face or Object Behind Clearing a Selection Measure Modes Clearing a Selection To clear an object. Click Edit>Deselect All. vertex. the one selected relatively close to the cursor. or vertex selection. Edge. vertex. the one selected is relatively close to where you rightclick. Related Topics Selecting Objects and Surfaces that Lie Inside Other Objects 7-108 Drawing a Model . Press Ctrl+B. To clear an object selection. do one of the following: • • Click Edit>Select>Next Behind. • • Press the shortcut key B. or object. When there are multiple faces behind. Press Shift+Ctrl+A.

which lists the variables in your design. Grid and Vertex snaps are enabled.HFSS Online Help Selecting Objects and Surfaces That Lie Inside Other Objects To select objects and surfaces that lie inside other objects (such as an object that lies within an air box. a conductive shield. This selects the object that lies behind the one you initially selected. This is useful when you want to select objects using the mouse. do one of the following: • Click the object directly. If your design includes variables. Use the Next Behind command on the shortcut menu. All Object Faces Faces on Plane The snap mode defines how items are selected by the mouse. do one of the following: • Make the objects on the outside of the model invisible using the View>Visibility commands. • • Selecting Objects by Variable You can select an object based on a variable that affects it. Since the mouse cannot select invisible objects. You can resize and move the dialog. and use one of the Select commands on the shortcut menu. • • Use the Edit>Select>By Name command to select objects or surfaces inside the model. Both columns are sortable by clicking the header. you can select the interior surfaces or objects by clicking on them. Next Behind does nothing if no object has previously been selected or if the object you select has nothing behind it. you do do so as follows: 1. You can also use the keyboard shortcut B. By default. This command chooses objects or faces depending on the graphical pick mode. or the background object). This displays the Select by Variable dialog. Click Edit>Select>By Variable. • Right-click an object or surface. Related Topics Selecting the Face or Object Behind Using the Mouse to Select Objects To select objects or surfaces. This command does nothing if no objects have previously been selected. When you next Drawing a Model 7-109 . The following commands appear on the shortcut menu: • • • Select Objects Select Faces Next Behind: Use this command to select the object or face that lies behind the currently selected object or face.

The Message window contains a reference that you can select and use to go to the affected object. If you execute the command again. and click OK. it uses that size and location.HFSS Online Help open it. Select the variable of interest. and the object affected by the variable is highlighted in the Modeler window. When you next open it. 2. The dialog closes. it uses that size and location. without clearing the current selection(s). You can resize and move the dialog. the additional object can be highlighted. 7-110 Drawing a Model .

define a point using Cartesian coordinates by typing the point’s distance from the origin in the x. • Setting the Reference Point • • • • Defining Cartesian Coordinates Defining Spherical Coordinates Defining Relative Coordinates Defining Absolute Coordinates Setting the Reference Point When you draw objects. This moves the reference point marker to the new location. The coordinates boxes in the Status bar change to accept relative distance information.HFSS Online Help Assigning Coordinates to New Objects When you insert and draw new 3D. The reference point is displayed with a mini xyz-axis: To change the reference point: 1. respectively. the cursor’s location is always relative to a reference point. The Measure Data dialog updates. rather than setting the reference point with the cursor. As you move the cursor over the modeler window. 2. When defin- Drawing a Model 7-111 . and z directions in the X. distances between objects. y. The Measure Data dialog opens. the top line in the measure dialog shows the coordinates of the current reference point. Y. and other geometry items. you need to define coordinate systems and locations of points. and enter coordinates directly. or 1D objects in the geometry model. Select the drawing command to use. you can press Tab to activate a text cursor in the status bar fields. 2D. Move the cursor to the desired reference point and press Ctrl+Click or right click and select Set Reference Point from the short cut menu. and Z text boxes. If you choose. Related Topics Assigning Coordinates to New Objects Choosing the Movement Mode Choosing Snap Settings Drawing Objects Defining Cartesian Coordinates When you draw an object.

Type the second point’s distance from the previously selected point in the x. click the point in the view window. and z-coordinates in the X. Select Cartesian from the pull-down list in the status bar. Hint Press Tab to move from one coordinate text box to the next. and z-coordinates in the R. Related Topics Defining Cylindrical Coordinates Defining Spherical Coordinates Defining Cylindrical Coordinates To define a point using cylindrical coordinates. y. and dZ text boxes. and the distance from the origin in the z direction in the Z text box. and dZ text boxes. Y. and z directions in the dX. dTheta. Type the second point’s distance from the previously selected point in the dR. the angle from the x-axis in the Theta text box. the second point you select is relative to the first point. Select the desired drawing command. theta-. in the R text box. and dZ text boxes. Alternatively. dY. y. select Cylindrical from the pull-down list in the status bar. When drawing objects other than polylines and helices.. Press Ctrl+Tab to move to the previous coordinate text box. Type the point’s x-. and z directions in the dX. specify its distance from the previously selected point in the x. y-. Alternatively. • 4. respectively. • 3. click the point in the view window. respectively. and dZ text boxes. and Z text boxes. When drawing objects other than polylines and helices. 2. specify its distance from the previously selected point in the in dR. dTheta. 1. When defining a second point. dY. Theta. Hint Press Tab to move from one coordinate text box to the next. 1. After clicking the desired drawing command. specify the point’s radius. 3.HFSS Online Help ing a second point. the second point you select is relative to the first point. Press Ctrl+Tab to move to the previous coordinate text box. Type the point’s r-. Related Topics Defining Cartesian Coordinates Defining Spherical Coordinates Defining Relative Coordinates Defining Absolute Coordinates 7-112 Drawing a Model . and Z boxes. measured from the origin. 2.

and dPhi text boxes. the angle from the x-axis in the Theta text box. in the Rho text box. and Phi text boxes in the status bar. and phi-coordinates in the Rho. measured from the origin. select Spherical from the pull-down list in the status bar. dTheta. specify the point’s radius. Type the second point’s distance from the previously selected point in the dRho. Press Ctrl+Tab to move to the previous coordinate text box. After clicking the desired drawing command. Alternatively. click the point in the view window. To define a point in spherical coordinates. Note Even though you are inputting spherical coordinates. When selecting a second point. • 3. dTheta. Related Topics Defining Cartesian Coordinates Defining Cylindrical Coordinates Drawing a Model 7-113 . the second point you select is relative to the first point. all data is internally stored in Cartesian coordinates. and the angle from the origin in the z direction in the Phi text box. and dPhi text boxes. Theta. When drawing objects other than polylines and helices. theta-. 2. Type the point’s r-. specify its distance from the previously selected point in the in dRho. 1. Hint Press Tab to move from one coordinate text box to the next.HFSS Online Help Defining Spherical Coordinates To define a point in spherical coordinates.

the second point you select is relative to the first point. Relative coordinates are relative to the reference point. 0). Relative is automatically selected in the Absolute/ Relative pull-down list in the status bar. 2. When drawing objects other than polylines and helices. 2. To enter a point’s relative coordinates: 1. Be sure to select Absolute from the Absolute/ Relative pull-down list in the status bar if you want the second point to be relative to the working coordinate system. Type the point’s coordinates in the appropriate text boxes in the status bar. When you are in relative mode. or the previously selected point. 0. To enter a point’s absolute coordinates: 1. 0). Click the desired drawing command. or the previously selected point. you can specify them in absolute or relative coordinates. This is the default setting for the first point you select after clicking a drawing command. Specify the point’s coordinates in one of the following ways: • • Note Click the point. the text boxes for a coordinate show an “d” before the coordinate description. by default. Absolute coordinates are relative to the working coordinate system’s origin (0. to indicate “distance from” the working reference. Relative coordinates are relative to the reference point. Absolute coordinates are relative to the working coordinate system’s origin (0. For example: 3. Select Absolute from the Absolute/Relative pull-down list in the status bar. you can specify them in absolute or relative coordinates. Select Relative from the Absolute/Relative pull-down list in the status bar. Specify the point’s coordinates in one of the following ways: • • Click the point.HFSS Online Help Defining Relative Coordinates Defining Absolute Coordinates Using Absolute Coordinates When entering a point’s coordinates. Related Topics Defining Relative Coordinates Using Relative Coordinates When entering a point’s coordinates. 7-114 Drawing a Model . 0. Type the point’s coordinates in the appropriate text boxes in the status bar. Click the desired drawing command. 3.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Defining Absolute Coordinates Drawing a Model 7-115 .

is on the same plane as the reference point. Click In Plane in the movement mode pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar. Along the y-axis. Moving the Cursor In Plane To move the cursor to a point on the same plane as the reference point 1. 2. You can move the cursor to one of the following points: • • • • • • In the same plane as the reference point (in-plane movement mode).HFSS Online Help Choosing the Movement Mode When drawing objects. The next point you select will be on the same plane as the reference point. The cursor’s location. displayed with a black diamond that indicates it has snapped to the grid. Along the z-axis. 7-116 Drawing a Model . Along the x-axis. If an object is present to snap to a point in 3D space (3D movement mode). move the cursor to the desired point and press Ctrl+Click. The reference point is displayed with a mini xyz-axis: To change the reference point. Changes you make to the movement mode persist until you change them again. Do one of the following: • • Click 3D Model > Movement Mode>In Plane. Click the desired drawing command. the cursor’s location is always relative to a reference point. Perpendicular to the reference point (out-of-plane movement mode).

is perpendicular to the reference point.HFSS Online Help Moving the Cursor Out of Plane To move the cursor to a point perpendicular to the drawing plane and that intersects the reference point: • After clicking the desired drawing command. displayed with a black diamond that indicates it has snapped to a grid point. Click the desired drawing command. If one of an object's snapping centers is within snapping range. the cursor will snap to the nearest point in 3D space occupied by the object. which is now perpendicular to the reference point. The cursor’s location. 3D movement mode is identical to the in-plane Drawing a Model 7-117 . click 3D Model > Movement Mode. A dashed line is displayed between the reference point and the cursor’s location. Click 3D in the movement mode pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar. 2. Moving the Cursor in 3D Space To move the cursor to a point in 3D space relative to the reference point: 1. If an object is not within snapping range.>Out of Plane. Do one of the following: • • Click 3D Model > Movement Mode>3D.

Moving the Cursor Along the X-Axis To move the cursor to a point away from the reference point in the x direction: 1.5. Do one of the following: • • • Click Modeler>Movement Mode>Along X Axis. Click the desired drawing command. Hold the shortcut key X. a point in 3D space relative to the reference point. is (0. 1. 7-118 Drawing a Model .HFSS Online Help movement mode. The cursor’s location. 0. Click Along X Axis in the movement mode pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar: The next point you select will be on the same plane as the reference point in the positive or negative x direction. 2. displayed by a circle that indicates it has snapped to a face center.5.0).

Click Along Y Axis in the movement mode pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar: The next point you select will be on the same plane as the reference point in the positive or negative y direction. Do one of the following: • • • Click Modeler>Movement Mode>Along Z Axis. Click the desired drawing command. Moving the Cursor Along the Z-Axis To move the cursor to a point away from the reference point in the z direction: 1. Drawing a Model 7-119 . Do one of the following: • • • Click Modeler>Movement Mode>Along YAxis. Hold the shortcut key Z. Click Along Z Axis in the movement mode pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar: The next point you select will be on the same plane as the reference point in the positive or negative z direction. Hold the shortcut key Y. 2. Click the desired drawing command. 2.HFSS Online Help Moving the Cursor Along the Y-Axis To move the cursor to a point away from the reference point in the y direction: 1.

To snap to the center of an object face. . or adhere to. a point on the grid when the cursor hovers over it. the Snap Mode window appears.HFSS Online Help Choosing Snap Settings By default. The center point . select Edge Center or the icon may be on a 1D. To modify the default snap settings for the active design and all new designs. it will change to one of the following snap mode shapes: Grid Vertex Edge Center Face Center Quadrant Arc Center Note By default. the selection point and graphical objects are set to "snap to". Click Modeler>Snap Mode or click the toolbar icons. and the nearest quadrant. Specify the snap mode settings you want. . To snap to the center point of an edge. If you want the cursor to snap to a point on the grid. . a vertex. select Quadrant or the icon To snap to the center of an arc. 2D. select Face Center or the icon To snap to the nearest quarter point on an edge. the mouse is set to snap to the grid. select Arc Center or the icon . The coordinates of this point are used. select Vertex or the icon . To change the snap settings for the active design. If you select the menu command. or 3D object edge. modify the selections under the Drawing tab in the Modeler Options dialog box. Related Topics Snap Setting Guidelines 7-120 Drawing a Model . you can use either the Modeler menu or the toolbar icons : 1. rather than the exact location of the mouse. 2. • • • • • • When the cursor snaps to a point. a face center. an edge center. select Grid or the icon To snap to a vertex. The cursor changes to the shape of the snap mode when it is being snapped.

This can cause problems when you are trying to create closed objects. Although the point you select may appear to be the vertex point of an open object. it becomes selected. if the cursor approaches a snap point (gets closer in terms of screen coordinates. you can define snapping points. Drawing a Model 7-121 . the snap point is highlighted. 2D. or 1D). you may not have actually clicked the exact coordinates of the point. the software is in "free mode" and selects whatever point you click. even if the point has 3D coordinates when you are working in a 2D plane). when moving in the Modeler window. not 3D coordinates). In general.HFSS Online Help Snap Setting Guidelines For each object (3D. regardless of its coordinates. even if that point is out of the plane you are working in (for example. select at least one of the snap options in the Snap Mode window. Then. If none of these options are selected. If you then click it.

Edge. the Measure Information dialog displays the current cursor location and measurement information from the reference. The area of a face. Select Position to obtain location and distance information between a specified reference point and the cursor location. (Position1) The current cursor location. The length of a polyline (in edge selection mode. and volume of objects. The Z distance. To access the Measure mode. As you move the cursor. Right-click and select Measure from the short-cut menu. To use Measure>Edge. a cascading menu appears for Position.HFSS Online Help Measure Modes for Objects The Measure modes lets you measure the position. The X distance. you can still see this if you select the polyline in the History tree) The length of an edge The location of a vertex. Select Modeler>Measure. or Object selected. Face and Object. After you select Measure. With Measure>Edge. 1. (Position2) The distance between the Reference and Current location. length. the Measure Mode displays the angle and distance between them. The Y distance. or Object to measure the distance and angle between two selected items: 7-122 Drawing a Model . Clicking on a new vertex updates the reference to the new location. area. Face. or with an edge and a face selected. With Measure>Position selected. The Measure Information dialog box appears. For more information on cursor and reference point behavior in this mode. see Measuring Position and Distance 3. Face. the information displayed includes: • • • • • • • Note The location of the current reference point. The Measure Position mode dynamically measures the distance between a reference point and the cursor location. With two faces selected. The angle between the current reference point and the current cursor location. either: • • 2. with two edges selected. the information displayed for each selected object is the name and: • • • • • The area and volume of a 3D object.

You can also measure distance between vertex/face. the distance between the points and the angle between Origin-P1. If you click. a text display in the lower right of the 3D Modeler window. it shows the last position as a red square. use the Select Multi mode. or Z) Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects.HFSS Online Help • Select two points. Y. and ways to control the movement mode. This enables the Measure Position mode opens the Measure Data dialog. explaining how to set the reference point. It also lists the distance between those points. The function is similar when you select two edges and when you select an edge and a face. edges or vertices) Measuring Position and Distance To measure the distance between any cursor location relative to a designated reference point: • Select Modeler>Measure>Position. and Z distances. faces. the Measure Information dialog displays the angle/distance between them. • • • 4. When Hints are on (the default). The Measure Information dialog displays the coordinates of each point. click Close on the Measure Information dialog. X. Origin-P2 line. the X. The dialog lists the coordinates of the current reference point (Position1)and the cursor location (Position2). Y. In these cases. Related Topics Measuring Position and Distance Setting Coordinate Systems Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View Choosing Snap Settings Choosing Movement Mode (3D. The shortcut menu displays the Hints item. To exit the Measure mode. and the angle between them. Select two faces. and the current position as a black cursor. Click the first and Ctrl-click to select the second. vertex/edge. in plane. Drawing a Model 7-123 .

X distance Y Distance. See Choosing a Movement Mode. dropping a dashed reference line to a point on the current plane. You can also use the ESC key to exit Measure mode. and Z keys to restrict movement. 2. Distance. 3. Ctrl-click to set the reference point. The reference point display moves to the selected point. Z Distance. If you drag the cursor off design objects.HFSS Online Help • The reference point is displayed as a mini x-y-z-axis: Use Ctrl-Click to set the reference point at a new location. Drag the cursor to the second point. you can also use the X. The Measure Data dialog also provides a text identification of the current grid points. You do not need to click. Y.x. If you drag the selection marker over an object. it moves in the xy-plane. it follows the 3D surfaces of the object. • The cursor leads a diamond-shape selection marker that snaps from grid point to grid point. Select Modeler>Measure>Position to enter Measure Position mode. This becomes the coordinate for Position1 in the Measure Data dialog. The values shown include: • • • • 4. for further details. You can restrict movement to in a specific plane. Besides the context menu for movement. click the Close button.: Grid point Vertex Edge Center Face Center Quadrant To measure the distance between two points: 1. or y. out of plane. or z. by default. 7-124 Drawing a Model . The cursor changes shape to provide information about the object at the corresponding coordinate. To close the dialog box and exit Measure mode. The value of the Position2 dynamically changes as you drag the cursor.

faces. or Z) Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. in plane. Y. edges or vertices) Drawing a Model 7-125 .HFSS Online Help Related Topics Measure Modes for Objects Setting Coordinate Systems Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View Choosing Snap Settings Choosing Movement Mode (3D. X.

A face CS is also user-defined. Its origin and orientation can be set relative to an existing CS. These are evaluated as cartesian for the coordinate system properties. The working CS is indicated by a red W that appears at the lower-left corner of the CS name in the history tree. The global coordinate system (CS) is the fixed.0) of every CS is located at the intersection of the x-. A relative CS is user-defined. Switch between global. User-defined CSs are saved with the active project. You can define a relative CS to be offset and/or rotated from an existing CS. relative. A face coordinate system. default CS for each new project. Face CSs enable you to easily draw objects that are located relative to an object’s face. Relative interprets the values as differences from the current working CS. all objects drawn on that CS will be affected and change position accordingly. The Properties dialog box lists the CS associated with an object as the Orientation. Every coordinate system (CS) has an x-axis that lies at a right angle to a y-axis. By default. You can click on the current orientation to see a drop down list of other orientation that you can assign for an object. Its origin is specified on a planar object face. and a z-axis that is perpendicular to the xy plane. You have choices for expressing the coordinates as Cartesian. When you open a project. Related Topics Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating a Face Coordinate System Setting the Working Coordinate System Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View Assigning Material Property Types Change the Orientation of an object 7-126 Drawing a Model . If you modify a relative CS.HFSS Online Help Setting Coordinate Systems The modeler has three types of coordinate systems that enable you to easily orient new objects: • • • Aglobal coordinate system. y-. it uses the CS designated as working CS when you last saved.0. Simply click the CS you want to use in the history tree. and z-axes. The origin (0. and face CSs by changing the working CS. When you set a new relative coordinate system. that will be the orientation. this is Global. Relative CSs enable you to easily draw objects that are located relative to other objects. Absolute uses the specified values in terms of the global coordinate system. or Spherical. This feature provides a way for objects made of the same anisotropic materials to have different orientations. you specify whether to express the coordinates as Absolute or Relative Coordinates. A relative coordinate system. It cannot be edited or deleted. but if you have created the object under a different coordinate system. Cylindrical.

that is. Creating an Offset Relative CS To create a relative CS with an origin that lies a specified distance from another CS’s origin: 1. Point to Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Relative CS. or follow this procedure: 1. a relative CS whose axes are rotated away from another CS’s axes. you have the following options: • • • You can create an offset relative CS. Cylindrical. Select the origin in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. a relative CS whose origin lies a specified distance from another CS’s origin. Click Select. then select the units. but its axes remain the same. you can enter coordinates relative to an existing object. 2. It automatiDrawing a Model 7-127 . Select the working CS by clicking its name in the history tree. In the history tree. Click a CS in the list. On the Relative CS menu. Related Topics Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System When creating a relative CS. and type the CS origin coordinates in boxes. without having to add or subtract the existing object’s coordinates. select either relative or absolute coordinates. that is. To select a point that does not lie in the current plane. A red W appears at the lower-left corner of the CS name in the history tree. 2. making it the working CS. By rotating the axes of a CS. By moving a CS’s origin. indicating that it is the working CS. or Spherical). click Offset . click the CS upon which you want to base the new relative CS. Click Modeler>Coordinate System>Set Working CS. You can create a rotated relative CS. use the Movement Mode commands on the shortcut menu. 3. you can easily add an object that is turned at an angle relative to another object. The working CS can be the global CS or a user-defined relative CS or face CS. At the lower right of the modeler window. use the drop down menu to select the system for expressing coordinates (Cartesian. 4. It is listed in the history tree under Coordinate Systems. 3. The Select Coordinate System dialog box appears. Objects that you draw hereafter will be associated with the CS you selected.HFSS Online Help Setting the Working Coordinate System The working coordinate system (CS) is the current CS with which objects being drawn are associated. You can also create a relative CS that is both offset and rotated. The new relative CS is created. Its origin has moved from the previous working CS.

It has the same origin as the previous working CS. click Both . The new relative CS is created. objects that you draw hereafter will be based on the coordinates of this relative CS. and xz planes. Select the origin in one of the following ways: 7-128 Drawing a Model . Cylindrical. making it the working CS. Related Topics Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating an Offset and Rotated Relative CS Creating a Rotated Relative CS To create a new relative CS with its axes rotated away from another CS’s axes: 1. and xz planes. To select a point that does not lie in the current plane. and dZ boxes. then select the units. making it the working CS. 3. use the Movement Mode commands on the shortcut menu. dY. In the history tree. You do not need to specify the z-axis. Point to Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Relative CS. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. or Spherical). Click Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Relative CS>Rotated . yz. yz. select the CS upon which you want to base the new relative CS. It is listed in the history tree under Coordinate Systems. and type the CS origin coordinates in boxes. On the Relative CS menu. Default planes are created on its xy. 2. Type the coordinates of a point that is relative to the previously selected point in the dX. Related Topics Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating an Offset and Rotated Relative CS Creating an Offset and Rotated Relative CS To create a new relative CS that is both offset and rotated from an existing CS: 1. 4.HFSS Online Help cally becomes the working CS. objects that you draw hereafter will be based on the coordinates of this relative CS. select the CS upon which you want to base the new relative CS. It is automatically calculated to be at a right angle to the y-axis. 4. Specify the xy plane by selecting any point on it in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. In the history tree. At the lower right of the modeler window. 3. use the drop down menu to select the system for expressing coordinates (Cartesian. Default planes are created on its xy. It automatically becomes the working CS. 2. Specify the x-axis by selecting a point on the axis in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. select either relative or absolute coordinates. but its axes are rotated.

Specify the xy plane by selecting any point on it in one of the following ways: • • You do not need to specify the z-axis. use the Movement Mode commands on the shortcut menu. 3. Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the X. objects that you draw hereafter will be based on the coordinates of this relative CS. use the drop down menu to select the system for expressing coordinates (Cartesian. Select the object face upon which you want to create the face CS. Click the point. The new relative CS is created. The modeler assumes that the z-axis is normal to the object face and the y-axis is automatically calculated to be at a right angle to the z-axis. Type the coordinates of a point that is relative to the previously selected point in the dX. Click the point. Click the point on the face. and dZ boxes. 5. and Z boxes. then select the units. Specify the x-axis by selecting a point on the object face in one of the following ways: • • You do not need to specify the y. Type the coordinates of a point that is relative to the previously selected point in the dX. Cylindrical. Default planes are created on its xy. It is listed in the history tree under Coordinate Systems. or Spherical). It is automatically calculated to be at a right angle to the y-axis. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. select either relative or absolute coordinates. Related Topics Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating a Face Coordinate System 1. Type the coordinates of a point that is relative to the origin in the dX.HFSS Online Help • • • Click the point. Y. and dZ boxes.or z-axes. and dZ boxes. Click Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Face CS Select the origin in one of the following ways: . Specify the x-axis by selecting a point on the axis in one of the following ways: • • 6. yz. It automatically becomes the working CS. • • 4. dY. dY. At the lower right of the modeler window. To select a point that does not lie in the current plane. dY. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. and type the CS origin coordinates in boxes. 2. The new face CS is listed in the history tree under Coordinate Systems. objects that you draw hereafter will be referenced to the coordinates Drawing a Model 7-129 . It automatically becomes the working CS. and xz planes.

but the cylinder will not move because the operation occurs later in the history tree. Default planes are created on its xy. The Modeler Options dialog box appears. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. suppose you create a box. There are two ways to modify a coordinate system: you can select the coordinate system in the history tree in the modeler window. yz. Now. and then click a drawing command. Related Topics Automatically Creating Face Coordinate Systems Setting the Working Coordinate System Modifying Coordinate Systems Setting Coordinate Systems Automatically Creating Face Coordinate Systems You can instruct the modeler to automatically create a new face CS every time you draw on an object’s face. Click OK. is not affected by operations that occur after it is created. Note The modeler will not automatically create a new face CS if a face CS has already been assigned to the selected face. Select Automatically switch to face coordinate system. Only operations listed in the history tree before the face CS’s creation will affect the face CS. and open its properties dialog. and xz planes. Related Topics Creating a Face Coordinate System Modifying Coordinate Systems Keep in mind that when you edit a CS. when you select a face. For example.HFSS Online Help of this face CS. But if you rotate the box using the Edit>Arrange>Rotate command. This approach does not also allow you to change whether the coordinate system is Absolute or Relative. a new face CS will be created on the face. the following will also be affected: • • • All objects drawn on the CS. Cylindrical. 2. and then a cylinder on the face CS. or to change how you express the coordinates (as Cartesian. 7-130 Drawing a Model . affect objects dependent upon that face CS. the box will move. All CSs that were defined relative to that CS. or objects created on it. All objects drawn on a CS that was defined relative to that CS. A face CS. or Spherical). The modeler automatically sets the new face CS as the working CS. If you then edit the box’s dimensions in the Properties dialog box. the cylinder will move accordingly. The object you draw is oriented according to the new face CS. 3. then a face CS on a face of the box. and in turn. 1.

Cylindrical. Related Topics Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating a Face Coordinate System Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View Expressing Cartesian. Y. 4. This selects that coordinate system and enables the editable fields at the lower right of the Modeler window. they are evaluated as Cartesian for the Properties window for that coordinate system. Select the units from the drop down menu. Tab to the next fields. follow the directions for creating a face CS. and z directions in the X. Cylindrical. Cylindrical. In each case. You can select Absolute or Relative as the Coordinate system If you selected a relative CS.HFSS Online Help If you want to also modify the whether the coordinate system is Absolute or Relative. • Cartesian. follow the directions for creating a relative CS. Click the cursor in the first text field to begin entering values or variables. or Spherical Coordinates You have choices for expressing the coordinates for as Cartesian. 3. you can type in values. After you enter values or variables in the text fields. After you click the cursor in the first field. y. 5. Click the CS you want to modify. do the following: 1. Drawing a Model 7-131 . If you selected a face CS. that is the point’s distance from the origin in the x. The value you give here is translated to Cartesian coordinates in the Properties for the Coordinate system. or Spherical. and to change how your express the coordinate. you also specify whether to enter the coordinates as Absolute or Relative to the working coordinate system. and Enter when your are done. 6. and Z text boxes. 2. Click Select. Click Modeler>Coordinate System>Edit. and tab to the next fields. or Spherical. The Select Working CS window appears. You select the coordinate system from the drop down menus as Cartesian.

the angle from the x-axis in the Theta text box. • Alternatively. The CS will be deleted and all objects drawn on it will be deleted. Click Edit>Delete . that is. Further. measured from the origin. 2. Related Topics Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating a Face Coordinate System Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View 7-132 Drawing a Model . and the angle from the origin in the z direction in the Phi text box.HFSS Online Help • Cylindrical. in the R text box. Related Topics Defining Absolute Coordinates Defining Relative Coordinates Defining Cartesian Coordinates Defining Cylindrical Coordinates Defining Spherical Coordinates Deleting Coordinate Systems 1. and the distance from the origin in the z direction in the Z text box. that is. Click the name of the CS you want to delete in the history tree. the point’s radius. press Delete. in the point’s radius. in the Rho text box. any CS that was dependent upon the deleted CS will be deleted and any objects that were drawn on the dependent CS will also be deleted. measured from the origin. the angle from the x-axis in the Theta text box. • Spherical.

do one of the following: • • Select XY from the Drawing plane pull-down list on the Modeler Draw toolbar. Drawing a Model 7-133 . Click Modeler>Grid Plane. and then select a grid plane: XY. YZ.HFSS Online Help Setting the Drawing Plane The Drawing plane pull-down list is available on the Modeler Draw toolbar. next to the Movement mode pull-down list. To set the drawing plane. or XZ.

HFSS Online Help 7-134 Drawing a Model .

Represents a resistive surface. Assigning Boundaries 8-1 . Represents an imperfect conductor.8 Assigning Boundaries Boundary conditions specify the field behavior at the edges of the problem region and object interfaces. Represents a perfect E or perfect H plane of symmetry. HFSS and HFSS-IE designs have different menu options for boundaries. Represents an open boundary condition using several layers of specialized materials that absorb outgoing waves. Represents a surface on which the E-field at each point has been forced to match the E-field of another surface (the master boundary) to within a phase difference. Represents an open boundary by means of an absorbing boundary condition (ABC) that absorbs outgoing waves. Represents a surface on which the tangential component of the H-field is the same on both sides. Click here for HFSS-IE boundaries. You may assign the following types of boundaries to an HFSS design: Perfect E Perfect H Impedance Radiation PML Finite Conductivity Symmetry Master Slave Represents a perfectly conducting surface. Represents a surface on which the E-field at each point is matched to another surface (the slave boundary) to within a phase difference.

inductor. You may also choose to designate a perfect E. In the case of very large models with many boundaries. finite conductivity. Note Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment.HFSS Online Help Lumped RLC Screening Impedance Layered Impedance Represents any combination of lumped resistor. the history tree in the 3D modeler window groups sheet objects according to boundary assignment. select the Sheets icon and right-click to display the Group Sheets by Assignment checkbox. For convenience. and/or capacitor in parallel on a surface. To change this. Note By default. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment. This zooms the view in the Modeler window in or out to show the 8-2 Assigning Boundaries . Represents a boundary condition used to replace a surface a planar screen or grid with periodic geometry. Related Topics Technical Notes: Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Designating Infinite Ground Planes Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Reassigning Boundaries Reprioritizing Boundaries Edit Global Materials Environment Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Reviewing Boundaries and Excitations in the Solver View Setting Default Values for Boundaries and Excitations Assigning HFSS-IE Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary To zoom to a selected boundary. right-click on a boundary name in the Project and select the Zoom to command on the popup menu. you can access the Edit Global Materials command from the Boundaries menu. or impedance boundary as an infinite ground plane if you want the surface to represent an electrically large ground plane when the radiated fields are calculated during post processing. Represents a structure with multiple layers as one impedance surface.

Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names To change the default boundary or excitation base names. The base names for each type have editable text fields. The current orientation does not change. so that subsequent names increment from the base of your choosing: 1. and the base names for each. 2.HFSS Online Help selected boundary. The base names for boundaries and excitations are incremented from the base names here. This displays the Set Default Boundary/Excitation Base dialog. Edit the text fields to your preferred naming conventions. Assigning Boundaries 8-3 . Click Boundary>Set Default Base Name or Excitation >Set Default Base Name. This contains a list of all boundary and excitation types. This can be very useful checking the assigned geometry.

HFSS Online Help 3. Click OK to accept the changes or Cancel to close the dialog without accepting changes. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries 8-4 Assigning Boundaries . use the Revert All or Revert Selected buttons. If you want to revert all or selected names to Ansoft defaults.

Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Boundaries>Assign>Pefect E to bring up the Perfect E Boundary dialog box.HFSS Online Help Assigning Perfect E Boundaries A perfect E boundary is used to represent a perfectly conducting surface in a structure. Related Topics Technical Notes: Perfect E Boundaries Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. multiple infinite ground planes are supported. To create a Perfect E boundary 1. For HFSS projects. For PEC boundaries only. you can select Infinite Ground Plane if you want the surface to represent an electrically large ground plane when the radiated fields are calculated during post processing. Getting Started Guides: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna Getting Started Guides: Patch Antenna Assigning Boundaries 8-5 . 2.

2. this results in a natural boundary through which the field propagates.HFSS Online Help Assigning Perfect H Boundaries A perfect H boundary represents a surface on which the tangential component of the H-field is the same on both sides. To Assign a Perfect H Boundary: 1. For surfaces on the outer surface of the model. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Pefect H to bring up the Perfect H Boundary dialog box. No parameters need be set.. Related Topics Assigning Boundaries Technical Notes: Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Getting Started Guides: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna 8-6 Assigning Boundaries . this results in a boundary that simulates a perfect magnetic conductor in which the tangential component of the H-field is zero. For internal surfaces.

for example. Note that if you select Infinite Ground Plane. HFSS does not actually simulate any fields inside the resistor. 3. Enter the Resistance and Reactance. the effect of the impedance boundary will be incorporated into the field solution in the usual manner. Note You can assign a variable as the resistance and reactance values. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Boundaries>Assign>Impedance to bring up the Impedance Boundary dialog box.HFSS Online Help Assigning Impedance Boundaries An impedance boundary represents a resistive surface. For HFSS designs you can select Infinite Ground Plane if you want the surface to represent an electrically large ground plane when the radiated fields are calculated during post processing. Only one infinite ground plane is permitted in designs with impedance boundaries. HFSS-IE does not support infinte ground plane for impedance boundaries. To assign an impedance boundary: 1. 2. Eigenmode designs cannot contain design parameters that depend on frequency. but the radiated fields will be computed as if the lossy ground plane is perfectly conducting. The behavior of the field at the surface and the losses generated by the currents flowing inside the resistor are computed using analytical formulas. a frequencydependent impedance boundary condition. Related Topics Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Technical Notes: Impedance Boundaries Assigning Boundaries 8-7 .

convex with regard to the radiation source. essentially ballooning the boundary infinitely far away from the structure. (See Technical Notes). If you do not select this radio button the total field formulation is applied. it invalidates those solutions that can possibly have fields. Meshes are not invalidated. your "target" project must have radiation boundaries with Advanced Options defined in order to specify where the fields from the "source" project enter. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS >Boundaries>Assign>Radiation to bring up the Radiation Boundary dialog box. such as portions of the radiation boundary where little radiated energy is expected. To assign a radiation boundary: 1. If you select this option. 2. these are sometimes described as Absorbing Boundary Condition. A radiation surface does not have to be spherical. In HFSS. In some cases the radiation boundary may be located closer than one-quarter wavelength.the incident field source patterns are projected on these surfaces and are • 8-8 Assigning Boundaries . Designate the boundary as either: 3. HFSS absorbs the wave at the radiation boundary. and located at least a quarter wavelength from the radiating source. such as antenna designs. Note Whenever additions/changes are made to radiation boundaries that affect fields.this refers to the original radiating surface properties (the default). If your project uses a field solution from another source. the scattered field formulation is applied. or ABC. • Radiating Only . (See Technical Notes). Incident Field . but it must be exposed to the background. See the discussion here.HFSS Online Help Assigning Radiation Boundaries For Driven Modal or Driven Terminal Designs A radiation boundary is used to simulate an open problem that allows waves to radiate infinitely far into space.

you can designate that the surface is included in near/far field calculation by checking. that is. Model Exterior as HFSS-IE Domain. Reflection/Transmission coefficients for FSS designs can be viewed in the solution data panel as S-parameters or you can create an S-parameter report. In order to do that. All Radiation Only surfaces are included in the near/far field calculation. If you select Enforced Field. In other words. it behaves as if you excited the project by a Norton or Thevenin generator using an impedance which is the free space wave impedance. applies it to the port and expects a reflected field pattern which radiates back. If you select either Enforced Field or Incident Field in most cases.5 wavelength is recommended. you can also specify whether the surface is used as Reference for FSS. 0. The IE Boundary will be most effective and efficient for smaller radiating structures such as RFID antennas. Using the Incident Field option together with Reference for FSS is advantageous for highly reflective and resonant structures. This is like a generalized space port. the Include in near/far field calculation option is grayed out but checked. Enforced Field . as a Frequency Selective Surface . • If you select Radiating Only or Incident Field. which is is an exact transparent condition.HFSS Online Help backed by ABC or PML. HFSS knows the incident field pattern. It can be close to or on the structures. The setup is invalid if any of these surfaces are internal. or with an Infinite ground plane. The other radiating surface automatically becomes output.” • • • Note If you select either Enforced Field or Incident Field you should run a validation check in order to avoid an invalid setup.If you select Radiation Only.this has the H tangential component of the incident field directly applied on these surfaces. or by checking). Assigning Boundaries 8-9 . when you select default radiation surfaces at the near/far field calculation setup panel an error message states that “No radiating surface has been selected. If you do not include any surfaces in the near/far field calculation (whether as Radiating Only. In other words. internal objects with Enforced/Incident Field BC should be substructed to become background. Only one FSS can be defined in a given model. If it is on a surface. but for performance. it behaves as if you excited the project by an ideal current source (enforced current). you must turn off curvilinear elements. Include for nearfield/far field calculation . The IE boundary should enclose the entire structure by itself. It is an inhomogeneous Newmann BC. When you select Incident Field or Enforced Field.this uses integral equation formulation. you should avoid internal surfaces. or PEC material should be assigned to these objects to become "NoSolveinside".this surface become the input surface for calculations of the reflection/transmission coefficients. the Use IE Formulation option is grayed out..

Related Topics Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Assigning PML Boundaries Technical Notes: Radiation Boundaries Getting Started Guides: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna Getting Started Guides: UHF Probe Getting Started Guides: Patch Antenna 8-10 Assigning Boundaries .HFSS Online Help Note Do not define a surface that cuts through an object to be a radiation boundary. In general. do not define the interface of two internal objects to be a radiation boundary. The only exception is when one object is a perfectly matched layer boundary (PML) and the other is the PML base object.

you add PMLs to fully absorb the electromagnetic field. Changing the variable values also changes the associated PMLs. However. Within these groupings. The underlying object does not have to be a box. You have to put ABCs far away enough from the discontinuities. an airbox around an Assigning Boundaries 8-11 . This gives a smaller model. you can edit the radiation parameters (for example. or you can create them manually. instead of placing a radiation boundary on its surfaces. as Incident Wave Port) in order to set up the right total field excitation based on the physical optics approach. Setting up a PML boundary is similar to setting up a radiation boundary. In creating PMLs. PML Compared to Radiation Boundaries Compared to Radiation boundaries. HFSS creates a separate PML object for each covered face. 2. ABCs efficiently absorb normal incident waves. Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries Related Topics Assigning Boundaries Technical Notes: Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Getting Started Guides: Radar Cross Section (RCS) Creating PMLs Automatically 1. If there are faces that touch. The advantages for PMLs are that they absorb a much wider range of waves in terms of frequency and direction. HFSS can create PMLs automatically. Draw a PML base object at the radiation surface. When you create a PML that completely covers an object. Depending on the design you may select either faces of the object or the entire object. As a result. The PML boundaries are grouped in the Project tree under the Boundaries icon. you can put PMLs much closer to the discontinuities. for example. PMLs in general make it more difficult for the iterative solver to reach convergence compared to the same model with using ABCs. What do you want to do? Create PMLs automatically. you can select non rectangular sheet objects as long as they do not touch any other selected face. PML radiation boundaries are not generated in eigenmode projects. Create PMLs automatically if the base object touching the PML is planar and its material is homogenous. the touching faces must be locally box-like. You start by drawing a virtual object around the radiating structure. which create absorbing boundary conditions (ABC).HFSS Online Help Assigning PML Boundaries A perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary is used to simulate materials that absorb outgoing waves. Create PMLs manually. PMLs also require significantly more RAM. You can assign variables to the dimension properties of the base object.

Under Base Face Radiation Properties. 8. In these cases. 4. Note If you do not assign a value. If the selected faces are on a box object. Click HFSS > Boundaries>PML Setup Wizard. The PML Setup wizard appears. Edge and corner PML objects will be created to join adjacent PML surfaces together. The layer thickness cannot be modified directly after PML objects have been created. 5.this surface becomes the input surface for calculations of the reflection/transmission coefficients. planar faces and exclude faces defined as symmetry boundaries. 6. HFSS creates PMLs from the faces you selected. ensuring complete coverage. you can select Use Default Formula to have HFSS calculate a value for you based on geometrical analysis. 3.the radiation surface (default). Names are automatically given to the layers. you can also specify whether the surface is used as Reference for FSS. you can see the option to select Create joining corner and edge objects. In other words. If you have selected object faces. select Create PML Cover Objects on Selected Faces. applies it to the port and expects a reflected field pattern which radiates back. you may find it convenient to select the object and have a boundary applied to all faces of the object. You can select the faces of the PML base object to turn into PMLs. The other radiating surface automatically becomes output. the PML objects will stay visible. If you check Reference for FSS. Type the thickness of each layer in the Uniform Layer Thickness text box. as a Frequency Selective Surface .the incident field source patterns are projected on these surfaces and are backed by ABC or PML. it behaves as if you excited the project by a Norton or Thevenin generator using an impedance which is the free space wave impedance.HFSS Online Help antenna. that start with PML. You can assign a variable as the thickness value. If you have selected a non-planar object for a PML or one that completely covers another object. Using the Incident Field option together with Reference for FSS is advantageous for highly reflective and resonant structures. For Radiating Only or Incident Field. which is necessary for HFSS to recognize them as PMLs. that is. Reflection/Transmission coefficients for FSS designs can be viewed in the solution data panel as S-parameters or you can create an Sparameter report. you can select Use Selected Object objectName as PML Cover. select only external. click a radio button to specify one of the following: • • Radiating Only . assign a variable as the thickness value. If you want to be able to modify the thickness. Click Next. Incident Field . HFSS knows the incident field pattern. This is like a generalized space port. 7. Only one FSS can be defined in a given model. 8-12 Assigning Boundaries .

HFSS Online Help 9. Select the Corresponding Base Object. • b. The default distance is based on the extent of base object geometry. PML Objects Continue Guided Waves if the PMLs terminate in a transmission line. 2. If you do not assign a value. Then specify the propagation constant at the minimum frequency. Select Use Selected Object as PML Cover. and assigns these materials to the objects in the PML group. Draw the PML object at the radiation surface. 5. Click HFSS>Boundaries>PML Setup Wizard. 6. You can assign a variable as the thickness value. 3. Object names that start with PML are necessary for HFSS to recognize them as PMLs. The PML Setup wizard appears. Specify how the PMLs terminate by selecting one of the following: a. 11. Type the thickness of each layer in the Uniform Layer Thickness text box. give the object a name with the prefix PML. and then select it. Related Topics Creating PML Boundaries Manually Modifying PML Boundaries Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries Technical Notes: PML Boundaries Assigning Radiation Boundaries Creating PML Boundaries Manually See Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries. the object touching the PML. Then enter the lowest frequency in the frequency range you are solving for in the Min Frequency text box. 12. Click Next. Specify the minimum distance between the PMLs and any of the radiating bodies in the Minimum Radiating Distance text box. You may choose to have HFSS calculate the value by clicking Use Default Formula. • 10. In the Properties window. from the pull-down list. HFSS calculates the appropriate PML materials based on the settings you specified and the material of the base object. 4. The PML material characteristics depend on the cumulative effect of their near fields at the location of the PML surfaces. 1. PML Objects Accept Free Radiation if the PMLs terminate in free space. A summary dialog box appears. enabling you to modify the settings you specified. Click Finish. you can select Use Default Formula to have HFSS calculate a Assigning Boundaries 8-13 .

HFSS calculates the appropriate PML material based on the settings you specified and the material of the base object. Specify how the PML terminates by selecting one of the following: • b.the incident field source patterns are projected on these surfaces and are backed by ABC or PML. Select the orientation of the PML object. You may choose to let HFSS calculate the value by clicking Use Default Formula. 12. applies it to the port and expects a reflected field pattern which radiates back. A summary dialog box appears. PML Objects Continue Guided Waves if the PML terminates in a transmission line. PML Objects Accept Free Radiation if the PML terminates in free space. This is like a generalized space port. as a Frequency Selective Surface . For Radiating Only or Incident Field.this surface becomes the input surface for calculations of the reflection/transmission coefficients. The default distance is based on the extent of base object geometry.the radiation surface (default). In other words. Enter the lowest frequency in the frequency range you are solving for in the Min Frequency text box. that is. If you check Reference for Frequency Selective Surface (FSS). coordinate system. and assigns this material to the PML. Under Base Face Radiation Properties. • 11. HFSS knows the incident field pattern. the PML objects will stay visible. Reflection/Transmission coefficients for FSS designs can be viewed in the solution data panel as S-parameters or you can create an Sparameter report. 7. Specify the propagation constant at the minimum frequency. you can also specify whether the surface is used as Reference for FSS.HFSS Online Help value for you based on geometrical analysis. the direction of outward propagation. enabling you to modify the settings you specified. Related Topics Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries 8-14 Assigning Boundaries . 9. 10. Incident Field . click a radio button to specify one of the following: • • Radiating Only . The other radiating surface automatically becomes output. it behaves as if you excited the project by a Norton or Thevenin generator using an impedance which is the free space wave impedance. The PML material characteristics depend on the cumulative effect of their near fields at the location of the PML surfaces. in the relative. Using the Incident Field option together with Reference for FSS is advantageous for highly reflective and resonant structures. a. Click Finish. 13. Click Next. Specify the minimum distance between the PML and the radiating body in the Minimum Radiating Distance text box. Only one FSS can be defined in a given model. 8. Click Next. or local.

The smaller the angle of each segment. Create separate PMLs for each segment. Related Topics Creating PML Boundaries Manually Technical Notes: PML Boundaries Assigning Radiation Boundaries Modifying PML Boundaries You can modify parameters of PML boundaries through the PML Setup Summary dialog. If the PMLs in your design vary in thickness. the normal vector changes with position. You can also modify the dimensions of PML boundaries by editing the History tree properties for the original object for which you assigned the PML boundaries. This results in the z direction of the PML object coinciding with the normal direction of the base object’s face. The base object is curved. HFSS calculates the PML material properties using the normal vector at the center of the base object’s face. One PML could be drawn to terminate the microstrip and another could correspond to the substrate. Assigning Boundaries 8-15 . the greater the accuracy of the corresponding PML. create a separate PML group for each thickness. An example is a metal-shielded microstrip line with a substrate. HFSS treats PMLs uniformly with regard to thickness. If the face is curved.HFSS Online Help Modifying PML Boundaries Technical Notes: PML Boundaries Assigning Radiation Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries Keep the following guidelines in mind when assigning PML boundaries: • • When automatically creating PMLs. You should manually create a PML in the following situations: • • The material of the corresponding base object touching the PML is not homogenous. Note that each segment’s thickness is treated uniformly. The PML materials will only be good approximations if the normal vector at each point on the face is close to the normal vector at the face center. Create as many PML objects as there are subsections of material properties in the base object. HFSS creates a new relative coordinate system for each PML object. It is a good idea to segment the curved surface of the base object for greater accuracy. The view angle of the segments should be no wider than 45 degrees.

5. 2. Modify the PML parameters. This performs the update and enables the Recalculate Materials button. Select the CreateBox command for each part of the geometry you want to modify. Click Finish. Click Recalculate Materials to apply the updates. select the PML group you want to modify from the table. Click HFSS>Boundaries>PML Setup Wizard. A table shows each PML Group. The changes to the CreateBox parameters apply to the associated PML objects. YSize. You can also specify a Minimum Radiating distance and units. the associated PML materials must be recalculated in the PML Setup Wizard. Note Related Topics Assigning PML Boundaries Assigning Radiation Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names 8-16 Assigning Boundaries .HFSS Online Help To modify dimension properties for the original PML object: 1. Make sure that nothing is selected in the 3D Modeler window. and material status. click Update. edit the properties for XSize. its thickness. 7. or the Guided Wave propagation constant at a minimum frequency. 3. Checking the box causes the table list the objects under each group. For example. 4. 2. A Radio button lets you select either the Free Radiation minimum frequency and units. or ZSize as required. if the material of the PML base object is modified. By default the Show Objects in groups box is not checked. Note that you can create variables to parameterize these properties. The Summary dialog box of the PML Setup wizard appears. 3. In the Properties dialog for that geometry command. To modify PML parameters: 1. If more than one group of PMLs were defined. Go to the History tree and open the hierarchy under the original PML base object. If you make changes. If objects are modified after PMLs are created. the PML materials will be invalid and must be recalculated in the PML Setup Wizard. 6. HFSS automatically recalculates and assigns the appropriate PML materials to the objects in the PML group.

To specify the roughness of surfaces such as the interface between the conductor and the substrate for a microstrip line. Do one of the following: • • Enter the conductivity in inverse ohm-meters.) Assigning Boundaries 8-17 . the effect of the finite conductivity boundary will be incorporated into the field solution in the usual manner. To assign a Finite Conductivity boundary: 1. click the default material name button . Select Use Material. and then enter the permeability. enter a value for Surface Roughness and select the units (default. 2. Select Infinite Ground Plane if you want the surface to represent an electrically large ground plane when the radiated fields are calculated during post processing. if the conductor’s thickness is much larger than the skin depth in the given frequency range. The finite conductivity boundary is valid only if the conductor being modeled is a good conductor. The conductivity and permeability values of the material you select will be used for the boundary. that is. but the radiated fields will be computed as if the lossy ground plane is perfectly conducting. Note that if you select Infinite Ground Plane. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Finite Conductivity to bring up the Finite Conductivity Boundary dialog box. microns) from the pull down menu. (This may be more intuitive than using a layered impedance boundary to model the effects. Note that selecting a perfectly conducting material for a finite conductivity boundary triggers a validation error. 3.HFSS Online Help Assigning Finite Conductivity Boundaries A finite conductivity boundary the behavior of the field at the object surface. 4. and then choose a material from the material editor.

Note Related Topics Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Technical Notes: Finite Conductivity Boundaries 8-18 Assigning Boundaries . and enter a value and select units. click the checkbox to enable the Layer Thickness field. To specify a layer thickness.HFSS Online Help 5. You can assign a variable as the conductivity or permeability values.

The finite conductivity boundary is valid only if the conductor being modeled is a good conductor. click the material name button.HFSS Online Help Assigning Finite Conductivity Boundaries in HFSS-IE A finite conductivity boundary approximates the behavior of the field at the object surface. that is. The conductivity and permeability values of the material you select will be used for the boundary. enter a value for Surface Roughness and select the units (default. (This may be more intuitive than using a layered impedance boundary to model the effects.) To specify a layer thickness. if the conductor’s thickness is much larger than the skin depth in the given frequency range. To assign a Finite Conductivity boundary: 1. 3. 4. and enter a value and select units.. and then choose a material from the material editor. You can assign a variable as the conductivity or permeability values. Note Assigning Boundaries 8-19 . click the checkbox to enable the Layer Thickness field. To specify the roughness of surfaces such as the interface between the conductor and the substrate for a microstrip line. Do one of the following: • • Enter the Conductivity and the Relative Permeability. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS-IE>Boundaries>Assign>Finite Conductivity to bring up the Finite Conductivity Boundary dialog box. Select Use Material. microns) from the pull down menu. 2. Note that selecting a perfectly conducting material for a finite conductivity boundary triggers a validation error.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Technical Notes: Finite Conductivity Boundaries Getting Started Guides: A 20 Ghz Waveguide Combiner 8-20 Assigning Boundaries .

2. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Symmetry to bring up the Symmetry Boundary dialog box. Type a value in the Impedance Multiplier box. Select the type of symmetry plane the boundary represents: Perfect E or Perfect H. you must adjust the impedance multiplier or the computed impedances will not be for the full structure. Symmetry boundaries enable you to model only part of a structure. To assign a Finite Conductivity boundary: 1. Click Impedance Multiplier. 3. and then click OK. The Port Impedance Multiplier dialog box appears. which reduces the size or complexity of your design. 4. If the design includes a port. Related Topics Technical Notes: Symmetry Boundaries Setting the Impedance Multiplier Technical Notes: Impedance Multipliers Getting Started Guides: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna Getting Started Guides: A 20 Ghz Waveguide Combiner Assigning Boundaries 8-21 .HFSS Online Help Assigning Symmetry Boundaries For Driven Modal or Eigenmode Designs A symmetry boundary represents a perfect E or perfect H plane of symmetry.

Clicking the point for the vector origin. Typing the point’s coordinates in the X. a. First draw the U vector of the coordinate system. Y. Select a point on the u-axis to indicate the U vector direction. The transformation used to map the Efield from the master to the slave is determined by specifying a coordinate system on both the master and slave boundaries.HFSS Online Help Assigning Master Boundaries Master and slave boundaries enable you to model planes of periodicity where the E-field at every point on the slave boundary surface is forced to match the E-field of every corresponding point on the master boundary surface to within a phase difference. To assign a Master boundary: 1. You must specify the coordinate system in the plane on which the boundary exists. 2. The Master Boundary dialog box reappears and the model display shows the U vector and V vector as red and blue arrows respectively. you can reverse the direction of the V vector. which must be on the boundary’s surface. Select New Vector from the U Vector pull-down list. either by: • • c. 8-22 Assigning Boundaries . d. If necessary. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Master to bring up the Master Boundary dialog box. select Reverse Direction. Select the U vector’s origin. b. If you need to reverse the direction of the V vector. HFSS uses the U vector that you draw and the normal vector of the boundary face to calculate the Vvector. The Master Boundary dialog box disappears while you draw the U vector. and Z boxes.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Master and Slave Boundaries Assigning Slave Boundaries Getting Started Guides: Floquet Ports Assigning Boundaries 8-23 .HFSS Online Help HFSS will compute the E-field on this boundary and map it to the slave boundary using the transformation defined by the master and slave coordinate systems.

Select New Vector from the U Vector pull-down list. If necessary. Type the point’s coordinates in the X. return to make this selection when it has been defined. First draw the U vector of the coordinate system. You must specify the coordinate system in the plane on which the boundary exists. Y. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Slave to bring up the Slave Boundary dialog box. b. 2. and Z boxes. Select the corresponding master boundary from the Master Boundary pull-down list. which must be on the boundary’s surface. you can reverse the direction of the V vector. Select the U vector’s origin. .HFSS Online Help Assigning Slave Boundaries Master and slave boundaries enable you to model planes of periodicity where the E-field at every point on the slave boundary surface is forced to match the E-field at every corresponding point on the master boundary surface to within a phase difference. in one of the following ways: • • 8-24 Assigning Boundaries Click the point for the vector origin. 3. a. HFSS uses the U vector that you draw and the normal vector of the boundary face to calculate the Vvector. The Slave Boundary dialog box disappears while you draw the U vector. The transformation used to map the Efield from the master to the slave is determined by specifying a coordinate system on both the master and slave boundaries. If a master boundary has not yet been defined. To assign a Slave boundary: 1.

theta. For Eigenmode problems. Select Field Radiation. The phase delay is calculated from the scan angles. 4. The phase delay applies only to this boundary.HFSS Online Help c. the Use Scan Angles to Calculate Phase Delay fields are disabled. and then enter the phase difference. you may enter it directly in the Phase Delay box below. between the boundaries’ E-fields in the Phase Delay box. You have the option to relate the slave boundary’s E-fields to the master boundary’s E-fields in one of the following ways: • For driven designs. Then enter Phi and Theta scan angles. select Reverse Direction. d. Note • Note HFSS will compute the E-field on the master boundary and map it to this boundary using the transformation defined by the master and slave coordinate systems. if you know the phase delay. 5. These apply to whole model. select Use Scan Angles to Calculate Phase Delay to enable the Scan Angle fields. or phase delay values. Click Next. You can assign a variable as the phi. in the global coordinate system. If you need to reverse the direction of the V vector. however. or phase delay. Related Topics Technical Notes: Master and Slave Boundaries Assigning Master Boundaries Getting Started Guides: Floquet Ports Assigning Boundaries 8-25 . The Slave Boundary dialog box reappears and the model display shows the U vector and V vector as red and blue arrows respectively. Select a point on the u-axis to indicate the U vector direction.

HFSS Online Help Assigning Lumped RLC Boundaries A lumped RLC boundary represents a parallel combination of lumped resistor. one with only inductance. inductor. To specify where on the surface the current and voltage will be controlled. To create a lumped RLC boundary: 1. and Capacitance as needed and specify values and units for each selected element. If you assign a non-rectangular face. Multiple RLC boundaries can be used to model other circuit configurations. you can assign a variable to any of these values. Note Related Topics Technical Notes: Lumped RLC Boundaries Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. HFSS and HFSS-IE assume the lumped RLC is assigned to a rectangular face. Inductance. For example. The selection field initially appears as Undefined. Optionally. 3. 8-26 Assigning Boundaries . Select New Line to define a vector line on the boundary surface. See the technical notes on RLC boundaries for more information. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Boundaries>Assign>Lumped RLC to bring up the Lumped RLC Boundary dialog box. HFSS and HFSS-IE issue a warning. Select Resistance. and/or capacitor applied to a surface. Using a non-rectangular face can result in less accurate representation of the lumped RLC. a lumped RLC serial circuit connection can be modeled with three connected RLC surfaces: one with only resistance. define a Current Flow Line. but proceed with the solution. and one with only capacitance. 2.

Y. 2. The dialog box disappears while you draw the vector line. Click the point. 4. reversing the line’s direction. Once the line has been defined. Select the start point in one of the following ways: • • 3.HFSS Online Help Vector Line To draw a vector line: 1. Type the point’s coordinates in the in the X. Select the endpoint using the mouse or the keyboard. and Z boxes. you can edit it as follows: Select Swap End Points from the dialog pull-down list to switch the start and endpoints of the line. Select New Line from the dialog’s pull-down list. Assigning Boundaries 8-27 .

) Note 3. If you want to use an external design to define the screening impedance. Checking the Anisotropic Impedance box enables the Coordinate System drop-down menu. the Resistance and Reactance fields are 5. To assign a Screening Impedance boundary 1. Select the Coordinate System that defines the anisotropic characteristic of the impedance boundary. 2. click the check box. there will be two buttons: Setup X Direction Link and Setup Y Direction Link. This menu lists the Global Coordinate system and any relative coordinate systems if you have defined them in the design. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS >Boundaries>Assign>Screening Impedance to bring up the Screening Impedance Boundary dialog.. An anisotropic boundary must not touch ports in a design. If you defining an anisotropic impedance. Click Next or the Screening Impedance tab. If you have not selected Use External Design.HFSS Online Help Assigning Screening Impedance Boundaries Planar screens or grids of large extent with periodic geometry can be replaced by a screening impedance boundary. click the Get Impedance from External Design checkbox to enable the Setup Link button. 8-28 Assigning Boundaries . depending on the general option setting. 4. (See Creating a Relative Coordinate System. If the boundary requires anisotropic impedance. The boundary applies a homogeneous characteristic impedance to the surface in an effort to create an equivalent electrical representation of the geometric grid pattern.

Then select Setup Y Direction Link button to chose a design which will define the impedance in the Y direction. Assigning Boundaries 8-29 3.] lets you look through your file system.. Design. If you select the current model. In a Transient solution type. the Project File is automatically filled in." Note The solution in the source design must provide data for the target design's adaptive frequency as well as its sweeps. The "Default" solution is the product dependent solution of the first Setup. the wizard shows Resistance and Reactance fields for X Axis alignment and Y axis alignment. In these fields. you can select this from a drop down menu. Specify the Solution to use. If the source is in the current design. it is LastAdaptive. Click the Setup button to display the Setup Link dialog. The Setup Link dialog has three fields under the General tab: Project File. If Anisotropic Impedance is checked. Specify the Design for the source. Specify the Project file for the design that is the source.. A product specific solution of this setup becomes the default solution. select Setup X Direction Link button to chose a design which will define the impedance in the X direction. If necessary. . it is "Transient. A drop down list lets you select from the available solutions. In most products. but select the current model. 5. the current Project File is automatically filled in. the adaptive frequency for the target design must be included in the sweep in the source design. you can open the source design and add an appropriate frequency point to an existing sweep. Use the radio button to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the source project or This project. and Solution. Related Topics Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. A browse button [. 4.HFSS Online Help enabled. Assigning Material Property Types Change the Orientation of an object Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating a Face Coordinate System Setting the Working Coordinate System Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View Technical Notes: Screening Impedance Get Impedance from External Design To get impedance from an external design: 1. If you do not specify a project file. For anisotropic impedance cases. That is the setup listed first in the source design's project tree (alphanumerical order). That is. 2. you set the Resistance and Reactance.

same named variables are mapped automatically. Extractor mode means that the software is opened during the link solely for the purpose of solving. Related Topics Assigning Screening Impedance Boundaries 8-30 Assigning Boundaries . Under the Variable Mapping tab.HFSS Online Help 6. In this case. Use the checkbox to specify whether to preserve the source design solution. If the source and target designs contain same named variables. Note that in Extractor mode. 9. 8. the source project will be saved upon exit. you can set the desired variable values in the source design. Click OK to close the Setup Link dialog and return to the Screening Impedance Boundary dialog. you can choose to Map Variable By Name. Use the checkbox specify whether to Force source design to solve in the absence of linked data in the target design. 7.

Select Infinite Ground Plane if you want the surface to represent an electrically large ground plane when the radiated fields are calculated during post processing. To assign a Layered Impedance boundary 1. enter the average surface roughness of the two outermost sides. Click Next or the Layers tab. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS >Boundaries>Assign>Layered Impedance to bring up the Layered Impedance Boundary dialog box. If the layered structure is external to the design. The layered impedance boundary is supported for single-frequency solutions and for Discrete and Interpolating frequency sweeps. only one infinite ground plane can exist in the design. 4. except that HFSS calculates the impedance of the surface based on data you enter for the layered structure. The effect is the same as an impedance boundary condition. Enter the Surface Roughness for the layered structure..HFSS Online Help Assigning Layered Impedance Boundaries A layered impedance boundary is used to model multiple thin layers in a structure as one impedance surface. 2. You can assign a variable as this value. 5. 3. If the layered structure is internal to the design. Eigenmode designs cannot contain design parameters that depend on frequency: for example. a frequency-dependent impedance boundary condition. do the following: Assigning Boundaries 8-31 . Surface roughness is also taken into account. For designs with layered impedance boundaries. depending on the general option setting.

Enter the frequency at which the solution is being solved in the Test Frequency text box. HFSS assumes the layered structure is external to the design. To change the layer’s material. 9. Enter a thickness for the first layer in the Thickness/Type column. 6. do the following: a. Enter a thickness for the layer in the Thickness/Type column. click the first row square and drag the row to the desired position. If the layered structure is within the 3D model. do the following: a. b. Related Topics Technical Notes: Layered Impedance Boundaries 8-32 Assigning Boundaries . click vacuum and follow the procedure for assigning a material. 7. Perfect E. since the impedance may only be accurate for the center frequency.HFSS Online Help • By default. Click Calculate. Click New Layer. To change the first layer’s material. the outermost layer of the structure is listed. Note A warning will be posted if a fast sweep is defined in a design that contains a layered impedance boundary. The real and imaginary components of the HFSS-calculated layered impedance value appear. c. You can assign a variable as this value. Optionally. Optionally. Select whether this layer is an Infinite. click vacuum and follow the procedure for assigning a material. to reorder layers. b. Select the Internal option. To add a new layer to the structure: a. The new layer is added at the end of the list. to view the impedance values that will be calculated based on the data provided. You can assign a variable as this value. b. or Perfect H layer from the Thickness/Type list. 8.

Create a 2D sheet object on the XY plane at the elevation of ground plane. and you assign an aperture to the 2D object. that means aperture is on ground plane. Apertures can be assigned to any 2D objects (only objects: faces are not allowed). you essentially create a hole on the 3D object. Type the boundary’s name in the Name text box or accept the default name.) Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries HFSS-IE Feature Assigning Boundaries 8-33 . (To change the default base name to one of your choosing. If the 2D object is touching ground plane. 3.HFSS Online Help Assigning Aperture Boundaries in HFSS-IE An aperture boundary represents holes in the design. • • Aperture boundary can only be assigned on sheet objects. This objected will be meshed as part of the solution process. To create an aperture in the infinite ground plane: 1. So if the 2D object touches the surface of 3D object. see Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. 2. Select the object and right-click on Boundaries>Assign>Aperature to display the Aperature dialog.

HFSS Online Help Assigning Infinite Ground Plane Boundaries in HFSS-IE An HFSS-IE design can contain an Infinite Ground Plane boundary aligned with the global XY plane. You can accept the default name. To change the material. and select Assign>Infinite Ground Plane to display the Infinite Ground Plane dialog. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Assigning Materials HFSS-IE Feature 8-34 Assigning Boundaries . since it will often exist in a location that does not have an appropriate face or sheet for assignment. Set the surface roughness and units. 5. right-click on Boundaries in the Project tree. Specify the Z location and the units. 3. The Infinite Ground Plane will not be assigned to any geometry. To assign an infinite ground plane geometry in HFSS-IE: 1. or specify one. 2. click the button to display the materials dialog. With no objects selected. 4. A Select Material button displays the name of the default material.

To change the first layer’s material. do the following: • By default. If the layered structure is external to the design. 6. or Perfect H layer from the Thickness/Type list. 2. depending on the general option setting. enter the average surface roughness of the two outermost sides. Perfect E. 5. To assign a Layered Impedance boundary 1. 3. If the layered structure is within the 3D model. Surface roughness is also taken into account. a frequency-dependent impedance boundary condition. If the layered structure is internal to the design. the outermost layer of the structure is listed.HFSS Online Help Assigning Layered Impedance Boundaries in HFSS-IE A layered impedance boundary is used to model multiple thin layers in a structure as one impedance surface. You can assign a variable as this value. Eigenmode designs cannot contain design parameters that depend on frequency: for example. Enter the Surface Roughness for the layered structure. click vacuum and follow the procedure for assigning a material. except that HFSS calculates the impedance of the surface based on data you enter for the layered structure. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS-IE >Boundaries>Assign>Layered Impedance to bring up the Layered Impedance Boundary dialog box. To add a new layer to the structure: Assigning Boundaries 8-35 . 4. Click Next or the Layers tab.. b. HFSS assumes the layered structure is external to the design. do the following: a. Select the Internal option. Select whether this layer is an Infinite. The effect is the same as an impedance boundary condition. You can assign a variable as this value. Enter a thickness for the first layer in the Thickness/Type column. The layered impedance boundary is supported for single-frequency solutions and for Discrete and Interpolating frequency sweeps.

Optionally. The new layer is added at the end of the list. Note A warning will be posted if a fast sweep is defined in a design that contains a layered impedance boundary. click the first row square and drag the row to the desired position. Enter a thickness for the layer in the Thickness/Type column. do the following: a. 8.HFSS Online Help a. The real and imaginary components of the HFSS-calculated layered impedance value appear. 7. Click Calculate. since the impedance may only be accurate for the center frequency. to view the impedance values that will be calculated based on the data provided. You can assign a variable as this value. Enter the frequency at which the solution is being solved in the Test Frequency text box. to reorder layers. Click New Layer. Related Topics Technical Notes: Layered Impedance Boundaries Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Assigning Materials HFSS-IE Feature 8-36 Assigning Boundaries . c. click vacuum and follow the procedure for assigning a material. Optionally. b. b. To change the layer’s material.

A finite sheet. This selection only affects the calculation of near. and Finite Conductivity Boundary conditions. multiple antenna ground planes are supported. or impedance boundary condition. For Impedance. HFSS supports only one infinite boundary condition per design. perfectly conducting plane. Layered Impedance. HFSS models the boundary as a finite portion of an infinite.and far-field radiation during post processing. Related Topics Technical Notes: Infinite Ground Planes Assigning Boundaries 8-37 . For PEC. you will receive a warning.HFSS Online Help Designating Infinite Ground Planes To simulate the effects of an infinite ground plane in an HFSS design: • Select the Infinite ground plane check box when setting up a perfect E. which does not touch the radiation boundary condition cannot be an infinite ground plane. If the infinite ground plane does not touch a radiation boundary. finite conductivity.

in which you can edit its properties. The Design List dialog box appears. Click HFSS>List. The boundary’s dialog box appears. do one of the following: • • • Double-click the boundary’s icon in the project tree. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Deleting Boundaries 8-38 Assigning Boundaries . in which you can modify the properties of one or more boundaries. The boundary’s dialog box appears.HFSS Online Help Modifying Boundaries To change the properties of a boundary. Right-click the boundary in the project tree. and then click Properties on the shortcut menu. in which you can edit its properties.

Click Delete. 3. click the row of the boundary you want to delete. On the Edit menu. Under the Boundaries tab. The Design List dialog box appears. click List. Click HFSS menu. 2. Select the boundary you want to delete by selecting its icon in the project tree. You can also delete one or more boundaries in the Design List dialog box: 1. click Delete . To delete all boundaries: • Click HFSS>Boundaries>Delete All.HFSS Online Help Deleting Boundaries To delete one boundary: 1. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Assigning Boundaries 8-39 . 2.

For example. The Reassign Boundary window appears. Select the object or object face to which you want to assign an existing boundary. the second object’s boundary will become invalid because united objects maintain the characteristics of the first object selected. and then click Reassign on the shortcut menu. Select an existing boundary from the list. In this case. and then click OK. Right-click the existing boundary in the project tree. Alternatively. This is useful when you have modified objects with assigned boundaries. The boundary is reassigned to the object or object face. invalidating the boundaries. but this is not always possible. you would need to reassign the boundary or delete it 1. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries 8-40 Assigning Boundaries . Click HFSS>Boundaries>Reassign. if you unite two objects with assigned boundaries.HFSS Online Help Reassigning Boundaries You can reassign a boundary to another surface. 2. select the object or object face to which you want to assign an existing boundary. Note When reassigning a boundary that includes vectors in its definition. HFSS attempts to preserve the vectors with the new assignment. 3.

you cannot move a boundary to a higher priority than a port. When two boundary definitions overlap. 1. Ports are automatically placed at the bottom (highest priority) of the list. The Reprioritize Boundaries window appears. Note Related Topics Reviewing Boundaries and Excitations in the Solver View Assigning Boundaries 8-41 . The order does not correspond to the order of boundaries and excitations visible to the solvers. Magnetic Bias Excitations (if any) have the lowest priority. You can change the priority of a previously assigned boundary to be greater than a more recently assigned boundary. 2. Other boundaries and excitations appear between these two extremes. only one boundary or excitation can be visible to the solvers. Click HFSS>Boundaries>Reprioritize to reprioritize boundaries. The order of boundaries and excitations in the project tree is alphabetical. The lowest priority assignment appears at the top of the list. The order of boundaries is important because. for any given triangle of the mesh. The order the boundaries and excitations appear in the list indicates the order in which they were defined. the one with the higher priority is visible to the solvers.HFSS Online Help Reprioritizing Boundaries Each boundary you assign overwrites any existing boundary which it overlaps. Drag the boundary you want to change to the desired order of priority.

you can access the Select Definition dialog. If you simulate an antenna underwater. This setting tells HFSS what material properties to use when calculating far fields. you should set the GlobalMaterial Environment to water. Related Topics Viewing and Editing Material Attributes Far Field Wave 8-42 Assigning Boundaries . By clicking the Material button. The default setting is vacuum. This lets you work with the materials library. Selecting anisotropic material is disabled because the solver doesn't support that. for example.HFSS Online Help Global Material Environment The HFSS>Boundaries>Edit Global Material Environment command displays the Global Material Environment dialog.

Select the face to which you want to assign the boundary. Copy and paste the new face object to copy and paste the boundary. 3. Related Topics Copying and Pasting Objects Assigning Boundaries 8-43 . Click Tools>Options>HFSS Options. Click Modeler>Surface>Create Object From Face. For example: 1. Assign the boundary to the new face object. Under Boundaries. select Duplicate boundaries with geometry. Hint Use this option to copy and paste boundaries. 2. 2.HFSS Online Help Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry To duplicate a boundary or excitation when its geometry is pasted or duplicated: 1. All boundaries and excitations will be duplicated with their associated geometries until you choose to clear this option. 4.

• • • For designs with large numbers of objects. and Fields Reporter objects. The boundary or excitation will be visible in the active view window when it is selected or when it is not selected. You can invert the order by clicking the Name bar above the Name fields. Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment. The boundary or excitation will only be visible in the active view window if it is selected. A triangle in the bar indicates the direction of the listing. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps. Boundaries. 2. select the Visibility option for the objects you want to show in the active view window. Select the tab for the objects you want to show or hide. objects are listed in alphabetical order. What do you want to do? Show or hide a boundary or excitation in the active view window. click Active View Visibility icon in the toolbar. The objects you select and designate as Visible (by selecting the property or using Show) appear. Excitations. By default. You can also use the Name field to type in an object name and apply the visibility via the Show and Hide buttons. On the View menu. The dialog contains tabs for 3D Modeler objects. 3. Click the Boundaries tab if you want to show or hide boundaries. The Active View Visibility dialog box appears. Select the Visibility option for boundaries or excitations that you want to show in the active view window. In the case of very large models with many boundaries. you can resize the dialog for easier selection. You can also use the toolbar icons to Show/Hide selected objects in all views and Show/Hide 8-44 Assigning Boundaries . 6. Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations in the Active View Window 1. or select the Active View Visibility Note Click the Excitations tab if you want to show or hide excitations. or vectors. Clear the Visibility selection of boundaries or excitations that you want to hide from view. 4. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment.HFSS Online Help Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations You can choose to show or hide a boundary or excitation’s geometry. 5. Show or hide a boundary or excitation in every view window. in the active view window or in all view windows. Under the tab you need. Color Key objects. name.

HFSS Online Help selected objects in active views. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment. In the case of very large models with many boundaries. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps. 2. View Name. Note Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment. or View Vector selection of boundaries and excitations that you want to hide from view. Clear the View Geometry. The options affect all view windows. Show selected object in all views Show selected object in active view Hide selected object in all views Hide selected objects in active view Hide/Show overlaid visualization in the active view icon Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations in Every View Window 1. Assigning Boundaries 8-45 . Click HFSS>Excitations>Visualization if you want to show or hide excitations. Click HFSS>Boundaries>Visualization if you want to show or hide boundaries. Select the options you want to show.

Verify that the boundaries or excitations you assigned to the model are being displayed as you intended for solving purposes. 2.HFSS Online Help Reviewing Boundaries and Excitations in the Solver View After you have assigned all the necessary boundaries and excitations to a model. you should review their order of priority according to the HFSS solver. Visible to Solver will appear in the Solver Visibility column for each boundary or excitation that is valid. The Solver View of Boundaries window appears. HFSS generates an initial mesh and determines the locations of the boundaries and excitations on the model. reprioritize the boundaries and excitations. Overridden will appear in the Solver Visibility column for each boundary or excitation that will be ignored by the solver as a result of it overlapping an existing boundary or excitation with a higher priority. To check the solver’s view of boundaries and excitations: 1. 4. Reviewing the solver’s view of the model’s boundaries and excitations enables you to verify that their order during the solution process will be as you intended. which lists all the boundaries and excitations for the active model in the order specified in the Reprioritize Boundaries and Excitations dialog box. • • 3. Select the Visibility option for the boundary or excitation you want to review. On the HFSS menu. The selected boundary or excitation will appear in the 3D Modeler window in the color it has been assigned. If the order of priority is not as you intended. Related Topics Technical Notes: Default Boundary Assignments 8-46 Assigning Boundaries . click Boundary Display (Solver View).

Note For PML boundaries. but can be overridden. Under the Defaults tab. Close the boundary or excitation’s dialog box. click Save Defaults. 2. rather than a value. Modify any default values. click Revert to Standard Defaults. The default values you set for this boundary type will be cleared and will revert to the default values set by HFSS. Re-open the new boundary or excitation’s dialog box. Optionally. These default values are initially set by HFSS. 4. the defaults are set via a formula. 3. 5. Assign a boundary or excitation. The values assigned to this boundary are saved as the default values and will be assigned when new boundaries of this type are created.HFSS Online Help Setting Default Values for Boundaries and Excitations When assigning a boundary or excitation. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Assigning Boundaries 8-47 . 6. It now includes a Defaults tab. many of the fields in the boundary and excitation dialog boxes have default values associated with them. To modify the default values associated with a specific boundary or excitation type: 1.

HFSS Online Help 8-48 Assigning Boundaries .

HFSS Transient. Available excitation differ for each. You can assign terminals manually or automatically... currents. Delete it. You may assign the following types of excitations to a Driven solution-type HFSS design: Wave Port Lumped Port Terminal. Reprioritize it. or voltages on objects or surfaces in the design. Represents an internal surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. effectively a semi-infinite wavegyude attached to the model. • • • HFSS Excitations HFSS-IE Excitations HFSS Transient Excitations After assigning an excitation. you can modify it in some of the following ways. if applicable to the excitation type: • • • • • • • • Change its properties. Reassign it to another surface. Hide it from view. Represents a terminal. render it Active or Passive. Modify the impedance multiplier. For HFSS Transient solutions. Deembed the port. Assigning Excitations 9-1 . and HFSS-IE are used to specify the sources of electromagnetic fields and charges. a small imedance pole for exiting the structure. Represents the surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. effectively.9 Assigning Excitations Excitations in HFSS.

Represents a constant electric current across feed points. Represents a terminal. Near field waves include evanescent field behavior. Represents a wave that propagates in one direction and is uniform in the directions perpendicular to its direction of propagation. effectively. Used to define the net internal field that biases a saturated ferrite object. Represents a constant electric field across feed points. the Properties for each excitation includes a Transient tab. Represents a terminal. Represents a propagating wave impacting the geometry... Represents a constant electric field across feed points. typically within a wave length. Plane Incident Wave Far Field Wave Near Field Wave Represents an internal surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. You can assign terminals manually or automatically. A Near Field wave is close enough to the antenna source for near field effects to occur. . Plane Wave Voltage Source Current Source Related Topics Technical Notes: Port Solution Theory Technical Notes: Excitations Technical Notes: Excitations in the Time Domain Zoom to Selected Excitation 9-2 Assigning Excitations Represents the surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. You can assign terminals manually or automatically. Represents a propagating wave impacting the geometry.HFSS Online Help Floquet Port Used exclusively with planar-periodic structures. For HFSS Transient designs. a small imedance pole for exiting the structure. usually more than a wave length distance) from an antenna to approximate as a plane wave. You can assign the following types of excitation in an HFSS Transient design. A Far field wave is sufficiently far (that is.. effectively a semi-infinite wavegyude attached to the model. Wave Port Lumped Port Terminal. Incident Wave Voltage Source Current Source Magnetic Bias You can assign the following types of excitation in an HFSS-IE design: Lumped Port Terminal.. Represents a constant electric current across feed points. Represents an internal surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. Chief examples are planar phased arrays and frequency selective surfaces when these may be idealized as infinitely large. enabling you to designate each excitation as Active or Passive.

This can be very useful in looking at problem areas. Selecting this command zooms the view in the 3D Modeler view in or out to show the selected excitation. the popup menu includes a Zoom to command. and right-click. Assigning Excitations 9-3 .HFSS Online Help Zoom to Selected Excitation When you select on an excitation name in the Project tree.

rectangular or circular).. you type the port’s name in the Name text box or accept the default name. The setup of wave ports varies slightly depending on whether your solution is modal or terminal. or a multitab properties dialog with the General tab selected. Related Topics Assigning Wave Ports for Modal Solutions Assigning Wave Ports for Terminal Solutions Technical Notes: Wave Ports 9-4 Assigning Excitations . When you select an Assign>portType command. For each port. They are used when modeling strip lines and other waveguide structures (for example. you see either the Wave Port wizard. (Also see Selecting the Solution Type). (To change the default base name to one of your choosing.HFSS Online Help Assigning Wave Ports Wave ports represent places in the geometry through which excitation signals enter and leave the structure. see Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. depending on your General Options Assignment options selection for Use wizards.) Note A wave port can be placed internal to a model as long as it is backed by a PEC object.

follow the directions for defining an integration line. or the Modes tab to show the Modes window. Click Next.HFSS Online Help Technical Notes: Port Solution Theory Assigning Wave Ports for Modal Solutions 1. Select coplanar face(s) and click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Wave Port to see the Wave Port dialog with the General tab. you can choose to Align modes analytically using coordinate systems." Clicking on the cell now shows a drop down list of options: • • • Defined None Swap Endpoints Assigning Excitations 9-5 . 3. Here you specify the number of modes for a port. and specify whether to filter modes for the reporter. the table cell under the Integration line heading changes from "None" to "Defined. Note When you have defined an integration line. For analytic port types. To specify an integration line for a port mode. The mode table is updated to include the total number of modes. the characteristic impedance. define integration lines for each mode. 2.

If a solution exists adding or changing integration lines invalidates them. if there are no conductors on the port and Zpi is near zero. or integration lines. and issues a warning. which lets you use a checkbox to designate a mode For Reporter. The Characteristic Impedance (Zo) column shows the Zpi method usually used to calculate the characteristic impedance. Align modes using integration lines causes polarization for non-analytic ports to align the E-field of the modes with the integration line. There is no restriction on the port geometry. However. New Line. If you need to define an integration line for one or more modes. 5. This adds a new column to the Mode table.and Calculating the PV Impedance. HFSS uses Zpv.HFSS Online Help • • Duplicate Line. you define the U Axis Line. For designs with multiple modes. If you change an existing integration line. 4. use the options for this line. 6. The V direction is computed automatically and can be reversed using the "Reverse V Direction" checkbox. you can check the Filter Modes for Reporter checkbox.. For definitions of how HFSS defines these values. The modes area contains three radio buttons: • • • None means that you don’t want to align the E-field of the modes with the integration line. 9-6 Assigning Excitations . If so. see Calculating the PI Impedance. Choose whether to use analytic modes for polarization. which must split the port symmetrically. Align modes analytically using coordinate system requires that the port corresponds to an analytic port type. materials... repeat the process for each. this function will simplify your selections when you create traces for reports. The solver polarizes the fields by aligning them with analytic mode patterns that are generated on the U-V coordinate system.. If desired. Click Next or the Post Processing tab to display the Wave Port: Post Processing window.

The default impedance for re-normalization of each mode is 50 ohms. select Deembed. If you want to enter a complex impedance. a blue arrow depicts the embedding distance in the graphics window when the port is selected. If there are multiple modes. the Distance field shows the specified distance. The Port Renormalization choices include: • • Do Not Renormalize (the default). Renormalize All Modes. A positive distance value will de-embed into the port. Note • Related Topics Selecting the Solution Type Defining Integration Lines Assigning Excitations 9-7 . This enables the Full Port Impedance text box. Click this to enable the Edit Mode Impedances button. You can subsequently edit this value. This disables the Renormalize mode selections here. Alternatively. click Get Distance Graphically to draw a line with a length representing the de-embed distance. and then type the deembedding distance to add and select the units to use. To deembed the port. You can assign a variable as this value. A negative distance value will deembed out of the port. This opens a editable table with the impedances for each mode. enter it in the following form: <re> + <im>j • 7. After you enter the value.HFSS Online Help Values here affect S-Parameters only. After you draw the line in the 3D window. the Renormalize Specific Modes is enabled.

Associating Ports and Terminals HFSS can automatically associate terminal definitions if you define ports after defining terminals or if you define terminals on the Excitations level (in the Project tree) when ports already exist. However. the associations between ports and terminals may change. You can control the terminal base name and terminal name using the Set Default Boundary/Excitation Base Name command.HFSS Online Help Technical Notes: Wave Ports Technical Notes: Analytic Port Types Technical Notes: Calculating Characteristic Impedance Technical Notes: Deembedding Getting Started Guides Assigning Wave Ports for Terminal Solutions Assigning wave ports for terminal solutions can be manual or automatic depending on whether you are creating the first port or terminal in a project. you must check the Auto-assign terminals on ports option on the Tools>Options>HFSS Options dialog on the General tab. you can select a terminal in the project tree and see its selection highlighted. but only the portion of the edge that overlaps the port is used to define the terminal edge for the solver. you can also specify whether naming uses the conductor name or port object name. you can set the renormalizing impedance for all terminals. A terminal is a geometry selection consisting of one or more faces and/or edges that should be fully contained within the port face(s). Editing Operations and Port/Terminal Associations Port and terminal definitions are synchronized. The geometric edge can extend outside the port. That would be defined as a terminal in the user interface. and the terminal is represented in the project tree nested beneath its associated port. or zoom to it in the model window just like you can for a port. With geometry copy/ 9-8 Assigning Excitations . in the sense that if you operate on the geometries in their assignments. In either case. Selection of a port does not visually indicate its terminals. Setup for Ports and Terminals At either the port level or for all excitations. a terminal is associated with the port containing the signal and reference conductors that define the terminal. Terminal naming conventions default to be based on the first geometry in the assignment selection for the terminal. For auto assign terminals. and whether you are using a legacy project or script. For this to occur automatically. A terminal is defined by one or more conductors in contact with the port.

Click the Apply button to close the dialog and apply the change. and select the units from the pull down. a terminal is defined on edge(s) or face(s) of object(s). which allows use of a dataset for frequency dependent impedance. Either right click on the Excitations icon in the Project tree and select Set Terminal Renormalizing Impedances. then the terminals are pasted in with the ports. which are not necessarily on the same objects as the port face(s). with modified assignments to match the pasted geometries. The Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals dialog appears. then the terminals will detach from the old port and attach instead to the new one. If the object(s) containing the terminal assignment are also copied and pasted along with the objects containing the port assignment. To set the renormalizing impedance for all excitations: 1. In the field for Impedance. If you. Then you will see the proper port/terminal associations established right after the paste without requiring any action on your part. 2. However. However. if you have opted for boundary duplication. the assignment of terminals to ports is arbitrary. If you want to see this in one step.HFSS Online Help paste operations. 1. Right click on the Port icon in the Project tree and click Set Terminal Renormalizing ImpedAssigning Excitations 9-9 To set the reference for all terminals on a port: . or for a specific port. because the location of the pasted object(s) may coincide with that of their source object(s). both ports and their associated terminals will duplicate. 3. the setup panel also includes radio buttons to either Do Not Renormalize Any Terminals. Related Topics Selecting the Solution Type Auto Assign Terminals Manually Assigning Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port Manually Assigning a Lump Port Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals HFSS Options: General Options Tab Technical Notes: Terminals Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals The setup panel for each terminal includes its post processing renormalizing impedance. do your copy. or Renormalize All Wave Port Terminals. If a design includes at least one wave port. set the value. but move the original objects out of range before pasting. move the pasted objects to non overlapping locations. or click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Set Terminal Renormalizing Impedances. however. and likely the old ports will get the additional terminal assignments. This variable can be dependent on the frequency. This value can be a variable. You can set this value either for all excitations.

This variable can be dependent on the frequency. In designs with at least one wave port.HFSS Online Help ances. Once one or more ports are defined. You can also set the Terminal Reference Impedance on a port by selecting the port and editing the value in the Properties dialog. 3. This command also appears on the shortcut menu when you right-click on Excitations. all conductors contacting the port will be located and the Reference Conductors for Terminals dialog will display. This value can be a variable. The Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals dialog appears. you can select the Do Not Renormalize Any Wave Port Terminals radio button. or on a single port in the Project tree. which allows use of a dataset for frequency dependent impedance. To auto assign terminals: 1. In the field for Impedance.. you can use the port or Excitation level commands to Auto Assign Terminals. Click the Apply button to close the dialog and apply the change.) For each port specified. Related Topics Auto Assign Terminals Manually Assigning Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions Manually Assigning a Lump Port Plotting in the Time Domain Technical Notes: Terminals Auto Assign for Terminals The HFSS menu lists the HFSS>Excitations>Auto Assign Terminals command. It differs from the related command for all excitations by specifying that the Renormalizing Impedance is for terminals on the selected port. 2. where you want to view un-renormalized Zo impedance in either the Matrix data or in a report. and select the units from the pull down. set the value. (HFSS>Excitations>Auto Assign Terminals. This resizable dialog contains a table of avail- 9-10 Assigning Excitations .

Select OK to close the Reference Conductors for Terminals dialog. Note Identification of conductors depends on a threshold conductivity value. 2. you can check the box in the Use as reference column to so designate it.HFSS Online Help able geometries that are Conducting Objects. The example shown includes four conductors. All other conductors will be considered for terminal assignment. HFSS will then generate terminal Assigning Excitations 9-11 . 4. If you check the Highlight selected conductors box. All remaining conductors on each affected port will be used. Ports are named by appending the terminal name (the default name is T) to the specified conductor or port base name. Set the terminal naming by selecting Use conductor name or Use Port object name. The threshold is based on the material assignment or the boundary assignment if a conducting boundary is assigned to the object. 3. For each conductor. selecting any conductor in the table highlights it in the modeler window.

All geometries to be used as the assignment for a terminal should be connected. as are conducting edges that touch each other. 9-12 Assigning Excitations . Note With complicated arrangement of conductors or geometry that has slight coordinate misalignments. Assign as an excitation in the modeler window via right mouse click to display the shortcut menu and select Assign Excitation>Terminal. you must assign it as a Single Terminal.HFSS Online Help assignments. create the terminals. Note Multiple reference conductors touching a port must all be connected in the plane of the port. the conducting faces on a port that touch each other are recognized as defining a single terminal. To define a terminal explicitly: 1. 2. so you should review the result before solving. Terminals can be defined only after ports are defined. When you execute Auto Assign Terminals. When defining terminals for a particular port. select Excitations and right click to display the shortcut menu and select Assign>Single Terminal. the right click menu for the port in the project tree has Assign Terminal. or from the menu bar select HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Terminal or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Terminal. and associate the terminals with the correct port. As a convenience. you can define multiple terminals with a single selection entity per assignment (or a single terminal with just one selection entity) via Assign Excitation >Terminal or Excitations >Assign>Terminal. Existing terminals will not be affected or duplicated. 5. or on the Project tree. After you add new model objects or new port definitions. Related Topics HFSS Options: General Options Tab Manually Assigning Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions Manually Assigning a Lump Port Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals Technical Notes: Terminals Example Projects: Package (terminal) Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient Manually Assigning Terminals If you want a terminal assignment to include multiple geometry selections. auto assign may create either too few or too many terminals on a port. you can again Auto Assign Terminals to add new terminals where appropriate. Select the face(s) and/or edge(s) that contact the port and which define the terminal.

This value can also be set at the port level. Set up terminal definitions as long as they contact the port in some way. 3. you can set a Resistance value and units for the Terminal Renormalizing Impedence. Related Topics Auto Assign Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions Manually Assigning a Lump Port Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals Technical Notes: Port Solution Theory Technical Notes: Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions 1. The solver uses a mesh based test to verify that the number of terminals on a port is equal to the number of distinct conductors minus one. Select the object face to which you want to assign the port and click HFSS>Excita- Assigning Excitations 9-13 . or for all excitations by using the Set Terminal Renormalizing Impedance command.HFSS Online Help Terminals should be completely contained inside or on the perimeter of their ports. Unless the Post Processing tab selection for the Port is set to Do Not Renormalize.

Clicking OK adds the Wave port and terminal to the Project tree. 2. By option you can check Highlight selected conductors. 3.HFSS Online Help tions>Assign>Wave Port. 4." Specify which conductors to Use as Reference. Specify the convention for terminal naming as "Use conductor Name" or "Use port object name. 5. Double click the wave port in the Project tree to display the Properties window for the wave 9-14 Assigning Excitations .

Renormalizing Impedance for Specific Terminals is enabled. the Distance field shows the specified distance. A negative distance value will deembed out of the port. Assigning Excitations 9-15 . The default impedance for re-normalization of each port is 50 ohms. Alternatively. If you want to enter a complex impedance.HFSS Online Help port. a blue arrow depicts the embedding distance in the graphics window when the port is selected. After you enter the value. Selecting this disables the Impedance fields for the port and terminals. The Port Renormalization choices include: • • Do Not Renormalize (the default). If there are multiple modes. you must open the Properties for the terminal and specify a value in the Terminal Renormalizing Impedance field. You can subsequently edit this value. and then type the deembedding distance to add. enter it in the following form: <re> + <im>j • 6. click Get Distance Graphically to draw a line with a length representing the de-embed distance. For HFSS Transient solutions. Select the Post Processing tab. Note • 7. You can assign a variable as this value. To deembed the port. After you draw the line in the 3D window. To specify a different impedance. A positive distance value will de-embed into the port. Values here affect S-Parameters only. Renormalize All Terminals. Click this to enable the Edit Terminal Impedances button. This opens a editable table with the impedances for each terminal. you can designate a port as Active or Passive. select Deembed.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Auto Assign Terminals Manually Assigning Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions Manually Assigning a Lump Port Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient Technical Notes: Port Solution Theory Technical Notes: Terminals Technical Notes: Deembedding 9-16 Assigning Excitations .

Each terminal that is identified by an edge selection must have each edge contained by some non port face. Only one port mode is allowed. Lumped ports compute S-parameters directly at the port. or one terminal if it is a terminal solution. The following restrictions apply: • • • • The complex full port impedance must be non-zero and the resistance must be non-negative.HFSS Online Help Assigning Lumped Ports Lumped ports are similar to traditional wave ports. If this condition is not satisfied. an error message is issued. If you see the error message. HFSS-IE Lumped Ports Assigning Excitations 9-17 . you should abort the solve and correct the geometry. An integration line must be defined for driven ports. but can be located internally and have a complex user-defined impedance. Their setup varies slightly depending on whether the solution is modal or terminal. A lumped port can be defined as a rectangle from the edge of the trace to the ground or as a wave port. An example use is modeling microstrip structures. The default boundary is perfect H on all edges that do not come in contact with the metal or with another boundary condition. Note Use wave ports to model exterior surfaces through which a signal enters or exits the geometry.

the maximum distance from the terminal to the reference should be less than a twentieth of a wavelength. Click Next to display the Lumped Port: Modes window. This variable can be dependent on the frequency. which allows use of a dataset for frequency dependent impedance. Define the complex Full Port Impedance in the Resistance and the Reactance text boxes.HFSS Online Help The lumped ports in HFSS-IE ports are different than those in HFSS. The number of Modes is not edit- 9-18 Assigning Excitations .” Otherwise. To ensure a valid port. Manually assign a terminal. Select Excitations>Auto Assign Terminals. for either HFSS or HFSS-IE: • • Related Topics Assigning Lumped Ports for Modal Solutions Assigning Lumped Ports for Terminal Solutions HFSS-IE Options: General Options Tab Technical Notes: Lumped Ports Technical Notes: Terminals Technical Notes: Calculating Characteristic Impedance Assigning Lumped Ports for Modal Solutions 1. Select any connected edge(s) and/or face(s) of conductors that touch the port. 3. 2. For HFSS-IE: • For auto assignment to work you must enable Auto-assign terminals on ports on the HFSSIE Options: General Options Tab. If this condition is violated. a warning occurs. The HFSS-IE lumped ports impress a one volt difference between the terminal and its reference while an HFSS lumped port impresses an electric field between the terminal and its reference. You can assign a variable to these values. This will bring up a dialog box for you to select the objects used for “reference conductors. Select a surface to which you want to assign the port and click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Lumped Port to bring up the Lumped Port dialog.

lumped ports are renormalized to a 50 Ohm full port impedance. Each terminal that is identified by an edge selection must have each edge contained by some non-port face. 2. Click Next or select the Post Processing tab. enter it in the following form: <re> + <im>j If you do not want to renormalize the port impedance. 4. which allows use of a dataset for frequency dependent impedance. However. Values here affect S-Parameters only. Values here affect S-Parameters only.HFSS Online Help able. Port processing operations do not affect field plots. Follow the directions for defining an integration line. HFSS uses Zpv.and Calculating the PV Impedance. Assigning Excitations 9-19 . Related Topics Defining an Integration Line Technical Notes: Lumped Ports Manually Assigning Lumped Ports for Terminal Solutions 1. This variable can be dependent on the frequency. the port renormalizing impedance for all terminals is 50 Ohms. If you want to enter a complex impedance. For definitions of how HFSS defines these values. You can assign a variable as these values. By default. The Characteristic Impedance (Zo) column shows the Zpi method usually used to calculate the characteristic impedance. Define the complex Full Port Impedance of the port in the Resistance and the Reactance text boxes. Click HFSS> or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Lumped Port. This displays the Lumped Port: Post Processing window. see Calculating the PI Impedance. 4. select Do Not Renormalize. select Renormalize All Modes and type a value in the Full Port Impedance text box. By default. if there are no conductors on the port and Zpi is near zero. Select the corresponding unit in the drop down menu. Click Next or the Post Processing tab to display the Lumped Port: Post Processing window. Select the object face to which you want to assign the port. 3. To specify a renormalization impedance. 5.

HFSS Online Help If you want to enter a complex impedance. Related Topics Technical Notes: Lumped Ports Auto Assign Terminals Manually Assigning Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions Manually Assigning a Lump Port Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals Technical Notes: Terminals 9-20 Assigning Excitations . type a value in the Full Port Impedance text box. Select the corresponding unit in the drop down menu. enter it in the following form: <re> + <im>j 5. To specify a different full port impedance.

This displays the Floquet Port dialog with the General tab selected. A simple HFSS model for the unit cell consists of two boxes. As a simple example. The top box is the unit cell for the region above the plane. The bottom box represents the feeding waveguide and a Wave port on the bottom face provides the cell excitation. consider an infinite array of radiating rectangular apertures in a ground plane.HFSS Online Help Assigning Floquet Ports The Floquet port in HFSS is used exclusively with planar-periodic structures. Floquet ports can be combined with lumped ports. Select the top face of the unit cell for the region above the plane. Linked boundaries are defined on the cell walls and a Floquet port on the top face represents the open boundary. To set up a Floquet port: 1. Assigning Excitations 9-21 . Chief examples are planar phased arrays and frequency selective surfaces when these may be idealized as infinitely large. and right-button click Assign Excitation > Floquet Port. This example illustrates a key requirement to keep in mind when setting up the unit cell--the perimeter of a Floquet port must be covered by Master and Slave boundaries. The dimensions and geometry of the unit cell reflect the lattice vectors of the array. but not with terminal ports.

say 60 dB. In general. and a table 3. when the table displays. 9-22 Assigning Excitations . For general frequency and scan conditions. The default mode table specifies a pair of Floquet modes. The numbers in the this column are computed by the modes calculator to help you decide which modes to keep. Specular modes are always an essential part of the Floquet mode set. the attenuation displayed is the "worst case" in that it is the least amount of attenuation experienced by the mode over all the specified scan directions. Thus when the table gives a value of 0 dB. a 60 dB per unit length is the least amount of attenuation at all specified scan directions. The values represent the modal loss in amplitude along the direction normal to the Floquet port plane in model units of dB per model unit length. 70 dB per length) will occur. At any given direction. The vector arrows must start and end at points on the face of the Floquet port and must have a common initial point. at one or more scan directions specified in the modes calculator the particular mode propagates without attenuation. The default modes both have modal indices equal to zero and are sometimes called the "specular" modes. but sometimes one of the two polarizations may be omitted. Floquet modes are specified by two modal indices and a polarization setting. Similarly. only the same or larger attenuations (for example. This window displays a field for the Number of Modes. Specify the A and B directions for the Lattice coordinate system. other higher-order Floquet modes will be required. a button for access to the Modes Calculator. The final column of the mode table is labeled "Attenuation". is available to set these up for the user. These designations resemble the textbook notation for rectangular waveguide modes. These define the periodicity of the planar lattice.HFSS Online Help 2. invoked by selecting the Modes Calculator button. A modes calculator. such as ``TE10''. When the later includes more than one scan direction. Click Next to display the Modes Setup window. You should keep in mind that the displayed attenuation for a mode is a function of both the frequency and the scan angle set specified in the modes calculator.

Similarly for a FSS simulation with two Floquet ports. click the checkbox. no Floquet modes should be included in the adapt process. Selecting more than this may reduce the efficiency and accuracy of the solution process.HFSS Online Help 4. and 3D refinement settings from the first Floquet port to the second. click the Get Distance Graphically button. This panel contains settings which affect the fields once the field solution is complete. Typically. To change the order of items in the final Modes list. specular modes provide the fields of interest and should be selected to participate in the 3D adapt process. general guidelines follow. Note that when you do this that HFSS automatically copies the lattice vectors. 6. To enable the Deembed settings. With this in mind. Related Topics Technical Notes: Master and Slave Boundaries Assigning Slave Boundaries Assigning Master Boundaries Technical Notes: Deembedding Technical Notes: Floquet Ports Getting Started Guides: Floquet Ports Assigning Excitations 9-23 . 8. 7. In certain simulations (for example. In 3D adaptive refinement the generated mesh is a compromise which simultaneously represents the 3D field patterns of every mode included in the adapt process. Click Next for the Post Processing tab. To set the distance graphically. one or both specular Floquet modes provide the fields of interest and should be included in the 3D adapt process by checking the corresponding Affects Refinement boxes. This panel contains Affects Refinement checkboxes which allow you to specify Floquet modes in the 3D adaptive refinement process. If the field patterns of certain modes represent the fields of interest and others do not. to eliminate any modes that are not necessary. if the per-cell RCS is of interest. In this case. Click Next for the 3D Refinement tab. a frequency-selective surface) you will set up a second Floquet port. It is generally good policy in terms of simulation efficiency as well as ease of interpretation of results. the Wave or Lumped ports modeling the feed structure provide the fields of interest. On the other hand. For antenna array simulations in which the active impedance or embedded-element pattern is sought. excluding the latter from the adapt process will result in a "targeted" mesh that better represents the excitation field pattern. or negative distance to deembed out of the port. This enables the distance and units field for the positive distance to deembed into the port. modes table. Note that the list is trimmed from the bottom up. you select no modes or only one or both specular (TE00 or TM00) modes. 5. drag each corresponding line by the square box at the left of each row. Do this by editing the “Number of Nodes” value” in the Modes Setup tab.

” 3. Select the drop down menu and click New Vector. The vector arrows must start and end at points on the face of the Floquet port and must have a common initial point. Click to set the origin point. 2. and exits the New Vector mode. Clicking the second point closes the Measure Data dialog. General tab. Drag the marker to select a location for the Direction vector. The drop down menus for Position A and Position B now include an entry called “Defined” along with “Undefined” and “New Vector. the Mode Table Calculator window displays.HFSS Online Help Floquet Ports: Lattice Coordinate System In the Floquet Port dialog. if you select the Modes calculator button . In the Floquet Port: Modes tab. The calculator asks for the following inputs: 9-24 Assigning Excitations . for each Vector (A and B Direction): 1. Related Topics Assigning Floquet Ports Floquet Port: Modes Calculator 1. This opens a Measure Data dialog and causes the cursor to drag a visual marker that drops a dashed line to the reference plane below. and shows a location indicator on the Floquet plane. and drag and click to specify the position 2 point that defines the direction from that origin.

as you learn which modes are needed and which are not. The new modes table appears on the Modes Setup tab of the Floquet Port properties/setup window. including Start. Stop.you can trim this value later. The Mode Table Calculator calculates a set of Floquet modes on the basis of all the angles defined. Related Topics Assigning Floquet Ports Assigning Excitations 9-25 . 2. Frequency . The attenuation associated with a listed mode represents the minimum (or worst case) for that mode over the range of scan angles. Scan Angles -enter the values and select units for Phi and Theta. and Step size. These inputs constitute the information required to create a set of recommended modes for the Floquet port.if the problem setup contains one or more frequency sweeps. The inputs are used by the mode selection algorithm but do not affect the problem setup.HFSS Online Help • • • Number of modes . you usually set this value to the highest frequency. Click OK to leave the Mode Table Calculator and to compute the recommended list of modes.

HFSS Online Help

Defining an Integration Line
An integration line is a vector that can represent the following:

• •

A calibration line that specifies the direction of the excitation field pattern at a port. An line along which to integrate E.dl to compute a voltage for Zpv or Zvi impedance of a port.

To define an integration line: 1. Go to the Modes tab for the port. If you are defining an integration line for an existing port, select the port excitation in the project tree, open the properties dialog for the Wave Port or Lumped Port dialog, and click the Modes tab. If you are defining a new port, select the appropriate object face, and click HFSS>Assign>Excitation> and the appropriate wave or lumped port. This displays the Create Port dialog, where you click Next or tab to show the Modes page. On the Modes tab or page, select New Line from the mode’s Integration Line list. The port dialog box disappears. Depending on the Modeler Options: Drawing tab selection, the Measure Data dialog appears while you draw the vector. The Measure Data dialog displays data for the face area, and the Positions for the reference point (start point) and end point (end point) as you define them. 3. Select the start point of the vector in one of the following ways:

2.

• •

Click the point. The cursor moves only in plane of the face for which you are defining the port and line. Type the point’s coordinates in the X, Y, and Z boxes.

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4.

Select the endpoint of the vector using the mouse or the keyboard. The endpoint defines the direction and length of the integration line. The Wave Port or Lumped Port dialog box reappears.

Note

You can select a drawing plane (for example, XY or XZ) to constrain the mouse cursor movement when you define the end point.

Related Topics Guidelines for Defining Integration Lines Duplicating Integration Lines Modifying an Integration Line Technical Notes: Setting the Field Pattern Direction

Guidelines for Defining Integration Lines
An integration line is a vector that can represent the following:

• •

A calibration line that specifies the direction of the excitation field pattern at a port. If you are analyzing more than one mode at a port, define a separate integration line for each mode; the orientation of the electric field differs from mode to mode. An line along which to integrate E.dl to compute a voltage for Zpv or Zvi impedance of a port. In this case, select two points at which the voltage differential is expected to be at a maximum. For example, on a microstrip port, place one point in the center of the microstrip, and the other directly underneath it on the ground plane. In a rectangular waveguide, place the two points in the center of the longer sides. For definitions of how HFSS defines these Zpv and Zvi values, see Calculating the PV Impedance, and Calculating the VI Impedance.

Duplicating Integration Lines
After you have defined an integration line for a mode, you can duplicate it along a vector one or more times. You can then assign the duplicates to additional modes at the port. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Wave Port dialog box, click the Modes tab. Select the mode row containing the integration line you want to duplicate. Select Duplicate Line from the row’s Integration Line list. The dialog box disappears while you draw the vector along which to paste the duplicate. Draw the vector along which the duplicate will be pasted: a. Select an arbitrary anchor point on the edge of the port face in one of the following ways:

• •
b.

Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the in the X, Y, and Z boxes.

Select a second point using the mouse or the keyboard. This point defines the direction and distance from the anchor point to duplicate the line.
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The Duplicate Port Line dialog box appears. 5. Type the total number of lines, including the original and duplicates, to make in the Number of Duplicates box. If you type a value that is greater than the number of assigned modes, the extra duplicates will appear as gray integration lines until they are assigned to a mode. 6. 7. Optionally, select Assign to existing modes. The duplicates will be assigned to the modes defined for the port, beginning with the mode after the one with the line that was duplicated. Click OK. The duplicates are pasted along the vector you specified.

Modifying Integration Lines
Modify an existing integration line under the Modes tab in the Wave Port or Lumped Port dialog boxes. To swap the coordinates of an integration line’s start point and endpoints:

Select Swap Endpoints from the mode’s Integration Line list. The line’s direction will be reversed.

To copy a previously defined Wave Port integration line’s points:

Select Copy from Moden from the mode’s Integration Line list. The new integration line will have the same start and endpoints as the selected mode’s integration line.

To delete a defined integration line for a mode:

Select None from the mode’s Integration Line list.

Setting up Differential Pairs
A differential pair represents two circuits, one positive and one negative, routed close together so they will pick up nearly the same amount of noise. The two signals are subtracted from each other by a receiver, yielding a much more noise-free version of the signal. You can define one or more differential pairs from terminal excitations defined on existing wave ports. Differential pairs can span ports, use lump ports, and be enabled and disabled. To allow automated calculation of differential S-parameters from lump ports, you can select terminals from two
arbitrary ports, whether wave ports or lumped ports, for use in a differential pair.

Because differential pairs can span ports or occur within a port, the Differential Pairs command is accessible at corresponding levels in the Project tree via the right click menu both at the Excitations level, and at the port name level. If a differential pair involves terminals from two different ports, the Differential Pairs command for those ports can only be accessed at the Excitations level. If an individual wave port has multiple terminals defined, the Differential Pairs command is enabled when you select that port and right click to display the shortcut menu. In order to combine differential pairs across ports, both ports must have the same renormalization setting; that is, either port ports have "Do not renormalize" on, or both have it off.

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To set up a differential pair: 1. Click HFSS>Excitations>Differential Pairs, or right-click on Excitations in the Project tree and click Differential Pairs on the shortcut menu, or, for a multi terminal wave port, select that port in the Project tree and click Differential Pairs on the shortcut menu. This displays the Differential Pairs window. This contains table headers for the rows of values defined for each pair. It also contains a field for the Renormalizing impedance value and units.

2.

Click New Pair. This adds existing pairs to the Terminals list, and sets default values for the Differential Mode and Common mode. All values can be edited. It also lists which terminal is Positive, which is Negative. By selecting the dropdown menus in these fields, you can reassign these values. The table row shows the checkbox for the newly defined pair as Active. Unchecking the box disables the definition for that pair. This can be useful if you later want to redefine terminal normalization, without having to remove the defined pair altogether.

3. 4.

If other pairs can be created from the existing Terminals, the New Pair button remains enabled. Under Differential Mode headers in the table, do the following: a. If desired, type a new name for the differential mode in the Name text box. The default base name is Diff. To specify a new default see: Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. Unless the Post Processing tab selection for the Port is set to Do Not Renormalize, you can edit the renormalize impedance value here. You can either specify a real valued renormalizing impedance for the differential mode in the Ref. Z text box or use the Full Port Renormalizing Impedance text box and the Set All Diff. Zref. button or the Set All Zref

b.

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button to set the values. Note 5. The value fields in the table support Ctrl/C to copy selected text from a cell, and Ctrl/V to paste text to a selected cell.

Under Common Mode headers in the table, do the following: a. If desired, type a name for the common mode in the Name text box. The default base name is Comm To specify a new default name, see Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. Either specify a real valued renormalizing impedance for the common mode in the Ref. Z text box, or use the Full Port Renormalizing Impedance text box and the Set All Comm. Zref. button or the Set All Zref button to set the values.

b.

6.

If the New Pair button is enabled, you can define additional differential pairs. You can use the command buttons in the Differential Pairs window to Remove Pair, or Remove All Pairs.

7.

To accept the assignments, click OK to close the Differential Pairs window.

After HFSS has generated a solution, view the common and differential quantities of the differential pair under the Matrix tab of the Solution Data window. When the design has differential pairs (link), the reporter can display quantities for the defined pairs or for the single-ended terminals upon which they are based. A pulldown will appear in the Context area of the Report creation dialog which allows the user to select which quantities will be displayed.

You can freely mix differential and single-ended terminal quantities. However, single ended quantities are computed as if no differential pairs existed. So, in the unlikely case of several terminals where only a subset are combined into pairs, the results may not be as expected.

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Related Topics For plotting differential pairs, see Creating a New Report and specifically see Context Section for Reports. Technical Notes: Computing Differential Pairs

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Assigning Incident Waves
HFSS allows you to assign seven different types of incident wave sources. 1. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave. The HFSS cascade menu allows you to select one of the following types of incident waves: Plane Wave Hertzian-Dipole Wave Cylindrical Wave Gaussian Beam Linear Antenna Wave Far Field Wave Near Field Wave HFSS-IE allows you assign three types of incident wave sources. 1. Click HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave. The HFSS cascade menu allows you to select one of the following types of incident waves: Plane Wave Far Field Wave Near Field Wave HFSS Transient allows you to assign incident Plane Wave.

Note

Whenever additions/changes are made to incident waves that affect fields, it invalidates those solutions that can possibly have fields. Meshes are not invalidated.

Using Field Solutions from Other Simulations HFSS and HFSS-IE can use field solutions from other simulations as sources for new simulations. The other simulations can be done in HFSS, in SIwave or in Maxwell3D. Some examples are (1) a detailed and optimized design of a cell phone radiating in a larger environment (HFSS-HFSS), (2) a complicated printed circuit board causing EMC/EMI problems in and around its housing (SIwave HFSS) or (3) an electromechanical component causing EMC/EMI problems in a vehicle (Maxwell3D - HFSS). In all cases, radiated fields from the "source" project are imposed as an incident wave in the "target" project. These radiated fields can both be far fields and near fields, depending on your judgment of what fits a particular situation. In the "target" project, they are defined through Incident Wave / Far Field

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HFSS Online Help

Wave and Incident Wave / Near-Field Wave. There, the link to the "source" project can be established. Note The environment variable SIWAVE_INSTALL_DIR should be set before executing the parent application like HFSS/Designer because SIwave is launched from HFSS/ Designer and not separately.

Also, in the "target" project, radiation boundaries with Advanced Options must be defined in order to specify where the fields from the "source" project enter the "target" project.

Incident Plane Wave
An incident Plane wave is a wave that propagates in one direction and is uniform in the directions perpendicular to its direction of propagation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the point for the Plane wave and click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave>Plane Wave. Select the Vector Input Format as Cartesian or Spherical coordinates. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). Click Next or the Cartesian or Spherical Input Vector tab. If you selected Cartesian, the Incident Wave Source: Cartesian Vector Setup page appears. Define the propagation vector, k, and the E-field polarization vector, E0: a. b. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-components for k vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes. Enter the coordinates for E0 vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes. A single incident wave will be defined. Continue with Step 8 below. Note When entering the propagation vector, k , and E-field polarization vector, E0 , using Cartesian coordinates, keep the following guidelines in mind:

• • •
6. a. b. c.

To define an incident wave traveling in the positive z direction, enter (0, 0, 1) as the k vector coordinates. The magnitude of the E0 vector cannot be zero. k must be orthogonal to E0.

If you selected Spherical, the Incident Wave Source: Spherical Vector Setup page appears. Under IWavePhi, enter Start and Stop points and the number of sweep Points. Click View Point List to see the values of φ. Under IWaveTheta, enter values for Start, Stop, and Points. Click View Point List to see the values of θ. Enter the φ and θ components of E0 in the Phi and Theta boxes. A spherical grid is created when θ is swept through each φ point. At each grid point, an incident wave is present traveling towards the origin of the coordinate system for the
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design. The number of incident waves and grid points can be calculated by multiplying the number of φ points by the θ points. Note 7. 8. Only a single incident wave angle can be defined for periodic structures which are defined with master and slave boundaries

Click Next for the Incident Wave Source: Plane Wave Options page. Select the Type of Plane Wave. a. b. c. If you select Regular/Propagating, no other fields are active. If you select Evanescent, the Propagation Constant fields become active. Enter the Real and Imaginary parts of the Propagation Constant. If you select Elliptically Polarized, the Polarization Angle and Polarization Ratio fields become active. (See Polarization of the Electric Field for a technical discussion of polarization angles, and a definition of Polarization Ratio.) To restore the default (Regular/Propagating), click the Use Defaults button.

d. 9.

Click Finish.The incident wave you defined is added to the Excitations list in the Project.

Related Topics Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient Technical Notes: Incident Waves Technical Notes: Evanescent Plane Wave Equations

Incident Hertzian-Dipole Wave
An incident Hertzian-Dipole wave can be specified as either an Electric dipole or a Magnetic dipole. The Electric dipole simulates the field of an elementary short dipole antenna placed at the origin. The Magnetic dipole is useful for EMC/EMI applications. 1. 2. 3. 4. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave>Hertzian-Dipole Wave. Select the Vector Input Format as Cartesian or Spherical coordinates. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). Click Next. a. b. If you selected Cartesian, the Incident Wave Source: Cartesian Vector Setup page appears. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-components for the vector I*Dipole Length in the X, Y, and Z boxes. I is the current amplitude (peak value). Units are Amp-meters (A*m). (For Magnetic Dipole, step 10 shows the vector definition.) A single incident wave will be defined. Continue with Step 8 below. 5. If you selected Spherical, the Incident Wave Source: Spherical Vector Setup page appears. a. Under IWavePhi, enter Start and Stop points and the number of sweep Points.: Click View Point List to see the values of φ.
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b. c.

Under IWaveTheta, enter values for Start, Stop, and Points. Click View Point List to see the values of θ. Enter the φ and θ components of the vector I*Dipole Length in the Phi and Theta boxes. I is the current amplitude (peak value). Units are Amp-meters (A*m). (For Magnetic Dipole, step 10 shows the vector definition.) A spherical grid is created when θ is swept through each φ point. At each grid point, an incident wave is present traveling towards the origin of the coordinate system for the design. The number of incident waves and grid points can be calculated by multiplying the number of φ points by the θ points.

Note 6. 7.

Only a single incident wave angle can be defined for periodic structures which are defined with master and slave boundaries

Click Next. the Incident Wave Source: Hertzian-Dipole Wave Options page appears. Select the Radius of Surrounding Sphere. Inside this sphere, the field magnitude will be made equal to the field magnitude calculated on the surface of the sphere. To restore the default (10 mm), click the Use Defaults button. Specify the type of Dipole as Electric Dipole [Magnetic current loop] or Magnetic Dipole [Electric current loop]. If you select Magnetic Dipole [Electric Current Loop], and click the back button to view the Vector Setup, notice that the text indicates that the vector is now defined as: Im*dl*normal(LoopSurface)

8.

9.

Click Finish.The incident wave you defined is added to the Excitations list in the Project.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Technical Notes: Spherical Wave (Electric Hertzian Dipole) Equations Technical Notes: Spherical Wave (Magnetic Hertzian Dipole) Equations

Incident Cylindrical Wave
An incident Cylindrical wave is a wave that simulates the far field of an infinite line current placed at the origin. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave>Cylindrical Wave. Select the Vector Input Format as Cartesian or Spherical coordinates. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). Click Next. If you selected Cartesian, the Incident Wave Source: Cartesian Vector Setup page appears. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-components for the I Vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes. I is the current
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amplitude (peak value). Units are Amps (A). A single incident wave will be defined. Continue with Step 8 below. 6. If you selected Spherical, the Incident Wave Source: Spherical Vector Setup page appears. a. b. c. Under IWavePhi, enter Start and Stop points and the number of sweep Points.: Click View Point List to see the values of φ. Under IWaveTheta, enter values for Start, Stop, and Points. Click View Point List to see the values of θ. Enter the φ and θ components of the I Vector in the Phi and Theta boxes. I is the current amplitude (peak value). Units are Amps (A). A spherical grid is created when θ is swept through each φ point. At each grid point, an incident wave is present traveling towards the origin of the coordinate system for the design. The number of incident waves and grid points can be calculated by multiplying the number of φ points by the θ points.

Note 7. 8.

Only a single incident wave angle can be defined for periodic structures which are defined with master and slave boundaries

Click Next. the Incident Wave Source: Cylindrical Wave Options page appears. Select the Radius of Surrounding Cylinder. Inside this cylinder, the field magnitude will be made equal to the field magnitude calculated on the surface of the cylinder. To restore the default (10 mm), click the Use Defaults button. Click Finish.The incident wave you defined is added to the Excitations list in the Project.

9.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Technical Notes: Cylindrical Wave Equations

Incident Gaussian Beam Wave
An incident Gaussian Beam wave propagates in one direction and is of Gaussian distribution in the directions perpendicular to its direction of propagation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave>Gaussian Beam. Select the Vector Input Format as Cartesian or Spherical coordinates. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). Click Next. If you selected Cartesian, the Incident Wave Source: Cartesian Vector Setup page appears. Define the propagation vector, k , and the E-field polarization vector, E0 : a. b. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-components for k vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes. Enter the coordinates for E0 vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes.

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A single incident wave will be defined. Continue with Step 8 below.

Note

When entering the propagation vector, k, and E-field polarization vector, E0, using Cartesian coordinates, keep the following guidelines in mind:

• • •
6. a. b. c.

To define an incident wave traveling in the positive z direction, enter (0, 0, 1) as the k vector coordinates. The magnitude of the E0 vector cannot be zero. k must be orthogonal to E0.

If you selected Spherical, the Incident Wave Source: Spherical Vector Setup page appears. Under IWavePhi, enter Start and Stop points and the number of sweep Points. Click View Point List to see the values of φ. Under IWaveTheta, enter values for Start, Stop, and Points. Click View Point List to see the values of θ. Enter the φ and θ components of E0 in the Phi and Theta boxes. A spherical grid is created when θ is swept through each φ point. At each grid point, an incident wave is present traveling towards the origin of the coordinate system for the design. The number of incident waves and grid points can be calculated by multiplying the number of φ points by the θ points.

Note 7. 8.

Only a single incident wave angle can be defined for periodic structures which are defined with master and slave boundaries

Click Next. The Incident Wave Source: Gaussian Beam Options page appears. Select the Beam Width at Focal Point. By definition, this refers to the radius (wo) of the beam waist (not the diameter), where the beam waist is the minimum width. To restore the default (10 mm), click the Use Defaults button. Click Finish.The incident wave you defined is added to the Excitations list in the Project.

9.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Technical Notes: Gaussian Beam Equations

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Incident Linear Antenna Wave
An incident linear antenna wave is a wave that simulates the far field of a linear antenna placed at the origin. 1. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave>Linear Antenna Wave. You see either the Incident Wave Source wizard or the General tab.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Select the Vector Input Format as Cartesian or Spherical coordinates. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). Click Next. If you selected Cartesian, the Incident Wave Source: Cartesian Vector Setup page appears. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-components for the I Vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes. I is the antenna current amplitude (peak value). Units are Amps (A). A single incident wave will be defined. Continue with Step 8 below. If you selected Spherical, the Incident Wave Source: Spherical Vector Setup page appears. a. b. c. Under IWavePhi, enter Start and Stop points and the number of sweep Points.: Click View Point List to see the values of φ. Under IWaveTheta, enter values for Start, Stop, and Points. Click View Point List to see the values of θ. Enter the φ and θ components of the I Vector in the Phi and Theta boxes. I is the antenna current amplitude (peak value). Units are Amps (A). A spherical grid is created when θ is swept through each φ point. At each grid point, an

6.

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incident wave is present traveling towards the origin of the coordinate system for the design. The number of incident waves and grid points can be calculated by multiplying the number of φ points by the θ points. Note 7. 8. 9. Only a single incident wave angle can be defined for periodic structures which are defined with master and slave boundaries

Click Next. The Incident Wave Source: Linear Antenna Wave Options page appears. Select the Length of the Antenna. Select the Radius of Surrounding Cylinder. Inside this cylinder, the field magnitude will be made equal to the field magnitude calculated on the surface of the cylinder.

10. To restore the defaults (10 mm), click the Use Defaults button. 11. Click Finish.The incident wave you defined is added to the Excitations list in the Project. Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Technical Notes: Linear Antenna Equations

Far Field Wave
A Far field wave is sufficiently far (that is, usually more than a wave length distance) from an antenna to approximate as a plane wave. Far field waves are mostly homogeneous. 1. 2. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Far Field Wave or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Far Field Wave Click Next or the Far Field Wave Options tab. A page appears that contains a Setup Link button to browse for a Source of Field and entry fields for specifying the linked design orientation relative to this design.

3.

As the Source of Field Data, you can specify either: A Linked Design, for which you click the Setup Link button. An External Data file defining the incident wave, for which you select the ellipsis button to browse for the file.
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4. 5.

If necessary, specify the Translation of Source Origin Relative to this design. If needed check to show that Source Design is Fully Inside This Design. When a source project is totally inside the target project, it should not be included into the near/far field calculation. If it is totally outside, the far field calculation should integrate over the radiation surfaces of the source project, too.

6.

If needed check to Include Source Power in Antenna Parameters. The antenna parameters include power-related entries such as incident power, accepted power, radiated power. If you check Include Source Power in Antenna Parameters the antenna parameters in the design that receives the fields from a "source" design will be based on the power set for the excitations in the "source" design under HFSS>Fields >Edit Sources. For instance, this can be the power with which a port in a source antenna is excited. If the antenna in a source design is excited with 10 W, then the antenna parameters panel in the receiving design will show an incident power of 10 W. See Computing Antenna Parameters for a description of how to obtain antenna parameters during post processing.

7.

Click Finish to close the dialog. The Far Field wave source point and direction is highlighted in the modeler window, and the wave appears in the Excitations list in the Project.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Clear Linked Data Using Field Solutions from Other Simulators

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Setup Link for Far Field or Near Field Wave
You access this Setup Link dialog from the Far Field Wave options dialog or Near Field Wave options..

1. 2.

Select the Product from the menu. Specify the Source Project for the design that is the source of the Far Field or Near Field wave. If you check Use This Project, the field for the project name is automatically filled in and editing is disabled. It also disables the radio button to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the source project or This project. If you clear Use This Project, you can type in a path, or use a browse button [...] to navigate your file system for a source project. When you specify a project, you can use the radio button to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the source project or This project.

3.

Specify the Design for the source of the Far Field or Near Field wave. If the source is in the current design, you can select this from a drop down menu. If you select the current model, the Project File is automatically filled in. The source design does not need to have ports. Specify the Solution to use. A drop down list lets you select from the available solutions. The "Default" solution is the product dependent solution of the first Setup. That is the setup listed first in the source design's project tree (alphanumerical order). A product specific solution of this setup becomes the default solution. In most products, it is Last-

4. 5. 6.

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Adaptive. In a Transient solution type, it is "Transient." Note The solution in the source design must provide data for the target design's adaptive frequency as well as its sweeps. That is, the adaptive frequency for the target design must be included in the sweep in the source design. If necessary, you can open the source design and add an appropriate frequency point to an existing sweep. 7. 8. Use the checkbox specify whether to Force source design to solve in the absence of linked data in the target design. Use the checkbox to specify whether to preserve the source design solution. Note that in Extractor mode, the source project will be saved upon exit. Extractor mode means that the software is opened during the link solely for the purpose of solving. Under the Variable Mapping tab, you can set the desired variable values in the source design. If the source and target designs contain same named variables, you can choose to Map Variable By Name. In this case, same named variables are mapped automatically.

9.

10. Click OK to close the Setup Link window and return to the Far Field Incident Wave Source window or the Near Field Incident Wave Source window.

External Data File for Far Field Wave
You can define a Far Field Incident Wave Source as a data file. The fields can be constant or frequency dependent. If the file contains constant far fields (not depending on frequency), then the format is very simple. No keywords are used. The first two lines contain doubles representing start, stop, and num points for sweeps of theta and phi. Then, the subsequent lines give the complex components of electric field in the theta and phi directions. All of these are doubles. For these lines, theta will be held constant while phi is swept through all values, then theta will increment to the next value, etc. So the lines will correspond to (th1, ph1), (th1, ph2), (th1, ph3),…,(th1,phN), (th2,ph1), (th2,ph2), etc… Note that this format enforces a strict uniform grid of theta and phi samples. ThetaStart ThetaStop ThetaNumPoints PhiStart PhiStop PhiNumPoints E_theta_real E_theta_real E_theta_real E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_imag E_phi_imag E_phi_imag

Repeat for all theta and phi sweep points If the file contains frequency-dependent far fields, the data is given in blocks. Keywords (shown in bold below) are used to identify the frequency information. After initial data for theta and phi, the file has a keyword and integer for the number of frequencies. Then there is a block for the far fields at each frequency. Each block starts with a keyword and double for the frequency, followed by the far field data, given exactly as shown for the constant case above.

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ThetaStart ThetaStop ThetaNumPoints PhiStart PhiStop PhiNumPoints Frequencies Frequency E_theta_real E_theta_real E_theta_real NumFrequencies FrequencyValue E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_imag E_phi_imag E_phi_imag

… repeat for all theta and phi sweep points Frequency E_theta_real E_theta_real E_theta_real FrequencyValue E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_imag E_phi_imag E_phi_imag

… repeat for all theta and phi sweep points … repeat for a total of NumFrequencies

Translation of Source Relative to Design
If the coordinate system you are using in the source design (the project/design to which you are linking) is different from that in the target design (the design in which you are creating the link), you must define the relationship between those coordinate systems. The relationship between two coordinate systems can always be defined as a translation and a rotation. The translation is the offset between the origins of the two coordinate systems, and the rotation can be defined through the use of Euler angles.

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11. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). This represents the translation of the source design’s origin with respect to the target design’s origin. For instance, if the source design’s origin is located in the target design at (-2, -2, 1), then the translation between the two coordinate systems is (-2, -2, 1). 12. You can define the Rotation of this Design Relative to the Source Design Euler Angles. Similarly to the definition of translation, these angles represent the three rotations that the source design must undergo to align with the target design’s coordinate system. Enter the Euler angles in the respective text fields and use the pull-down menus to specify the units (degrees or radians):

• • •

Phi (+ or - rotation about the Z-axis). Theta (+ or - rotation about the X-axis). Psi (+ or - rotation about resultant Z-axis).

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X,Y, Z Source Coordinate System X", Y", Z" Source Coordinate System After Rotation by φ [phi]

X’, Y’, Z’ Source Coordinate System After Rotation by θ [theta]

X, Y, Z Source Coordinate System After Rotation by ψ [psi]

Return to the Far Field Wave or the Near Field Wave.

Near Field Wave
A Near Field wave is close enough to the antenna source for near field effects to occur, typically within a wave length. Near field waves tend to be evanescent, that is, non-homogeneous. 1. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Near Field Wave or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Near Field Wave. A Setup Link appears for you to browse for a Source of Field and entry fields for specifying
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the linked design orientation relative to this design. 2. 3. After closing the Setup Link dialog, if necessary, specify the Translation of Source Origin Relative to this design. If needed check to show that Source Design is Fully Inside This Design. When a source project is totally inside the target project, it should not be included into the near/far field calculation. If it is totally outside, the far field calculation should integrate over the radiation surfaces of the source project, too. 4. If needed check to Include Source Power in Antenna Parameters. The antenna parameters include power-related entries such as incident power, accepted power, radiated power. If you check Include Source Power in Antenna Parameters the antenna parameters in the design that receives the fields from a "source" design will be based on the power set for the excitations in the "source" design under HFSS>Fields >Edit Sources. For instance, this can be the power with which a port in a source antenna is excited. If the antenna in a source design is excited with 10 W, then the antenna parameters panel in the receiving design will show an incident power of 10 W. See Computing Antenna Parameters for a description of how to obtain antenna parameters during post processing. 5. Click Finish to close the dialog. The Near Field wave source point and direction is highlighted in the modeler window, and the wave appears in the Excitations list in the Project.

Note

The Near field link uses a default mesh density on the surfaces that link to the other design. If this default mesh density is not sufficient to obtain a desired accuracy, you can select these surfaces and assign a surface mesh seeding. Once the Near Field link has obtained the near fields from the other design, it continues to work with this information regardless of later mesh changes that resulted from adaptive passes or mesh operations. To enforce the Dynamic Link to use a newly seeded mesh, clear the linked data by using Clear Linked Data.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Clear Linked Data Using Field Solutions from Other Simulators

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HFSS-IE Link
You can link HFSS and HFSS-IE projects. This link is controlled with a "Near Field" or "Far-Field" Incident Wave source that is grouped with the Excitations.

• •

Far Field Wave Near Field Wave

Related Topics HFSS-IE Feature

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Assigning Voltage Sources
Assign a voltage source when you want to specify the voltage and direction of the electric field on a surface. A voltage source is used when the feed structure is very small compared to the wavelength and a constant electric field may be assumed across the feed points. In this case, HFSS assigns a constant electric field across the gap on which you specified the voltage. 1. Select the object face to which you want to assign the voltage source, and click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Voltage to display the Voltage Source dialog box.

2. 3.

Type the value of the source, in volts or amps, in the Magnitude box. You can assign a variable as this value. You can also specify the Phase. Specify the direction of the electric field by drawing a vector.

When the source is selected, an arrow indicates the direction and a letter v indicates the type of source. Related Topics Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient

Modifying Voltage Sources
To change the name, value, or electric field direction of an assigned voltage source: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the source’s icon under Excitations in the project tree. The Voltage Source dialog box appears. Edit the name or value of the source. To reverse the direction of the e-field:

Select Swap Endpoints from the E-Field Direction pull-down list.

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The start and endpoints of the E-field line are switched; the line’s direction is reversed.

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Assigning Current Sources
Assign a current source when you want to define the magnitude and direction of the current flow through a surface. A current source is used when the feed structure is very small compared to the wavelength and the electric current on the surface is assumed to be constant across the feed points. 1. Select the object face to which you want to assign the current source and click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Current to display the Current Source dialog box.

2. 3.

Type the value of the source, in volts or amps, in the Magnitude box. You can assign a variable as this value. You can also specify the Phase. Specify the current flow direction by drawing a vector:

When the source is selected, an arrow indicates the direction and a letter i indicates the type of source. Related Topics Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient

Modifying Current Sources
To change the name, value, or current flow direction of an assigned current source: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the source’s icon under Excitations in the project tree. The Current Source dialog box appears. Edit the name or value of the source. To reverse the direction of the current flow:

Select Swap Endpoints from the Current Flow Direction pull-down list.

The start and endpoints of the current flow line are switched; the line’s direction is reversed.
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Assigning Magnetic Bias Sources
When you create a ferrite material, you must define the net internal field that biases the ferrite by assigning a magnetic bias source. The bias field aligns the magnetic dipoles in the ferrite, producing a non-zero magnetic moment. 1. 2. 3. Select the 3D ferrite object to which you want to assign the magnetic bias source. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Magnetic Bias. Specify whether the applied bias field is Uniform or Non-uniform. If a design already contains a magnetic bias field, you cannot assign another of a different type. If a single bias field exists in a design, you can edit the type. 4. If you selected the Uniform radio button, click Next and do the following: a. b. In the Internal Bias field, type the value of the ferrite in amperes/meters. You can assign a variable as this value. Enter the rotation of the permeability tensor with respect to the xyz-coordinate system in the X Angle, Y Angle, and Z Angle boxes. You can assign variables to these values.

If you selected Non-uniform, select the Setup Link... button to display the Setup Link dialog. Under the General tab, do the following: a. Select the radio button for Extractor Mode (the default) or Interactive Mode. Note that in Extractor mode, the source project will be saved upon exit. Extractor mode means that the software is opened during the link solely for the purpose of solving. Selecting Interactive Mode launches Maxwell. (If you open the Setup dialog for a pre-existing Magnetic Bias source, the General tab shows radio buttons for View Only and Edit Link. With View Only selected (the default), all of the link settings are grayed out. Selecting Edit Link enables the fields and changes the radio buttons to Extractor Mode and Interactive Mode.) b. Type the name of a Maxwell 3D Field Simulator project in the Project File box, or click the ellipsis [...] browse button display a file browser to select the project. HFSS uses the Maxwell 3D project as the source of the non-uniform magnetostatic field information during solution generation. Linking invokes a Maxwell 3D window to provide the solution for the targeted HFSS project. c. d. If there are multiple designs available for the project, you can select from the drop down menu. If there are multiple solutions available, you can select from the drop-down menu.
The "Default" solution is the product dependent solution of the first Setup. That is the setup listed first in the source design's project tree (alphanumerical order). A product specific solution of this setup becomes the default solution. In most products, it is LastAdaptive. In a Transient solution type, it is "Transient."

e. f.

Use the radio button to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the source project or This project. Use the checkbox specify whether to Force source design to solve in the absence of
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linked data in the target design. g. Use the checkbox to specify whether to preserve the source design solution. Note that in Extractor mode, the source project will be saved upon exit. Extractor mode means that the software is opened during the link solely for the purpose of solving.

The Setup Link dialog also contains a Variable Mapping tab. It lists variables available within the Maxwell 3D Field Simulator and the value can (and often will) be a variable in the HFSS Setup. You can edit the Value fields by typing, and the Units fields by selecting from a drop down list. You can choose to Map Variable By Name. In this case, same named variables have their values mapped automatically. Different named variables are unaffected. To accept the settings and close the Setup Link dialog, click OK 5. Click Finish to close the Magnetic Bias wizard. The magnetic bias source is assigned to the selected object. If you have set up a link, HFSS invokes a Maxwell 3D window to provide the solution for the targeted HFSS project. You can also access and edit the magnetic bias source information via the Properties dialog for the source. Magnetic bias sources always have the lowest priority compared to boundaries and other excitations in the solver view.

Note

The Tools>Options>HFSS Options dialog has a setting for Use wizards for data input when creating new boundaries that controls the appearance of the Next button.

Related Topics Reprioritizing Boundaries and Excitations. Technical Notes: Magnetic Bias Sources Technical Notes: Uniform Applied Bias Fields Technical Notes: Non-uniform Applied Bias Fields Technical Notes: Magnetic Saturation

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Setup Link Dialog
Linked data can be mesh, field or some other post-processing data that the source design generated. The Setup link dialog permits you to link the current project to another for:

• • • • •

Magnetic Bias source Near Field Wave source Far Field Wave source Initial Mesh source Screening Impedance Boundaries

Use the hypertext links above to see the procedure for setting the link of interest. You can link HFSS and HFSS-IE projects. This link is controlled with a "Near Field" or "Far-Field" Incident Wave source that is grouped with the Excitations. Related Topics Clear Linked Data Export Results to Thermal Link for ANSYS Mechanical

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Modifying Excitations
To change the properties of an excitation, do one of the following:

• • •

Double-click the excitation’s icon under Excitations in the project tree. The excitation’s properties window appears, in which you can modify its properties. Right-click the excitation in the project tree, and then click Properties on the shortcut menu. The excitation’s dialog box appears, in which you can modify its properties. On the HFSS menu, click List. The Design List dialog box appears. Under the Excitations tab, you can modify the properties of one or more boundaries.

Related Topics Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient

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Deleting Excitations
To delete one excitation: 1. 2. Select the excitation you want to delete by clicking its icon in the project tree. Click Edit>Delete . The excitation is removed from the design and the project tree. For terminal solutions, if you delete a port with terminals associated with it, deleting the port also removes the associated terminals. To delete all excitations:


1. 2. 3.

Click HFSS>Excitations>Delete All. Click HFSS>List. The Design List dialog box appears. Under the Excitations tab, click the row of the excitation you want to delete. Click Delete.

You can also delete one or more excitations in the Design List dialog box:

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Reassigning Excitations
You can reassign an excitation to another surface. This is useful when you have modified objects with assigned excitations, invalidating the excitations. For example, if you unite two objects with assigned excitations, the second object’s excitation will become invalid because united objects maintain the characteristics of the first object selected. In this case, you would need to reassign the excitation or delete it. 1. 2. 3. Select the object or object face to which you want to assign an existing excitation. Click HFSS>Excitations>Reassign. The Reassign Excitation window appears. Select an existing excitation from the list, and then click OK. The excitation is reassigned to the object or object face. Note When reassigning an excitation that includes vectors in its definition, HFSS attempts to preserve the vectors with the new assignment, but this is not always possible.

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Duplicating Excitations with Geometry
See Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry.

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Showing and Hiding Excitations
See Setting Boundary and Excitation Visualization Options.

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Setting the Impedance Multiplier
For designs with ports. If one or more symmetry planes have been defined or if only a wedge of a structure is modeled, you must adjust the impedance multiplier or the computed impedances will not be for the full structure.

Note 1. 2. 3.

Changing the impedance multiplier invalidates solutions in projects where lumped ports are defined. In such projects, you need to re-solve the project after the change.

Click HFSS>Excitations>Edit Impedance Multiplier. The Port Impedance Multiplier dialog box appears. Type a value in the Impedance Multiplier box. You can assign a variable as this value. Click OK.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Symmetry and Port Impedance Technical Notes: Impedance Multipliers

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HFSS Online Help

Renormalizing S-Matrices
You can renormalize an S-matrix to a specific port impedance when you set up a wave port. (It is the final step in the Wave Port wizard.) Or you can return to the Wave Port dialog box by doubleclicking the wave port icon in the project tree, and then clicking the Post Processing tab. For driven modal problems, you can also edit the renormalization settings and impedance value in the wave port Properties dialog. To renormalize an S-matrix to a specific port impedance: 1. If you have already set up the wave port on the desired object face, double-click the wave port’s icon in the project tree. The Wave Port dialog box appears. 2. Click the Post Processing tab. The Port Renormalization choices include:

• •

Do Not Renormalize (the default) Renormalize All Modes. This enables the Full Port Impedance text box. The default impedance for re-normalization of each port is 50 ohms.
For a driven modal solution, if you want to enter a complex impedance, enter it in the follow-

ing form:

<re> + <im>j
(For a driven terminal solution using a waveport, only the real part of the impedance is required.)


3.

If there are multiple modes, you can select Renormalize Specific Modes. This enables the Edit Mode Impedances button. This opens a editable table with the impedances for each mode.

Click OK to apply the selected values and close the dialog.

For wave ports in driven modal problems, if you choose to edit the renormalize values through the Properties dialog: 1. 2. 3. Select the wave port to edit. The docked Properties dialog shows the properties for the wave port. Check the Renormalize All Modes box. This enables the Renorm Imped field. Set the Impedance value. You do not need to re-run a simulation in order to renormalize a port. Post-processing reports are automatically updated to reflect the renormalized S-matrix. If you export matrix data to Touchstone format, you can choose to override the renormalization impedances set here. See Exporting Matrix Data. Related Topics Exporting Matrix Data
9-60 Assigning Excitations

Note

HFSS Online Help

Technical Notes: Renormalized S-Matrices

Assigning Excitations 9-61

HFSS Online Help

De-embedding S-Matrices
To compute a de-embedded S-matrix: 1. If you have already set up the wave port on the desired object face, double-click the wave port’s icon in the project tree. The Wave Port dialog box appears. 2. 3. Click the Post Processing tab. Select Deembed, and then, either:

Enter the length to be added in the Distance text box. A positive value de-embeds into the port. A negative value de-embeds out of the port. You can assign a variable as this value. Alternatively, click Get Distance Graphically to draw a line with a length representing the de-embed distance. After you draw the line in the 3D window, the Distance field shows the specified distance. You can edit this value.

After you enter the value, a blue arrow depicts the embedding distance in the model window while the port is selected. After you enter the value, a blue arrow depicts the de-embedding distance in the graphics window while the port is selected. In cases of a unit cell modelling equivalent screening impedance, the de-embedding distances should point to the nearest surfaces of the substrate even if there is a thickness between these surfaces. Note that a very thick substrate may lead to inaccurate results because HFSS replaces the composite material of the substrate with a sheet. Note Deembedding the reference plane of a port with a decaying propagation constant can result in nonphysical values due to numerical uncertainties. When some of the S parameters are below the noise floor of the numerical simulation, deembedding them into the object with a long distance and/or a high decaying factor can magnify the uncertain low values to non-physical ones. Hint: Avoid deembedding with long distances when the real part of the propagation constant is not small enough. 4. Click OK to assign that length to the selected port. You do not need to re-run a simulation in order to de-embed the S-matrix. Postprocessing reports are automatically updated to reflect the de-embedded S-matrix.

Note

Related Topics Technical Notes: De-embedded S-Matrices Technical Notes: Deembedding

9-62 Assigning Excitations

use the Tools>Edit Configured Libraries option. Selecting one of these materials provides another way to assign materials to an object. • • Right-click Model in the project tree. Assigning Materials 10-1 . the window lists all of the materials in Ansoft’s global material library as well as the project’s local material library.10 Assigning Materials You can add. When the Show all libraries checkbox is selected. You can also open the Select Definition window in one of the following ways: • In the Properties dialog box for the object. Editing definitions from the project window does not modify the configured libraries for any particular design. Doing so ensures that new libraries are added to the configured list for the current design. The menu also lists materials included in the current project. and then click Assign Material on the shortcut menu. Click Modeler>Assign Material . To consider the current design. and edit materials in two main ways: • • Using the Tools>Edit Configured Libraries>Materials menu command... and then click Assign Material on the shortcut menu. Select the object to which you want to assign a material. Right-clicking Materials in the project tree and selecting Edit All Libraries. The Select Definition window appears. 2. follow this general procedure: 1. To assign a material to an object. Right-click the object in the history tree. remove. they will also be available to assign to objects in other designs. If you edit materials from this command for the current and then export them. A drop-down menu shows an Edit. click the material name under the Attributes tab. button that opens the Select Definition window.

4. add a new material to the global or local material library. Note For HFSS-IE.HFSS Online Help 3. HFSS groups objects by material. Note In the history tree. Solver assumes vacuum as background material. The material you chose is assigned to the object. Select a material from the list. In HFSS-IE: • • • • Only isotropic materials are allowed Frequency dependent materials are allowed. You can search the listed materials by name or property value. so HFSS-IE issues a warning for this case. You cannot set background material in the solver. To change the default. by default. Click OK. select the object icon and right-click to display the Group Objects by Material checkbox. and then select it. Related Topics Solve Inside or On a Surface Assigning DC Thickness Searching for Materials Adding New Materials Assigning Material Property Types Defining Variable Material Properties Defining Frequency Dependent Material Properties Defining Material Properties as Expressions Defining Functional Material Properties Viewing and Modifying Material Attributes Validating Materials Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library 10-2 Assigning Materials . No spatial dependent materials are allowed. Note If the material you want to assign is not listed. problems with dielectrics will generally run more slowly.

HFSS Online Help Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries Setting the Temperature of Objects Assigning Materials 10-3 .

By default. If you want a solution to be generated inside an object. enter a new value in the Solve Inside threshold text box. Solve Inside is selected for all objects with a bulk conductivity less than 105 siemens/ meter and for perfect insulators. If you elect to generate a solution on the surface of the object. Related Topics Assigning DC Thickness 10-4 Assigning Materials . By default. if you want a solution to only be generated on the surface of an object. You can also incorporate a DC Thickness for the implicit boundary condition by setting an appropriate thickness value as described in Assigning DC Thickness. when you assign a material to an object. Under the General tab. 2. select Solve Inside in the Properties window. HFSS implicitly places a finite conductivity boundary condition on the surfaces of an object that should not be solved inside based on the material properties of that object. To change the threshold for solving inside objects. do the following: 1. HFSS will create only a surface mesh for the object. clear the Solve Inside option in the Properties window. Click Tools>Options> HFSS Options. you can specify whether to generate a field solution inside the object or on the surface of the object. HFSS will create a mesh inside the object and generate a solution from the mesh. Conversely.HFSS Online Help Solving Inside or on the Surface For HFSS designs. the Solve Inside option in the Properties window is clear for perfect conductors. If you elect to generate a solution inside the object.

which can be Automatic (the default). This option also exists for finite conductivity boundaries. This displays the Thickness of Objects for DC Resistance dialog with the DC Thickness tab selected. or by specifying a value for a selected object. Manually assigned per object. and click the Search button. You can select objects either by: • • Clicking on the Object Name to highlight it. Selecting an object highlights the Thickness field and the Set Thickness button. either by enabling the automatic default. If the object meets these conditions. Objects to which the thickness can be applied are listed in the Object Name column. Use the Select By Name field to type the object name. Skin impedance of the object will be calculated using the defined finite thickness. Assigning Materials 10-5 . The first object to match the name is highlighted. The Assign DC Thickness option on the HFSS>Boundaries menu is enabled if at least one object contains a good conducting isotropic material (such as copper). 2. and the Solve Inside property is not selected.HFSS Online Help Assigning DC Thickness You can select the Assign DC Thickness option to more accurately compute DC resistance of a thin conducting object for which Solve Inside is not selected. Select HFSS>Boundaries>Assign DC Thickness. Select the objects to assign a value. you can assign a DC thickness. or Infinite per object. To see the Assign DC Thickness dialog: 1.

The Automatic value is calculated as Thickness ~ 2* Volume / Surface Area It should be noted that this is a calculation for an "effective" DC thickness to be used by the correction calculation. The fact that the object is finite causes an increase of the effective impedance due to current crowding/edge effects. or Manual. which gives us the best approximation of the DC resistance of a cylindrical wire. bond wire).g. the automatic effective DC thickness will be about Ro. To manually apply a value. For a "thin" object this will work well. For example. you can specify that the value the object uses is Automatic. For example. For arbitrary shapes of "thicker" objects. Thus entering the exact geometrical thickness would actually underestimates the impedance. HFSS gives a warning that this will cause infinite impedance that causes isolation. The intention is that the auto-thickness will provide an accurate representation the majority of the time and is superior to not using any DC thickness setting. By returning a DC thickness smaller than the geometric thickness the automatic DC thickness compensates for this underestimation resulting in a slightly higher impedance as desired. When the automatic value is not appropriate. If you enter a “0” for the thickness. 6. enter a Thickness value. In the Use Thickness column. DC thickness impedance is an approximation. When you have assigned the values you need. select the units and click the Set Thickness button. It is accurate just for TE/TM waves when the widths are infinite which clearly never occurs in a "real" design. Note 5. Related Topics Technical Notes: Calculating Finite Thickness Impedance 10-6 Assigning Materials .99891. you can override it using the manual technique. this calculation will not work as well. This applies the value to the selected object and changes the Use Thickness selection for that object to Manual. You can disable automatic assignment on the Defaults tab of the Assign DC Thickness dialog. a rectangular microstrip trace described by a box with dimensions 100 by 10 by 1 the volume is 1000 and the surface area is 2022 resulting in an apparent thickness of . select the Clear Thickness button and then enter a different value. You can also manually select or deselect the box and manually enter or delete a thickness value in the table. Another example is the case of a cylindrical wire (e. a cube with sides of 1 will have volume of 1 and surface area of 6.HFSS Online Help 3. Infinite. In this case. and a resulting apparent thickness of . To change the value. close to the geometric thickness of "1".3333. click OK to close the dialogue. 4.

Assigning Materials 10-7 . Searching by Material Property Note 3. do one of the following: • • 1. In the Search Parameters area. and then click Search. Searching by Material Name 1. select by Name. If the selected material is not the one you are searching for. 2. Use the keyboard’s arrow keys to scroll up or down the list of materials. Select a material property from the pull-down list: By default. In the Search Criteria area of the Select Definition window. you can search the materials in the Select Definition window by name or by material property. To view the complete table of properties. type a value for the property in the Search by Property text box. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. The row containing the material name most similar to the one you typed will be selected. The materials are sorted according to the value you entered. type a material name in the Search by Name text box. Type a new value in the Search by Property text box. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. do one of the following: • • Use the keyboard’s arrow keys to scroll up or down the list of materials. Type a new material name in the Search by Name text box. select by Property. If the selected material is not the one you are searching for. In the Search Criteria area of the Select Definition window. 2. see Filtering Materials. In the Search Parameters area.HFSS Online Help Searching for Materials If there is a specific material or material property value that you want to assign to an object. The material with the property value closest to the one you typed will be selected.

which can be opened from either the Select Definition dialog box or the Edit Libraries dialog box. You can also enable the View/ Edit Modifier checkbox for Thermal Modifier. The Select Definition dialog box appears. • • • 4. you must export the material to a global user-defined material library. Type a name for the material in the Material Name text box. 2. Select one of the following from the Material Coordinate System Type pull-down list: To open the Edit Libraries dialog box: • To add a new material: 1. you can also rightclick Materials.HFSS Online Help Adding New Materials You can add a new material to a project or global user-defined material library.for each property from the Type 10-8 Assigning Materials . click Add Material. From either the Select Definition dialog box or the Edit Libraries dialog box. You can use the scroll bars or size the dialog to see all properties. Click Tools>Edit Configured Libraries>Materials. This Product to display properties commonly used by this product. All Products to display all properties available. The View/Edit Material dialog box appears. To make the new project material available to all projects. or accept the default. Materials are added using the View/Edit Material dialog box. 3.) The Edit Libraries dialog box appears. This enlarges the table of properties to show all properties possible.Simple or Anisotropic . • • • Active Design to display properties used in the active design. and select Edit All Libraries. 5. (In the project tree. Selecting Edit rather than None causes display of the Edit Thermal Modifier dialog. Cartesian (default) Cylindrical Spherical Use the radio buttons in the View/Edit section to specify whether the new materials apply to Active Design. Type a new name for the material in the Material Name text box or accept the default. To open the Select Definition dialog box: • Click Modeler>Assign Material. This Product. 6. Select a material property type . or All Products. Checking this box causes the Thermal Column to display at the right side of the Properties of the Material table.

Related Topics Defining Variable Material Properties Assigning Material Property Types Defining Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Specifying Thermal Modifiers Assigning Material Property Types Each material property can be assigned one of the following material property types: Simple Anisotropic The material is homogeneous and linear. Assigning Materials 10-9 . To modify the units for a material property. Note 8. 10. The new material is added to the material library. and then follow the directions for defining frequency dependent materials. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. double-click the Units box. Magnetic Loss Tangent If the material is a ferrite. enter a value greater than 0 in the Magnetic Saturation Value box.HFSS Online Help pull-down list. you should also enter a . The material’s characteristics vary with direction. permeability. electric loss tangent. click Set Frequency Dependency. enter values for the following material properties in the Value boxes: • • • • • Relative Permeability Relative Permittivity Bulk Conductivity Dielectric Loss Tangent. and then select a new unit system. see Filtering Materials.Measured Frequency value (default 9. 7.4 Ghz). Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis. and magnetic loss tangent. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. If one or more of the material properties are dependent on frequency. Click OK. Note By default. To view the complete table of properties. If the material property is anisotropic. Because Delta H values are measured at specific frequencies. You must define three diagonals for anisotropic permittivity. 9. You may enter a variable name or mathematical expression in the Value box. If the material is linear. its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor. You may also choose to enter values in the Lande G Factor and Delta H Value boxes. conductivity.

several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently. In the Relative Permeability row in the View/Edit Material window.1) row.2) row. Enter the relative permeability along the third axis in the Value box of the T(3. These values can also be defined as variables. Enter the relative permeability along one axis of the material’s permeability tensor in the Value box of the T(1. Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis. several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently. If the relative permeability is the same in all directions. 4. Related Topics Technical Notes: Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors 10-10 Assigning Materials . T(2. Three rows named T(1. 3. These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property.1). Related Topics Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors If the material property is anisotropic. 2. its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor. Enter the relative permeability along the second axis in the Value box of the T(2.3) row. You must define three diagonals for anisotropic permeability.HFSS Online Help These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property. By specifying different orientations. use the same values for each axis.2) and T(3. By specifying different orientations. 1. select Anisotropic from the Type pull-down list.3) are added below the Relative Permeability row.

use the same values for each axis. Assigning Materials 10-11 .2) and T(3. several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently. Enter the relative permittivity along the second axis in the Value box of the T(2. its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor. Three rows named T(1. These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property.3) are added below the Bulk Conductivity row. Three rows named T(1. Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis.1) row.3) are added below the Relative Permittivity row. 2. Related Topics Technical Notes: Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors If the material property is anisotropic. Enter the material’s relative permittivity along one tensor axis in the Value box of the T(1. T(2. several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently. select Anisotropic from the Type pull-down list. You must define three diagonals for anisotropic permittivity. In the Relative Permittivity row in the View/Edit Material window. 1. If the relative permittivity is the same in all directions.2) and T(3. Enter the relative permittivity along the third axis in the Value box of the T(3. By specifying different orientations. By specifying different orientations. In the Bulk Conductivity row in the View/Edit Material window. 1.1). These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property.2) row.1). These values can also be defined as variables.HFSS Online Help Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors If the material property is anisotropic. its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor. 4. select Anisotropic from the Type pull-down list. T(2.3) row. Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis. 3. You must define three diagonals for anisotropic conductivity.

These values can also be defined as variables.3) row. These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property. Enter the conductivity along the third axis in the Value box of the T(3. do the following: 1.1) row.2) and T(3. Related Topics Technical Notes: Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors If the material property is anisotropic. Enter the conductivity along the second axis in the Value box of the T(2. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permittivity to the real relative permittivity in the second direction in the Value box of the T(2. The values of the conductivity along the first and second axis apply to all axes that lie in the xy cross-section being modeled. These values can also be defined as variables. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permittivity to the real relative permittivity in one direction in the Value box of the T(1. These values affect current flowing in dielectrics between the conductors. 10-12 Assigning Materials .1). Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis. its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor. 4. 3. T(2. several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently. By specifying different orientations.HFSS Online Help 2. 2. Three rows named T(1.2) row.3) row. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permittivity to the real relative permittivity in the third orthogonal direction in the Value box of the T(3. The values of the conductivity along the third axis applies to the zcomponent. 4.3) are added below the Dielectric Loss Tangent row. In the Dielectric Loss Tangent row in the View/Edit Material window. If electric loss tangent is anisotropic. 3.1) row. If the electric loss tangent is the same in all directions. Enter the conductivity along one axis of the material’s conductivity tensor in the Value box of the T(1. You must define three diagonals for electric loss tangent. use the same values for each direction. select Anisotropic from the Type pull-down list.2) row.

its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor. These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property. 1.1). In the Magnetic Loss Tangent row in the View/Edit Material window.1) row.3) row. several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently. use the same values for each direction. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permeability to the real relative permeability in one direction in the Value box of the T(1. Related Topics Technical Notes: Anisotropic Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Assigning Materials 10-13 . By specifying different orientations. 2. T(2. These values can also be defined as variables. 3. Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis.2) row. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permeability to the real relative permeability in the third direction in the Value box of the T(3. Three rows named T(1.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Technical Notes: Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors If the material property is anisotropic. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permeability to the real relative permeability in the second direction in the Value box of the T(2. You must define three diagonals for anisotropic magnetic loss tangent. select Anisotropic from the Type pull-down list. If the magnetic loss tangent is the same in all directions.3) are added below the Magnetic Loss Tangent row.2) and T(3. 4.

The Piecewise Linear and Frequency Dependent Data Points models apply to both the electric and magnetic properties of the material. To assign this property value to a material. and so they should only be used for frequency-domain applications. they do not guarantee that the material satisfies causality conditions. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. which notifies HFSS that the variable is a project variable. With respect to a material selected in the Select Definition window. type $MyPermittivity in the Relative Permittivity Value box for the material. For example. 1. However. but you should only provide the loss once. or as a loss tangent. each material property value in the View/Edit Material window can be assigned a project variable. The solver uses the loss values just as they are entered. These models satisfy the Kramers-Kronig conditions for causality. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. To view the complete table of properties. The Debye and Djordjevic-Sarkar models apply only to the electrical properties of dielectric materials. This provides flexibility. Be sure to include the prefix $ before the project variable name. in the View/Edit Mate- 10-14 Assigning Materials . The HFSS Design Settings also include an automatic Djordjevic-Sarkar model to ensure ensure causal solutions when solving frequency sweeps for simple constant material properties. Project variables are used for material properties because materials are stored at the project level. Simply type the project variable’s name in the appropriate Value box.HFSS Online Help Defining Variable Material Properties When defining or modifying a material’s properties. see Filtering Materials. Note By default. define a project variable with the name MyPermittivity and define its value as 4. you can assign conductivity either directly as bulk conductivity. Related Topics Working with Variables Assigning Material Property Types Defining Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Specifying Thermal Modifiers Defining Frequency-Dependent Material Properties HFSS provides several frequency-dependent material models. and so are preferred for applications (such as TDR or Full-Wave Spice) where time-domain results are needed. In HFSS.

and the loss tangent and relative permittivity values at these frequencies. This dataset can be modified with additional points if desired. This is a single-pole model for the frequency response of a lossy dielectric material. up to about a 10-GHz limit. This lets you provide the data of relative permittivity and loss tangent versus frequency. click Set Frequency Dependency. Select Debye Model Input. HFSS linearly interpolates the material properties. In the Frequency Dependent Material Setup Option window. The input dialog plots these expressions together with your input data through the linear interpolations. do one of the following: • Select Piecewise Linear Input. • • • • • The generated expressions provide the new value for the material properties of relative permittivity and loss tangent.HFSS Online Help rial window. Based on this data the software dynamically generates frequency dependent expressions for relative permittivity and loss tangent through the Multipole Debye Model. and a constant relative permeability. This defines the material property values as a restricted form of piecewise linear model with exactly 3 segments (flat. Select Djordjevic-Sarkar Model Input. flat). In some materials. This model was developed for low-loss dielecAssigning Materials 10-15 . above and below the corner frequencies. HFSS allows you to specify an upper and lower measurement frequency. 2. Between these corner frequencies. You may optionally enter the permittivity at optical frequency. linear. Select Multipole Debye Model Input. You will specify the property's values at an upper and lower corner frequency. Both the expressions and data triples can be saved and reloaded. HFSS extrapolates the property values as constants. ion and dipole polarization dominate and a single pole Debye model is adequate. the DC conductivity.

Note Neither the piecewise or the loss models ask for frequency dependent conductivity because there the constant sigma represents the DC loss and the frequency dependent loss tangent represents the polarization losses. To modify the dataset with additional points. of these materials. This allows you to enter. Select Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points. Any number of data points may be entered. Related Topics Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input Multipole Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Modifying Datasets 10-16 Assigning Materials . import or edit frequency dependent data sets for each material property. • 3. Click OK. it uses an infinite distribution of poles to model the frequency response. A dialog appears. If you try to enter invalid values for the Djordjevic-Sarkar model. You may optionally enter the relative permittivity and conductivity at DC. HFSS allows you to enter the relative permittivity and loss tangent at a single measurement frequency. Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input Multipole Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points After you have entered the data for your selection. you receive error messages. and in particular the nearly constant loss tangent. This is an arbitrary piecewise linear model. New default function names appear in the material property text boxes. see Modifying Datasets.HFSS Online Help tric materials (particularly FR-4) commonly used in printed circuit boards and packages. HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property. In effect. Based on a varying property’s dataset. you return to the View/Edit Material window. HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation. based on your selection.

After you have entered the data for your selection. enter the same value you entered for the permittivity’s lower frequency. dielectric loss tangent. you return to the View/Edit Material window. see Modifying Datasets. HFSS assumes that the material’s property values remain constant between these frequencies. 3. and magnetic loss tangent. Enter the Upper and Lower Relative Permittivity of the material. If the permittivity of the material does not vary with frequency. Related Topics Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input Multipole Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Assigning Materials 10-17 . HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation. HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property. To modify the dataset with additional points. you enter the required values in the dialog displayed: 1. Enter Upper and Lower Frequency Range.HFSS Online Help Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Piecewise Linear Input Having selected Piecewise Linear Input as the model for the frequency dependent material property. Note Neither the piecewise or the loss models ask for frequency dependent conductivity because there the constant sigma represents the DC loss and the frequency dependent loss tangent represents the polarization losses. 2. Follow the same procedure for entering values for permeability. New default function names appear in the material property text boxes. Based on a varying property’s dataset.

For Conductivity or Dielectric Loss Tangent. 4. Enter the Upper and Lower Frequencies to define the range: HFSS assumes that the material’s property values remain constant between these frequencies. enter the same value you entered for the permittivity’s lower frequency 3. select the radio button for either At DC or for 10-18 Assigning Materials . check the box to enable the value field. If you need to specify a value for a High/Optical Frequency. 2. Enter the Upper and Lower Relative Permittivity of the material.HFSS Online Help Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Modifying Datasets Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Debye Model Input Having selected Debye as the model for the frequency dependent material property. you enter the required values in the dialog displayed: 1. If the permittivity of the material does not vary with frequency.

HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property. HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation. Based on a varying property’s dataset. You can enter data either into the columns for Frequency (GHz). Relative Permittivity and Dielectric Loss Tangent The frequency can be ranged from 0 to unlimited. Note Neither the piecewise or the loss models ask for frequency dependent conductivity because there the constant sigma represents the DC loss and the frequency dependent loss tangent represents the polarization losses. New default function names appear in the material property text boxes. see Modifying Datasets. To modify the dataset with additional points. After you have entered the data for your selection. 1. Related Topics Piecewise Linear Input Multipole Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Modifying Datasets Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Multipole Debye Model Input Having selected Multipole Debye as the model for the frequency dependent material property. you enter the required values in the dialog displayed. The relative permittivity is ranged from1.HFSS Online Help Upper and Lower Frequencies. To get Assigning Materials 10-19 .0 to unlimited and loss tangent is ranged from 0 to unlimited. you return to the View/Edit Material window.

01750 0.00700 0.00520 0. You can export current input data to a file. and Loss Tangent. and then can be modified.6186 3. you should provide more than 5 frequency points.00700 0.5458 0.00100 0.00001 0.7119 3.00700 0..00010 0. Each row provides Frequency (GHz). 0.00700 0.6742 3.00702 0.tab (same as dataset import/export file).6325 3.64160 10.6346 3. The file is a tab file with extension .01500 0. You can also import the data from a tab format text file.00000 2.0000 21.7500 3.01000 0. The import data will be shown in the data table.HFSS Online Help the good results.6354 3.15444 3.7914 3.8136 3.00128 0.10000 1. Permittivity.5777 3.5444 10-20 Assigning Materials 3.01750 .01073 0. Below is an example of the file format.17000 4.

5383 3.HFSS Online Help 26.4160 50. Based on this data the software dynamically generates frequency dependent expressions for relative permittivity and loss tangent through the Multipole Debye Model. • • The generated expressions provide the new value for the material properties of relative permittivity and loss tangent.01750 During the data input.5119 0.01750 0. you return to the View/Edit Material winAssigning Materials 10-21 .0000 3. 2. Both the expressions and data triples can be exported and re-imported.0000 46. the frequency dependent expressions for permittivity or loss tangent are calculated using Multipole Debye model. The input data are also linearly interpolated and drawn on the plot for comparison.01750 0. After you have entered the data for your selection. and are plotted for reference. . The input dialog plots these expressions together with your input data through the linear interpolations.5148 3.

HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation. HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property. New default function names appear in the material property text boxes. you enter the required values in the dialog displayed. Enter the Properties at DC. Based on a varying property’s dataset. Enter the values for Properties at Frequency: 2.HFSS Online Help dow. After you have entered the data for your selection. New default function names appear in the material property text boxes. Related Topics Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input 10-22 Assigning Materials . 1. HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property. Based on a varying property’s dataset. . This includes Conductivity and can include relative permittivity. Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Djordjevic-Sarkar Model Input Having selected Djordjevic-Sarkar as the model for the frequency dependent material property. HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation. you return to the View/Edit Material window.

Dataset column: this is disabled unless Freq Dependent is checked or the property cannot be set as frequency dependent. it contains a dropdown menu with a list Assigning Materials 10-23 . When enabled. the cell is disabled. Freq Dependent: Check the box to indicate if the property is expressed as frequencydependent dataset. When you click OK on the on after selecting Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points on the Frequency Dependent Material Setup dialog box.HFSS Online Help Multipole Debye Model Input Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Modifying Datasets Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points 1. the Enter Frequency Dependent Data points dialog box appears. If a property can not be set as frequency-dependent dataset. It shows a table with four columns: • • • Name: the name of the selected material property.

Delete rows. If you select Add/Import dataset. You can also Add rows above or below a selected row. This contains the following fields: • • • The name field for the current dataset. The default is ds1. 10-24 Assigning Materials . there are two choices available: "X datapoint" or "Y datapoint".HFSS Online Help of existing datasets and the Add/Import dataset. This opens a file browser for you to select an existing dataset. The values you add are interactively displayed on the graph to the right of the table. • 2. the Add Dataset dialog appears.. This contains X and Y text fields in which you can enter data points. Freq As: after a dataset is successfully imported or added. The Coordinates table.. The Import from File button.to add or import new dataset. or Append a specified number rows.

Selecting Edit. To modify the dataset with additional points. and OK the dialog. the Thermal Modifier property is set to None. see Modifying Datasets. After you have specified or imported the data points.. and fields for C1 and C2 for the following equation: P(Temp) = Pref[1+ C1(Temp . Select Expression radio button to display the Parameters Modifier text field or the Quadratic radio button to display the tabs for Basic Coefficient Set and Advanced Coefficient Set. you can write an equation for a thermal modifier in the Parameters Modifier text field. Related Topics Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input Multipole Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Modifying Datasets Specifying Thermal Modifiers To specify Thermal modifiers for a material: 1. from the drop down menu.. 4. rather than None causes the Edit Thermal Modifier dialog to appear.TempRef)^2] Assigning Materials 10-25 . With Expression selected. 2. Note Neither the piecewise or the loss models ask for frequency dependent conductivity because there the constant sigma represents the DC loss and the frequency dependent loss tangent represents the polarization losses. HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation. Checking Use temperature dependent data set disables the Modifier text field. After you have entered the data for your selection. Based on a varying property’s dataset. you return to the View/Edit Material window.HFSS Online Help 3. you can edit fields for the TempRef and units. By default. You can then use the drop down menu to select Add/Import Dataset. 3. • • With the Quadratic radio button selected. in the Basic Coefficient tab. In the View/ Edit materials dialog you must enable the View/ Edit Modifier checkbox for Thermal Modifier. After you OK the Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points dialog shows the new values. New default function names appear in the material property text boxes. the Enter Frequency Data Points dialog shows the Dataset Name and the Freq As value. This lets you define the thermal modifier as a data set. This causes the Properties of the Material table to expand to include a Thermal Modifier column.TempRef) + C2(Temp . HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property.

you can edit fields for lower and upper temperature limits (TL and TU respectively) and select their units from the drop down.HFSS Online Help where the Pref is defined as the reference relative permittivity. see Filtering Materials. Expressions typically contain intrinsic functions. You can also edit the constant value limit for the thermal modifier values outside the limits. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. To view the complete table of properties. 4. Click OK to accept the edits and return to the View/ Edit materials dialog. but do not include project variables. This is useful when you are defining a material property whose value is given by a mathematical relationship — for instance. Related Topics Defining Variable Material Properties Defining Functional Material Properties Any material property that can be specified by entering a constant can also be specified using a mathematical function. Note By default. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. see Filtering Materials. *. one relating it to frequency or another property’s value. By default. Related Topics Defining Mathematical Functions Defining Variable Material Properties 10-26 Assigning Materials . and /. Note By default. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. and arithmetic operators. To view the complete table of properties. -. these are automatically calculated. each material property value in the View/Edit Material window can be assigned a mathematical expression. Uncheck the Auto Calculate TML and TMU to specify new values for thermal modifier lower (TML) and thermal modifier upper (TMU). Related Topics Adding Datasets View/ Edit materials dialog Defining Material Properties as Expressions When defining or modifying a material’s properties. such as +. simply type the name of the function in the appropriate Value box. • With the Quadratic radio button selected. Simply type the expression in the appropriate Value box. When defining or modifying a material’s properties. in the Advanced Coefficient Set tab. such as sin(x).

command and a list of materials in the current project. You can select from the list of current materials to assign the selected material to that object.. Related Topics Assigning Materials Assigning Materials 10-27 .HFSS Online Help Assigning Materials from the Object Properties Window The Properties dialog for each object includes a materials property. If you click on the current material property you see a drop down list that includes and Edit .

HFSS Online Help Viewing and Modifying Material Attributes 1. Vector and Vector Mag. Provide a new name for the material in the Material Name text box. Under View/Edit Material for. The material name and its property values are listed. You can modify the material as follows: a. and then click View/Edit Materials. Click OK to save the changes and return to the Select Definition window. Note By default. Non-linear. This Product to display properties commonly used by this product. b. Change the units for a material property. For Anisotropic. as required for that property. you provide tensor values. The View/Edit Material window appears. If you modify a material that is assigned in the active project after generating a solution. Under Type. For Non-Linear. In the Select Definition window. Note: Materials stored in Ansoft’s global material library cannot be modified. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. see Filtering Materials. select: • • • 3. specify whether a material property is Simple. d. 2. All Products to display all properties available. Anisotropic. the solution will be invalid. For Vector. Provide new material property values in the Value boxes. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. you provide a Vector Mag. select the material you want to view or modify. This enlarges the table of properties to show all properties possible. c. To view the complete table of properties. 4. You can use the scroll bars or size the dialog to see all properties. you provide a value or variable. Active Design to display properties used in the active design. Warning Related Topics Validating Materials Defining Variable Material Properties Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library 10-28 Assigning Materials . you provide a Data Set. For Simple. or for Relative Permeability.

HFSS Online Help Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries Assigning Materials 10-29 .

and then click Validate Now. To validate the material attributes listed in the View/Edit Material window: • Select a product from the Select Ansoft Product area. If the parameters are valid. Related Topics Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries 10-30 Assigning Materials .HFSS Online Help Validating Materials HFSS can validate a material’s property parameters for an Ansoft software product. an error message will appear in the lower-right corner of the View/Edit Material window. it will check if the range of values specified for each material property is reasonable. a green check mark will appear there. If a material’s property parameters are invalid. For example.

HFSS Online Help Copying Materials 1. follow the directions for modifying materials. To modify the material’s attributes. select the material you want to copy. Click OK to save the copy in the active project’s material library. 2. and then click Clone Material. 3. In the Select Definition window. Related Topics Validating Materials Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries Assigning Materials 10-31 .

HFSS Online Help Removing Materials 1. Materials that have been assigned to objects in the active project. you may want to use the Project>Remove Unused Definitions command to remove selected materials definitions that your project does not require. The material is deleted from the project material library. In the Select Definition window. In a project library. select a material you want to remove from the active project’s material library. 2. Click Remove Material. Note The following materials cannot be deleted: • • Materials stored in Ansoft’s global material library. Related Topics Validating Materials Copying Materials Export Materials to a Library Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries 10-32 Assigning Materials .

Click PersonalLib to export the material to a local project directory. Type the library’s file name and then click Save. usually in a central location. Click Export Material to Library. 3. 2. Related Topics Validating Materials Copying Materials Removing Materials Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries Assigning Materials 10-33 . In the Select Definition window.HFSS Online Help Exporting Materials to a Library 1. Click UserLib to export the material to a a library that is shared by more than one user. accessible only to the user that created it. The Export to material library file browser appears. 4. select the material you want to export.

not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table.HFSS Online Help Sorting Materials You can change the order of the materials listed in the Select Definition window. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. Note By default. Z to A). If the arrow in the column heading points up. or material property value. The arrow will point down. click the column heading again. see Filtering Materials. To view the complete table of properties. Related Topics Validating Materials Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries 10-34 Assigning Materials . To change the order of the listed materials: • Click the column heading by which you want to order the materials. A to Z) based on the values in the column you chose. If you want the material data to be listed in descending order (9 to 1. the material data will be listed in ascending order (1 to 9. You can sort the list of materials by name. library location.

You can filter out materials based on the product or library with which they are associated. 2. Related Topics Validating Materials Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library Sorting Materials Working with Materials Libraries Assigning Materials 10-35 . select one of the radio buttons: • • • • 3. You can also filter out material properties and types of material properties. To filter materials or material properties listed in the Select Definition window. With both checked. Selecting this enlarges the table of properties shown under the Materials tab to show all properties possible.HFSS Online Help Filtering Materials If you want to remove certain materials or material properties from the list in the Select Definition window. using the choices in the Materials tab: 1. the table shows all materials and highlights those used in the project. All Products to display all properties available. 2. With only Project Definitions checked. This Product to display properties commonly used by this product. use the filter options under the Material Filters tab. Under Filter Materials and Properties for. Click the Materials tab to save your selections. Click Cancel to revert back to the last saved selections. nothing appears in the materials table. Active Design to display properties used in the active design. you can check or uncheck boxes to show or hide Project Definitions and All Libraries. Click Select All to select all of the products listed. Click Clear to clear all product selections. And you can remove the filtering in order to see all available material properties. Click the Material Filters tab. The text field under Libraries lists the libraries for the project. but may not show all available properties. the materials table shows only the materials used in the project. You can use the scroll bars or size the dialog to see all properties. With All Libraries checked. To filter out or show additional material properties in the Materials tab: 1. the table displays all materials. • • • With both unchecked. Selecting the listed library highlights it and cause the table to display the materials in that library. Above the Libraries area.

They cannot be modified. A checkbox permits you to specify a configured library as default. Set of selection arrows allows you to move a highlighted library to the Configured list. 10-36 Assigning Materials . Editing definitions from the project window does not modify the configured libraries for any particular design. From this window you can view the available libraries for System. • Using right-click on Materials in the project window to display the Edit All Libraries shortcut menu. User. or system library of predefined materials. Working with User Material Libraries You can create your own personalized global material library. Related Topics Exporting Materials to a Library. Editing Libraries There are two different methods of editing libraries. User-defined global materials can be modified at any time. • Using Tools>Edit Configured Libraries>Materials from the menu bar takes the current design into account and adds any new libraries to the configured list for the design. You can create a global system library that is stored in a common location and available to multiple users. and which of these libraries has been configured. since this is editing in general. that can be used in any HFSS project only by the user that created it. or user library. Related Topics Editing Libraries Configuring Libraries Working with Ansoft’s System Material Library HFSS provides you with a global.HFSS Online Help Working with Material Libraries There are two different kinds of materials libraries in HFSS. Configuring Libraries Use Tools>Configure Libraries to display the Configure Design Libraries window. You can also create a personalized local user library that is used only in the active HFSS project. and Project. Clicking displays the Edit Libraries window. a system library and a user library. Global materials in the Ansoft system library are available in every HFSS project.

Pan the view. Modify the lighting.11 Modifying the Model View You can modify the view of contents in the 3D Modeler window without changing their actual dimensions or positions. Set the background color. Zoom in or out. Use Clip Planes Related Topics Assigning Color to an Object Modifying the Model View 11-1 . or smooth-shaded solids. Set the Surface Visualization Modify the view orientation. Modify the appearance of the coordinate system axes. Show or hide boundaries or excitations. What do you want to do? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Set the View Options Rotate the view. flat-shaded. Set the projection view. Modify the appearance of the grid. Fit contents in the view window. Render objects as wireframes. Show or hide objects.

HFSS Online Help Assigning Transparency to an Object 11-2 Modifying the Model View .

Modifying the Model View 11-3 . disabled) Drag Optimization (default. the View>Rotate selection menu changes to show that the Alt-Drag combination attaches to your selection. Related Topics Modeler options Rotate the view. Model Center Current Axis Screen Center (default) Where there is a selection option: Default screen rotation about When you select one of these as the default. disabled) Show Ansoft Logo in Prints (default. This lets you set defaults for the following view options: • • • • • • • • • • Stereo Mode (default. enabled) Set transparency of selected objects Set transparency of non-selected objects. disabled) Default Color Key Height (the maximum number of values displayed) Selection always visible (default.HFSS Online Help View Options: 3D UI Options Use the View>Options command to open the 3D UI Options dialog.

click Spin again on the View menu or press ESC. To rotate the view around the screen center: 1. or click the icon again or press ESC. 3. Click View>Rotate>Rotate Screen Center or click the rotate icon Drag the mouse up and down at the speed you want to rotate the view. To rotate the model center from the menus or icons: 1.HFSS Online Help Rotating the View You can rotate the view relative to the Model Center. 3. The view rotates until you release the mouse button. Hint Alternatively. rotate the view using one of the following methods: . When you select one of these as the View>Options default. on the toolbar. 2. To stop spinning the view. the Screen Center. Related Topics Pan the view. 11-4 Modifying the Model View . • • 2. Right-click in the view window. and then click View>Spin. Or. Hold down the ALT key as you drag the mouse. To end Rotate mode. right-click in the view window. Click View>Rotate>Rotate Model Center or click the Drag the mouse in the direction you want to rotate the view. or click the icon again or press ESC. 2. and then click View>Rotate on the shortcut menu. the View>Rotate selection menu changes to show that the Alt-Drag combination attaches to your selection. The view spins continually in the direction and at the speed you dragged the mouse. To end Spin mode. 3. To rotate the view around the current axis: Click View>Rotate>Rotate Current Axis. To exit Rotate mode. click in the view window. Alternatively. • • 1. 4. click View>Rotate>Rotate Screen Center. or the Current Axis. click View>Rotate>Rotate Model Center again. icon on the toolbar. click the spin icon on the toolbar Drag the mouse left or right at the speed you want to spin the view.

Click View>Pan . 3. 2. click Pan on the View menu again or press ESC. Right-click in the view window. and then click View>Pan on the shortcut menu. Drag the mouse in the direction you want to pan the view.HFSS Online Help Panning the View To move (pan) the view: 1. The view will pan until you release the mouse button. pan the view using one of the following methods: • • Hold down the SHIFT key as you drag the mouse. Hint Alternatively. Modifying the Model View 11-5 . To exit Pan mode.

To zoom in. The view zooms in 5 percent. drag the mouse towards the bottom of the view window. This is the area of magnification that will be increased or decreased. click View>Zoom again or press ESC. To zoom out using hotkeys: • Press the minus sign (-) key or press the Ctrl-F keys. To zoom out. Click View>Zoom . The objects in view decrease in size as you drag. and then click View>Zoom In or View>Zoom Out on the shortcut menu. The objects in view expand as you drag. The rectangular area is magnified or decreases in size. • 2. When zooming on a 2D report. 2. To zoom in using hotkeys: • Press the plus sign (+) or (=) keys or press Ctrl-E keys. Right-click in the view window. zoom in or out on the view using one of the following methods: • • Hold down the ALT+SHIFT keys as you drag the mouse. Related Topics Zooming In or Out on a Rectangular Area Fitting Objects in the View Window Zooming In or Out on a Rectangular Area To magnify or shrink a specific rectangular area in the view window: 1. Hint Alternatively. Alternatively. To end Zoom mode. axis labels and ticks will adjust automatically during the zoom operation and will rescale to their final value after the zoom operation is complete. Click View>Zoom In or View>Zoom Out . When zooming on a view of model objects the absolute size of the model does not change. 3. The view zooms out 5 percent.HFSS Online Help Zooming In and Out You can magnify (zoom in) or shrink (zoom out) the contents in the view window using hot keys or mouse zoom mode. right-click in the view window. drag the mouse towards the top of the view window. and then click View>Zoom on the shortcut menu. To zoom using the mouse. Use the mouse to draw a rectangle (or square) by selecting two diagonally opposite corners. 1. 11-6 Modifying the Model View .

HFSS Online Help When zooming on a view of model objects. Related Topics Zooming In and Out Fitting Objects in the View Window Modifying the Model View 11-7 . When zooming on a 2D report. click View>Zoom In or View>Zoom Out or press ESC. 3. axis labels and ticks will adjust after the zoom operation is complete. To end Zoom mode. the absolute size of the model does not change.

fit all objects in the active view window using one of the following methods: • • Press CTRL+D. select the objects you want to fit in the view. Right-click in the view window. When you are working on a model view. When Fit All is used in a report view. Hint Alternatively. and then click View>Fit All on the shortcut menu. To fit only the active view: click View>Fit All>Active View.HFSS Online Help Fitting Objects in the View Window What do you want to do? • • Fit all objects or traces in a view window. Related Topics Fitting All Objects in a View Window 11-8 Modifying the Model View . To fit the selection in the active view window: Click View>Fit Selection>Active View. All view windows displaying the active design change to include all model objects. The view in the active Modeler window changes to include all model objects. To fit the selection in every open view window of the active design: Click View>Fit Selection>All Views. 3. the window is automatically rescaled to fit all traces in the window and the axis label and ticks are rescaled. 2. select the traces you want to fit. When you are working on a report. Fit selected objects in a view window. Fitting All Objects in a View Window To fit all the views: click View>Fit All>All Views. fit the selection in the active view window by clicking View>Fit Selection on the shortcut menu. Hint Alternatively. Related Topics Fitting a Selection in a View Window Fitting a Selection in a View Window 1.

and one of the following commands: • • All Views to hide the selected object in every open view window. You can also use the Hide icons in the toolbar to hide selected objects in all views or the active view. 1. Select the object you want to hide from view. If there are many objects. Related Topics Showing Objects Active View Visibility Modifying the Model View 11-9 . Click View>Hide Selection. In the case of very large models with many boundaries.HFSS Online Help Hiding Objects from View To hide selected objects. Note Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment. you may find it easier to hide objects using the Active View Visibility dialog. Hide selected objects in all views Hide selected objects in active view Hide/Show overlaid visualization in the active view icon The objects you selected are hidden. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment. Active View to hide the selected object in the active view window. Object visibility is saved with the project. 2. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps.

To show all objects that are currently hidden: 1. The selected objects reappear. • • • For designs with large numbers of objects. The objects you select and designate as Visible (by selecting the property or using Show) reappear. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps. 3. 2. Boundaries. Note Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment. Click View>Show Selection and one of the following. Excitations. By default. You can also use the toolbar icons to Show selected objects in all views and Show selected 11-10 Modifying the Model View . objects are listed in alphabetical order. A triangle in the bar indicates the direction of the listing. Color Key objects. Hidden items are selected once the node corresponding to them is clicked in the history tree. Select the tab for the objects you want to show or hide. • • All Views to show selected objects in every open view window Active Views to show selected objects in the active view window. and one of the following commands: • • All Views to show all objects in every open view window Active Views to show all objects in the active view window. To show selected objects that are currently hidden: 1. Click View>Active View Visibility . The Active View Visibility dialog box appears. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment. Select the object. select the Visibility option for the objects you want to show in the active view window. The dialog contains tabs for 3D Modeler objects. You can also use the Name field to type in an object name and apply the visibility via the Show and Hide buttons. In the case of very large models with many boundaries.HFSS Online Help Showing Objects To show one or more objects that are currently hidden: 1. 2. and Fields Reporter objects. you can resize the dialog for easier selection. Under the tab you need. Click View>Show All. You can invert the order by clicking the Name bar above the Name fields.

Show selected object in all views Show selected object in active view Hide/Show overlaid visualization in the active view icon The selected objects reappear. Object visibility is saved with the project.HFSS Online Help objects in active views. Related Topics Hiding Objects Active View Visibility Modifying the Model View 11-11 .

Related Topics Showing Objects Hiding Objects 11-12 Modifying the Model View . you can resize the dialog for easier selection. or click the Hide/Show icon on the menu bar. In the case of very large models with many boundaries. Click View>Active View Visibility. You can invert the order by clicking the Name bar above the Name fields. Note Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment. For designs with large numbers of objects. Under the tab. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment. Excitations.HFSS Online Help Active View Visibility Dialogue If there are many objects. • • • 3. it may be easier to show or hide objects using the Active View Visibility dialog 1. You can also use the Name field to type in an object name and apply the visibility via the Show and Hide buttons. objects are listed in alphabetical order. Select the tab for the objects you want to show or hide. The dialog contains tabs for 3D Modeler objects. The objects you designate are hidden. Object visibility is saved with the project. By default. The Active View Visibility dialog box appears. clear the Visibility option for the objects you want to hide in the active view window. Boundaries. A triangle in the bar indicates the direction of the listing. Color Key objects. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps. 2. and Fields Reporter objects.

Select one of the following from the Default View Render Mode pull-down list. You can also use the F7 key or the shade icon to toggle the display to smooth shaded. The objects in the view window are displayed as skeletal structures. • Smooth Shaded. Hint You can also press F6 (Wire Frame) and F7 (Smooth Shaded) to toggle between these two views. 3.HFSS Online Help Rendering Objects as Wireframes or Solids To render (display) all objects in the view window as wireframe outlines. Modifying the Model View 11-13 . Related Topics Setting the Default View Rendering Mode Setting the Surface Visualization Setting the Default View Rendering Mode To set a default rendering mode for all objects created in the active design and in future designs: 1. • Wireframe. • 4. Click View>Render and click one of the following: • Wireframe. Click OK. enabling you to see all sides of the objects at one time. under the Attribute tab. or smooth-shaded solids: 1. 2. select Display Wireframe. The rendering mode will be applied to all new objects you create. Click the Display tab. flat-shaded solids. The objects in the view window will be displayed as shaded objects with smooth edges. enabling you to see all sides of the objects at one time. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. 2. You can also use the F6 key or the shade icon to toggle the display to wireframe. To render a single object in the view window as a wireframe outline: 1. Smooth Shaded. The objects in the view window will be displayed as skeletal structures. Select the object you want to render as a wireframe: In the Properties dialog box. The objects in the view window are displayed as shaded objects with smooth edges.

Click View>Curved Object Visualization. This means that the most CPU cost applies to the larger objects. Selecting the later two radio buttons enables the value field. To set the Curved Object Visualization for the active modeler window: 1. The Save As Default button lets you Save any values you change to the drop down menus for the fields. those settings are saved with design unless you change it again. typically. The dialog contains areas for setting the Maximum Deviation. cpu/memory consumption vs. To change the Maximum Normal Deviation. the maximum surface deviation for both the spheres will be approximately same since a bigger sphere has more facets than a smaller one. When set as Absolute Deviation. sphere with a radius of 10 has same number of facets as a sphere with a radius of 1. Any values you provided through Save As Default remain on the drop down menus for the fields for surface and normal 11-14 Modifying the Model View . Changes apply to the current model until they are changed again. That means when you open the design again. Any changes reset the default. Set the Maximum Deviation by first selecting from the radio buttons for Ignore. The Restore Defaults button lets you return to the original values. 2. and the Maximum Normal deviation. it will apply saved visualization settings and NOT the default settings. This means that CPU cost does not increase based on the model dimension. For example. The default gives satisfactory results (i. Note 5. When you change Curved Object Visualization settings and apply them to a design. you should not save a project with other than the default settings. If you selected the radio buttons for Relative or Absolute Deviation for Maximum Deviation. set as Relative Deviation or set as Absolute Deviation. Improved image quality comes at the cost of increased CPU consumption. Because this affects the CPU and memory required to open the project. When set as Relative Deviation. The settings ignore surface deviation and use a 15 degree normal deviation. This resembles the Mesh surface approximation settings. 4. Units are degrees. Wire bodies cannot be rendered with a Maximum Normal Deviation value less than 1 degree.HFSS Online Help Setting the Curved Surface Visualization HFSS allows you to specify the faceting for rendering true curves by using the View>Curved Object Visualization command. 6. the actual surface deviation depends on the model size. graphical display) for various model complexities. There are two options for control--maximum surface deviation and maximum normal deviation. enter a value in the text field.e. enter a value in the field. 3. Reduce either or both of the allowed deviations to improve the image quality. When using a setting less than 1 degree all wire bodies will be rendered with a setting of 1 degree and all closed bodies will be rendered with the dialog box setting. This command displays the Curved Object Vizualization dialog for the active modeler window.

and Close or Cancel to close the dialog without changing settings. Related Topics Rendering Objects as Wireframes or Solids Modifying the Model View 11-15 .HFSS Online Help deviations 7. Click Apply to apply the current values to the active modeler window.

the image shows the clipped plane. The Add button contains a drop down menu with choices for Specify center.. the clip plane is 11-16 Modifying the Model View . Click View>Clip Plane. This displays the Clip Plane dialog with the Plane tab selected.. you must first select a face or a cut plane. • If you first select a face or cut plane. model selection works as though only the visible parts are present. To add a clip plane: 1. Of you want to use selection. and Use selection. and then click Add>Use Selection. If you use Edit>Copy Image or Modeler>Export>image format with the clip plane active. When parts of the model are hidden by a clip plane. 2.HFSS Online Help Using Clip Planes The View>Clip Plane command lets you define a clip plane that you can use to interactively make any desired cut-away view of a model. normal.

and a vector the current direction.HFSS Online Help added on that face. When you move the cursor. a. If you select Add>Specify center. shown as a triad. a rectangle represents the clip plane. this launches a Measure dialog and enters a mode for you click to first define the start location. normal. Modifying the Model View 11-17 .

After the second click. The handle is visible as a circle with a sphere at the center. and shows the handle. and an arrow pointing the normal for the plane. Click again to set the reference position. that it is enabled. The handle changes appearance and function relative to the position of the 11-18 Modifying the Model View . With Show Handle enabled. shows the cap (which is the plane surface). you can use the handle to manipulate the location and orientation of the clip plane. 3.HFSS Online Help b. If you uncheck Show cap and/or show handle. the clip plane is active. The Clip Planes dialog shows the clip plane name.The Flip selection lets you reverse the direction of the clip plane. they disappear from the display.

When you close and reopen the modeler window. Click the button to display a color selection dialog. The radius resizes dynamically. Disable clip plane when drawing a new clip plane. This slider lets you resize the radius of the handle to the most convenient size. Related Topics Copy Image Exporting Graphics Files Modifying the Model View 11-19 . • Plane handle radius. You can save your choices as new defaults.HFSS Online Help cursor. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Dragging the cursor makes use of the current function. Plane handle color The button shows the current color. • • • Force opaque for the unclipped portion. 4. The Options tab for the Clip Planes dialog contains four options. the last selected size persists.

The orientation you set will be saved with the design. 4. A dialog box with orientation settings appears. Back). Apply a default orientation to the view or create and apply a new orientation.HFSS Online Help Modifying the View Orientation To change the orientation of the view (the viewing direction) in the view window: 1. Bottom. A dialog box with orientation settings appears. either in the current project or future projects. 5. It includes a table of names of six basic orientations (Top. Click Make Default if you want the selected viewing direction to be the initial viewing direction when a 3D Modeler window is opened. 3. You can use the Reset View Orientation button to restore the view to the original angle. Left. Related Topics Applying a Default View Orientation Applying a New Orientation Removing an Orientation Applying a Default View Orientation To apply a default viewing direction to the active view window: 1. 2. New orientations assigned to other designs after this point will not affect this orientation. The table includes columns that show the input angles. Click View>Modify Attributes>Orientation. and the equivalent vector components. 3. 2. 4. Right. Click View>Modify Attributes>Orientation. You can use the Reset View Orientation button to restore the view to the original angle. Front. and a section for adding new orientations. Click one of the orientation names listed in the viewing directions list. The viewing direction will be applied to the active view window. Click Apply. any additional orientations that you have added. Related Topics Applying a New Orientation Removing an Orientation 11-20 Modifying the Model View . Click Apply to View for the selected view to appear in the view window. Click Close. Click Close to dismiss the dialog box.

Click View>Modify Attributes >Orientation. To create a viewing direction based on the current view in the 3D Modeler window. Related Topics Applying a Default View Orientation Applying a New Orientation Modifying the Model View 11-21 . To modify the selected orientation’s vector components. To modify the selected orientation’s input angles. The viewing direction is removed from the list. phi and theta text boxes. 2. Click the viewing direction you want to delete from the list of names. • • 3. 3. To create a viewing direction that is based on a default viewing direction. Type a name for the new orientation in the Name text box. or Vz text boxes. Click View>Modify Attributes>Orientation. 2. and then modify the values in the psi. Vy. click the existing orientation name in the viewing directions list. This operation cannot be undone. and Uz. Related Topics Applying a Default View Orientation Removing an Orientation Removing an Orientation To remove a viewing direction from the list in the orientation settings dialog box: 1. 6. The new orientation is added to the list of viewing directions. 5. click Get Current View Direction. Click Remove. and the Up vector boxes for Ux. A dialog box with orientation settings appears. Click Close. select Input angles under Add Orientation to List. Uy. Click Make Default if you want the new viewing direction to be the initial viewing direction when a 3D Modeler window is opened in the current project or future projects.HFSS Online Help Applying a New View Orientation To create and apply a new viewing direction to the active view window: 1. A dialog box with orientation settings appears. 4. Click Add/Edit. and then modify the values in the Vx. select Input vector components under Add Orientation to List.

and then select a color for the surrounding light from the Color palette. two distant light vectors are in effect for every new view window. and Vz sliders to specify the Cartesian coordinates dynamically. To modify the direction by specifying the spherical coordinates. Use the φ and θ sliders to specify the spherical coordinates dynamically. 5. All objects are lit evenly in every direction by a color of light that you specify. The lighting settings will be saved with the design. Add a new distant light by clicking Add. To modify the direction by specifying Cartesian coordinates. Select a default distant light to modify by selecting it in the Distant Light Vectors table. do one of the following: To modify the lighting: 1. do one of the following: a. Enter the new spherical coordinates in the φ and θ boxes. Click OK to dismiss the dialog box. Y. b. By default. including new default settings. Select Do Not Use Lighting to turn off ambient and distant lighting.HFSS Online Help Modifying the Lighting You have the option to emit the following types of light on a design: • • Ambient lighting surrounds the model evenly with light. and then clicking Clone. Vy. The Lighting Properties dialog box appears. New lighting applied to other designs after this point. 8. • • b. Copy an existing distant light that you intend to modify by first selecting it in the Distant Light Vectors table. click Reset. either in the current project or future projects. 7. click the Ambient Light Properties color button. To revert to the default ambient and distant light settings. 2. Use the Vx. Click Save As Default if you want the new lighting settings to be the defaults for all 3D Modeler windows. Distant lighting directs a ray of light at the model in a direction you specify. Clear this option to activate ambient and distant lighting. and Z boxes. To modify the distant light on a model. 11-22 Modifying the Model View . Click View>Modify Attributes>Lighting. To surround the model with light. do one of the following: • • 6. For the selected distant light vector. will not affect these lighting settings. 3. specify the vector direction: a. c. 4. Enter the new Cartesian coordinates in the X.

5. New projection views assigned to other designs after this point will not affect this projection setting. The projection view you set will be saved with the design. Click Close to accept the projection setting and dismiss the window. the view. The Select Projection Type window appears: 2. Modifying the Model View 11-23 .HFSS Online Help Setting the Projection View To modify the projection of model objects (the camera angle) in the view window: 1. 4. The Select Projection Type window closes. the view. Select Perspective to change the angle of the view. or flatten. Click Reset to return the model to its original view. 3. Objects that are closer appear larger relative than objects that are farther away. The slider is disabled because a distortion scale is no longer applicable. Click View>Modify Attributes>Projection. or widen. • Move the slider to the right to increase the proximity. The last view you specified in the projection window remains visible in the view window. Move the slider to the left to decrease the proximity. Select Orthographic to view the model without distortion.

and blue values. green. Select Gradient Background. New background color settings assigned to other designs after this point. will not affect this design. Under Select Background Type. Select Plain Background.HFSS Online Help Setting the Background Color To set the color of the background in the view window: 1. Click Reset to revert to the default background colors. click Top Color or Bottom Color and use the RGB sliders to specify the color’s red. 6. including new default settings. b. 11-24 Modifying the Model View . Click OK. Specify the background color at the top and bottom of the view window in one of the following ways: • • 4. do the following: a. 2. Modify the background color in one of the following ways: • • 3. and blue values. Under Change View Color Dynamically. do the following: a. 5. The Select Background Color window appears. Click Save As Default if you want the new background color to be the background color for all 3D Modeler windows in either the current project or future project. green. To assign a solid background color. b. Click the Background Color button and then select a color from the Color palette. Use the RGB sliders under Change View Color Dynamically to specify the color’s red. The background color you set will be saved with the design. Then click the Bottom Color button and select a color from the Color palette. To assign a background color that gradually changes from one color to another. click the Top Color button and select a color from the Color palette. Click View>Modify Attributes>Background color.

and z-axes in the lower right active view window. and z-axes at the lower right of the active view window. It can be shown or hidden separately from the selected coordinate system. and z-axes in a smaller size in relative to the edges of the active view window. Click View>Coordinate System>Triad. y-.HFSS Online Help Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View The coordinate system axes displays the x. What do you want to do? • • • • 1. 3. Modifying the Model View 11-25 . It shows the orientation of the currently selected working coordinate system. 1. y-. Show the coordinate system axes for selected objects. y. and z-axes in the active view window. Select the Display tab. To show the triad: 1. Show or hide the triad axes. y-. 4. Small to display the x-. Showing or Hiding the Triad Axes The triad is a secondary depiction of the coordinate system that appears at the lower right of the Modeler window. Show the Axes for Selected Objects Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. y-. and z-axes as extending to the edges of the active view window. Click View>Coordinate System. y-. Enlarge or shrink the size of the coordinate system axes. then click one of the following: Enlarging or Shrinking the Axes • • Large to display the x-. Show to display the x-. z orientation from the origin point for the current working coordinate system. This displays the Modeler Options dialog. y-. Click OK to close the dialog. Select Show orientation of selected objects. Show or hide the coordinate system axes. Hide to hide the x-. then click one of the following: Showing or Hiding the Axes • • 1. Show to display the triad x-. Click View>Coordinate System. 2. then click one of the following: • • • Hide to hide the triad x-. Auto to generally hide the triad axes. and z-axes in the active view window.

Setting the Grid Style 1. Grid spacing is set according to the current project's drawing units. The grid in the active view window is centered at the origin of the working coordinate system. Click View>Grid Settings. Select a grid type for the active view window: Cartesian for a rectangular grid or Polar for a circular grid. The Grid Settings window appears. the location of points on the grid are defined by intersections of planes that are perpendicular to the local radius and angle coordinates. you will define a coordinate by specifying its radius from the origin in the R text box and its angle from the x-axis in the Theta text box or its relative distance from the previously selected point in the dR and dTheta text boxes.HFSS Online Help Choosing Grid Settings The grid displayed in the 3D Modeler window is a drawing aid that helps to visualize the location of objects. and dZ text boxes.You can control the following aspects of the grid: • • • • • • • 1. you will define a coordinate by specifying its distance from the origin along each axis in the X. y-. Setting the Grid Type For Cartesian grids. the location of points on the grid are defined by intersections of planes that are perpendicular to and along the x-. The division (the distance between neighboring parallel planes perpendicular to the same radius and angle) can be set. dY. The Grid Settings window appears. For polar grids. For polar grids. and Z text boxes or its relative distance from the previously selected point in the dX. and z-axes. Y. 11-26 Modifying the Model View . The division (the distance between neighboring parallel planes perpendicular to the same axis) can be set. For Cartesian grids. Type (rectangular or circular) Style (dots or lines) Density Spacing Visibility Snap settings Grid plane Click View>Grid Settings. 2.

Setting the Grid Density and Spacing 1.HFSS Online Help 2. 3. . Click it again to show the grid. Displays lines between grid points. Related Topics Setting the Grid Plane Setting the Grid Plane To specify the plane on which you want to display the grid in the active view window. type the values of dX. b. which is generally the best setting for displaying objects. type the values for dR and dTheta. click the Grid toolbar icon: Alternatively: 1. 4. dR represents the difference between each radius. Click View>Grid Settings. The default is set to 30 pixels. The distance between grid points will increase and decrease proportionately as you zoom in and out in the active view window. Setting the Grid’s Visibility • To hide the grid. Click OK. respectively. Select Grid Visible to make the grid visible in the active 3D Modeler window. b. The Grid Settings window appears. but instead want to specify a constant grid spacing. Clear the Auto adjust density to option. do the following: a. do the following: a. 2. Click View>Grid Settings. Clear the selection to make the grid invisible. If you want to change the density of the grid in the active view window as you zoom in or out on objects. Select Auto adjust density to. dTheta is the difference between angles. The Grid Settings window appears. These values represent the difference between one grid point and the next in the x. If you do not want the grid density to change when you zoom in or out. dY. Specify the grid’s spacing in the active design’s units. 2. If you selected a Cartesian grid type. Select one of the following grid styles for the active view window: Dot Line Displays each grid point as a dot. do one of the following: Modifying the Model View 11-27 . Specify a distance between grid points by typing a value in the pixels box. If you selected a polar grid type. and z directions. y. and dZ.

HFSS Online Help • • Click Modeler>Grid Plane. and then select a grid plane: XY. YZ. or XZ. Click a grid plane on the pull-down list on the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar: 11-28 Modifying the Model View .

You can also choose to override automatic choice of which mesher HFSS uses. Modify surface approximation settings for one or more faces. mesh operations are optional mesh refinement settings that provide HFSS with mesh construction guidance. This technique of guiding HFSS’s mesh construction is referred to as "seeding" the mesh. See the technical notes for more details about HFSS’s application of mesh operations. the most recently generated mesh. Specify automatic or specified model resolution for a selection. that is. These types of mesh operations are performed on the current mesh. What do you want to do? • • • • • • Perform length-based mesh refinement on object faces. Perform length-based mesh refinement inside objects.12 Defining Mesh Operations In HFSS. by using the HFSS>Mesh Operations>Initial Mesh Settings command. Surface approximation settings are only applied to the initial mesh. that is. Seeding is performed using the Mesh Operations commands on the HFSS menu. the mesh that is generated the first time a design variation is solved. In a few circumstances. Specify the initial mesh settings Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process Defining Mesh Operations 12-1 . You can instruct HFSS to reduce the maximum size of tetrahedral elements on a surface or within a volume until they are below a certain value (length-based mesh refinement) or you can instruct HFSS to refine the surface triangle length of all tetrahedral elements on a surface or volume to within a specified value (skin depth-based mesh refinement). Perform skin depth-based mesh refinement on object faces. you may also want to create a mesh operation that modifies HFSS’s surface approximation settings for one or more faces.

HFSS Online Help Technical Notes: Seeding the Mesh Technical Notes: Guidelines for Seeding the Mesh Technical Notes: Surface Approximation Settings Getting Started Guides: A Spiral Inductor 12-2 Defining Mesh Operations .

amaximum length of boundary surfaces. The Element Length-Based Refinement dialog box appears. a.λ is recommended for radiation 10 To restrict the number of elements added during refinement of the faces: When the mesh is generated. HFSS will refine the element edges touching the selected faces until their lengths are equal to or less than this value. 2 -----. b. 3. Click HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>On Selection>Length-Based. If the maximum number of elements is reached. some elements may exceed the requested maximum element length. 5. Click OK. 4. b. Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: Length-Based Mesh Refinement Technical Notes: Seeding the Mesh Technical Notes: Guidelines for Seeding the Mesh Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement Inside Objects Applying Mesh Operations without Solving Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process Defining Mesh Operations 12-3 . Select Restrict the Number of Elements. The default value is set to 20% of the maximum edge lengths of the bounding boxes of each selected face. select an object if you want HFSS to refine every face on the object. Type the maximum length of the tetrahedral edges touching the faces in the Maximum Length of Elements text box. To restrict the length of tetrahedra edges touching the faces: a. Enter the Maximum Number of Elements to be added. Alternatively. the refinement criterion you specified is used. Select Restrict Length of Elements. For first order basis functions. 2. Select the faces you want HFSS to refine. Type a name for the mesh operation in the Name text box or accept the default name.HFSS Online Help Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement on Object Faces 1. c.

it may result in some elements exceeding the requested maximum element length. 5. The default value is set to 20% of the maximum edge lengths of the bounding boxes of each selected object’s faces. the refinement criterion you specified will be used. Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: Length-Based Mesh Refinement Technical Notes: Seeding the Mesh Technical Notes: Guidelines for Seeding the Mesh Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement on Object Faces Applying Mesh Operations without Solving Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process 12-4 Defining Mesh Operations .HFSS Online Help Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement Inside Objects To instruct HFSS to refine every face of an object and its interior: 1. b.If the maximum number of elements are reached. Select Restrict the Number of Elements. Click OK. Type the maximum length of the edges inside the object in the Maximum Length of Elements text box. Type a name for the mesh operation in the Name text box or accept the default name. To restrict the length of the tetrahedral element edges inside the object: a. 4. 2. Enter the Maximum Number of Elements to be added. c. The Element Length-Based Refinement dialog box appears. Select the object you want HFSS to refine. b. To restrict the number of elements added during the refinement inside the object: a. When the mesh is generated. Select Restrict Length of Elements. Click HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>Inside Selection>Length-Based. HFSS will refine the element edges inside the object until they are equal to or less than this value. 3.

Click OK. Type the skin depth within which to refine the mesh in the Skin Depth text box. c. The Skin Depth-Based Refinement dialog box appears. select an object if you want HFSS to refine every face on the object. Type a name for the mesh operation in the Name text box or accept the default name. Specify the Frequency at which to refine the mesh. but it is not guaranteed to prevent tetrahedra from crossing slab interfaces. Click OK. 6. The Calculate Skin Depth dialog box appears. Enter the Maximum Number of Surface Elements to be added. Enter the material’s Relative Permeability and Conductivity. In the Number of Layers of Elements text box. 2. Caution should be used with this mesh operation. c. This operation will be approximately the same as having slabs of tetrahedra. When the mesh is generated. The default value is set to 20% of the maximum edge lengths of the bounding boxes of each selected face. HFSS will refine the surface triangle mesh (the faces of the tetrahedra touching the surface) until their edge lengths are less than or equal to the specified value. the refinement criteria you specified will be used. d. Click HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>On Selection>Skin-Depth-Based. Select the faces you want to be refined. as very thin layers may cause a reduction in mesh quality or unnecessarily cause the generation of a very large mesh. it will add 10 points to each layer. HFSS will add an equivalent number of mesh points to each layer. 4. HFSS calculates the skin depth and enters its value in the Skin Depth text box. 7. Alternatively.HFSS Online Help Assigning Skin Depth-Based Mesh Refinement on Object Faces 1. For example. Alternatively. calculate the skin depth based on the object’s material permeability and conductivity and the frequency at which the mesh will be refined: a. type the number of layers to add perpendicular to the object’s surface. To restrict the number of elements added during refinement on the faces: a. Select Restrict the Number of Surface Elements. 5. Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: Skin Depth-Based Mesh Refinement Defining Mesh Operations 12-5 . Type the maximum edge length of the surface mesh in the Surface Triangle Length text box. b. if HFSS added 10 points to satisfy the Surface Triangle Length. Click Calculate Skin Depth. b. 3.

HFSS Online Help Technical Notes: Seeding the Mesh Technical Notes: Guidelines for Seeding the Mesh Applying Mesh Operations without Solving Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process 12-6 Defining Mesh Operations .

Under Maximum Aspect Ratio. do one of the following: • • 6. Under Maximum Surface Normal Deviation. 4.HFSS Online Help Modifying Surface Approximation Settings HFSS applies surface approximation settings when it generates the initial mesh. Select the Surface Representation Priority for Tau Mesh: In most cases. for which the mesh will not exactly reproduce the surface shape. and then type a value in the text box. Values close to 1 will result in equilateral triangles. allowing loose tolerances. which is 22.5 degrees. • 2.Use only on critical surfaces. High . they will not affect the mesh for that design variation. • • 8. 1.a very small port in a large model.) The choice of "High" can help to mesh some difficult or small surfaces. but it can also be very expensive and can cause the mesher to fail. The Surface Approximation dialog box appears with the Surface Approximation tab select. Alternatively. The group of settings is listed in the project tree under Mesh Operations. which are 10 for curved surfaces and 200 for planar surfaces. (See Initial Mesh Settings.) You can set the surface representation as normal or high. meshing is done by Tau Mesh. Select Ignore if you do not want to use surface deviation settings for the selected faces. do one of the following: • • 5. the thinner the triangles. Select Set maximum surface deviation (length). and then type the distance between the true surfaces of the selected faces and the meshed faces in the text box. Select Use defaults if you want to use HFSS’s default aspect ratio settings for the selected faces. Select Set maximum normal deviation (angle). Normal . Surface approximation makes sense for curved surfaces. 3. Click HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>Surface Approximation. If you modify HFSS’s default settings after the initial mesh has been generated. A ratio of 200 corresponds roughly to a triangle with an interior angle of one half degree. This value determines the shape of the triangles. Defining Mesh Operations 12-7 . select an object if you want to modify the surface approximation settings of every face on the object. Type a name for the group of settings in the Name text box or accept the default name. (For example. Select the faces for which you want to modify the surface approximation settings. Under Maximum Surface Deviation.use for normal situations for the Tau Mesh.. Select Set aspect ratio. It also can be used to restrict the aspect ratio of triangles on planar surfaces. do one of the following: • • 7. Select Use defaults if you want to use HFSS’s default normal deviation setting for the selected faces. Click OK. The higher the value. The settings will be applied to the initial mesh generated on the selected surface. and then type the angular distance between the normal of the true surface and the corresponding mesh surface in the text box.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: Surface Approximation Settings Technical Notes: Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximation Settings Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process 12-8 Defining Mesh Operations .

The Model Resolution Mesh Operation dialog contains text fields for the mesh operation Name and radio buttons with choices for the following • Auto Simplify Using Effective Thickness The mesher calculates the resolution length based on each object’s effective thickness. For example. This displays the Model Resolution Mesh Operation dialog. Right-click on either Mesh Operations in the Project Tree. 2. It returns an error if the specified model resolution length forces the final representation to deviate too greatly from the model. A cautionary note is needed concerning the use of model resolution.You can set Model Resolution on one or more objects to remove unnecessary details from the mesh representation. b. For example. the thin section of the object shown Defining Mesh Operations 12-9 . Use Model Resolution length This enables fields for you to specify the resolution value and units. While removing small details. Click on Assign>Model Resolution in the Project Tree menu or click on Assign Mesh Operation>Model Resolution on the shortcut menu. The resolution only controls how the mesh for the model is represented. Alternatively. This setting controls how large a feature must be to be resolved by the meshmaker.HFSS Online Help Specifying the Model Resolution The model resolution parameter is used by the meshmaker to distinguish large features from small features in the model. if the meshmaker finds that the representation of the model is not accurate enough. Use the Auto Simplify selection: • • • • To remove many details while retaining an object’s overall shape and size. Objects of non-uniform thickness. and each will be simplified based on its own dimensions. One mesh operation can be assigned to many objects. Use this selection for: • • Tighter control of mesh accuracy. Select the object or objects on which to specify a Model Resolution operation. which can effectively remove some of your boundary conditions. Click on HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>Model Resolution. This can only happen if faces are closer together than the model resolution distance you specify. 1. This can be used to reduce the mesh complexity of the selected objects. you can display the same dialog if you: a. it returns an error condition. The meshmaker then starts with the most accurate representation and prunes away the details smaller than the model resolution length. any model features smaller than 20 mm are not represented in the mesh. Neither the model nor the model files are changed. For objects of generally uniform thickness. if you set the model resolution length to 20 mm. It can sometimes make model faces fail to be represented in the mesh. To assign one mesh operation to many objects. or right-click in the 3D Modeler window to display the respective shortcut menu.

After defining the operation. click OK. 3.HFSS Online Help below might be lost with Auto Simplify. This adds the named Model Resolution operation under the Mesh Operations icon in the Project Tree. Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Setting the Healing Options Technical Notes: Model Resolution 12-10 Defining Mesh Operations . the smaller length will apply for the common regions. When two objects in contact have different model resolution lengths. Note Setting Model Resolution will invalidate any existing solutions.

and do not want to use the existing current mesh. You can do this for all solve setups at once by selecting the command through Analysis in the menu system or project tree. but does not include lambda refinement or defined mesh operations. or for a specific solve setup via its right mouse click menu in the project tree. • On the HFSS>Analysis Setup>Revert to Initial Mesh. If you have modified the design setup. revert to the initial mesh prior to solving.HFSS Online Help Reverting to the Initial Mesh The initial mesh is the mesh that is generated the first time a design variation is solved. Reverting to the initial mesh is useful when you want to evaluate how a different solution frequency affects the mesh generated during an adaptive analysis. Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process Defining Mesh Operations 12-11 . It includes surface approximation settings. You lose all solution data for a solve setup and all of its sweeps when you revert to the initial mesh for that setup.

HFSS will not re-apply a modified mesh operation. HFSS will generate it and apply the mesh operations to the initial mesh. If an initial mesh has not been generated. do the following after defining mesh operations: • Click HFSS>Analysis Setup>Apply Mesh Operations. or the HFSS Server Setup dialog may appear to allow you to interactively specify a solve machine if "Prompt for analysis machine when launching analysis" is selected under Tools>Options>General Options>Analysis Options tab. If the defined mesh operations have been applied to the selected face or object. Applying mesh operations without solving enables you to experiment with mesh refinement in specific problem regions without losing design solutions. or right click on the Analysis or Setup icon in the Project window to display the shortcut menu and click Apply Mesh Operations. • • • • If a current mesh has been generated. or by reverting to the initial mesh. but do not want to generate a solution.HFSS Online Help Applying Mesh Operations without Solving If you want to refine the mesh on a face or volume. HFSS will refine it using the defined mesh operations. Hint Define a new mesh operation rather than modify an existing mesh operation. If a current mesh has not been generated. HFSS will apply the mesh operations to the initial mesh. You cannot undo the applied mesh operations. The same solve machine rules that apply to solving any other setup also apply here. the current mesh will not be altered. The mesh operation will be sent to the default solve machine. Related Topics Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process Plotting the Mesh Specifying the Analysis Options General Options: Analysis Options Tab Remote Analysis 12-12 Defining Mesh Operations . but you can discard them by closing the project without saving them.

it looks for specific features (for example. which are 10 for curved surfaces and 200 for planar surfaces. 2. or in the Project tree.. do one of the following: • • 5. but takes more Defining Mesh Operations 12-13 . In general.HFSS Online Help Specifying Initial Mesh Settings You can specify the initial mesh settings. HFSS uses Ansoft TAU mesh. and select Initial Mesh Settings from the shortcut menu. Select Use defaults if you want to use HFSS’s default normal deviation setting for the selected faces. speed. In some situations. To make your choice the default. Select Ignore if you do not want to use surface deviation settings for the selected faces. do one of the following: • • 6. 8. and then type the distance between the true surfaces of the selected faces and the meshed faces in the text box. This value determines the shape of the triangles. and then type a value in the text box. Ansoft TAU Mesh--this includes Surface representation choices for Strict or Tolerant. HFSS predicts which one gives the best results. You can also uncheck or check Apply curvilinear elements. you may choose to uncheck the setting. right-click on Mesh Operations. Select Set maximum normal deviation (angle). wide triangles. quality. Select Use defaults if you want to use HFSS’s default aspect ratio settings for the selected faces. • • Auto (the default)-. Under Maximum Surface Normal Deviation. size and design characteristics. Select HFSS>Mesh Operations>Initial Mesh Settings. It contains radio buttons for: 7. including the surface approximation and the meshing approach. this increases accuracy. See Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. Type a name for the group of settings in the Name text box or accept the default name. Values close to 1 will result in well-formed. Strict performs stitching. Under Maximum Surface Deviation.. and then type the angular distance between the normal of the true surface and the corresponding mesh surface in the text box. rather than the Ansoft classic mesh. In most cases. the thinner the triangles. Under Maximum Aspect Ratio. To do so: 1. For models with curved surfaces.HFSS automatically selects the mesher. though it costs more memory. In most cases. 3. Select Set maximum surface deviation (length). resolves surfaces and contacts more accurately. The higher the value. you may decide to override the automatic choice and designate the mesher to use. this will be Ansoft TAU mesh. use the Save as default checkbox.5 degrees. Select Set aspect ratio. stacks of large planar parallel facets with small gaps) and situations where the initial Ansoft Tau mesh is 4 times larger than the Ansoft Classic. The Initial Mesh Settings dialog appears with the Surface Approximation tab selected. Select to the Meshing Method tab. For most designs. do one of the following: • • 4. balancing mesh reliability. you can let HFSS automatically choose which of two meshing approaches to take. which is 22. In a few cases.

use the Save as default checkbox.HFSS Online Help time and may cause issues for dirty models. • 9. To make your choice the default. Tolerant uses a looser tolerance for surface representation. Click OK to apply your choices. which may be better for dirty or very complex geometry. Ansoft Classic Mesh--this is based on the HFSS 11 mesher. 10. The settings will be applied to the initial mesh generated on the selected surface. Related Topics Defining Mesh Operations 12-14 Defining Mesh Operations .

deleted mesh operations will not be used again after reverting to the initial mesh.HFSS Online Help Deleting All Previously Assigned Mesh Refinements To delete previously-assigned mesh refinement data: • Click HFSS>Mesh Operations>Delete All. Defining Mesh Operations 12-15 . Note This will not alter any existing meshes that have already made use of one or more mesh refinement operations. However.

Right-click Mesh Operations. do the following from the project tree: 1. The Design List dialog box appears. 3. with the Mesh Operations tab displayed. Select List from the shortcut menu. 12-16 Defining Mesh Operations . A shortcut menu appears. 2.HFSS Online Help Viewing List of Mesh Operations To list all mesh operations for the project. Click Done to close this dialog box.

2.HFSS Online Help Reassigning a Mesh Operation To reassign a previously-assigned mesh setup. Under Mesh Operations. To view the objects to which a mesh operation is assigned: 1. if you want to see information about a mesh that has been generated. Select Show Assignment from the shortcut menu. Note This pertains to mesh setup operations only. 3. right-click the mesh refinement you had previously defined. 3. A shortcut menu appears. do the following in the project tree: 1. Related Topics Defining Mesh Operations Defining Mesh Operations 12-17 . 2. see Viewing Mesh Statistics. The objects to which the operation is assigned are selected. Select Reassign from the shortcut menu. The mesh operation is reassigned to the currently selected objects. select the mesh operation. However. A shortcut menu appears. Right-click the mesh refinement you had previously completed. In the Project tree. Select the object or objects to which you want to reassign the mesh operation.

2.HFSS Online Help Viewing Mesh Properties To view mesh properties. A shortcut menu appears. do the following in the project tree: 1. 12-18 Defining Mesh Operations . Select Properties from the shortcut menu. Under Mesh Operations. right-click the mesh refinement you had previously completed.

you can add a frequency sweep. You can define more than one solution setup per design. if you want the mesh to be refined iteratively in areas of highest error. Each solution setup includes the following information: • • • General data about the solution’s generation. Adaptive mesh refinement parameters. If you want to solve of a range of frequencies.13 Specifying Solution Settings Specify how HFSS or HFSS-IE will compute a solution by adding a solution setup to the design. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Specifying Solution Settings 13-1 .

enter 2 or more passes in the Maximum Number of Passes box. Includes general solution settings. adaptive analysis and solution options. you can Copy and Paste it. do the following: 6. Click HFSS>Analysis Setup>Add Solution Setup . and whether to enable the use of solver domains. and then edit parameters. and then specify the remaining adaptive analysis parameters for HFSS. The Solution Setup dialog box appears. you can click Add Dependent Solve Setup. The Enabled checkbox on General tab permits to you to disable a setup so that it does not run when you select Analyze All. and then click Add Solution Setup on the shortcut menu. select Solve Ports Only. The number must be greater than 0 and less than 20. Includes a list of expressions (including post processing variables) that you can use for convergence for adaptive analysis. a. and waveport adapt options. Enter the Minimum Frequency and the frequency units. For Eigenmode solution types. If you have an existing setup.HFSS Online Help Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design To add a new solution setup to a design: 1. Includes settings for lambda refinement. b. Includes settings for mesh linking. do the following: a. For Eigenmode solutions. It is divided among the following tabs: General Options Advanced Expression Cache Derivatives Defaults 3. Select a design in the project tree. the Order of Basis setting. 4. entering 0 will enable 13-2 Specifying Solution Settings . 2. absorbing boundaries on ports. If you are performing an adaptive analysis. b. Click the General tab. Enables you to save the current settings as the defaults for future solution setups or revert the current settings to HFSS’s standard settings. Optionally. Enter the Solution Frequency and select the frequency units from the pull down list. right click Analysis in the project tree. if you are not performing an adaptive analysis. For Driven solution types. Enter a Setup Name or accept the default. they are listed here. • • • Alternatively. Enter the Number of Modes. If your design contains variables. If you have already created a solution and you want to use an existing mesh. and Thermal Feedback from Ansys Mechanical. 5. HFSS can calculate derivatives for your variables.

8. For driven problems HFSS always requires at least one adaptive pass. add a frequency sweep to the solution setup. Optionally. 7. Entering 1 will also bypass adaptive analysis. Related Topics Add Dependent Solve Setup Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters for HFSS Technical Notes: The HFSS Solution Process Copying a Solution Setup Renaming a Solution Setup Specifying Solution Settings 13-3 . generating a solution only at the solution frequency you specified.HFSS Online Help you to bypass the adaptive analysis process and just perform a frequency sweep. Click OK.

This is shown under the Advanced tab of the Solution Setup dialog. Select an existing setup in the project tree. you do this just as you would for a new setup. You can add a dependent setup to another dependent setup. 2.HFSS Online Help Add Dependent Solve Setup For driven setups (not Eigenmode). Related Topics Specifying Solution Settings 13-4 Specifying Solution Settings . The Enabled checkbox on General tab permits to you to disable a setup so that it does not run when you select Analyze All. which has an altered graphic to distinguish it from the parent setup icon. the Analyze command on the shortcut menu for the Project tree is disabled and the Enable Setup command is available. The dependent setup uses the mesh from the parent setup. to apply all settings from an existing setup to a child setup: 1. A dependent setup icon appears. and form of the name shows the hierarchical dependence by appending "_1" to show further dependence. If you intend to change any of the settings. Right click on the setup in the project tree." All of the settings from the parent setup are copied to the child setup. and then click Add Dependent Solve Setup on the shortcut menu. The child setup name is "parent_setup name_1. If a solve is disabled. Specifying a Source for the initial mesh.

Related Topics: Copying a Solution Setup Specifying Solution Settings 13-5 . You can also rename the solution setup by changing the text in the Name text box of the appropriate Solve Setup dialog box. In the project tree. 3. A shortcut menu appears. under Analysis. right-click the setup you want to rename. and press Enter. Select Rename from the shortcut menu.HFSS Online Help Renaming a Solution Setup Do the following to rename a solution setup: 1. The setup name text is highlighted in the project tree. Type the new name for the setup. 2.

3. right-click on the Analysis folder to receive the copied setup. 2. Select Paste from the shortcut menu. In the project tree. A shortcut menu appears. Do the following to copy a solution setup: 1. A shortcut menu appears. The setup parameters are copied to the Analysis folder as a new setup. under Analysis. The setup parameters are copied to the clipboard. In the project tree. or where minor changes to a setup are being evaluated. Related Topics: Renaming a Solution Setup 13-6 Specifying Solution Settings . Select Copy from the shortcut menu. right-click the setup you want to copy. 4.HFSS Online Help Copying a Solution Setup Solution setups may be copied and pasted within a design or across designs of the same type. This is beneficial for setups having a large number of parameters to specify.

HFSS Online Help Setting the Solution Frequency For Driven solution types. specify the frequency and units at which to generate the solution. • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. enter a value for Solution Frequency and select the frequency units from the pull down list. an adaptive analysis is performed only at the solution frequency. Specifying Solution Settings 13-7 . If you want to solve over a range of frequencies. define a frequency sweep. Note For Fast sweeps. HFSS uses the solution frequency as the center frequency if it is within the frequency range (greater than the start frequency and less than the stop frequency. For every Driven solution setup.) Otherwise the middle of the frequency range is used as the center frequency. If a frequency sweep is solved.

These 2D field patterns serve as boundary conditions for the full 3D problem. This disables the remaining settings for Maximum number of passes and Convergence per pass.HFSS Online Help Solving for Ports Only For Driven solution types with ports. Related Topics Port Field Display Technical Notes: Port Solutions 13-8 Specifying Solution Settings . To quickly compute only the 2D excitation field patterns. HFSS calculates the natural field patterns (or modes) that can exist inside a transmission structure with the same cross-section as the port. impedances. select Solve Ports Only. and propagation constants at each port: • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box.

do not enter a frequency less than 0. or default. specify the minimum frequency at which to search for eigenmodes. HFSS searches for the user-specified number of modes with a higher resonant frequency than the Minimum Frequency value. Warning Because the minimum frequency is used to normalize some matrices.01 times the suggested. As a general rule. The variable is listed in the Setup and in the Design Properties. For every Eigenmode solution setup. Specifying Solution Settings 13-9 . This displays the Add Variable dialog for you to enter the value and units. Click OK to close the dialog. value for Minimum Frequency. You can set the Minimum frequency as a variable by typing a name in the field and pressing Enter. HFSS tries to solve a nearly-singular matrix. which may erode the accuracy of the calculations.HFSS Online Help Setting the Minimum Frequency For Eigenmode solution types. if the frequency is set too low. • • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. type a Minimum Frequency and the frequency units.

• Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. 13-10 Specifying Solution Settings . enter a value for Number of Modes. For every Eigenmode solution setup. specify the number of eigenmode solutions that the solver finds. the solver calculates the first 5 eigenmode solutions above the minimum frequency.HFSS Online Help Setting the Number of Modes For Eigenmode solution types. The Eigenmode solver can find up to 20 eigenmode solutions. If you enter 5.

you can edit the following settings: • • • • • • • • Under the Advanced tab of the Solution Setup. if the maximum number of passes has been completed. If the maximum numSpecifying Solution Settings 13-11 . the adaptive analysis stops. you can create and manage expressions to use for adaptive convergence. whether to Use Radiation Boundary on Ports and Min/Max Port Triangle settings) Linked Solve options. you can edit the following settings. current sources. incident waves. depending on the solution type. Converge on Real Frequency Only. define the following parameters under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box: • • • • Maximum Number of Passes Maximum Delta S or Use Matrix convergence (for designs with ports). Related Topics HFSS-IE Feature Setting the Maximum Number of Passes The Maximum Number of Passes value is the maximum number of mesh refinement cycles that you would like HFSS to perform. This value is a stopping criterion for the adaptive solution. Maximum Delta Energy for convergence per pass (for designs with voltage sources. Under the Derivatives tab of the Solution Setup. Lambda Refinement Maximum Refinement Per Pass Maximum Refinement Minimum Number of Passes Minimum Number of Converged Passes Order of Basis functions Enable Iterative Solver and associated Relative Residual Setting Enable Use of Solver Domains Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. including no Link. Here you can set matrix values for convergence. including maximum delta for Mag S and Phase S. For Eigenmode solutions. or magnetic bias).HFSS Online Help Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters for HFSS When you set up an adaptive analysis. you can: • Specify which variables to use for calculating derivatives. specify Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass and. if desired. Enable Thermal Feedback from ANSYS Mechanical Under the Expression Cache tab of the Solution Setup. • • • • Initial Mesh Options for mesh linking Port options (Maximum Delta Zo.

modal or terminal . Entering 1 will bypass adaptive analysis. Note Delta S is computed on the appropriate S-parameters . Delta S data is available only after HFSS completes two iterations of the adaptive analysis process. To set the maximum delta S per adaptive pass: • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. the adaptive analysis stops. the adaptive analysis will continue unless the convergence criteria are reached. current sources. To set the maximum number of passes for an adaptive analysis: • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. Not applicable to designs with ports. enter a value for Maximum Number of Passes. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Viewing the Maximum Magnitude of Delta S Between Passes Technical Notes: Maximum Delta S Setting the Maximum Delta Energy Per Pass For designs with voltage sources. Otherwise. The value you set for Maximum Delta S is a stopping criterion for the adaptive solution. For driven problems HFSS always requiring at least one adaptive pass. 13-12 Specifying Solution Settings . generating a solution only at the solution frequency you specified. incident waves or magnetic bias or Transient Solutions for Field Visualization. enter a value for Maximum Delta S. Setting the maximum number of passes too high can result in HFSS requesting more memory than is available or taking excessive time to compute solutions.after the Sparameters have been de-embedded and renormalized. Note The size of the finite element mesh — and the amount of memory required to generate a solution — increases with each adaptive refinement of the mesh. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Setting the Maximum Delta S Per Pass For designs with ports or Transient Solutions for Device Characterization.HFSS Online Help ber of passes has not been completed. If the magnitude of the change of all S-parameters are less than this value from one iteration to the next. The delta S is the magnitude of the change of the S-parameters between two consecutive passes. it continues until the requested number of passes is completed.

Otherwise. select Converge on Real Frequency Only. the adaptive analysis stops. To set the maximum delta Energy per adaptive pass: • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. To set the Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass: • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog. Delta Energy data is available only after HFSS completes two iterations of the adaptive analysis process. enter a value for Maximum Delta Energy. enter a value for Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass. If the difference in the Specifying Solution Settings 13-13 .HFSS Online Help The delta Energy is the difference in the relative energy error from one adaptive solution to the next. Selecting Converge on Real Frequency Only causes the percent difference calculation among a set of frequencies to be based only on the real parts of the frequencies. • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. Otherwise. it continues until the convergence criteria are reached. The Max Delta or the Max Percent Delta defined for expression convergence represents the difference in values of the expressions between consecutive adaptive passes. it continues until the maximum number of passes is completed. Delta Frequency data is available only after HFSS completes two iterations of the adaptive analysis. Specifying Expressions for Adaptive Convergence You can specify additional convergence criteria through the use of expressions and output variables. The value you set for Maximum Delta Energy is a stopping criterion for the adaptive solution. the adaptive analysis stops. the imaginary parts of the frequencies are ignored. The value you set for Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass is a stopping criterion for the adaptive solution. Related Topics Viewing the Delta Magnitude Energy Technical Notes: Maximum Delta Energy Setting the Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass For Eigenmode solution types The delta Frequency is the percentage difference between calculated eigenmode frequencies from one adaptive pass to the next. If the delta Energy falls below this value. If the eigenmode frequencies change by a percentage amount less than this value from one pass to the next. Related Topics Specifying Convergence on Real Frequency Only Specifying Convergence on Real Frequency Only For Eigenmode solution types.

. the adaptive analysis stops. you do not need context other than the Solution. you can use the Range Function button to select range functions to apply to the expres- 13-14 Specifying Solution Settings . For eigenmode solutions. • For driven solutions. or alternate matrix convergence criteria are achieved in addition to any specified expression convergence criteria. Click the Expression Cache tab in the Solution Setup and click the Add. the solution continues until the requested number of passes is completed. Other selections require more context: • • • 4. If desired. the adaptive analysis stops. For Modal Solution Data. you can see them listed as Quantities by selecting the Output Variables Category. Maximum Delta E. the solution continues until the requested number of passes is completed. Otherwise. 3. When you have created an expression.HFSS Online Help value of the expression between consecutive passes is less than the Max Delta or the Max Percent Delta value this part of the convergence criteria is satisfied. Emission Test also requires a digital signal. • To set expressions as Convergence criteria: 1. If you have defined one or more output variables. Quantity and Function lists to create expressions. Specify the context for the expression you define. Selecting a listed category lists the Quantities and Functions available for each category.. Far Field field also requires a geometry such as an infinite sphere. Fields or Near Fields also require a geometry such as a polyline. select from the Category. if the Maximum Delta S. 2. it appears in the Expression field of the Trace tab. Otherwise. button to open the Add to Expression Cache dialog. Under the Trace tab. Double-click on the setup icon in the Project tree to open the Solution Setup dialog. if the Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass criteria is achieved in addition to any specified expression convergence criteria. The Output Variables button opens a dialog that lets you define additional output variables.

When you have added the expressions you want. This adds the selected expression and the associated context to a table in the Expression Cache tab. With PP Variables. The Expression field shows the full expression. You can also assign a PP Variable to a coordinate system (CS) that is not associated with model objects. click Done to close the Add to Expression Cache dialog. If necessary.. the properties of a solid. The PP Variables column contains a checkbox that lets you designate post processing variables. If the button shows variables. and assign the expression value in the Expression Cache. click the ellipsis [. 5. but removing underscores. you can resize the Solution Setup dialog. • • • • The Title field is editable.] button in the Edit column opens a list of values.. You can also use this feature to assign variables to non-model objects (for example. You can select any additional expressions with contexts and add them in the same way. sheet or lines used for field calculations). you can view the values of available sweep variables. If the column button shows None you cannot edit the value. When you have created an expression that you want to add to the cache. by default showing the name as built from the expression. Under the Calculation Range tab. To excite particular sources for particular output variables. You can also resize each column in the table. Clicking the ellipsis [. you can assign a post process variable to the magnitude of sources you might want to edit. The Expression Cache tab of the Solution Setup lists the expressions you have added as a table.. or the appropriate geometry for Fields calculations. • The Intrinsics column shows a clickable button that opens an Edit Calculation Range dialog..HFSS Online Help sion. The Context column shows None for Modal solutions. click the Add Calculation button. you can control convergence based on several combinations of active sources. 6. such as for renormalization or deembedding.] in the Edit column to display a list of the variable values Specifying Solution Settings 13-15 .

] button to open a file browser window. When you selected the project. Note that when you setup a link to an external source. Related Topics Viewing Convergence Data Viewing the Output Variable Convergence Specifying Output Variables Specifying a Source for the Initial Mesh You may choose to specify a source for the initial mesh from either the current design or another design. 8. you enable fields for selecting a different project and radio buttons to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the selected project or This project. Under the Advanced tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. By default.. click the field for the Convergence column for each expression. the Source Project checkboxes for Use This Project and the Source Design checkbox for Use This Design are selected. This displays the Setup Link dialog. The Max Delta solves a potential issue if your expression is essentially zero and the numeric noise from pass to pass causes the maximum percentage delta to remain high. To specify a Source Project file click the ellipsis [. the Lamda refinement option is deselected under the Options tab to avoid over-refinement of the linked mesh. Click OK to close the Edit Calculation Range dialog and apply your selections to the Expression Cache. You can then specify the Max Delta between passes or the Max Percent Delta criteria. To designate one or more expressions for convergence. 2. If you uncheck Use This Project. Check Use this expression for convergence to enable the radio buttons. This opens an Adaptive Convergence dialog.HFSS Online Help that you can select. click the checkbox for Import Mesh. To specify a source for the initial mesh: 1. The source mesh should represent a geometrically equivalent model. 13-16 Specifying Solution Settings . In that case adaptive refinement continues until you get to the maximum number of passes. click the Open button to accept the project file for the setup. 7. Click OK to close the Solution Setup dialog..

Specifying Solution Settings 13-17 . you can choose to "map" these variables to constant values. Extractor mode means that the software is opened during the link solely for the purpose of solving. For the Source Solution field. if you leave Use This Project checked. the adaptive frequency for the target design must be included in the sweep in the source design. When there are variables in the source design. lets you view any variables contained in the Project you select. That is. 4. Use the radio buttons to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the selected project or This project. the source project will be saved upon exit. the Design field and the Solution field are filled in with default values. 6. Use the checkbox specify whether to Force source design to solve in the absence of linked data in the target design. Variable Mapping. it is "Transient. When you select a Project File. In most products. If necessary. In a Transient solution type. you can use the dropdown menu to select from other possible solutions. The second tab. Note that in the Extractor mode. The "Default" solution is the product dependent solution of the first Setup. Variable mapping becomes more important when the datalink type requires source and target design to be geometrically identi- 7. you can open the source design and add an appropriate frequency point to an existing sweep. and the drop down menus contain any available Projects and solutions. 5. you can uncheck Use This Design to enable the a dropdown menu for to select from other available designs. Use the checkbox to specify whether to preserve the source design solution. A product specific solution of this setup becomes the default solution. it is LastAdaptive. That is the setup listed first in the source design's project tree (alphanumerical order). expressions or variables in the target designs." Note The solution in the source design must provide data for the target design's adaptive frequency as well as its sweeps.HFSS Online Help You can use the checkbox to Open as read only. For the Source Design. 3.

whereas the variable does not have a same named counterpart. Click OK to proceed without the variable mapping.HFSS Online Help cal and source design is geometrically parameterized. You can exit the Setup Link dialog directly by selecting "Accept Setup and Exit Dialog" or reexamine the parameter mapping by selecting "Return to Setup Dialog". In the Setup Link dialog. When a variable in the target design has the same name of a source design variable but the 2 variables are not mapped. you can click Map Variables by Name to automatically map same named variables. the Parameter tab will become the active tab with the following message box popped. 13-18 Specifying Solution Settings . and retains its value in the source design. In this example the variables height and weight are mapped to the Source. for linked designs with variables of the same name.

which displays a dialog that includes options that let you selectively delete linked data only. Clearing linked data for some link types requires HFSS to revert to the initial mesh. Related Topics Deleting Solution Data Setting Lambda Refinement Lambda refinement is the process of refining the initial mesh based on the material-dependent wavelength.HFSS Online Help 8. If you have previously setup links to a design. select Do Lambda Refinement.3333. For Port Adapt. If you select the Use Current Mesh From option under the Advanced tab. The target design for the link caches these data internally to minimize the need to activate the source design. the Do Lamda Refinement fields remain enabled so that you can select it if desired. Click OK to accept the setup and close the Setup dialog box. You can select the Additional mesh refinements tab to specify the following: • • 9. which means that HFSS will refine the mesh until most element lengths are approximately one-third wavelength. this command removes the current mesh of the target design.2 If you change the Order of Basis functions in the Solution Setup dialog. field or some other post-processing data that the source design generated. For Mesh Operations. therefore invalidating the solutions. This enables the Target field and the Use free space lambda check box. Do Lamda Refinement is deselected. You can also clear linked data through HFSS>Results>Clean Up Solutions. 2. For example. If you make the Specify Use Current Mesh From selection as the Current design. It is recommended and selected by default. the default target is 0. To specify the size of target value by which HFSS will refine the mesh: 1. This removes the linked data for all links in a design. the default target is 0. The Target defaults depend on the Order of Basis function selections. you can check Perform port adapt in target solve setup. Setting the Order of Basis affects the default value of the Lambda Refinement Specifying Solution Settings 13-19 . Related Topics Clear Linked Data Setting Lambda Refinement Clearing Linked Data Linked data can be mesh. for Driven solutions and a First Order basis function. Thus in some cases. you can select radio buttons to either Apply mesh operation in target design on the imported mesh. the Do Lamda Refinement fields are disabled. the default changes automatically. Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. or as part of other deletions. or Ignore mesh operations in target design (default). If you make the Specify Use Current Mesh From selection as Other design and Setup the Link. For eigenmode solutions and a First Order basis function. the HFSS>Analysis Setup menu contains an option to Clear Linked Data. Enter a value for the wavelength in the Target field or accept the defaults.

2. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Setting the Percent Maximum Refinement Per Pass The value you set for percent Maximum Refinement Per Pass determines how many tetrahedra are added at each iteration of the adaptive refinement process. Material-dependent lambda refinement will be deactivated.3333. This enables the Target field and the Use free space lambda check box. The default value is 30%.6667 eigenmode 0.6667 If you want the initial mesh to be refined based on the wavelength in free space. Material-dependent lambda refinement will be deactivated. driven 0. Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. Zero order: First order: Second order: Mixed order 3.1. The tetrahedra with the highest error will be refined. To specify the size of wavelength by which HFSS-IE will refine the mesh: 1.HFSS Online Help in the Solution setups as follows.1 eigenmode 0. driven 0. To set the percent refinement per adaptive pass: 13-20 Specifying Solution Settings . If you want the initial mesh to be refined based on the wavelength in free space. It is recommended and selected by default.6667.2 (as is) eigenmode 0. Note Changing the Lambda refinement target invalidates any solutions that were performed with the previous lambda refinement. Note Related Topics Setting the Max Order of Solution Basis Specifying a Source for the Initial Mesh Setting Lambda Refinement for HFSS-IE Lambda refinement is the process of refining the initial mesh based on the material-dependent wavelength. select Do Lambda Refinement. driven 0. driven 0.4 eigenmode 0. Changing the Lambda refinement target invalidates any solutions that were performed with the previous lambda refinement. select Use free space lambda. select Use free space lambda. Enter a value for the wavelength in the Target field or accept the defaults.

to that there is no maximum. By default. this unchecked.HFSS Online Help • Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. Note For a solve setup with zero passes. Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. click the Maximum Refinement checkbox to enable the text field. and that is not ports only. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Setting the Minimum Number of Converged Passes An adaptive analysis will not stop unless the minimum number of converged passes you specify has been completed. enter a value for percent Maximum Refinement Per Pass. you can click the checkbox for Use Max Refinement to apply the value in the Max Refinement text field. Enter the number of tetrahedra for Maximum Refinement. With the properties window displayed. no sweeps. Specifying Solution Settings 13-21 . validation produces a warning message. • Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. • Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. If you enable the Maximum Refinement. Related Topics Technical Notes: Percent of Tetrahedra Refined Per Pass Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Setting the Maximum Refinement This specifies the maximum number of tetrahedra that can be added during an adaptive pass. The convergence criteria must be met for at least this number of passes before the adaptive analysis will stop. Setting the Minimum Number of Passes An adaptive analysis will not stop unless the minimum number of passes you specify has been completed. the initial value is 1000000. You can also control these values in the docked properties window that displays when you select the setup with the View>Properties enabled. even if convergence criteria have been met. enter a value for Minimum Converged Passes. 2. To set a new value for the Maximum Refinement: 1. enter a value for Minimum Number of Passes.

Matrix Entry 2. a table showing columns for Matrix Entry 1. 3. to enable the convergence criteria field or fields. For both of these Entry Selections. Entry 1 and Entry 2 fields which contain drop down lists of ports and associated modes (or terminals).HFSS Online Help Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Setting Matrix Convergence Criteria For designs with ports. select Use Matrix Convergence. the Matrix Convergence dialog displays some new fields: • • • a. in degrees. do the following: 13-22 Specifying Solution Settings . Off-Diagonal Entries. You can specify different stopping criteria for specific entries in the S-matrix. If you chose Selected Entries. b. (The default). The adaptive analysis will continue until the magnitude and phase of the entries change by an amount less than the specified criteria from one pass to the next. Then enter the convergence criteria for the Maximum Delta (Mag S) and the Maximum Delta (Phase S) in the fields to the right. Click Set Magnitude and Phase. Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. To set the matrix convergence: 1. Select one of the following from the Entry Selections pull-down list: All Diagonal/OffDiagonal Selected Entries Sets all of the matrix entries at once. For the selection Diagonal/Off-Diagonal. enter the maximum change in magnitude from pass to pass from the Entry 1 to Entry 2. See the note on technical issues under step 4 c. or both diagonal and off diagonal entries at once. 2. This is done in the Matrix Convergence dialog box. c. The Matrix Convergence dialog box appears. In the Phase box. For the selection All. To select the desired ports and mode (or terminal) pairs. enter the convergence criteria for the Maximum Delta (Mag S) and the Maximum Delta (Phase S) in the fields to the right. enter the maximum change in phase. you can set the Ignore Phase when Mag is less than value. Sets all of the diagonal matrix entries at once. first check Diagonal Entries. Sets individual matrix entries that you will select. or both. an Insert button with which to move selections from the port list selections to the table Select Entry 1 and Entry 2 from their drop down lists. 4. or until the number of requested passes is completed. and the Delta Mag and Delta Phase. all off-diagonal matrix entries at once. from pass to pass from Entry 1 to Entry 2. In the Magnitude box.

S12 will converge.3333. This calls for caution if you want to see a good phase convergence for S12 which is near to 1. Related Topics Viewing the Magnitude Margin Viewing the Phase Margin Viewing Delta (Mag S) Viewing Delta (Phase S) Setting the Order of Basis Functions You can change the basis functions HFSS uses to interpolate field values from nodal values. if you need to remove a row from the table. • Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. Clicking in the Delta Mag and Delta Row fields of the selected row enables editing in those fields. select Order of Basis. Zero order: First order: Second order: Mixed order driven 0. Click OK to close apply the values and close the dialog.2 (as is) eigenmode 0.HFSS Online Help Note: When the Mag S becomes small (near to zero) its phase becomes indefinite and insignificant due to mathematical issues.1 eigenmode 0. In HFSS 10 and 11 there was a 0. but the model size is small compared to wavelength. For this reason.6667. However. or Mixed order. If you have selected multiple entries. Click Insert. d. the magnitude threshold has been removed. so you should abort it. under these conditions the adaptive process never stops. Second Order. driven 0. In other words. If you set a small delta_phi with small delta_s. Zero Order. driven 0. This can be First Order (the default).4 eigenmode 0. all combinations of matrix entry1 and matrix entry2 populate the table. 5. Selecting a Row in the table enables the Delete button. driven 0.1. but S11 never.6667 eigenmode 0. The higher order options solve pro- Specifying Solution Settings 13-23 .000 tetrahedra. since S11 ~0 and its phase changes with the mesh noise because the phase is indefinite. The entries appear in the table above.6667 The Zero order option is useful when a model requires a mesh that produces more than 100. some users may want to continue running additional passes to stabilize phase margins even when the S-parameter magnitude is below this threshold. Setting the Order of Basis functions affects the default value of the Lambda Refinement in the Solution setups as follows.05 magnitude threshold that caused that Phase Margin to be discarded. after a couple of passes.

and lower order where fields are weaker. HFSS automatically invokes the iterative solver when it decides that the matrix is conditioned well enough to take advantage of the iterative approach. HFSS uses the multi-frontal solver if the matrix does not meet this requirement. On the Solution Setup dialog. To enable the Iterative solver: 1. 2. The number of domains that the solver creates is at least one less than the number of distributed machines available in the pool. and you must have allocated at least three distributed machines to the solve pool. Related Topics Technical Notes: Iterative Matrix Solver Enable Use of Solver Domains If a problem is too large to solve on one machine HFSS can automatically partition a design into domains that can be solved by separate processes. For more detail. check the Enable Iterative Solver check box. Options tab. all tetrahedra in the model must have edge lengths less than 1/20th wavelength. Domain use can be invoked for a solve when • The Enable Use of Solver Domains check box under the Solution Setup Options tab is 13-24 Specifying Solution Settings . When you select the Enable Iterative Solver option. The first machine in the list acts as a master node that performs the meshing and domain iteration but does not solve a domain. The residual measures the convergence of the iterative solver. this option is usually selected in combination with a specific lambda refinement setting. see the technical notes for Iterative Matrix Solver. Note The Iterative Solver is not available for zero order basis solutions. Related Topics Technical Notes: Basis Functions Setting Lambda Refinement Enable Iterative Solver Enable Iterative Solver The iterative solver provides an alternative to the multi-frontal solver when a matrix is well-conditioned for an iterative solution. The iterative solver significantly reduces memory usage. you must have the distributed solve option. and it can also provide a savings in the solution time for large simulations. Warning If you select Zero Order Solution Basis. Mixed order uses higher order where more accuracy is required. This enables the Relative Residual checkbox. The default value is 1E-4. Enter a value for the Relative Residual. Before enabling solver domains.HFSS Online Help gressively more unknowns for each tetrahedra. Thus.

Mixed order basis. based on the machines available. Fast frequency sweeps. Because the domains should be roughly the same size. When these conditions are met: • • • The solver chooses the number of domains to use. Related Topics HFSS Options: Solver Tab General Options: Analysis Options tab Configuring Distributed Analysis Selecting an Optimal Configuration for Distributed Analysis Balancing Resources for Solver Domains Technical Notes: Domain Decomposition Method Balancing Resources for Solver Domains The Use Solver Domains option for large models requires that you provide resources for the distributed solve by adding machines to the distributed machine pool.HFSS Online Help checked. the problem is solved with the non-domain solver defined under the solution options. Specifying Solution Settings 13-25 . If you want up to five domains. you should provide balanced resources. Restrictions on solver domains are that the design and analysis setup cannot include: • • • • If any condition is not met. it makes sense to enter Patriot in the pool four times and Cutlass once. Because the domains should be roughly the same size. The number of domains chosen will likely be close to the maximum. The maximum is one less than the total because the first machine in the pool is used to control domain iterations. Eigenmode solution type. A machine can appear in the pool more than once. As an example of balancing the load. suppose that machine called Patriot has 256 GB and another called Cutlass has 64 GB. The solver creates the domain meshes of roughly the same size Domain meshes are created every time the global mesh changes (before each adaptive pass) Note • • You provide resources for the distributed solve by adding machines to the distributed machine pool. you should provide balanced resources. You should use this capability to maintain a balanced load. • • You have provided at least three distributed machines in the pool The solver determines that the problem is large enough (the mesh has enough tets) to bother with domains. The design cannot contain master and slave boundaries.

the Minimum and Maximum fields are enabled. Higher numbers of triangles would not benefit a solution setup in this case. Related Topics HFSS Options: Solver Tab General Options: Analysis Options tab Configuring Distributed Analysis Selecting an Optimal Configuration for Distributed Analysis Technical Notes: Domain Decomposition Method Use Radiation Boundary on Ports If the design includes waveports. The user should use this capability to maintain a balanced load. For designs with lumped ports. The first machine in the pool is used to control domain iterations. If you check Set Triangles for Wave Port. Recommendation: it is more important to use memory efficiently than to use all the processors. In the example above. a perfect conducting boundary condition is used during the port calculations. the Number of Processors is also set per domain. Four processors on Cutlass will be unused. Port Options If the design includes waveports. Under HFSS Options. you should set the Desired RAM Limit (Mem_Limit_Soft) to the memory desired for each individual domain. Four domains will go on Patriot. Remember: • • • A machine can appear in the pool more than once. a good choice for Mem_Limit_Soft would be 64 GB.unchecked by default. this option is not active. Use Radiation Boundaries on Ports Set Triangles for Wave Port . the Use Radiation Boundary on Ports option is enabled under the Advanced options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. In the example above. In most cases this setting has a limited effect on the overall fields or post processed quantities. the Port Options options appear under the Advanced options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. These options include: • • • Maximum Delta Zo . You can edit the default values of 100 for the minimum and 500 for the maximum. edges which are assigned to ABC and touch a port have an radiation boundary condition applied during the port solution.HFSS Online Help Under HFSS Options. If you do not select the setting. 13-26 Specifying Solution Settings . so Number of Processors should be set to 4. The default is 2%. • • If you select this setting. a machine named Patriot has 16 processors and a machine named Cutlass has 8 processors.change to Zo specified as a target percentage.

. If you check Enable Thermal feedback from ANSYS Mechanical. to be used Specifying Solution Settings 13-27 . for this kind of project. a new file centroid. Within that directory. It will enable you later in the two-way thermal process to export a temperature distribution from ANSYS Workbench to HFSS or Maxwell. You need to make this selection before solving. Select it if you intend to use the two-way thermal link between HFSS or Maxwell and ANSYS Workbench. a .HFSS Online Help Enable Thermal Feedback from ANSYS Mechanical This option appears on the Advanced tab of the Solution Setup.xml is written. Before the first HFSS or Maxwell solve.THM subdirectory to the solution directory for the Project involved will be created will be created when Workbench imports the results from HFSS or Maxwell. you set an initial value for temperature dependent objects.

HFSS Online Help for later mapping.ths in the same Project subdirectory. 13-28 Specifying Solution Settings . The ANSYS Workbench 12 subsequently exports the temperature information to a file named mechanical.

for Optimetrics. To have HFSS calculate derivatives for any of these variables: 1. plus the derivatives contain all the information needed for you to approximate the solution for small variations in the design. Specifying Solution Settings 13-29 . Furthermore. Derivatives can be used through the Tune Reports command for interactive exploration of small variations in the design. the Derivatives tab of the Solution Setup lists them.HFSS Online Help ANSY Workbench 12 includes a command to Export Results. the SNLP optimizer will take advantage of the derivatives when they are available. The "nominal" solution. without you having to solve again. Open the Derivatives tab of the Solution Setup For the desired variable. Related Topics Export Transfer File for ANSYS Re-solving After ANSYS Thermal Link Feedback Produce Derivatives for Selected Variables If your design has variables with specified units. click the checkbox in the Use column. which can reduce the number of simulations needed to find the optimum. 2.

Related Topics Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters Derivative Tuning for Reports 13-30 Specifying Solution Settings . They cannot be used for frequencies and local quantities like fields.HFSS Online Help These derivatives can be used by the Derivative Tuning feature (the Results menu Tune Reports command) in relation to quantities like S-parameters.

HFSS Online Help Adding a Frequency Sweep For Driven solution types. stop. step size. HFSS or HFSS-IE performs the sweep after the adaptive solution. To generate a solution across a range of frequencies. the sweep is the only solution generated. 2. To add a frequency sweep: 1. add a frequency sweep to the solution setup. Specify the following sweep parameters: . Selecting the sweep icon causes the docked properties dialog to show the name.) Specifying Solution Settings 13-31 . Also see the Requirements for Full-Wave SPICE. 3. use the Edit commands to Copy it. whether to Generate fields (All frequencies). If an adaptive solution is not requested. 5. then later reactivate the sweep definition. To use previously saved settings. Fast. Select the solution setup to which the sweep applies and click OK. the copy is named Sweepn. so that you can run only the adaptive solution (or a ports-only solution) without the sweep. click the Use Defaults button. (By default. Click OK. If you plan to perform a Full-Wave SPICE analysis. 6. If you expect to use the same settings often. and sweep type. It also includes an Enabled checkbox. For example. Once you have created a sweep. The Paste command for sweeps is design sensitive (that is. Frequencies to solve. click Time Domain Calculation tool to obtain assistance determining a suitable frequency sweep range for the solutions. a sweeps can only be pasted in a setup. start. You can also right-click on the setup in the Project tree and select Add Sweep from the shortcut menu/ The Edit Sweep dialog box appears. Click HFSS>Analysis Setup>Add Sweep A dialog appears which lists the solution setups. • • • • 4. You can select an existing sweep. and then and Paste the sweep into the Project tree. Whether you want to save the fields (not available for interpolating. you can change a specific parameter. you could assign different start and end points for each copy of the setup. or Interpolating (the default). or for a distributed solve. you can click the Set Defaults button.Discrete. You can also disable a sweep. Sweep type . an icon for the sweep appears in the Project tree under the associated setup.) You can edit the new copies of the sweep to make desired changes. where n increments with each new sweep. which is default) For Fast Sweeps only. you cannot paste between Driven and Eigenmode designs) and context sensitive (for example.

When you select Interpolating sweeps in the Edit Sweep dialog. To use previously saved settings. and other interpolation values.HFSS Online Help Dependent setups are pasted along with the copied setup. the Setup Interpolation options section is activated. Related Topics Technical Notes: Frequency Sweeps Discrete Interpolating (default) 13-32 Specifying Solution Settings . Best when the frequency range is wide and the frequency response is smooth. Best when only a few frequency points are necessary to accurately represent the results in a frequency range. you must use an interpolating sweep. you can click the Set Defaults button. Generates field solutions at specific frequency points in a frequency range. Related Topics Disabling a Frequency Sweep Technical Notes: Frequency Sweeps Selecting the Sweep Type For Driven solution types. For Time Domain Reflectometry plots (TDR). or if the memory requirements of a Fast sweep exceed your resources. and that is not ports only. You are warned if the dependent setup is already in the design and setup is not pasted again. Note For a solve setup with zero passes. no sweeps. A Fast sweep will obtain an accurate representation of the behavior near the resonance. If you expect to use the same settings often. Specify the type of sweep you want to perform in the Edit Sweep dialog box. Estimates a solution for an entire frequency range. validation produces a warning message. Best for models that will abruptly resonate or change operation in the frequency band. This lets you specify a maximum number of solutions. Fast sweeps are disabled if an anisotropic boundary condition is present. Choose one of the following sweep types: Fast Generates a unique full-field solution for each division within a frequency range. click the Use Defaults button. All discrete basis solutions are solved prior to interpolating sweeps because it is possible that an interpolating sweep can re-use already solved frequencies from a discrete sweep.

This value represents the smallest frequency in the sweep for which a full solution is generated. To use previously saved settings. You can view port fields for the discrete frequencies under the port field display in the project tree. If you expect to use the same settings often. By default. you can click the Set Defaults button. fields are not generated. Enter a value for the Minimum Solved Frequency. This has two advantages: (a) It is much faster. it doesn't apply to existing solutions. • DC Extrapolation options 1. (This field is disabled under a Solve Ports Only setup. click the Use Defaults button. Whether to Generate Fields (All Frequencies). the Edit Sweep dialog options you can set include • • • Sweep Name Frequency Setup Whether to Save Fields (for all Frequencies). By default. (b) So post processing is much faster. If you have more than 100 frequencies. HFSS solves the fast sweep and then computes the fields at each freq in the sweep. click the Use Defaults button. you can click the Set Defaults button. 2. To use previously saved settings.HFSS Online Help Options for Discrete Sweeps For Discrete sweeps. Options for Interpolating Sweeps For Interpolating sweeps.) If you expect to use the same settings often. the Edit Sweep dialog options you can set include: • • • • Sweep Name Frequency Setup Whether to Save Fields. and saves them. Enabling this option for a previously solved sweep and re-solving will access the previously solved data and generate the requested fields. By default. Options for Fast Sweeps For Fast sweeps. The default is 100 Mhz. Select Extrapolate to DC to enable the DC Extrapolation options. If you select this option. all fields are saved. checking the box generates a warning that disk space use may be excessive. all frequencies are saved. the Edit Sweep dialog options you can set include: • • • • • Sweep Name Max Solutions Error Tolerance Frequency Setup Interpolation Convergence Specifying Solution Settings 13-33 . Since this option is exercised at solve time.

then once the sweep reaches convergence it simulates at two extra frequencies.unchecked. button to open the Interpolating Sweep Advanced Options dialog. • DC Extrapolation options 1. Setup Interpolating Sweep Advanced Options For HFSS and HFSS-IE Interpolated sweeps. To change the value: type a new value in the Minimum Solutions box. click the Select Entries button to display the Interpolation Basis Convergence dialog. For example. you can click the Set Defaults button. Setting a minimum number of solutions can eliminate non-physical Sparameter spikes and oscillations. 2.checked T-Matrix . • Specify a Minimum Number of Sub Ranges. if the design contains them.checked. The Data Types for Convergence. This number acts as an initial condition on the sweep to force initial even breakup of the null range into subranges.. 3D Solution Interpolating sweeps: • • • • S-Matrix . if this value is three. If you select Use Selected. For example. only the check box for S-Matrix is enabled. Enter a value for the Minimum Solved Frequency. For interpolating sweeps the default is 0. If the step size is greater than that value. it won't go below the step size (assuming the stop frequency is a multiple of step size). This resembles the minimum number of converged adaptive passes in a regular simulation. This value represents the a recommendation for the smallest frequency in the sweep for which a full solution is generated. the 1GHz to 4GHz and the 4GHz to 9 GHz sweeps do not both solve the 4 GHz data point. The default is 100 Mhz. Note If you expect to use the same settings often. and. to Use Selected Entries. Propagation constants . To choose. Derivatives.HFSS Online Help Click the Advanced Options. click the Use Defaults button. You can select Use All Entries (the default). To use previously saved settings. Select Extrapolate to DC to enable the DC Extrapolation options. the Setup Interpolating Sweep Advanced Options dialog lets you specify the following settings for a sweep: • The Minimum Solutions value is the minimum number of converged solutions that will be solved for the frequency range.. not a requirement. 13-34 Specifying Solution Settings . Port Impedance . The end points and middle of each subrange will be solved. HFSS Interpolating Sweep Advanced options incldues addition selections: • • Whether to use all or selected entries in the matrix of data types for the convergence. The Minimum Solved Frequency that you enter is a recommendation. This controls the points at which the interpolating sweep is broken up and prevents redundant effort caused by neighboring interpolating sweeps solving the same point.unchecked. The default selections are: For Driven modal.

click the Use Defaults button. 2.HFSS Online Help For Driven terminal. Note If a driven setup’s ports-only setup changes and then the problem type switches between driven modal and driven terminal. you can also set the Error Tolerance.checked T-Matrix .unchecked Port impedance .unchecked Port impedance . interpolating If you select Derivatives.checked. interpolating For Driven terminal. Propagation constants . Specifying Solution Settings 13-35 .checked.unchecked T-Matrix . Port Impedance . S-Matrix . overriding the tolerance specified in the Edit Sweep dialog. ports-only. Open the Edit Sweep dialog box (by either viewing the properties of an existing Sweep or by Adding a Frequency sweep to an existing Setup). Setting the Error Tolerance For Interpolating sweeps. The Error Tolerance value is the maximum relative difference allowed between two successive interpolation solutions. you can click the Set Defaults button. To set the error tolerance for an Interpolating sweep: 1.checked Propagation constants . The default 0. If you expect to use the same settings often.5 percent for interpolating sweeps is usually satisfactory. Setting the Maximum Number of Solutions For Interpolating sweeps.checked S-Matrix . 3D Solution Interpolating sweeps: • • • • • • • • • • • • S-Matrix .unchecked Propagation constants . ports-only.unchecked T-Matrix .checked. HFSS resets the interpolation basis data types for the interpolating sweep.checked For Driven modal. To use previously saved settings. Type a value in the Error Tolerance box.

and Clear All buttons in connection with the Entry Selection and Mode Selection settings. Clear. For fast sweeps and for interpolating sweeps the default is 250. Select in conjunction with All. The Set button is not enabled unless the available mode selections permit entries to be set. or Off-Diagonal entry selections. Select in conjunction with All. To use previously saved settings. or Off-Diagonal entry selections. Select this to display the Interpolation Basis Convergence dialog. Open the Edit Sweep dialog box (by either viewing the properties of an existing Sweep or by Adding a Frequency sweep to an existing Setup). or Off-Diagonal entry selections. Selects all of the off-diagonal matrix entries at once. If you expect to use the same settings often. Select one of the following from the Entry Selections pull-down list: All Diagonal Off-Diagonal 2. This dialog permits you to specify the convergence basis.HFSS Online Help The Max Solutions value is the maximum number of solutions that will be solved for the frequency range. (The default). Selects only the higher-order mode matrix entries. Type a value in the Max Solutions box and click OK. 2. Note HFSS automatically subdivides the interpolating sweep range so that no single subrange gets too many basis elements. Diagonal. you use the Set. Interpolation Basis Convergence From the Setup Interpolations Basis dialog. This action displays a dropdown menu that lets you select ON or "-". Selects all of the diagonal matrix entries at once. Diagonal. To change the value: 1. 13-36 Specifying Solution Settings . Selects only the dominant mode matrix entries. Selects all of the matrix entries at once. You can also select individual entries in the waveport matrix by clicking on grid cells. The effect is that you can now (if appropriate) request hundreds of basis elements in the Max Solutions box for interpolating sweep setup. you can click the Set Defaults button. click the Use Defaults button. As you select the waveports for convergence. or Off-Diagonal. you may fine-tune the matrix entry selection process by selecting one of the following options from the Mode Selection pull-down list: All Dominant Only Higher Order Only Selects all of the mode matrix entries. 1. For example. Select in conjunction with All. Diagonal. These buttons are enabled when the waveport matrix state and selection settings permit them do something. The Clear button is not enabled until there are entries in the waveport matrix to clear and those selections are permitted by the entry selection. select the Use Selected Entries radio button to enable the Select Entries button. without incurring any basis seeding performance penalty. If you chose All. Diagonal.

Related Topics Change the Value of an Existing Frequency Point Specifying Single Frequency Points Deleting Frequency Points Insert Frequency Points Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Specifying Frequency Points with a Linear Step Size 1.HFSS Online Help 3. higher order). HFSS solves the solution beginning with the frequency entered in the Start box and ending with the frequency entered in the Stop box. type the starting frequency of the frequency sweep. HFSS always solves the frequencies from highest to lowest. 3. and then Set Selection places an ON in the first row. You can also Clear only the entries specified by the Entry and Mode selection settings (such as off-diagonal. particularly if you intend to perform Full-Wave Spice analysis. of points within the frequency range. Individual frequency points. In the Start text box. 2. In the table location corresponding to the selection. click Linear Step in the Type pull-down list. Specify Entry Selections and Mode Selections as desired and click SET. selecting the first element in the row list and the fourth element in the column list. For Discrete sweeps. For Discrete sweeps. In the Stop text box. Click OK to close apply the selections and close the dialog. For example. Specifying Solution Settings 13-37 . Select the type of frequency point entry from the Type pull-down list The Edit Sweep dialog contains a Time Domain Calculation tool that you can use to help calculate frequency step sizes and maximum frequencies. or clear the entire table with the Clear All button. type the ending frequency of the frequency sweep. fourth column. Related Topics Setup Interpolations Basis Specifying the Frequency Points to Solve You can specify the following types of frequency points to solve within a frequency sweep: Linear Step Linear Count LogScale Single Points A linear range of frequency points in which you specify a constant step size. or count. In the Edit Sweep dialog box. You can select one entry at a time via the dropdown in the matrix cell. 4. A linear range of frequency points in which you specify the number. A logarithmic range of frequency points in which you specify a frequency range and a samples number. the dash in the display is replaced by ON. For Discrete sweeps. or click individual waveport cells and select ON.

17. and 20.5. and select Single Points from the Type pull-down list. 12. For Discrete sweeps. type the number of points in the sweep. type the starting frequency of the frequency sweep.5 for the step size for a Discrete sweep instructs HFSS to compute a solution for frequencies of 10. For Fast sweeps. type the ending frequency of the frequency sweep. 4. HFSS will solve the frequency point at each step in the specified frequency range. If the list of frequencies is longer than the visible display. HFSS will divide the frequency range into the count you specify and solve each frequency point in the count. This disables the Save Fields checkbox for the entire sweep. 20 for the stop frequency. HFSS always solves the frequencies from highest to lowest. To view a table of the frequencies and count. In the Count text box. and adds a Save Fields column with a checkbox for each frequency. If want to save the fields for just one or a few Discrete sweep frequencies. and 2. specifying 10 for the start frequency. In the Start text box. 13-38 Specifying Solution Settings . click the Display button. 5.HFSS Online Help 4. HFSS solves the solution beginning with the frequency entered in the Start box and ending with the frequency entered in the Stop box. click the Display button to show a table of frequencies. In the Stop text box. including the start and stop frequencies. 15.5. select Save Fields (All Frequencies) if you want to save the calculated 3D field solutions associated with all port modes at the chosen frequencies. or click the Save Fields column header to check or uncheck all frequencies. For Discrete sweeps. 2. select Save Fields if you want to save the calculated 3D field solutions associated with all port modes at the chosen frequencies. For example. 3. Related Topics Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Specifying Single Frequency Points Deleting Frequency Points Insert Frequency Points Change the Value of an Existing Frequency Point Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Specifying a Linear Count of Frequency Points 1. type the difference between frequency points. In the Step Size box. The count value includes the start and stop values. You can select the Save Fields check box for the desired frequency. you can use a scroll bar to view the list to the end of the count. In the Edit Sweep dialog box. click Linear Count in the Type pull-down list.

4. For Fast sweeps. you can use a scroll bar to view the list to the end of the count. In the Edit Sweep dialog box. HFSS always solves the frequencies from highest to lowest. Specifying Solution Settings 13-39 . In the Stop text box. In the Samples text box. click the Display button to show a table of frequencies.HFSS Online Help To view a table of the frequencies and count. 1. Select Save Fields (All Frequencies) if you want to save the calculated 3D field solutions associated with all port modes at the chosen frequencies. For Discrete sweeps. Related Topics Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Specifying Single Frequency Points Deleting Frequency Points Insert Frequency Points Change the Value of an Existing Frequency Point Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Specifying a Logarithmic Spaced Frequency Sweep For Discrete sweeps. HFSS solves the solution beginning with the frequency entered in the Start box and ending with the frequency entered in the Stop box. type the ending frequency of the frequency sweep. To view a table of the frequencies and count. You can select the Save Fields check box for the desired frequency. For Discrete sweeps. If the list of frequencies is longer than the visible display. If the list of frequencies is longer than the visible display. If want to save the fields for just one or a few Discrete sweep frequencies. 2. This disables the Save Fields checkbox for the entire sweep. click the Display button. HFSS always solves the frequencies from highest to lowest. and adds a Save Fields column with a checkbox for each frequency. For Discrete sweeps. specify the number of frequency points to sample. click the Display button. 3. select Save Fields (All Frequencies) if you want to save the calculated 3D field solutions associated with all port modes at the chosen frequencies. or click the Save Fields column header to check or uncheck all frequencies. type the starting frequency of the frequency sweep. select Save Fields if you want to save the calculated 3D field solutions associated with all port modes at the chosen frequencies. In the Start text box. 5. you can use a scroll bar to view the list to the end of the count. HFSS assigns the sampled points using intervals based on a logarithmic scale. and select Single Points from the Type pull-down list. 5. click LogScale in the Type pull-down list.

A check mark in the Save Fields column indicates that the fields for the point will be saved. 4. click Single Points in the Type pull-down list. HFSS always solves the frequencies from highest to lowest. click the check box in the Save Fields column. 2. If the list of frequencies is longer than the visible display. . Click Insert. The Frequency setup changes to single point mode. type a desired frequency point. Click the Display button in the Edit Sweep dialog to show the frequency and count table for the sweep. Related Topics Change the Value of an Existing Frequency Point Deleting Frequency Points Insert Frequency Points Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Change the Value of an Existing Frequency Point To change the value of an existing frequency point in a discrete sweep in the Edit Sweep dialog: 1.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Specifying Single Frequency Points Deleting Frequency Points Insert Frequency Points Change the Value of an Existing Frequency Point Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Specifying Single Frequency Points For Discrete sweeps. This enables the Insert button. For Discrete sweeps. and then select the frequency units. To specify Single Frequency points: 1. Repeat steps 2 . In the Edit Sweep dialog box. In the Single text box. 13-40 Specifying Solution Settings 2.4 for each frequency point you want to solve. 3. The point is added to the Frequency column to the right. The Frequency setup changes to single point mode. you can use a scroll bar to view the list to the end of the count. Select Single Points from the Type pull-down list in the Edit Sweep dialog. Optionally.

5. Select Save Fields if you want to save the calculated 3D field solutions associated with all port modes at that frequency. 4. you must click the Display button in the Edit Sweep dialog to show the frequency and count table for the sweep. Select the row containing the frequency you do not want to solve. Either select the text field in the Frequency column and edit an existing value field directly. 4. They can be inserted individually to a new display. Select Single Points from the Type pull-down list in the Edit Sweep dialog. you can use a scroll bar to view the list to the end of the count. or delete specific frequency points that you want to solve in the frequency range. 2. or to an existing display of uniform frequency points. Edit the value in the Single Text box. or: a. Related Topics Specifying Single Frequency Points Inserting Frequency Points Change the Value of an Existing Frequency Point Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Inserting Frequency Points For Discrete sweeps. You can select multiple frequencies with SHIFT-click or CTRL-click. Repeat for changing additional points. Click Delete. or log scale range you want. c. This enables the Change button. This enables the Delete button. Select the Frequency row that you want to change. use the Frequency setup of the Edit Sweep dialog to define the linear step. 1. To pre-specify an initial uniform range of frequency points. The Frequency setup changes to single point mode. and delete all. If the list of frequencies is longer than the visible display. you can insert. and click Specifying Solution Settings 13-41 . 3. change.HFSS Online Help 3. Related Topics Specifying Single Frequency Points Deleting Frequency Points Insert Frequency Points Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Deleting Frequency Points 1. b. linear count. To delete a single frequency point from a sweep. Click the Change button to replace the selected Frequency row value with the Single Text box value.

This enables the Insert and Change button. 6. type a desired frequency point in the frequency units. To perform the calculation of suitable frequencies to solve: 1. Note that selecting a row highlights it and enables the Delete button under the Insert button. You can also select. The frequency points table now includes another column that contains a Save Field checkbox for each row. Type a minimum rise time value in the Signal Rise Time box. and clicked the Display button. If you previously specified a range of frequency points. Clicking the cursor in the Frequency columns of the frequency points table makes their values editable. the frequency table retains those points. The Time Domain Calculation dialog box appears. Select Single Points from the Type pull-down list. Add or edit additional frequency points. In the Single text box.HFSS Online Help the Display button to list the count and frequency of those points as a table. For Discrete sweeps. 2. you can use a slider bar to scroll to through the complete list to see counts and values. 4. This selection also enables the Insert button between the Frequency setup and the frequency table. Clicking Change would replace the frequency value in the selected row. 5. 13-42 Specifying Solution Settings . 3. This value represents the time scale that will characterize the rate of change of the input time signal. and then click OK to save the sweep. HFSS always solves the frequencies from highest to lowest. which will be applied in the circuit simulator. Click Insert. use the Time Domain Calculation dialog box to help determine a suitable frequency sweep range for the solution. Related Topics Specifying Single Frequency Points Deleting Frequency Points Change the Value of an Existing Frequency Point Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Choosing Frequencies for Full-Wave SPICE If you plan to perform a full-wave SPICE analysis. 2. The Frequency setup changes to single point mode. In the Edit Sweep dialog box. For longer frequency tables. click Time Domain Calculation. This inserts the new point in ascending order for the list and the count for each row adjusts. or deselect the checkbox to specify individual frequencies. Select the Save Fields column header if you want to save the calculated 3D field solutions associated with all port modes at that frequency.

Note that the input time signal duration is determined using time points. A higher number will slightly improve the full-wave SPICE solution accuracy. τ is the signal rise time. It is usually recommended to have at least 500 frequency steps. For most cases. Nτ is the number of time steps per signal rise time. but will also increase CPU and memory requirements to solve the problem. Type a value in the Time Steps Per Rise Time box. N Guidelines for Calculating Frequencies for Full-Wave SPICE Keep the following guidelines in mind when you set up the calculation for the suggested frequency step size and maximum frequency: • The maximum frequency should be at least five times the inverse of the rise and fall times. using 1000 frequency steps provides a good trade-off • Specifying Solution Settings 13-43 . If the specified frequency band is too wide. F max ----------. though not required. where N is the number of 5. • HFSS now determines the Maximum Frequency using 0.HFSS Online Help 3. If this happens. Type a value in the Number of Time Points box. N × Δt . Δt is the time sampling increment. that the minimum frequency be less than the maximum frequency divided by the number of frequency steps. an HFSS frequency sweep may have convergence problems. Click Calculate.. It is recommended.5 F max = -----Δt where Fmax is the maximum frequency. try to decrease the maximum frequency until the solution converges. HFSS determines the Frequency Step Size using 6. The time sampling increment for the entire signal is calculated using τ Δt = ----Nτ where • • • 4. Related Topics Guidelines for Calculating Frequencies for Full-Wave SPICE Requirements for Full-Wave SPICE Click OK to transfer the data to the frequency sweep fields in the Edit Sweep dialog box.

HFSS can fail to solve for the minimum frequency during a Discrete or Interpolating frequency sweep due to a failure of the port solver to converge. If the data is discrete: a. while the comment line "! Modal data exported" will cause HFSS to interpret the data as modal. 13-44 Specifying Solution Settings . The data must be interpolating. It must either be native terminal data. You may have a pulse with a wider frequency content and HFSS’s recommended frequency sweep range may miss some of the high frequencies. the comment line "! Terminal data exported" will cause HFSS to interpret the data as terminal. or it must be discrete. it assumes that the data is terminal. Requirements for Full-Wave SPICE The Full-Wave Spice requirements are as follows: 1. try to increase the minimum frequency until the solution process completes successfully. in a Touchstone file. 3. At least 20 frequency points must be provided. If HFSS finds neither comment line.5% error using no more than 100 basis elements. for non-imported data. or it must be inferred as terminal. The design problem type in which the solution data panel is opened must be driven terminal. However. In the Matrix Data panel. c. HFSS must be able to generate an interpolation basis that converged with <= 0. the minimum frequency should be as low as possible because the low-frequency response determines the steady-state time response. Warning Occasionally. 2. b. the view type for the solution data must be "Terminal Data" (not "Modal Data"). For instance. If this happens. • The suggested frequency sweep ranges are estimates.HFSS Online Help between the accuracy and computational requirements. 4.

Right-click on the icon for the sweep definition. You can also disable a sweep by selecting Properties from the shortcut menu to open the Edit Properties window. uncheck the Enabled box. In the shortcut menu that appears. Then click OK To reactivate the sweep. open the shortcut menu again and select Enable Sweep. Specifying Solution Settings 13-45 . 3. Expand the tree hierarchy under the icon for the analysis setup that includes the sweep.HFSS Online Help Disabling or Enabling a Frequency Sweep To disable a sweep definition without deleting it: 1. Check the Enabled box in the upper right corner. In the upper right corner of the Edit Properties window. select Disable Sweep. You can also reactivate the sweep by selecting Properties from the shortcut menu for the sweep to open the Edit Properties window. 2. Expand the tree hierarchy under the Analysis icon in the project tree. and click OK to apply the change and close the window.

2. click Disable Setup. and click OK to apply the change and close the window. You can also reactivate the analysis setup by selecting Properties from the shortcut menu for the sweep to open the Edit Properties window.HFSS Online Help Disabling and Enabling an Analysis Setup To disable an Analysis setup definition without deleting it: 1. In the shortcut menu that appears. Then click OK To reactivate the analysis setup. You can also disable an analysis setup by selecting Properties from the shortcut menu to open the Edit Properties window. Check the Enabled box in the upper right corner. In the upper right corner of the Edit Properties window. open the shortcut menu again and select Enable Setup. Right-click on the icon for the setup definition. Expand the tree hierarchy under the Analysis icon in the project tree. 13-46 Specifying Solution Settings . uncheck the Enabled box.

Click Tools>Options> HFSS Options. 3. However the solver considers the number of processors to be optional and reverts to a single processor solution if a multiple processor licence is not available. Click the Solver tab. Type a value for Number of Processors. you can specify the number of processors in the HFSS Options dialog box. the solve. With a multiple processor licence. this value is set to 1. as well as near and far field computation is affected. 2.HFSS Online Help Specifying the Number of Processors If you want to use more than one processor. By default. Specifying Solution Settings 13-47 . This setting affects all HFSS projects for the current user and machine. To modify the number of processors used when solving: 1.

Select Desired RAM Limit (MB). or shifts. instead of relying on the operating system to start disk swapping. Click Tools>Options HFSS Options. The location of these temporary files is specified in the General Options (Tools>Options>General Options). it is not appropriate for the iterative solver. Note Regardless of the Desired RAM Limit setting. See Increasing PC RAM. 3. and can optimize loading only those blocks of memory required for its immediate needs. 4. Note The Iterative solver doesn't go off-core for efficiency reasons. The MPS solver is finely tuned at handling its own memory. Of course. the solver creates temporary solution files to which it spills. if allocation fails. the RAM usage cannot be made arbitrarily small. Regardless of this setting. the iterative solver uses the Maximum RAM Limit (the hard memory limit). This setting affects all HFSS projects for the current user and machine. Instead. Using this option may help to keep the entire solver from being swapped out in the normal course of process management on your computer. Click the Solver tab. 2. if the total memory requirement of all processes grows large enough. Type a value for the amount of available memory. In off-core mode.no matter how much physical memory is installed.HFSS Online Help Specifying the Desired RAM Limit The Desired RAM Limit setting requests a restriction on the amount of memory the MPS solver used in HFSS may allocate before it must stop solving on-core—solving processes entirely in memory—and start solving off-core. 13-48 Specifying Solution Settings . Even for the off-core solver. iterative solver will issue an "Out of memory" error message. the HFSS solver will automatically switch to off-core mode. you may have reached a point where the sum of physical RAM plus available swap space exceeds the minimum amount of RAM needed by the off-core solver. In that case you can consider increasing the swap space (the virtual memory) in the settings of your system. This kind of control may be especially important when multiple solvers are running on the same machine. Once the limit is exceeded. To specify the Desired RAM Limit of the machine on which HFSS is installed: 1. In case you receive an error message regarding insufficient memory on a 64-bit operating system. the operating system will be forced into disk swapping. in the text box. Because the Desired RAM Limit (the soft memory limit) is used for off-core run. data from memory. processes are limited to 2GB of address space (3GB with appropriate operating system and boot settings) on 32 bit operating systems and 4TB of address space on 64 bit operating systems . in megabytes.

iterative solver will issue an "Out of memory" error message. Type a value for the maximum amount of memory. Once the limit is exceeded. To specify the Maximum RAM Limit for the current user and machine: 1. Click the Solver tab. 4. Click Tools>Options> HFSS or HFSS-IE Options. the solution process will terminate abnormally. even if more than 2 GB are physically installed. Because the Desired RAM Limit (the soft memory limit) is used for off-core run tt is not appropriate for the iterative solver. 3. the Maximum RAM Limit (the hard memory limit) is used. However. Note Allocation of greater than 2 GB of RAM on 32-bit hardware platforms is only possible with the appropriate operating system and boot settings. and incorrect error messages may appear. See Increasing PC RAM. the Iterative solver doesn't go off-core for efficiency reasons. 2.HFSS Online Help Specifying the Hard Memory Limit The Maximum RAM Limit setting specifies the absolute limit on the amount of memory that the solver can use. If the solver attempts to allocate more memory than this setting. Select Maximum RAM Limit (MB). in the text box. Specifying Solution Settings 13-49 . Note Ansoft recommends that you use the Desired RAM Limit setting if you wish to limit the RAM that the MPS (default) solver may allocate. in megabytes. The solver will only use the amount of memory specified and no more. Instead. This setting affects all HFSS or HFSS-IE projects for the current user and machine.

HFSS Online Help 13-50 Specifying Solution Settings .

and sweeps at or below the level invoked in the Project tree. either click HFSS>Analyze All or right-click on the Analysis icon in the Project tree and select Analyze All from the popup menu. Monitor queued simulations Configure and run remote analysis Configure and run distributed analysis Monitor the solution process Change a solution priority for system resources Abort an analysis Re-solve after modifying a design Re-solve after ANSYS Thermal Link Feedback Related Topics Running an Optimetrics Analysis Running Simulations 14-1 . What do you want to do? • • • • • • • • • • • • Solve a single setup with or without sweeps Solve a specific sweep Enable a queue so that multiple simulations can run sequentially as resources become available. dependent setups.14 Running Simulations After you specify how HFSS is to compute the solution. To use this command. or to a select sweep. The Analyze All command applies to all enabled setups. To use this command. if any. or multiple sweeps under a single setup. whether multiple setups. In general. you need to begin the solution process. the Analyze command applies to the selected setup and associated sweeps. and click the command on the context menu. or setups with dependencies. right-click on a setup or sweep in the Project tree. Run more than one simulation.

HFSS Online Help High Performance Computing (HPC) Integration Ansys Workbench Integration Overview 14-2 Running Simulations .

If you have enabled queuing. the next solution setup will be solved when the previous solution is complete. due to setup links to the same external source for a near or far field wave. Running Simulations14-3 . Each enabled solution setup is solved in the order it appears in the project tree. The graphic shows a single sweep selected for analysis. Related Topics Running an Optimetrics Analysis Running More Than One Simulation To solve every enabled solution setup in a design: 1. 2. Right-click and select Analyze from the shortcut menu. follow the same procedure while a simulation is running. To run more than one analysis at a time. HFSS computes the 3D field solution inside the structure for a solution. In the project tree. Click HFSS>Analyze All. 2. does so for the sweep variables. select Analysis. Select a solution setup or sweep in the project tree. or a magnetic bias). Note If a linked dependency in the setup is already simulating (for example. and for a select sweep.HFSS Online Help Solving a Single Setup or Sweep To run a single setup or sweep: 1. under the design you want to solve. HFSS will not allow another dependent simulation to start until the first use of the source has completed.

By default. Each solution sweep under that setup is solved in the order it appears in the project tree. using the available machines.HFSS Online Help The example here show an analysis invoked from the Project tree popup menu with three setups. 2.The second setup is disabled. The example below shows a setup with two enabled sweeps. two enabled. with a disabled sweep. and the third is enabled. and one disabled (greyed icon). this is checked. Click Analyze on the shortcut menu. right-click the setup icon that includes the sweeps of interest. under the design you want to solve. Unchecking the Enabled checkbox excludes a setup from running To solve two or more sweeps or two or more parametric analyses under a setup: 1. In the project tree. The first setup has one sweep enabled. 14-4 Running Simulations . one disabled. Note The General tab for the Setup includes an “Enabled” checkbox.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Technical Notes: The Solution Process Technical Notes: Handling Complicated Models Solving a Single Setup Specifying the Analysis Options Remote Analysis Monitoring the Solution Process Aborting Analysis Running an Optimetrics Analysis Running Simulations14-5 .

click Tools>Show Queued Simulations or click the Show Queue icon on the toolbar. You can prioritize setups by changing the order in the queue. To view the solution queue. select the simulation. they are solved in the order that they appear in the project tree. 1. and have selected Analyze All. You enable queueing in the General Options: Analysis tab. To remove a simulation from the queue.HFSS Online Help Monitoring Queued Simulations If you have multiple setups for a design. and click Remove from Queue. You select and remove any simulation from the queue. the simulations can be queued until there is a machine available. This displays a dialog that displays each simulation and its current status. This removes the selected simulation from the queue. 2. The queuing is enabled by default. 14-6 Running Simulations . You can also select any setup and use the Move up and Move down buttons to prioritize them. If queuing is enabled and you run multiple setups.

where a specified analysis.HFSS Online Help Remote Analysis It is possible to solve a project on a different machine from the one on which you are running HFSS. (See High Performance Computing (HPC) Integration). Use of a high-speed network system. This is particularly useful when you want to take advantage of a more powerful machine but it is not convenient to access that machine. This can also be extended into distributed analysis. if supported. This process involves configuring the machine that is to perform the solving (the remote machine). is concurrently solved on multiple machines. The list of currently-supported HPC software includes Prerequisites for Remote and Distributed Analysis • • • • • Platform’s Load Sharing Facility or LSF Altair’s PBS Sun GridEngine Microsoft® Windows® Compute Cluster Server 2003 Microsoft® Windows® HPC Server 2008 Running Simulations14-7 . Local Machine Remote Machine Note Communication between machines in remote analysis and distributed analysis can drastically affect performance. Prerequisites for Remote and Distributed Analysis Configuring the Local Machine to Solve Remotely Remote Analysis Options Running Remote Analysis You must have Ansoft’s Remote Simulation Manager (RSM) or a supported High Performance Computing (HPC) management software program. like Gigabit or Infiniband. as well as the machine from which the simulation is to be launched (the local machine). • • • • 1. is recommended for optimal performance.

C:\Program Files\Ansoft\hfss13\RegisterEnginesWithRSM. /apps/ansoft/hfss13/RegisterEnginesWithRSM. HFSS must be accessible from all remote machines as well as accessible on the local machine. Remote: Run analysis on a different machine. • Distributed: This option allows you to specify a machine list. RMS looks for the IP address at addr[0]. If you use RSM. (for example.exe). OK the dialog. On Linux. In each case. it must be accessible from all remote machines. you see a dialog confirming the registration.pl).exe. 2. See Configuring Distributed Analysis 14-8 Running Simulations . 3. located in the product installation directory. or UNC name. In addition. and select the Analysis Options tab. RMS must be able to determine the IP address for simulation to run. Select the default machine to use when simulating: • • Local: Run analysis on the local machine. • If the RSM service cannot run due to permission issues for the configuration file. click Start>Programs>Ansoft>product >Register with RSM. You also receive warnings if there are multiple IP addresses for a machine.HFSS Online Help 2. Selecting Remote enables fields for you to the machine’s IP address. the HFSS engines must be registered with each initialization of RSM. Configuring the Local Machine to Solve Remotely 1.pl. You can also run RegisterEnginesWith RSM. DNS name. it issues an error message and exits. To do this. on each remote machine: • On Windows on the local and remote machines. the analysis will run locally. run RegisterEnginesWithRSM. located in the product subdirectory (for example. Set the Analysis options in HFSS by clicking Tools>Options>General Options to display the General options dialog. If your product is not registered with RSM.

check Prompt for analysis machine when launching analysis. You can Save Settings as Default. You select either the local machine. the Message window issues a warning message. Select whether to run simulation processes as the user running RSM (Service User). RSM Service Options tab. Password. and the solver attempts to perform the analysis as the Service User. If the name or password is incorrect.HFSS Online Help To override the machine that you use on a per analysis basis. or specify a machine name. Remote Analysis Options You also set the Remote Analysis Options in the General options dialog. you must provide the User Name. Running Simulations14-9 . and any Domain/ Workgroup on which this user is defined. If you select Specified user. Checking this selection displays the following dialog when you run a simulation. or a Specified User.

but the HFSS user interface hangs indefinitely. the network connection is down. 4. You will see Progress messages as the simulations continues. This occurs if the remote solve option is enabled after the COM daemon is started. go to the Windows Control Panel and choose Administrative Tools > Services. if there are firewall issues or if the service is not running. and try to solve again. 2009) Resolution: This message can happen if the machine is not present. you should see a message in the Progress window identifying the design name. Check if the service is running and if the firewall allows communication. or when the option "Don't allow exceptions" is selected for the Windows firewall. (10:57:13 PM Aug 13. Check to make sure the Ansoft Communication Service is running. Make sure that the local machine is able to contact the RSM port on the remote node. please contact at hfqa@ansoft. If this fixes the problem. Problem: When you try to solve from a local to a remote machine. Try disabling the firewall. Open a command prompt on the local machine and type telnet <remote node name> 32958. If you have. If it is not running. Find the Ansoft RSM Service and make sure its status says Started. When the simulation is complete. restart HFSS. Related Topics: General Options: Analysis Options Tab Distributed Analysis Troubleshooting Running from a Windows Remote Terminal Troubleshooting Problem: When you try to solve from local to remote machine. and the specified remote machine. If the terminal appears to be hanging then the connection was successful.com Confirm that you have not changed the Ansoft Service Port in Tools > Options > General Options > Remote Analysis Options from the default 32958. 14-10 Running Simulations . try to start it by right-clicking on 3. Resolution: Remote solve needs either firewall exceptions to be ON or firewall to be completely turned off. an HFSSCOMENGINE process starts on the remote machine." 1. 2. Remote Solve Node = Windows Error: "Unable to locate or start COM engine on <remote node> : Unable to reach AnsoftRSMService. change it back to 32958. To do this. Check if the service is running and if the firewall allows communication. you receive the following error message: [error] Unable to locate or start COM engine on 'nomachine' : Unable to reach AnsoftRSMService. you will see a message in the Message window.HFSS Online Help Running Remote Analysis When you run a simulation remotely.

To register the engine./ansoftrsmservice start. c. restart the Ansoft product./ansoftrsmservice status. change it back to 32958. To register the engine. 4. 6. From the Windows menu. If you have.pl add. If the terminal appears to be hanging then