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Table of Contents

1.

Getting Started with HFSS
System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 Setting Up a Printer on Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

Welcome to HFSS Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
HFSS General Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 HFSS User Interface Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 Modeling Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 Materials Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 Ports Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 Meshing Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 Analysis Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 Optimetrics Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 Results Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 Scripting Quick Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 Antennas in HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 Signal Integrity in HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 RF/Microwave in HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 Integrated Circuits in HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14

The HFSS Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Showing and Hiding Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15 Moving and Resizing Desktop Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16 Working with the Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 Working with the Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19
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Customize Toolbar Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19 Customize Toolbar Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20 Customizing the Tools Menu: External Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20 Working with the Shortcut Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
Shortcut Menu in the Toolbars Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22 Shortcut Menu in the 3D Modeler Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23 Shortcut Menus in the Project Manager Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-24

Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-24 Custom Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25 Working with the Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27 Exiting the Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27 Working with the Project Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
Working with the Project Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28 Setting the Project Tree to Expand Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28 Viewing HFSS Design Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29 Viewing the Design List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29 Viewing Material Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30

Working with the Properties Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30
Opening the Properties Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-31 Showing and Hiding the Properties Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 Setting the Properties Window to Open Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 Modifying Object Attributes Using the Properties Window . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 Modifying Object Command Properties Using the Properties Window . . . 1-33

Working with the Progress Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-33
Stopping or Aborting Simulation Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34 Viewing Distributed Analysis Subtasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34

Working with the Message Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34
Setting the Message Manager to Open Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35 Showing new messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35 Showing errors and warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35

Working with the 3D Modeler Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-36 Working with the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-37
Expand or Collapse Groupings in the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-38 History tree Grouping by Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-38 Select Objects in the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-39 Shortcut Menus in the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-39 View Item Properties in the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40 View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-41 Controlling the View of Objects in the History Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-42 Upgrade Version in History Tree Shortcut Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-42

Keyboard Shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-42

Using the Password Manager to Control Access to Resources . . . . . . . . . 1-44
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Running HFSS from a command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-45 Running from a Windows Remote Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-51 Windows HPC Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-52 Getting Started Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-53
Getting Started Guide: A Waveguide Tee Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-53 Getting Started Guide: Optimizing A Waveguide Tee Junction . . . . . . . 1-54 Getting Started Guide: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-55 Getting Started Guide: A 20 GHz Waveguide Combiner . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-55 Getting Started Guide: Floquet Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-55 Getting Started Guide: RCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-56 Getting Started Guide: Coax Tee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-56 Getting Started Guide: A Coax Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-57 Getting Started Guide: A Bandpass Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-57 Getting Started Guide: A UHF Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-58 Getting Started Guide: A Patch Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-58 Getting Started Guide:Silicon Spiral Inductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-59 Application Specific Modeling Guide: Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-60 Application Specific Modeling Guide: Spiral Inductors on Silicon Substrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-60

HFSS-IE Getting Started Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-62 HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-64 Example Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-66
Other Examples with Brief Descriptions in the Online Help . . . . . . . . . . 1-67 Tee and OptimTee Waveguide Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-68 Dielectric Resonator Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-70 Waveguide Combiner Example Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-71 cavity.hfss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-72 Optiguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-74 Package Example Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-76 Antennas on Mast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-77 Parametric Sweep of a Coax Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-78 Coaxial Resonator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-79 Connector - Terminal Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-81 Corporate Feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-83 Helical Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-84 Package Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-86 Small Array of Planar Flared Dipole Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-88 Pyramidal Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-89 Ring Hybrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-91 Tune a Coax Fed Patch Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-94
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Unit Cell of a Phased Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-96 Via Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-98

Copyright and Trademark Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-100

2.

Getting Help
Conventions Used in the Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 Searching in Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Using WebUpdate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 Obtaining Information About the Software and Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Emailing a Help Page Title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7

3.

Working with HFSS Projects
HFSS Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Creating Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Opening Example Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Opening Recent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Opening Legacy HFSS Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Legacy HFSS Project Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6

Closing Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Saving Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Saving a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 Saving the Active Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Saving a Copy of a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Renaming a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Saving Project Data Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Save Before Solve Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 Recovering Project Data in an Auto-Save File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13

Deleting Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14 Undoing Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15 Redoing Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16 Updating Design Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17 Managing Projects and Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Copy and Paste a Project or Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 Rename a Project or Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 Delete a Project or Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18

Validating Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Modeler Validation Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20

Exporting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Exporting 2D Geometry Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
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Exporting 3D Model Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22 Exporting Graphics Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24 Exporting Data Table Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25

Importing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
Importing 2D Model Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26 Importing GDSII Format Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
Tech File Colors with RGB Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29

Importing 3D Model Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-51 Importing DXF and DWG Format Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-53 Importing Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-55 Importing Data Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-56 Importing HFSS Plot Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-57 Importing Plot Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-57

Inserting a Documentation File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-59 Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-60 Previewing the Printout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-61 Changing the Page Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-62 Saving Project Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-63 Setting Options in HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64
Setting General Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64
General Options: Project Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64 General Options: Default Units Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-65 General Options: Analysis Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-65 General Options: RSM Service Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-67 General Options: WebUpdate Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-67 General Options: Miscellaneous Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-67

Setting HFSS Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-68
HFSS Options: General Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-69 HFSS Options: Solver Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-70 Setting Solver Settings Using VB Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-71

Setting HFSS-IE Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-72
HFSS-IE Options: General Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-72 HFSS-IE Options: Solver Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-73

Setting Fields Reporter Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-74 Setting Report2D Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-75
Report 2D Options: Curve Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-75 Report2D Options: Axis Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76 Report2D Options: Grid Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76 Report2D Options: Header Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76 Report2D Options: Note Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-77 Report2D Options: Legend Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-77
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Report2D Options: Marker tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-77 Report2D Options: Marker Table Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-78 Report2D Options: General Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-78 Report2D Options: Table Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-79

Setting Modeler Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-79
Modeler Options: Operation Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-80 Modeler Options: Display Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-80 Modeler Options: Drawing Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-82

Report Setup Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-83

Working with Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-85
Adding a Project Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-85 Intrinsic Variables in a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-87 Deleting Project Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-88 Adding a Design Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-88 Add Array of Values for a Design Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-91 Editing a Design Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-92 Deleting Design Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-93 Adding Datasets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-94 Modifying Datasets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-95 Defining Mathematical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-95 Defining an Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-96
Using Valid Operators for Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-97 Using Intrinsic Functions in Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-97 Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-99 Using Dataset Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-100

Assigning Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-100 Choosing a Variable to Optimize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-100 Including a Variable in a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-101 Choosing a Variable to Tune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-102 Including a Variable in a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-102 Exporting Variables for Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-103

4.

Setting up an HFSS Design
Inserting an HFSS Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 Selecting the Solution Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3

5.

HFSS Transient
Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 Transient Network Analysis Input Signal Tab: a Time Profile . . . . . . . . . 5-5 Duration Tab for Transient Solution Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 Saved Fields Tab for Transient Solution Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8

Contents - 6

Active or Passive Excitations in HFSS Transient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9 Transient Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11 Selecting the Report Type in HFSS Transient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 Procedure for Viewing Transient Radiated Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14

6.

HFSS-IE
Inserting an HFSS-IE Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 Assigning HFSS-IE Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 Assigning Excitations in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6

7.

Drawing a Model
Setting Units of Measurement for the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 Drawing Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Drawing a Straight Line Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 Drawing a Three-Point Arc Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6 Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7 Drawing a Spline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8 Drawing a Polyline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9 Assigning a Cross Section and Dimensions to a Polyline . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11 Inserting Line Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13 Drawing an Equation-Based Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14 Drawing a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15 Drawing an Ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15 Drawing a Rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17 Drawing a Regular Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17 Drawing an Equation-Based Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18 Drawing a Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19 Drawing a Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20 Drawing a Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21 Drawing a Regular Polyhedron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22 Drawing a Cone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22 Drawing a Torus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23 Drawing a Helix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-24 Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section Using a User Defined Primitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25 Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross-Section Using a User Defined Primitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-26 Drawing a Spiral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27 Drawing a Spiral using User Defined Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-29
Contents - 7

Drawing a Bondwire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-30 Drawing a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31 Drawing a Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31 Creating Segmented Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-32
Segmented Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-32

Drawing Non-Model Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-33
Selecting Non-Model Drawing Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34 Changing an Object to Non Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34

Drawing a Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34

Model Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-36
Analysis Options Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-37 Analyzing the Surface Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-38 Model Analysis dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-38
Objects Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-39 Object Misalignment Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-40 Surface Mesh (Single/Pairs) Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-41 Last Simulation Mesh Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-42

Design Settings for HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-43 Design Settings for HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-45 Setting the Temperature of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-46 Heal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-47
Healing Non-Manifold Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-48 Setting the Healing Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-51 Stitch Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-52 Align Selected Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-53 Remove Selected Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-53 Remove Selected Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-53

Creating a User Defined Primitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-55
User Customization through User Defined Primitives (UDPs) . . . . . . . . 7-57

Modifying Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-59
Assigning Color to Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-60
Setting the Default Color of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-60 Setting the Default Color of Object Outlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-60

Assigning Transparency to an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-61
Setting the Default Transparency of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-61

Copying and Pasting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-61 Import a Model from the Clipboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-62 Copy Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-62 Deleting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-63
Deleting Start Points and Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-63

Delete Last Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-64
Contents - 8

Cutting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-64 Moving Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-64 Rotating Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-64 Changing the Orientation of an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-65 Mirroring Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-65 Offsetting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67 Duplicating Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67
Duplicating Objects Along a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-68 Duplicating Objects Around an Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-68 Duplicating and Mirroring Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-69

Scaling Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-69 Sweeping Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-70
Sweeping Around an Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-70 Sweeping Along a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-71 Sweeping Along a Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-72 Sweeping Faces Along Normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-73 Thicken Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-73

Wrap Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-73 Covering Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-74 Covering Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-75 Uncovering Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-75 Detaching Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-75 Detaching Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-75 Creating a Cross-Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-76 Connecting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-76 Moving Faces or Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-76
Moving Faces Along the Normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-77 Moving Faces Along a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-78 Moving Edges Along Normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-79

Uniting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-79 Subtracting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-80 Creating Objects from Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-81 Creating an Object from a Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-82 Creating an Object from an Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-83 Splitting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-83 Separating Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-85 Converting Polyline Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-85 Rounding the Edge of Objects (Fillet Command) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-86 Flattening the Edge of Objects (Chamfer Command) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-87 Imprinting an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-87 Imprint Projection commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-89
Contents - 9

Purge History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-90 Generate History to Reproduce Portions of Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-90

Selecting Items in the 3D Modeler Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-93
Selecting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-93
Selecting Several Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-94 Selecting Objects by Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-95 Select By Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-95 Selecting All Objects in a History Tree Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-97 Setting the Default Color and Transparency of Selected Objects . . . . . . . . 7-98 Setting the Default Color of Highlighted Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-98 Creating an Object List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-99 Reassigning Objects to Another Object List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-99 Using or Viewing List Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-100

Selecting Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-100
Selecting All Faces of an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-101 Selecting Faces by Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-102 Selecting Faces by Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-102 Face Selection Toolbar Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-103 Creating a Face List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-103

Selecting Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-104
Selecting All Edges of an Object or Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-105

Selecting Vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-106 Selecting Multi (a Mode for Selecting Objects, Faces, Vertices or Edges) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-107
Controlling the Selection in Multi Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-107

Clearing a Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-108 Selecting the Face, Edge, Vertex, or Object Behind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-108 Selecting Objects by Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-109

Assigning Coordinates to New Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-111
Setting the Reference Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-111 Defining Cartesian Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-111 Defining Cylindrical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-112 Defining Spherical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-113 Using Absolute Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-114 Using Relative Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-114

Choosing the Movement Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-116
Moving the Cursor In Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-116 Moving the Cursor Out of Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-117 Moving the Cursor in 3D Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-117 Moving the Cursor Along the X-Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-118 Moving the Cursor Along the Y-Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-119 Moving the Cursor Along the Z-Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-119
Contents - 10

Choosing Snap Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-120
Snap Setting Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-121

Measure Modes for Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-122
Measuring Position and Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-123

Setting Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-126
Setting the Working Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-127 Creating a Relative Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-127
Creating an Offset Relative CS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-127 Creating a Rotated Relative CS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-128 Creating an Offset and Rotated Relative CS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-128

Creating a Face Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-129
Automatically Creating Face Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-130

Modifying Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-130 Expressing Cartesian, Cylindrical, or Spherical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . 7-131 Deleting Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-132

Setting the Drawing Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-133

8.

Assigning Boundaries
Zoom to Selected Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3

Assigning Perfect E Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 Assigning Perfect H Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 Assigning Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Assigning Radiation Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 Assigning PML Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Creating PMLs Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11 Creating PML Boundaries Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15 Modifying PML Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15

Assigning Finite Conductivity Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17 Assigning Finite Conductivity Boundaries in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19 Assigning Symmetry Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21 Assigning Master Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-22 Assigning Slave Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24 Assigning Lumped RLC Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26
Vector Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-27

Assigning Screening Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-28
Get Impedance from External Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-29

Assigning Layered Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-31 Assigning Aperture Boundaries in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-33
Contents - 11

Assigning Infinite Ground Plane Boundaries in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-34 Assigning Layered Impedance Boundaries in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-35 Designating Infinite Ground Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-37 Modifying Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-38 Deleting Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-39 Reassigning Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-40 Reprioritizing Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-41 Global Material Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-42 Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-43 Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-44
Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations in the Active View Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-44 Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations in Every View Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-45

Reviewing Boundaries and Excitations in the Solver View . . . . . . . . . . . 8-46 Setting Default Values for Boundaries and Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-47

9.

Assigning Excitations
Zoom to Selected Excitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3

Assigning Wave Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Assigning Wave Ports for Modal Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 Assigning Wave Ports for Terminal Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9 Auto Assign for Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10

Manually Assigning Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12 Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13

Assigning Lumped Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Assigning Lumped Ports for Modal Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18 Manually Assigning Lumped Ports for Terminal Solutions . . . . . . . . . . 9-19

Assigning Floquet Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-21
Floquet Ports: Lattice Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24 Floquet Port: Modes Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24

Defining an Integration Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-26
Guidelines for Defining Integration Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27 Duplicating Integration Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27 Modifying Integration Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28 Setting up Differential Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28

Assigning Incident Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-32
Incident Plane Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-33 Incident Hertzian-Dipole Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-34
Contents - 12

Incident Cylindrical Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-35 Incident Gaussian Beam Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-36 Incident Linear Antenna Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-38 Far Field Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-39
Setup Link for Far Field or Near Field Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-41 External Data File for Far Field Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-42 Translation of Source Relative to Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-43

Near Field Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-45

HFSS-IE Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-47 Assigning Voltage Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-48
Modifying Voltage Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-48

Assigning Current Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-50
Modifying Current Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-50

Assigning Magnetic Bias Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-51 Setup Link Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-53 Modifying Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-54 Deleting Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-55 Reassigning Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-56 Duplicating Excitations with Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-57 Showing and Hiding Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-58 Setting the Impedance Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-59 Renormalizing S-Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-60 De-embedding S-Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-62

10.

Assigning Materials
Solving Inside or on the Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4 Assigning DC Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5 Searching for Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
Searching by Material Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7 Searching by Material Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7

Adding New Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Assigning Material Property Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10 Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11 Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11 Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12 Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-13

Defining Variable Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14 Defining Frequency-Dependent Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14
Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Piecewise Linear Input . . . . . 10-17
Contents - 13

Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Debye Model Input . . . . . . . . 10-18 Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Multipole Debye Model Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19 Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Djordjevic-Sarkar Model Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22 Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-23

Specifying Thermal Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-25 Defining Material Properties as Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-26 Defining Functional Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-26

Assigning Materials from the Object Properties Window . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-27 Viewing and Modifying Material Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28 Validating Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30 Copying Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-31 Removing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-32 Exporting Materials to a Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-33 Sorting Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-34 Filtering Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-35 Working with Material Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36
Working with Ansoft’s System Material Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36 Working with User Material Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36 Editing Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36 Configuring Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36

11.

Modifying the Model View
View Options: 3D UI Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3 Rotating the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4 Panning the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5 Zooming In and Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Zooming In or Out on a Rectangular Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6

Fitting Objects in the View Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Fitting All Objects in a View Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8 Fitting a Selection in a View Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8

Hiding Objects from View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9 Showing Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10 Active View Visibility Dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 Rendering Objects as Wireframes or Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
Setting the Default View Rendering Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13

Setting the Curved Surface Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14 Using Clip Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-16
Contents - 14

Modifying the View Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
Applying a Default View Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20 Applying a New View Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-21 Removing an Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-21

Modifying the Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-22 Setting the Projection View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-23 Setting the Background Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-24 Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25
Showing or Hiding the Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25 Show the Axes for Selected Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25 Enlarging or Shrinking the Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25 Showing or Hiding the Triad Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25

Choosing Grid Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-26
Setting the Grid Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-26 Setting the Grid Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-26 Setting the Grid Density and Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27 Setting the Grid’s Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27 Setting the Grid Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27

12.

Defining Mesh Operations
Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement on Object Faces . . . . . . . . . 12-3 Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement Inside Objects . . . . . . . . . . 12-4 Assigning Skin Depth-Based Mesh Refinement on Object Faces . . . . . . 12-5 Modifying Surface Approximation Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7 Specifying the Model Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9 Reverting to the Initial Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11 Applying Mesh Operations without Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12 Specifying Initial Mesh Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13 Deleting All Previously Assigned Mesh Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15 Viewing List of Mesh Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16 Reassigning a Mesh Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-17 Viewing Mesh Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-18

13.

Specifying Solution Settings
Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 Add Dependent Solve Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4 Renaming a Solution Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5 Copying a Solution Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6 Setting the Solution Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Contents - 15

Solving for Ports Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8 Setting the Minimum Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9 Setting the Number of Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10 Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters for HFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
Setting the Maximum Number of Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11 Setting the Maximum Delta S Per Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12 Setting the Maximum Delta Energy Per Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12 Setting the Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13
Specifying Convergence on Real Frequency Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13

Specifying Expressions for Adaptive Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13 Specifying a Source for the Initial Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
Clearing Linked Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-19

Setting Lambda Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-19 Setting Lambda Refinement for HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-20 Setting the Percent Maximum Refinement Per Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-20 Setting the Maximum Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21 Setting the Minimum Number of Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21 Setting the Minimum Number of Converged Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21 Setting Matrix Convergence Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22 Setting the Order of Basis Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23 Enable Iterative Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24 Enable Use of Solver Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24 Balancing Resources for Solver Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-25 Use Radiation Boundary on Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26 Port Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26 Enable Thermal Feedback from ANSYS Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-27 Produce Derivatives for Selected Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-29

Adding a Frequency Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-31
Selecting the Sweep Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-32
Options for Discrete Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33 Options for Fast Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33 Options for Interpolating Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33 Setup Interpolating Sweep Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-34 Setting the Error Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-35 Setting the Maximum Number of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-35 Interpolation Basis Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-36

Specifying the Frequency Points to Solve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-37
Specifying Frequency Points with a Linear Step Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-37 Specifying a Linear Count of Frequency Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-38 Specifying a Logarithmic Spaced Frequency Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-39 Specifying Single Frequency Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40
Contents - 16

Change the Value of an Existing Frequency Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40 Deleting Frequency Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-41 Inserting Frequency Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-41 Choosing Frequencies for Full-Wave SPICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-42 Guidelines for Calculating Frequencies for Full-Wave SPICE . . . . . 13-43 Requirements for Full-Wave SPICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-44

Disabling or Enabling a Frequency Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-45 Disabling and Enabling an Analysis Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-46 Specifying the Number of Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-47 Specifying the Desired RAM Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48 Specifying the Hard Memory Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-49

14.

Running Simulations
Solving a Single Setup or Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3 Running More Than One Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3 Monitoring Queued Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6 Remote Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10

Distributed Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12
Configuring Distributed Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12 Editing Distributed Machine Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-13 Selecting an Optimal Configuration for Distributed Analysis . . . . . . . . 14-17

Monitoring the Solution Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-18 High Performance Computing (HPC) Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-20
Scheduler Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-20 What a Scheduler Does . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-21 Installation of Ansoft Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-22
Firewall Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-23 Installation Directory Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-23

Ansoft Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-23 Integration with Microsoft Windows® HPC Scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-24
Windows® HPC Job Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-25 Windows® HPC Task Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-26 Windows® HPC Job Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-28 Selecting Computation Resource Units (Job Unit Type) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-29 How to Select the Windows® HPC Job Unit Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-30 Windows® HPC Job Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-30

Submitting and Monitoring Ansoft HPC Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-31
Submitting and Monitoring Jobs Using the Ansoft Submit HPC Job Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-32 The Ansoft Submit HPC Job Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-35
Contents - 17

Specifying the Number of Compute Resource Units for HPC Jobs . . . . . 14-37

Integration with Platform’s Load Sharing Facility (LSF) . . . . . . . . . . . 14-38
Installation of Ansoft Tools on LSF Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-39 Integration of Ansoft Products with LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-41 LSF Job Submission Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-41 LSF Command Used to Launch Remote Engine Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-42 Submitting Ansoft LSF Batch Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-42 Current Working Directory with LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-42 Quoting Ansoft Command or Arguments for LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-43 bsub Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-43 Monitoring Ansoft LSF Batch Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-43 Terminating Ansoft LSF Batch Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-44 Example LSF bsub Command Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-44 Known Issues for LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-48 Troubleshooting for LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-49 Workarounds for LSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-50

Integration with PBS (Portable Batch System) Professional from Altair Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-50
qsub Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-52 Monitoring Ansoft PBS Batch Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-53 Example PBS qsub Command Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-53

Integration with Sun Grid Engine (SGE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-55
Monitoring Ansoft SGE Batch Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-58 Ansoft Desktop -monitor Command Line Option for SGE . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-58 Example SGE qsub Command Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-59 Issue with qrsh (SGE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-61 Issue with MainWin Core Services for SGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-61

Command Line Enhancements for Ansoft Desktop Products . . . . . . . . 14-63 Integrating Ansoft Tools with Third Party Schedulers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-65
Build Information for Scheduler Proxy Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-65 Implementation Details for Custom Scheduler Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-66 IsProductLaunchedInYourEnvironment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-66 GetTempDirectory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-67 GetMachineListAvailableForDistribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-67 LaunchProcess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-68 GetUseRsmForEngineLaunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-69 GetThisJobID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-70 GetSchedulerDisplayName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-70

Testing Your Scheduler Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-71
Testing IsProductLaunchedInYourEnvironment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-72 Testing GetSchedulerDisplayName and GetThisJobID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-72 Testing GetTempDirectory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-72 Testing GetMachineListAvailableForDistribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-72
Contents - 18

Testing LaunchProcess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-73 Testing GetUseRsmForEngineLaunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-73

Troubleshooting Custom Scheduler Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-73
None of the Proxy Functions are Called . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-74 Troubleshooting IsProductLaunchedInYourEnvironment Function . . . . . 14-74 Troubleshooting GetSchedulerDisplayName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-74 Troubleshooting GetThisJobID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-75 Troubleshooting GetTempDirectory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-75 Troubleshooting GetMachineListAvailableForDistribution . . . . . . . . . . . 14-75 Troubleshooting LaunchProcess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-75 Troubleshooting GetUseRsmForEngineLaunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-76

Changing a Solution Priority for System Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-77 Aborting an Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-78 Re-solving after Modifying a Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-79 Re-Solving after ANSYS Thermal Link Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-80

15.

Optimetrics
Parametric Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3 Setting Up a Parametric Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Adding a Variable Sweep Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Specifying Variable Values for a Sweep Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6 Synchronizing Variable Sweep Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6

Modifying a Variable Sweep Definition Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7 Overriding a Variable's Current Value in a Parametric Setup . . . . . . . . 15-8 Specifying a Solution Setup for a Parametric Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Specifying the Solution Quantity to Evaluate for Parametric Analysis . . . 15-9 Setup Calculations for Optimetrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-9 Specifying a Solution Quantity's Calculation Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11

Viewing Results for Parametric Solution Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11 Using Distributed Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-12 Adding a Parametric Sweep from a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-13

Optimization Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
Choosing an Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
Quasi Newton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15 Pattern Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18 Sequential Non-linear Programming (SNLP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-20 Sequential Mixed Integer NonLinear Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21 Genetic Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-22

Optimization Variables and the Design Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-23

Setting Up an Optimization Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-24
Optimization Setup for the Quasi Newton Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-25 Optimization Setup for the Pattern Search Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-26
Contents - 19

Optimization Setup for the SNLP Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-27 Optimization Setup for the SMINLP Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-28 Optimization Setup for the Genetic Algorithm Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . 15-29 Setting the Maximum Iterations for an Optimization Analysis . . . . . . . 15-30 Cost Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-31
Acceptable Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32 Cost Function Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32 Adding a Cost Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32 Adding/Editing a Cost Function Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-34 Specifying a Solution Quantity for a Cost Function Goal . . . . . . . . . 15-35 Setting the Calculation Range of a Cost Function Goal . . . . . . . . . . . 15-35 Setting a Goal Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-36 Specifying a Single Goal Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-36 Specifying an Expression as a Goal Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-37 Specifying a Variable-Dependent Goal Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-37 Goal Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-37

Modifying the Starting Variable Value for Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . 15-39 Setting the Min. and Max. Variable Values for Optimization . . . . . . . . 15-39
Overriding the Min. and Max. Variable Values for a Single Optimization Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-40 Changing the Min. and Max. Variable Values for Every Optimization Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-40

Step Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-40
Setting the Min. and Max. Step Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42

Setting the Min and Max Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42
Equalizing the influence of different optimization variables. . . . . . . . . . . 15-43 To set the Min and Max Focus values: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-43

Solving a Parametric Setup Before an Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-43 Solving a Parametric Setup During an Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-44 Automatically Updating a Variable's Value After Optimization . . . . . . 15-44 Changing the Cost Function Norm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-44
Explanation of L1, L2 and Max norms in Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-45 Example of a More Complex Cost Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-47

Advanced Genetic Algorithm Optimizer Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-48

Sensitivity Analysis Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-51
Selecting a Master Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-51

Setting Up a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-52
Setting the Maximum Iterations Per Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-53 Setting Up an Output Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-53
Specifying a Solution Quantity for an Output Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-54 Setting the Calculation Range of an Output Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-55

Modifying the Starting Variable Value for Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . 15-55
Contents - 20

Setting the Min. and Max. Variable Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-56
Overriding the Min. and Max. Variable Values for a Single Sensitivity Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-56 Changing the Min. and Max. Variable Values for Every Sensitivity Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-57

Setting the Initial Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-57 Solving a Parametric Setup Before a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 15-57 Solving a Parametric Setup During a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 15-58

Statistical Analysis Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-59 Setting Up a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-60
Setting the Maximum Iterations for a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 15-60 Specifying the Solution Quantity to Evaluate for Statistical Analysis . 15-61 Setting the Solution Quantity's Calculation Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-62 Setting the Distribution Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-62
Overriding the Distribution Criteria for a Single Statistical Setup . . . . . . 15-63 Changing the Distribution Criteria for Every Statistical Setup . . . . . . . . . 15-64 Statistical Cutoff Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-65 Edit Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-66

Modifying the Starting Variable Value for Statistical Analysis . . . . . . 15-67 Solving a Parametric Setup During a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 15-68

Tuning Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-69 Tuning a Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-70
Applying a Tuned State to a Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-72 Saving a Tuned State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-72 Reverting to a Saved Tuned State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-73 Resetting Variable Values after Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-73

Saving Field Solutions for Optimetrics Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-74
Saving Field Solutions for a Parametric Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-74 Saving Field Solutions for an Optimization Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-74 Saving Field Solutions for a Sensitivity Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-75 Saving Field Solutions for a Tuning Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-75 Saving Field Solutions for a Statistical Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-76

Copying Meshes in Optimetrics Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-77 Adding an Expression in the Output Variables Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-78 Excluding a Variable from an Optimetrics Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-79 Modifying the Value of a Fixed Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-80 Linear Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-81
Setting a Linear Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-81 Modifying a Linear Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-82 Deleting a Linear Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-82
Contents - 21

Running an Optimetrics Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-84 Viewing Analysis Results for Optimetrics Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-85
Viewing Solution Data for an Optimetrics Design Variation . . . . . . . . 15-85 Viewing an Optimetrics Solution's Profile Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-86 Viewing Results for Parametric Solution Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-86
Plotting Solution Quantity Results vs. a Swept Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-87

Viewing Cost Results for an Optimization Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-87
Plotting Cost Results for an Optimization Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-88

Viewing Output Parameter Results for a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . 15-88
Plotting Output Parameter Results for a Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 15-88

Viewing Distribution Results for a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-89
Plotting Distribution Results for a Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-90

Link to Design Xplorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-91

16.

Post Processing and Generating Reports
Viewing Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
Viewing Convergence Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
Viewing the Number of Completed Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3 Viewing the Max Magnitude of Delta S Between Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3 Viewing the Output Variable Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4 Viewing the Delta Magnitude Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4 Viewing the Magnitude Margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5 Viewing the Phase Margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5 Viewing the Max Delta (Mag S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5 Viewing the Max Delta (Phase S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6 Viewing the Maximum Delta Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6 Plotting Convergence Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7

Viewing a Solution Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7 Viewing Matrix Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9
Selecting the Matrix Display Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-10 Exporting Matrix Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11 Renaming Matrix Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14 Reordering Matrix Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14 Exporting Equivalent Circuit Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14 Exporting W-element Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17

Viewing Mesh Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17 Viewing Eigenmode Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-18 Deleting Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-19 Deleting Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-19

Export Transfer File for ANSYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-21
Exporting the Model Geometry to ANSYS Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-24 Creating the Thermal Link Coupling File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-24
Contents - 22

Scaling a Source's Magnitude and Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-27
Guidelines for Scaling a Source's Magnitude and Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-29 Ports and Edit Sources Behavior for Transient Network . . . . . . . . . . . 16-30

Creating Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-31
Creating Phase Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-31 Creating Frequency Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-32 Creating Geometry Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-33 Controlling the Animation’s Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-34 Exporting Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-35

Creating Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-37
Creating a Quick Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-38 Creating a New Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-39
Context Section for Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-41 Using Families Tab for Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-42

Modifying Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-44 Modifying the Background Properties of a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-46
Modifying the Legend in a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-48 Creating Custom Report Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-49

Selecting the Report Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-50 Selecting the Display Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-51
Creating 2D Rectangular Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-52 Creating 2D Rectangular Stacked Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-54 Creating 3D Rectangular Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-56 Creating Rectangular Contour Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-57 Creating 2D Polar Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-58 Reviewing 2D Polar Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-60 Creating 3D Polar Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-60 Creating Smith Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-61 Creating Smith Contour Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-62 Creating Data Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-64 Creating Radiation Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-66 Delta Markers in 2D Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-67

Plotting in the Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-67
TDR Windowing Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-72

Working with Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-77
Editing Trace Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-78 Editing the Display Properties of Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-79 Adding Data Markers to Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-81 Discarding Report Values Below a Specified Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-82 Add Trace Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-83 Removing Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-84 Copy and Paste of Report and Trace Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-84
Contents - 23

Copy and Paste of Report and Trace Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-85

Sweeping a Variable in a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-86
Sweeping Values Across a Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-86 Sweeping Values Across a Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-87

Selecting a Function for a Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-88 Selecting Solution Quantities to Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-92 Selecting a Field Quantity to Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-94 Selecting a Far-Field Quantity to Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-95 Plotting Vertical Cross-Sections of Far Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-100 Plotting Horizontal Cross-Sections of Far Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-100 Selecting a Near-Field Quantity to Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-101 Selecting an Emission Test Quantity to Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-102 Plotting Imported Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-103 Setting a Range Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-103
Eye Measurement Range Function Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-104

Perform FFT on a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-105
FFT Window Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-106 Apply FFT to Report Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-108

Perform TDR on Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-109

Specifying Output Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-110
Adding a New Output Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-110 Building an Expression Using Existing Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-111 Deleting Output Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-112

Derivative Tuning for Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-113 Port Field Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-115 Plotting Field Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-117
Overlaying 3D Polar Plots on Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-119 Plotting Derived Field Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-120 Creating Scalar Field Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-121
Modifying SAR Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-121

Creating Vector Field Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-122 Modifying Field Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-122 Setting Field Plot Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-123
Modifying Field Plot Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-125 Setting the Color Key Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-126 Moving the Color Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-127 Modifying the Field Plot Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-127 Modifying Vector Field Plot Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-129 Setting the Mesh Visibility on Field Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-130 Modifying Scalar Field Plot Isovalues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-130 Mapping Scalar Field Plot Transparency to Field Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-131 Modifying Markers on Point Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-131
Contents - 24

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-145 Number Command . . . 16-158 Mag Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-147 Read Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-140 Stack Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-155 Max Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-152 1/x (Inverse) Command . . . . . . . . . . 16-157 Scal? Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-133 Opening a Field Overlay Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-153 Trig . . . . . 16-132 Setting a Plot's Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-154 Min Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-156 ∇ (Gradient) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-157 Vector Commands . . . . . . 16-139 Units of Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-140 Input Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-139 Enlarging the Register Display Area . . . . . 16-153 Pow Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-156 Ln Command . . . . . . . . 16-148 Output Vars [Input for Eigenmode problems] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-133 Saving a Field Overlay Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-138 The Calculator Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-159 Dot Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-138 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-148 Steps for Calculating the Complex Vector Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-158 Matl Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-134 Using the Fields Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-134 Setting Field Plot Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Modifying Line Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-159 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-152 Vec? Command . . . . . . . 16-141 Geometry Command . . . . . 16-157 Log Command . . . 16-141 Quantity Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-134 Deleting a Field Overlay Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-136 Opening the Fields Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-146 Geom Settings Command . . . . . . . .25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-154 d/d? (Partial Derivative) Command . . . . . . . . . . 16-153 (Square Root) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-151 Scalar Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-154 (Integral) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-136 Context Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-148 General Commands . . . . . . . . 16-146 Function Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-144 Constant Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . Problem Region . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6 Guidelines for Seeding the Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-173 Computing Maximum Near-Field Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical Notes The Finite Element Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-175 Setting up a Far-Field Infinite Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-165 Calculating Derived Field Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2 Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements . . . . 16-177 Defining a Regular Antenna Array . . . . . . . . 16-160 Curl Command . . 16-178 Defining a Custom Antenna Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4 The HFSS Solution Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-179 Computing Antenna Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-160 Tangent Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-183 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3 Size of Mesh Vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-163 Eval Command . . . . . . .Cross Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-176 Defining Antenna Arrays . . . . . . . . 17-6 Length-Based Mesh Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-183 Setting Mesh Plot Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-172 Setting up a Near-Field Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-167 Named Expression Library . . Accuracy . . . . . . . . 17-8 Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximation Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-160 Divg Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2 Basis Functions . . . 16-170 Radiated Fields Post Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-168 Exiting the Fields Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-7 Skin Depth-Based Mesh Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9 Meshing Region Vs. . . . 16-181 Plotting the Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-161 Unit Vec Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-171 Setting up a Near-Field Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-179 Exporting Antenna Parameters and Maximum Field Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5 The Mesh Generation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-162 Output Commands . . . 16-161 Normal Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2 Representation of a Field Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-164 Export Command . . . . . . . . . .26 . 17-7 Surface Approximation Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-163 Value Command . . . . . . . . . 17-5 Seeding the Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9 Contents . . . . . . . . 16-163 Write Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-17 Calculating Terminal Characteristic Impedance Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-20 Max Delta (Mag S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-31 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-14 Port Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-21 Iterative Matrix Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-25 Frequency Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-12 Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-17 Calculating the Effective Wavelength (Lambda) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-11 Wave Equation . . . . 17-20 Maximum Delta Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-26 Fast Frequency Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-28 Solution Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-30 Calculating the Quality Factor . . . . . . . . . . . 17-15 Calculating the PI Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-21 Direct Matrix Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-26 Discrete Frequency Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . 17-23 Single Frequency Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-16 Calculating the PV Impedance . . . . . 17-14 Multiple Ports on the Same Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-31 Field Solutions . 17-22 Guidelines for Using the Iterative Solver . . . . . . . . 17-29 Eigenmode Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-14 Calculating Characteristic Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-18 Maximum Delta S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-20 Magnitude Margin . . . . . . 17-18 The Adaptive Analysis Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-11 Excitation Fields . . . . . 17-21 Matrix Solvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-23 Iterative Matrix Solver Technical Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Model Resolution . 17-16 Impedance Multipliers . . . . . . . . . 17-18 Calculating the Relative Permittivity (Epsilon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-21 Max Delta (Phase S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-13 Degenerate Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-19 Maximum Delta E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-16 Calculating the VI Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10 Port Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-20 Phase Margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-12 Mesh Refinement on Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-19 Percent of Tetrahedra Refined Per Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-22 Multiprocessing and the Iterative Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-17 Complex Propagation Constant . . . . . . 17-30 Calculating the Resonant Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-27 Interpolating Frequency Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-66 Polarization of the Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-52 Renormalized S-Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-47 Computational Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-54 Calculating the Z-Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-39 Analysis Setup in Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-63 Power Normalizations . . . 17-65 Antenna Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-45 Domain Decomposition Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-53 De-embedded S-Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . 17-55 Radiated Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-36 Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method . . . . . . . . . . . 17-68 Circular Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-61 Regular Uniform Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-57 Maximum Near-Field Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-50 S-Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-68 Axial Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-55 Passivity . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-61 Theory of the Array Factor Calculation . . . 17-68 Ludwig-3 Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-36 Local Time Stepping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-69 Contents . . 17-54 Calculating the Y-Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-56 Spherical Cross-Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-62 Scan Specification for Regular Uniform Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-33 Calculating the SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-47 Basic DDM Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-34 Transient Solution Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-68 Polarization Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-67 Spherical Polar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-59 Maximum Far-Field Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-54 Alternative Matrix Characterizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-44 References for Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-33 Peak Versus RMS Phasors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-60 Array Factors . . . . . . . . . . . 17-52 Post Processed S-Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-31 Field Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . 17-48 Computational Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-39 Excitations in Time Domain . 17-37 Materials in Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-49 Integral Equation Method Used in HFSS-IE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-63 Custom Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-32 Specifying the Phase Angle . . . . . . . . . . . .Field Overlay Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-95 Object Overlap Settings for Complicated Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-87 Three: Removing Object Intersections . 17-83 Healing and Meshing . . . 17-81 Geometric Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-71 Peak Realized Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-93 Handling Complicated Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-97 Radiation Boundaries . . . . . 17-102 Finite Conductivity Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-94 Geometry Imperfections and Complicated Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-103 Perfect E Vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-98 PML Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-83 Bondwires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-96 Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-99 Material Tensors Applied at PML Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . 17-76 Modes to Terminals Conversion . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-75 Calculating Finite Thickness Impedance . . . . . . . . . 17-74 Radiation Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-96 Units of Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-92 Six: Troubleshooting if meshing still fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-101 Boundaries at PML Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . 17-95 Post Processing for Complicated Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-71 Peak Gain . . . . 17-95 Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-103 Symmetry and Port Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-102 Symmetry Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-77 Calculating the W-Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-86 Two: Healing after geometry import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-104 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Max U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-80 Terminal Characteristic Impedance Matrix . . . . . Perfect H Symmetry Boundaries . . . . . 17-72 Radiated Power . . . . . . . . 17-74 Decay Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-79 Terminal-Based Models for Circuit Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-96 Perfect E Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . 17-100 Tensor Entries . . . . . . . 17-91 Five: Aligning Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-86 One: Healing during geometry import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-90 Four: Removing Small Features . . . . . 17-94 Interface Options for Complicated Models . . . . . . . . . 17-73 Incident Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-70 Peak Directivity . . . . . . . . 17-72 Accepted Power . . . . . . . . 17-84 Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-104 Master and Slave Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-133 Deembedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-129 Linear Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-109 Implicit Boundary Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-106 Screening Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-126 Evanescent Plane Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-127 Electric Spherical Wave (Electric Hertzian Dipole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-122 Incident Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-131 Current Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-111 Where the Solvers Apply Scattered or Total Field Formulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-104 Calculating the E-Field on the Slave Boundary . . . . . . 17-115 Wave Ports . . . . . . . 17-106 Lumped RLC Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-130 Voltage Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-116 Analytic Port Types . . . . . . . . . . 17-117 Lumped Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-120 Computing Differential Pairs . . . . . . . . .Symmetry and Multiple Modes . 17-110 General Approach for Scattered and Total Field Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-126 Plane Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-133 Materials Technical Notes . . 17-115 Mode Polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-118 Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-128 Magnetic Spherical Wave (Magnetic Hertzian Dipole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-122 Formula Summary for HFSS Floquet Modes . . . . . . . . . . . 17-120 Floquet Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-140 Relative Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-132 Non-uniform Applied Bias Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-118 Differential Pairs . 17-108 Infinite Ground Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-129 Gaussian Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-128 Cylindrical Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-107 Impedance Calculation for Layered Impedance Boundary . . . 17-108 Surface Roughness Calculation for Impedance Boundary . . . . . . 17-116 Mode Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-112 Summary for Total and Scattered Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-140 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-131 Magnetic Bias Sources . 17-114 Excitations . . . . . . 17-132 Uniform Applied Bias Fields . . . . . . 17-109 Frequency-Dependent Boundaries and Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-111 Scattered and total field formulation pros and cons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-107 Layered Impedance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .ANSYS Multiphysics Coupling .31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3 19. 17-143 Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . 17-142 Lande G Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-144 Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-145 Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors . . . . 19-13 Multiphysics Coupling on Workbench with ANSYS Structural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-143 Anisotropic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-12 Multiphysics Coupling on Workbench with ANSYS Thermal . . 17-143 Delta H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSYS Workbench Integration Overview Integrating Ansoft Products with ANSYS Workbench13. . . . 19-3 Workbench Data Integration Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2 Stopping a Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 after Ansoft Product Installation . . 19-6 Adding New Ansoft Analysis Systems . . . . 19-14 Multiphysics Coupling between Ansoft Field Systems on Workbench 19-15 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 During Ansoft Product Installation . . . . 19-12 Ansoft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-147 Anisotropic Materials and Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-141 Dielectric Loss Tangent . . . . 17-142 Magnetic Loss Tangent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-145 Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors . 17-142 Magnetic Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9 Analyzing Ansoft Models in Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8 Editing Ansoft Models in Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1 Integration with ANSYS 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7 Importing Ansoft Projects into ANSYS Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Relative Permittivity . 17-148 Frequency-Dependent Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-10 Performing Parameter Studies in Workbench . 19-2 Integration with ANSYS 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scripting Recording a Script . . . . . . . 17-142 Ferrite Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2 Pausing and Resuming a Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-146 Anisotropic Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossaries Contents . . . 17-149 18. . . . . . . . . . . . 17-141 Bulk Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1 Stopping Script Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2 Running a Script . . .0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-148 Debye Materials . 19-11 Scripting in Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Contents .32 .

and identify ports and special surface characteristics. Characteristic port impedances and propagation constants. Note If you are using the Eigenmode Solution solver. for open boundary problems. As you set up the problem. radiated near and far fields. you do not need to specify sources for the problem. and boundaries. The software includes post-processing commands for analyzing this behavior in detail. of a structure. HFSS then generates the necessary field solutions and associated port characteristics and S-parameters. Generalized S-parameters and S-parameters renormalized to specific port impedances. The eigenmodes.1 Getting Started with HFSS HFSS is an interactive software package for calculating the electromagnetic behavior of a structure. or resonances. You are expected to draw the structure. Using HFSS. HFSS calculates the resonances for the model based on the geometry. HFSS allows you to specify whether to solve the problem at one specific frequency or at several frequencies within a range. you can compute: • • • • Basic electromagnetic field quantities and. Getting Started with HFSS 1-1 . materials. specify material characteristics for each object.

Note If you attempt to run HFSS and get a message reporting a corrupted license file. On all systems when you run HFSS for the first time (that is. For the temp directory.HFSS Online Help System Requirements HFSS supports the following operating systems: • • Windows Linux For details regarding which revisions of each of these operating systems are supported. memory and disk requirements and known issues at the time of shipping. HFSS displays a warning message if the license file expires within 15 days. HFSS displays a dialog that asks you to set the project and temp directories. as well as. please contact Ansoft.8. HFSS 13 requires at least FLEXlm for Ansoft v10. All operating systems must have 32-bit OpenGL libraries installed regardless of whether the OS is 32-bit or 64-bit. 500 MHz Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software): 200 MB RAM: 512 MB Recommended Minimum Configuration Processor: All fully compatible 786 (or later) instruction set processors. 1 GHz Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software and temporary files): 500 MB RAM: 2 GB Increasing RAM on 32-Bit PC 1-2 Getting Started with HFSS . with no project directory specified in the registry).5 license server. or if the project directory or the temp directory does not exist. consult the read me file shipped with this release of the software by clicking the link below: . there is a comment asking you to ensure that adequate disk space is available. Note Note Windows Supported Platforms • • • Windows XP Professional (32-bit and 64-bit) Windows Server 2003 (32-bit and 64-bit) Windows Vista Service Pack 1 (32-bit and 64-bit) 32-Bit System Requirements Minimum System Requirements Processor: All fully compatible 686 (or later) instruction set processors.

Intel Pentium 4 with Intel EM64T support Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software): 200 MB RAM: 2 MB Recommended Minimum Configuration (for Optimal Performance) Supported processors: AMD Athlon 64. Intel Pentium 4 with Intel EM64T support Video card: 128-bit SVGA or PCI Express video card Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software and temporary files): 700 MB RAM: 8 GB Increasing RAM on a 32-Bit Windows Vista PC Warning Windows Vista (32-bit and 64-bit) is supported in limited capacity for this release. If you type bcdedit from a Windows command prompt.41 or greater video driver. available for download at http://www. 2. the /3gb switch has been replaced with an option called increaseuserva. which will revert the OS back to 2GB: 1. AMD Opteron. you will see the current values for the Boot Manager and Boot Loader. Note If you are using the NVIDIA Quadro2 MXR/EX video card on Windows 2000 or Windows XP. Ansoft will attempt to assist with any problems or questions you may have but cannot guarantee full compatibility with Windows Vista. Open a Command Prompt window. you should also download Version 40. Getting Started with HFSS 1-3 . To set increaseuserva to 3GB: 1. If you do not have increaseuserva set. then you will not see this line in the boot loader output.com. Open a Command Prompt window.ini switch (/3GB) to tell the OS that 3 GB is to be used for application space and only one GB for the OS kernel and related overhead. you can take advantage of potentially all the installed RAM up to a limit of 3GB on 32-bit machines. On Windows Vista. You must edit its value using the bcdedit utility. Intel Xeon with Intel EM64T support.HFSS Online Help Users with the appropriate Windows OS can take advantage of potentially all the installed RAM up to a limit of 3 GB on 32-bit PCs. Intel Xeon with Intel EM64T support. AMD Opteron.nvidia. If you are running the Windows Vista 32-bit Operating System. Type bcdedit /deletevalue increaseuserva in the Command Prompt window and press To delete the increaseuserva setting. Doing so also requires setting up the appropriate OS boot. Type bcdedit /set increaseuserva 3072 in the Command Prompt window and press Enter. 2. 64-bit System Requirements Minimum System Requirements: Supported processors: AMD Athlon 64.

This must be done using the -BatchSave command on a nonLinux system running HFSS v11. To do this. Intel Pentium 4 with Intel EM64T support Video card: 128-bit SVGA or PCI Express video card Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software and temporary files): 700 MB RAM: 8 GB Setting Up a Printer on Linux To print from Ansoft software on Linux. AMD Opteron. right-click on it. To do this. you receive an error message that the project must first be converted to HFSS v11. 2 GHz Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software and temporary files): 700 MB RAM: 4 GB 64-bit System Requirements Minimum System Requirements: Supported processors: AMD Athlon 64. 1-4 Getting Started with HFSS . find the Command Prompt in the Windows Start menu. See the discussion here. AMD Opteron.HFSS Online Help Enter. Run mwcontrol & in the installation subdirectory. then you must start the command prompt in elevated mode. Note You must edit this value as an administrator. Intel Xeon with Intel EM64T support. Intel Pentium 4 with Intel EM64T support Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software): 200 MB RAM: 2 MB Recommended Minimum Configuration (for Optimal Performance): Supported processors: AMD Athlon 64. and choose Run as Administrator. 1. you must first configure a printer. 500 MHz Hard Drive Space (for HFSS software): 200 MB RAM: 512 MB Recommended Minimum Configuration (for Optimal Performance): Processor: All fully compatible 786 (or later) instruction set processors. Supported Platforms • • Red Hat Enterprise Linux v4 and v5 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server v10 and v11. 32-bit System Requirements Minimum System Requirements: Processor: All fully compatible 686 (or later) instruction set processors. Linux If you attempt to open an HFSS v9 project in Linux. Intel Xeon with Intel EM64T support. launch the MainWin control panel. If you have User Access Control enabled.

11. Note 6. Then double-click on the Add New Printer icon. If the information is incorrect. This starts the Add Printer Wizard. 5. 8. Choose whether this printer should be the default and click Next. 7. and the printer added. On Red Hat Linux. If the information is correct. you will need to cancel and get someone with root permission to setup a printer queue on your machine (and then you will need to come back and run this wizard later). In the Identify your Unix Printer dialog do one of the following: • • If your printer is listed. verify the printer setup information. 3. you can run 'System Settings/Printing' to launch printconf-gui (as root). If your printer is not listed. 12. The Print Command dialog appears. use the Back button to return to the appropriate dialog and correct the entry. Getting Started with HFSS 1-5 . Select the Let the wizard search for printers radio button and click Next. On Solaris you setup a new print queue by running "lpadmin" (as root). Click Next. Change the Print Command only if instructed to do so by your user administrator. 9. Click Next. Select your printer manufacturer and model from the list or use the Choose File button to browse to a PPD file provided by your printer manufacturer. Click Next. you should then see the printer when running the software. In the Finish Adding New Printer dialog. Enter a Name to identify the printer.HFSS Online Help The MainWin Control Panel appears. The Choose PPD File dialog appears. 2. 13. 4. Click Next. With a print queue setup. The Printer Name dialog appears. select it. Choose whether you would like to print a test page and click Next. Double-click on the Printers icon to start the MainWin Printers panel. 10. click Finish to complete the setup of your printer.

Concepts and Use. HFSS User Interface Setting Up an HFSS or HFSS-IE Design Modeling Boundaries and Ports Analysis Results Example Projects 1-6 Getting Started with HFSS HFSS-IE Solution Types Materials Meshing Optimetrics Scripting Ansoft Website . Click for help on HFSS Process Flow topics: Go to HFSS General Quick Links. Click for Introduction to HFSS: Fundamental Principles. .HFSS Online Help Welcome to HFSS Online Help Click for help on these topics. HFSS General Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics.

HFSS User Interface Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. search the help index. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. With the Online Help Index tab selected. Modeling Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. and then click on any menu command. and then click on any menu command. Set the model’s units of measurement. or window for help on that selection. icon. Subtract objects. or window for help on that selection. Assign transparency to an object. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. navigate the help topic hierarchy. create a custom list of favorite topics. search the help index. search the full help text. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. create a custom list of favorite topics.HFSS Online Help For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. The HFSS Desktop Setting Options in HFSS Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes HFSS-IE Showing and Hiding Windows Customize Toolbar Options Working with Short Cut Menus Running HFSS From a Command Line Moving and Resizing Desktop Windows Working with Variables For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. With the Online Help Search tab selected. search the full help text. icon. navigate the help topic hierarchy. With the Online Help Index tab selected. Measuring Objects Setting Modeler Drawing Options Selecting Items in the Modeler Window Drawing Objects Choosing the Cursor Movement Mode Getting Started with HFSS 1-7 . With the Online Help Search tab selected. With the Online Help Contents tab selected.

and then click on any menu command. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. With the Online Help Search tab selected. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. Materials Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. 1-8 Getting Started with HFSS . With Online Help Favorites tab selected.HFSS Online Help Drawing Bondwires Keyboard shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window. search the full help text. create a custom list of favorite topics. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. With the Online Help Index tab selected. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. and then click on any menu command. search the full help text. search the help index. create a custom list of favorite topics. icon. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. navigate the help topic hierarchy. With the Online Help Index tab selected. navigate the help topic hierarchy. Assigning Materials Searching for Materials Assigning Material Property Types Defining Frequency Dependent Material Properties Defining Functional Material Properties Assigning DC Thickness For detailed information on these and many other topics: Solve Inside or On a Surface Adding New Materials Defining Variable Material Properties Defining Material Properties as Expressions Viewing and Modifying Material Attributes • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. or window for help on that selection. search the help index. icon. or window for help on that selection. Modifying the Model View Importing Files Modifying Objects Creating a User Defined Primitive For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. With the Online Help Search tab selected.

With the Online Help Index tab selected. Defining Mesh Operations Plot the finite element mesh Detecting and Addressing Model Problems Handling Complicated Models to Improve Meshing Specify the initial mesh settings For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. Getting Started with HFSS 1-9 .HFSS Online Help Ports Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. With the Online Help Search tab selected. Assigning Excitations Assigning Wave Ports for Modal Solutions Assigning Wave Ports for Terminal Solutions Floquet Port Incident Wave Current Source Defining an Integration Line Linking to External Sources Lumped Port Auto Assign Terminals Zoom to Selected Excitation Voltage Source Magnetic Bias Defining a Differential Pair For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. create a custom list of favorite topics. and then click on any menu command. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. search the full help text. create a custom list of favorite topics. With the Online Help Index tab selected. Meshing Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. search the help index. or window for help on that selection. and then click on any menu command. icon. search the full help text. navigate the help topic hierarchy. search the help index. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. navigate the help topic hierarchy. With the Online Help Search tab selected. icon. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. or window for help on that selection. With Online Help Favorites tab selected.

navigate the help topic hierarchy. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. Specifying the Analysis Options Configuring Distributed Analysis Selecting an Optimal Configuration for Distributed Analysis Specifying Output Variable Convergence Adding a Frequency Sweep Running Simulations Ansys Workbench Integration Overview For detailed information on these and many other topics: Remote Analysis Specifying Solution Settings Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters Setting the Order of Basis Functions Options for Interpolating Sweeps High Performance Computing Integration • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog.HFSS Online Help Analysis Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. 1-10 Getting Started with HFSS . With the Online Help Index tab selected. and then click on any menu command. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. Running an Optimetrics Analysis Parametric Overview Setting up an Optimization Analysis Tuning a Variable Setting a Range function Adding a cost function Getting Started Guide: Optimizing Waveguide T-Junction For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. Optimetrics Setting up a Parametric Analysis Setting up a Sensitivity Analysis Setting up a Statistical Analysis Setup Calculations for Optimetrics. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. With the Online Help Search tab selected. or window for help on that selection. create a custom list of favorite topics. search the help index. navigate the help topic hierarchy. and then click on any menu command. icon. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. or window for help on that selection. icon. Optimetrics Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. search the full help text.

With the Online Help Search tab selected. View solution data Plot field overlay Create 2D or 3D reports of S-parameters Plot the finite element mesh Create animations Setting up a Near Field Sphere Export Tranfer File for ANSYS For detailed information on these and many other topics: Creating Reports Scale an excitation’s magnitude and modify its phase. With the Online Help Index tab selected. search the full help text. and then click on any menu command. Recording a Script Stopping Script Recording Stopping a Script Running a script Pausing and Resuming a Script Scripting Guide For detailed information on these and many other topics: • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. and then click on any menu command. With the Online Help Index tab selected. search the help index. or window for help on that selection. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. Results Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics.HFSS Online Help • • • With the Online Help Index tab selected. icon. Getting Started with HFSS 1-11 . icon. navigate the help topic hierarchy. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. create a custom list of favorite topics. search the help index. create a custom list of favorite topics. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. search the help index. search the full help text. With the Online Help Search tab selected. navigate the help topic hierarchy. Click the "?" icon on the toolbar. With the Online Help Contents tab selected. Scripting Quick Links Use the following links for quick information on the following topics. Working with Traces Using the Fields Calculator Radiated Fields Post Processing Setting up a Far Field Infinite Sphere • • • • • • Use F1 on any open dialog to open the Online Help for that dialog. or window for help on that selection. With Online Help Favorites tab selected.

All antenna models created by the design kit are ready to simulate in HFSS. The design kit can be integrated into the HFSS user interface or launched from the standard Windows menu. create a custom list of favorite topics. and post-processing reports for over 25 antenna elements. search the full help text. 1-12 Getting Started with HFSS .HFSS Online Help • • With the Online Help Search tab selected. solution setup. This tool allows antenna designers to efficiently analyze common antenna types using HFSS and also assists new users in learning to use HFSS for antenna design. With Online Help Favorites tab selected. The HFSS Antenna Design Kit is a stand-alone GUI-based utility which automates the geometry creation. Click for the download site for the HFSS Antenna Design kit. Antennas in HFSS Click graphics for descriptions of the following HFSS and HFSS-IE antenna examples: Click for HFSS Application Modeling Guide: Antennas.

HFSS Online Help Signal Integrity in HFSS Click graphics for descriptions of the following HFSS signal integrity examples: RF/Microwave in HFSS Click graphics for descriptions of the following HFSS RF/Microwave examples: Getting Started with HFSS 1-13 .

HFSS Online Help Integrated Circuits in HFSS Click the graphics for examples of modeling integrated circuits in HFSS: Also see: Application Specific Modeling Guide: Spiral Inductors on Silicon Substrate 1-14 Getting Started with HFSS .

toolbars. the Message Manager. The shortcut menu in the toolbar area also lets you show and hide each desktop window. Click a link below to view more information about that desktop component. the docked Properties window. the Project Manager.HFSS Online Help The HFSS Desktop The HFSS desktop consists of several windows. 3D Modeler window Menu bar Toolbars Project Manager Property window Message Manager Status bar Progress window Related Topics Getting Help Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes Keyboard shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window. and a status bar. You can show or hide the Status Bar. by choosing which windows to display. and by resizing and moving windows. You can customize the appearance of the desktop customizing or moving the toolbars. Showing and Hiding Windows The View menu contains commands that let you show and hide the windows that comprise the desktop. Getting Started with HFSS 1-15 . a menu bar. and the Progress window.

the cursor changes to a double bar with arrows pointing each direction. the changes in dimension show when you have reached a location where you can place the window. To move one of these windows: 1. 3. click the triangle in the window title bar. the cursor changes to a line with arrows pointing each direction. the triYou can also resize the windows in two ways.HFSS Online Help You can also close the windows by clicking the "x" in the window title bar. for sizing a window within the desktop. 2. Over the inner-edges. As you drag the rectangle to different parts of the desktop. To size a desktop window. Release the mouse button to place the window. for sizing the desktop. If you drag the window to the center of the 3D Modeler window. To expand a window to fill the horizontal or vertical space it shares with another window. When you expand a window. the docked Properties window. bottom. left. You can place a window next to another. Click and hold on the title bar. If a window does not share a horizontal or vertical space with another. place the cursor over an edge of the window. as well as above or below another. and side of the modeler window. Over the outer-edges. the triangle appears as inverted and any other windows in the same horizontal or vertical space are compressed to only the title bar. and the Progress window. • • 1-16 Getting Started with HFSS . Related Topics HFSS Desktop Moving and Resizing Desktop Windows Moving and Resizing Desktop Windows You can customize the appearance of the desktop by moving and resizing the Status Bar. the Project Manager. you can place it there as a floating window. the Message Manager. Drag the cursor towards the region where you want to place the window. A rectangle shape follows the cursor. Press and drag to size the window. This can be at the top.

Getting Started with HFSS 1-17 Project menu Draw menu . drawing objects. or three-dimensional objects. customizing the desktop. Use the View menu commands to display or hide desktop components and model objects. two-.and two-dimensional objects. view. Use the Draw menu commands to draw one-. Use the Edit menu commands to modify the objects in the active model and undo and redo actions. HFSS contains the following menus. such as managing project files. and setting and modifying all project parameters. To open a help topic about an HFSS menu command. define datasets. and define project variables. which appear at the top of the desktop: File menu Edit menu View menu Use the File menu commands to manage HFSS project files and printing options. and modify the model view. modify 3D Modeler window visual settings. Related Topics Desktop Showing and Hiding Windows Working with the Menu Bar The menu bar enables you to perform all HFSS tasks.HFSS Online Help angle does not appear. and then click the command or toolbar icon. Use the Project menu commands to add an HFSS or HFSS-IE design to the active project. press Shift+F1. and sweep one.

Use the HFSS menu to setup and manage all the parameters for the active project. Use the Help menu commands to access the online help system and view the current HFSS version information. assign materials to objects. update project definitions from libraries. Most of these project properties also appear in the project tree. control surface settings. run and record scripts. and set the units for the active design. define a list of objects or faces of objects. 1-18 Getting Started with HFSS . Use the Tools menu to modify the active project’s material library. HFSS menu Tools menu Window menu Help menu Related Topics Getting Help Keyboard Shortcuts for General Purposes Keyboard shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window.HFSS Online Help Modeler menu Use the Modeler menu commands to import. customize the desktop’s toolbars. and copy Ansoft 2D Modeler files and 3D Modeler files. Use the Window menu commands to rearrange the 3D Modeler windows and toolbar icons. export. arrange the material libraries. perform boolean operations on objects. manage the 3D Modeler window’s grid settings. and modify many of the software’s default settings.

To execute a command. move the pointer over the button or shortcut pull-down list. To reset to toolbars to the default positions and settings: Related Topics Customize Toolbar Options Customize Toolbar Commands Customize Toolbar Options To customize the Toolbar displays by using the toolbar list: 1. To display a brief description of the toolbar button. -. Use the OK button to close the dialog. 4. press Shift+F1.HFSS Online Help Working with the Toolbars The toolbar buttons and shortcut pull-down lists act as shortcuts for executing various commands.. To the right of the field are three buttons: New.This resets the toolbar display to apply your current selections. and then click Customize on the shortcut menu. This displays the Customize dialog with the Toolbars tab selected.launches the New Toolbar dialog that lets you specify a new toolbar name.. Related Topics Working with Toolbars Customize Toolbar Commands Getting Started with HFSS 1-19 . or the Cancel button to close without making changes. 2. Select Tools>Customize. To open a help topic about a toolbar button’s functionality. Reset -. with those currently selected being checked. 3. and then click the toolbar button or a command in the shortcut pull-down list. click Reset All. You can drag these to convenient locations. click a toolbar button or click a selection on the shortcut pull-down list. Uncheck any buttons to remove toolbar icons.this resets the toolbar display to match the original defaults. Check the buttons to add additional toolbars to the desktop. On the Customize dialog box. Click Tools>Customize. The field lists the available toolbars. Hint To modify the toolbars on the desktop. New toolbar icons are added to new rows as you click them. Reset All -. do one of the following: • • • Click Tools>Customize. Right-click the history tree.

Select Tools>Customize. Related Topics Customize Toolbar Options Working with Toolbars Customizing the Tools Menu: External Tools Customizing the Tools Menu: External Tools To add an executable to the Tools menu: 1. The icons for the currently selected toolbar are shown to the right of the field. If a User Tools menu item has been defined. and called Reflective on the Tools menu. Select from the Categories list to display the icons you want to add to the toolbar.HFSS Online Help Customize Toolbar Commands To customize the Toolbar by dragging icons: 1. and Move Up and Move Down commands. its contents are displayed. Click Tools>External Tools This displays the Customize User Tools Menu dialog. The Categories field lists the available toolbars. Drag the icons from the Customize dialog to a location on the desktop toolbar. 1-20 Getting Started with HFSS . Command buttons let you Add new commands and Delete selected commands. 2. 3. Use the OK button to close the dialog. This displays the Customize dialog with the Commands tab selected. You can specify the command line arguments to the program and the directory in which it will be run. This example shows the Reflective. 4. or the Cancel button to close without making changes.exe program added to the tools menu. 2.

exe program added to the Tools menu as Run My Script. Click OK to add the External Tools menu to HFSS or Cancel to close the dialog without changes. You can also add scripts to the Tools menu. Assuming you have a script to generate custom reports called report. Command field -.this will display the external executable.this field accepts command arguments from the > button menu selections for File Path. Project Directory.] lets you navigate to the file location. You can also name the directory in which it will be run. File Directory.HFSS Online Help 3. Related Topics Scripting Getting Started with HFSS 1-21 .this displays [new tool] as text you will replace with the text you want to appear in the User Tools menu. or Temp Directory.. The ellipsis button {. File Name. To add a custome Tools menu entry. use the cscript. This enables the following fields: Menu Text field -..exe program to execute your script. An ellipsis button [. File Extension. The command line argument to the csscript.vbs..exe program is report.this field specifies the initial directory for the command to operate.. 4. This example shows the cscript. or across the network.vbs. click the Add button in the Customize User Tools Menu dialog. Initial Directory -.] displays a dialog that lets you navigate folders in your desktop. Arguments field -.

assign materials.and near-field radiation setups. Shortcut menus in the Use the shortcut menus in the Project Manager window to manage Project Manager window HFSS project and design files and design properties. excitations. Use the shortcut menu in the 3D Modeler window to select. and move options (zoom. insert far. Shortcut menus in the History Tree Use the shortcut menus in the History tree to expand or collapse groupings. and mesh operations. Note All of the commands on the shortcut menus are also available on the menu bar. analyze. change the view.HFSS Online Help Working with the Shortcut Menus A variety of shortcut menus — menus that appear when you right-click a selection — are available in the toolbars area of the desktop. and customize the toolbars. excitations. create postprocessing reports. To access the shortcut menu in the toolbars area: 1-22 Getting Started with HFSS . the shortcut menu lists the commands that you can apply to the selected object or objects. If you select particular objects in the history tree.). perform boolean operations. boundaries. Shortcut menu in the toolbars area Shortcut menu in the 3D Modeler window Use the shortcut menu in the toolbars area of the desktop to show or hide windows or toolbars. and manage solution setups. magnify. in the 3D Modeler window. Shortcut Menu in the Toolbars Area Use the shortcut menu in the toolbars area of the desktop to show or hide windows or toolbars. or mesh operations to objects. add. and. etc. run Ansoft’s Maxwell SPICE. rotate. assign and edit boundaries. edit project definitions. and customize the toolbars. and work with field overlays. add optimetrics analyses. and in the Project Manager window.

perform boolean operations.). Shortcut Menu in the 3D Modeler Window Use the shortcut menu in the 3D Modeler window to select. change the view. which enables you to modify the toolbar settings on the desktop. if a check box appears next to the Project Manager command. magnify. A check box will appear next to a command if the item is visible.HFSS Online Help • Right-click in the toolbars area at the top of the desktop. or mesh operations to objects. rotate. excitations. and move options (zoom. To access the shortcut menu in the 3D Modeler window: Getting Started with HFSS 1-23 . For example. Click Customize to open the Customize dialog box. etc. boundaries. assign materials. and work with field overlays. then the Project Manager window is currently visible on the desktop.

name.. 1-24 Getting Started with HFSS . show or hide a boundary’s geometry. remove all boundary assignments. change the priority of a previously assigned boundary. from the shortcut menu for the Boundaries icon. and use the PML Setup wizard to create a perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary. CTRL + P: Print.HFSS Online Help • Right-click in the 3D Modeler window (grid area). review information for all the boundary assignments for the active design. For example. you can assign boundaries to selected objects. or vectors. Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes The following keyboard shortcuts apply to HFSS in general • • • • • • • F1: Help F1 + Shift: Context help F4 + CTRL: Close program CTRL + C: Copy CTRL + N: New project CTRL + O: Open.... or item. Shortcut Menus in the Project Manager Window Each node. in the project tree has a shortcut menu.

save and load assignment files. Getting Started with HFSS 1-25 . Related Topics Keyboard Shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window Custom Keyboard Shortcuts Custom Keyboard Shortcuts Click Tools>Keyboard Shortcuts to display a dialog that lets you view existing assignments. use Tools>Keyboard Shortcuts. create new shortcuts.HFSS Online Help • • • • • • • CTRL + V: Paste CTRL + X: Cut CTRL + Y: Redo CTRL + Z: Undo CTRL + 0: Cascade windows CTRL + 1: Tile windows horizontally CTRL + 2: Tile windows vertically To customize the shortcut assignments.

If you have an existing aks file.. If a limited context exists. Buttons on the browser window let you designate the file location as Use Path. The Use new shortcut in field displays Global by default. You can OK the current settings. the menu will offer a selection. button displays a browser window that lets you navigate the file structure and assign a name. button to display a browser window to locate the desired file.HFSS Online Help Selecting a Command category lists the available commands for that category. For example.. The field displays the keystrokes you make. click Remove. or Reset to Default. 4. Personallib. If you combine keystrokes these are displayed with a “+” between them. which means that the shortcut will apply to all applicable contexts. To assign a keyboard shortcut. 3. When you have made keystrokes. Clicking the Save.. the Shortcuts for selected command field and the Remove button are greyed out. or Project folder. using an aks suffix for Ansoft Keyboard Shortcut file. Syslib.. To create a new shortcut key: 1. Select the Category and Command. Ctrl + p or Alt +o. If the command has an assigned shortcut. the dialog enables the Assign button. it is displayed on the Shortcuts for the selected command field. If the selected command does not have an assigned shortcut. UserLib. including HFSS and HFSS-IE. 2. 1-26 Getting Started with HFSS . 6. you can use the Load. place the cursor in the Press new shortcut key field. Related Topics Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes Keyboard Shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window 5. You can save the assignments to a named file. You can use the Remove button to disable the shortcut for the selected command. When you have made the assignments you want to make. If you want disable a current assignment for the selected command.

cylindrical. Depending on the command being performed. a message informs you that if you continue. A check box appears next to this command if the status bar is visible. the status bar can display the following: • • • X. -27 . It displays information about the command currently being performed. Exiting the Desktop To exit the desktop. its boundary conditions and material assignments. cartesian. The Project Manager window displays details about all open HFSS projects. HFSS does a clean abort before going on with the Exit. Y.Working with the Status Bar The status bar is located at the bottom of the application window. Working with the Project Manager The Project Manager window displays the open project’s structure. the simulations will be aborted. which is referred to as the project tree. A pull-down list to enter a point’s absolute. relative. If you say OK. use File>Exit. If simulations are running. or spherical coodinates. Each project ultimately includes a geometric model. and field solution and post-processing information. The model’s units of measurement. To display or hide the status bar: • Click View> Status Bar. and Z coordinate boxes.

To show or hide the Project Manager window. 1. select Expand Project Tree on Insert. The Options dialog box appears. A check box appears next to this command if the Project Manager window is visible. Related Topics Working with the Project Tree Shortcut Menus in the Project Manager Window Working with the Project Tree The project tree is located in the Project Manager window and contains details about all open HFSS projects. A check box appears next to this command if the Project Manager window is visible. where n is the order in which the project was added to the current session of HFSS. -28 . 2. Expand the project icon to view all the project’s HFSS design information and material definitions. Right-click in the toolbars area on the desktop. and then click Project Manager on the shortcut menu. It is named Projectn by default. Under the Project Options tab. Click Tools > Options>General Options. Related Topics Viewing HFSS Design Details Setting the Project Tree to Expand Automatically You can set the project tree to automatically expand when an item is added to a project. as shown below: The top node listed in the project tree is the project name. do one of the following: • • Click View> Project Manager.

Displays field overlay plots.Viewing HFSS Design Details Once you insert an HFSS design into a project. A solution setup specifies how HFSS will compute the solution. where n is the order in which the design was added to the project. It is named HFSSModeln by default. which you can then edit. currents. A dialog box appears with that setup’s parameters. which specify the field behavior at the edges of the problem region and object interfaces.and near-field setups added to an HFSS design. Viewing the Design List You can use the HFSS>Design List command or the Design List icon to view a dialog with tables of the design properties. including its boundary conditions and material assignments. which are used to specify the sources of electromagnetic fields and charges. it is listed as the second node in the project tree. Displays the mesh operations specified for objects or object faces. and field solution and post-processing information. Plot folders are listed under Field Overlays. Expand the design icon in the project tree to view all of the specific data about the model. which are representations of basic or derived field quantities on surfaces or objects. Displays the solution setups for an HFSS design. Displays the excitations assigned to an HFSS design. Displays any post-processing reports generated. Displays all port fields in the active model. Mesh operations are optional mesh refinement settings that are specified before a mesh is generated. The Design list is a dialog that with tabs to let you view the following -29 . or voltages on objects or surfaces in the design. double-click the design setup icon that you want to edit. Displays any Optimetrics setups added to an HFSS design. Excitations Mesh Operations Analysis Optimetrics Results Port Field Display Field Overlays To edit a project’s design details: • In the project tree. See Setting Field Plot Defaults for information on how to customize the plot folders. Radiation Note Displays far. These folders store the project’s plots and can be customized. The HFSSModeln node contains the following project details: Boundaries Displays the boundary conditions assigned to an HFSS design.

By can choose to show or hide a docked Properties window as part of the desktop. the History Tree.Model Boundaries Displays the objects that comprise the model and their properties. or the 3D Modeler window. or properties. or voltages on objects or surfaces in the design. depending on the selection. The Properties window enables you to edit an item’s properties. the history tree. Mesh operations are optional mesh refinement settings that are specified before a mesh is generated. it displays the properties of any item you select in the Project tree. You can move move and resize the docked Properties window within the desktop to suit your workstyle. You select View>Properties Window to remove the docked properties window. Displays the boundary conditions assigned to an HFSS design. currents. you can still open an undocked Properties window for any item in the project tree. Related Topics Adding New Materials Working with the Properties Window The Properties window displays the attributes. or the 3D Modeler window by double-clicking. -30 . Displays the excitations assigned to an HFSS design. Displays the mesh operations specified for objects or object faces. which specify the field behavior at the edges of the problem region and object interfaces. Displays the solution setups for an HFSS design. Excitations Mesh Operations Analysis Setup Viewing Material Definitions The definitions node is listed at the bottom of the project tree and displays all of the material definitions that are assigned to the objects in the active model. which are used to specify the sources of electromagnetic fields and charges. will vary. the history Tree. Regardless of the whether you display a docked Properties window. The tabs available in the Properties window will also vary. of an item selected in the project tree. depending on the type of item selected. When you have a docked Properties window. The properties. and the ability to edit them in the Properties window. A solution setup specifies how HFSS will compute the solution. or the 3D Modeler window.

click OK. you can also view an object's properties if you have the Properties window displayed within the desktop. Select the object whose properties you want to view. Click Edit>Properties. The Properties window for that object appears. When you are finishing making changes. Rather than opening a separate window. 3. Related Topics Showing and Hiding the Properties Window Setting the Properties Window to Open Automatically Modifying Object Attributes using the Properties Window Modifying Object Command Properties Using the Properties Window -31 .Related Topics Opening the Properties Window Showing and Hiding the Properties Window Setting the Properties Window to Open Automatically Modifying Object Attributes using the Properties Window Modifying Object Command Properties Using the Properties Window Opening the Properties Window 1. 2.

edit the object attribute. Related Topics Showing and Hiding the Properties Window Modifying Object Attributes Using the Properties Window 1. Under the Attribute tab in the Properties window. and then click Properties on the shortcut menu. Click the button and then edit the current settings in the window or dialog box that appears. the Properties window will open. The Modeler Options window appears. clear the check box to disable the attribute. do one of the following: • • Click View> Property Window. this setting is ignored. Related Topics Setting the Properties Window to Open Automatically Setting the Properties Window to Open Automatically To set the Properties window to open after an object is drawn. A check box appears next to this command if the Properties window is visible. Hereafter.Showing and Hiding the Properties Window To show or hide the Properties window on the desktop. do the following: 1. and then select a new setting from the menu that appears. Select Edit property of new primitives. A check box appears next to this command if the Properties window is visible. and then press ENTER. 3. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Click the Drawing tab. if you draw an object in Dialog mode. 2. Click in the field and edit the numeric values or text. you can edit it by doing one of the following: • • • • Select the check box to apply the attribute. Related Topics Modifying Objects Modifying Object Command Properties Using the Properties Window -32 . after you draw an object in point mode. However. Click the attribute. Select the object for which you want to edit its attributes by clicking it in the view window or clicking its name in the history tree. 2. Depending on the attribute type. Right-click in the toolbars area at the top of the desktop. Click Tools >Options>Modeler Options.

Click in the field and edit the numeric values or text. the command properties that you can typically modify are the numeric values. etc.). you can edit it by doing one of the following: • • • • Select the check box to apply the property. Hint 2. such as position values (base position. If you select multiple commands. In the image below. select the command for which you want to edit its properties. and then press ENTER. properties will be displayed under the Command tab. Under the Command tab in the Properties window. and then select a new setting from the menu that appears. or shared. which is nearing completion: To display or hide the Progress window. You can also modify many of the unit settings for a command property. do one of the following: • Click View> Progress Window. the Progress window is displaying the progress of a discrete frequency sweep. Depending on the property type. Click the attribute.). 1. Click the button and then edit the current settings in the window or dialog box that appears. etc. size values (height. such as the Edit>Duplicate>Mirror command. such as the Draw>Box) command.Modifying Object Command Properties Using the Properties Window The Command tab in the Properties window displays information about an action selected in the history tree that was performed either to create an object. start position. radius. In the history tree. In general. normal position. and various other coordinate values. -33 . Press and hold CTRL to select multiple commands. clear the check box to disable the property. Related Topics Modifying Objects Modifying Object Attributes using the Properties Window Working with the Progress Window The Progress window monitors a simulation while it is running. or to modify an object. edit the command’s properties. Not all command properties can be modified. only the common.

Right-click the progress window. and select Abort. • Right-click the history tree. right-click in the Progress window. By default. Related Topics Stopping or Aborting Simulation Progress Viewing Distributed Analysis Subtasks Stopping or Aborting Simulation Progress To abort progress. After you run a validation check. while the child progress bars (or subtasks) remain hidden. Copy the messages to the clipboard. you can right-click on an intersection error message in the Message window. Error messages contains timestamps with a precision of seconds. and select Show Subtask Progress Bars. To show the child progress bars: • • Right-click the progress window.A check box appears next to this command if the Progress window is visible. Details. you see a popup menu that lets you: • • • • Clear the messages for the current model. and then click Progress on the shortcut menu. and select Go to reference from the shortcut menu. such as error messages about the design’s setup or informational messages about the progress of an analysis. This can be helpful for sending the messages to application engineers. and select Hide Subtask Progress Bars. right-click in the Progress window. To hide the child progress bars: Working with the Message Manager The Message Manager displays messages associated with a project’s development. This selects the intere- -34 . A check box appears next to this command if the Message Manager is visible. This brings up a information dialog with the project and design for specific message. You can toggle between showing and hiding the child progress bars. Related Topics Aborting an Analysis Viewing Distributed Analysis Subtasks While a distributed analysis is running. To display or hide the Message Manager: • Click View> Message Manager. If you right click in the Message Manager window. you can access parent and child progress bars. and select Clean Stop. To stop the simulation cleanly between time steps. A check box appears next to this command if the Progress window is visible. only the main progress bar is displayed.

Under Additional Options. 2. Click OK. 2. 3. Related Topics Showing new messages Showing errors and warnings Setting the Message Manager to Open Automatically Setting the Message Manager to Open Automatically You can set the Message Manager to open automatically to show new messages and errors and warnings. 3. Click the Project Options tab. Related Topics Showing new messages Showing errors and warnings Showing new messages You can set the Message Manager to automatically be brought up when a new message appears. Showing errors and warnings You can set the Message Manager to automatically expand when an item is added to a project. Click Tools>Options>General Options. select Show Message Window on new messages. The General Options dialog box appears. Under Additional Options. The General Options dialog box appears. select Expand Message Window Tree on errors and warn-35 . 1. Click Tools>Options>General Options. 4.secting objects. 1. Click the Project Options tab.

see Modifying the Model View. or grid. and the history tree. For more information. You can create 3D objects by using HFSS’s Draw menu commands or you can draw 1D and 2D objects. Objects are drawn in the 3D Modeler window. and then manipulate them to create 3D objects. Related Topics Modifying the Model View Keyboard shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window. For more information. as shown below: History tree Model view area (grid) To open a new 3D Modeler window. The 3D Modeler window consists of the model view area. Double-click an HFSS design in the project tree. Click OK. Working with the 3D Modeler Window The 3D Modeler window is the area where you create the model geometry. You can modify the view of objects in the 3D Modeler window without changing their actual dimensions or positions. -36 . see Drawing a Model. do one of the following: • • Insert a new HFSS design into the current project. It appears to the right of the Project Manager window after you insert an HFSS design to a project.ings. The model you draw is saved with the current project when you click File>Save.

Working with the History Tree The history tree in the 3D Modeler window lists all the active model’s structure and grid details. Displays all line objects included in the active model. See Drawing a Point for information on how to draw a point object. By default HFSS groups objects by material. You can perform the following tasks with the history tree. By default. You can change this by selecting the Sheet icon in the history tree and right-click to display the shortcut menu with the Group Sheets by Assignment checkbox. HFSS groups sheet objects by boundary assignment. Displays all point objects included in the active model. you can change this by selecting the Objects icon in the history tree and right-click to display the shortcut menu with the Group Objects By Material checkbox. Displays all the sheets in the model 3D design area. -37 The history tree contains the following model details: Invalid Objects Sheets Lines Points . See Drawing a Straight Line for information on how to draw a line object. • • • • • • • • • Expand or Collapse Groupings in the History Tree Group Items by Material in the History Tree Select Objects in the History Tree Use Shortcut Menus in the History Tree View Properties for History Tree Objects View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects Control the View of Objects in the History Tree Select All Objects in a History Tree Group Upgrade Version Lists all invalid objects Displays all the model’s objects and a history of the commands carried out on each object.

See Setting Coordinate Systems for more information on this model detail. Planes Lists Displays the planes for all the coordinate systems.respectively. Creating an object list is a convenient way to identify a group of objects for a field plot or calculation. Related Topics Grouping Items by Material in the History Tree Selecting Objects in the History Tree History tree Grouping by Material In addition. Displays the object or face lists for the active model.) When the objects are sorted by material. When you create a coordinate system. a list called "AllObjects" appears. 2D and 3D objects are listed separately in the history tree. sheet. See Creating an Object List Note While objects created in HFSS can always be classed in the history tree as either a solid. right-clicking on Objects lets you specify whether or not the Objects are sorted by material (the default is to sort by material. default planes are created on its xy. Related Topics Purge History Generate History Selecting Several Objects Creating an Object List Expand or Collapse Groupings in the History Tree You can expand or collapse object groupings in the history tree by left clicking the + or . By default. Related Topics Select Objects in the History Tree -38 .Coordinate Systems Displays all the coordinate systems for the active model. Creating a face list is a convenient way to identify a specific set of surfaces for a field plot or calculation. or wire some imported objects may have mixture of these. right-clicking on any group icon opens a pull-down to expand all groupings or collapse all groupings. and xz planes. yz. HFSS places such objects in an Unclassified folder in the history tree. In addition.

or objects. -39 . nonmodel objects. Only visible objects are selected. sheets. Related Topics Group Items by Material in the History Tree Shortcut Menus in the History Tree If you select particular objects in the history tree. when it may be easier to find the objects of interest by name or material. This can be useful for complex objects. or all unclassified objects. You can use CTLR-click to make multiple selections. You can also right click on any History tree object or grouping and right click to display a shortcut menu with a Select All command.Select Objects in the History Tree Selecting objects in the History tree also selects them in the View window. lines. and then SHIFT-Click to select all in the range. object. You can select a range of objects by a click on the first. The shortcut menus for model objects are most extensive. You can also use click and drag the mouse to make rubber band selections. if the hierarchy is closed under the selection. if the object of interest is inside or behind others. This lets you select at one time all solids. any operand parts are ignored and do not interfere with cut and paste operations. right-click displays a shortcut menu lists the commands that you can apply to the selected command. That is.

Double-click on an item in the history tree to display a Properties window. Then select Properties to display the Properties window. and double right click to display a shortcut menu. The item’s properties appears in the docked Properties window.In other cases. Related Topics View Properties for History Tree Objects View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects View Item Properties in the History Tree To view the properties of an item in the history tree: • • • Click the item’s name in the history tree. Click the item’s name in the history tree. Related Topics Purge History Generate History Selecting Several Objects Selecting All from a History Tree Grouping -40 . you can only view properties. or expand or collapse hierarchy.

line type. such as Edit>Arrange>Move.View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects The history tree also lists the history of all commands carried out a model’s objects. Selecting a command in the history highlights the object in the Modeler window and shows that object’s properties (if available) in the docked Properties dialog. As an alternative to deletion. Here is a history tree from the waveguide combiner example. selecting them in the history tree enables the X (delete) icon on the toolbar and the Edit>Delete menu. “CreateBox” or “Subtract. for example. Related Topics Select Objects in the History Tree Purge History command Generate History command Modifying Objects -41 . or boolean operations. you can delete those commands from the history tree as a way of undoing those operations. you can check Suppress command in the Properties window for that command. For some commands. You can look at the fields in the Properties dialog to see any editable fields for that command. coordinates. This undoes the effect of a command on an object without removing it from the History tree. or units. In these cases. such as coordinate system.” This history is displayed in the order in which it occurred.

Typically this applies when a needed fix is available with new ACIS version. The Modeler by default opens the legacy project in previous (what ever that the project was saved with) ACIS version so that you don't see side effects of slight topology changes between ACIS versions.Controlling the View of Objects in the History Tree To control the view and visibility of an object such as a box or PML. right click on an object in the history tree display the short-cut menu and select View. you can see the Upgrade Version command. the following keyboard shortcuts apply to the 3D Modeler Window • • • B: Select face/object behind current selection F: Select faces mode O: Select objects mode -42 . Related Topics Working with the History Tree Keyboard Shortcuts for the 3D Modeler Window By default. The short cut menu contains the following commands: • • • • • • Fit in Active View Hide in Active View Show in Active View Fit in All Views Hide in All Views Show in All Views Related Topics Purge History Generate History Selecting Several Objects Upgrade Version in History Tree Shortcut Menu By right-clicking on an operation icon in the history tree in the Modeler window. If you want you can use Upgrade Version to move the operation to use latest ACIS code.

Related Topics Keyboard Shortcuts for HFSS General Purposes Custom Keyboard Shortcuts -43 . screen center CTRL + F: Zoom out.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • E: Select edges mode V: Select vertices mode M: Multi select mode CTRL + A: Select all visible objects CTRL + SHIFT + A: Deselect all objects CTRL + D: Fit view CTRL + E: Zoom in. use Tools>Keyboard Shortcuts. screen center SHIFT + LMB: Zoom in / out Alt + LMB: Rotate model Alt + SHIFT + LMB: Zoom in / out Alt + 2xLMB: Sets model projection to standard isometric projections (cursor must be in corner of model screen N/NE/E/SE/S etc) F6: Render model wire frame F7: Render model smooth shaded Note LMB means Left Mouse Button To customize the shortcut assignments.

click Tools>Password Manager. This displays the Password Manager with the resource listed. This displays the Password Manager dialog Click the New button. 2. For HFSS. This displays the Password Manager dialog. chose Ansoft Library files. 4. but it is still encrypts the library. 3.lib) and Ansoft Library files. and encryption of those resources. if necessary. specified passwords correctly. click OK. This dialog has radio buttons to let you: • • 4. Enter Password and confirm for Full Access or for Execute Only Access. Use Ansoft Password (for execute only). Click Tools>Password Manager. This displays the Enter Passwords dialog. Specify the name of the resource that you want to protect and click OK. This displays a File browser window Select the appropriate Files of Type filter.Using the Password Manager to Control Access to Using the Password Manager to Control Access to Resources HFSS lets you specify library resources that require password access. 2. Select an existing resource to highlight it and enable the Encrypt button. This opens the New Encrypted Resource dialog. When you have selected the appropriate resource. This does not require you to enter a password. To access the Password Manager. 3. To Specify a New Password Protected Resource 1. This encrypts the resource. The choices are Circuit files (*. Once you have selected a radio button. Any existing resources in the selected directory will appear. To Encrypt a Resource 1. and. -44 . the same password can apply to multiple resources. For convenience. click OK.

one or none must be used as arguments after hfss. -Local | -Remote | -Distributed Perform the -Batchsolve on a local machine. and the full path to the project. if there are indeed spaces. The settings persist only for the current session.The setupname is case insensitive. -MachineList list=“<machine1>. This ensures that spaces in the path or project will not be an issue. . BatchSolve.batch solve all setups for design with the name given under the project. RunScriptandExit). and the -WaitForLicense option. a remote machine. All command-line arguments are case-insensitive. If parallel solve is possible. Additional parameters for batch solves include the following. Of the commands (BatchSave.Running HFSS from a command line Running HFSS from a command line HFSS includes line arguments that can be included when launching from a command line or terminal prompt. sweeps. [designName]:Optimetrics:[setupname] . This is primarily intended for converting version 9 projects to version 10 when you intend to subsequently run them on a Linux platform..” | file="<machine list file path> " -45 . You can run this command with the -Iconic option. the -Logfile option. The setupname is case insensitive. Command-line syntax hfss <options> <run command> <project name/script name> Run Commands The following command line run commands are available in HFSS. The conversion from version 9 to version 10 must be done under Windows.batch solve the specified Optimetrics setup for design with the name given under the project. The quotes must enclose the entire argument including the Nominal or Optimetrics part. or as a distributed solve using a specified machine list (see below). Links to the valid options for each run command are listed and/or linked to descriptions. You can run this command with the -Iconic option. and the -ng option (no graphics).batch solve all nominal setups for design with the name given under the project. solve all adaptive setups.batch solve all Optimetrics setups for design with the name given under the project. [designName] . or Solaris before those projects can run on a Linux system. the -Logfile option. RunScript.batch solve the specified nominal setup for design with the name given under the project. [designName]:Nominal . [designName]:Optimetrics . The same is true of the design name. It is good practice to put quotes around the path to the HFSS executable. HP. you can use the -Distribute option in conjunction with -BatchSolve.ng option (no graphics). -BatchSave <project file name> Saves a named project to the current version. as well as Optimetrics setups found in the project file. [designName]:Nominal:[setupname] . -BatchSolve By default.. the . <machine2>.

1 192. When you use a file to define the machines available for a distributed solve you should list the machine addresses or names on separate lines: 192. separated by whitespace The -batchoptions value must be enclosed in double quotes if it contains any whitespace -46 . For example. These overrides apply only to the current Desktop session.2 (etc) -MachineList num = <numb distributed engines> In a scheduler environment. it is ignored if neither -BatchSolve nor -BatchSave command line options are specified.hfss This command line overrides the values of the HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessors and Desktop/ProjectDirectory registry settings. you can specify the number of distributed engines that should be used for distributed processing. you can write the number of distributed engines as follows..” All options that are specified through Tools>Options dialogs go to the user-level registry.exe -batchsolve -batchoptions _ "'HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessors'=4 _ 'Desktop/ProjectDirectory'='C:\\projects\\test'"_ projectname. The -batchoptions command line option is only valid for batch jobs. you do not specify the machine names after the the flag because the names are provided by the scheduler.168. but this feature is available for all desktop products. • • • • The registry path separator is the slash "/" Registry key pathnames are enclosed in single quotes Registry string values are enclosed in single quotes Backslashes in registry key values must be escaped with another backslash Example with registry settings specified on the command line hfss. This feature is available for all desktop products. Notes: • • Multiple registry settings may appear in a single -batchoptions value.Running HFSS from a command line -MachineList file=“<machine list file path>” You can use either form of the MachineList option to indicate the machine(s) on which to run a distributed batchsolve.168. You can override such registry entries via the -batchoptions command line. The following examples use hfss.1. The settings persist only for the current session. or may be in a file with the file pathname specified on the command line. in the Windows HPC environment. -machinelist num=4 -batchoptions “'<option1>' '<option2>'. In this case.1. The registry setting overrides may be specified on the command line..

.0 HKCU/Software/Ansoft/HFSS/12.hfss where file filename contains: $begin 'Config' 'HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessors'=4 'Desktop/ProjectDirectory'='C:/projects/test' $end 'Config' This command line overrides the values of the HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessors and Desktop/ProjectDirectory registry settings. a number of HFSS options may be set using the HFSS Options dialog box. Relative Path HFSS/Preferences/ NumberOfProcessors Desktop/ProjectDirectory Absolute Path for HFSS 12.0. If the examples above are used with HFSS version 12.0Desktop/ProjectDirectory When to Use the -batchoptions Desktop Command Line Option Many analysis parameter settings may be done using the GUI. menu item. The -batchoptions Desktop command line option allows you to override the parameter values set in the -47 . These parameter settings include the following solver options (not a complete list): • • • • NumberOfProcessors NumberOfProcessorsDistributed MemLimitSoft: (Desired RAM Limit) MemLimitHard: (Maximum RAM Limit) These values of these parameters are saved in the registry when HFSS is not running.exe -batchsolve -batchoptions filename projectname. The paths are relative to the current version of the current product. which is brought up by the Tools>Options>HFSS Options. Note • • The -batchoptions filename value must be enclosed in double quotes if it contains whitespace The $begin 'Config' and $end 'Config' lines are required • • The -batchoptions filename value must be enclosed in double quotes if it contains whitespace The $begin 'Config' and $end 'Config' lines are required -batchoptions Uses Relative Registry Paths When using the -batchoptions command line option. These overrides apply only to the current hfss session. For example. When running a batch analysis.Running HFSS from a command line Example with registry settings specified in a file hfss.0/HFSS/Preferences/ NumberOfProcessors HKCU/Software/Ansoft/HFSS/12. these parameters will take the values from the registry. the registry paths specified on the command line or in the batchoptions file are relative paths.. then the following table shows the relative and absolute paths of the registry overrides in the above examples.

1. hfss -ng -BatchSolve -Distributed -machinelist num=2 _ -batchoptions _ "'HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessorsDistributed'=2 _ 'HFSS/Preferences/NumberOfProcessors'=2 'HFSS/Preferences/UseHPCForMP'=1 'HFSS/Preferences/HPCLicenseType'=pool" OptimTee.168. Schedulers intercept these streams and provide commands for display of this output . then the number of processors for distributed processing or for non-distributed processing could be affected by an interactive HFSS job running on the same host as the same user.hfss" "c:/Program Files/Ansoft/HFSS13. Examples: C:\HFSS\hfss.0/hfss. The values specified using the -batchoptions command line option only apply to the batch job.1. For example. and do not affect the parameter values in the registry. -RunScriptAndExit <script file name> -48 .Running HFSS from a command line registry with values specified on the command line or in a file.hfss -Monitor You can monitor progress and messages on standard output. If the -batchoptions value is not specified. You can use the -ScriptArgs option to add one or more arguments to this command and can use the -Iconic option. Error and fatal messages are logged to the standard error stream.exe -batchsolve HFSSDesign1:Nominal _ "C:\Project1.hfss" -RunScript <script file name> Run the specified script.exe" _ -Iconic -Queue _ -LogFile "H:\HFSS\_HFSSQueue\fence-v2__Array with Fence4. you could specify the following command to ensure that this analysis uses 2 processors for distributed processing and 2 processors for non-distributed processing. warning and info messages are logged to the standard output stream. during non-graphical analysis.2" _ -batchsolve design_transient:Optimetrics "C:\distrib_project.192.1.see individual scheduler documentation for specifics.adsn" C:\HFSS\hfss.168.log" _ -BatchSolve "Array with Fence4:Nominal" "H:\HFSS\fence-v2.exe -distributed _ -machinelist list="192. Progress.

the project will be solved. -ng Run HFSS in non-graphical mode (use along with -BatchSave or -BatchSolve run commands). with the name <project_name>. -LogFile <log file name> Specify a log file (use in conjunction with -BatchSave or -BatchSolve or -RunScriptAndExit run commands). If no log file is specified. <none> If you do not specify a run command with hfss on the command line. -WaitForLicense Wait for unavailable licenses (use along with -BatchSolve or -RunScriptAndExit). This can be used with all or none of the run commands. Options The following options can be associated with one or more of the run commands.log. -Iconic Run HFSS with the window iconified (minimized). -Distribute Distribute a batch solve to multiple machines. the -Logfile option. You can use the -ScriptArgs option to add one or more arguments to this command. you can still specify the -Help and -Iconic option. See Distributed Analysis for more information on distributed analysis. and the -WaitForLicense option.exe -distribute -batchsolve _ HFSSDesign1:Optimetrics:ParametricSetup1 "C:\Project1. This is only used when none of the four run commands are used. Example: C:\HFSS\hfss. This option must be combined with the BatchSolve run command and must be specified before it in the command line.hfss" -Help Open a window that displays the different command-line options. <project file> Open the specified project on start up. -ScriptArgs <scriptArguments> Add arguments to the specified script in conjunction with -RunScript and -RunScriptAndExit. You can also use the -Iconic option.Running HFSS from a command line Run the specified script and exit. -49 . If -BatchSolve is also set. it will be written to the directory in which the script or HFSS project is located. Note The <project file> must be the last command line entry.

Windows® HPC Task Properties Command Line Enhancements for Ansoft Desktop Products -50 . You can pass multiple arguments to scriptargs by surrounding the script arguments in double quotes.exe -runscriptandexit "c:\project1.vbs Example: c:\hfss\hfss. hfss -scriptargs HFSSDesign1 Setup1 -RunScriptAndExit c:\temp\test. HFSSDesign1 is taken into HFSS as the first argument. For instance: hfss -scriptargs "HFSSDesign1 Setup1" -RunScriptAndExit c:\temp\test.vbs Here. and Setup1 will not be understood by HFSS.exe -RunScriptAndExit C:\scripts\test. HFSSDesign1 is taken as the first argument.vbs _ -scriptsargs "arg1 arg2 arg3" Related Topics Running a Script.Running HFSS from a command line ScriptArgs looks at the single argument after it and uses those as script arguments.vbs" -scriptargs "Setup1" Example: C:\hfss\hfss. Without the quotes. and Setup1 is the second argument.

there are some performance and behavior issues to consider. Remote OpenGL performance will be slower in general. All 3D windows will be closed when you switch from remote PC to a console or from a console to remote.Running from a Windows Remote Terminal Running from a Windows Remote Terminal When running HFSS or HFSS-IE from a remote terminal. Grid will not be turned off while viewing a plot from a remote desktop. The mouse over highlights on 2D plots may appear as not totally overlapping the line color or as thin dotted lines. Related Topics Remote Solve Modifying the Model View -51 . Graphics card and driver quality helps. This is to avoid display/opengl instability during the switch. These issues are due to the interaction of bandwidth/opengldrivers/remote-terminal-protocol • • • • Showing axes when interactively drawing objects will slow the performance.

The Ansoft command line syntax is documented here. The supported HPC software is described in the Ansoft Installation Guide. Before running a job you must you Tools>Windows HPC>Select Head Node to designate the head node of a cluster.Windows HPC Commands Windows HPC Commands Ansoft’s HPC Integration allows you to submit jobs directly using Ansoft’s command line arguments for batchsolves. Related Topics High Performance Computing (HPC) Integration -52 . You can then click Tools>Windows HPS> Submit HPC Job to submit the batch commands for the job. Ansoft products must be accessible from the same directory on all machines. You must pass in a -distributed flag as part of the Ansoft command line arguments if you want to run a distributed simulation.

A list of example projects included with the HFSS installation is located here. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using HFSS version 12 for the first time. This type of -53 .Getting Started Guides Getting Started Guides The HFSS installation includes getting started guides that describe the following designs. A brief Application Specific Modeling Guide: Antennas. Getting Started Guide: A Waveguide Tee Junction Open the PDF: . solving. An Application Specific Guide: Spiral Inductors on Silicon Substrate: Guides for HFSS-IE are here. and analyzing the results of a T-shaped waveguide with an inductive septum. Guides for HFSS Transient are here. This guide will lead you step-by-step through creating.

You will use Ansoft’s Optimetrics software to find an optimal position for the septum. During an optimization analysis. Create a phase animation of results. Getting Started Guide: Optimizing A Waveguide Tee Junction Open the PDF: . Specify a variable to be optimized. Create a 2D x-y plot of S-parameter results. Prior to performing the optimization. You must have completed Getting Started with HFSS: A Waveguide T-Junction before you begin this guide. which includes defining a cost function and setting the range of variable values for an optimization. Solve a parametric analysis. Create a field overlay plot of results.Getting Started Guides structure is used to split an incoming microwave signal into two outgoing signals. Update an existing field overlay plot with new results. Run an HFSS simulation. Modify a model’s design parameters. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS using Optimetrics: • • • • • • • • • • • Create a basic parametric setup. Validate a design’s setup. Related Topics Optimetrics -54 . Assign variables to a model’s design parameters. This Getting Started guide is written for Optimetrics beginners as well as experienced users who are using Optimetrics version 3 for the first time. Solve an optimization analysis. Run an HFSS simulation using the optimal variable value. The waveguide’s transmission and reflection of the signal will depend on the position of the septum. Create a geometry animation. Create an optimization setup. you will set up and solve a parametric analysis. Create a 2D x-y plot of power distribution results. Specify solution settings for a design. By following the steps in this guide. Create a 2D x-y plot of S-parameter results. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • • • • • Draw a geometric model. By following the steps in this guide. view a plot of cost values versus solved iterations.

Modify a model’s design parameters. Create a phase animation of results. This manual guides you through the setup. This guide leads you step-by-step through creating. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. solution. Specify solution settings for a design. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. solving. Run an HFSS simulation. and analyzing the results of a dielectric resonator antenna problem. Run an HFSS simulation. low-loss waveguide combiner. By following the steps in this guide. Specify solution settings for a design. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • • • • • Draw a geometric model. Assign variables to a model’s design parameters. Getting Started Guide: Floquet Ports Open the PDF: .Getting Started Guides Getting Started Guide: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna Open the PDF: . and analysis of a two-way. Validate a design’s setup. Getting Started Guide: A 20 GHz Waveguide Combiner Open the PDF: . -55 . Validate a design’s setup. Create a phase animation of results. Create a 2D x-y plot of S-parameter results. Assign variables to a model’s design parameters. Create a field overlay plot of results. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • • • • • Draw a geometric model. Create a field overlay plot of results. Create a 2D x-y plot of S-parameter results. Modify a model’s design parameters. By following the steps in this guide.

By following the steps in this guide. By following the steps in this guide. and analysis a simple radar cross section (RCS) problem. and analysis of two different models using Floquet ports. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. Getting Started Guide: Coax Tee Open the PDF: . Create the geometry setups for monostatic and bistatic infinite spheres. Coax Dielectric • • Coax Center Pin Outer Boundary -56 . This manual guides you through the setup. Getting Started Guide: RCS Open the PDF: . The simulation solves for the fields in an arbitrary volume. By following the steps in this guide. This manual guides you through the setup. solution. Validate the design setups. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • • • • • Draw the geometric models. It guides you through the steps of creating and simulating a coax tee. you will learn how to setup RCS problems. solution. Create plots for these geometries for a Normalized Bistatic RCS and Monostatic RCS. you will learn how to setup Floquet ports in HFSS. This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS.Getting Started Guides This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. Create the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) Boundaries Add the Excitation Setup Mesh Operations Specify solution setting for the design. Run HFSS simulations.

It also uses boolean and sweep operations. -57 . This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS. This includes the use of relative coordinate systems as an aid to building the model. It guides you through the process of creating a coax connector.Getting Started Guides • Coax Shield Getting Started Guide: A Coax Connector Open the PDF: . Getting Started Guide: A Bandpass Filter Open the PDF: .

and the use of a ground plane and radiation boundaries.Getting Started Guides This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS. It guides you through the process of creating a bandpass filter. -58 . Getting Started Guide: A UHF Probe Open the PDF: . This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS. It includes the use of duplicate around axis commands. It includes the use boolean operations. Getting Started Guide: A Patch Antenna Open the PDF: .

Getting Started Guides This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS. It includes the use of Perfect E and Radiation boundaries and Output Variables in generating plots. Related Topics Example Projects Getting Help Getting Started Guide:Silicon Spiral Inductor Open the PDF: . -59 . It includes the use of Perfect E and Radiation boundaries and a Radiation Pattern plot. This Getting Started guide assumes some familiarity with HFSS.

This brief manual provides guidelines for modeling antennas in HFSS. This Application Specific Modeling Guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 13 for the first time. Related Topics Antennas in HFSS Application Specific Modeling Guide: Spiral Inductors on Silicon Substrate Open the PDF: . This Application Specific Modeling Guide is written for HFSS beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 13 for the first time.Getting Started Guides Related Topics Example Projects Application Specific Modeling Guide: Spiral Inductors on Silicon Substrate Application Specific Modeling Guide: Antennas Open the PDF: . This brief manual provides guidelines for modeling spiral inductors in HFSS. Related Topics Getting Started Guide: A Silicon Spiral Inductor Drawing a Spiral Using User Defined Primitives -60 .

Getting Started Guides Drawing a Spiral Setting the Reference Point -61 .

and analysis a simple radar cross section (RCS) problem. you will learn how to setup RCS problems. Add the Excitation Specify solution setting for the design.HFSS-IE Getting Started Guides HFSS-IE Getting Started Guides The HFSS-IE installation includes the following getting started examples: Open the PDF: . Specify solution setting for the design. By following the steps in this guide. solution. By following the steps in this guide. Create the geometry setups for infinite spheres. -62 . This manual guides you through the setup. and analysis a simple monocone antenna problem. Run HFSS-IE simulation. Run HFSS-IE simulations. By following the steps in this guide. solution. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS-IE beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS-IE: • • • • • • Draw the geometric models. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS-IE beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 12 for the first time. Create the geometry setups for infinite spheres. Add the excitation and infinite ground plane. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS-IE: • • • • • Draw the geometric models. Open the PDF: . This manual guides you through the setup. Create plots for RCS.

By following the steps in this guide. -63 . you will learn how to setup HFSS-IE antenna problems.HFSS-IE Getting Started Guides • Create a plot for the radiation pattern.

Create field plots. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS Transient beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 13 for the first time. This manual guides you through the setup. By following the steps in this guide.HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides The HFSS Transient installation includes the following getting started examples. solution. This manual guides you through the setup. Open the PDF: . By following the steps in this guide. View reports Create the geometry setups for infinite spheres. solution. and analysis of a time delayed response problem for a coax bend. Add the boundary and excitation. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • • • Import the model Add the boundaries and the excitation Specify solution setting for the design. -64 . By following the steps in this guide. Run HFSS Transient simulations. and analysis of a transent horn antenna problem. you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • Draw the geometric models. you will learn how to setup trancient antenna problems. Related Topics Transient Solution Type Open the PDF: . This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS Transient beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 13 for the first time.

Add the boundaries and excitation. solution. Create a plots. By following the steps in this guide. and analysis of a . you will learn how to perform the following tasks in HFSS: • • • • • Draw the geometric models. This manual guides you through the setup. By following the steps in this guide. including the use of Output Variables. Run HFSS transient simulation. Related Topics Transient Solution Type Open the PDF: . Specify solution setting for the design. you will learn how to setup HFSS transient problems. Create a plots and animate a field overlay. By following the steps in this guide. you will learn how to setup HFSS transient problems. Related Topics Transient Solution Type -65 . Run HFSS transient simulation. This Getting Started guide is written for HFSS Transient beginners as well as experienced users who are using version 13 for the first time.HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides • • • Specify solution setting for the design.

Example Projects Example Projects Your HFSS installation includes an example directory containing a projects folder including the following projects: Getting Started Guide Projects: (See associated Getting Started Guides) Related Topics Other Examples with Brief Descriptions in the Online Help Opening Example Projects -66 .

For further examples.Example Projects Other Examples with Brief Descriptions in the Online Help The following example projects have brief descriptions in the online help. see Getting Started Guides and look at the Ansoft Website Related Topics Example Projects Getting Started Guides -67 .

• parametric analysis -68 . including : • • • • the Modeler parameterization of a design feature setup and analysis the use of the Reporter and field animation.Example Projects Tee and OptimTee Waveguide Projects The Getting Started folder in the Examples/Projects folder contains the versions of the waveguide t-junction modal solution project described in Getting Started with HFSS: A Waveguide T-Junction.2 inches closer to Port 2. and Getting Started with HFSS: Optimizing a Waveguide T-Junction Using HFSS with Optimetrics. The second version of the wave guide t-junction demonstrates the use of the Optimetrics. The animated Mag_E1 plot of the E-field when the septum is located 0. The waveguide T-junction illustrates the basic HFSS features.

Use of output variables.Example Projects • • • • • • variable for optimization an optimization setup a cost function Optimization analysis. -69 . plot of cost values versus solved iterations. See Getting Started Guides.

the use of symmetry and radiation boundaries mesh operations lumped ports modifying the impedance multiplier because of symmetry animation of a field plot -70 .Example Projects Dielectric Resonator Antenna The dra_diel directory in the Example/Projects folder contains the modal solution project described in Getting Started With HFSS: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna. This design demonstrates the use of: • • • • • • boolean operations on geometries. See Getting Started Guides.

. The waveguide combiner project demonstrates: • • finite conductivity boundary condition symmetry boundary condition -71 . This project has an associated Getting Started Guide.Example Projects • setting up an infinite sphere and computing antenna parameters Waveguide Combiner Example Project The wg_combiner project is located in the Example/Project folder. See Getting Started Guides.

Example Projects • • • • • wave ports integration lines in wave ports. -72 . solution data plot creation and analysis a phase animation.hfss The cavity model is in the Examples/Projects directory. cavity.

a field plot a Vector_E plot -73 .Example Projects This model provides: • • • an example of a Eigenmode solution.

with distribution criteria Port field display -74 . and height Optimization setup Parametrics setup Sensitivity setup Statisitcal setup. width.Example Projects Optiguide This optiguide project is a modal solution project located in the Examples/Projects folder. This provides examples of: • • • • • • • • a Perfect H Boundary wave ports project variables for length.

Example Projects -75 .

Example Projects Package Example Project The packagehfss project is located in the Examples/Projects folder. This project provides an example of: • • • • • a terminal solution project multiple materials radiation boundary lumped ports with terminals Interpolating sweep -76 .

-77 .Example Projects • Port field display Antennas on Mast Description . The mast is mounted on an infinite ground plane. The dipoles are modeled using 2D objects with a PerfE boundary.1 m high. InfGndPlane1.The mast is 3. Model . Note under Boundaries in the Project tree. The excitations are lumped ports and the mounting structures are modeled by the polystyrene rods.Three dipole antennas mounted on an aluminum mast. simulated in HFSS-IE.

The ports are assigned to the faces of the coax so port2 will automatically move with the coax body as the angle is changed. This is the θ = 90o pattern cut. and Mesh Statistics. Matrix Data. The inner conductor is copper. The variable here is bend_angle and it controls the angle of the top half of the bend. Note To view a port or boundary.9 GHz.This is a model of an air-filled coax bend. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties.The walls of the coax use the default outer PerfE boundary. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. select the desired item in the Project Tree. Two teflon supports with inner radius compensation are included in the model. Parametric Sweep of a Coax Bend Description . -78 . double click on Mag_J1 under Field Overlays>J Fields.Example Projects Setup . Model . To view the radiation pattern shown.Adapt at 0. Go to HFSS-IE>Fields>Edit Sources and uncheck all Terminated options. Before viewing the fields make sure all three antennas are excited. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. Set Scaling Factor to 1 for all three ports. double click on Radiation Pattern 1 under Results in the Project tree. Post Processing Antennas Mounted on a Mast After solving. To view the induced currents on the mast.

To see the shade plots of the electric field. In the Select Animation window select New. and then select bend_angle for the swept variable in the setup pane. only the first mode is computed.Example Projects Setup . To view the solution data for different bend angle values. Then click OK. The eigen solver computes the resonant frequency and Q of the model. Hoefer). The defined Parametric sweep in bend angle sweeps from 50 . Post Processing Coax Bend After solving. To view all variations right-click on Mag_E1 and select Animate. Note To view a port or boundary. Model . For maximum accuracy.17 x 107 mho/m.A coaxial cavity. click on the ellipsis [. W. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence.. Setup . Coaxial Resonator Description . and Mesh Statistics. This example was taken from Microwave Circuit Modelling Using Electromagnetic Field Simulation (D.. double-click on Mag_E1 under Field Overlays>E Field. To verify that this has been set for the -79 ..1 to 5 GHz. select the desired item in the Project Tree.There are no defined sources in an eigen solution so you need only select the number of modes to compute and the convergence criteria.90o every 10o.Adapt at 5 GHz and do an interpolating sweep from 0. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. we need to use curvilinear elements. For this model. To view the S Parameter frequency plots for all five bend_angle variations. Matrix Data. double-click on XY Plot 1 under Results in the Project tree.A coaxial resonator model showing how to use the Eigenmode solver.] net to the design variation box and select the variation of interest. Swanson Jr. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. Walls are defined to have σ = 6.

you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Eigenmode Data to display the Solution dialog. To view the resonant frequency and Q. Convergence. You also view the Solution tabs for Profile.* -80 . select the Eigenmode Data tab on the Solution dialog. and Mesh Statistics. and make sure “Apply Curvilinear Elements” is checked. go to HFSS>Mesh Operations> Initial Mesh Settings. Coaxial Resonator Post Processing After solving.Example Projects model. Note Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties.

This is a driven terminal design. * Data computed using a mode matching program are given in the reference. Model . -81 . and select Update Plots. A radiation boundary is applied to the surrounding airbox. The boards are FR4 and the connector body is modfied epoxy. right-click on E Field under Field Overlays in the Project tree.a simplified model of a four pin section of a connector.Terminal Example Description .Example Projects To view the shade plot. The two outer pins are each grounded at both ends.the connector is configured with lumped ports on each end of the two inner pins. The results presented are f0 = 1. Connector .87 GHz and Q = 5592.

Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. -82 . You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. Note To view a port or boundary.Example Projects Setup . select the desired item in the Project Tree. An interpolating sweep is also included that has an upper frequency of 5 GHz and uses DC extrapolation at the low end. and Mesh Statistics. double click on XY plot1 in the Project Tree under Results. Matrix Data. To view the S parameter plot show below. Connector Post Processing After solving. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog.Driven Terminal Solution with adapt at 5 GHz.

Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties.A microstrip 8 way corporate feed. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence.5 Ghz and use Mixed Order for the Order of Basis function.Adapt at 7. Model . Corporate Feed Post Processing After solving. Matrix Data.Example Projects Corporate Feed Description . Export to HFSS was used to create this project. The model was originally created in Ansoft Designer.The traces are defined as 2D objects with a finite conductivity boundary of copper. and Mesh Statistics. Note To view a port or boundary. -83 . It is a Driven Terminal design. Setup . There is a surrounding air box with a radiation boundary on the top and sides. you can view solution data by right-clicking on the Setup and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. select the desired item in the Project Tree. It is highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed. The sources are all lumped ports with a 50 Ohm impedance.

and select Animation.a coax fed helical antenna with a dielectric support on a finite ground plane. right click on MagE1. This is surrounded by an air box with a radiation boundary. shown below. Helical Antenna Description .* -84 . Then click OK in the dialog. To see a phase animation of this field plot. double click on MagE1 in the Project tree under Field Overlays>E Field.Example Projects To view the shade plot of the E field. A smaller virtual object is defined as the integration surface for radiated field calculations.5 GHz. The antenna is designed to run at 3.

and set the transparency and scale as desired.Radiation Pattern 1.adapt at 3.5 in.Radiation Pattern 2. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. see the antenna design kit at www. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. -85 .ansoft. click HFSS>Fields>Plot Fields>Radiation Field to display the Overlay radiation field dialog. Since this model has open air regions and the tightly spaced helix it is a good choice for mixed order. in the Project tree. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. To view a 2D plot of the total gain.com/hfssantennadesignkit. Matrix Data. To view 3D plot of the antenna gain. *For a further discussion on using integration surfaces and for more on creating sample antenna designs. Note To view a port or boundary. Check Visible for 3D Polar Plot 1. To overlay the 3D plot on the model. To view a 2D plot of the circular polarization pattern for this antenna in the φ = 0o cut. Setup .Example Projects Model . select the desired item in the Project Tree.5 GHz and use mixed order for Order of Basis function. and Mesh Statistics. Post Processing After solving.the support is made of Teflon and the ground has as thickness of 0. The coax port is internal and is capped by a conducting object. look in the Project Tree under Results and double click on 3D Polar Plot 1. double-click on Results . You can create a helix similar to this by using Draw>User Defined Primitive>SysLib>Segmented Helix. double click Results . you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. in the Project tree.

An interpolating sweep is also included that has an upper frequency of 2.driven terminal setup with an adapt frequency of 2. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties.a model of a section of a complex package.the model is two traces of a larger package. Matrix Data.5 GHz and uses DC Extrapolation at the lower end. Note To view a port or boundary.Example Projects You can add markers to the Radiation Pattern plots by right-clicking on the plot window and choosing Marker>Add Marker. and Mesh Statistics. -86 . It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. The substrate is FR4 and a radiation boundary has been applied to the surface of the surrounding airbox. The opposite ends terminate in ports at the solder balls. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog.5 GHz. Setup . Model . You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. At one end are the bond wires that are excited by lumped ports. select the desired item in the Project Tree. Package Section Description . Package Post Processing After solving. The model was created using Ansoft Links from an ANF file and is a driven terminal design.

Example Projects To view the S parameter plot show below. double click on XY plot1 in the Project Tree under Results. on one of the package planes. -87 . the surface current density. To view the shade plot of jsurf. right click on Jsurf under Field Overlays in the Project Tree and select update.

To view the φ = 90o radiation pattern double click on Radiation pattern 1 under Results in the Project tree. allowing the resulting beam to be easily steered. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Model . Setup .Example Projects Small Array of Planar Flared Dipole Antennas Description .The post processing variable is called phase_shift. and Mesh Statistics. The excitations are lumped ports. Note To view a port or boundary.Adapt at 1.The elements use a teflon substrate with 1. As stated the relative element-to-element phase shift in degrees for this array is controlled -88 . A radiation boundary is defined on an air box that is not show here. Post Processing Small Array of Planar Flared Dipole Antennas After solving.6 mm thickness. select the desired item in the Project Tree. Matrix Data. A post processing variable has been defined that controls the element to element source phases. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog.9 GHz.A five element array of flared dipole antennas with a trough reflector. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties.

You will see the design variable displayed in the Properties window. HFSSDesign2. The plot shown here is for a setting of 30o.Example Projects by the phase_shift post processing variable. The easiest way to adjust the phase_shift variable is to click on the design name.A pyramidal horn designed to operate at 10 GHz.This project uses PMLs for its radiation boundary. go to HFSS>Fields>Edit Sources where you will see the offset phase. To verify this. The feed is an x-band waveguide. in the Project tree. -89 . defined as multiples of the variable phase_shift. You can change the value of phase_shift in this window. Pyramidal Horn Description .

by default. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. click HFSS>Fields>Plot Fields>Radiation -90 .Example Projects Model .The horn has 0. Their visibility. Matrix Data. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Setup . The port is internal to the solution region and is capped by a PEC object (cap). has been turned off. To overlay the 3D plot on the model. Note To view a port or boundary. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. Pyramidal Horn Post Processing After solving. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. To view 3D plot of the antenna gain. and Mesh Statistics.02" wall thickness and is defined as PEC. PMLs are included in the model and are defined on the faces of air_box.Adapt at 10 GHz. look in the Project Tree under Results and double click on 3D Polar Plot 1. select the desired item in the Project Tree.

Check Visible for 3D Polar Plot 1. look in the Project Tree under Results. It -91 . To view a 2D plot of the dB gain total.a ring hybrid that can be used as a splitter. and double click on Radiation Pattern 1 A shade plot showing the fields on the Y-Z plane has also been created and can be viewed by rightclicking on E Field under Field Overlays and selecting Update. and set the transparency and scale as desired. Ring Hybrid Description . Power input to the Sum port splits equally between Ports 2 and 3 in phase while power input to Difference Port splits with 180o phase shift.Example Projects Field to display the Overlay radiation field dialog.

the sum of the two inputs will be seen at Sum port and the difference at Difference port.Adapt at 10 GHz with interpolating frequency sweep from 8 to 12 GHz. Matrix Data. open XY Plot 2. The substrate is 40 mil Duriod 5880. Also.Example Projects can be used as a power combiner with power input to Ports 2 and 3. To view a shade plot. Selecting an object in the History tree also displays its properties. the model includes an output variable called Diff_port_phase that computes the difference in phase between ports 2 and 3 when the Difference port is excited.Post Processing After solving. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Ring Hybrid . and Mesh Statistics. Setup . To view plots of S parameter data you can open XY Plot 1.This is a hybrid designed to operate at 10 GHz using stripline transmission lines. Note To view a port or boundary. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed. Model . -92 . select the desired item in the Project Tree. double click on Mag_E1 under E Field under Field Overlays. In that case. Default outer boundary boundary (PerfE) is defined on the remaining faces. For a plot of Diff_port_phase. The ports are defined on four of the faces of the substrate. The trace is a 2D object with a PerfE boundary.

Example Projects To view the shade plot as shown. right click on MagE1 and choose Animation from the menu. -93 . using HFSS>Fields>Edit Sources. change excitations so that ports 2 and 3 are excited by equal amplitude and phase. To view a phase animation of the resulting shade plot.

8 GHz. Derivatives of the S parameter w. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence.Adapt at 1. The derivative of the S parameter data w. feed_pos about the default value of 10.The patch. Setup .t. and Mesh Statistics. Matrix Data. Model .A coax fed quarter wave patch antenna will be tuned using the Adjoint Derivatives. The variable feed_pos controls the value of X for the coax location in millimeters. and do an interpolating sweep from 1.5 to 2 GHz. The design variable.r. -94 . and ground plate are united into a single PEC object. The air filled coax has an internal port that is capped by the PEC ground plate. This feature is enabled in the Derivatives tab of the Setup1 window. Post processing for tuning a Coax Fed Patch Antenna After solving.Example Projects Tune a Coax Fed Patch Antenna Description . controls the location of the coax feed along the x direction. you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. feed_pos.t. this variable will be computed.. The surrounding air box with radiation boundary is not shown.r. shoulder. The antenna is shorted on one end.8 mm is computed.

5 and 11 mm was computed and the results from each was imported into this plot. As you adjust the slider. By right clicking on Results and choosing Tune Reports you can open the Report Tuning dialog shown. double-click on XY Plot 2 under Results to open the plot shown.5 and 11mm results.2 to compare to the imported feed_pos = 10. the response for feed_pos = 10. the plot is recomputed using the derivatives. In a separate project. Related Topics Derivative Tuning for Reports -95 . select feed_pos in the derivative box and select the desired quantities to plot. In the New Report Setup window.3 and +0.Example Projects To view the derivatives you can create a new plot by right clicking on Results and choosing Create Modal Solution Data Report>Rectangular Plot. To tune the design. Adjust the Offset to -0.

select the desired item in the Project Tree.the antenna is fed by a coax line with a wave port. Post Processing After solving. Setup . and Mesh Statistics. The substrate εr = 6 and is 1.A unit cell of an infinite phased array of vivaldi antennas is simulated using linked boundaries and a Floquet port.Example Projects Unit Cell of a Phased Array Description . -96 . you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog. Note To view a port or boundary. The sides are two pairs of Master and Slave boundaries. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. The upper face of the unit cell is terminated in a Floquet port. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. Matrix Data.27 mm thick.5 GHz with an interpolating sweep from 2 to 5 GHz. Model . The conducting traces are 2D objects with PerE boundaries.Adapt at 4.

This design was analyzed in “Analysis of Periodic Structures via a Time-Domain Finite-Element Formulation with a Floquet ABC. You will see the plot computed here agrees nicely with Fig.R. and a vector plot of the mode will be displayed.Example Projects To view a plot of active S parameter seen at the feed. IEEE Trans. look in the Project tree and double-click on XY Plot1.E. March 2006. To view the modes present on the Floquet port click on the desired mode under Port Field Display>Floquet Port 1 in the Project tree. pp 933944. Peterson et al. -97 . 9b in the reference..” L. AP.

you can view solution data by right-clicking on Setup1 and selecting Profile to display the Solution dialog.38 GHz with an interpolating sweep that has an upper frequency of 4.adapt at 4. Setup .* Model . -98 . Note To view a port or boundary.com/3dviadesign. Via Model Postprocessing After solving. You also view the Solution tabs for Convergence. It is then highlighted in the Model window and the properties will be displayed in the Properties window. see www. This model was created using the Via Wizard.a model of a differential via pair.Example Projects Via Model Description . select the desired item in the Project Tree.ansoft. and Mesh Statistics. The conductors are copper and a radiation boundary is applied to the air box. Mixed Order is set for Order of Basis Function. Matrix Data. * To download the Via Wizard.38 GHz and uses DC extrapolation at the lower end. Selecting an object in the History tree will also display its properties. It has a pair of microstrip lines that transition through the vias to a pair of striplines on a lower layer. Likewise for the two striplines at the opposite end.the two microstrip lines are each assigned a terminal in the coupled microstrip port.

Example Projects To view the S parameter plot shown below. -99 . double click on XY plot1 in the Project Tree under Results.

Dept. PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES. DATA. -100 . BUT NOT LIMITED TO.com Technical Support: AnsoftTechSupport@ansys.com Ansoft. All rights are reserved. OR PROFITS. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. Concerning the use by HFSS 13 of LBNL double-double precision. performance.S. INCIDENTAL. ANSYS Inc. LOSS OF USE. PA 15317 Tel: (+1) 724-746-3304 Fax: (+1) 724-514-9494 General Information: AnsoftInfo@ansys. All rights reserved. The Regents of the University of California. HFSS. or use of this material. THE LBNL SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES. the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. including. quad-double precision and arbitrary precision (also termed "multiprecision" or "multiple precision") software: Copyright (c) 2003. OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING. 275 Technology Drive Canonsburg. Q3D and Optimetrics are registered trademarks or trademarks of SAS IP Inc. SPECIAL. of Energy) All rights reserved. EXEMPLARY. STRICT LIABILITY. This document contains proprietary information which is protected by copyright. INCLUDING. INDIRECT. OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE. © 2010 SAS IP Inc.Copyright and Trademark Notices Copyright and Trademark Notices The information contained in the HFSS online help is subject to change without notice. Maxwell 3D. Ansoft shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT. HFSS-IE Full-Wave Spice.. Ansoft makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material. WHETHER IN CONTRACT. EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. through Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (subject to receipt of any required approvals from U. Maxwell Strata. OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY. but not limited to. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.

2. Gifford All rights reserved. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice. PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES. Neither the name of the copyright holder nor the names of contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. EXEMPLARY. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. INDIRECT.Copyright and Trademark Notices Third-party open source software notice: Secure Hash Algorithm Copyright © 2000-2001. INCIDENTAL. STRICT LIABILITY. SPECIAL. -101 . OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTOR(S) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT. are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTOR(S) ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES. OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE. 3. INCLUDING. OR PROFITS. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice. DATA. WHETHER IN CONTRACT. LOSS OF USE. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY. this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. with or without modification. Aaron D.

open the dialog box. E-mail can work well for technical support. it is extremely helpful to include very specific information about what steps were taken or what stages the simulation reached. do the following: • • • • • • Click Help>Contents Click Help>Index Click Help>Search Click Help>Scripting Contents Click Help>Scripting Index Click Help>Search Scripting You can also access help for the scripting commands via the menu bar: Context-Sensitive Help To access online help from the HFSS user interface. PDF of Online Help for Printing Getting Help2-1 . When reporting difficulties. You can also contact your Ansoft account manager in order to obtain this information. please log on to the Ansys corporate website. press Shift+F1 or click click the command or toolbar icon.com. Help Menu Commands To access online help from the menu bar. https://www1. and then press F1. This allows more rapid and effective debugging.2 Getting Help Ansys Technical Support To contact Ansys technical support staff in your geographical area.anssys. and then To open a help topic about an HFSS dialog box. All Ansoft software files are ASCII text and can be sent conveniently by e-mail. do one of the following: • • To open a help topic about an HFSS menu command.

Getting Help2-2 . You can print ranges of pages encompassing topics and subtopics as needed. Open the PDF: .The pdf of online help provides a format and function better suited for printing than the chm.

" means that you can click the Draw Line toolbar button to execute Getting Help2-3 . to type a space. . and menu commands. "copy file name" means to type the word copy.Emphasis.Keyboard entries that should be typed in their entirety exactly as shown.Labeled keys on the computer keyboard.On-screen prompts and messages. For example. Toolbar buttons are displayed after the command they execute. . click File>Open. "Press Return" means to press the key labeled Return. "Click Draw> Line the Line command. and then to type a file name. Bold type is used for the following: .The titles of publications. Toolbar buttons serve as shortcuts for executing commands. and then to type file1. A single bullet indicates that the procedure has only one step.Keyboard entries when a name or a variable must be typed in place of the words in italics. • Italic type is used for the following: . . • • The plus sign (+) is used between keyboard keys to indicate that you should press the keys at the same time. Menu commands are often separated by carats. For example. For example. "copy file1" means to type the word copy. For example. .Conventions Used in the Online Help Conventions Used in the Online Help The following documentation conventions are used in the online help. "Press Shift+F1" means to press the Shift key and the F1 key at the same time. names of options and text boxes. • • Procedures are presented as numbered lists. to type a space. For example. For example.

A full text search . A searchable index .you can expand or collapse the hierarchy by clicking. and jump to topic locations by double-clicking on them.you can search for indexed terms by typing the text field. Getting Help2-4 .you can select topics that you use frequently to create a favorites list.Searching in Help Searching in Help The online help system provides four ways to search for information and navigate quickly: • • • • A hierarchical table of contents . and you can jump to selected entries by double-clicking.you can type text. and search the entire online help. Items are listed according to rank in discussing the search text. A favorites list .

enable the application checkbox to select it. Click Close when done Getting Help2-5 . You can choose to enable the checkboxes to install the update automatically and to save the update to disk. 4. If you choose to update. which lists the applications available for update. c. 2. the Next button is enabled. If an update is available.Using WebUpdate Using WebUpdate To use WebUpdate: 1. This displays the WebUpdate dialogue. Click Next to continue the update. This displays the application and whether it is currently up to date and whether an update is available 3. Select Help>Launch WebUpdate. b. The Webupdate shows the progress of the update. a. Select the application of interest and click Next.

Active Host Ids Active Servers Admin Directory Customer Number FLEXlm Version License Files Click Export.txt). Type a name for the file in the File name text box. Click Help>About Ansoft HFSS. listing information about the product. c. Browse to the location where you want to save the information as a text file. 2. The About Ansoft HFSS dialog box appears. Click the Installed Components tab to view a list of software installed.Obtaining Information About the Software and Version Obtaining Information About the Software and Version To obtain information about 1. Click Save. To export the software information: Click OK to close the About Ansoft HFSS dialog box. b. The Save As dialog box appears. The Save as type pull-down list is already specified as Export (*. Click the Client License Settings tab to view information about the following: • • • • • • 4. a. d. 3. 5. Getting Help2-6 .

The recipient can click the topic to go directly to the help page. 6. Upon receiving the email. This displays the topic.. Getting Help2-7 . The recipient copies the section title from the email and pastes it into the search field. 3. The recipient clicks the List Topics button. 2. 5. 7. and selecting the Search pane.Emailing a Help Page Title Emailing a Help Page Title To email a help page title from the online help chm: 1. Select Search titles only. Go to a help page of interest in the online help. the recipient follows the directions by opening the online help. Click the Ansoft icon on the lower left corner of the help. The help launches an email. 4. Supply an email address and send the email.

and field solution and post-processing information. the software may not be able to find information necessary to solve the model. If you move or change the names of files without using these commands. or designs.3 Working with HFSS Projects An HFSS or HFSS-IE project is a folder that includes one or more HFSS models. You can also open a new project by clicking File>New. use the File menu commands to manage projects. its boundary conditions and material assignments. A new project called Projectn is automatically created when the software is launched. A design named Designn is automatically created for a new project. In general. Working with HFSS Projects 3-1 . Each design ultimately includes a geometric model.

HFSS Online Help HFSS Files When you create an HFSS project.hfss design_name. Ansoft PCB neutral file .hfssresults folder. Some common HFSS file and folder types are listed below: .5 and earlier project.pjt . HFSS folder containing results data for a project. HFSS folder containing results data for a design. HFSS version 8.asol file contains the database of all solved variations and where the resulting data is stored in the design.asol HFSS project.hfss file extension and stored in the directory you specify.hfssresults project_name.anfp 3-2 Working with HFSS Projects . It resides in the project. This file is stored in the project_name.hfssresults folder. The .hfssresults project_name.hfssresults folder. it is given an . Any files related to that project are also stored in that directory.

HFSS Online Help Creating Projects • Click File> New . A default design named Designn is added under the project. A new project is listed in the project tree. are stored under the project name in the project tree. It is named Projectn by default. Project definitions. where n is the order in which the project was added to the current project folder. such boundary and material assignments. Working with HFSS Projects3-3 . You specify the name of the project when you save it using the File>Save or File>Save As commands.

Select the file you want to open. Double-clicking on an HFSS or HFSS-IE project file icon. Use the file browser to find the HFSS or HFSS-IE .hfss project file. By default. HFSS or HFSSIE removes the automatically-created project. If you open another project without editing the automatically-created project. You can also open a saved project by: • • • Dragging an HFSS or HFSS-IE project file icon to the HFSS or HFSS-IE icon. 4. Click File> Open . Related Topics Opening Legacy HFSS Projects Opening Example Projects 3-4 Working with HFSS Projects . files that can be opened or translated by HFSS or HFSS-IE are displayed. 2. 3. Dragging an HFSS or HFSS-IE project file icon to the HFSS or HFSS-IE desktop.HFSS Online Help Projects Open a previously saved project using the File>Open command. The project information appears in the project tree. 1. Click OK.

Related Topics Example Projects Opening Recent Projects To open a project you recently saved in HFSS or HFSS-IE: • Click the name of the project file at the bottom of the File menu. If you open another project without editing the automatically-created project. This displays a browser open to the Examples folder in the product install.. The online help contains additional descriptions of these projects.doc Working with HFSS Projects3-5 . You can select from various display styles for the folders and projects.HFSS Online Help Opening Example Projects You can directly access and open example projects included with product install by using File>Open Examples. HFSS or HFSS-IE removes the automatically-created project.

HFSS 10 can be used. 2. double-click folders to find the one that contains the project. 3. In the folder list. however. Virtually all of the project’s pre-processing data is translated. HFSS 10 files can be opened directly. 1. Note that solution results and Optimetrics setup data are unavailable. Following are additional notes about the translation of various legacy project information. However saving them in 12 means they cannot be used in 10.5 or earlier.HFSS Online Help Opening Legacy HFSS Projects HFSS 12 does not open projects created in Ansoft HFSS version 8. Double-click the project you want to open. It does not open projects created in Ansoft HFSS version 8. Click File> Open . click the location of the project. 3-6 Working with HFSS Projects . the nominal model created for Optimetrics is translated. Legacy HFSS Project Translation HFSS 12 translates all HFSS 10 data.5 or earlier. HFSS 10 can be used to translate earlier projects. In the Look in pull-down list.

• • Excitations and Boundaries • • • Materials • • • • Mesh Operations • • Working with HFSS Projects3-7 . such as yards.HFSS Online Help Model Geometry • The translated geometry’s construction history is unavailable. both are translated. the model will be scaled slightly to fit the new units. Boundaries assigned to named interface selections or rectangle selections are not translated. If the project contained both impedance and terminal lines. Area. HFSS 10 will create a new 2D sheet object from the intersecting area and assign the boundary to that object. impedance lines are translated and calibration lines are ignored. The impedance lines will be ignored for Driven Terminal solutions and terminal lines will be ignored if the project is changed to a Driven Modal solution. Their properties are not modified. with the same orientation defined when the anisotropic material was assigned to the object in the legacy project. therefore the original object properties you defined cannot be modified in the Properties window. functional material properties are translated. respectively. Perfect conductors become regular materials with conductivity values of of 1E30. Mesh refinement operations performed on arbitrary boxes in legacy projects are ignored. For units unavailable in version 10. View visualization settings apply to the saved design.and volume-based mesh operations are translated as length-based mesh operations in version 10 by taking their square roots and cube roots. If these have been changed from the default (15 deg). you can modify the geometry using version 10’s modeling features. However. the nearest available units are used. Port impedance and calibration lines become integration lines in version 10. Object coordinate systems are created for objects assigned anisotropic materials in legacy projects. The coordinate system is defined at the same origin as the global coordinate system. this affects the memory and CPU required to open the project. Nonlinear materials from legacy projects that have magnetic saturation values greater than zero are treated as ferrite materials in version 10. Functions defined in legacy projects become project variables in version 10. therefore. For a boundary assigned to the intersection of two faces. If the legacy project contained both impedance and calibration lines.

you must solve legacy HFSS projects again in version 10. Current meshes are not translated. solve them. Solution data is not translated. however. Solution Types Solution Setup • • • • • • Solutions • 3-8 Working with HFSS Projects . and then request 2 adaptive passes. The design’s initial mesh is used for the version 10 solution. the nominal model can be translated. For frequency sweeps. the Number of Steps value specified in the legacy project is converted to the corresponding Step Size value in version 10. Impedance-only and emissions-only solutions are not supported in version 10.HFSS Online Help Optimetrics • • Setup information. Saving dominant-only or higher-order-only mode S-matrix entries are not supported in version 10. if you request 3 adaptive passes. The total number of requested adaptive passes in the legacy project becomes the Maximum Number of Passes value in version 10. is not supported. For example. therefore these selections in legacy projects are ignored. therefore. including design variables. Parameterizing a translated model is limited because geometry construction history is unavailable. Driven solver projects that contained terminal lines are translated to Driven Terminal solution types in version 10. 5 will be the value specified for the Maximum Number of Passes in version 10. therefore these mode selections in legacy projects are ignored.

If you OK. Working with HFSS Projects3-9 . select HFSS or HFSS-IE>Close. If there you have a simulation running. HFSS or HFSS-IE will abort before closing. you see a message saying that if you continue.HFSS Online Help Closing Projects To close the current HFSS or HFSS-IE project. This closes the project without exiting HFSS or HFSS-IE. HFSS or HFSS-IE aborts the simulation and closes the project.

If you OK the warning. Although HFSS has an "auto-save" feature. Related Topics Saving a New Project Saving the Active Project Saving a Copy of a Project Deleting Projects Saving a New Project 1. Click OK. HFSSwill abort the simulation. In this case the file may no longer be compatible with previous versions. for efficiency reasons. it may not automatically save frequently enough for your needs. HFSS saves the project to the location you specified. the file is not saved. 5. 3.HFSS Online Help Saving Projects Use the File>Save As command to do the following: • • • Save a new project. the file is upgraded to the HFSSversion in which you are running the software. If you have a simulation running. By default this is on. you see a warning that if you continue. do one of the following: • • 6. Use the correct file extension for the file type. the project is only saved if it has been modified since its last save. Warning Be sure to save geometric models periodically. Click File> Save As. command to save the active project. Use the File>Save HFSShas a "Save before solving" setting located in the Tools>Options> HFSS or HFSS-IE Options menu. Save the active project in another file format for use in another program. so the file retains the previous compatibility. A prompt appears when you attempt to save a previously-versioned file. Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. Cancel the Switch to saved selection to save the file under the new name without changing which file is displayed. Saving frequently helps prevent the loss of your work if a problem occurs. 4. Save the active project with a different name or in a different location. 2. If you do not agree to the prompt. HFSS or HFSS-IE aborts the simulation and saves the project. Type the name of the file in the File name box. and then close the current file. If the window has a Switch to saved option. However. 3-10 Working with HFSS Projects . If you agree to the prompt. Leave the option selected to display the new file name.

Related Topics Saving a New Project Saving the Active Project Renaming a Project To rename an existing. Related Topics Saving a New Project Saving a Copy of a Project Saving a Copy of a Project To save an existing. Click File >Save As. Cancel the Switch to saved selection to save the file under the new name without changing which file is displayed. active project: 1. a different file extension. do one of the following: • • 6. active project with a new name. Type the name of the file in the File name box. 3. Warning Be sure to save geometric models periodically. 5. Select the desired file extension for the file type. Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. Click OK. Although HFSS has an "auto-save" feature. 3. This activates the text field for the project name. HFSS saves the project over the existing one. 2. Select Rename. Leave the field selected to display the new file name. Working with HFSS Projects3-11 . Select the project in the Project tree. and then close the current file. HFSS saves the project with the new name or file extension to the location you specified. Right-click to display the short-cut menu. If the window has a Switch to saved field.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Saving the Active Project Saving a Copy of a Project Saving the Active Project • Click File> Save . it may not automatically save frequently enough for your needs. or to a new location: 1. Saving frequently helps prevent the loss of your work if a problem occurs. 2. 4.

Related Topics Recovering Project Data in an Auto-Save File Save Before Solve Option The Tools> HFSS or HFSS-IE Options command displays a dialog with a checkbox for an automatic Save Before Solve option. Under the Project Options tab. HFSS or HFSS-IE counts it as an edit. where n is the order in which the project was added to the current session. or open the auto-save file. this option is set at 10. By default. 3. verify that Do Autosave is selected. attempting to open the file provides a message that the autosave is being used. If neither file is available.auto" extension is appended to the original project file name. in an effort to recover the solution data.hfss" will automatically be saved as "Project1. To modify the auto-save settings: 1. HFSS or HFSS-IE deletes the auto-save file. enter the number of edits that you want to occur between automatic saves. including actions associated with project management. a "model-only" save will occur. Warning When you close or rename a project. and solution analysis. an error message is displayed. after a problem occurs. The Options dialog box appears. HFSSautomatically saves project data after every 10 edits. Click OK to apply the specified auto-save settings. model creation. The auto-save file is stored in the same directory as the project file and is named Projectn. Click Tools > Options>General Options. Auto-save always increments forward. even when you undo a command. This option is selected by default. Note 4. therefore.hfss. Once the specified number of edits is carried out. This means that HFSS or HFSS-IE does not save solutions data or clear any undo/redo history.hfss). The main purpose is to force a full save before running the solve. For example. HFSS or HFSS-IE assumes that you have saved any desired changes at this point. 2.HFSS Online Help 4. With auto-save activated.auto". Saving Project Data Automatically HFSSstores recent actions you performed on the active project in an auto-save file in case a sudden workstation crash or other unexpected problem occurs. "Project1. 3-12 Working with HFSS Projects . an ". By default. When HFSS or HFSS-IE auto-saves. The new project name appears in the directory and the project remains in the original location. you may be able to choose to re-open the original project file (Projectn.auto by default. HFSSautomatically saves all data for the project to the auto-save file. In the Autosave interval box.hfss. Type the new project name and press enter. An "edit" is any action you performed which changes data in the project or the design. If the original file is not available. except solution data.

hfss project file for which you want to recover its Projectn. and then select the original Projectn. Recovering Project Data in an Auto-Save File Following a sudden workstation crash or other unexpected problem. HFSS or HFSS-IE asks if you want solve without saving first. 2. you can start a new solve while running another without having to abort the running solve. Select Open project using autosave file to recover project data in the auto-save file. and then click OK. you can recover the project data in its auto-save file. Related Topics Saving Project Data Automatically Working with HFSS Projects3-13 . recovering data in an auto-save file is not reversible. Click File>Open. In any case. you cannot recover the original project file that has been overwritten. If HFSS or HFSS-IE has crashed. launch HFSSfrom your desktop.auto auto-save file. and if you have not edited the project in between solves. Warning If you choose to recover the auto-save file. removing the results directory (solutions data) from the original project file as it overwrites to the auto-save file. This lets you do multiple solves. 3. To recover project data in an auto-save file: 1. and the Save Before Solve option is set.hfss. which gives you the option to open the original project file or the auto-save file.HFSS Online Help In the case where you start a solve while another solve is running. HFSS or HFSS-IE immediately overwrites the original project file data with the auto-save file data. Warning When you recover a project’s auto-save file you cannot recover any solutions data. recovering an auto-save file means you will lose any solutions data that existed in the original project file. The Crash Recovery window appears. crash recovery will work. HFSS or HFSS-IE replaces the original project file with the data in the auto-save file.

or right click to display the short-cut menu and select Delete. Select the project in the project tree. A dialog displays the message: "The project selected and all its files will be deleted from the permanent storage medium. 3-14 Working with HFSS Projects . Click OK to proceed." 3.HFSS Online Help Deleting Projects To delete a project: 1. Click OK to delete the files or Cancel to retain them. Click either Edit>Delete. 2.

You cannot undo an analysis that you’ve performed on a model.HFSS Online Help Undoing Commands Use the Undo command on the Edit menu to cancel. or undo. the HFSS>Analyze command. To undo the last action you performed on the active design. such as drawing an object or deleting a field overlay plot. click the design icon. the last action you performed on the active project or design. To undo the last action you performed on the active project. Related Topics Redoing Commands Working with HFSS Projects3-15 . on the toolbars. model creation. such as inserting a design or adding project variables. click the project icon. This is useful for undoing unintended commands related to project management. Click Edit> Undo. do one of the following: • • Note 2. HFSS always clears the entire undo/redo history for the project and its designs. and post-processing. In the Project Manager window. or click the Undo button Your last action is now undone. Note When you save a project. that is. 1.

click the project icon. To redo the last action you canceled on the active project. model creation. or redo. such as inserting a design or adding project variables. Note When you save a project. Related Topics Undoing Commands 3-16 Working with HFSS Projects . HFSS always clears the entire undo/redo history for the project and its designs. To redo the last action you canceled on the active design. or undone. and postprocessing. In the Project Manager window. or click the Redo button Your last canceled action is now reapplied. on the toolbars. click the design icon. the last action that was canceled. do one of the following: • • 2. 1. such as drawing an object or deleting a field overlay plot.HFSS Online Help Redoing Commands Use the Redo command on the Edit menu to reapply. Click Edit>Redo. You can redo a canceled action related to project management.

6. When you are finished updating definitions. Click the Select All or Unselect All buttons to select or clear all items listed. Show Items with newer definitions Show All Items From the Show Types list in the List Options section. 2. A message appears telling you the update was successful. • • 3. Working with HFSS Projects3-17 . Select one of the following two radio buttons. The Update Definitions dialog box appears.HFSS Online Help Updating Design Components To update components defined in the current design: 1. 4. 5. select the types of definitions you want to show in the Item List list. Click OK to close the message. Click Tools>Update Definitions. Select the item you want to update from the Item List list. click Close. Click Update.

Select a project or design in the project tree in Project Manage Window to enable the menu command Edit>Delete. 2. or the Delete key. To paste a project or design: Rename a Project or Design 1. 2. Confirm the warning box to complete the delete operation. 4. an icon is added to the project tree. Click Edit>Delete. Define the new name for the design by typing it directly into the Project Window. Select a project or design in the project tree in Project Manage Window to enable the menu command Edit>Copy. 1. Click Edit>Paste. the icon is removed from the project tree. Click Rename in the shortcut menu. 1. 3. Press Enter to complete the rename. The project or design is pasted under the selected project.HFSS Online Help Managing Projects and Designs Copy and Paste a Project or Design To copy a project or design: 1. 2. 2. 3. Delete a Project or Design 3-18 Working with HFSS Projects . Click Edit>Copy. Select a project or design in the project tree in Project Manage Window to enable the menu command Edit>Paste. as shown. The project or design is copied for pasting. Right click the design icon to display the shortcut menu.

HFSS runs a check on all the setup details of the active project to verify that all the necessary steps have been completed and their parameters are reasonable. Click HFSS>Validation Check . it is very important that you first perform a validation check on the project. When you perform a validation check on a project. Indicates the step is incomplete. and then the Validation Check window appears. Working with HFSS Projects3-19 .HFSS Online Help Validating Projects Before you run an analysis on a model. 2. The following icons can appear next to an item: Indicates the step is complete. HFSS checks the project setup. carefully review the setup details for that particular step and revise them as necessary. View the results of the validation check in the Validation Check window. If the validation check indicates that a step in your project is incomplete or incorrect. To perform a validation check on the active project: 1. 3. View any messages in the Message Manager window. Indicates the step may require your attention. 4.

This excuses non-manifold errors and most acis_entity_check errors. • • The Warning Only entity check setting allows all models to pass 3D Model validation regardless of any faults that are found (acis_entity check errors). Modeler Validation Settings Related Topics Modeler Validation Settings You can adjust the degree to which the software checks a model for faults that could jeopardize mesh accuracy. 3. The Basic entity check setting allows most models to pass 3D Model validation. 6. Some faults are flagged as model errors (basic entity check errors). 2. You can select the Restore Default button. Basic. • To set the Model Validation level: 1. Click OK to accept the selection and close the dialog. thereby prohibiting a design from proceeding to the meshing stage of an analysis. Choose the desired level of validation from the Entity Check Level drop down menu. Select Modeler->Validation Settings. The Strict entity check setting enforces a tighter tolerance for model faults than the "Warning Only" and "Basic" settings. Note that this setting affects only the "3D Model" stage of a design validation. This displays the Validation Settings dialog that lets you set the validation as basic. Click Close. These errors must be corrected before attempting to analyze the design under the Strict setting. These faults are posted in the message window as warnings. All model faults that are found during 3D Model validation are posted to the message window. or warning only. You must either correct such errors before attempting to analyze the design under the Basic setting. or you must change the Model Validation level to Warning Only. Related Topics Model Analysis Analyze Objects Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh 3-20 Working with HFSS Projects . There are three levels of model validation that a user can specify for a given design: Warning Only. You can also click the Save as Default button to make the current selection the default. and Strict. strict. Click HFSS>Validation Check to run a validation check after you have revised any setup details for an incomplete or incorrect project step.HFSS Online Help 5. or you must change the Model Validation level to Basic or Warning Only.

HFSS Online Help Heal Healing State On: Validation Check Show Analysis dialog Align Faces Remove Faces Remove Edges Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Working with HFSS Projects3-21 .

To export a file to a .dxf) from the Save as type pull-down list. The Export File dialog box appears. the geometry located within the xy plane is exported. 4.sm2 or . Type the name of the file in the File name box. you must create a relative coordinate system to redefine the location of the origin.HFSS Online Help Exporting Files You can export the following types of files from HFSS or HFSS-IE: • • • • Ansoft 2D modeler files 3D model files Graphics files Data tables Related Topics Exporting Matrix Data Exporting Equivalent Circuit Data Exporting 2D Geometry Files When you export a file in a 2D geometry format (the Ansoft 2D Modeler (. Note If you want to export a plane that does not coincide with the global xy plane. 3.sm2) format or the AutoCAD DXF (. Select the desired 3D model file format from the Save as type pull-down list.sm2) or AutoCAD DXF Files (*. Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. 3-22 Working with HFSS Projects . Click Save. Click Modeler>Export to save the file in an Ansoft 2D Modeler format. Select Ansoft 2D Geometry Files (*. The file is exported to the specified location with the appropriate file format. Related Topics Exporting 3D Model Files Exporting Graphics Files Exporting 3D Model Files You can export HFSS or HFSS-IE 3D models to 3D model file formats: To export a file to a 3D model format: 1. Enter the name of the file in the File name box.dxf format: 1. 5. Click Modeler>Export to save the file in a 3D model format. See Creating a Relative Coordinate System for more information. 2.dxf) format). 3. 4. 2.

the Select Version dialog box appears. Standard ACIS binary.sm3 .layermap file can have the same format as the .iges. If you selected . Parasolid Binary Files. AN additional license is required.exp . In a *.layermap file.4 . with columns for Layer Name. the Layermap button opens a browser for you to open that file before export. If you selected GDSII. Click Save. Layer Number.igs GDSII files Industry standard Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files. Parasolid Text Files .dwg . Click an ACIS version in which to export the model from the ACIS SM3 Version pulldown list.Catia V4 Export Files . Ansoft 2D Geometry File Ansoft 3D Modeler files in ACIS version 2. Do the following: • 7.sat .HFSS Online Help 5. and then click OK.dxf.x_b. .sab . .0 or greater. • • If the model has been defined with layers. Click Save.model. Working with HFSS Projects3-23 . Unless you selected GDSII.sm2 . .9 to 4.sm3.tech file used in GDSII import.1. . . AutoCAD Drawing Interchange Format files. The file is exported to the specified location as a 3D model file Extension Contents ACIS geometry solid model files. There is a checkbox to specify whether to include the layer in the exported file. The *. . The *. Industry standard AP203 STEP files. the file is exported to the specified location as a 3D model file. An additional license is required.step. but it only needs the layer name and number in the file.x_t . Elevation in units.layermap file is a text file that maps the GDSII layer numbers to layer names in the stackup.gds .stp 6. other information is ignored.CATIA 4.model .2. the GDSII Export dialog appears. those layers are listed by layer number in the table. If you have defined a layer map file for the model.

Contents To export a file to a graphics format: 1. 3. 5.wrl Bitmap files. 4.HFSS Online Help • • 8. Graphics Interchange Format files. Related Topics Exporting 2D Model Files Exporting 3D Model Files 3-24 Working with HFSS Projects . The file is exported to the specified location. In the Polygon Vertices area. Related Topics Exporting 2D Model Files Exporting Graphics Files Importing 3D Model Files Importing GDSII Format Files Export Results to Thermal Link for ANSYS Mechanical Exporting Graphics Files You can export the following graphics formats: Extension . check a radio button to select either No Limit to the number of vertices or Limit the number of vertices to a specified value. Click Save.bmp . Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) files.tiff . The file is exported to the specified location as a graphics file. Click the OK button in the GDSII Export dialog to complete the export. 2.jpeg . specify a value or accept the default. Joint Photographics Experts Group files. For Arc tolerance. Type the name of the file in the File name box. Click Modeler>Export to save the file in a graphics format. Select the desired graphics file format from the Save as type pull-down list. Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. Tagged Image File Format files.gif .

HFSS Online Help Exporting Data Table Files You must have an existing plot open to see the Report2D menu. right-click on the data table. • Alternatively.tab . Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file.csv . Related Topics Exporting Matrix Data Exporting Equivalent Circuit Data Working with HFSS Projects3-25 . and then click Export to File on the shortcut menu. Contents Post processor format file Comma-delimited data file Tab-separated file Ansoft plot data file Click Save. Click Report2D>Export to File. 2. Select one of the following file formats from the Save as type pull-down list: Extension . Type the name of the file in the File name box. 3. 4. 1. The Export plot data to file dialog box appears.dat 5.txt . The file is exported to the specified location as a data table file.

Click Open.HFSS Online Help Importing Files You can import the following types of files to HFSS or HFSS-IE: • • • • • • 2D model files 3D model files Solution data files Data table files HFSS or HFSS-IE Plot Data Plot Data The import dialog contains a check box for the Heal command which is enabled by default. this would be either GDSII Files (*. The Import File dialog box appears. 4. 2.gds) or Ansoft 2D Geometry Files (*. the file is added to the existing model. Click Modeler>Import. Ansoft 2D Modeler files. Related Topics Exporting Files Importing 2D Model Files You can read 2D model files directly into the active Modeler window: Note If you import a file into an active Modeler window that contains an existing model. Extension . The file is imported into the active Modeler window. 3-26 Working with HFSS Projects . To import a 2D model file: 1. Select a file type from the Files of type pull-down list. 3.sm2).gds .sm2 Contents GDSII is a standard file format for 2D graphical design layout data. Use the file browser to find and select the file you want to import. it will not replace it. For 2D model files.

If you want to import them in a specific orientation other than the current XY or XZ plane.HFSS Online Help Note When importing . they will import into the current XY or XZ plane depending upon how they were originally created. Related Topics Importing 3D Model Files Importing GDSII Format Files Importing GDSII Format Files See the introductory topic Importing 2D Model Files for the initial steps in the process of importing 2D data. you must first create a relative coordinate system with the planes in the desired orientation. See Creating a Relative Coordinate System for more information. The process for importing GDSII format files into the HFSS or HFSS-IE uses a single dialog box: GDSII Structures Panel Working with HFSS Projects3-27 .sm2 files.

tech suffix.tech format: • • • / is the comment character Units may be specified with a line UNITS <string> before the lines of layer information. GDSII layers are identified by layer numbers. Layers for structurename Panel The Layers for structurename panel shows the layers for the (most recently) highlighted top level structure [structurename]. You can drag and drop the layers in the list to change the vertical stackup of layers. you can create a mapping of the GDSII layer numbers to layer names in the design stackup. The Descendants panel shows the sub-layouts in the selected top-level designs. Nodes Field GDSII supports nodes and boundaries as separate data types. HFSS always flattens any hierarchical geometry in the GDSII. Click on a structure name in the GDSII Structures panel to highlight it. Use a text editor to create a text file that maps the GDSII layer numbers to layer names in the stackup. The default is to convert data type nodes to data type boundary. Clicking on the Select checkbox in the GDSII Structures panel both highlights the structure and selects that top-level structure to be imported. Import Method Field Use the radio button to select the import method as Script of Acis Layer Mapping Field If desired. HFSS can either convert objects that use the nodes data type to boundary types. General Field The Flatten hierarchy checkbox is automatically selected. Normally. The layer mapping file must have a . The default units is nm. The . HFSS or HFSS-IE creates multiple designs under the current project. Descendants Panel The GDSII file is hierarchical and may contain many sub-layouts. 2. or can ignore them. boundaries represent polygons. To create and use the mapping. Use the Import check boxes in the All GDSII Layers panel to select the layers to import. All Layers Panel The All Layers panel lists all the layers from all the structures in the file. <string> is any of the allowed desktop length units. one for each of the GDSII structures. When multiple structures are imported.HFSS Online Help The GDSII file may contain several top level structures. 1. Each layer is specified by a line that contains <import layer> <product layer> <layer color> <layer elevation> <layer thickness> where: 3-28 Working with HFSS Projects . 1. Use the radio buttons to select Convert to boundaries or Ignore.

antique white RBG = { 250. 245. 245. 245}. 240.the name of the DXF layer <destination layer> . 235. 248. 245. AntiqueWhite RBG = { 250. 235. This specifies the layout layer in Designer. Tech File Colors with RGB Values Color string choices with corresponding RBG values snow RBG = { 255. You can use the Save button to save a layer mapping file with the current settings.double <layer height> . white smoke RBG = { 245. The file is imported into the active Modeler window. For example: UNITS um / / -----------------------------------------------------------/ import# S12 TR S3 3. it is used as part of the name for objects imported from this DXF layer. 255}. destination signal12 trace signal3 Color blue red yellow Elevation 1100 6620 8150 Thickness 530 530 2000 / ----------------------------------------------------------- Click the Open button in the Layer mapping panel to locate and open an existing layer mapping file. WhiteSmoke RBG = { 245. 230}.HFSS Online Help <import layer> . OldLace RBG = { 253. 215}. gainsboro RBG = { 220. old lace RBG = { 253. for example. 4. floral white RBG = { 255. linen RBG = { 250. 215}. 250. 230}. ghost white RBG = { 248. 230}. 250. <layer color> . Click OK. 250. 245. 220}.A string from the choices listed here.the name to map the DXF layer to. GhostWhite RBG = { 248. 255}. 240}. 220. blue2 <layer elevation> . 250}. 245}.double 2. 240}. Working with HFSS Projects3-29 . 248. FloralWhite RBG = { 255. In HFSS.

220}. 185}. 79}. 225}. 250}. PeachPuff RBG = { 255. 255. 205}. 79}. 79. 250}. 250. 79}. dark slate grey RBG = { 47. lavender RBG = { 230. navajo white RBG = { 255. 205}. 105. 105}. PapayaWhip RBG = { 255. 105. 245}. dim gray RBG = { 105. 228. 222. 238}. 222. 240. 79. azure RBG = { 240. 205}. 248. 240. white RBG = { 255. MistyRose RBG = { 255. 255. 255. 240}. moccasin RBG = { 255. 228. honeydew RBG = { 240. misty rose RBG = { 255. 240}. cornsilk RBG = { 255. 255}. AliceBlue RBG = { 240. 218. 228. 250. LemonChiffon RBG = { 255. 239. 205}. 235. 185}. 0. 173}. BlanchedAlmond RBG = { 255. LavenderBlush RBG = { 255. 225}. 218. 181}. 79. 230. 248. DarkSlateGrey RBG = { 47.HFSS Online Help papaya whip RBG = { 255. 105}. 255}. alice blue RBG = { 240. 173}. lemon chiffon RBG = { 255. 239. 213}. blanched almond RBG = { 255. 235. 255. 0}. 79. 248. seashell RBG = { 255. dim grey RBG = { 105. NavajoWhite RBG = { 255. 245}. 255. ivory RBG = { 255. 228. 196}. black RBG = { 0. 245. 255}. 3-30 Working with HFSS Projects . mint cream RBG = { 245. 105. 255. DimGray RBG = { 105. lavender blush RBG = { 255. 105}. 250}. bisque RBG = { 255. 255}. DarkSlateGray RBG = { 47. 213}. peach puff RBG = { 255. dark slate gray RBG = { 47. 79}. MintCream RBG = { 245.

112}. DarkSlateBlue RBG = { 72. light gray RBG = { 211. 61. 255}. 211. 211}. 190}. royal blue RBG = { 65. SlateBlue RBG = { 106. 237}. navy blue RBG = { 0. 25. LightSlateBlue RBG = { 132. medium blue RBG = { 0. blue RBG = { 0. light grey RBG = { 211. 128}. NavyBlue RBG = { 0. 105. 104. light slate blue RBG = { 132. 144}. CornflowerBlue RBG = { 100. medium slate blue RBG = { 123. slate blue RBG = { 106. 90. slate gray RBG = { 112. SlateGray RBG = { 112. SlateGrey RBG = { 112. 136. 211. 255}. 225}. navy RBG = { 0. 144}. 205}. 205}. 136. 112. LightSlateGray RBG = { 119. 139}. 211}. MidnightBlue RBG = { 25. light slate grey RBG = { 119. 105. 238}. 112}.HFSS Online Help DimGrey RBG = { 105. 61. 237}. 205}. 190}. LightSlateGrey RBG = { 119. 0. light slate gray RBG = { 119. 0. 238}. 211. grey RBG = { 190. 112. 211}. 136. 0. 128. 128. 0. 144}. slate grey RBG = { 112. MediumSlateBlue RBG = { 123. 0. 153}. 211}. RoyalBlue RBG = { 65. gray RBG = { 190. 105}. 128. 205}. cornflower blue RBG = { 100. 225}. 139}. 128. 190. 153}. 255}. 153}. 0. Working with HFSS Projects3-31 . 190. 128}. LightGrey RBG = { 211. 211. 105. midnight blue RBG = { 25. 104. 149. 149. LightGray RBG = { 211. 90. MediumBlue RBG = { 0. 144}. 128}. 136. 25. 153}. dark slate blue RBG = { 72.

LightSkyBlue RBG = { 135. 144. cyan RBG = { 0. dark green RBG = { 0. 206. light cyan RBG = { 224. 204}. 208}. 209}. 255}. 191. 209. 196. 205. 255. 212}. turquoise RBG = { 64. 216. 250}. 158. DarkTurquoise RBG = { 0. 230}. DarkGreen RBG = { 0. 100. pale turquoise RBG = { 175. 204}. 238. light steel blue RBG = { 176. light sky blue RBG = { 135. 224. 250}. 0}. medium turquoise RBG = { 72. cadet blue RBG = { 95. 130. LightCyan RBG = { 224. aquamarine RBG = { 127. 255}. 205. 235}. 47}. 170}. 255}. SkyBlue RBG = { 135. 235}.HFSS Online Help dodger blue RBG = { 30. MediumTurquoise RBG = { 72. 158. 180}. 160}. sky blue RBG = { 135. 255}. 3-32 Working with HFSS Projects . 107. 209. 255}. 238. deep sky blue RBG = { 0. DodgerBlue RBG = { 30. 196. 222}. 230}. 206. MediumAquamarine RBG = { 102. 255. 160}. steel blue RBG = { 70. PowderBlue RBG = { 176. light blue RBG = { 173. DarkOliveGreen RBG = { 85. medium aquamarine RBG = { 102. CadetBlue RBG = { 95. 209}. 180}. 222}. 100. 107. powder blue RBG = { 176. SteelBlue RBG = { 70. 206. 170}. 230}. 238}. 255. 0}. dark turquoise RBG = { 0. 144. 238}. 255. 224. 216. 255}. 224. 191. DeepSkyBlue RBG = { 0. 206. 47}. 130. 230}. dark olive green RBG = { 85. 255}. PaleTurquoise RBG = { 175. 206. 206. LightSteelBlue RBG = { 176. LightBlue RBG = { 173.

127}. 50}. DarkSeaGreen RBG = { 143. 0}. 210}. spring green RBG = { 0. 179. 178. 0}. PaleGoldenrod RBG = { 238. 252. PaleGreen RBG = { 152. medium spring green RBG = { 0. 188. 188. DarkKhaki RBG = { 189. OliveDrab RBG = { 107. 230. 205. 142. medium sea green RBG = { 60. GreenYellow RBG = { 173. 113}. 139. lime green RBG = { 50. 205. 250. 50}. 140}. 35}. 250. olive drab RBG = { 107. 47}. 152}. 232. 255. 0}. 142. 205. 255. khaki RBG = { 240. 255. 178. 87}. 170}. 34}. 143}. green RBG = { 0. LightGoldenrodYellow RBG = { 250. dark khaki RBG = { 189. light goldenrod yellow RBG = { 250. 250. SpringGreen RBG = { 0. 139. 50}. 139.HFSS Online Help dark sea green RBG = { 143. 251. 205. 170}. 183. green yellow RBG = { 173. ForestGreen RBG = { 34. MediumSpringGreen RBG = { 0. lawn green RBG = { 124. pale goldenrod RBG = { 238. 50}. 0}. light sea green RBG = { 32. forest green RBG = { 34. 87}. 232. 210}. 35}. LawnGreen RBG = { 124. 255. 255. YellowGreen RBG = { 154. pale green RBG = { 152. yellow green RBG = { 154. 183. 113}. Working with HFSS Projects3-33 . 143}. 154}. 255. SeaGreen RBG = { 46. chartreuse RBG = { 127. LimeGreen RBG = { 50. 107}. 34}. 154}. LightSeaGreen RBG = { 32. 170}. 251. 170}. 250. 139. 47}. MediumSeaGreen RBG = { 60. sea green RBG = { 46. 127}. 107}. 252. 152}. 179.

LightYellow RBG = { 255. 135}. SaddleBrown RBG = { 139. DarkSalmon RBG = { 233. 128. wheat RBG = { 245. rosy brown RBG = { 188. coral RBG = { 255. 134. 0}. 140. 122}. 143}. 92}. 45}. 165. 34. 220}. 140. DarkGoldenrod RBG = { 184. DarkOrange RBG = { 255. 164. 245. 92}. 32}. 140}. 19}. orange RBG = { 255. LightSalmon RBG = { 255. sienna RBG = { 160. 224}. dark goldenrod RBG = { 184.HFSS Online Help light yellow RBG = { 255. 19}. yellow RBG = { 255. 130}. 224}. goldenrod RBG = { 218. 165. 122}. 122}. 3-34 Working with HFSS Projects . gold RBG = { 255. beige RBG = { 245. 143. 179}. 150. IndianRed RBG = { 205. 96}. 82. 0}. 105. saddle brown RBG = { 139. 69. 184. burlywood RBG = { 222. 221. 215. 221. 130}. 222. salmon RBG = { 250. SandyBrown RBG = { 244. 133. 143. chocolate RBG = { 210. 80}. 122}. 34}. 0}. LightGoldenrod RBG = { 238. light goldenrod RBG = { 238. 114}. sandy brown RBG = { 244. indian red RBG = { 205. 255. 63}. dark salmon RBG = { 233. 11}. 0}. 96}. 69. 255. 42. 180. RosyBrown RBG = { 188. firebrick RBG = { 178. 160. 150. 164. light salmon RBG = { 255. 30}. 0}. 92. 11}. tan RBG = { 210. peru RBG = { 205. dark orange RBG = { 255. 143}. 127. brown RBG = { 165. 92. 255. 134. 42}. 160.

maroon RBG = { 176. 112. 112. 211}. 0}. DarkOrchid RBG = { 153. orchid RBG = { 218. 219}. 0}. 0. plum RBG = { 221. 147}. 50. 204}. purple RBG = { 160. 226}. 192. 240}. 147}. 85. OrangeRed RBG = { 255. 133}. 211}. 128}. 0}. magenta RBG = { 255. violet red RBG = { 208. LightPink RBG = { 255. 96}. 112. 20. MediumVioletRed RBG = { 199. dark orchid RBG = { 153. DarkViolet RBG = { 148. medium violet red RBG = { 199. 180}. deep pink RBG = { 255. 105. pale violet red RBG = { 219. 193}. 203}. 69. pink RBG = { 255. 182. 48. 193}. 43. 133}. 211}. medium orchid RBG = { 186. 214}. violet RBG = { 238. orange red RBG = { 255. 43. HotPink RBG = { 255. 182. BlueViolet RBG = { 138. 144}. 71}. MediumPurple RBG = { 147. red RBG = { 255. light pink RBG = { 255. 238}. 180}. 128. 112. 160. 21. 32. LightCoral RBG = { 240. medium purple RBG = { 147.HFSS Online Help light coral RBG = { 240. 99. 144}. 128. 21. blue violet RBG = { 138. 20. 221}. PaleVioletRed RBG = { 219. tomato RBG = { 255. 147}. DeepPink RBG = { 255. 128}. 204}. 0. 147}. 255}. 0. 105. 112. 50. 0. 226}. 69. 219}. dark violet RBG = { 148. MediumOrchid RBG = { 186. 130. hot pink RBG = { 255. 32. 85. VioletRed RBG = { 208. 32. 211}. Working with HFSS Projects3-35 .

AntiqueWhite1 RBG = { 255. 134. bisque2 RBG = { 238. cornsilk3 RBG = { 205. 137. 250. 101}. 165}. 229. LemonChiffon2 RBG = { 238. AntiqueWhite4 RBG = { 139. NavajoWhite2 RBG = { 238. 3-36 Working with HFSS Projects . PeachPuff2 RBG = { 238. PeachPuff4 RBG = { 139. bisque4 RBG = { 139. seashell1 RBG = { 255. 112}. 219}. 161}. 216}. 137}. PeachPuff1 RBG = { 255. 120}. 204}. 125. snow1 RBG = { 255. 191}. 233. 205}. snow4 RBG = { 139. 233. 245. 250}. 238}. 201. 173}. 223. 213. 136. 185}. 228. 238. 173}. 203. 158}. 205}. ivory2 RBG = { 238. 207. LemonChiffon3 RBG = { 205. NavajoWhite1 RBG = { 255. 120}. AntiqueWhite2 RBG = { 238. snow2 RBG = { 238. 177}. bisque3 RBG = { 205. NavajoWhite4 RBG = { 139. cornsilk1 RBG = { 255. 131. 137. seashell4 RBG = { 139. 250. 192. LemonChiffon4 RBG = { 139. 176}. 183}. 222}. 200. 233}. 222. 179. 119. 218. 196}. NavajoWhite3 RBG = { 205. ivory1 RBG = { 255. 220}. 232. 191. 149}. 197. cornsilk4 RBG = { 139. 130}. 121. 239. LemonChiffon1 RBG = { 255. 183. PeachPuff3 RBG = { 205. AntiqueWhite3 RBG = { 205. snow3 RBG = { 205.HFSS Online Help thistle RBG = { 216. seashell3 RBG = { 205. seashell2 RBG = { 238. 248. bisque1 RBG = { 255. 201. 94}. cornsilk2 RBG = { 238. 191}. 201}. 224}. 139}. 107}. 255. 175. 240}.

139. 255}. 240}. 139}. DodgerBlue2 RBG = { 28. 193. MistyRose1 RBG = { 255. MistyRose3 RBG = { 205. 184. 139}. MistyRose2 RBG = { 238. 0. MistyRose4 RBG = { 139. honeydew4 RBG = { 131. SlateBlue4 RBG = { 71. 111. 240. 193}. 205. 139}. 238}. 238. SlateBlue2 RBG = { 122. 197}. 238}. SlateBlue3 RBG = { 105. DodgerBlue3 RBG = { 24. 181}. 131. 205}. blue1 RBG = { 0. 255}. blue4 RBG = { 0. 78. 60. SteelBlue1 RBG = { 99. 134}. 238. RoyalBlue4 RBG = { 39. 118. 139}. 139. 205. 213. 210}. 0. ivory4 RBG = { 139. azure3 RBG = { 193. 255}. 255}. 205. 224}. 131}.HFSS Online Help ivory3 RBG = { 205. SlateBlue1 RBG = { 131. 255}. 139}. 205}. blue2 RBG = { 0. 245}. 95. azure2 RBG = { 224. 205}. azure4 RBG = { 131. Working with HFSS Projects3-37 . 110. DodgerBlue4 RBG = { 16. LavenderBlush2 RBG = { 238. LavenderBlush3 RBG = { 205. 139. 238}. 225}. 255. honeydew3 RBG = { 193. blue3 RBG = { 0. RoyalBlue3 RBG = { 58. 228. 123}. honeydew2 RBG = { 224. 144. 205}. 89. azure1 RBG = { 240. LavenderBlush4 RBG = { 139. 238}. 0. 64. 205}. 131}. 238}. honeydew1 RBG = { 240. 125. 183. LavenderBlush1 RBG = { 255. 0. DodgerBlue1 RBG = { 30. 229}. 103. RoyalBlue1 RBG = { 72. 255}. RoyalBlue2 RBG = { 67. 134. 116. 193}. 224. 255.

238}. LightBlue1 RBG = { 191. 139}. 210. 205. LightSkyBlue1 RBG = { 176. 104. 192. 238}. 226. 148. PaleTurquoise4 RBG = { 102. LightCyan4 RBG = { 122. 139}. LightBlue4 RBG = { 104. 226. 112. 139}. 238}. 139}. 123. SkyBlue4 RBG = { 74. 255}. 255. 238}. 139}. 255}. 139. 205}. 238. 205}. SkyBlue1 RBG = { 135. 205}. 100. 205}. 238}. 223. 205}. 139}. 154. SteelBlue4 RBG = { 54. SlateGray2 RBG = { 185. 205. SlateGray1 RBG = { 198. 238}. 205}. 172. 211. 255. 225. 255}. 123. LightSkyBlue3 RBG = { 141. 205}. 139. 178. 123. 192. 182. 3-38 Working with HFSS Projects . 238. LightCyan2 RBG = { 209. 211. PaleTurquoise3 RBG = { 150. SlateGray3 RBG = { 159. DeepSkyBlue2 RBG = { 0. SteelBlue3 RBG = { 79. 191. LightCyan1 RBG = { 224. LightSkyBlue2 RBG = { 164. 238}. SkyBlue3 RBG = { 108. LightBlue3 RBG = { 154. 182.HFSS Online Help SteelBlue2 RBG = { 92. 139}. 255}. 131. 255}. 255}. DeepSkyBlue1 RBG = { 0. 205}. LightSteelBlue2 RBG = { 188. 181. LightSteelBlue3 RBG = { 162. 239. LightSteelBlue1 RBG = { 202. 238}. DeepSkyBlue4 RBG = { 0. SlateGray4 RBG = { 108. 206. LightCyan3 RBG = { 180. LightSteelBlue4 RBG = { 110. 238}. 205}. PaleTurquoise2 RBG = { 174. 139}. 139}. 166. SkyBlue2 RBG = { 126. 255}. 255}. PaleTurquoise1 RBG = { 187. LightSkyBlue4 RBG = { 96. DeepSkyBlue3 RBG = { 0. LightBlue2 RBG = { 178.

SpringGreen3 RBG = { 0. 205}. 154}. cyan1 RBG = { 0. 205. 197. 159}. 255. PaleGreen4 RBG = { 84. 102}. CadetBlue4 RBG = { 83. SpringGreen2 RBG = { 0. 118}. 255. 205. 255}. 205. PaleGreen3 RBG = { 124. 255. DarkSeaGreen1 RBG = { 193. 144}. DarkSeaGreen3 RBG = { 155. DarkSlateGray2 RBG = { 141. 238}. 198}. 139. 139}. 139. 229.HFSS Online Help CadetBlue1 RBG = { 152. 116}. 238. 255}. turquoise1 RBG = { 0. 238. cyan3 RBG = { 0. 205. cyan2 RBG = { 0. 155}. 238. 255. 229. SeaGreen4 RBG = { 46. 139. 245. 255. 255}. 238}. 205. 238}. 180}. 205}. 238. aquamarine2 RBG = { 118. 245. DarkSeaGreen2 RBG = { 180. 197. 212}. PaleGreen1 RBG = { 154. 139}. 238. 205. turquoise2 RBG = { 0. 139. 128}. aquamarine4 RBG = { 69. 255}. 205}. aquamarine1 RBG = { 127. 139. 205}. 205. 134. DarkSlateGray4 RBG = { 82. SeaGreen3 RBG = { 67. 139}. Working with HFSS Projects3-39 . cyan4 RBG = { 0. 105}. CadetBlue3 RBG = { 122. DarkSlateGray3 RBG = { 121. 134. 87}. DarkSlateGray1 RBG = { 151. 170}. 238. DarkSeaGreen4 RBG = { 105. SeaGreen1 RBG = { 84. 127}. 139. 84}. aquamarine3 RBG = { 102. turquoise4 RBG = { 0. turquoise3 RBG = { 0. CadetBlue2 RBG = { 142. 139}. 238. PaleGreen2 RBG = { 144. 124}. SeaGreen2 RBG = { 78. 148}. SpringGreen1 RBG = { 0. 255. 238}. 193}. 255.

205. 0}. 255. yellow2 RBG = { 238. 0}. chartreuse4 RBG = { 69. yellow1 RBG = { 255. 205. 0}. 34}. 230. 246. 58}. LightYellow3 RBG = { 205. 238. 0}. LightGoldenrod3 RBG = { 205. LightGoldenrod1 RBG = { 255. 78}. 143}. green1 RBG = { 0. 139. green4 RBG = { 0. chartreuse1 RBG = { 127. gold1 RBG = { 255. khaki4 RBG = { 139. 209}. OliveDrab1 RBG = { 192. LightYellow2 RBG = { 238. yellow3 RBG = { 205. 224}. 201. 139. 255. green3 RBG = { 0. 0}. DarkOliveGreen4 RBG = { 110. 198. 3-40 Working with HFSS Projects . 112}. 130}. chartreuse2 RBG = { 118. 115}. chartreuse3 RBG = { 102. 0}. 236. 0}. 139. 220. 50}. 190. LightYellow1 RBG = { 255. LightGoldenrod2 RBG = { 238. 61}. 238. OliveDrab2 RBG = { 179. 238. 139. 255. 205. 104}. 139. OliveDrab3 RBG = { 154. 139. khaki1 RBG = { 255. 90}. 238. DarkOliveGreen3 RBG = { 162. 215. yellow4 RBG = { 139. 122}. 0}. LightGoldenrod4 RBG = { 139. 0}. 238. 0}. 255. 76}. 180}.HFSS Online Help SpringGreen4 RBG = { 0. 129. 255. 134. 139. 112}. 62}. green2 RBG = { 0. 255. 238. 0}. 0}. 0}. 205. OliveDrab4 RBG = { 105. 205. DarkOliveGreen1 RBG = { 202. DarkOliveGreen2 RBG = { 188. khaki3 RBG = { 205. 0}. 69}. 133}. LightYellow4 RBG = { 139. 139}. khaki2 RBG = { 238. 205. gold2 RBG = { 238.

goldenrod2 RBG = { 238. chocolate1 RBG = { 255. 15}. IndianRed4 RBG = { 139. wheat2 RBG = { 238. tan2 RBG = { 238. 20}. 193. 57}. DarkGoldenrod3 RBG = { 205. 102}. 58}. 85}. IndianRed1 RBG = { 255. 193}. RosyBrown2 RBG = { 238. burlywood1 RBG = { 255. 106}. burlywood3 RBG = { 205. 197. RosyBrown1 RBG = { 255. 130. 79}. 0}.HFSS Online Help gold3 RBG = { 205. 0}. 145}. 115. 101. 66}. 216. sienna3 RBG = { 205. 29}. IndianRed2 RBG = { 238. 180. 12}. 99}. 165. 149. 38}. 71. sienna1 RBG = { 255. 85}. wheat4 RBG = { 139. 185. tan4 RBG = { 139. 150}. 186}. DarkGoldenrod4 RBG = { 139. wheat3 RBG = { 205. 155}. 155. 180. 125}. 173. 73}. 14}. 71}. 105}. 34}. 37}. 155. 126. tan3 RBG = { 205. 211. 99. 180}. 36}. 170. 43}. sienna4 RBG = { 139. DarkGoldenrod2 RBG = { 238. 173. 193. Working with HFSS Projects3-41 . IndianRed3 RBG = { 205. 133. 121. RosyBrown4 RBG = { 139. 186. 104. 155}. 231. 58. DarkGoldenrod1 RBG = { 255. 127. sienna2 RBG = { 238. goldenrod1 RBG = { 255. tan1 RBG = { 255. 8}. gold4 RBG = { 139. wheat1 RBG = { 255. 105. goldenrod3 RBG = { 205. 85. burlywood2 RBG = { 238. RosyBrown3 RBG = { 205. 90. 63}. 105. burlywood4 RBG = { 139. 117. 174}. 106. 154. goldenrod4 RBG = { 139.

salmon3 RBG = { 205. 69}. 127. 64}. coral2 RBG = { 238. 140. tomato4 RBG = { 139. LightSalmon3 RBG = { 205. LightSalmon2 RBG = { 238. 48. 87. 79. 38}. 44}. 26}. brown3 RBG = { 205. brown4 RBG = { 139. 0}. 26. 149. 44. salmon2 RBG = { 238. 69. 59. DarkOrange4 RBG = { 139. 118. chocolate4 RBG = { 139. 66}. 0}. orange4 RBG = { 139. 62. 130. coral1 RBG = { 255. coral4 RBG = { 139. 35}. 154. 66}.HFSS Online Help chocolate2 RBG = { 238. 165. 114. 48}. 84}. 38}. 105}. tomato3 RBG = { 205. orange2 RBG = { 238. 129. orange3 RBG = { 205. 35. 57}. 0}. salmon1 RBG = { 255. LightSalmon1 RBG = { 255. DarkOrange3 RBG = { 205. 38. 0}. orange1 RBG = { 255. 80}. 98}. DarkOrange1 RBG = { 255. firebrick4 RBG = { 139. coral3 RBG = { 205. 29}. 106. 133. tomato1 RBG = { 255. firebrick1 RBG = { 255. 69. brown1 RBG = { 255. 114}. 92. 51}. firebrick2 RBG = { 238. 98}. 54. 33}. 91. tomato2 RBG = { 238. brown2 RBG = { 238. salmon4 RBG = { 139. chocolate3 RBG = { 205. 3-42 Working with HFSS Projects . 0}. 19}. 102. 112. 64. 0}. 86}. 0}. 160. 102. 90. 122}. 47}. 59}. 71}. firebrick3 RBG = { 205. DarkOrange2 RBG = { 238. 76. LightSalmon4 RBG = { 139. 99. 57}. 118. 51. 0}.

VioletRed3 RBG = { 205. 28. HotPink1 RBG = { 255. 158}. 174. 58. 52. 101}. 137}. 0}. maroon2 RBG = { 238. 20. 55. PaleVioletRed2 RBG = { 238. 62. 173}. 71. pink4 RBG = { 139. LightPink1 RBG = { 255. 147}. VioletRed1 RBG = { 255. HotPink3 RBG = { 205. 98}. 137}. 64. 181. 162. 167}. 0}. 99. HotPink4 RBG = { 139. 120}. 144}. OrangeRed4 RBG = { 139. 169. 140. 37. PaleVioletRed3 RBG = { 205. 159}. 110. pink2 RBG = { 238. 98}. Working with HFSS Projects3-43 . maroon4 RBG = { 139. 0}. 16.HFSS Online Help OrangeRed1 RBG = { 255. 93}. 149}. 0. 171}. 0. 10. maroon1 RBG = { 255. 96. OrangeRed2 RBG = { 238. 41. 69. VioletRed2 RBG = { 238. red4 RBG = { 139. 104. 118}. 144}. 145. 0}. 0}. PaleVioletRed4 RBG = { 139. LightPink3 RBG = { 205. 50. 180}. 0}. 0}. 80}. DeepPink2 RBG = { 238. 150}. 0}. 108}. LightPink4 RBG = { 139. 185}. 95. 48. pink3 RBG = { 205. DeepPink1 RBG = { 255. 130. pink1 RBG = { 255. 179}. 197}. PaleVioletRed1 RBG = { 255. red3 RBG = { 205. LightPink2 RBG = { 238. 140}. 121. 106. HotPink2 RBG = { 238. 0. maroon3 RBG = { 205. 167}. DeepPink3 RBG = { 205. red2 RBG = { 238. 18. DeepPink4 RBG = { 139. 184}. red1 RBG = { 255. 58. OrangeRed3 RBG = { 205. 0.

38. magenta2 RBG = { 238. purple2 RBG = { 145. 238}. plum4 RBG = { 139. 201}. 121. 34. 233}. 0. 0. 187. orchid3 RBG = { 205. MediumOrchid3 RBG = { 180. orchid4 RBG = { 139. 102. 205}. 95. 82}. MediumOrchid1 RBG = { 224. MediumPurple2 RBG = { 159. gray0 RBG = { 0. 238}. 122. 0. 181. purple1 RBG = { 155. 0}. 205}. MediumOrchid4 RBG = { 122. 139}. 238}. thistle4 RBG = { 139. 205}. 139}. 255}. 0. thistle3 RBG = { 205. MediumPurple3 RBG = { 137. 104. 255}. 238}. MediumPurple4 RBG = { 93. 139}. 44. orchid1 RBG = { 255. magenta1 RBG = { 255. thistle2 RBG = { 238. 174. DarkOrchid4 RBG = { 104. DarkOrchid1 RBG = { 191. 139}. 205}. MediumOrchid2 RBG = { 209. 0}. 71. magenta4 RBG = { 139. 205}. 139}. 238}. 139}.HFSS Online Help VioletRed4 RBG = { 139. 82. purple4 RBG = { 85. plum2 RBG = { 238. 34. DarkOrchid2 RBG = { 178. 139}. 131. 238}. 48. 255}. MediumPurple1 RBG = { 171. 137}. plum1 RBG = { 255. 255}. 26. 255}. 102. 255}. 250}. 150. 205}. plum3 RBG = { 205. 0. 123. 130. magenta3 RBG = { 205. 62. 225. 0. DarkOrchid3 RBG = { 154. 50. 210. 205}. 105. grey0 RBG = { 0. 71. 3-44 Working with HFSS Projects . 58. thistle1 RBG = { 255. 255}. 238}. 55. orchid2 RBG = { 238. purple3 RBG = { 125.

31. 38}. 3. 20. gray8 RBG = { 20. 38}. grey10 RBG = { 26. 8}. grey2 RBG = { 5. 20}. 18. grey4 RBG = { 10. 3. grey6 RBG = { 15. 5}. 15}. 41. 28}. grey17 RBG = { 43. 38. gray9 RBG = { 23. 20. 10}. 5. 13}. grey16 RBG = { 41. gray7 RBG = { 18. 28}. gray15 RBG = { 38. gray4 RBG = { 10. grey1 RBG = { 3. gray14 RBG = { 36. gray6 RBG = { 15. 18. 26}. 31}. 5. 8}. 33. 23}. 41. 15}. 23. 46}. gray5 RBG = { 13. gray18 RBG = { 46. 26}. 8. grey13 RBG = { 33. 36}. 36}. grey5 RBG = { 13. 13. grey3 RBG = { 8. 20}. 33}. gray17 RBG = { 43. 33}. 10. 18}. 28. gray10 RBG = { 26. 43}. gray3 RBG = { 8. 43}. 26. 26. 41}. grey14 RBG = { 36. grey8 RBG = { 20. 28. 8. Working with HFSS Projects3-45 . 3}. 31}. 31. 23}. 3}. 46. 10. 15. 23. grey11 RBG = { 28. 43. grey7 RBG = { 18. 15. gray11 RBG = { 28. grey15 RBG = { 38. 5}. gray2 RBG = { 5. 36. 13. grey12 RBG = { 31. gray12 RBG = { 31. grey9 RBG = { 23. 36. 38. 18}. 13}. 41}. 43. gray13 RBG = { 33. 33.HFSS Online Help gray1 RBG = { 3. 10}. gray16 RBG = { 41.

61. gray30 RBG = { 77. grey22 RBG = { 56. 59. 66. 56}. grey26 RBG = { 66. 64. 89}. 59.HFSS Online Help grey18 RBG = { 46. gray32 RBG = { 82. grey33 RBG = { 84. grey24 RBG = { 61. gray22 RBG = { 56. 48. 89. 79}. 69. grey21 RBG = { 54. grey28 RBG = { 71. 48}. 79}. 48. 61}. grey19 RBG = { 48. 64}. 82. 59}. gray31 RBG = { 79. gray25 RBG = { 64. 84}. 56. 74}. 77}. 59}. gray19 RBG = { 48. 82}. 82. 71. grey30 RBG = { 77. 77. 74. gray28 RBG = { 71. 69}. gray33 RBG = { 84. 87}. 87}. gray34 RBG = { 87. 66. 54}. 64. 74. 66}. grey32 RBG = { 82. gray35 RBG = { 89. 54. 51}. 69}. gray26 RBG = { 66. gray21 RBG = { 54. grey23 RBG = { 59. 61. 71. 89}. 84. 56}. 84}. grey20 RBG = { 51. 87. 71}. gray24 RBG = { 61. grey34 RBG = { 87. 79. 74}. 66}. 82}. 48}. 77}. gray23 RBG = { 59. 46. 56. 3-46 Working with HFSS Projects . 51. 71}. 51}. gray20 RBG = { 51. 46}. 89. 87. 84. gray29 RBG = { 74. 69. grey31 RBG = { 79. 54. gray27 RBG = { 69. grey29 RBG = { 74. 77. 54}. 61}. grey25 RBG = { 64. 64}. 79. grey35 RBG = { 89. grey27 RBG = { 69. 51.

grey40 RBG = { 102. 130}. 115. gray41 RBG = { 105. grey43 RBG = { 110. Working with HFSS Projects3-47 . gray40 RBG = { 102. 105}. 97. 92. 112}. gray53 RBG = { 135. 107. 125. 122}. grey48 RBG = { 122. 115}. 133. 107. 127}. gray44 RBG = { 112. 120. 97. 117. 112. 115}. gray43 RBG = { 110.HFSS Online Help gray36 RBG = { 92. grey47 RBG = { 120. 102. gray46 RBG = { 117. 94}. 105}. 99. grey49 RBG = { 125. grey50 RBG = { 127. 99. grey36 RBG = { 92. 112}. 120. 92}. 94. 125}. 99}. grey39 RBG = { 99. grey45 RBG = { 115. 122}. 127. grey37 RBG = { 94. 117}. gray52 RBG = { 133. gray48 RBG = { 122. 110. 125. 107}. 130. 92}. 130. 110. 133}. 94}. grey38 RBG = { 97. 102}. 97}. grey41 RBG = { 105. 130}. 110}. 117}. grey52 RBG = { 133. 125}. gray47 RBG = { 120. 105. 122. grey51 RBG = { 130. grey42 RBG = { 107. 107}. 117. gray49 RBG = { 125. 127. 110}. 133}. grey46 RBG = { 117. 97}. gray51 RBG = { 130. 112. 105. 135. gray38 RBG = { 97. gray45 RBG = { 115. 122. 127}. gray37 RBG = { 94. 115. 120}. grey44 RBG = { 112. 102}. 120}. 92. gray42 RBG = { 107. 133. 135}. gray50 RBG = { 127. 102. 99}. 94. gray39 RBG = { 99.

163. gray63 RBG = { 161. grey68 RBG = { 173. 138. 171}. 156}. 163}. 166. grey59 RBG = { 150. 156. 150. 156}. 166}. 176. 163.HFSS Online Help grey53 RBG = { 135. 168}. 171. gray56 RBG = { 143. gray60 RBG = { 153. gray67 RBG = { 171. gray61 RBG = { 156. 179. gray54 RBG = { 138. gray66 RBG = { 168. grey60 RBG = { 153. grey65 RBG = { 166. 140. 148}. gray69 RBG = { 176. 176}. grey58 RBG = { 148. gray62 RBG = { 158. 173. 135. 150}. gray55 RBG = { 140. 138. gray68 RBG = { 173. 138}. 171}. 140. 153. 168}. 161}. 161. 168. 166}. 171. grey66 RBG = { 168. grey55 RBG = { 140. 148. 145. 158}. grey62 RBG = { 158. 138}. gray59 RBG = { 150. 143}. 161}. 145}. 148}. grey67 RBG = { 171. grey56 RBG = { 143. 179. 150}. 135}. grey63 RBG = { 161. 140}. 150. 153}. 158. 168. 176. grey69 RBG = { 176. 143. 179}. gray70 RBG = { 179. 143}. 161. gray64 RBG = { 163. 176}. 173}. 173. grey54 RBG = { 138. 148. 145. grey57 RBG = { 145. grey70 RBG = { 179. 173}. 153. 140}. 156. 145}. gray65 RBG = { 166. 158}. 163}. grey61 RBG = { 156. gray58 RBG = { 148. gray57 RBG = { 145. 179}. 166. 3-48 Working with HFSS Projects . 158. grey64 RBG = { 163. 153}. 143.

gray85 RBG = { 217. 201}. 222. grey79 RBG = { 201. 196}. 199. grey73 RBG = { 186. 196. gray74 RBG = { 189. 214}. gray82 RBG = { 209. 222}. grey71 RBG = { 181. 189}. 219}. 214. 219. 209. 199}. grey82 RBG = { 209. gray77 RBG = { 196. gray80 RBG = { 204. grey75 RBG = { 191. 191. gray88 RBG = { 224. gray87 RBG = { 222. 209}. gray83 RBG = { 212. 219}. 194}. 212}. 207. 219. grey76 RBG = { 194. gray73 RBG = { 186. 189. grey80 RBG = { 204. grey83 RBG = { 212. 199}. gray84 RBG = { 214. grey86 RBG = { 219. gray81 RBG = { 207. grey74 RBG = { 189. grey81 RBG = { 207. 184}. grey85 RBG = { 217. 217. 186. 201}. 209}. 196}. 204}. 184. Working with HFSS Projects3-49 . gray86 RBG = { 219. grey84 RBG = { 214. gray78 RBG = { 199. gray72 RBG = { 184. 189}. 224. 201. 204}. grey77 RBG = { 196. 214. 212. 224}. 204. 217}. 201. 184. 209. 186. 204. 207}. 181}. 181. 191}. 222. gray79 RBG = { 201. 194. 222}. 214}. 181. 181}. 196. 207. gray76 RBG = { 194. 194. 217. 199.HFSS Online Help gray71 RBG = { 181. 194}. 186}. gray75 RBG = { 191. grey78 RBG = { 199. 186}. 207}. 191}. 212. 217}. grey72 RBG = { 184. 184}. 212}. 189. grey87 RBG = { 222. 191.

gray95 RBG = { 242. 255. grey94 RBG = { 240. 0. 255}. grey97 RBG = { 247. 245. 0. gray96 RBG = { 245. dark magenta RBG = { 139. grey93 RBG = { 237. gray93 RBG = { 237. 227. 169. 139}. 237}. 250}. 229. 247. grey100 RBG = { 255. grey95 RBG = { 242. 139}. 235. 227}. 139}. 169. gray97 RBG = { 247. 139}. dark gray RBG = { 169. 247}. 169}. DarkGrey RBG = { 169. 169}. dark cyan RBG = { 0. dark grey RBG = { 169. grey89 RBG = { 227. 255. 252}. grey96 RBG = { 245. 235}. 0. 240}. 232}. 240. DarkMagenta RBG = { 139. 232. 139}. 240. gray92 RBG = { 235. 235. 242}. 245}.HFSS Online Help grey88 RBG = { 224. 245. gray91 RBG = { 232. 229}. 250. 229}. gray89 RBG = { 227. 224}. gray100 RBG = { 255. 0. 247. 255}. 242. grey98 RBG = { 250. 237. 139. grey90 RBG = { 229. 169. 232. DarkGray RBG = { 169. 139. 232}. 169}. 227}. gray99 RBG = { 252. 227. 240}. 224. 245}. 250. 250}. 252. 229. gray90 RBG = { 229. DarkCyan RBG = { 0. dark blue RBG = { 0. gray94 RBG = { 240. 242. 169}. DarkBlue RBG = { 0. 139}. 237. 252}. grey92 RBG = { 235. 247}. 3-50 Working with HFSS Projects . grey99 RBG = { 252. 252. 235}. grey91 RBG = { 232. 237}. gray98 RBG = { 250. 169. 242}.

0}. The Import File dialog box appears. allowing you to set parameters for the heal operation. Click Open.HFSS Online Help dark red RBG = { 139. 0. then the Healing Options dialog box opens. DarkRed RBG = { 139. Click Modeler>Import. Some file types permit you to Heal Imported Objects. Select the file type you want from the Files of type pull-down list. For Ansoft . 144}. see Technical Notes: Handling Complicated Models. If you selected Heal Imported Objects with the Manual option selected for the import. 5. 144} Importing 3D Model Files You can read 3D model files directly into the active 3D Modeler window: Note If you import a file into an active 3D Modeler window that contains an existing model. or wire some imported objects may have mixture of these. The file is imported into the active Modeler window. 238. the file will be added to the existing model. 0. you can choose check to enable the Import Free Surfaces option. See the table below and Healing an Imported Object. 238. For STEP and IEGS files. you can also check the model. LightGreen RBG = { 144. For tips on dealing with very complex models. light green RBG = { 144. For ProE files. The default value (auto) comes from the Healing dialog Options tab with Manual Healing selected. 2. To import a 3D model file: 1. Note While objects created in HFSS or HFSS-IE can always be classed in the history tree as either a solid. you can set the Model Resolution Length in Model Units. Select any import options available for the selected file type. 3.sm3 files. 6. you can specify a Stitch tolerance and units. Use the file browser to find the file you want to import. • • • • • 4. 0}. This imports such surfaces as well as parts. For Natran and STL files. HFSS or HFSS-IE places such objects in an Unclassified folder in the history tree. Select the 3D model file you want to import or enter the name of the file in the File Name box. Working with HFSS Projects3-51 . or accept the auto setting. it will not replace it. sheet.

model .tech Contents ACIS 19 Service Pack 2 geometry solid model files.1 Ansoft 2D modeler files Ansoft legacy 3D model files AutoCAD Drawing Interchange Format files from version 2.dwg . the import dialog lets enable Import Free Surfaces.0 .3. units.9 to 4. color. .sld .CATIA V5 R2 through R19 . .1 Pro/E model files.sat .Pro/E 16 to Wildfire 4.2 Parasolid Files 10-20.2 Unigraphics file 11 to 18.stp .sab . which will include such surfaces as well as parts.stl .igs GDSII files. . .x_t.step.sm3 . Catia R4/R5 models.model.2. . See Importing DXF and DWG Format Files. .5 through 2009.nas .gds .x_b .prt*. Industry standard AP203 STEP files and AP214 (geometry only). thickness.sm2 .1 .1 Ansoft 3D modeler files up to ACIS 19 Service Pack 2. The . Industry standard Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files versions up to 5.1.CATPart . elevation.CATPart . For ProE models.1 (Windows only).1 NASTRAN format files. .HFSS Online Help Extension .4 . 3-52 Working with HFSS Projects .asm* .1 Stereolithography format files. NX to NX6.tech file is an ASCII file that contains layer names.CATIA 4.dxf.iges.prt Standard ACIS binary. and material information in a tab delimited format.

5. Defeaturing based on Model Resolution Length. 4. Select the .tech file): Working with HFSS Projects3-53 . Polyline. Select AutoCAD Files (*. 2.dxf. Related Topics Importing 2D Model Files Importing DXF and DWG Format Files. 3. See Healing an Imported Object. None. To import a .dwg model file you want to import.dxf/.dwg model file (which may use an associated . Click Open.5 through 2009. Select Auto.HFSS Online Help Extension Contents 1. Automatic or Manual Healing available if desired.dwg) from the Files of type pull-down list.*. Use the file browser to find the file you want to import. The Import File dialog box appears. The entities are imported as 2 dimensional (not 3D). 2D Polyline. The types of entities imported are: • • • • • • 1.dxf or . Exporting 3D Model Files Technical Notes: Handling Complicated Models Importing DXF and DWG Format Files You can import AutoCAD versions 2. 2. and Line Arc Circle Ellipse Solid Block Click Modeler>Import. or enter a numeric value directly in the entry box.

HFSS Online Help Initially. and thickness information. Use the Include check boxes to specify which layers to import from the selected file. 7. units um //Layer_Name BOTTOMLAYER MIDLAYER TOPLAYER Color purple green blue Elevation Thickness 0 500 1000 200 200 200 3-54 Working with HFSS Projects . The tech file is a plain text file that includes units. the DWG/DXF Import dialog opens with the Layer Selection tab is displayed: The Input Layer Name field shows the name of the layer in the DXF/DWG file (not editable) 6. color. layer names. elevation. You can use the Open button for a browser window to locate a tech file.

Use the Objects check boxes to fine-tune the import: • • • Auto-detect closure causes polylines to be checked to see whether or not they are closed. De-feature tolerance removes certain small features in the imported geometry to reduce complexity. thin or narrow regions (“thins” and “spikes”). a polygon is created in the modeler. If a polyline is closed. The features that are removed include: multiple points placed within the specified distance. Round coordinates to Decimal place rounds all imported data to the specified number of decimal points. You have more flexibility to change the shape of such an object when it is imported as a polygon. click OK on any tab. Working with HFSS Projects3-55 . 10. Importing Solution Data 1. When you have completed selections on all tabs. Convert closed wide lines to polygons imports wide polylines as polygons.HFSS Online Help 8. select Script or Acis. The file is imported into the active Layout window. and extraneous points along straight line segments. Click the Options tab: 9. For Import method. Import as 2D sheet bodies causes imported objects to be organized in terms of 2D sheets. Self-stitch causes multiple straight line segments to be joined to form polylines. Use the Override pulldown to select the layout units for the imported file (default is mm). • • • 11. 12. If the resulting polyline is closed. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Results>Import Solutions. the modeler creates a polygon in the design. The Imported Data dialog box appears.

8. type the name of the solution file you want to import or click Browse and use the file browser to locate the file. or accept the default name. The Imported Data dialog box appears. 3. In the File Name text box. or accept the default name In the All Columns list. and then click OK. 7. type a new name in the Table Name box that describes the data in the table. 6. real imaginary). HFSS will recognize complex data if the values are separated by a comma (e.g. 7. type a new name in the Source Name box or accept the default name. 1. Comma-separated. Selecting the file with the file browser loads it. 4. • Alternatively. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Results>Import Solutions. 2. If the data in the table is complex. Click Import Table. Click the solutions you want to import in the Available Solutions list. The Table Import dialog box appears. Related Topics Viewing Matrix Data Importing Data Tables You can import data table files that contain data in the following formats: • • Tab-separated. The S Parameter Import dialog box appears. Optionally. 6. Note that the file has not been imported yet. Optionally. the headings of each column in the data file are listed. or magnitude/ phase — in which to import the data. but note that the file has not been imported yet. 5. If the data is simple. right-click Results in the project tree and then click Import Solutions on the shortcut menu. You return to the Imported Data dialog box. In the File Name text box. 3. specify a new name for a column heading by doing the following: 3-56 Working with HFSS Projects . this option will be ignored. type the name of the data table file you want to import or click Browse and use the file browser to locate the file.HFSS Online Help 2. real. 5. select the format — real/ imaginary. type a new name in the Source Name box that indicates the origin or the data table. 4. HFSS will recognize complex data if the values are separated by a space (e.g. imaginary). Click Load File. Optionally. Optionally. Click Import Solution. and then click Import. Click the solution data you want to import.

Related Topics Importing Plot Data. the first heading in the data table file is listed by default. Optionally. The heading appears in the Column Name box. The solution data is now available for post processing. 1. If the data in the Dependent Data Columns list contains matrix data. 2. Click the Import Plot Data button The Read Plot Data file dialog opens. The imported files are listed in the Imported Data dialog. 4. Click the Open button to import the file. If it contains field data. Working with HFSS Projects3-57 . and then click OK. Type a new name in the Column Name box. click the heading you want to change. click a heading name and then click an arrow button to move it from one column to another. select Matrix Data.dat) to open. Click Import. On the HFSS menu click Report2D>Import Data. You can choose to specify the file as Read Only. select Field Data. In the All Columns list. The heading is changed to the new name in every place it appears in the Imported Data dialog box.dat). This displays a file browser window.HFSS Online Help a.csv) tab delimited files (. b. Use the file browser to select the plot data file (*. 11. You return to the Imported Data dialog box.tab) or Ansoft Plot Data files (*. On the HFSS or HFSS-IE menu click Results>Import Solutions. and then click Set Column Name. the second and subsequent headings in the data table file are listed by default. In the Dependent Data Columns list. In the Independent Data Columns list. Click the data you want to import in the Current Imports list. Related Topics Adding Datasets Importing HFSS Plot Data Import Solutions can also import HFSS or HFSS-IE plot data. Importing Plot Data The Report2D> Import Data command lets you import plot data from comma delimited files (. 1. 10. 12. The Imported Data dialog box appears. 9. You need to have a report open for the Report2D menu to appear. 3.

Click Open to import the file into the currently open Report. The file format field contains a drop-down menu listing the formats you can import. Use the Look In feature. or select the file from those listed in the current directory.csv) tab delimited files (. 3.tab) or Ansoft Plot Data files (*. Specify the file name in the file name field. Related Topics Importing HFSS Plot Data 3-58 Working with HFSS Projects .dat). The imported traces appear in the Project tree under the current report.HFSS Online Help 2. or the icons to navigate to the file location. 5. 4. These include comma delimited files (.

This places the documentation file in the project tree. This opens a file browser dialog that lets you navigate your file system. Click Project>Insert Documentation File. 2. Working with HFSS Projects3-59 . Selecting the file and click OK. 1.HFSS Online Help Inserting a Documentation File You may want to add a documentation file to the project tree.

number of copies. Click File>Print .HFSS Online Help Printing The printing commands enable you to send an image of the active window to the printer. You can also access the printer properties by clicking Printer in the Page Setup dialog box. Related Topics Getting Help 3-60 Working with HFSS Projects . You can change the printer (if other printer names are listed on the drop down). Click Cancel to dismiss the window without printing. set the print range. 3. Click Setup to define printer settings. Do one of the following: • • • Click OK to print the project. To print the project: 1. A dialog box similar to the following one appears: 2. or use the check box to Print to file.

To close the preview and return to your project. To print the project after seeing the preview. 2. and/or Two Page buttons. 4. Working with HFSS Projects3-61 . To navigate through the preview.HFSS Online Help Previewing the Printout To preview how the page will look when printed: 1. 3. click the Print button. To zoom in or out on the preview. click the Zoom In or Zoom Out button. click the Next Page. The preview window appears. Click File>Print Preview. The Print dialog box appears. click Close. Prev Page.

4. 3-62 Working with HFSS Projects . Under Orientation. Under Margins. 2. Click OK. You can also access the printer properties by clicking Printer in the Page Setup dialog box. select a Size and Source for the paper. and Bottom text boxes. 5. change the values as desired in the Left.HFSS Online Help Changing the Page Setup To set or change the page setup: 1. The Page Setup dialog box appears. Top. select either Portrait or Landscape. Under Paper. Click File>Page Setup. 3. Right.

such as its creation date and a description of the device being modeled. . click Delete from the shortcut menu. Click in the window and type your notes. 3. Double-click the Notes icon in the project tree. To delete the existing notes for a design: 1. Working with HFSS Projects3-63 . To edit existing project notes: • The Notes icon is removed from the project tree. Select the icon Notes in the project tree. 2. 2. in which you can edit the project’s notes. Right-click the icon Notes in the project tree. The Design Notes window appears. you can insert a documentation file into a project with the Project>Insert Documentation Files command. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Edit Notes The Design Notes window appears. click Edit>Delete. Note Notes are used to document aspects of designs only. Click OK to save the notes with the current project. For project level documentation. To add notes to a project: 1. This is useful for keeping a running log on the project.HFSS Online Help Saving Project Notes You can save notes about a project.

2. such as cloning options. Select the Do Autosave check box. Project Options Default Units Analysis Options RSM Service Options WebUpdate Options Miscellaneous Options Click each tab. the User Defined Primitives menu should reflect those changes on next startup or on Draw>User Defined Primitive>Update Menu. The General Options window appears. such as whether to duplicate boundaries. line styles. General Options: Project Options Tab These options are set on the Project Options tab of the General Options dialog box. and colors. display colors and render settings. enter a path in the Directory text box. and PersonalLib. Project. 1. 3. If you modify SysLib. 3-64 Working with HFSS Projects . and analysis options. units settings. such as fonts. you must check Override 3. such as project options. or processor and RAM settings. or click the . b. UserLib.HFSS Online Help Setting Options in HFSS You can set the following options from the Desktop: • • • • • • • General options. Syslib. labels. Modeler options. Setting General Options To set general options in HFSS: 1. processor and RAM settings. and drag and drop behavior. such as default solution mode. including advanced mode editing. Report Setup Options. If you want to enter a directory path in the Temp Directory text box.. HFSS-IE Options. The default is 10. do the following in the Autosave section: a. snap modes and mouse sensitivity. UserLib or PersonalLib paths through Tools>General options.. such as field overlay and phase animation settings. and make the desired selections. Report2D options. To auto-save your project. save and delete options. displaying five available tabs: • • • • • • 2. the number of significant digits to display. Enter the number of edits after which to save in the Autosave interval text box. Click OK. button to find and select the desired directory. Click Tools>Options>General Options. For each directory. Fields Reporter options. HFSS-specific options.

All but the last. button for finding and selecting the desired directory. To reset the library directories to the default. 6. If you would like to select the machine to which to send the analysis immediately before anaWorking with HFSS Projects3-65 . Select the desired units from each of the following pull-down lists: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Length Angle Time Temperature Torque Magnetic Induction Frequency Power Voltage Current Speed Weight Resistance Inductance Capacitance Force Angular Speed Magnetic field strength Pressure General Options: Analysis Options Tab These options are set on the Analysis Options tab of the General Options dialog box. The type of design is HFSS or HFSS-IE. click Reset Library Directory. 2. are grouped as Design Analysis Options for Design Type. 7. 5. 1. select a radio button to either Insert a design of type HFSS or Don’t insert a design. You can choose to specify a warning to be given when available disk space is less than a given amount in M bytes. For When creating a new project.HFSS Online Help to enable the path text field and the .. General Options: Default Units Tab These options are set on the Default Units tab of the General Options dialog box. 4. Select or clear the Expand Project Tree on Insert check box. the Queue all simulations checkbox..

For more information. Select or clear the Queue all simulations check box. If the Queue all simulations option is selected. If you selected Distributed. enter the default analysis machine information either as an IP address. Related Topics HFSS Options: Solver Tab or HFSS-IE Options:Solver Tab for setting the maximum Number of Processors. See HFSS Options: Solver Tab. or add new list. or a UNC name. or edit. or clone an existing machine list. b. 3-66 Working with HFSS Projects . the lower field shows the enab led machines in the configuration. Note 3. and the default analysis machine is used. and the process priority. Under Analysis Machine Options.HFSS Online Help lyzing. select Prompt for analysis machine when launching analysis. See Configuring Distributed Analysis. select whether the default analysis machine should be the local machine (Local). and the default process priority settings are now read from the machine from which you launch the analysis. this setting is ignored. Once configured. see distributed analysis. See Remote Analysis. the number of processors and Desired RAM Limit settings. If you selected Remote. remove. the desired RAM and Maximum RAM. When you have made a selection. a remote machine (Remote). or whether analysis should be distributed across multiple machines (Distributed). This allows subsequent projects to wait in a queue till the currently running project solves completely. you can select an distributed machine configuration list. Regardless of the machine(s) on which the analysis is actually run. a. you can also control these selections via toolbar icons for: 4. a DNS name.

Select or clear the Show Progress Window when starting a simulation check box. General Options: • • • • • Select or clear the Show Message Window on new messages check box. are displayed in the following two fields: • • Last update date Last update attempt date General Options: Miscellaneous Options Tab These options are set on the Miscellaneous tab of the General Options dialog box.) • • The Ansoft Service should be running on this port for all distributed machines. by using the checkbox. To change the Ansoft Service Port. click the Change button to display an editable dialog. Working with HFSS Projects3-67 Report Update Options for Design Type: . Selecting Specified User enables the fields for user name. The Send analysis request as option selection can be Service User or Specified User. Select or clear the Update reports on file open check box. as well as the last attempt. You can also Disable access by remote machines. Related Topics Remote Analysis General Options: WebUpdate Options Tab These options are set on the WebUpdate Options tab of the General Options dialog box. password. and domain information. do the following in the Remote Analysis Options section of the General Options.HFSS Online Help RSM Service Options Technical Notes: Handling Complicated Models Configuring Distributed Analysis Selecting an Optimal Configuration for Distributed Analysis General Options: RSM Service Options To launch all analyses as a specific user. The Design type is HFSS or HFSS-IE. Select one of the following from the Automatically check for updates every pull-down list: • • • • Never 30 days 120 days 180 days The last time the software was updated. you must specify the current user. (Note: If any of the remote machines are Unix-based. Select or clear the Ensure that new messages are visible in the Message Window Tree check box. rather than the current user.

Dynamically update postprocessing data for new solutions. On Completion . This option will prevent updates from impacting the solution time. plots are updated at the end of each solution pass.the default. This path can be used by the HFSS Optimetrics feature for connecting to the Design Xplorer. This option will have the greatest impact on the overall solution time but will have the most rapid updating of reports and field plots. all reports are updated after analysis of each variation has been completed. For example. Click OK. It means update most things immediately. 3.HFSS Online Help • • Select or clear Dynamically update reports and field overlays during edits. Setting HFSS Options To set HFSS options: 1.update reports and plots as soon as data comes from the solver. The default is 100.as with Never. and make the desired selections.only manual intervention updates reports. The HFSS Options window appears. Updating numerous reports may a significant amount of time. The ANSYS Workbench Application Path lets you specify a path to an installation. If selected. but a single update is done when the solve completes. After Each Variation . Immediately .when performing an Optimetric or parametric analysis. 3-68 Working with HFSS Projects . For "LastAdaptive" or "Transient" the plot is updated at the end of the transient or adaptive solution. Note: Reports that are updated on completion are done after the solve has been completed. General Options Solver Report Updating During Analysis Click each tab. especially as the mesh size increases. displaying three available tabs: • • • 2. Never . This option balances report and field plot updating with solution time. You may want to vary the times when your reports get updated relative to the impact on overall solve time. • • • • The Animation setting lets you set a limit to Stop computing animation frames when available memory is less than a value in megabytes. report plots and overlays update dynamically. if you have one. The time for that update is not included in the solve profile. Updating reports during the analysis process can impact the overall time to solution. Click Tools>Options> HFSS Options. Caution should be used in selecting this option. Some types of reports and field plots may take a long time to update. Five options exist for updating reports during solutions: • Automatically . reports may be updated after each adaptive pass but field plots will not be updated until the solution is complete. For "AdaptivePass" plot context.

Unchecking this turns off boundary visualization. When this is checked. the commands to assign wave or lumped ports will automatically assign terminals. In the Assignment Options section. and is of interest depending on how port names are assigned for that design. Eigenmode Driven Modal Terminal Transient Transient Network Check or uncheck whether to Include ferrite materials Set the Solve Inside threshold values in Siemens/m. the creation of boundaries and excitations use Wizard to guide you through the process. • Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries When this is checked. select one of the following from the Default solution type pull-down list: • • • • • 2. 1. See Assigning Wave Ports for Terminal Solutions. This can also be a User Specified order that defaults to creation order. In the Material Options section: • • 3. See Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry. • Auto assign terminals on ports When this is checked. the creation of boundaries and excitations displays a Properties dialog with tabs for different kinds of information. boundaries on geometries are displayed. • Duplicate boundaries/mesh operations with geometry When this is checked. Set the default Matrix sort order. To change the default solution type when you initially insert a project. and speeds up the display for complex models. The default is ascending alphanumeric. you can duplicate a boundary or excitation when its geometry is pasted or duplicated. In the Post Processing Options section: • • Set the number of processors to use for radiated fields post processing. Select or clear the following check boxes: • • • Save before solving Save Optimetrics field solutions Apply variation deletions immediately Working with HFSS Projects3-69 . 4.HFSS Online Help HFSS Options: General Options Tab These options are set on the General Options tab of the HFSS Options dialog box. • Visualize Boundaries on geometry. When this is not checked. select or clear the following two check boxes and settings. 5. This affects the order of the Matrix Data.

and domains). Distributed to use. ANSOFT_DESIRED_RAM_LIMIT (value is the desired RAM usage limit. optimization. and the machine on which you are solving only has two processors. Select one or both of the following check boxes. that you wish to place on the solvers) Select one of the following HPC Licensing Options. frequency sweeps. the solve machine will only use two processors. However. if you want to use as many processors as exist on each solve machine. This is useful for unattended solves. An environment variable allows you to override the number of processors without permanently changing the value set here. This is useful for unattended solves. for instance when running a non-graphical batchsolve: • 4. 3-70 Working with HFSS Projects . Regardless of the machine(s) on which the analysis is actually run. the solve machine will only use two processors. or by HPC Pack licensing. The selection determines whether multiprocessing is enabled by an HPC license. For distributed solve. you can set the number of processors to a high value. The value specifies the maximum number of local processors to use. and the machine on which you are solving only has two processors. the solver considers the number of processors to be optional and reverts to a single processor solution if a multiple processor licence is not available. ANSOFT_NUM_PROCESSORS (value is the maximum number of processors to use) Enter the Number of Processors. This applies to distributed solutions (parametrics. for instance when running a non-graphical batchsolve: • 2. • • HPC HPC Pack Solution setups with domains always use HPC licensing. This applies to non-distributed solutions (including adaptive passes that come before distributed frequency sweeps ). Even though domains are distributed and may use multiprocessing. This setting affects all HFSS projects for the current user and machine. they do not use distributed solve or multiprocessing licenses – all of this is included in the HPC licensing when solving domains. 3. To set the solver options for HFSS: 1. if you specify that you want to use 4 processors.The value specifies the maximum number of distributed processors to use. if you specify that you want to use 4 processors. all of the settings on this panel are read from the machine from which you launch the analysis. in MB. Enter the Number of Processors to use. and enter values in the text boxes: • • Desired RAM Limit (MB) Maximum RAM Limit (MB) An environment variable allows you to override the desired RAM limit settings without permanently change the values set here.HFSS Online Help HFSS Options: Solver Tab These options are set on the Solver tab of the HFSS Options dialog box.

and maximum RAM limit using VB scripts allows you to solve a project by running a VB script. desired RAM limit. So a simulation with twenty cores would require twenty HPC licenses. In this context. The HPC License Type determines the type and number of licenses that will be checked out for a given number of cores.HFSS Online Help HPC licensing is based on counting the total number of cores in a simulation. Select one of the following from the Default Process Priority pull-down list: • • • • • Critical (highest) Priority (Not recommended) Above Normal Priority (not recommended) Normal Priority Below Normal Priority Idle (lowest) Priority You can set these values using VB Scripts. a single pack enables eight cores. we will always use HPC licenses for multiprocessing (even if you have NOT chosen "Enable multiprocessing using HPC" option). For the HPC Pack type. or 32.SetMaximumRamMBLimit <integer num in MB> oDesign. enabling up to 8x4. 6.SetDesiredRamMBLimit <integer num in MB> oDesign. when solving a distributed solution across 10 nodes.SetNumberOfProcessors <num> Working with HFSS Projects3-71 . the HPC licenses take the place of the MP license. check Enable multiprocessing using HPC licenses. without having to toggle the computer hardware usage settings. For example. For HFSS Transient problems. 5. Related Topics Configuring Distributed Analysis Setting Solver Settings Using VB Scripts Setting Solver Settings Using VB Scripts Being able to set the number of processors. one license will be checked out for each core in use. a hfssie_solve license is required in addition to the hfss_solve. The following macros allow you to set these options: oDesign. This option causes HPC licenses to be used to enable multiprocessing even when solving problems that do not include domains. We will only checkout a hfss_transient_solve license. the solver will not checkout hfss_solve (regular solve license). For multiprocessing. with multiprocessing enabling 2 cores per node. For HFSS-IE problems an hfssie_solve license is required. For the HPC type. cores. So a simulation with twenty cores would require two “HPC Pack” licenses. the total number of cores is 2x10. and each additional pack enables four times as many cores. or twenty cores. For HFSS problems with radiation boundaries and Use IE Formulation checked. If you are solving an HFSS Transient problem.

You have a choice to either: a. Save Optimetrics Field solutions.GetMaximumRamMBLimit() num = oDesign.HFSS Online Help limit = oDesign. HFSS-IE Options: General Options Tab These options are set on the General Options tab of the HFSS-IE Options dialog box. like 3-72 Working with HFSS Projects . Click Tools>Options>HFSS-IE Options. you can duplicate a boundary or excitation when its geometry is pasted or duplicated. and make the desired selections. Visualize boundaries on geometry.GetNumberOfProcessors() Setting HFSS-IE Options To set the HFSS-IE options: 1. No two terminals can touch each other Unassigned terminals (not assigned to any port) There are certain validation checks. See Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry. The HFSS-IE Options window appears. Checking this saves disk space. If this option is switched off. b. General Options Solver Click each tab. Use Excitations>Auto Assign Terminals. 3. then you assign a lumped port. Auto-assign terminals on ports. Clear or check the following options: • Duplicate boundaries with geometry When this is checked. then the Assign Lumped port command will try to automatically assign the terminals on ports. This will bring up a dialog box to get the input from the user to select the objects used for “reference” Lumped port can have only one terminal. If this option is switched on.GetDesiredRamMBLimit() limit = oDesign. Select any edge/face of conductor that is touching the port. Checking this uses more disk space. This controls the display of boundaries. Click OK. Manually assign a terminal. displaying two available tabs: • • 2. • • • • • • Save before solving Apply variation deletions immediately.

Regardless of the machine(s) on which the analysis is actually run. This affects the order of the Matrix Data. if you specify that you want to use 4 processors. the total number of cores is 2x10. and the machine on which you are solving only has two processors. optimization. or by HPC Pack licensing.The value specifies the maximum number of distributed processors to use. This applies to distributed solutions (parametrics. An environment variable allows you to override the number of processors without permanently changing the value set here. To set the solver options for HFSS-IE: 1. and is of interest depending on how port names are assigned for that design. when solving a distributed solution across 10 nodes. the solve machine will only use two processors. the creation of boundaries and excitations displays a Properties dialog with tabs for different kinds of information. When this is not checked. Distributed to use. ANSOFT_NUM_PROCESSORS (value is the maximum number of processors to use) Enter the Number of Processors. and the machine on which you are solving only has two processors. • • HPC HPC Pack HPC licensing is based on counting the total number of cores in a simulation. all of the settings on this panel are read from the machine from which you launch the analysis. or twenty cores. This specifies the maximum number of processors to use. if you want to use as many processors as exist on each solve machine. For distributed solve. This is useful for unattended solves. Select one of the following HPC Licensing Options. This can also be a User Specified order that defaults to creation order. the solve machine will only use two processors. For distributed solve. and frequency sweeps). The selection determines whether multiprocessing is enabled by an HPC license. you can set the number of processors to a high value. the creation of boundaries and excitations use Wizard to guide you through the process.HFSS Online Help • Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries When this is checked. The HPC License Type determines the type and number of licenses that will be checked out for Working with HFSS Projects3-73 . for instance when running a non-graphical batchsolve: • 2. if you want to use as many processors as exist on each solve machine. Related Topics HFSS-IE Options:Solver Tab HFSS-IE Options: Solver Tab These options are set on the Solver tab of the HFSS-IE Options dialog box. For example. Enter the Number of Processors to use. if you specify that you want to use 4 processors. with multiprocessing enabling 2 cores per node. 3. The default is ascending alphanumeric. you can set the number of processors to a high value. • • Default matrix sort order.

to update the plot dynamically Never. Click OK to accept the settings and close the dialog. So a simulation with twenty cores would require two “HPC Pack” licenses. Set the default Phase Animation settings for Scalar Plots and Vector Plots. 4. 4. Each of these accepts values for From and To in degrees. the HPC licenses take the place of the MP license. Click the Mesh Plot tab to set when dragging the clip plane. For the HPC Pack type. Related Topics Creating Phase Animations 3-74 Working with HFSS Projects . For multiprocessing. enabling up to 8x4. In this context. a single pack enables eight cores. 5. The streamline marker spacing the Number of markers per bounding box diagonal. Select one of the following from the Default Process Priority pull-down list: • • • • • Critical (highest) Priority Above Normal Priority Normal Priority Below Normal Priority Idle (lowest) Priority Related Topics Configuring Distributed Analysis HFSS-IE Options: General Options tab Setting Fields Reporter Options To set the Fields Reporter options: 1. The Streamline drawing stopping criteria are: Fields magnitude on a streamline data point is <percentage> of maximum field value of entire model. Specify whether to Group Field Overlays by Type (default. The Fields Reporter Options dialog opens with the Phase Animation tab selected. 3. 6.HFSS Online Help a given number of cores. For HFSS-IE problems an hfssie_solve license is required. For the HPC type. Streamline length is higher than <value> times of diagonal length of model bounding box. check Enable multiprocessing using HPC licenses. cores. and the number of steps. 5. This option causes HPC licenses to be used to enable multiprocessing. yes). So a simulation with twenty cores would require twenty HPC licenses. Click Tools>Options>Fields Reporter Options. 2. or 32. and each additional pack enables four times as many cores. Always or When the number of mesh elements is less that a value (default 5000). Click the Streamline tab to set the two Streamline drawing stopping criteria and the Streamline marker spacing. one license will be checked out for each core in use.

you can set values for all curves by clicking the column header cell that contains the property title. 6. The sym style can be box. Fill Sym -. Sym Style -. The options are Solid. vertical up triangle. Width -. vertical down triangle.select the options from the drop down menu. Click each tab. 5. Sym Freq -. Click OK.use the check box to have symbols mark the locations of data points on the curve. horizontal right triangle.select the symbol to display for the designated data points.HFSS Online Help Plotting the Mesh Setting Report2D Options To set Report2D options: 1. vertical ellipse. displaying ten available tabs: • • • • • • • • • • Curve Axis Grid Tab Header Tab Note Tab Legend Tab Marker Tab Marker Table Tab General Tab Table tab For properties controlled by checkboxes. horizontal left triangle. Line style -. and make the desired selections. You can use a Restore Defaults button. Select a default or custom color and click OK.set the symbol frequency by editing the integer value in the text field. and Dot dash. 1. Report 2D Options: Curve Tab These options are set on the Curve tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. Color -. Working with HFSS Projects3-75 8. Click Tools>Options>Report2D Options. Dash. 3. .use the check box to use arrows on the curve ends. 7. The Report2D Options window appears. Right-clicking on a text field cell displays a context menu that lets you cut. 3.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Right-clicking on a menu cell displays a context menu that lets you copy and paste entire rows.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field. 4.use the check box to set the symbol display as a solid or as hollow. copy and paste values. horizontal ellipse. circle. 2. 2. Arrows -. Symbol -. Dot.

Report2D Options: Axis Tab These options are set on the Axis tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. Font -. Dot. 2. Report2D Options: Grid Tab These options are set on the Grid tab of the Report2D Options dialog box.this describes the axis to which the following options refer. Grid Name -. 6. 3-76 Working with HFSS Projects . 2.if Auto Scale it not selected. and script. Edit Font -. edit the real value to set the maximum value of the axis. Font color -. colors. 9.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. Axis Name -. Auto Scale -. Min Scale -.set the color for the symbol by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Sym Color -. 3. The dialog also contains a preview field. 5. 3.select the options from the drop down menu. colors. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Select a default or custom color and click OK.if Auto Scale is not selected.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts. 8. effects. 2. Color -.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog.set the font color of the axis by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. 1. For the Title and subtitle. The dialog also contains a preview field. Select a default or custom color and click OK.HFSS Online Help 9. Select a default or custom color and click OK. 7.lists the name or letter of the grid.click on the cell to select from a menu of available units if you have not checked Auto Units. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog.use the check box to toggle whether to auto scale the axis. Line Style -. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts. styles. and script. sizes. edit the real value to set the minimum value of the axis. Auto Units -.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. effects. Max Scale -.use the check box compute the correct units for the axis. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. Select a default or custom color and click OK. you can independently specify the following: 1. 4. Color -. styles. and Dot dash. Not editable. sizes. Line Color -. The options are Solid. Dash. Report2D Options: Header Tab These options are set on the Header tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. 1.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Units -.

click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. The dialog also contains a preview field.use the checkbox to toggle the background for the note on or off. Marker Font -. Background Color -. Show Trace Name -.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Border Visibility -. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts. effects. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts. 1. and script. 9. Select a default or custom color and click OK.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. styles. 7. 5.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. 2. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Border Line Width -. 4. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts. Note Color -.use the checkbox to toggle the visibility of the note border. Show Solution Name -. styles. Select a default or custom color and click OK.use the checkbox to toggle the visibility of the variation key. colors. and script.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Note Font -. sizes. Text Font -. Border Line Color -. Report2D Options: Legend Tab These options are set on the Legend tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. Select a default or custom color and click OK.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. and script. styles. The dialog also contains a Working with HFSS Projects3-77 . Marker Color -. Background Color -. Grid Color -. Select a default or custom color and click OK. 2. Select a default or custom color and click OK. 5. Select a default or custom color and click OK.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. 6. effects. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. 6. 3. Show Variation Key -. sizes. colors.use the checkbox to toggle the visibility of the solution name. 3.use the checkbox to toggle the visibility of the trace name.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. Report2D Options: Marker tab These options are set on the Marker tab of the Report2D Options dialog box.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. sizes. 1. 8. 1.HFSS Online Help Report2D Options: Note Tab These options are set on the Note tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. 2. effects. 7.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field. Border Line Width -.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Background Visibility -. Text Color -. Border Line Color -. colors. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. 4. The dialog also contains a preview field.

use the following options to set the X Marker properties. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. and Dot dash. a. 3. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Background Color -. 8. Background Color -.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Report2D Options: General Tab These options are set on the General tab of the Report2D Options dialog box.HFSS Online Help preview field. 2. sizes.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Select a default or custom color and click OK. colors. 7. 6. 1. Text Font -.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. g. Border Line Color -. Line Style -. X Marker -. Box Background Color -.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Dot. The options are Solid. e. The dialog also contains a preview field. Select a default or custom color and click OK. colors. Border Line Width -.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field. styles. sizes. Related Topics Modifying Markers on Point Plots Report2D Options: Marker Table Tab These options are set on the Marker Table tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. Precision -. Select a 3-78 Working with HFSS Projects .checkbox to show the intersection. f. Show Intersection -. Line Color -. Dash.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Line Width -. XMarker Color -. Grid Line Width -.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field.set the line width by editing the real value in the text field. styles. 3. and script. XMarker Font -. Grid Color -. The dialog also contains a preview field. effects. and script. c.set the precision for marker placement by editing the real value field. effects. 5. Text Color -.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. b. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. d. Select a default or custom color and click OK. 4.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. Select a default or custom color and click OK.select the options from the drop down menu. 1. Select a default or custom color and click OK.

Accumulate Depth -. 3. a.click the cell to display the Edit Text Font dialog. colors.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. Highlight Color -.HFSS Online Help default or custom color and click OK. Precision -. Copy to Clipboard -. Setting Modeler Options To set modeler options: 1. Working with HFSS Projects3-79 . The Modeler Options window appears.set to 4 by default. 3. The dialog lets you select from a list of available fonts. Format -. 3. 4. c. With Header With Tab Separator -. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Capture Background Color -.set the table precision by editing the real value in the text field. Curve Tooltip Option -. Click OK.use the following checkboxes to toggle the following properties for table copy operations. 6. OK the selections to apply the font edits and to close the dialog. sizes. b. 5.this can be As Shown or White.this improves copy and paste to a spreadsheet.use the checkbox to toggle scientific notation on or off. 1. and script.set the color by double clicking to display the Set color dialog. b.: a. Select a default or custom color and click OK. b. Show Trace Name Show Variation Key Show Solution Name Capture Aspect Size Ratio -. and make the desired selections.use the checkboxes to toggle the following properties: a.set the table field width by editing the real value in the text field. b. Operation Display Drawing Click each tab.use the drop down menus to specify the following properties: Report2D Options: Table Tab These options are set on the Table tab of the Report2D Options dialog box. The dialog also contains a preview field. displaying three available tabs: • • • 2. effects. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options.use the following properties to set the format: a. 2. Text Font -. Use Scientific Notation -. c. styles.this can be As Shown or Full Screen. Contrast Color -. Clipboard Option . 2. Field Width -.

the modeler first creates a face coordinate system consistent with the selected face and the new object is created within the face coordinate system. selecting an object automatically opens the history tree. To specify when to clone tool objects. By default. If not checked. select or clear the Automatically cover closed polylines check box. If not checked. 3-80 Working with HFSS Projects . the history tree is expanded after operations on object properties. select or clear the following check boxes in the Clone section: • • • 2. the modeler operates within the user selected coordinate system. You can choose to leave the polyline as an uncovered object to perform further operations prior to creating a sheet object • • 4. 1.HFSS Online Help Modeler Options: Operation Tab These options are set on the Operation tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. The Color window appears. To specify a default color for a 3D Modeler drawing object or action (such as on select): • Select the object or action from the Default color pull-down list and click the color button. closed polylines become sheet objects. select or clear the Automatically switch to face coordinate system check box. and are listed as such in the History tree. For the Select last command on object select option: • • 5. By default. By default. unchecked. when you select an object in 3D view. 1. With this selection. only the object selected. the history tree does not open on object selection. If not checked. keeping the object for subsequent operations. closed polylines are listed under lines in the History tree. surface objects created with the Polyline command will be created with a cover so that they become sheet objects. you can select a face and when a new object creation is started. You may specify that the modeler makes a copy (clone) of the tool object before the operation. If checked. 3. If checked. the modeler deletes tool objects when performing tasks such as Uniting. This can be useful for speeding the display of multiple object selections. For the Expand history tree on object select option: • • Modeler Options: Display Tab These options are set on the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. or Intersecting objects. you must manually create a Face Coordinate System before creating an object related to it. even if the tree is collapsed for the item. and current tree collapse/expand state is preserved If checked. In the Polyline section. Subtracting. If this option is enabled. or complex objects. Clone tool objects before uniting Clone tool objects before subtracting Clone tool options before intersecting In the Coordinate System section.

6. 8. For models with curved faces. This can help you visualize an object that has been merged with another object. so the rendering will be faster. Under Default tree layout. 5. To specify the default for the View>Render setting for new projects. Under History operations visualization. Select a color for the selected object or action. select WireFrame or SmoothShade from the Default view render pull-down list. move the slider. To set the Default transparency. select or clear the Visualize history of objects check box. or enter a numerical value. The following figure shows an example history tree with an object selected and the outline view of that object in the Main window. and click OK. When dealing with complicated geometries. this is faster and uses less memory. you may prefer to clear this selection to simplify the wire-frame display. Working with HFSS Projects3-81 . 7. 4.HFSS Online Help • 2. Select or clear the Show orientation of selected objects check box. Select or clear Highlight UV Isolines. This is faster than shaded rendering. For large models. choose WireFrame rendering. The option lets you view an outline of each part that comprises an object when the given part is selected in the model history tree. A change to the option takes effect only when you restart HFSS. Select or clear the Highlight selection dynamically check box. Clearing this selection removes visualization of objects that are part of the model history. 3. select or clear the Group objects by material check box.

• Point mode . 3-82 Working with HFSS Projects . The Dialog mode drawing feature works with the equation based line. The specifies whether a Properties dialog appears on the creation of a new primitive. The Operation Data Mode controls whether you draw new objects directly via the mouse. 1. To specify snap settings. or whether a Properties dialog opens for you to enter dimensions for the object.HFSS Online Help Modeler Options: Drawing Tab These options are set on the Drawing tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. Select or clear the Show measures dialog check box.mouse drawing. 3. Grid Vertex Edge Center Face Center Quadrant Arc Center Enter how near the mouse needs to be to click a grid item in the Mouse Sensitivity box. 4. in pixels. select or clear the following check boxes in the Snap Mode section: • • • • • • 2. and all two and three dimensional objects.

To have a Properties dialog display whenever you create a new object in the modeling window. Dialog . Report Setup Options To set Report setup options: 1. The Report Setup dialog appears. You can also use F3 for Point mode and F4 for dialog mode. 2. • • Drag item data Drag item definition Working with HFSS Projects3-83 .enter dimensions in the properties dialog.HFSS Online Help • 5. check the box for Edit properties of new primitives. Click Tools>Options>Report Setup. Use the text field to specify the maximum number of significant digits to use when displaying numeric values. 3. Specify the drag and drop behavior by clicking the radio button.

HFSS Online Help 3-84 Working with HFSS Projects .

Variables are useful in the following situations: • • • • • You expect to change a parameter often. You can manually include the symbol $ in the project variable’s name. mathematical expression. Edit. HFSS differentiates project variables from other types of variables by prefixing the variable name with the following symbol: $. HFSS differentiates project variables from other types of variables by prefixing the variable name with the following symbol: $. or mathematical function that can be assigned to a design parameter in HFSS. You intend to optimize a parameter value by running an optimization analysis. in which you specify a series of variable values within a range to solve. You can manually include the symbol $ in the project vari- Working with HFSS Projects 3-85 . you can Add. There are two types of variables in HFSS: Project Variables A project variable can be assigned to any parameter value in the HFSS project in which it was created. You intend to run a parametric analysis. or HFSS will automatically append the project variable’s name after you define the variable. From the Design Variables Properties dialog. or Remove Design variables. You intend to run a convergence on an output variable.HFSS Online Help Working with Variables A variable is a numerical value. Design Variables A design variable can be assigned to any parameter value in the HFSS design in which it was created. You expect to use the same parameter value often. Related Topics Defining an Expression Defining Mathematical Functions Assigning Variables Specify Expressions for Adaptive Convergence Specifying Output Variables Using Optimetrics for Design Analysis Choosing a Variable to Optimize Selecting Objects by Variable Exporting Variables for Documentation Adding a Project Variable A project variable can be assigned to a parameter value in the HFSS project in which it was created. Add Array.

Variable names may include alphanumeric characters and underscores ( _ ). noted by a triangle pointing up. Updating the expression also changes the evaluated value display. The new variable and its value are listed in the table. the choices in drop down menu for the Units text box adapt to that unit type. 2. If the mathematical expression includes a reference to an existing variable. cannot be the direct subject of optimization. If you include the variable’s units in its definition (in the Value text box). If the value is an expression. type the quantity that the variable represents. Clicke Project>Project Variables. or a mathematical function. tuning. type the name of the variable. 5. The units for a dependent variable will automatically change to those of the independent variable on which the value depends. 3. 1. this variable is treated as a dependent variable. Clicking against sorts in descending order. For example. The names of intrinsic functions and the pre-defined constant pi (π) cannot be used as variable names. You can sort the project variables by clicking on the Name column header. By default. or HFSS will automatically append the project variable’s name with the symbol after you define the variable. click Add. The Add Property dialog box appears. Clicking a third time sorts in original order. • Alternatively. Under the Project Variables tab. selecting Length as the Unit Type causes the Unit menu to show a range of metric and english units for length. (or default) value for the variable. When you select a Unit Type. and then click Project Variables on the shortcut menu. Warning The quantity can be a numerical value. though useful in many situations. sensitivity analysis. do not include the variable’s units when you enter the variable name for a parameter value. noted by a triangle pointing down. if you select the Unit Type as Resistance. In the Name text box. or statistical analysis. variables are sorted in original order. Similarly. Any dependent variables also have evaluated values 3-86 Working with HFSS Projects .HFSS Online Help able’s name when you create it. 4. the Units drop down lists a range of standard Ohm units. In the Unit Type text box you can use the drop down menu to select from the list of available unit types. Click OK. The quantity entered will be the current. the evaluated value is shown. You return to the Properties dialog box. Project variable names must start with the symbol $ followed by a letter. “None” is the default. you can also optionally. a mathematical expression. Clicking once sorts them in ascending order. Additionally. The Properties dialog box appears. right-click the project name in the project tree. with no triangle. In the Value text box. dependent variables. include the units of measurement. 6. If you did not specify the Unit Type and Unit.

_v _V1 to _V9 Ang Distance Electrical Degree F F1. and description cannot be modified when Read Only is selected. select Read Only. Port Voltage in user defined model (V). select Hidden. The new variable can now be assigned to a parameter value in the project in which it was created. Not settable by user. Post Processing variable .HFSS Online Help changed. Offset noise frequency in harmonic balance noise analysis. type a description of the variable in the Description text box. Related Topics Deleting Project Variables Defining an Expression Defining Mathematical Functions Exporting Variables for Documentation Intrinsic Variables in a Project The Properties dialog for the project also lists the intrinsic variables under the Intrinsic Variables tab. The variable’s name. Optionally. Name _l1 to _l9 _t _u_. unit. If you clear the Show Hidden option. (Hz). 9. F2. Optionally. Post processing variables. Post processing variable. 2. Frequency tones 1. Working with HFSS Projects 3-87 Unit mA Description Terminal current in user-defined model (A). Frequency of circuit system analysis (Hz). the hidden variable will not appear in the Properties dialog box. 10. 8. value. Variable to define parametric equation-based curve. Variable to define parametric equation-based surface. 3 in harmonic balance analysis. Click OK. lb mV Ang mm deg GHz GHz GHz GHz mA Electric degree of the rotating machine. 7. not settable by the user. not settable by the user. F3 Fnoi Freq la. Optionally.

not settable by the user. Vgs X. 2. Select the variable and click Remove and OK. Distance OP Phase. Remove all references to the variable in the project.Y. Analysis temperature (deg) Post processing variable. Post processing variable. • Alternatively. Click Project>Project Variables to display the Properties dialog with list of variables. 4. not settable by the user. Time point in transient analysis Post processing variables. and then click Design Properties on the shortcut menu. Vce. including dependent variables. not settable by the user. Save the project to erase the command history. not settable by the user. Adding a Design Variable A design variable is associated with an HFSS design. Post processing variables. not settable by the user. IWave deg Theta Normalized Deformation. Post processing variables. IWave Phi. not settable by the user. Post processing variable. Speed of the machine. Post processing variables. You can also add a variable defined with an array of values. Post processing variables. Not settable by the user. Post processing variables. 3-88 Working with HFSS Projects . right-click the design name in the project tree. Phi R Rho Rspeed Spectrum Temp Theta Time Vac. not settable by the user. Deleting Project Variables To delete a project variable: 1. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. not settable by the user.Z ZAng ZRho rpm GHz cell deg ns mV mm deg mW deg mm Post processing variables.HFSS Online Help Name Index Unit Description Post processing variable. A design variable can be assigned to a parameter value in the HFSS design in which it was created. 1. 3. not settable by the user. not settable by the user. not settable by the user. Post processing variable. not settable by the user. Vds. Vbe.

and Read-only and Hidden check boxes. Optionally. The other radio buttons let you enable defined variables for Optimization.. Unit. Sensitivity or Statistics. Tuning. the Units drop down lists a range of standard Ohm units.Edit and Remove. Description. the choices in drop down menu for the Units text box adapt to that unit type. For example. if you select the Unit Type as Resistance. noted by a triangle pointing up. Initially. Type. Variable names must start with a letter. noted by a triangle pointing down. The Add Property dialog box appears. Click Add. type the name of the variable. or Remove variables. This section describes Add. include the Working with HFSS Projects 3-89 . Selecting one of these radio buttons add a new column to the Variable definition row for which you can check or uncheck Include for regular variables for that kind of Optimetrics simulation. and may include alphanumeric characters and underscores ( _ ). When you select a Unit Type. A Show Hidden checkbox on the lower right of the Properties dialog controls the appearance of any Hidden variables . with no triangle. Clicking against sorts in descending order. In the Value text box. . Use the links for descriptions of Add Array. 3. In the Unit Type text box you can use the drop down menu to select from the list of available unit types. Evaluated Value. Any existing Design variables are listed in the Properties dialog with the name followed by cells for Value. 5. Edit. 4. You can sort the project variables by clicking on the Name column header. Similarly. you leave the radio button with Value selected until you have defined a variable. By default. type the quantity that the variable represents. For further discussion. see Optimetrics. Clicking once sorts them in ascending order. variables are sorted in original order. Add Array. The names of intrinsic functions and the pre-defined constant pi (π) cannot be used as variable names. In the Name text box. From the Properties dialog you can Add.HFSS Online Help The Local Variables Properties dialog box appears. 2. “None” is the default. Clicking a third time sorts in original order. selecting Length as the Unit Type causes the Unit menu to show a range of metric and english units for length.

cannot be the direct subject of optimization. Updating the expression also changes the evaluated value display. The new variable and its value are listed in the table. Note 6. or for optimization. The units for a dependent variable will automatically change to those of the independent variable on which the value depends. Click OK. 8. Additionally. Optionally. or a mathematical function. Related Topics Add Array of Values for a Design Variable Editing a Design Variable Deleting Design Variables Deleting Project Variables Defining an Expression Defining Mathematical Functions Exporting Variables for Documentation 3-90 Working with HFSS Projects . sensitivity analysis. The quantity entered will be the current (or default value) for the variable. though useful in many situations. sensitivity or tuning setups. or statistical analysis. do not include the variable’s units when you enter the variable name for a parameter value. dependent variables. a mathematical expression. Complex numbers are not allowed for variables to be used in an Optimetrics sweep. 7. type a description of the variable in the Description text box. You return to the Properties dialog box. Click OK. tuning. The new variable can now be assigned to a parameter value in the design in which it was created. If the mathematical expression includes a reference to an existing variable. The quantity can be a numerical value.HFSS Online Help units of measurement. If the value is an expression. statistical. the evaluated value is shown. this variable is treated as a dependent variable. Note If you include the variable’s units in its definition (in the Value text box). Any dependent variables also have evaluated values changed.

button. The other radio buttons let you enable regular variables for Optimization.. From the Properties dialog you can Add. The Add Array dialog displays. Specify a variable Name in the text field. Edit. To specify the array with Edit in Grid Selected. Any existing Design variables are listed in the Properties dialog with the name followed by cells for Value. or Remove variables.. A Show Hidden checkbox on the lower right of the Properties dialog controls the appearance of any Hidden variables.Edit and Remove. you can begin by clicking the Append Rows. 3.. you leave the radio button with Value selected until you have defined a variable. • Alternatively. and Read-only and Hidden check boxes.. You can also add a variable defined with an array of values. Array variables cannot be enabled for Optimetrics use.. 4. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. Initially. Type. 5. Use the links for descriptions of Add. Sensitivity or Statistics.. Unit. Evaluated Value. and then click Design Properties on the shortcut menu. Working with HFSS Projects 3-91 .. right-click the design name in the project tree. Add Array.HFSS Online Help Add Array of Values for a Design Variable A design variable is associated with an HFSS design. 1.. Click the Add Array. Description. Tuning. Select a Unit Type and Units from the drop down menus. The Local Variables Properties dialog box appears. This section describes Add Array. 2.

or Remove Row. Specify a value and click OK.. • Alternatively. 1. If you elected to edit the array Edit in plain text field in the Add Array dialog. Related Topics Design Variables Editing a Design Variable Deleting Design Variables Deleting Project Variables Defining an Expression Defining Mathematical Functions Editing a Design Variable A design variable is associated with an HFSS design.HFSS Online Help button to display the Number of Rows dialog. or Remove variables. A design variable can be assigned to a parameter value in the HFSS design in which it was created. This displays a list of indexed data rows in the Add Array dialog. and then click Design Properties on the shortcut menu. The Local Variables Properties dialog box appears. see below. click OK to close the dialog.) 6. You can type any data value in the cells. This section describes Edit. 7. the bracketed and comma delimited format is used. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. Edit. You can also add a variable defined with an array of values. (For Edit in plain text field. right-click the design name in the project tree. Add Array. From the Properties dialog you can Add. If you enter alphanumeric text in a cell it must be delimited by double quotes. The Array variable is listed in the Design Properties dialog as a Local Variable. When you have completed the array. The array variable value field includes the array contents in brackets with the unindexed data values delimited by commas. All cells must contain a value. Add Row Below. You can edit the rows relative a row selection by clicking buttons to Add Row Above. Use the links for descrip- 3-92 Working with HFSS Projects .

see Optimetrics.HFSS Online Help tions of Add. Related Topics Design Variables Exporting Variables for Documentation Deleting Design Variables To delete a design variable: 1. Tuning. Related Topics Design Variables Working with HFSS Projects 3-93 . Select a variable to highlight it. Array variables cannot be Enabled for Optimetrics. 3. Sensitivity or Statistics. Complete the edits and OK the dialog to apply them. Initially. including dependent variables. 2. Selecting one of these radio buttons add a new column to the Variable definition row for which you can check or uncheck Include a regular variable for that kind of Optimetrics simulation. The other radio buttons let you enable defined variables for Optimization. Click the Edit button. the Add Property dialog for that variable opens. For regular variables. the Edit Array variable dialog for that variable opens. Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties to display the Properties dialog with list of local variables. 4. Add Array and Remove. Save the project to erase the command history. you leave the radio button with Value selected until you have defined a variable. 4. Evaluated Value. For further discussion. Any existing Design variables are listed in the Properties dialog with the name followed by cells for Value. and for array variables. Type. and Read-only and Hidden check boxes. 2. A Show Hidden checkbox on the lower right of the Properties dialog controls the appearance of any Hidden variables. Unit. Select the variable and click Remove and OK. 3. Description. Remove all references to the variable in the design.

Clicking the button opens a file browser window. Each plot consists of straight line segments whose vertices represent their end points.and y-coordinates for the first data point in the row labeled 1. 5.coordinates by one of the following methods • • Import Dataset Type the x. Add Row Below . It contains a graphic display that draws a line for the coordinates you add.this provides a way to import data sets from an external source. including to define frequency dependent port impedances or frequency dependent global variables. The dataset plot is extrapolated into an expression that can be used in parametric analyses. Click Add. The Add Dataset dialog box appears. Import Dataset . They can be for various purposes. or assigned to a material property value. Optionally. and boundary definitions. respectively.this provides a way to export the current dataset to a tab separated points file. adjusting the display with each newly entered point. The dialog contains fields for the Dataset name. 2. Enter the x.HFSS Online Help Deleting Project Variables Adding Datasets Datasets are collections of plotted data points that can be extrapolated into an equation based on the piecewise linear makeup of the plot.coordinates and adjusts the graphical display. It also includes buttons for the following functions: • • • • • • • 3. After you type a point’s coordinates and move to the next row. Related Topics Adding a Design Variable 3-94 Working with HFSS Projects . 4.and y.adds a new row to the table below the selected row/ Append Row . boundary definitions.and y-coordinates for the remaining data points in the dataset using the same method. and a table for x.and y. the point is added to the plot.adds a new row to the table above the selected row. click OK. Swap X-Y Data . Clicking the button opens a file browser window. type a name other than the default for the dataset in the Name text box. A curve is fitted to the segments of the plot and an expression is derived from the curve that best fits the segmented plot. click Project>Datasets. Add Row Above . For a Design level dataset. The Datasets dialog box appears. The created expression is then used in piecewise linear intrinsic functions. This lists any existing datasets for the Project or Design level. 1. When you are finished entering the data point coordinates.coordinates.this swaps the x.opens a dialog that lets you specify a number of rows to add to the table. You can add datasets at either the Project Level or the Design level.Type the x. The format is a tab separated points file. Delete Row .deletes the selected row or rows. click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Datasets. For a Project level dataset. Export Dataset -.and Y.

Y. log (log to the base 10). <= (less than equals). and the inverse trigonometric functions’ return values are in radians. sqn. -. lg (log to the base 2).(Unary minus). cosh. The following mathematical functions may be used to define expressions: Basic Functions Intrinsic functions Trigonometric expressions /. A function’s definition can include both expressions and variables. +. Type new values for the data points as desired. Phi. tanh The predefined variables X. all trigonometric expressions expect their arguments to be in radians. Phi. The Edit Dataset dialog box appears. click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Datasets. ! (not). sqrt. 3. == (equals). For Project level datasets. Theta. The Datasets dialog box appears. ** (exponentiation). Click the dataset name you want to modify. cos. round. and Rho are the spherical coordinates. . If you want to use degrees. && (logical and). Related Topics Adding Datasets Adding a Design Variable Modifying Datasets Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions Using Dataset Expressions Defining Mathematical Functions A mathematical function is an expression that references another defined variable. Y. 5. exp. ceil. 2. rand (returns a random number between 0 and 1). pow. and Rho is the spherical radius. R is the cylindrical radius. Working with HFSS Projects 3-95 . < (less than). acos. ln (natural log). || (logical or) if. Z. For Design level datasets. tan. abs. and Rho must be entered as such. != (not equals). and then click Edit. deg. sinh. rad sin. click Project>Datasets. The plot is adjusted to reflect the revised data points. If you do not specify units. Optionally. When you are finished entering the data point coordinates. Theta. X. and Z are the rectangular (cartesian) coordinates. click OK.HFSS Online Help Modifying Datasets Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions Using Dataset Expressions Modifying Datasets 1. > (greater than). R. floor. >= (greater than equals). *. 4. atan. type a name other than the default for the dataset in the Name text box. mod (modulus). asin.

14159265358979 6. 5x107 could be entered as 5e7. such as sin(x). Dependent variables. Note also that the evaluated value of an expression) is always interpreted as in SI units.718281828 3. or statistical analysis. and /.These may not be reassigned a new value. As far as expression evaluation is concerned: units are conversion factors (that is. from the given unit to SI). though useful in many situations. sensitivity analysis. Ratio of circle circumference . well as defined variables. such as +. Related Topics Defining Mathematical Functions Using Valid Operators for Expressions Using Intrinsic Functions for Expressions 3-96 Working with HFSS Projects .6260755e-034 . Defining one variable in terms of another makes a dependent variable.730313461 9. tuning. and arithmetic operators. These function names are reserved and may not be used as variable names. y_size = x_size + sin(x_size). -. the units are assumed to be radians. For example. Related Topics Setting Coordinate Systems Expressing Cartesian. you could define: x_size = 1mm. Name abs0 Boltz c0 elecq eta g0 mathE pi planck u0 -273. Cylindrical or Spherical Coordinates Defining an Expression Expressions are mathematical descriptions that typically contain intrinsic functions.80665 2.25663706143582e-066 Permeability of vacuum (H/m) Numerical values may be entered in Ansoft’s shorthand for scientific notation.HFSS Online Help you must supply the unit name deg. The Constants tab of the Project Variables dialog lists the available pre-defined constants.854187817e-012 376.15 1. *. cannot be the subject of optimization. For example. When the argument to a trigonometric expression is a variable. Boltzmann constant (J/K) Speed of light in vacuum (m/s) Permittivity of vaccum (F/m) Electron Charge (C) Value Description 1.3806503E-023 299792458 8.

Intrinsic function names are reserved. Working with HFSS Projects 3-97 .) * / + == != > < >= <= && || unary minus multiplication division addition subtraction equals not equals greater than less than greater than or equal to less than or equal to logic and logic or 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 1 2 3 Related Topics Defining an Expression Using Intrinsic Functions in Expressions HFSS recognizes a set of intrinsic trigonometric and mathematical functions that can be used to define expressions. it is automatically changed to "^". The following list shows both the valid operators and the sequence in which they are accepted (listed in decreasing precedence): () ! ^ (or **) parenthesis not exponentiation (If you use "**" for exponentiation. and may not be used as variable names. as in previous software versions.HFSS Online Help Using Piecewise Linear Functions for Expressions Using Dataset Expressions Using Valid Operators for Expressions The operators that can be used to define an expression or function have a sequence in which they will be performed.

Sign extraction Exponential (e ) Raise to power (x ) If Piecewise Linear Piecewise Linear for periodic extrapolation on x Square Root y x Description Absolute value (|x|) abs(x) sin(x) cos(x) tan(x) asin(x) acos(x) atan(x) atan2(y. Returns 1 if integer part of the number is odd.x) asinh(x) atanh(x) sinh(x) cosh(x) tanh(x) even(x) Syntax odd odd(x) sgn exp pow if pwl pwl_periodic sqrt sgn(x) exp(x) pow(x. returns 0 otherwise. false_exp) pwl(dataset_exp. variable) pwl_periodic(dataset_exp. returns 0 otherwise.true_exp.HFSS Online Help The following intrinsic functions may be used to define expressions: Function abs sin cos tan asin acos atan atan2 asinh atanh sinh cosh tanh even Sine Cosine Tangent Arcsine Arccosine Arctangent (in range of -90 to 90 degrees) Arctangent (in range of -180 to 180 degrees) Hyperbolic Arcsine Hyperbolic Arctangent Hyperbolic Sine Hyperbolic Cosine Hyperbolic Tangent Returns 1 if integer part of the number is even. variable) sqrt(x) 3-98 Working with HFSS Projects .y) if(cond_exp.

variable) pwl_periodic (dataset_expression. Likewise. supply the argument with the unit name deg. Related Topics Defining an Expression Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions The following piecewise linear intrinsic functions are accepted in expressions: pwl (dataset_expression. The pwl_periodic function also interpolates along the x-axis but periodically. all trigonometric functions interpret their arguments as radians.HFSS Online Help ln Natural Logarithm (The "log" function has been discontinued. Related Topics Adding Datasets Adding a Design Variable Modifying Datasets Using Dataset Expressions Working with HFSS Projects 3-99 . the units are assumed to be radians. When the argument to a trigonometric expression is a variable. If you use "log(x)" in an expression.y) Note If you do not specify units.y) mod(x.) ln(x) log10 int nint max min mod rem Logarithm base 10 Truncated integer function Nearest integer Maximum value of two parameters Minimum value of two parameters Modulus Fractional part (remainder) log10(x) int(x) nint(x) max(x. variable) The pwl function interpolates along the x-axis and returns a corresponding y value. inverse trigonometric functions’ return values are in given in radians. If you want values interpreted in degrees.y) min(x. the software automatically changes it to "ln(x)".y) rem(x.

you must specify that you intend for it to be used during an optimization analysis in the Properties dialog box. (xn. in which case the variable may be used as the second parameter to pwl and pwl_periodic functions.. The Properties dialog box appears. the Add Variable to DesignName dialog box will appear.. Related Topics Working with Variables Choosing a Variable to Optimize Before a variable can be optimized. A curve is fitted to the segments of the plot and an expression is derived from the curve that best fits the segmented plot. the Add Variable to Project dialog box will appear. If the variable is a project variable. Note You can assign a variable to nearly any design parameter assigned a numeric value in HFSS.HFSS Online Help Using Dataset Expressions Dataset expressions take the form: dset((x0. 2. 1. 3-100 Working with HFSS Projects . See the HFSS online help about the specific parameter you want to vary to determine if can be assigned a variable.yn)) These expressions may be used as the first parameter to piecewise linear (pwl and pwl_periodic) functions. do the following: Clicke Project>Project Variables. but that has not been defined.. . enabling you to define the project variable. do the following: Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. Each plot consists of straight line segments whose vertices represent their end points. If you typed a variable name that has not been defined. If you typed a variable name that included the $ prefix. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to optimize.y0). If the variable is a design variable. enabling you to define the design variable. Dataset expressions are derived from a series of points in a plot created in the Datasets dialog box. and may also be assigned to variables. The created expression is then used in the piecewise linear intrinsic functions. Related Topics Adding Datasets Adding a Design Variable Modifying Datasets Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions Assigning Variables To assign a variable to a parameter in HFSS: • Type the variable name or mathematical expression in place of a parameter value in a Value text box.

During optimization. override the default initial displacement value that Optimetrics will use for the Working with HFSS Projects 3-101 7. select Include. 5. Dependent variables cannot be optimized. or for optimization. Optionally. statistical. The selected variable will now be available for sensitivity analysis in a sensitivity setup defined in the current design or project. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to include in the sensitivity analysis. Optionally. Click the row containing the variable you want to include in the sensitivity analysis. Note 6. Optionally. sensitivity or tuning setups. Select the Optimization option above. sensitivity or tuning setups. Note 6. Dependent variables cannot be included in a sensitivity analysis. Select the Sensitivity option above. the optimizer will not consider variable values that lie outside of this range. Optimetrics will not consider variable values that lie outside of this range.HFSS Online Help 3. Related Topics Setting up an Optimization Analysis Including a Variable in a Sensitivity Analysis Before a variable can be included in a sensitivity analysis. Complex numbers are not allowed for variables to be used in an Optimetrics sweep. If the variable is a design variable. 1. If the variable is a project variable. Complex numbers are not allowed for variables to be used in an Optimetrics sweep. do the following: Click Project>Project Variables. you must specify that you intend for it to be used during a sensitivity analysis in the Properties dialog box. 2. For the variable you want to optimize. override the default minimum and maximum values that Optimetrics will use for the variable in every optimization analysis. The selected variable will now be available for optimization in an Optimetrics setup defined in the current design or project. 3. do the following: Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. For the variable you want to include in the sensitivity analysis. 5. or for optimization. select Include. statistical. . Click the row containing the variable you want to optimize. Note 4. Note 4. override the default minimum and maximum values that Optimetrics will use for the variable in every sensitivity analysis. During sensitivity analysis. The Properties dialog box appears.

Click OK. do the following: Click Project>Project Variables. you must specify that you intend for it to be used during a statistical analysis in the Properties dialog box. The selected variable will now be available for tuning in the Tune dialog box. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to include in the statistical analysis. sensitivity or tuning setups. If the variable is a design variable. 3. select Include. Dependent variables cannot be tuned. The Properties dialog box appears. statistical. do the following: Click Project>Project Variables. Click the row containing the variable you want to tune. 2. 1. or for optimization. do the following: Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties.HFSS Online Help variable in every sensitivity analysis. For the variable you want to tune. If the variable is a project variable. 2. 5. The Properties dialog box appears. Note 6. Note 4. 3-102 Working with HFSS Projects . If the variable is a design variable. Related Topics Setting up a Sensitivity Analysis Choosing a Variable to Tune Before a variable can be tuned. Related Topics Tuning a Variable Example Projects: Tune a Coax Fed Patch Antenna Including a Variable in a Statistical Analysis Before a variable can be included in a statistical analysis. 1. Complex numbers are not allowed for variables to be used in an Optimetrics sweep. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to tune. During sensitivity analysis. If the variable is a project variable. do the following: Click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Design Properties. you must specify that you intend for it to be tuned in the Properties dialog box. Optimetrics will not consider a variable value for the first design variation that is greater than this step size away from the starting variable value. Select the Tuning option above.

824547736 0.68565864mm "Description Read-only false false false Hidden false false false Working with HFSS Projects 3-103 .HFSS Online Help 3. sensitivity or tuning setups. You can then paste these variables elsewhere. Related Topics Setting up a Statistical Analysis Exporting Variables for Documentation By right-clicking in the Project Variables dialog. Fields that do not contain values are left blank. override the distribution criteria that Optimetrics will use for the variable in every statistical analysis. or for optimization.824547736mm 6. you can copy a a list of variables and their values to the clipboad.8570192mm 7. Click the row containing the variable you want to include in the statistical analysis. Complex numbers are not allowed for variables to be used in an Optimetrics sweep. Optionally. Note 6. Note 4. 5. Select the Statistical option above. The selected variable will now be available for statistical analysis in a statistical setup defined in the current design or project. The pasted variables appear in a tab separated column format.: Name $width $length $height Value 14.45*$width Unit mm mm "Evaluated Value 14. For the variable you want to include in the statistical analysis.8570192 7. statistical. Dependent variables cannot be included in a statistical analysis. select Include.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Assigning Variables 3-104 Working with HFSS Projects .

10. post-process results. HFSS gives up its license. Set the model’s units of measurement. follow this general procedure. 6. 9. Insert an HFSS or HFSS-IE design into a project. and create field overlays. (Optional) Set up any Optimetrics you want to run. which specify the field behavior at the edges of the problem region and object interfaces. 7. but they must be completed before a solution can be generated. Run the simulation. A renewal of activity automatically requests a license. you do not need to perform the steps sequentially. 8. Assign boundaries. 2. 4. Note that after you insert a design. view reports. Note After a period of ildleness of 10 minutes. For Driven solution-type designs. Setting up an HFSS Design 4-1 .sources of electromagnetic fields and charges. View solution results. assign excitations . Select the solution type. 3. 1. Draw the model geometry and assign material characteristics to objects.4 Setting up an HFSS Design To set up an HFSS design. Specify how HFSS or HFSS-IE will compute the solution. 5. Such idle notifications do not occur during solves. currents. or voltages on objects or surfaces.

The new design is listed in the project tree. Related Topics Setting up an HFSS or HFSS-IE Design Setting the Project Tree to Expand Automatically 4-2 Setting up an HFSS Design . where n is the order in which the design was added to the project. Note Click the plus sign to the left of the design icon in the project tree to expand the project tree and view specific data about the model. The 3D Modeler window appears to the right of the Project Manager.HFSS Online Help Inserting an HFSS Design The first step is to insert an HFSS or HFSS-IE design to the active project. such as its boundary assignments. To insert an HFSS or HFSS-IE design: • Click Project>Insert HFSS Design or Insert HFSS-IE Design . It is named HFSSDesignn or HFSS-IEDesignn by default. You can now create the model geometry.

Your choice affects the options for the setup. It employs a time-domain (“transient”) solver. As you set up your design.HFSS Online Help Selecting the Solution Type Before you draw the model for an HFSS project. The Eigenmode solver finds the resonant frequencies of the structure and the fields at those resonant frequencies. Select one of the following solution types: Driven Modal For calculating the mode-based S-parameters of passive. 1. The Solution Type dialog box appears. 2. such as ultra-wideband antennas. high-frequency structures such as microstrips. or resonances. field visualization employing short-duration excitations. specify the design’s solution type. Eigenmode designs cannot contain design parameters that depend on frequency. Click HFSS>Solution Type. For calculating problems in the time domain. lightning strikes. Typical applications include. If you select Network Analysis the setup includes an Input Signal tab for the simulation. and for computing incident plane wave scattering. Some modal data is also available. For calculating the terminal-based S-parameters of passive. Technical Notes: Solution Types Technical Notes: Transient Solution Theory Setting up an HFSS Design 4-3 . and transmission lines which are "driven" by a source. This solution type results in a terminal-based description in terms of voltages and currents. for example a frequencydependent impedance boundary condition. Selecting Transient enables a radio button for Network Analysis. of a structure. Eigenmode For calculating the eigenmodes. options available in the user interface will depend upon the selected solution type. waveguides. electro-static discharge. but are not limited to: Driven Terminal Transient • • • Related Topics Simulations with pulsed excitations. highfrequency structures with multi-conductor transmission line ports which are "driven" by a source. time-domain reflectometry.

HFSS Online Help 4-4 Setting up an HFSS Design .

) Notable differences for transient solution types are: • • • Materials cannot have arbitrary frequency dependence in a time-domain analysis. This is inherent to most time-domain solvers. you can often change an existing Terminal Driven design into a Transient design and vice versa. When lossy materials touch a port. you must remove the setups and solutions. The 3D part of the simulation will take losses into account correctly. (Note: before doing so. Your choice in setting the Transient solution type affects the options for the setup.excitations are identical on all active ports and are simulated one at a time to facilitate the data collection. and voltages and currents can be monitored. If you select Transient Network Analysis the setup includes a tab for the Excitation for the simulation. Typical applications include. electro-static discharge. a Debye model is applied to ensure that the loss remain physical across the spectrum. Saved fields can be visualized. Boundary conditions and definitions of ports or incident waves are almost the same. The interface of HFSS Transient is much like the Terminal Driven solution type in the frequency domain. Transient Network Analysis solution types . time-domain reflectometry. such as ultra-wideband antennas. Therefore. For lossy dielectrics. The geometry creation and the mesh are almost identical. The Analysis Setup for the transient solver is different from that of the frequency domain. HFSS Transient 5-1 . but are not limited to: • • • Simulations with pulsed excitations. For lossy metals.5 HFSS Transient HFSS Transient includes two solution types within HFSS. lightning strikes. Two types of analysis setup are offered: a. It employs a time-domain (“transient”) solver. except for some restrictions in cases where certain frequency-domain options do not apply in the time domain. the port solver will launch an excitation that fits the lossless case. a Padé approximation is used for the same reason. field visualization employing short-duration excitations.

No S-parameters or TDR results may be available.Different ports can have different excitations. • Fields will only be saved on pre-selected surfaces. All Active excitations are launched in one simulation. but saved fields can be visualized. Related Topics HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient Transient Solution Theory Selecting the Report Type in HFSS Transient Procedure for Viewing Transient Radiated Fields 5-2 HFSS Transient . Transient solution types .HFSS Online Help b. and voltages and currents can be monitored. because saving all 3D fields for all times would take more disk space and I/O time than generally desired.

3.HFSS Online Help Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions When you specify the Transient solution type. Otherwise. If the model contains a radiation boundary. the setup includes a Radiated Fields tab. the mesh for the transient simulation is generated by a regular frequency-domain simulation. 2. The Transient Network Analysis setup includes an Input Signal tab. you can specify: • • Maximum Number of Passes For Device characterization solutions. Use the Saved Fields tab to select the face or object lists for which to calculate fields. 4. as shown in the figure. and Save fields at interval. By checking the boxes you can enable the Start saving fields time. select the Input Signal tab to create a time profile. For Adaptive solutions. Optionally check Import Mesh for mesh linking. To add a Solution Setup for a Transient design: 1. you specify a Maximum Delta Energy for convergence per pass. Related Topics HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides HFSS Transient 5-3 . For that simulation. For a Transient Network Analysis solution. you can select the Radiated Fields tab to if you intend to view radiated fields. Select the Duration tab to specify the simulation stop criteria. you specify a Maximum Delta S. If your design includes a radiation boundary. When you select an object list. the software decides on the appropriate frequency at which to perform the adaptive passes. It uses mixed element orders and the iterative solver. Click HFSS>Analysis Setup>Add Solution Setup to open the Transient Setup dialog with the General tab selected. 7. For Field Visualization solutions. you also specify the focus of this setup as either Transient Network Analysis or Transient. 5. 6. you can also specify the Maximum Number of Samples.

HFSS Online Help Transient Network Analysis Solution Input Signal Tab: A Time Profile Saved Data Tab for Transient Solution Setup 5-4 HFSS Transient .

all excitations are the same.HFSS Online Help Transient Network Analysis Input Signal Tab: a Time Profile A time profile defines the pulse used to excite a Transient Network Analysis solution type. The profile includes two plots. The lower plot shows the energy spectrum of the upper plot You specify the function to use for the Profile by selecting from the drop down menu. HFSS Transient 5-5 . The upper plot shows the excitation of interest given the currently specified parameters. The Input Signal tab lets you select the Function set other parameters. For network analysis. Select the Input Signal tab of a Transient Network Analysis setup. To create a time profile: 1.

this time profile is specified by the rise time rather than the frequency range. This changes the shape of the pulse.HFSS Online Help The wave plots are updated if you select a different function or edit the parameters. For convenience. This can be used for such purposes as extracting Sparameters in that frequency range. A Min Freq. Frequencies extracted Max Freq. of 0 Hz. TDR Rise Time Frequencies extracted This resembles a Sweep with a Min Freq. of 0 Hz. The following table lists the available functions and the parameters that apply to the upper plot. This also enables TDR output. Description A time profile that has as strong spectral content between the Min and Max frequencies. is allowed. Function Broadband Pulse Upper Plot Parameters Min Freq. The energy spectrum plot parameters are always Frequency and Max Frequency. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions Transient Solution Theory Duration Tab for Transient Solution Setup Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient 5-6 HFSS Transient . however.

you can also specify and At most limit. 1. Related Topics Transient Network Analysis Solution Input Signal Tab: A Time Profile Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient HFSS Transient 5-7 . The Transient Solver can run until the steady state criteria is reached.HFSS Online Help Duration Tab for Transient Solution Setup Use the Duration tab of the Transient Solution setup to specify the either Auto Terminate and/or At most time and periods. The value is related to the maximum field remaining in the computational domain at a given time. Optionally. given in either a Time or periods. When the maximum field has fallen to this fraction of its all-time high. the simulation is considered complete and the analysis stops. or as an At least limit. you can also edit the Steady State Criteria value. 2. If you select the Auto Terminate radio button. given in either a Time or periods.

Patterns and 3D plots will also be supported. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions Transient Network Analysis Solution Input Signal Tab: A Time Profile Transient Solution Theory Options Tab for Transient Solution Setup 5-8 HFSS Transient . Such lists are convenient for specifying the most relevant components. and specify the Maximum Number of Samples.HFSS Online Help Saved Fields Tab for Transient Solution Setup The Saved Fields tab for a transient solution setup includes a an explanation that Transient fields will be calculated for the selected Object lists and Face lists. in reporter. you can also choose whether to Start saving fields. a real vector versus time. the save interval. If lists exist. Transient solutions support plotting rE.

The following table describes the parameters for the upper plots. The upper plot shows the excitation of interest given the currently specified parameters.HFSS Online Help Active or Passive Excitations in HFSS Transient In HFSS Transient. The passive ports will act as terminations. HFSS Transient 5-9 . or current source) shall be “active” (with all ports active they each get an excitation one at a time. you can specify additional parameters for the excitation. In this case. and a full S-matrix will be produced). each excitation (port. you can make only one or a few ports of interest “active”. The general Transient solution type has more time profiles. You specify “Active “ or “Passive by selecting radio buttons on the Transient tab for the excitation. if you select Active. the time profiles are defined as part of the excitations. The lower plot shows the energy spectrum of the upper plot. For excitations in HFSS Transient solutions (and not HFSS Transient Network solutions). voltage. The profile includes two plots. plane wave. The lower plot parameters include the Min and Max frequencies. because excitations can have individual profiles in a general analysis. If you want to save simulation time. You will get only a partial S-matrix.

T0 Amplitude Width See Adding Datasets for a description of how to create a dataset. A Min Freq. This changes the shape of the pulse. Description A time profile that has as strong spectral content between the Min and Max frequencies. is allowed. Frequencies extracted Max Freq. Harmonic Ramped Periods Amplitude Frequency Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup for Transient Solutions Transient Network Analysis Solution Input Signal Tab: A Time Profile Technical Notes: Transient Solution Theory Technical Notes: Excitations in the Time Domain Options Tab for Transient Solution Setup 5-10 HFSS Transient . This can be used for such purposes as extracting Sparameters in that frequency range. Data Set Gassian Amplitude Max Freq.HFSS Online Help Function Broadband Pulse Upper Plot Parameters Min Freq. of 0 Hz. The harmonic displays as a regular sine wave. The T0 parameter specified the start time of the pulse with the given Width and Amplitude.

Then selecting from the Show dropdown menu. To enable the display of transient data on the Transient tab. This opens File browser winder that lets you specify a File name. 2. you must first select Transient from the Simulation dropdown menu. Output. You access is by clicking HFSS>Results>Solution Data. the Solution Data dialog includes a Transient tab.HFSS Online Help Transient Solution Data For Transient solutions. and data format. 1. location. you can select Input. 3. TDRz or Field Residual to display. click Export. To export the transient data. HFSS Transient 5-11 . or check Show All. You can select which time step to display from the dropdown. 4.

Ansoft Plot Data files Post Processing Files 5-12 HFSS Transient . Tab Delimited Data files.HFSS Online Help For Transient. the format selections are: .dat .csv .txt Comma Delimited Data.tab .

you can also select Spectral. the Solution Context is Transient. the Category and Quantity lists offer different selections:. the Quantities include Input and Output related to the terminals in your design. If the Solution Type is Transient Network Analysis.HFSS Online Help Selecting the Report Type in HFSS Transient Creating a Report in HFSS Transient differs from standard HFSS in Solution selections. including Terminal S Parameters. If the Solution Type is Transient. and Port Zo. Related Topics Creating Reports HFSS Transient 5-13 . as well as TDRz and Residual. VSWR. For Transient Network Solution type designs. With Transient selected. if you select Spectral.

if needed.HFSS Online Help Procedure for Viewing Transient Radiated Fields To display transient radiated fields: 1. Use this dialog to set up the Theta and Phi sampling and. This menu is enabled for designs with radiation boundaries. The setup dialog resembles the one for frequency domain. 3. Select this option to make radiated fields available from a given setup. If a radiation boundary is present the transient Solve Setup contains the Radiated Fields tab with a "Save time domain radiated fields" checkbox. but without the Radiation Surface tab. Radiated field calculations will only be done for designs with radiation boundaries. the local coordinate sys- 5-14 HFSS Transient . even if no setups are saving radiated fields. Under HFSS>Radiation. Add a radiation boundary. This applies to Transient with or without Network Analysis. you can Insert Far Field Setup> Infinite Sphere. 2.

You can create multiple Infinite Sphere setups in a single design. as in Frequency domain. the primary and secondary sweeps will be Theta and/or Phi. 5. For all other plots. with all submenus as in Frequency domain. In the Report dialog. the Solution selection includes only setups with "Save radiated fields" checked. The Categories include rE. and the Time is set to a single value . The rE quantities are as for fre- HFSS Transient 5-15 . the Results menu will include Create Far Fields Report.the start time. Rectangular Stacked Plot. with Theta and Phi in Families set to single values corresponding to the first sample point. Output Variables.HFSS Online Help tem. The Geometry selection will include all far field Infinite Sphere setups. For Rectangular Plot. and Design. the default is "Time" as the primary sweep. 4. and Data Table. Once you have created a far field setup AND at least one setup has "Save radiated fields" selected. Variables.

HFSS Online Help

quency domain, but all quantities will be real.

No matter what type of plot is generated, you can access the Time sweep and change the sampling, as with Field reports in Transient. For 3D patterns, you can overlay the pattern on the geometry, and to animate versus time, as is done in frequency domain. Once plots have been created, the reporter caches the base radiation field calculation. This means that subsequent plots will be generated more quickly. If you change the radiation setup, or invalidate solutions, the cache is cleared and the next plot takes longer. For Transient Network Analysis, the radiated fields are based on the setup in Edit Sources. If you change the source excitations that forces recomputation of the radiated fields. Output variables are supported, as for frequency domain. Related Topics HFSS Transient Getting Started Guides Creating Reports Plotting Field Overlays

5-16 HFSS Transient

6
HFSS-IE

HFSS-IE is a fullwave Integral Equation solver that calculates the “currents” on the surfaces of the objects in the model – both finite conducting and lossy dielectric objects are allowed. HFSS-IE is designed for large open problems. Application areas include:

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Radar cross Section (RCS) Antenna placement (for example, antenna on a vehicle) Stand alone antennas Coupling. EMI/EMC Works from within the standard HFSS desktop, sharing the GUI and the same 3D modeler and reporting features. Naturally open – no air volume or ABC needed Support for infinite ground plane Supports ground planes apertures Supports lumped gap and incident wave excitations. Supports discrete and/or interpolating frequency sweeps Near and far field calculations For larger models, HFSS-IE uses automated advanced matrix based compression techniques. Data link from HFSS available, which means that you divide appropriate models based on each solver’s advantages.

HFSS-IE features:

How HFSS-IE is different than HFSS HFSS uses the finite element method (FEM) to solve for the electromagnetic fields in the solution region. It meshes over the entire solution volume and solves for the electric field throughout that volume.

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HFSS-IE uses an integral equation (sometimes called method of moments = MoM) and solves for the currents on surfaces of objects. It creates a triangular surface mesh on all objects - it solves for the currents or equivalent currents on conducting and dielectric objects. The IE technique is by default an "open model" technique so no ABCs are needed. It can handle closed spaces, but that is typically not where it will be used. In addition HFSS-IE includes a true infinite ground plane. Related Topics HFSS-IE Options Inserting an HFSS or HFSS-IE Design Setting up an HFSS or HFSS-IE Design Assigning Excitations Assigning HFSS-IE Boundaries Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design HFSS-IE Getting Started Guides Technical Notes: Integral Equation Method Used in HFSS-IE

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Inserting an HFSS-IE Design
The first step is to insert an HFSS-IE design to the active project. To insert an HFSS-IE design:

Click Insert HFSS-IE Design

.

The new design is listed in the project tree. It is named HFSS-IEDesignn by default, where n is the order in which the design was added to the project. The 3D Modeler window appears to the right of the Project Manager. You can now create the model geometry. Note Click the plus sign to the left of the design icon in the project tree to expand the project tree and view specific data about the model, such as its boundary assignments.

Related Topics Setting up an HFSS or HFSS-IE Design Setting the Project Tree to Expand Automatically

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Assigning HFSS-IE Boundaries
HFSS-IE designs can include the boundaries listed in the table. HFSS-IE designs assume that the model is surrounded by some background material, so you do not have to draw an enclosing region with an absorbing boundary condition, as in HFSS. HFSS-IE assumes that the background material is vacuum. Perfect E Represents a perfectly conducting surface. This resembles the HFSS Perfect E boundary, but does offer selecting an infinite ground plane. Represents the effects of an infinite ground plane Represents holes in the design. Represents a resistive surface. Represents any combination of lumped resistor, inductor, and/or capacitor in parallel on a surface. Represents a structure with multiple layers as one impedance surface.

Finite Conductivity Represents an imperfect conductor. Infinite Ground Plane Aperture Impedance Lumped RLC Layered Impedance Related Topics Assigning Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Reassigning Boundaries Reprioritizing Boundaries Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Reviewing Boundaries and Excitations in the Solver View Setting Default Values for Boundaries and Excitations

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Assigning Excitations in HFSS-IE
Excitations in HFSS-IE are used to specify the sources of electromagnetic fields and charges, currents, or voltages on objects or surfaces in the design. You can assign the following types of excitation in an HFSS-IE design: Lumped Port Terminal Plane Incident Wave Far Field Wave Represents an internal surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. Represents a terminal. You can assign terminals manually or automatically. Represents a wave that propagates in one direction and is uniform in the directions perpendicular to its direction of propagation. A Far field wave is sufficiently far (that is, usually more than a wave length distance) from an antenna to approximate as a plane wave. Far field waves are mostly homogeneous. A Near Field wave is close enough to the antenna source for near field effects to occur, typically within a wave length. Near field waves tend to be evanescent, that is, non-homogeneous.

Near Field Wave

After assigning an excitation, you can modify it in some of the following ways, if applicable to the excitation type:

• • • • •

Change its properties. Delete it. Reassign it to another surface. Hide it from view. Modify the impedance multiplier.

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Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design
To add a new solution setup to a design: 1. 2. Select a design in the project tree. Click HFSS-IE>Analysis Setup>Add Solution Setup .

• •

Alternatively, right click Analysis in the project tree, and then click Add Solution Setup on the shortcut menu. If you have an existing setup, you can Copy and Paste it, and then edit parameters. Includes general solution settings. Includes settings for lambda refinement, adaptive analysis and solution options. Includes a list of expressions and output variables that you can use for convergence for adaptive analysis. Enables you to save the current settings as the defaults for future solution setups or revert the current settings to HFSS’s standard settings.

The Solution Setup dialog box appears. It is divided among the following tabs: General Options Expression Cache Defaults 3. 4.

Click the General tab. Enter a Setup Name or accept the default. The Enabled checkbox on General tab permits to you to disable a setup so that it does not run when you select Analyze All.

5. 6.

Enter the Solution Frequency and select the frequency units from the pull down list. If you are performing an adaptive analysis, enter 2 or more passes in the Maximum Number of Passes box.
For driven problems HFSS-IE always requires at least one adaptive pass. Entering 1 will also bypass adaptive analysis, generating a solution only at the solution frequency you specified.

7.

If ports exist, accept or set the Maximum Delta S per pass. If ports do not exist accept or set the Maximum Residual Error for convergence per pass. Maximum Residual Error is a stopping criterion for the adaptive solution. If the residual error is less than this value from one iteration to the next, the adaptive analysis stops. Otherwise, it continues until the requested number of passes is completed. In HFSS-IE this is an absolute value that functions like the Maximum Delta Energy, a relative value in HFSS that do not have ports. The default is 0.001.

8.

Click the Options tab. Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box, you can edit the following settings: a. b. c. Do Lambda Refinement Use Free Space Lamda Maximum Refinement Per Pass

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d. e. 9.

Minimum Number of Passes Minimum Converged Passes

Under the Expression Cache tab of the Solution Setup, you can edit the following settings: Adaptive Options: whether to use Output Variable Convergence (output variables must be defined for this to be enabled.) Add, Edit, Remove, or Remove all expressions. Also use selected expressions for convergence. Checking this enables the radio button and field for either Max Delta or Max Percent Delta. For expressions in the cache, you can directly edit the name, and, by clicking the Intrinsics field for an expression, you can edit the sweep values to which the expression applies.

10. Click OK. 11. Optionally, add a frequency sweep to the solution setup. Related Topics Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters Technical Notes: The HFSS Solution Process Copying a Solution Setup Renaming a Solution Setup HFSS-IE Feature

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6-8 HFSS-IE

7
Drawing a Model

After you insert a design into the current project, you can draw a model of the electromagnetic structure. The general strategy is to build the model as a collection of 3D objects. You can assign any single material to each 3D object. You can create 3D objects by using the modeler’s Draw commands or you can draw 1D and 2D objects, and then manipulate them to create 3D objects. Objects are drawn in the 3D Modeler window. You can also import objects from other systems. To open a new 3D Modeler window, do one of the following:

• • • •

Insert a new design into the current project. Double-click an HFSS design in the project tree. Click HFSS>3D Model Editor. Right-click the design name in the project tree, and then click 3D Model Editor on the shortcut menu.

If a 3D Modeler window for an existing design is not open, do one of the following:

The model you draw is saved with the current project when you click File>Save. Note If you access your machine via Remote Desktop, if HFSS is running and one or more modeler windows are open, those modeler windows automatically close. The message manager window displays a message indicating that HFSS closed the modeler windows.

When working with multiple projects, or when a project has multiple designs, you may have multiple Modeler windows available. To switch to the modeler window associated with a specific design: 1. 2. In the Project Manager window, select the Design of interest. Click HFSS3D Model Editor to focus the modeling window on the selected design.

If the menu command is unavailable, then the selected design is already in the modeler window.
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Related Topics Setting the Units of Measurement for the Model Drawing Objects Model Analysis Design Settings Setting the Temperature of Objects Creating a User Define Primitive Modifying Objects Selecting Objects Choosing the Movement Mode Choosing the Snap Settings Measure Modes for Objects Setting Coordinate Systems

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Setting Units of Measurement for the Model
You can specify the units of measurement for drawing geometric models. After the units of measurement have been specified, they are assigned to the objects in the 3D Modeler window. You can then choose to display the model’s dimensions in the new units, or rescale the model’s dimensions to the new units. To set the model’s units of measurement: 1. 2. 3. Click Modeler>Units. The Set Model Units dialog box appears. Select the new units for the model from the Select units pull-down list. Specify how the change in units affects the model:

• •

Select the Rescale to new units option to rescale the dimensions to the new units. For example, selecting centimeters (cm) as the new unit of measurement results in a dimension of 10 millimeters (mm) becoming 10 cm. Clear the Rescale to new units option (the default) to convert the dimensions to the new units without changing their scale. For example, selecting cm as the new unit of measurement results in a dimension of 10 mm becoming 1 cm.

Click OK to apply the new units to the model.

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Drawing Objects
You can draw one-, two-, or three-dimensional objects using the Draw commands. You can alter objects individually or together to create the geometry of your structure. In the Tools>Modeler Options, Drawing tab, you can set a default to either draw objects directly with the mouse or by invoking a Properties dialog in which you can enter the values for the object dimensions. The Dialog mode drawing feature works with the equation based curve, equation based surface, and all two and three dimensional objects. You can toggle to Point mode via the F3 function key and to Dialog mode via the F4 function key. When you use the Dialog mode for drawing objects the Edit property of new primitives setting is ignored. One-dimensional (1D) objects in the modeler include straight line, arc line, and spline segments, or a combination of these - called polylines. One-dimensional objects are open objects; their boundaries do not enclose a region, unless you connect their endpoints. They have length, but no surface or volume. Generally they are used as temporary objects from which to create 2D objects. Two-dimensional (2D) objects in the modeler include objects such as equation based surfaces, rectangles, ellipses, circles, and regular polygons. Two-dimensional objects are closed sheet objects; their boundaries enclose a region. You can create 2D sheet objects by covering the enclosed region.
In many applications (FSS, antennas) it is essential to calculate net power flow through a surface. You can also edit the properties of a polyline from the history tree to assign it a Cross Section property as line or rectangular. If you then assign it either a height or a width, the polyline becomes a sheet object.

By default, the history tree organizes sheet objects according to their boundary assignments. To change this, select the Sheets icon, and right-click to display the Group Sheets by Assignment checkbox. Within the calculator sheet objects are listed under surface. Three-dimensional (3D) objects in the modeler include objects such as boxes, cylinders, regular polyhedra, cones, spheres, torii, and helices. These objects have boundaries that enclose a region with volume. You can create 3D objects by manipulating 2D objects along a plane or by using the appropriate Draw commands. You can also edit the properties of a polyline from the history tree to assign it a Cross Section property as circle rectangular. If you then assign it an appropriate diameter or both height or a width,
the polyline becomes a 3D object.

By default, the history tree groups 3D objects by material. To change this, select the Objects icon, and right click to display the Group Objects by Material checkbox. While you draw objects you can also:

• • • • •

Select Movement Mode as 3D, In Plane, Out of Plane, Along X, Y or Z axis. Select Grid Plane as XY, YZ, or XZ. Set Snap Mode Set Reference Point for the movement mode Adjust the View

After you draw an object in the 3D Modeler window, you can modify the object’s properties, such as its position, dimensions, or color, in the Properties dialog box. Most model object properties can
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be assigned as Design variables when can then be manipulated during the solve to test their effect on the solution. For non-model objects, you can both Post Processing variables (default and Design variables,. Note If you access your machine via Remote Desktop, if HFSS is running and one or more modeler windows are open, those modeler windows automatically close. The message manager window displays a message indicating that HFSS closed the modeler windows.

Related Topics Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Modifying Objects Drawing a Region Setting the Temperature of Objects

Drawing a Straight Line Segment
To create an object with one or more straight line segments, use the Draw>Line command. 1. 2. Click Draw>Line . Select the first point of the line in one of the following ways:

• •

Click the point. You can accept the point or change it by editing its coordinates in the X, Y, and Z boxes in the status bar.

To delete the last point that was entered, click Undo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. After using the undo feature, you can also use Redo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. 3. Select the endpoint of the line by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. The endpoint serves as the start point for a subsequent line segment. To delete all points and start over, press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu. 4. Complete the line in one of the following ways:

• • •

Double-click the endpoint. Click Done on the context (right-click) menu. Press Enter.

If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line.

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5.

Click OK to close the Properties dialog. While drawing a polyline, you can switch between straight line, arc line, or spline segments using the Set Edge Type commands on the shortcut menu.

Note

Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments Drawing a Three-Point Arc Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Drawing a Spline Drawing a Polyline

Drawing a Three-Point Arc Line
In the modeler, a three-point arc line segment is an arced line defined by three points on its curve. Use the Draw>Arc>3 Point command to create a polyline object with one or more arc line segments. 1. 2. Click Draw>Arc>3 Point .

Select the start point of the arc in one of the following ways:

• •
3.

Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the X, Y, and Z text boxes.

Select the midpoint of the arc by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. To delete the last point that was entered, click Undo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. After using the undo feature, you can also use Redo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. To delete all points and start over, press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu.

4.

Select the endpoint of the arc by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. The endpoint serves as the start point for a subsequent arc line segment. If the endpoint is the last point of the polyline object, double-click the point to complete the polyline or click Done on the shortcut menu. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful

5.

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to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line. 6. Click OK. Based on the three points you specified, the modeler calculates the center point and radius of the arc and draws an arced line through the three points. Note While drawing a polyline, you can switch between arc line, straight line, or spline segments using the Set Edge Type commands on the shortcut menu.

Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Straight Line Drawing a Spline Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Drawing a Polyline Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments

Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line
In the modeler, a center-point arc line segment is an arced line defined by a center point, start point and angle. Use the Draw>Arc>Center Point command to create a polyline object with one or more center-point arc line segments. 1. 2. Click Draw>Arc>Center Point . Select the center point of the arc in one of the following ways:

• •
3.

Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar.

Select the start point, or radius, of the arc by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. To delete the last point that was entered, click Undo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. After using the undo feature, you can also use Redo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. To delete all points and start over, press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu.

4. 5.

Sweep the angle, or endpoint, of the arc by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. If the endpoint is the last point of the polyline object, double-click the point to complete the polyline or click Done on the shortcut menu. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, enabling you to modify the object’s attributes.

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6.

Click OK. While drawing a polyline, you can switch between arc line, straight line, or spline segments using the Set Edge Type commands on the shortcut menu.

Note

Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Straight Line Drawing a Spline Drawing a Polyline Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments Drawing a Three-Point Arc

Drawing a Spline
A spline is a curved line defined by three points. The modeler uses a natural spline type: a piece wise cubic spline with an end condition that has a derivative of zero. Use the Draw>Spline command to create a polyline object with one or more spline segments. 1. 2. Click Draw>Spline .

Select the spline’s start point in one of the following ways:

• •

Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar, and then press Enter.

To delete the last point entered, click Undo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu.After using the undo feature, you can also use Redo Previous Segment on the shortcut menu. To delete all selected points and start over, press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu. 3. 4. Select the midpoint of the spline by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Select the endpoint of the spline by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. The endpoint serves as the start point for a subsequent spline segment. 5. Complete the spline in one of the following ways:

• • •

Double-click the endpoint. Click Done on the shortcut menu. Press Enter.

If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These
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commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line. 6. Click OK. While drawing a polyline, you can switch between spline, straight line, or arc line segments using the Set Edge Type commands on the shortcut menu.

Note

Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Polyline Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments

Drawing a Polyline
A polyline is a single object that includes any combination of straight line, arc line, or spline segments. The endpoint of one segment is the start point for the next segment. Use the shortcut menu’s Set Edge Type commands to switch between straight line, arc line, or spline segments while drawing a polyline.

In the Polyline section of Operation tab of the Modeler Options, select or clear the Automatically cover closed polylines check box. If checked, closed polylines become sheet objects, and are listed as such in the History tree. If unchecked, closed polylines are listed under lines in the History tree.

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Click Draw>Line

.

Right-click in the 3D Modeler window to access the shortcut menu, and then point to Set Edge Type. Click Straight, Spline, 3 Point Arc, or Center Point Arc depending on which type of polyline segment you want to draw. If you clicked Straight, follow the procedure for drawing a straight line. If you clicked Spline, follow the procedure for drawing a spline. If you clicked 3 Point Arc, follow the procedure for drawing a three-point arc line. If you clicked Center Point Arc, follow the procedure for drawing a center-point arc line.

5.

Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each segment of the polyline object. The endpoint of the previous segment serves as the start point for the next segment. The shortcut menu lets you do the following for each segment: Undo Previous Segment or Redo Previous Segment.

6.

Complete the polyline in one of the following ways:

• •
Note

Double-click the endpoint of the final segment. Click Done on the shortcut menu. To connect the polyline’s start and endpoints, click Close Polyline on the shortcut menu.

If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line. Notice that by going to the History tree selecting Create Polyline for that object, you can assign a cross section and dimensions to a polyline. 7. Click OK. If you select a polyline in the History tree, you can use the Measure mode to see the total length. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Drawing a Straight Line Drawing a Three-Point Arc Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Drawing an Equation-Based Curve
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Drawing a Spline Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments Generate History Setting Modeler Options: Operations Tab

Assigning a Cross Section and Dimensions to a Polyline
By viewing the History tree property of a polyline, you can assign either a line, circle or rectangle cross section to a polyline. This assignment enables editable dimension properties of width for a line, diameter for a circle, and height and width for a rectangle. To assign a cross section to a polyline: 1. In the History tree of the Modeler window, right-click on the polyline that you want to give a cross section. This selects the polyline, displays the polyline properties in the docked properties (if you have if displays) and displays a shortcut menu where you can choose Properties... to display the undocked Properties window for the polyline.

2.

In a Properties window (either docked or undocked) for the selected polyline click on None on the Type line under Cross Section to display the choices for Line, Circle, Rectangle.

3.

Select one of Line, Circle or Rectangle as the cross section.

Selecting Line causes the Cross Section area of the polyline properties to display editable fields for Orientation and Width.
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• •
4. 5.

Selecting Circle causes the Cross Section area of the polyline properties to display an editable field for diameter. Selecting Rectangle causes the Cross Section area of the polyline properties to display editable fields for Orientation, Width and Height.

If you select Line or Rectangle, you can edit the Orientation as Auto, X, Y, or Z. This provides the direction in which the dimension extends. Specify the dimensions and select the units for the Cross section. Type a value in the dimension field(s) and select units from the drop down menu. The dimensions must be reasonable relative to the specified shape and orientation of the polyline. If the polyline cannot be extended into current Orientation for the given dimension(s), you will receive a warning. If you receive a warning, check the Orientation, dimension and units. When the modeler can extend the dimensions legally, it displays the modified object, and lists it in the History tree as either a Sheet object (Line or one dimensional Rectangle) or as a Solid object (Circle or two dimensional Rectangle).

6.

You can modify the new polyline either by editing the properties, or by using the History tree to select one of the line objects that make up the polyline, and right clicking to display the popup menu showing commands to Insert, Delete, or display editable segment Properties.

A segment that you select in the Project tree is indicated in the Modeler window by a line in the dimensioned object. If you insert a new segment, it adopts the dimensions you specified for the polyline object. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Polyline Drawing an Equation-Based Curve Deleting Polyline Segments Inserting Line Segments
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Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Drawing a Straight Line Drawing a Three-Point Arc

Inserting Line Segments
You can insert line segments of various kinds for existing line objects. 1. Select the line object in the History tree (not the modeler window). This highlights the object and enables the Insert Line Segment commands in the Draw menu and short-cut menu. 2. 3. 4. Use the cascade menu from the Draw>Line Segment command to or the right-click menu to select whether to Insert Before Line Segment or Insert After Line Segment. Use the next cascade menu to specify the kind of segment to add. These can be: Straight, Spline. 3 Point Arc, or Center Point Arc. If you clicked Straight, follow the procedure for drawing a straight line. If you clicked Spline, follow the procedure for drawing a spline. If you clicked 3 Point Arc, follow the procedure for drawing a three-point arc line. If you clicked Center Point Arc, follow the procedure for drawing a center-point arc line. 5. 6. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each segment of the polyline object. The endpoint of the previous segment serves as the start point for the next segment. Complete the polyline in one of the following ways:

• •
Note

Double-click the endpoint of the final segment. Click Done on the shortcut menu. To connect the polyline’s start and endpoints, click Close Polyline on the shortcut menu.

The Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line. 7. Click OK.

Related Topics Drawing a Center-Point Arc Line Deleting Polyline Segments Converting Polyline Segments

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Drawing an Equation-Based Curve
Any line that can be described by an equation in three dimensions can be drawn. 1. 2. Click Draw>Equation Based Curve . The Equation Based Curve dialog box opens. Type equations for X(_t), Y(_t), and Z(_t). You can also define an equation by doing the following: 1. 2. Click the ... button. The Edit Equation dialog box appears. Do one or more of the following to define the equation:

Note

• • • •
3.

Type a numerical value or expression directly in the text box. Select a function to insert from the pull-down list, and select Insert Function. Select an operator from the pull-down list, and select Insert Operator. Select a quantity from the pull-down list, and select Insert Quantity.

When you are finished defining the equation, click OK to close the Edit Equation dialog box and return to the Equation Based Curve dialog box.

Any unitless value input in equation based curve is taken as model units. For example, for Y(_t) = 1, the y value is taken as 1 model units (say mm). If a value has units, then it is converted to model units and used. For example, if we specify Y(_t) = 1cm, then y value will be correctly taken as 10mm. While parsing expressions, equation based curves convert each variable separately to model units and assume that the resulting expression is in model units. Equation based curves depend on the variable value library to correctly evaluate the units of expression.

• •
3. 4. 5.

Select a start value from the Start_t pull-down list. Select an end value from the End_t pull-down list. Select the number of points in the curve from the Points pull-down list. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, in which you can modify the object’s attributes by editing the Properties. Those listed under the Command tab describe the commands used to create the object. These commands also appear in the History tree. The Properties listed as line attributes include Name, Orientation, whether a Model object, whether to Display Wireframe, Color, Transparency, and whether to Show Direction as arrows. The Show Direction property is most helpful to unambiguously show the line start orientation when plotting fields along a line.

6.

Click OK on the Properties dialog box.

Related Topics Setting the Reference Point
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Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline

Drawing a Circle
Draw a circle by selecting a center point and a radius. Circles are drawn as true surfaces in the modeler. 1. 2. Click Draw>Circle . Select the center point of the circle in one of the following ways:

• •
3.

Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar.

Specify the radius by selecting a point on the circle’s circumference in one of the following ways:

• •

Click the point. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX, dY, and dZ boxes, where d is the distance from the previously selected point.

If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked, the Properties dialog box appears, enabling you to modify the object’s properties. 4. Click OK. If the Automatically cover closed polyline option is selected in the Modeler Options window, the circle will be covered, resulting in a 2D sheet object. Otherwise it will be a closed 1D polyline object. Note The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. However, the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects, but may not be ideal for all such objects. High-aspect ratio curves structures, such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections, may benefit from user control of the faceting values. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes, "Surface Approximations" and related sections, Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements, "Modifying Surface Approximations," and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Surface Approximation Creating Segmented Geometry Covering Lines

Drawing an Ellipse
Draw an ellipse by specifying a center point, base radius, and secondary radius.
Drawing a Model 7-15

However. Select the center point of the ellipse in one of the following ways: • • 3. dY. If the drawing plane is xz. dY. The Ratio value represents the aspect ratio of the secondary radius to the base radius. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes.HFSS Online Help 1. the Properties dialog box appears. Click the point. High-aspect ratio curves structures. may benefit from user control of the faceting values. Select the point in one of the following ways: • • If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Specify the secondary radius of the ellipse. rotate or move the ellipse after drawing it. the ellipse’s longer axis will lie along the default base radius direction. the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. To create an ellipse with an arbitrary orientation. "Modifying Surface Approximations. If the base radius is larger than the secondary radius. Click Draw>Ellipse . If the drawing plane is yz. then y is the base radius direction. Click OK. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the center point in the dX. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the center point in the dX. Note The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. 2. HFSS constrains mouse movement to the base radius direction. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Related Topics Setting the Reference Point 7-16 Drawing a Model . If the current drawing plane is xy. 5. Select the point in one of the following ways: • • 4. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. Specify the base radius of the ellipse. or dZ box. the ellipse’s longer axis will lie perpendicular to the default base radius direction. or dZ box. Click the point. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. the ellipse will be covered. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. but may not be ideal for all such objects. then z is the base radius direction. If the secondary radius is larger than the base radius. resulting in a 2D sheet object. If the Automatically cover closed polyline option is selected in the Modeler Options window. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. HFSS constrains mouse movement to a point on the plane orthogonal to the base radius direction. Otherwise it will be a closed 1D polyline object. Click the point. then x is the base radius direction.

Type the coordinates of the point relative to the first diagonal corner in the dX. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX.HFSS Online Help Modifying Surface Approximation Settings Creating Segmented Geometry Covering Lines Drawing a Rectangle Draw a rectangle (or square) by selecting two diagonally opposite corners. Select the second corner of the rectangle in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. 4. 3. If the Automatically cover closed polyline option is selected in the Modeler Options window. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Covering Lines Drawing a Regular Polygon A regular polygon is a 2D object with three or more equal sides. Select the center point of the polygon in one of the following ways: • • 3. Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. 2. the rectangle will be covered. 2. in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. 1. and dZ boxes. dY. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Click Draw>Regular Polygon . To delete the selected point and start over. Click OK. press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu. Specify the polygon’s radius. resulting in a 2D sheet object. Regular polygons are useful for drawing faceted 2D objects. dY. the distance from the center point to one of the polygon’s vertices. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. Select the first diagonal corner in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. and dZ boxes. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. the Properties dialog box appears. Click Draw>Rectangle . Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Otherwise it will be a closed 1D polyline object. 1. Drawing a Model 7-17 .

1. and select Insert Function. When you are finished defining the equation. In the Segment number dialog box. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. button. The Equation Based Surface dialog box opens. For example. For example. enter the Number of segments in the polygon. 5. then y value will be correctly taken as 10mm.. Do one or more of the following to define the equation: Note • • • • 3. The radius is measured from the center point to a corner of the polygon. Select a function to insert from the pull-down list. and then click OK. resulting in a 2D sheet object.HFSS Online Help where d is the distance from the previously selected point. and select Insert Operator. Select a quantity from the pull-down list.. click OK to close the Edit Equation dialog box and return to the Equation Based Surface dialog box. Select an operator from the pull-down list. If a value has units. Type a numerical value or expression directly in the text box. for Y(_t) = 1. and Z(_u. the Properties dialog box appears. • Any unitless value input in equation based curve is taken as model units. 2. Click the . You can also define an equation by doing the following: 1. or the intersection of two edges. It is not measured from the center point to the midpoint of an edge. Click Draw>Equation Based Surface . the y value is taken as 1 model units (say mm). Y(_u. Click OK. and select Insert Quantity. then it is converted to model units and used. 7-18 Drawing a Model . _v). if we specify Y(_t) = 1cm. 4. _v). 2. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Covering Lines Drawing an Equation-Based Surface Any surface that can be described by an equation in three dimensions can be drawn. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Otherwise it will be a closed 1D polyline object. the polygon will be covered. _v). The Edit Equation dialog box appears. Type equations for X(_u. Note If the Automatically cover closed polyline option is selected in the Modeler Options window.

4. and dZ boxes. the Properties dialog box appears. Drawing a Model 7-19 . where d is the distance from the previously selected point.If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. Specify the radius by selecting a point on the sphere’s circumference in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. a 3D circle. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. While parsing expressions. by selecting a center point and a radius. 1. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. Select start values from the Start_u and Start_v pull-down lists.HFSS Online Help • • 3. the Properties dialog box appears. Click Draw>Sphere . 2. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Drawing an Equation Based Curve Drawing a Sphere Draw a sphere. Select end values from the End_u and End_v pull-down lists. enabling you to modify the object’s attributes. Spheres are drawn as true surfaces in the modeler. equation based curves convert each variable separately to model units and assume that the resulting expression is in model units. Equation based curves depend on the variable value library to correctly evaluate the units of expression. dY. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX. Select the center point of the sphere in one of the following ways: • • 3. Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Click OK on the Properties dialog box.

the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings.HFSS Online Help 4. Select the point by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the dX. Select the center point of the cylinder’s base circle in one of the following ways: • • 3." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Note Drawing a Cylinder Draw a cylinder by selecting a center point. The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. 7-20 Drawing a Model . and dZ boxes. "Modifying Surface Approximations. Specify the radius by selecting a point on the base circle’s circumference in one of the following ways: • • 4. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Cylinders are drawn as true surfaces in the modeler. However. Click the point. Specify the cylinder’s height by selecting a point on the axis perpendicular to the base circle’s plane. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. HFSS draws a circular sheet object. 1. may benefit from user control of the faceting values. the Properties dialog box appears. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX. dY. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. If you create a cylinder with a height of zero. Click the point. High-aspect ratio curves structures. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. dY. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. Click Draw>Cylinder . where d is the distance from the previously selected point. Note If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. radius. 2. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. and height. and dZ boxes. but may not be ideal for all such objects. Click OK.

Click Draw>Box . and dZ boxes. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Model 7-21 . may benefit from user control of the faceting values. dY. 3. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. Specify the height of the box by selecting a point on the axis perpendicular to the base rectangle. Click the point. High-aspect ratio curves structures. but may not be ideal for all such objects. and dZ boxes. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the first diagonal corner in the dX.HFSS Online Help 5. 2. "Modifying Surface Approximations. 1. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. where d is the distance from the previously selected point." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Note Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Modifying Surface Approximation Settings Creating Segmented Geometry Drawing a Box Draw a box by selecting two diagonally opposite corners of the base rectangle. the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. 5. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Select the first diagonal corner of the base rectangle in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. press ESC or click Escape Draw Mode on the shortcut menu. However. The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. Click OK. dY. the Properties dialog box appears. Click OK. then specifying the height. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. To delete the selected point and start over. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Select the point by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the dX. Select the second corner of the base rectangle in one of the following ways: • • 4.

HFSS Online Help Drawing a Regular Polyhedron In the modeler. Cones are drawn as true surfaces in the modeler. 5. Click Draw>Cone . or the intersection of two edges. 2. Select the center point of the polyhedron in one of the following ways: • • 3. in one of the following ways: • • 4. and then click OK. and dZ boxes. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. Select the center point of the cone’s base circle in one of the following ways: • • 7-22 Drawing a Model Click the point. resulting in a 2D sheet object. Click Draw>Regular Polyhedron . enabling you to modify the object’s properties. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. the Properties dialog box appears. then specifying the radius of the cone’s top circle and the cone’s height. 2. Click the point. Regular polyhedrons are useful for drawing faceted 3D objects. In the Segment number dialog box. Note If the Automatically cover closed polyline option is selected in the Modeler Options dialog box. regular polyhedrons are 3D objects with regular polygon faces. 1. enter the Number of segments in the polyhedron. Select the radius of the polyhedron. the distance from the center point to one of the polyhedron’s vertices. Click OK. Click the point. It is not measured from the center point to the midpoint of an edge. Otherwise it will be a closed 1D polyline object. . dY. each face has three or more equal sides. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Covering Lines Drawing a Cone Draw a cone by selecting the center point and radius of the cone’s base circle. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX. 1. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. the polygon will be covered. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. The radius is measured from the center point to a corner of the polygon.

the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. but may not be ideal for all such objects. and dZ boxes. dY. and dZ boxes. the Properties dialog box appears. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX. Specify the height of the cone by selecting a point on the axis perpendicular to the base circle’s plane. may benefit from user control of the faceting values. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements.HFSS Online Help 3. Select the point in one of the following ways: • • 4. Click the point. However. "Modifying Surface Approximations. and dZ boxes. 5. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. Drawing a Model 7-23 Specify the major radius by selecting a point in one of the following ways: • • . The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. dY. Toruses are drawn as true surfaces in the modeler. To create an apex. Select the point by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the dX. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. Click the point. dY. Select the point by clicking it or typing its coordinates in the dX. High-aspect ratio curves structures. and minor radius. 2. major radius. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Click Draw>Torus . dY. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. Click OK. Specify the radius of the cone’s base circle by selecting a point on the base circle’s circumference. 1." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Note Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Torus Draw a torus by selecting its center point. select the same center point as the cone’s base circle. The modeler then sweeps a circle around a circular path. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. Select the center point of the torus in one of the following ways: • • 3. Specify the radius of the cone’s top circle by selecting a point on its circumference. 6. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the center point in the dX. Click the point. and dZ boxes.

and click a unit in the pull-down list. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. a. Select the 1D or 2D object you want to sweep to form a helix. Select the endpoint by clicking the point or typing its coordinates relative to the start point in the dX. 4. 6. and Z text boxes. 1. Draw the vector you want to sweep the object along. the Properties dialog box appears. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. 7-24 Drawing a Model . b. Specify the minor radius by selecting a point relative to the major radius point. In the Pitch text box. The Helix dialog box appears. but may not be ideal for all such objects." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Note Drawing a Helix A helix is a 3D spiral object created by sweeping a 1D or 2D object along a vector. The two points that describe the vector affect axis direction only and not the helix length. High-aspect ratio curves structures. dY. In the Turns text box. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. 2. Click Draw>Helix . The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. type the distance between each turn in the helix. The major radius determines the diameter of the torus. The helix length is determined when you enter the pitch and number of turns in the Pitch and Turns text boxes. The initial radius of the helix is determined by the axis position relative to the object being swept.HFSS Online Help where d is the distance from the previously selected point. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. 5. The minor radius determines the diameter of the "donut hole". such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. Sweeping a 2D sheet object results in a 3D solid object. Sweeping a 1D object results in a hollow 3D object. the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. 3. 4. may benefit from user control of the faceting values. and dZ boxes. select Right hand if the turn direction is clockwise and Left hand if the turn direction is counter-clockwise. Select the start point by clicking the point or typing its coordinates in the X. type the number of complete revolutions the object will make along the vector. 5. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. For Turn Direction. "Modifying Surface Approximations. However. Click OK. Y.

For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. its purpose. The original object you swept is deleted. Click Draw>User Defined Primitive>SysLib>SegmentedHelix>PolygonHelix. However. In the Radius Change per Turn text box. 9. the selected object is swept along the vector to form a helix. 2. type a number for the increase in the radius and select the units from the pull-down list.HFSS Online Help 7. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. 1. Specify the values for the following parameters: PolygonSegments Number of segments in the polygon cross-section. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. After you set these values. the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings. the date created and the version number. StartHelixRadius The radius of a segmented helix is defined from the helix center of rotation to the center of the helix cross-section at segment transitions. the company/author who created it." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Note Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section using a User-Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross-Section using a User Defined Primitive. See this figure. An Info tab contains information about the user defined primitive. Enter zero (0) for true circle PolygonRadius Radius of the polygon cross-section. High-aspect ratio curves structures. Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section Using a User Defined Primitive Ansoft provides you with a DLL to define the parameters of a segmented helix with a polygon cross-section. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. may benefit from user control of the faceting values. the Properties dialog box appears. 8. "Modifying Surface Approximations. Drawing a Model 7-25 . The first and last segments of the helix are half segments. The Create User Defined Part dialog box appears. The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. Click OK. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. but may not be ideal for all such objects. The Parameters tab permits you to edit the parameters. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements.

Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Creating a User Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross Section Using a User Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross-Section Using a User Defined Primitive Ansoft provides you with a DLL to define the parameters of a segmented helix with a rectangular cross-section. Click Draw>User Defined Primitive>SysLib>SegmentedHelix>RectHelix. the date created and the version number. Enter zero (0) for true curve. 1. its purpose. the company/author who created it. 2. Enter non-zero value for righthanded helix. The first and last segments of the helix are half segments. StartHelixRadius The radius of a segmented helix is defined from the helix center of rotation to the center of the helix cross-section at segment transitions. SegmentsPerTurn The number of segments constructing each turn. Helix winding direction. RightHanded 3. Enter non-zero value for righthanded helix.HFSS Online Help RadiusChange Pitch Turns The radius change per turn of the helix. Distance between helix turns. SegmentsPerTurn The number of segments constructing each turn. Click OK. Click OK. Enter zero (0) for true curve. Distance between helix turns. Width of rectangular cross-section. See this figure. An Info tab contains information about the user defined primitive. Helix winding direction. RightHanded 3. The number of turns in the helix. Specify the values for the following parameters: RectHeight RectWidth Height of rectangular cross-section. 7-26 Drawing a Model . RadiusChange Pitch Turns The radius change per turn of the helix. The Parameters tab permits you to edit the parameters. The number of turns in the helix. The Create User Defined Part dialog box appears.

1. 4. Draw the vector you want to sweep the object around: Select the start point by clicking the point or typing its coordinates in the X. 3. Sweeping a 1D object results in a 2D sheet object. Select the 1D or 2D object you want to sweep to form a spiral. b. Select Right hand if the turn direction is clockwise and Left hand if the turn direction is Drawing a Model 7-27 . and dZ boxes. dY. Select the endpoint by clicking the point or typing its coordinates relative to the start point in the dX. 2. Click Draw>Spiral a. The Spiral dialog box appears. and Z text boxes. Y.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Creating a User Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section using a User-Defined Primitive Drawing a Spiral A spiral is a 2D or 3D spiral object created by sweeping an object around a vector. . Sweeping a 2D sheet object results in a 3D solid object.

7-28 Drawing a Model . enabling you to modify the object’s properties. 6. 7. type the number of complete revolutions the object will make around the vector. 5. Click a unit for the radius in the pull-down list. The turn direction was right hand. This 3D spiral was created from a 2D circle drawn at z = 0. The original object you swept is deleted. If the Modeler option for editing properties of new primitives is checked. In the Turns text box.HFSS Online Help counter-clockwise. The selected object is swept around the vector to form a spiral. type the difference in radius between each turn of the spiral. The radius of the first turn is measured from the center point of the 1D or 2D object you are sweeping to the vector you drew. the Properties dialog box appears. Click OK. and the number of turns was set at 2. the radius change was set at 2. In the Radius Change text box. 8.

If you specify the height as zero. "Surface Approximations" and related sections. For details about these commands see: Technical Notes. This creates the primitive and displays the Properties dialog for the new object. The Parameters tab permits you to see edit the parameters. the company/author who created it. To see the primitives that you have created. Drawing a Model 7-29 . the solution will be obtained with a tetrahedral mesh which conforms to the true surface only within the limits identified by certain mesh settings." and "Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximations" Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Drawing a Spiral Using User Defined Primitives Drawing a Spiral using User Defined Primitives Ansoft provides you with a DLL to define the parameters of a rectangular spiral. such as helices with narrow and curved cross-sections. X location of the starting point. Specify the values for the following parameters: Xpos Ypos TurnSep Turns Width Height 3.HFSS Online Help Note The 3D Geometry Modeler permits drawing of true-curved objects. the modeler draws a sheet object. but may not be ideal for all such objects. click Draw>User Defined Primitive>UserLib. click Draw>User Defined Primitive>Update Menu. The Create User Defined Part dialog box appears. High-aspect ratio curves structures. Click OK. Click Draw>User Defined Primitive>SysLib>Examples>RectangularSpiral. Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. "Modifying Surface Approximations. Y location of the starting point. However. its purpose. An Info tab contains information about the user defined primitive. 2. The height of the spiral. The number of complete revolutions the object will make around the vector The width of the spiral. Hint To see newly created DLLs. The separation distance between turns. the date created and the version number. 1. may benefit from user control of the faceting values. The modeler has default settings for this conformance which is a reasonable trade-off between solution speed and solution quality for most objects.

Click Draw>Bondwire . It was calculated by HFSS based on the lead point you selected. Select the bond pad point in one of the following ways: • • 3. JEDEC 5-point. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. Select the lead point by clicking the point or typing the coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. 5. Include the height’s unit of length. In the Type list. and shows options for that type. b. type a new value in the h2 text box. The value in the h2 text box is the height between the bond pad and the lead point. The minimum value is 3. 6. Type the angle between the horizontal plane and the wire at the bond pad point in the alpha text box. 10. In the diameter field. Enter the number of facets in the bondwire in the No. 7. Please see the topic Bondwires in the Technical Notes before drawing a bondwire. Type the angle between the horizontal plane and the wire at the lead point in the beta text box. 2. of Facets text box. Click the point. 8. If you modify the value of h2.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Creating a User Defined Primitive Drawing a Spiral Drawing a Bondwire A bondwire is a thin metal wire that connects a metal signal trace with a chip. The value describes the number of faces that make up the circumference of the bondwire. Include the height’s unit of length. the lead point will be modified. 9. specify a diameter value and select the units from the pull-down menu. The Type selection changes the dialogue bondwire graphic. or Low. 1. The Bondwires dialog box appears. Optionally. click the JEDEC modeling standard shape you want the bondwire to have: JEDEC 4-point. 4. Enter the height between the bond pad and the top of the loop in the h1 text box. If you selected JEDEC 5-point or Low do the following: a. Click OK. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Technical Notes: Bondwires 7-30 Drawing a Model .

Select the point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. yz. Click the point. 2. Note You only need to draw a plane that does not lie on a pre-defined xy. 1. Related Topics Drawing Non-Model Objects Drawing a Model 7-31 . The plane is listed under Planes in the history tree. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. yz. Type the coordinates of the point relative to the origin in the dX. Type the point’s coordinates in the text boxes in the status bar. To delete the selected point and start over. 1.HFSS Online Help Drawing a Point Drawing a point object within the problem region enables you to plot fields or perform field computations at that point. The point is listed under Points in the history tree. Select a normal point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. Points are always considered non-model objects by the modeler. Planes are always considered non-model objects by the modeler. Select the origin in one of the following ways: • • 3. dY. and xz plane. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. Click Draw>Plane . and xz planes of the global coordinate system as well as any new coordinate system you create. You can plot fields or perform field computations on its surface. Default planes are created on the xy. The plane is created. Its center point is located at the origin you specified and oriented perpendicular to the normal point you specified. Click Draw>Point . press ESC. and dZ boxes. Related Topics Setting the Reference Point Modifying Markers on Point Plots Drawing Non-Model Objects Drawing a Plane A plane object is a cutplane through the problem region. 2.

and cylinders use the Number of Segments parameter on the Command Tab of the Properties dialog as shown below. you may want to create segmented as opposed to smooth (or True) surfaces. Ellipse. The following model objects can be created as segmented structures: Circle. 2. or cylinder in the modeler window or in the history tree. The figure below shows a comparison of a cylinder created with true surfaces and with segmented surfaces. To convert an object from true surface to segmented. Line Segment See Segmented Objects See Converting Polyline Segments Segmented Objects To create segmented circles. Select the circle. Arc. ellipses.HFSS Online Help Creating Segmented Geometry For some structures. change the Number of 7-32 Drawing a Model . In the command tab of the properties window (shown docked below). Cylinder Polyline. do the following: 1. ellipse.

Related Topics Modifying Surface Approximation Settings Creating Segmented Geometry Drawing Non-Model Objects If you want to create an object that does not affect the geometric model. Values of 1 and 2 are not valid values for the circle. you can plot field quantities on it.HFSS Online Help Segments to an integer value of three or greater and press Enter. or cylinder command and will cause an error. After drawing the object. by default. it will not affect the solution process. Following are examples of using non-model objects to analyze a solution: • Draw a polyline along which to plot fields or perform field computations.For more information. Drawing a Model 7-33 . This ensures that the object is used for analysis only. define the object as non model. You can assign output variables (default) and design variable as property values for non-model objects. ellipse. the line will be divided into 100 equally spaced points. You can modify the number of points into which the line is divided in the Edit Sweeps dialog box. see Specifying Variable Values for a Sweep Definition. Note that when you create a value versus distance plot. assuming it lies in the problem region.

Related Topics Selecting Non-Model Drawing Mode Drawing Non-Model Objects Drawing a Region To draw a region encompassing the objects in the current project: 7-34 Drawing a Model . Draw a volume box to analyze fields in areas of the problem region that are not occupied by an object or that consist of parts of several objects. clear the Model option. Draw a plane. Draw the object. Related Topics Changing an Object to Non Model Drawing Non-Model Objects Changing an Object to Non Model To modify an existing object to be a non-model object: 3. What do you want to do? Switch to non-model drawing mode. Modify an existing model object to be a non-model object. Click Modeler>New Object Type>Non Model. Select the object you want to modify. Selecting Non-Model Drawing Mode To switch to non-model drawing mode: 1. which is always a non-model object. Alternatively. If the object lies in the problem region.In the Properties dialog box. which is always a non-model object. click Non Model on the drawing model pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar: 2. The object will not be included in the solution process.HFSS Online Help • • • • Draw a rectangle upon which to plot fields or perform field computations. Objects you draw in non-model mode will not be included in the solution process. you can plot solution quantities on it. in order to plot fields or perform field computations at that point. Draw a point object.

the Properties window appears for the existing region. You can define the region padding as a percentage offset. allowing you to change operation parameters and attributes. the modeler automatically expands the region to cover all objects. and Z coordinates. It is created using the current coordinate system. For the Padding data. Color. The Properties dialog for the region has a Commands tab that shows the coordinate system and Padding values. In this case. vacuum). Display Wireframe. Click Draw>Region or click the icon on the tool bar. or absolute offset. and displayed in the History tree. Selecting Pad all directions similarly leaves the Padding Percentage field as requiring a single value that affects all directions. You can edit all of these values. Only one region can be created for a single project using the Draw>Region command. 4. The region is drawn. 2. click the Padding Data radio button as Pad all directions similarly or Pad individual directions. The region also updates automatically as your geometry changes. click the check box to save the values as Default. If you try to create a region that does not contain all of the objects in your model. Selecting Pad individual directions displays the Padding Percentage as a table of Positive and Negative X. you can specify the Padding type by selecting Percentage Offset or Absolute Offset from the drop down menu. 5. In this case. Specify the Padding values in the fields and select the units from the dropdown list. and Transparency.HFSS Online Help 1. permitting you to specify padding for each direction. selected. Orientation. If you try to create a second region. This displays the Region dialog. Solve inside. 3. and the Attributes tab includes properties for Name. Model. you can specify the Padding type by selecting Percentage Offset or Absolute Offset or Absolute Position from the drop down menu. Material (Default. relative offset. Click OK to close the dialog and create the region. If desired.Y. Drawing a Model 7-35 .

mesh generation could still fail. small face area and sliver face detection. If errors still persist. some features may not be enabled. Mis-aligned entities detection – detects pairs of faces from objects that can be aligned to remove object intersections. When models pass the initial validity checks. The objects that fail should be analyzed by using the Modeler>Model Analysis>Analyze Objects menu item. In some cases the replacement of the face/edge by tolerant edge/vertex will fail. This detects whether pairs of objects intersect. Object pair intersection. 2. you must remove all command history for the selected object by using the Purge History command. choose the edges and faces and click on Delete. the objects will be healed and the errors fixed. Small feature detection – small edge length. you typically perform validation check. This improves the probability of mesh success.HFSS Online Help Model Analysis For some models it may be beneficial to remove unnecessary small entities and to fix object misalignments to avoid potential mesh issues. the initial analysis executes and the Model Analysis dialog is displayed. These are non-manifold edges and vertices that are present in the model. • • • • Analyze Objects Analyze InterObject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Show Analysis dialog Note Before running model analysis. 3. 5. HFSS includes Model Analysis functions to help you evaluate models you have imported or created. When you OK this dialog. 3. and small feature detection. After import. Choose the objects that have "Invalid Entities Found" and Perform>Heal Objects. 2. Mesh failure error display. Non-manifold topology. This will replace the selected face/edge object by a tolerant edge/vertex respectively. Select the objects and invoke Modeler>Model Analysis>Analyze Objects. The following errors can be present in models: (See Error Detection. This lets you focus on objects and object pairs that have errors and or warnings. 4. If you need to save the object history. Select Modeler> Model Analysis to see the menu options. Depending on the design and the current selection. object pairs and last simulation 7-36 Drawing a Model . The menu includes the following commands. This displays the Analysis Options dialog to allow you to specify settings for entity check level. 1. save a separate copy.) 1. In most cases. 4. This is available for single object.

and specify the Maximum Radius. Small Edges. This displays the Analysis Options dialog. If. length less than Small Faces. Select the object you want to analyze and click Modeler> Model Analysis>Analyze Objects. Related Topics Set Material Override Analysis Options Dialog Healing Technical Notes: Removing Object Intersections Healing Non-manifold Objects Healing Options Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Analysis Options Dialog To perform analysis on an object according to specified features and tolerance values: 1. If desired. the Heal command is automatically applied to imported objects.. Detect Chamfers. you select Heal Imported Objects and Manual on the file browser dialog. which enables: Object Bounding Box Scale Factor Sliver Edge Width If desired set the Detect Small Entities features and tolerance values. during Modeler>Import. or Comprehensive. you also see this dialog. Strict. Errors reported by the meshing module are reported to the user. • • • 5. 3. Clicking OK on this dialog displays the Model Analysis dialog which contains the results of the analysis. Detect Blends. Detect Holes. and specify the Maximum Radius. and specify the Maximum Width. This enables the Check Level menu. with the Analysis Options tab selected.HFSS Online Help run (all objects in a model). check the Perform Entity Check Errors checkbox. 2. 6. area less than Sliver Faces. Click the Properties tab to see a listing of the geometric properties of the selected object. See Modeler Validation Settings for more explanation. The setting can be Basic. Drawing a Model 7-37 . By default. click the check boxes to enable and set the Detect Feature settings: • • • 4. Selecting Modeler>Model Analysis>Heal also displays this dialog. If desired.. Errors of type 3 and 4 should be resolved before you invoke the meshing for the model.

This enables the Analyze Surface Mesh command in the menu. Select the Auto zoom to selection check box to automatically zoom to the item selected on the Objects tab. Click OK to perform the analysis with the selected options. Click Modeler>Model Analysis>Analyze Surface Mesh. Model Analysis dialog This dialog contains results for all model analysis. The Surface Mesh Analysis Options dialog box appears. Related Topics Heal Model Analysis dialog. To view the analysis options: 1. A submenu appears. Select one of the following from the submenu: • • • • Objects Objects Misalignment Surface Mesh Last Simulation Mesh The Model Analysis dialog box appears. • 3. This dialog box allows you to set parameters to remove. 5. You can also open the Surface Mesh Analysis Options dialog box from the Model Analysis dialog box via the Perform pull-down menu on the Objects tab. (This dialog box also appears automatically after clicking OK in the Analysis Options dialog box. displaying the results of the analysis.) 3. including diagnostic information relating to mesh issues.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Heal Analysis Options Dialog Model Analysis dialog. Selecting this option means that object pairs are disregarded from analysis if their separation is greater than the specified value. 2. The Model Analysis dialog box appears. 4. Selecting this option evaluates the mesh for all combinations of the selected objects. Select or clear the Perform Object Pairs Analysis check box. 7-38 Drawing a Model . Analyzing the Surface Mesh To set the options to analyze the surface mesh: 1. and enter a value in the text box. Click Modeler> Model Analysis>Show Analysis Dialog. Select or clear the Ignore Objects Separated by greater than check box. Select an object of interest. 2.

these are api_check_entity() errors and non-manifold errors which Ansoft recommends that you fix before meshing. sliver faces and small edges that are optionally detected based on the tolerance limits specified in the Analysis Options dialog. Make the desired changes on each tab in the Model Analysis dialog box. Good .evaluates the object status. Last Analysis status .small faces.the object is non-existent. Objects can have the following status: • • • • • 2. • • Name . The results table contains the following information.Related Topics Analysis Options Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Objects Tab All results relating to model analysis of specific objects are presented under the Objects tab.column giving the analysis status of the listed objects. Null Body . 5. edges and vertices. the modeler automatically zooms to the item selected in the Model Analysis dialog box. Invalid entity errors . • • • • Heal Objects tab Objects Misalignment tab Surface Mesh (Single/Pairs) tab Last Simulation Mesh tab Click Close to close the Model Analysis dialog box. The Healing Analysis dialog will appear.the object contains no invalid geometry entities given the tolerance values specified in the Analysis Options dialog. • • Heal Objects . Select the Perform button to list the commands that you can execute on the selected objects in the Results table.column listing the objects in the current design. Note 3.HFSS Online Help 4. Select the Delete button if you want to remove a selected face or edge entity.repairs invalid geometry entities for the selected objects within the specified tolerance settings. edge or vertex entity from the list to view the error description in the Description field. Select the face. Small entity errors . Analysis not performed . 1. Analyze Objects . 4. Selecting this displays the Analysis Options Drawing a Model 7-39 .if this option is checked. Auto Zoom to Selection -. Select any object name in the table which contains errors to display a set of radio buttons in the panel and a list of corresponding faces.the object was not selected for analysis.

Click OK to perform the analysis with the selected options. and corresponding Misaligned Faces. Ignore objects separated by greater than a specified value . After validation check is performed.HFSS Online Help dialog. • • • Align Faces .evaluates mesh for all combinations of the selected objects. Use the analysis results to find whether objects have faces that can be aligned.checking this causes the Model Analysis dialog to display a healing log which includes information about operations performed on an object during the healing process. • Analyze Surface Mesh .object pairs are disregarded from analysis if their separation is greater than the specified value. If the analysis finds object pairs that can be aligned.select a face pair in the table and click the Align Faces button to align selected faces. From the Model Analysis dialog choose perform/Analyze Interobject misalignment. The results are reported under the Objects Misalignment tab. Clear All Analysis Data . the pairs of objects that intersect are chosen for analysis. Selecting this option displays a dialog with radio buttons to select. they will be displayed in the Objects Misalignment tab. Display Healing Log -. the modeler automatically zooms to the item selected in the table. Analyze Interobject Misalignment .determines any misalignments between two selected objects in the results table. described in a list of Object Sets.if this option is checked. 7-40 Drawing a Model . Choose all the bodies that intersect with another body. Auto Zoom to Selection -. 1. Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Object Misalignment Tab The table in this panel displays results of an Interobject Misalignment analysis. • • • • • Perform Object Pairs Analysis . Or you can run Modeler>Model Analysis>Analyze Interobject Misalignment.this button removes all information from the tables.invokes a mesh for each selected object and reports analysis results under the Surface Mesh (Single/Pairs) tab. It contains a list of Alignable Faces. All misaligned face pairs corresponding to the analyzed objects are listed in the table.

Drawing a Model 7-41 Display options include: . 3. The results table contains the following information: Object . Individual Objects Object Pairs Auto Zoom to Selection -.column listing object name or a pair of object names. 5. the modeler automatically zooms to the object or object pair selected. In some cases. Perform Mesh analysis on individual objects and object pairs.this column gives the category of error that caused the mesh failure.if this option is checked. Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Technical Notes: Removing Object Intersections Healing Non-manifold Objects Healing Options Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Set Material Override for HFSS Set Material Override for HFSS-IE Select by intersection error message. Last Analysis Status .column stating the meshing status of the object or object pair. Display Mesh Analysis log checkbox -checking this displays further details concerning each error to be listed. • • • • • • • Mesh Success Mesh Failure Error Type . Surface Mesh (Single/Pairs) Tab The panel displays the results of a surface mesh analysis. Error Detail . Identify individual bodies and body pairs that fail to mesh. 1.provide specific geometry information regarding mesh error location. face alignment will fail if the topology of the body changes by a large factor after alignment. You can select individual or multiple rows and perform Align Faces. 4.HFSS Online Help 2. Review the reports and fix the errors. You can display results for: • • Note 2.

this column gives the category of error that caused the mesh failure. Auto Zoom to Selection -.checking this causes the modeler to automatically zoom to objects or faces corresponding to the error. Display options include: Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing 7-42 Drawing a Model .provide specific geometry information regarding mesh error location.HFSS Online Help • Auto Zoom to Selection -. Display Mesh Analysis log checkbox -checking this displays further details concerning each error to be listed.checking this causes the modeler to automatically zoom to objects or faces corresponding to the error. Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Last Simulation Mesh Tab The table in this panel lists all model errors as viewed by the mesher. • • • • Error Type . Error Detail .

Related Topics Drawing a Model 7-43 . These are defined as having a constant permittivity that is greater than one and a constant loss tangent that is greater than zero. the metal object is subtracted from the dialectric. Instead. the small object is subtracted from the larger. Set Material Override Tab The Set Material Override tab includes text note and a checkbox to Allow metals to override dielectrics. and if the dielectric is completely inside. HFSS automatically applies frequency dependent lossy materials for the solver and post processor. and may have unexpected results. To use this feature. If metal intersects dialectric. In the meshing process. are used in place of the material's constant properties. Normally. These expressions. The Design Settings dialog also contains checkboxes to Save As Default. the via does not have to be subtracted from the layers. The materials are not modified in the design. The outputs from the Djordjevic-Sarkar model are the expressions for permittivity and conductivity. check Enable material override. the Djordjevic-Sarkar model is applied before the material is passed to the solver or used for post processing. the whole object disappears. plus zero loss tangent. Lossy Dielectrics Tab By default. The Set Material Override option allows some intersections to be resolved automatically in the mesh. (That is. this feature is unchecked. The inputs to the Djordjevic-Sarkar model are the material's constant permittivity and loss tangent. the small object overrides the larger. but want to automatically apply a general-purpose frequency dependence to ensure causal solutions when solving frequency sweeps. Note Users must be careful: this setting changes the "ground rules" of the modeler. The purpose of this feature is to allow you to avoid doing explicit subtraction in the modeler. DC conductivity (1e-12 S/m). plus the standard default values of measurement frequency (1 GHz). That is. (That is.HFSS Online Help Design Settings for HFSS The HFSS>Design Settings command displays a dialog with tabs for Set Material Override and for automatic Lossy Dielectrics. the modeler considers any intersection between 3D objects to be an error.) If objects with the same material overlap. This feature addresses cases where you only have simple constant material properties available. You can disable this feature on the Lossy Dielectrics tab. the metal overrides the dialectric in the overlap region. One example application is a via that passes through many dielectric layers--with the option turned on. and DC permittivity (none ).) All other intersections are treated as errors. When enabled the Djordjevic-Sarkar model is applied to all constant lossy dielectrics . the part of the dielectric that is inside the metal is removed. When reading legacy designs (HFSS 12 and earlier). the dielectrics are locally overwritten by the metals in the intersecting region.

HFSS Online Help Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Materials Setting the Temperature of Objects 7-44 Drawing a Model .

the metal overrides the dialectric in the overlap region. (That is. Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Materials Setting the Temperature of Objects Drawing a Model 7-45 . the modeler considers any intersection between 3D objects to be an error. and may have unexpected results. the via does not have to be subtracted from the layers.HFSS Online Help Design Settings for HFSS-IE The HFSS-IE>Design Settings command brings up a dialog with tabs for Material Thresholds and for Set Material Override. the part of the dielectric that is inside the metal is removed. If metal intersects dialectric. the small object overrides the larger. check Enable material override. the metal object is subtracted from the dialectric.) If objects with the same material overlap. Note Users must be careful: these settings change the "ground rules" of the modeler. Insulator Conductor in Siemens per meter The Design Settings dialog also contains checkboxes on each tab to Save As Default. the dielectrics are locally overwritten by the metals in the intersecting region. the whole object disappears. That is. and if the dielectric is completely inside. The Set Material Override option allows some intersections to be resolved automatically in the mesh. One example application is a via that passes through many dielectric layers--with the option turned on. Normally. the small object is subtracted from the larger. To use this feature. The purpose of this feature is to allow you to avoid doing explicit subtraction in the modeler. You can use the Material Thresholds tab to set the thresholds for: • Perfect Conductors in Siemens per meter. In the meshing process.) All other intersections are treated as errors. (That is.

Selected objects are highlighted. Related Topics Materials Set Material Override Specifying Thermal Modifiers 7-46 Drawing a Model . To close the dialog and accept the changes. Select the units from the drop down menu. you can use a scroll bar on the right of the table. and display a drop down menu listing the material and an Edit. type the value or an existing variable name in the text field. check Include Temperature Dependence. If you click Set Default. 3. This dialogue includes a table of the objects in the design. To enable the editing features. 7. Click Set to apply the value to the selected objects. and then columns for Temperature and unit. 4..HFSS Online Help Setting the Temperature of Objects To set the temperature of objects: 1. or click Set Default to make the specified values the default. the row for the selected objects display the Temperature value and units. 2. when the dialog is enabled. button. click OK. To edit the material for an object. This makes the table objects selectable. You can invert the sort direction in each column by clicking the header. Use the HFSS or HFSS-IE>Set Object Temperature command to display the Temperature of Objects dialogue. Click the edit button to display the Materials dialog. you can click on the material for the row. you can use the Select by name field. You can make multiple selections. The first column lists the object name. With the dialog enabled. To set the temperature for a selected object or objects. 5. 6. Enter the name of the object you want and click Select. If the list is longer than the display.. then the material. The headers for the Object Name column and the Material column include sort direction arrows. then a checkbox to show whether that object has temperature dependent features.

4.sm3).igs). Feature Removal. analysis is performed to determine its state (that is. Drawing a Model 7-47 . or Modeler>Model Analysis>Show Analysis dialog includes a Perform action menu with Heal Objects as a selection. Ansoft recommends that these be fixed before you invoke mesh generation. small faces and/or sliver faces. Selecting these formats enables a checkbox at the bottom of this window. whether it has invalid entities. The above actions are performed on the selected objects. 2. two types of errors can occur – geometry errors and topology errors. edges and vertices are connected. Healing can be invoked in different ways. Advanced healing. the actions are performed on all selected objects. • Any of these approaches leads to the same heal process.) Note If you need to save the object history. CATIA (*. *. bodies that have errors. small entities.x_b). ProE files (*. Invalid objects have all the above steps performed." The Model Analysis dialog that appears after running Modeler>Model Analysis>Analyze Objects. 1. can be healed. When models are imported. (Also see Specifying the Model Resolution for defeaturing through the Auto Simplify and Model Resolution settings there.sat). save a separate copy for that purpose before you heal the object. including have non-manifold errors. Some formats permit healing during Modeler>Import. stp). *. This is auto-heal. and *. and Parasolid file (*. SAT file (*. Basic Steps in the Heal Process There are several steps that are performed on selected objects. These are: 3D Modeler file (*.prt. Advanced healing is not performed on objects that do not require it. IGES file (*. • • The menu command Modeler>Model Healing>Heal command applies to a selected object. Entity check. This is done for all selected objects.model.) 3.asm). STEP file (*. chamfers.*.iges. small edges. If you choose in the Healing Options to remove small holes. "Heal Imported Objects. Basic healing consists of fixing surface normals in the object and updating the orientation (to avoid having an object with negative volume). that is. This is invoked on objects that require healing. blends. There is no guarantee that small feature removal will be successful. and so forth). Geometry errors are errors in definition of the underlying geometry while topology errors are errors in how the underlying components like faces. If you choose objects for healing which have not been analyzed. Imported objects which have only one operation on the history tree. (Use the Purge History command to remove unwanted history operations before using Heal. Basic healing.x_t.CATpart).HFSS Online Help Heal The Heal command provides a way to correct geometric violations and to remove specific kinds of small features. *. according to the Analysis Options settings.step.

In particular it is useful to find the connected faces for a face or edge or vertex. objects that intersect themselves (like the symbol for infinity in 2d) are clearly non-manifold.HFSS Online Help While working on analyzing complex bodies. in simple terms. Related Topics Align Faces Remove Faces Remove Edges Technical Notes: Removing Object Intersections Healing Non-manifold Objects Healing Options Specifying the Model Resolution Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Healing Non-Manifold Objects Non-manifold objects. edges and vertices. are non-physical objects or objects that cannot be manufactured. connected edges for a face/edge/vertex and connected vertices for a face/edge/vertex. it is sometimes useful to examine faces. For example. The additional selection modes are available under Edit->Select and via the toolbar icons. In addition objects that touch themselves may be non-manifold such as when a 2D 7-48 Drawing a Model .

These cases are shown in the figure below. Drawing a Model 7-49 . or a 3D object touches itself at a point or edge.HFSS Online Help object touches itself at a vertex.

or a pair of 3D objects connected by a 2D sheet object. You may also remove or add a small portion of the model. Identify an edge that is non-manifold. 3. Either do a union or a subtraction to remove the faces that contain the non-manifold edge. 7-50 Drawing a Model . 5. 4. These cases are illustrated below. you should always consider whether or not the resulting operation will result in an object that could not be manufactured. When creating geometry. Select the connected faces. You can use the Face selection toolbar icons. then the object will cause an error in the modeler or in the meshing system. Create a face coordinate system on the planar face. To heal non-manifold objects: 1. a pair of 2D objects connected by a 1D line segment.HFSS Online Help Another type of non-manifold object has mixed dimensionality. 2. or through boolean operations. The non-manifold edge is now removed. The criteria for manufacturability is a simple manifestation of a complex mathematical concept that must be adhered to in the solid modeling system. either directly. For example. Create a small box to cover the non-manifold edge. If this is the case.

or No Heal. You can also open the Healing Options dialog from the Model Analysis dialog via the Objects tab drop down menu. 3. • • • Remove Holes checkbox and Maximum Radius value. Setting the Healing Options The Healing Options let you control how healing proceeds with respect to a variety of features and issues. • Tighten Gaps settings. which lists the geometric properties of the currently selected object. Surfaces.HFSS Online Help 6. Healing Options Feature Removal Options Properties. This enables a field for the Stitch Tolerance value. Select the Healing Options tab on the Healing Options dialog to specify the following: • • Selecting Manual Heal enables the Manual Heal Options: • Perform Geometry Simplification This enables fields for Simplification Tolerance and Maximum Generated Radius values. Do for all the non-manifold edges. Perform Tolerant Stitching checkbox. or Both. You can also select radio buttons to Simplify Curves. Related Topics Healing Technical Notes: Removing Object Intersections Healing Options Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Technical Notes: Mixed Dimensionality. Heal Type as: Auto Heal (default). Click Modeler>Model Healing>Heal to open the Healing Options dialog. Remove Blends checkbox and Maximum Radius value. Remove Chamfers checkbox and Maximum Width value. 1. Manual Heal. and a checkbox to Stop After First Error. The Healing Options dialog contains three tabs: • • • 2. Select the Feature Removal Options tab to specify the following: Here you can specify the following Feature Removal Options. Drawing a Model 7-51 . A checkbox to select Perform Tighten Gaps A field to specify Tighten Gaps Within a given value in mm.

less than a specified area. stitching is not performed and a warning is issued. less than a specified value. If the sheets are separated beyond the stitch tolerance. This closes the dialog and attempts to perform stitching on the selected sheets. You can Control Object Properties Change according to the following settings: • • 4. and percent value. Select the Properties tab to view the geometric properties of the currently selected object. 7-52 Drawing a Model . Related Topics Healing Stitch Sheets Technical Notes: Removing Object Intersections Healing Non-manifold Objects Specifying the Model Resolution Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Stitch Sheets Use the Modeler>Model Healing>Stitch Sheets command to stitch selected sheets. Select two or more sheet objects. Length Less Than. 2. Small Faces Area e Less Than.HFSS Online Help You can specify the following Remove Small Entity Options: • • • Small Edges. This enables the Stitch Sheets command on the Modeler>Model Healing submenu. less than a specified scale factor Sliver Edge Width. You may edit the value in the Stitch dialog or in the Healing Options. Sliver faces have a maximum distance among the long edges that is smaller than the specified tolerance and have at least one short edge and at most three long edges. Click OK. The default value (auto) comes from the Healing dialog Options tab with Manual Healing selected. Allowable Change in Volume checkbox. Sliver Face Width Less Than. 1. 3. Click Modeler>Model Healing>Stitch Sheets This displays a Stitch dialog with a Maximum Stitch Tolerance field. 5. Click OK to apply the specified Healing options and to open the Analysis dialog. A long edge has a length greater than the specified tolerance. Allowable Change in Surface Area checkbox. You can give the tolerance as a absolute value or a factor of the bounding box containing the face. less than a specified value. and percent value. less than either: • • Object Bounding box Scale Factor. A short edge has a length less than the specified tolerance.

You can also use the toolbar icon when you have made an appropriate edge selection Drawing a Model 7-53 . Related Topics Align Faces Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Set Material Override Remove Selected Edges Use this Modeler>Model Healing>Remove Edges command to remove the selected edges. You can also use the toolbar icon when you have made an appropriate face selection Related Topics Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing Remove Selected Faces Use the Modeler>Model Healing>Remove Faces command to remove the selected faces. If overlap between objects is too large to be fixed by healing or by face alignment. you can correct the problem by one of the following methods. In this case. use a subtract operation to remove overlaps. Use the Remove Faces command (Modeler>Model Healing>Remove Faces) or by performing Boolean subtract. 1.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Healing Align Selected Faces Use the Modeler>Model Healing>Align Faces command to align the selected faces. You can also use the toolbar icon when you have made an appropriate face selection If you find object-pair intersections that healing does not fix. Boolean intersect shows the common portion between the bodies. or that can be fixed (by alignment). 2.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Technical Notes: Healing and Meshing Technical Notes: Detecting and Addressing Model Problems to Improve Meshing Technical Notes: Error Types Technical Notes: Error Detection Analyze Objects Analyze Interobject Misalignment Analyze Surface Mesh Healing 7-54 Drawing a Model .

b. create a Source subdirectory. They must be included when you compile the DLL. call it UDPDir.cpp as a template: a.dsw and . e. Rename the file to myUDP.cpp.h files from the UserDefinedPrimitives/Headers directory.dsp from the UserDefinedPrimitives/Examples directory to this new directory. 3. Copy the UserDefinedPrimitiveStructures. Rename the files to myUDP. c. Save myUDP. The modeler includes example C++ source and header files that can be used to generate DLLs.dll using Microsoft Visual C++ Developer Studio: 1. Use the sample source file RectangularSpiral. Open the . they appear in the Draw>User Defined Primitives>UserLib or PersonalLib menu. Use the sample workspace RectangularSpiral. The files are located in the UserDefinedPrimitives/Examples subdirectory under the hfss13 directory. Make sure the new file has write permission. d.dsp and myUDP.dsw and RectangularSpiral. Copy RectangularSpiral. primitives customized to suit any application.. c.dsp respectively.HFSS Online Help Creating a User Defined Primitive The modeler allows you to generate user-defined primitives.h and UserDefinedPrimitiveDLLInclude. Note 5.dsw. Newly created UDPs will appear after a restart. User-defined primitives are accessed using DLLs that you build and compile. Copy RectangularSpiral.dsp files in a text editor. or Draw>User Defined Primitive>Update Menu. Make sure the new files have write permissions. create the primitive myUDP. The resulting directory structure will resemble the following: Drawing a Model 7-55 .dsw as a template: a. 6. The header files include information on the methods that are available for use in your source code. Create a directory to store all of the workspace information. In the UDPDir directory. and replace every occurrence of RectangularSpiral with myDLL. When user defined primitives exist in your UserLib or Personal directory (given the paths specified in Tools>General Options Project Options tab). In the UDPDir directory. 2.dsw and myUDP. 4. create a Headers subdirectory. b. As an example.cpp from the UserDefinedPrimitives/Examples directory to this new directory.

dll using the Win32 Release configuration.dsw myUDP. Build myUDP.h Sources/ myUDP. Related Topics Drawing a Spiral Using User Defined Primitives Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section Using a User-Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross Section Using a User Defined Primitive 7-56 Drawing a Model . Open myUDP. Copy the resulting file myUDP. its purpose. As with the Windows DLL. company/author who created it.so extension for Solaris and a .dsp Headers/ UserDefinedPrimitiveDLLInclude. The resulting shared library will have a . you may use the same example directory structure. and needs to be placed in the same hfss13/userlib/UserDefinedPrimitives directory. To view your primitives.HFSS Online Help UDPDir/ myUDP.dsw using Microsoft Visual C++ Developer Studio. and edit the source code to create your desired primitive. the compiled library will work only on the operating system on which it was built. When you select a primitive from your library. The UDP dll contains a data structure called UDPPrimitiveTypeInfo. click Draw>User Defined Primitive>Update Menu and then click Draw>User Defined Primitive>UserLib. and an Info tab with the information from this data structure. 10.cpp 7. source.sl extension for HP-UX. You may also add additional headers and source files as appropriate. 9. 8. date created and the version number.h UserDefinedPrimitiveStructures. This contains information about the udp. you see the Create Primitive dialog with a Parameters tab for setting the parameters. and header files to build and compile a shared library using C++.dll to the hfss13/userlib/UserDefinedPrimitives directory or the hfss13/personallib/UserDefinedPrimitives directory. Note On UNIX.

UDPs are compiled libraries that can be added to the desktop interface and shared between users with common modeling needs. see Creating a User Defined Primitive for requirements and the procedure for building a proper DLL. To create a UDP. Placing an appropriately constructed DLL in this subdirectory and executing Draw>User Defined Primitives>Update Menu adds a new menu item in the Draw>User Defined Primitives menu to allow access to the UDP.HFSS Online Help User Customization through User Defined Primitives (UDPs) User Defined Primitives (UDPs) allow users to add customized geometric modeling commands to the HFSS Desktop. an existing DLL may be copied into the userlib>User Defined Primitives subdirectory which can be given the paths specified in Tools>General Options Project Options tab. Related Topics Drawing a Spiral Using User Defined Primitives Drawing a Segmented Helix with Polygon Cross-Section Using a User-Defined Primitive Drawing a Segmented Helix with Rectangular Cross Section Using a User Defined Primitive Drawing a Model 7-57 . In order to share UDPs between users.

HFSS Online Help 7-58 Drawing a Model .

Cover faces. Rotate objects. Uncover faces. Move faces or edges. Connect objects. Sweep objects. Unite objects. Drawing a Model 7-59 . What do you want to do? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Assign color to an object. Change the Orientation of an object Mirror objects about a plane. Assign transparency to an object. Offset an object (move every face of an object).HFSS Online Help Modifying Objects You can quickly modify the position. Scale the size of objects. Create objects from intersections. Delete Last Operation Cutting Objects Move objects. and other characteristics of objects created in the 3D Modeler window. Subtract objects. Split objects. Separate objects. Cover lines. Duplicate objects. Create a new object by taking a cross-section of a 3D object. Detach edges. Delete objects. Create an object from a face. Detach faces. dimensions. Create an object from an edge. Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Copy and paste objects.

Select a color from the Color palette. Setting the Default Color of Object Outlines 1. 7-60 Drawing a Model . 2. Click the Display tab. Rounding the edge of an object (Fillet) Flattening the edge of an object (Chamfer) Wrap Command Imprint Projection Commands Imprinting an Object View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects Purge History Generate History Select the object to which you want to assign a color. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. Click the color button beside the Default color pull-down list. 3. Select Object from the Default color pull-down list. If the Properties window not visible on the desktop. Select a color from the Color palette. 3. Any objects you draw after this point will be assigned the default color you selected. 2. click View>Properties Window or use Edit>Properties. The Color palette appears. 4. Convert polyline segments. Assigning Color to Objects 2. click the Attribute tab. Click the color button beside the Default color pull-down list. Click Edit in the Color row. In the Properties dialog box.Click the Display tab. Related Topics Setting the Default Color of Objects Setting the Default Color of Objects 1. and then click OK. The Color palette appears. Select Object Wire from the Default color pull-down list. The color is assigned to the selected object. and then click OK. 3. Click Tools >Options>Modeler Options. 4. 5. The Color palette appears.HFSS Online Help • • • • • • • • • 1.

Move the slider to the left to decrease the transparency of objects.HFSS Online Help 4. 5. 3. Move the slider to the right to increase the transparency of the object. Assigning Transparency to an Object 1. The selected items are not deleted. 1. 5. The outlines of any objects you draw after this point will be assigned the default color you selected. Select the objects you want to copy.Click the Display tab. Click OK. Click Edit>Copy . Move the Default transparency slider to the right to increase the transparency of objects. use the Edit>Copy and Edit>Paste commands. 4. To cut an item to the clipboard and deleting the original. 3. Objects are pasted relative to the current working coordinate system. click View>Properties Window or use Edit>Properties. Drawing a Model 7-61 . Select the object to which you want to assign a transparency. For data link purposes. Related Topics Setting the Default Transparency of Objects Setting the Default Transparency of Objects 1. a temporary storage area. Any objects you draw after this point will be assigned the default transparency you selected. click the Attribute tab. In the Properties dialog box. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. Note 2. Select the working coordinate system. 4. you can use the Import from Clipboard command. 2. where you want to include the material assignments as well as the geometry. If the Properties window not visible on the desktop. and then click OK. Move the slider to the left to decrease the transparency of the object. Select a color from the Color palette. Click in the 3D Modeler window. Copying and Pasting Objects To copy objects and paste them in the same design or another design. Select the design into which you want to paste the objects. The objects are copied to the Clipboard. 2. It can be the same design from which you copied the items. use the scissors icon on the toolbar. The Set Transparency window appears. Click the value in the Transparency row.

or right click on the 3D Modeler window to display the shortcut menu and select Copy Image. This enables the Edit>Copy Image command in the menu bar. 1. Items on the Clipboard can be pasted repeatedly. 2. The selected items are not deleted. Related Topics Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry Import a Model from the Clipboard You can import a model to the Clipboard in order to use a geometry from a different design. To import a model from the Clipboard. a temporary storage area. The objects are copied to the Clipboard. The objects appear in the new window. Related Topics Setup Link Dialog Selecting Items in the 3D Modeler Window Copy Image You can import images of the 3D Modeler window or of Reports into any other application. 5. Click Modeler>Import From Clipboard. To use a geometry with datalink. 4. 2. Click Edit>Copy Image. Click Edit>Paste . The geometry model is imported from the Clipboard with the ID preserved. the geometry ID must be preserved. The geometry model is pasted from the Clipboard with the ID preserved. Select the objects you want to copy. Select the working coordinate system. Objects are imported relative to the current working coordinate system. 7-62 Drawing a Model . To copy an image of the 3D Modeler window and paste into another application: 1. For selecting all objects. Select the design into which you want to paste the objects.HFSS Online Help 6. Make the 3D Modeler window active. 3. 6. Click Edit>Copy . The items currently stored on the Clipboard are replaced by the next items that are cut or copied. you can use Edit>Select All or Ctrl-A. Click in the 3D Modeler window. It can be the same design from which you copied the items. the model for the current design must be empty. so that it can be imported into the other application. The image has to be copied to the clipboard.

reassign them to other objects. 2. The enables the Edit>Copy Image command in the menu bar. Select and open the application into which you want to paste the objects. Make the report the active window. Related Topics Deleting Polyline Segments Deleting Start points and End points Deleting Start Points and Endpoints If you select a polyline in the history tree. • Note Alternatively. click either Delete Start Point to remove the leading segments or Delete End Point to remove the following segments. On the Edit menu or the shortcut menu. or other parameters that were associated with the deleted object. 2. excitations. The objects are deleted. Click Edit>Copy Image. The report is copied to the Clipboard as an image. In the history tree. Drawing a Model 7-63 . select the polyline you want to edit.HFSS Online Help The 3D Modeler window is copied to the Clipboard as an image. and paste the image. The designated segment is removed. 3. Select and open the application into which you want to paste the objects. Expand this part of the history tree. 1. The segment is highlighted. and paste the image. 1. or right click on the Report window to display the shortcut menu and select Copy Image. These permit you to delete portions of the line. 2. Select the objects to delete. locate the polyline that contains the segment you want to delete. the Delete Start Point and Delete End Point commands may be enabled. 3. 3. To copy an image of a Report to paste into another application: Related Topics Copy and Paste of Report and Trace Data Copy and Paste of Report and Trace Definitions Deleting Objects 1. press Delete. In the history tree. and the line changes. To maintain valid boundaries. Click Edit>Delete .

Select the objects to cut. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the anchor point in the dX. dY. including removing that operation from the history. Click Edit>Cut. Click Edit>Arrange>Rotate The Rotate dialog box appears. Click Modeler>Delete Last Operation. Enter the point’s coordinates in the X. Select a target point in one of the following ways: • • All selected objects move the distance determined by the offset between the anchor point and the target point. Select an arbitrary anchor point in one of the following ways: • • 4. The objects are copied to the Clipboard and deleted from the design. or Z. 2. Moving Objects 1. or z-axis using the Edit>Arrange>Rotate command. This undoes the last operation. Click Edit>Arrange>Move . Y. 2. Click the point. where d is the distance from the previously selected point.HFSS Online Help Delete Last Operation To delete the last operation on an object: 1. .Y. Rotating Objects Rotate objects about the x-. Select the objects to rotate. Type the angle to rotate the objects in the Angle box. Click the point. and Z boxes. y-. 4. Select the objects to move. Select the object. 7-64 Drawing a Model . 2. 3. Select the axis about which to rotate the objects: X. 3. To rotate objects about an axis: 1. and updating the context for the Undo and Redo commands. 2. and dZ boxes. Related Topics Undoing Commands Redoing Commands Cutting Objects 1.

To change an object’s orientation. You can select multiple objects. 3. A negative angle causes the object to be rotated in the clockwise direction.HFSS Online Help A positive angle causes the object to be rotated in the counter-clockwise direction. Changing the orientation of an object provides a way for objects made of the same material to be orientated differently. 4. Changing the Orientation of an Object Each object has an Orientation property that specifies the coordinate system it uses is Global. and Z boxes in the status bar. You can do this by clicking a point. use the Edit>Duplicate>Around Axis command. none appear on the list. Click on the Orientation property. 5. Select a point on the plane around which you want to mirror the object. Define the coordinate systems you want to have available. Related Topics Assigning Material Property Types Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Mirroring Objects Mirror an object about a plane using the Edit>Arrange>Mirror command. Select the object or objects that you want to mirror. 2. The selected objects are rotated about the axis. and select from the Drop down list. Drawing a Model 7-65 . The properties of anisotropic materials are specified relative to the objects orientation. 3. This property is useful in dealing with anisotropic materials. Open the properties window for the object. 1. 2. Click Edit>Arrange>Mirror . Click OK to close the dialog and apply the changes. or typing coordinates in the X. Click OK. This command allows you to move an object and change its orientation. To rotate and copy objects. Note The distance between the point on the mirror plane and the point along the normal does not matter — only the vector direction matters. The plane is selected by defining a point on the plane and a normal point. If no Orientations other than Global have been defined. To mirror an object about a plane: 1. or a user defined orientation relative to the Global coordinate. Y.

Moving the mouse rotates an outline of the object to new orientations. So the axis of rotation as you move the cursor is that corner. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the first point in the dX. Hit the Enter key to complete the command.. The selected object is moved to the plane you specified and oriented relative to the normal point you specify. To mirror and copy objects about a plane. and dZ boxes. the mirroring is relative to that point on the object.HFSS Online Help If you select a point on the object. As you move the cursor. 4. designated by the triad from which the handle for rotation extends to the dragging cursor. The distance along the vector does not matter. the initial point is at a distance from the original object. Related Topics Duplicating and Mirroring Objects 7-66 Drawing a Model . dY. the first point clicked after selecting Edit>Arrange>Mirror was on the right-rear bottom corner of the selected object. Clicking the mouse moves the object to location indicated by the outline. In the following example. Select a second point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. use the Edit>Duplicate>Mirror command. In this second example. it drags a diamond-shape on a vector extending from the initial point. As you type in the values. the outline moves to the coordinates.

4. if you duplicate a cylinder twice. 3. if you modify the radius of a parent object’s hole. illustrating which commands affect all duplicates (those performed before the duplication) and which commands would not affect the duplicates (those performed after the duplication). but if so. Click Edit>Arrange>Offset. its duplicates are not affected because this operation took place after the duplicates were created. Drawing a Model 7-67 . and then select a unit from the pull-down list. For example. The Offset dialog box appears. no ports or boundary conditions are duplicated. Select the object you want to offset. that is. Type the distance you want to move the object faces from their origins. the first and third cylinders are not affected by the split. The child object can be designated as attached to the parent object. creating a row of three. Duplicates the parent object around an axis.HFSS Online Help Offsetting Objects Move every face of a 3D object in a direction normal to its surface using the Edit>Arrange>Offset command. the change is applied to the holes of the object’s duplicates because they share the radius specification history. the parent object is duplicated along a line or around an axis the number of times you specify. Duplicates are dependent upon the parameters of their parent object at the time they were created. You can also create a single duplicate that mirrors the parent object about a plane. For example. The faces are moved a specified distance normal to their original planes. they share the parent object’s history at the time of creation. The selected object’s faces are moved the distance you specified. but if you move the faces of the parent object. The child object can be designated as attached to the parent object. To offset every face of an object: 1. Use the Surfaces>Move Faces>Along Normal command if you want to move just one or more faces of an object. Click OK. and then split the second cylinder. This command enables you to move every face of a solid object without having to individually select and move each face. Duplicates a mirror image of the parent object about a plane. Duplicating Objects You can duplicate objects within a design using the Edit>Duplicate commands. no ports or boundary conditions are duplicated. The command hierarchy in the history tree will show the duplication command. Operations performed on duplicates are independent. but if so. When creating duplicates. 2. Choose from the following commands: Edit>Duplicate>Along Line Edit>Duplicate>Around Axis Edit>Duplicate>Mirror Duplicates the parent object along a straight line.

Type the total number of objects. Click Edit>Duplicate>Along Line.HFSS Online Help To copy objects to another design. selecting an anchor point on the object’s edge or within the object makes it easier to select the duplication line. Note There is currently no method for dissolving the parent/duplicate relationship once a duplicate has been created. Select the axis around which you want to duplicate the object: X. use the Edit>Duplicate>Around Axis command. y-. 3. Click Edit>Duplicate>Around Axis . use the Edit>Duplicate>Along Line command. Click OK. The line along which the object is duplicated can be vertical. b. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the anchor point in the dX. The Duplicate Around Axis dialog box appears. A negative angle causes the object to be pasted in the clockwise direction. or z-axis. Any point in the drawing region can be selected. horizontal. 6. or Z. 2. Y. A positive angle causes the object to be pasted in the counter-clockwise direction. however. Duplicating Objects Along a Line To duplicate an object along a straight line. By option check the Attach to Original Object checkbox. If this is checked. Duplicating Objects Around an Axis To duplicate an object around the x-. Select the object you want to duplicate. 1. Type the point’s coordinates in the in the X. 3. 2. This point defines the direction and distance from the anchor point to duplicate the object. a. Select a second point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. Specify the vector along which the object will be duplicated: Select an arbitrary anchor point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. and Z boxes. Y. 5. and dZ boxes. 7-68 Drawing a Model . no ports or boundary conditions are duplicated for the child. The Duplicate Along Line dialog box appears. or lie at an angle. dY. in the Total Number box. The duplicates are placed along the vector you specified. use the Edit>Copy and Edit>Paste commands. 1. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. Type the angle between duplicates in the Angle box. 4. Select the object you want to duplicate. including the original. 4. .

The scale of an object is determined by the distance of each of its vertices from the origin of the model coordinate system. except that this command duplicates an object. The plane is selected by defining a point on the plane and a normal point. If this is checked. The object is duplicated around the axis at the angle you specified. Duplicating and Mirroring Objects To duplicate and mirror an object about a plane. Select the object to scale. If necessary. Select a point on the plane on which you want to mirror the object. set a different working coordinate system to achieve the desired scaling.HFSS Online Help 5. 2. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. Related Topics Mirroring Objects Scaling Objects Scale an object’s dimensions in one or more directions using the Edit>Scale command. each vertex in the model will be moved so that the distance to its origin is doubled. including the original. the distance of each vertex from the origin is multiplied by the scaling factor. rather than moves it. A line drawn from this point to the mirror plane will be perpendicular to the plane. and dZ boxes. 6. only the vector direction matters 3. Click OK. The distance between the point on mirror plane and point along the normal does not matter. This command is similar to Edit>Arrange>Mirror. if you specify a scaling factor of 2 in the X direction. A duplicate of the object appears on the plane you specified. 1. Select the object you want to mirror. By option check the Attach to Original Object checkbox. in the Total Number box. When an object is scaled. 2. This command allows you to duplicate an object and specify the duplicate’s position. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the first point in the dX. For example. 7. no ports or boundary conditions are duplicated for the child. Note that a vertex located at the origin will not move. To scale an object’s dimensions in one or more directions: 1. oriented according to the normal point you specified. You can alter an object’s proportions by scaling it in one direction. use the Edit>Duplicate>Mirror command. Type the total number of objects. dY. Click Edit>Scale. Drawing a Model 7-69 . Select a normal point on the plane in one of the following ways: Click Edit>Duplicate>Mirror • • Click the point. causing the object to be resized and/or moved. The Scale dialog box appears. .

See Sweep Faces Along Normal. Objects that can be swept include circles. The Sweep Around Axis dialog box appears. or Z. if you are sweeping an object around the z-axis. Related Topics Modifying Object Attributes using the Properties Window Sweeping Objects You can sweep a 2D object around an axis. Click Draw>Sweep>Around Axis. arcs. You can also sweep open 1D objects. The object is scaled about the working coordinate system’s origin. You can also thicken sheets to make a 3D object. trapezoids. 3. Y. 2. or z-axis using the Draw>Sweep>Around Axis command. To sweep an object around an axis: 7-70 Drawing a Model . This results in open 2D sheet objects.HFSS Online Help 3. Select the object you want to sweep. Sweeping circles around an axis is a convenient way to create an open coil loop. Related Topics Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Sweeping Around an Axis Sweeping Along a Vector Sweep Along a Path Sweep Faces Along Normal Thicken Sheet Sweeping Around an Axis Sweep a 1D or 2D object around the x-. along a vector. 4. The normal of the object’s plane faces must be perpendicular to the axis around which you are sweeping. The object may not cross the axis around which it is being swept. For example. The 2D object need not be orthogonal to the sweep path. or any 2D object created in the 3D Modeler window. y-. The object and the axis you are sweeping around must lie in the same plane. Click OK. such as xz or yz. Type the scale factor for each axis. or along a path to create a 3D solid object. keep the following guidelines in mind: • • • 1. such as polylines. Before using this command. polylines. rectangles. You can also sweep one or more faces of a 3D object to create a new object. Select the axis you want to sweep the object around: X. the object must lie in a plane that includes the zaxis.

The value must be between -360 and 360 degrees. b. The facetting of the faces will be displayed. If the sweep angle is 360 degrees. The edges of the new profile are rounded.Draw the vector you want to sweep the object along: • • Click the point.HFSS Online Help 4. Y.Click OK. Click OK. 5. This is the angle to which the object’s profile. Select the object you want to sweep. Select one of the following draft types from the pull-down list. The new object has the properties of the original object. Drawing a Model 7-71 . Select the start point by clicking the point or typing its coordinates in the X. and Z boxes. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. a. the new profile will have sharp edges. Sweeping Along a Vector Sweep a 1D or 2D object along a vector using the Draw>Sweep>Along Vector command. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the start point in the dX. The object is swept around the axis. Projects and scripts from previous software versions are treated as if the number of segments were zero. A positive value results in a segmented sweep. The default number of segments is zero. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Extended Round Natural The edges of the new profile are extended with straight tangent lines until they intersect. the number of segments is equal to the value specified. Select the endpoint in one of the following ways: Click Draw>Sweep>Along Vector. 1. Note 8. is expanded or contracted as it is swept. 2. The Properties dialog box appears. if the original object had sharp edges. which creates a true path. For example. half segments appear at the ends. The Sweep Along Vector dialog box appears. Type the draft angle. Type the angle to sweep the object through in the Angle of sweep box. or shape. and dZ boxes. 6. The edges of the new profile are extended along their natural curves until they intersect. The draft type instructs the modeler how to fill in gaps created by expanding or contracting a profile with a draft angle. dY. 7. If the sweep angle is less than 360 degrees. Type the draft angle. while a negative value results in an error. Type the number of segments in the Number of segments text box.

and then select the new polyline. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. Select one of the following draft types from the pull-down list box: Extended Round Natural 7. keep in mind that one of the path’s endpoints must lie in the same plane as the object being swept. 3. The new object will have sharp edges like the original object 7-72 Drawing a Model . Click Draw>Sweep>Along Path. Sweeping Along a Path Sweep a 1D or 2D object along a path that is defined by an open or closed polyline using the Draw>Sweep>Along Path command. The new object will have rounded edges. The object is swept along the path. The other endpoint must lie in a plane perpendicular to the object being swept.HFSS Online Help This is the angle to which the profile is expanded or contracted as it is swept. 3. When you are sweeping an object along a path. The Sweep Along Path dialog box appears. The new object will have rounded edges. 4. This is the number of degrees the profile will rotate as it is swept through the complete path. enabling you to modify the object’s properties. The polyline object used as the path is deleted. This is the angle to which the profile is expanded or contracted as it is swept. Select one of the following draft types from the pull-down list box: Extended Round Natural The new object will have sharp edges like the original object. 6. Type the draft angle. The new object will have sharp edges like the original object. The new object will have sharp edges like the original object The object is swept along the vector. 2. The Properties dialog box appears. To sweep an object along a path: 1. Type the angle of the twist in the path. Click OK. The facetting of the faces will be displayed. The new object has the properties of the original object. The new object has the name and color of the original profile. Select the object you want to sweep. The Properties dialog box appears. 4. Create the polyline you want to use as a path. 5. Click OK. The facetting of the faces will be displayed.

4. and removing rounded corners. The Thicken Sheet dialog appears. It should have smaller dimensions than the 3D object. 3. Select the faces of the object you want to sweep. The Sweep Faces Along Normal dialog box appears. Click Modeler>Surface>Sweep Faces Along Normal. 5. 3. resizing holes.) The sheet object must be in contact with the 3D object. 4. 6. This command is useful for extruding faces. Click OK. Specify the thickness by typing in the field. use the Modeler>Surface>Sweep Faces Along Normal command. Click Select Faces on the shortcut menu. Click Modeler>Surface>Thicken Sheet. Type the distance you want to sweep the object face from its origin. If you want to thicken both sides.HFSS Online Help Sweeping Faces Along Normal To create a new object by sweeping select 3D object’s face a specified distance in a direction normal to its original plane. 5. as shown in the figure. Click OK. To sweep selected object faces in a normal direction: 1. Specify the units by selecting from the drop down menu. Select the sheet or sheets. Related Topics Moving Faces Along the Normal Thicken Sheet To thicken one or more sheet objects to make 3D objects: 1. Note that the adjoining faces will not be sheared or bent. The face is swept the distance you specified to create a new object. The dialog closes and the sheets are changed into 3D objects of the desired thickness. 6. A sheet object that overlaps corners Drawing a Model 7-73 . Wrap Command You can use Modeler>Surface>Wrap command to wrap a sheet object around a suitable 3D object (rectangular or segmented. If the sheet object does not overlap the corners of the 3D object. use the checkbox. 2. 2. the wrap is straightforward.

it is not recommended. Click Modeler>Surface>Wrap. If the object cannot wrap. To wrap a sheet object: 1. Create a sheet in contact with an appropriate 3D object. 2. You can wrap multiple sheets on the same 3D object. Note If you want the modeler to automatically cover all closed polyline objects you draw. use the Modeler>Surface>Cover Lines command. The object is now covered. ellipses. To convert a closed polyline object to a sheet object: 1. and assign properties separately. and regular polygons. Select both objects. The polyline object becomes a 2D sheet object. While it is possible. If you delete the 3D object. rectangles. Select the closed polyline object you want to cover. including circles. depending on both the angle(s) involved. the Message window contains a warning and description. and the sheet object. 7-74 Drawing a Model . Related Topics Imprinting an Object Covering Lines To cover a closed 1D polyline object with a face. A closed polyline object can also be created by using boolean unite operations on two or more polylines. select the Automatically cover closed polylines option in the Modeler Options dialog box. It is now a 2D sheet object that can be swept to form a 3D solid object. 2. 3. The sheet object wraps around the 3D object.HFSS Online Help may not wrap in straightforward fashion. You can select the wrapped sheet object and the 3D object separately. the wrapped sheet retains the form it took when wrapped. Click Modeler>Surface>Cover Lines.

To detach an edge of an object: 1. Switch to face selection mode: Click Edit>Select>Faces. You can select multiple faces to detach.HFSS Online Help Covering Faces To cover object faces. The selected face is uncovered. 2. Uncovering Faces Uncover a surface of a 3D object using the Modeler>Surface>Uncover Faces command. Detaching Edges The Modeler>Edge>Detach Edges command enables you to remove an edge of a wire object. when you select and uncover a face. If you select multiple faces. only the first face will be uncovered. To cover the face of a 2D or 3D object. Switch to edge selection mode: Click Edit>Select>Edges. the box becomes a solid again with six faces. for a box. Drawing a Model 7-75 . Click Modeler>Surface>Uncover Faces. the solid box becomes a sheet with five faces. To cover the faces of objects: 1. Click Modeler>Surface>Cover Faces. resulting in two separate objects. Uncovering the surface of a 3D solid object results in an open 2D sheet object. Select the edge of the object you want to detach. 2. Select a face of the object you want to uncover. Select the faces of the objects you want to cover. The object faces are now covered. Select the face of the object you want to detach. the faces must be united into a 3D sheet object. resulting in two 2D sheet objects. The selected face is now detached. Switch to face selection mode: Click Edit>Select>Faces. Covering the face of an open 2D sheet object that had previously been uncovered results in a 3D solid object. Detaching Faces The Modeler>Surface>Detach Faces command enables you to remove the face of a 3D object. 2. Note You can uncover one face of a 3D object at a time. Click Modeler>Surface>Detach Faces. When you then select that sheet body box and use the Cover Faces command. To detach the face of an object: 1. For example. You can select multiple edges to detach. leaving an open face on the object. To uncover the face of a 3D object: 1. use the Modeler>Surface>Cover Faces command. resulting in two separate wire objects. 2.

Click Modeler>Surface>Connect. Moving object faces enables you to resize. Select the object from which you want to create a cross-section. resulting in multiple wire objects. The second and subsequent objects selected are deleted. The selected edge is now detached. sectioned object is unmodified. or relocate an object. Moving Faces or Edges You can move the faces of a 3D object in a normal direction using the Modeler>Surface>Move Faces commands. Related Topics Setting the Working Coordinate System Connecting Objects Use the Modeler>Surface>Connect command to perform the following operations: • • Connect two or more 1D polyline objects. Click OK. 7-76 Drawing a Model . The first object you selected was modified to create the new object and all subsequently selected objects were deleted. To connect objects: 1. Click Modeler>Edge>Detach Edges. Use this command to create cross-sections of 3D objects on the xy. The second and subsequent polylines selected are deleted. The original. or ZX. yz. The cross-sections are created as 2D closed polyline objects. reshape. 2. A closed polyline object is created from the object that was sliced by the selected axis. A new object is created that connects the objects you selected. Select the objects you want to connect. Select the section plane you will use to divide the object: XY. Click Modeler>Surface>Section. YZ. 2. 3. Make sure the working coordinate system you want to use for the cross-sectioning plane is set. Creating a Cross-Section You can take a cross-section of a 3D object to create a new 2D object. To create a cross-section of an object: 1. Connect two or more 2D sheet objects. HFSS will modify the first 2D object you select to be a 3D solid object that connects to the second and any subsequently selected objects. 4. HFSS will modify the first polyline you select to be a 2D sheet object that connects to the second and any subsequently selected polylines. or xz plane.HFSS Online Help 3. This is done using the Modeler>Surface>Section command. Note Only edges from wire bodies can be used in a detach edge operation.

Type the distance you want to move the object face from its origin. 2.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Moving Faces Along the Normal Moving Faces Along a Vector Offsetting Objects Moving Edges Along the Normal Moving Faces Along the Normal To move a 3D object’s face a specified distance in a direction normal to its original plane. 1. Related Topics Moving Faces Along a Vector Offsetting Objects Moving Edges Along the Normal Drawing a Model 7-77 . Click Select Faces on the shortcut menu. Extruding Faces Resizing Holes Removing Rounded Corners To move every face of an object normal to its surface. The Move Faces Along Normal dialog box appears. as shown below. Note that the adjoining faces will not be sheared or bent. To move an object face in a normal direction: 1. The face will be moved the distance you specified. Click OK. and removing rounded corners. This command is useful for extruding faces. you can operate on faces on the list. The faces that adjoin the original face are extended or shortened along their own planes to meet the new face. 4. use the Edit>Arrange>Offset command. Click Modeler>Surface>Move Faces>Along Normal. Select the face of the object you want to move. right-click on the list and click Select Assignment from the shortcut menu. If you have created a suitable face list. use the Modeler>Surface>Move Faces>Along Normal command. 3. resizing holes.

Note that the adjoining faces will not be sheared or bent. you can operate on faces on the list. b. 2. To move an object face along a vector: 1. Specify the vector along which the face will be moved: a. 3. If you have created a suitable face list. Click Select Faces on the shortcut menu. and Z boxes. Click Modeler>Surface>Move Faces>Along Vector. Relocating Holes To move every face of an object normal to its surface. however. normal to its original plane.HFSS Online Help Moving Faces Along a Vector To move the faces of a 3D object a specified distance along a vector use the Modeler>Surface>Move Faces>Along Vector command. Each selected face is moved along the vector. use the Edit>Arrange>Offset command. selecting an anchor point on the object’s edge or within the object makes it easier to select the vector. Y. Select the face of the object you want to move. The faces that adjoin the original face are extended or shortened along their own planes to meet the new face. and dZ boxes. right-click on the list and click Select Assignment from the shortcut menu. as shown below. This command is useful for relocating holes in an object. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. 4. Related Topics Moving Faces Along the Normal 7-78 Drawing a Model . Select a second point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. Select an arbitrary anchor point in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. Any point in the drawing region can be selected. The face is moved along the vector you specified. This point defines the direction and distance from the anchor point to move the face. dY. Type the coordinates of a point relative to the anchor point in the dX. Type the point’s coordinates in the in the X.

color. 2. or an equation based surface. 4. Drawing a Model 7-79 . To move an object edge in a normal direction: 1. a regular polygon. The edge is extended or shortened along its own plane. Select Clone before unite in the Modeler Options dialog box. Type the distance you want to move the object face from its origin. The Move Faces Along Normal dialog box appears. boundary. use the Modeler>Edge>Move Edge command. use the Modeler>Boolean>Unite command. Click Modeler>Edge>Move Edge. The edge can be on a rectangle. 1. 5. 3. Note that the adjoining faces will not be sheared or bent. Select the edge of the object you want to move. Click Modeler>Boolean>Unite. The objects are united. This option instructs the modeler to always keep a copy of the original objects being joined. Select the objects you want to join. This command is useful for extending or shrinking faces and resizing holes. do one of the following: . The edge of the object is moved based on the value you specified. an ellipse. Click Select Edge on the shortcut menu.HFSS Online Help Offsetting Objects Moving Edges Along the Normal Moving Edges Along Normal To move a 2D object’s edge a specified distance in a direction normal to its original plane. and material assignment of the first object selected. Moving Faces Along the Normal Moving Faces Along a Vector Offsetting Objects Uniting Objects To join two or more objects into one object. the objects being joined to the first object selected are not preserved for later use. Related Topics Select Edges. • • Copy the objects. 2. and then paste them back into the design after uniting them. a circle. Note By default. Click OK. The objects are united at the point of intersection. If you want to keep a copy of the objects being joined to the first object selected. The new object has the name.

6. 2. select Clone tool objects before subtract. Alternatively. . Click OK.HFSS Online Help Subtracting Objects 1. 3. Optionally. type the name of object you want to subtract in the empty text box below the Tool Parts list. and then type the name of the object from which you want to subtract it in the empty text box below the Blank Parts list. Optionally. Hold down the Ctrl key and select the objects you want to subtract. select an object name in either list and use the left and right arrow buttons to move the object name to the opposite list. Objects listed in the Tool Parts list will be subtracted from the object or objects listed in the Blank Parts list. 7-80 Drawing a Model . 4. Select the object from which you want to subtract other objects. This instructs HFSS to always keep a copy of the original objects being subtracted. Click Modeler>Boolean>Subtract The Subtract dialog box appears. • 5.

Note By default.HFSS Online Help The new object (or objects) retains the name. do one of the following: • • Copy the objects. This option instructs HFSS to always keep a copy of the original objects being subtracted. Click Modeler>Boolean>Intersect The original objects vanish. To create an object from an intersection: 1. An intersecting box and cylinder. Select the objects from which you want to take the intersection. Creating Objects from Intersections To create a new object from the intersection of two or more objects. and then paste them back into the design after subtracting them. If you want to keep a copy of the objects being subtracted from the first object selected. and material of the first object selected. If the objects you selected do not overlap. Select Clone before subtract in the Modeler Options dialog box. leaving only the new object that was formed from their intersec- Drawing a Model 7-81 . A box subtracted from a cylinder. color. the objects being subtracted from the first object selected are not preserved for later use. the result is a null object and both objects vanish. . The cylinder was selected first. Warning 2. use the Modeler>Boolean>Intersect command.

Click Modeler>Surface>Create Object From Face.The face is copied. resulting in a new 2D 7-82 Drawing a Model . Note By default.HFSS Online Help tion. the original intersecting objects are not preserved for later use. If you select multiple faces. and then paste them back into the design after creating the new object from the intersection. Object formed from the intersection of the box and cylinder. Creating an Object from a Face The Modeler>Surface>Create Object from Face command copies a selected face. and select Select Faces on the shortcut menu. An intersecting box and cylinder. Right-click in the modeler window. Select Clone before intersect in the Modeler Options dialog box. 2. If you want to keep a copy of the objects that intersect the first object selected. do one of the following: • • Copy the objects. To create a new object from a face: 1. This option instructs the modeler to always keep a copy of the original objects that intersect the first object selected. each becomes a new object. resulting in a new 2D sheet object. Select the object face you want to copy.

Select one of the following Keep fragments options to specify which object fragments you want to keep (those on the positive side of the selected plane. yz. Then assign the boundary to the new object. Click Modeler>Edge>Create Object From Edge. 2. first select the faces. or xz plane. or XZ as the Split plane.HFSS Online Help sheet object. If you select multiple edges. and then create an object from them using the procedure above. 3. Next. 4. 2. 1. • • • Positive side Negative side Both Drawing a Model 7-83 . Hint This command is useful for assigning a boundary to the intersection of two faces. Select the object edge you want to copy. and select Select Edges on the shortcut menu. To create a new object from an edge: 1. Right-click in the modeler window. Select the object you want to split. YZ. Related Topics Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Creating an Object from a Face Splitting Objects To an object or objects that lie on the xy. Click Modeler>Boolean>Split The Split dialog box appears. make sure the Clone before intersect option is clear in the Modeler Options window. 3. The resulting object appears in the history tree as a line object. or all pieces on both sides of the plane): . You can select more than one. use the Modeler>Boolean>Split command. and then use the Modeler>Boolean>Intersect command to modify the object so that it includes only the intersection of the two faces. each becomes a new object. resulting in a new 2D sheet object. The edge is copied. Related Topics Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Creating an Object from an Edge Creating an Object from an Edge The Modeler>Edge>Create Object From Edge command copies a selected edge. those on the negative side of the plane. Select XY. To do this.

By design. 7-84 Drawing a Model . The Split objects crossing split plane option allows you to identify selected objects that do not cross the split plane and ignore them for the operation. 6. For a multiple selection. only those objects that cross the split plane are split.HFSS Online Help 5. Click OK. some objects not crossing the split may be deleted. Note In previous versions of the modeler. Split objects crossing split plane Select this option so that objects of the selection that do not cross the split plane are preserved after the split operation is performed. In complex geometries.. Also. splits in existing designs from previous versions are not changed. The objects are divided as specified. both parts are retained. depending on the options specified. In some cases. Other objects were ignored during the operation. A cylinder split along the positive side of the yz plane. others are kept intact.e. you may want to select everything and perform a split. the split operation only affected the selected objects that crossed the selected split plane. operations are still performed on selected objects that do not cross the split plane (i. Select one of the following Split objects options: • • Split entire selection Select this option if you do not want to preserve objects that are not crossing the split plane and still part of the selection. yielding the original object and an invalid object).

In the Properties dialog box. You can convert a polyline segment from one type to another. 2. Converting Polyline Segments A polyline is a single object that includes any combination of straight line. Select the desired polyline segment type from the pull-down list. locate the polyline that contains the segment you want to convert. Straight line segments to arc line or spline segments. 2. Click Modeler>Boolean>Separate Bodies. Spline segments to straight line segments. In the history tree. The following conversions are supported: • • • 1. arc line. In the history tree. The object is separated. Arc line segments to straight line or spline segments. each with one lump. The Properties dialog appears. or spline segments. To convert polyline segments: 3. Expand this part of the history tree. that were created from one object. click in the Value text box of the Segment Type row. Drawing a Model 7-85 . This figure shows two separate bodies. and then click Properties. 4.HFSS Online Help Separating Bodies To separate an object with multiple lumps into individual bodies: 1. right-click the polyline segment operation you want to change. Select the object you want to separate.

You can control the setback distance. Vertices are replaced by more complicated new faces. This means that the edges and vertices are going to be replaced by new rounded surfaces. 5. Note Converting an arc line or spline segment to a straight line segment results in two straight line segments. 3. of which the radius can be customized (see the Fillet Radius property). Click OK to dismiss the properties panel and implement the changes. To round the edge of an object: 5. . enter a number of 2 or greater in the Number of Segments parameter. The setback distance controls the shape of the vertex. The fillet command is disabled if an edge is not selected. Vertices are only going to be replaced by new rounded surfaces if all the edges connecting to the original vertex are selected. 4. undo the change using the Edit>Undo command or press CTRL-Z. The default is millimeters. If it is less than the fillet radius it has no effect. the vertex is preserved but moved (if necessary). one segment is created between the start point and midpoint and one segment is created between the midpoint and endpoint. and select Select Edges from the shortcut menu. Enter a value for the setback distance. Select the edge you want to change. Click 3D Model>Fillet or click the fillet icon The Fillet Properties dialog is displayed. This highlights the edge and enables the Fillet command. curved surfaces are treated as smooth (True) surfaces. Click OK to apply the change to the edge. You will get an error if it is greater then the length of the edge. The edges are replaced by quarter-cylindrical surfaces. so that the original faces of the object reconnect in a smooth manner. Related Topics Assigning a Cross Section and Dimension to a Polyline Creating Segmented Geometry Surface Approximation Rounding the Edge of Objects (Fillet Command) The fillet command rounds the object at the original edges and vertices. 2. If the changes are not what was expected.HFSS Online Help The polyline segment you selected is changed to the new type. Right-click the desktop. By default. 6. Enter a value for the Fillet Radius in the text field and select units from the drop down menu. If segmented surfaces are desired. To switch to edge selection mode: • 1. It is the distance of the cross curve from the vertex at the end of the edge. otherwise. The dialog closes and the object is rounded by the radius value relative to the edge you 7-86 Drawing a Model .

To switch to edge selection mode: • 1. and the Chamfer command is enabled. The Chamfer Properties dialog box appears. 4. 2. The chamfer command is disabled if an edge is not selected. and the object is flattened by the radius value relative to the edge you selected. you could draw a polyhedron intersecting a cylinder. Type a value in the Chamfer value text box. and then imprint the intersecting lines on the cylinder. The edge is highlighted. For example. otherwise.HFSS Online Help selected. Right-click the desktop. The Chamfer Properties dialog box closes. Vertices are only going to be replaced by new flat surfaces if all the edges connecting to the original vertex are selected. so that the original faces of the object reconnect through the newly introduced flat surfaces. Click OK to apply the change to the edge. Select the edge you want to change. 3. and select Select Edges from the shortcut menu. You can control the chamfer value. Drawing a Model 7-87 . Flattening the Edge of Objects (Chamfer Command) The chamfer command flattens the edges and vertices of the object. the vertex is preserved but moved (if necessary). To flatten an object's edge. This means that the edges and vertices are going to be replaced by new flat surfaces. Click Modeler>Chamfer or click the Chamfer the selected edges icon on the Modeler Blending toolbar. Imprinting an Object The Boolean>Imprint command lets you imprint the geometry of one object upon another. and select the units from the pull-down list.

This displays the Imprint dialog in which you designate which objects are the Blank Parts. Select the intersecting objects. To imprint one object with another: 1. Click OK. This closes the dialog and performs the boolean imprinting. 2. you can clone the tool objects before the imprint operation. 3. you can select the objects in lists.HFSS Online Help You can select the faces of the imprinted surface separately and assign properties as needed... 7-88 Drawing a Model . Click Modeler>Boolean>Imprint. If desired. and use the arrow keys to move them. and which the Tool Parts. If necessary.

2. If you select Along DirecDrawing a Model 7-89 . the History tree retains the Imprint Object command and the create command for the imprinted object If you select the Imprint command in the History tree. Related Topics View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects Imprint Projection Commands Imprint Projection commands The Boolean>Imprint Projection commands lets you project the form of one object to another surface. 1. Select the intersecting objects. If you select the Create <object> icon for the object. The changes applied to the object carry over to the imprinting. you can suppress the command via the Properties window. the projection occurs along the normal. and edit properties as needed.. If projected shape extends beyond the face of the receiving object. the shape wraps.HFSS Online Help After you perform the imprinting. The receiving surface can be curved or faceted. If the surface is curved. you can edit the properties of that object. If you select Along Normal.You can select the faces of the imprinted object separately. Click Modeler>Boolean>Imprint Projection>Along Normal or Modeler>Boolean>Imprint Projection>Along Direction. the dimensions of the projection will be affected..

If you select the Create <object> icon for the object. you see a dialog for specifying the distance for the projection. Related Topics Working with the History Tree Generate History Generate History to Reproduce Portions of Model If a polyline object (line. you can suppress the command via the Properties window. The changes applied to the object carry over to the imprinting. If there is an object for which you want to keep the history. Related Topics View and Edit Commands on History Tree Objects Imprinting an Object Purge History Each object is a sequence of modeler-based operations. or ellipse is imported or history was previously purged. After you perform the imprinting. You can use the Purge History command to remove the history of operations while not affecting the geometry itself. Specify a distance and select units from the drop down menu and click OK. To purge the history: 1. Select Modeler>Purge History. you should make a copy of the object for that purpose before purging. 3. the History tree shows the Imprint Object command and the create command for the imprinted object If you select the Imprint Projection command in the History tree. circle. you can edit the properties of that object. 7-90 Drawing a Model . you can click on the polyline object and select Generate History to reproduce the individual line segments used to create the polyline in the model history tree. This closes the dialog and performs the boolean imprinting. or arc). and the context for the Undo and Redo commands is updated.The history for the model is purged.HFSS Online Help tion. Once you have defined a line by clicking two points. The history for each object is shown under its name in the model tree. spline. Select the object. you need to specify two points that describe the direction. This is useful when you wish to perform healing operations on the object. 2.

HFSS Online Help To reproduce the line segments in the model history tree: 1. Related Topics Purge History Draw Polyline Drawing a Model 7-91 . Click Modeler>Generate History. Select the polyline object.

HFSS Online Help 7-92 Drawing a Model .

Right-click in the view window. Select Edges. which indicates that it will be selected when you click.HFSS Online Help Selecting Items in the 3D Modeler Window To modify or learn more about an item’s properties. edges or vertices) Coordinates in the drawing space. Tooltips. Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. that object is highlighted. This feature helps you distinguish between face-of-sheet-object pick versus sheet-object pick. All commands you choose while an item is selected are performed on or in reference to the selected item. indicate the type/ID of entity (object name in the case of objects. you must first select it. Select Vertices. Select Object from the pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Selection toolbar. All other objects become relatively transparent. Related Topics Selecting Several Objects Selecting Objects by Name Selecting All Faces of an Object Creating an Object List Selecting the Face or Object Behind Drawing a Model 7-93 . Face_id in the case of faces. the modeler is in object selection mode. Select By Area Select by Variable Select by History Tree Group Select by intersection error message. Selecting Objects By default. Simply click an object in the view window or an object name in the history tree and it will be selected. If the modeler is not currently in object selection mode. Select Faces. as you hover the cursor over an entity. faces. you can switch to it using one of the following methods: • • • • Press the shortcut key O. Click Edit > Select>Objects. When the mouse hovers over an object in the view window. Selected objects become the color specified under the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. What selection mode do you want to use? • • • • • • • • • • Select Objects. and so on). and then click Select Objects.

Press CTRL+A or click Edit>Select All Visible to select all objects that are visible in the active view window. the selected objects are opaque and all other objects become relatively transparent. If you are selecting objects in the Modeler window make sure that the modeler is in object selection mode by pressing the shortcut key O.The settings for the relative opacity and transparency of selected and non-selected objects appear in the 3D UI Options dialog box. and click the object names in the history tree that you want to select. select AllObjects. Use View>Options to display the 3D UI Options dialog. Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. Selected objects become the color that is specified for selected objects under the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. Select Vertices. Click Edit>Select All to select all objects that were drawn in the active view window. do one of the following: • Click Edit>Deselect All. Use Tools>Options>Modeler Options to display the dialog and set the default color. In the History tree. Select Vertices. edges or vertices) Select By Area Selecting Objects and Surfaces that Lie Inside Other Objects Clearing a Selection Selecting Several Objects 1. This is an automatically created list that lets you selects all object. 7-94 Drawing a Model . Related Topics Selecting Objects by Name Selecting All Faces of an Object Creating an Object List Selecting the Face or Object Behind Select Edges. • • • • • • Hold down Ctrl. and click the objects in the view window that you want to select.HFSS Online Help Select Edges. faces. under Lists. You can always select objects in the History tree. and then Shift-click to extend the selection of visible items. To deselect all objects. including objects that are not currently visible. By default. Select several objects in one of the following ways: 2. In the History tree. Press Ctrl+Shift+A. select a range of objects by first clicking one object to select it. Hold down Ctrl.

edges or vertices) Select By Area Selecting All Objects in a History Tree Group Selecting Objects by Name 1. Use the Ctrl key to select more than one. select Object from the dropdown menu to the right of the icon. and Vertices. Make sure that the modeler is in object selection mode by pressing the shortcut key O. type the name of an object you want to select in the empty text box. Alternatively. Select Vertices. However you can con- Drawing a Model 7-95 .HFSS Online Help Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. but not for Select Multi. 2. faces. Edges. only items with external surfaces are selected. Related Topics Selecting Several Objects Selecting Objects by Name Selecting All Faces of an Object Creating an Object List Selecting the Face or Object Behind Select Edges. Click Edit>Select>By Name By Name or in the toolbar. 3. and click the icon. Faces. Select By Area works with Selection mode for Objects. • 4. Click OK. Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. click the name of the object you want to select. faces. The object is selected. In the Name list. The Select Object dialog box appears. edges or vertices) Select By Area Select By Area You can select items by area in the Modeler window clicking and rubber-band dragging around objects. By default.

5. and/or lines. Check Object name filters to enable the Exclude and Include check boxes. Sheets. Check Material filters to enable the Include and Exclude radio buttons. Use the text field to specify filters by name. Now when you left-click and drag around an area. or object types. and text fields in which you can specify object names. 7. Related Topics Selecting Items in the 3D Modeler Window Selecting Several Objects 7-96 Drawing a Model . 6. To do this: 1. Click OK to close the dialog. 4.. and those objects are shown as selected in the History tree. those objects which meet the filter criteria are highlighted in the Modeler window. Check Object type filters to enable the check boxes for including Solids.] button to display the Materials manager for selections. 3.HFSS Online Help trol which objects to include or exclude from area selection based on material. or use the ellipsis [.. the settings persist for the project until you change the settings and Save as Default again. Click Edit>Select By Area Filter to display this dialog: 2. object names. If you click Save As Default. Check Hide unfiltered objects to make unfiltered objects transparent after selection.

When you right-click on a solid grouping. For example. Related Topics Selecting Several Objects Selecting Objects by Name Select By Area Selecting All Faces of an Object Drawing a Model 7-97 . this history tree has Solids grouped by object. or unclassified objects to see a shortcut menu command that lets you Select All members of that category. non-model objects. This history tree has Group Sheets by Assignment checked. the menu lets you check whether to group objects by assignment. Right click on the group for solids.HFSS Online Help Selecting Objects by Name Selecting All Faces of an Object Creating an Object List Selecting All Objects in a History Tree Group The history tree groups objects in several categories. This history tree groups Sheet objects by object. lines. Selected objects are highlighted in the modeler window view area. sheets. Under each group. This history tree has Group Objects by Material checked. you can also Select All for objects of same the material or parts of same assignment at once.

1. which makes them almost opaque. Enter a new value. 1.HFSS Online Help Creating an Object List Setting the Default Color and Transparency of Selected Objects Setting the Default Color of Highlighted Objects Working with the History Tree Setting the Default Color and Transparency of Selected Objects To set the color of objects when they are selected: 1. The default transparency for selected objects is 0. and then click OK. 3. Click Select on the Default color pull-down list. which makes them highly transparent. Click the Display tab. The Modeler Options dialog box appears. 3. By default. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. the modeler shows selected objects as nearly opaque and shows non-selected objects as nearly transparent. The default transparency for non-selected objects is 0. 7-98 Drawing a Model Setting the Default Color of Highlighted Objects .9. 6. 4. Select a color from the Color palette. and then click OK to return to the Modeler Options dialog box. The Color palette appears. This enables the value field. Click the color button beside the Default color pull-down list. and click OK to apply the new transparency values. 2. Click OK. Outlines of all object you hover over temporarily become the default color you specified above. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. The When there is a selection region contains checkboxes for setting the transparency for selected and non-selected objects. Click the color button beside the Default color pull-down list. The Modeler Options dialog box appears. Select a color from the Color palette. The Color palette appears. Click the checkbox for the value you want to change. To set the transparency of selected and non-selected objects: 1. Click Highlight on the Default color pull-down list. The 3D UI Options dialog appears. 4. 2. 2. Click View>Options. This features helps you distinguish between selected and non-selected objects. 5. Any objects you select after this point will temporarily become the default color you selected.

This is not necessary for selecting in the History tree. This is not necessary for selecting in the History tree. and so forth. The object list is treated as one volume when you plot and perform fields calculations. make sure that the modeler is in object selection mode by pressing the shortcut key O. 3. 3. Example: To plot the E-field on a surface formed by the intersection of the xy-plane and several objects. (They appear in the history tree under Lists.) 4. Creating an object list is a convenient way to identify and select a group of objects for a field plot or calculation. To reassign objects to an existing object list: 1. Fields will be plotted only at the intersection of the plane and the objects in the list. If you are selecting in the Modeler window. The same object can be included in several different lists. The same object can be included in several different lists. make sure that the modeler is in object selection mode by pressing the shortcut key O. One of the properties is a list of objects contained in the list. It is listed in the history tree under Lists. Objects in a list can still be treated as separate objects. Select the objects you want to reassign. To create an object list: 1. the volume calculation only uses the geometry of the highest dimension in plots or integral. Related Topics Reassigning Objects to Another Object List Using or Viewing List Objects Reassigning Objects to Another Object List You can assign objects after you have created object lists. Click Modeler>List>Reassign A dialog with the existing object lists is displayed. Click Modeler>List>Create>Object List. Select the list to which you want to assign the selected object(s) and click OK. Creating an object list is a convenient way to identify and select a group of objects for a field plot or calculation. when plotting fields. Objects in a list can still be treated as separate objects. If you are selecting in the Modeler window. Then. first define a list of these objects. 2. Selecting it selects all objects. select the object list name from the Geometry window of the Fields Calculator. Selecting an object list displays the properties of that list in the Properties window. There is an automatically created list called AllObjects. volume and sheet objects. It will be listed in the Geometry window of the Fields Calculator when you select Volume. To rename the Object list. Select the objects you want to include in the list. If a list contains mixed types of geometry. for example. The object list is created with the default name Objectlistn. 2. edit the Name property in the Properties window for the list. Drawing a Model 7-99 .HFSS Online Help Creating an Object List Create an object list when you want to define a list of objects. Object lists are sorted in alphanumeric order.

The objects that are included in that list are highlighted in the modeler. and the properties appear in the desktop. For example. The objects that are included in that list are highlighted in the modeler. The object list will be treated as one volume when you are plotting and performing fields calculations. or you can make face selections from a Face ID list in the By Face dialog. The Properties window appears for that object list. expand the Lists tree. Complete the operation. 2. and then specify one of the boolean commands (such as unite or subtract). The objects included are listed in the Objects row. 2. To use an object from a list in another operation: 3. and click Select Assignment. The Objects Property in for the List shows the objects contained in the list. 4. Related Topics Creating an Object List Using or Viewing List Objects Using or Viewing List Objects To view the objects included in an Object list: 1. 1. In the model history tree. Right-click in the view window. You also have the option to create face lists. Right-click the list you want to select. hold the CTRL key as you click the faces. you could select an object list and another object. Click OK or Cancel to close the Properties window. To select multiple faces. when you select Volume.HFSS Online Help The object is reassigned to the selected list. It will be listed in the Geometry window of the Fields Calculator. expand the Lists tree. In the model tree. Selecting Faces If the modeler is in face selection mode. right-click the list object you want to view. Select any other objects you want to use in the operation. 7-100 Drawing a Model . In the model tree. 2. Under Lists. and click Properties. expand the Lists tree. which define a list of object faces. Right-click the list you want to select. and the properties appear in the desktop. To view the properties of the object list (including a list of the objects included): 1. replacing previous list members. click an object face in the view window to select it. and click Select Assignment. and then click Select Faces. Switch to face selection mode using one of the following methods: • • Press the shortcut key F. 3.

faces. Select an object in the Object Name list. To use the dialog. The Face ID list is then populated with the faces in that object. or shift-click to select a range of faces. click a face on the object of interest. Select Vertices. • • Alternatively. 3. Select Face from the pull-down list to the right of the select objects icon Modeler Selection toolbar. Related Topics Selecting All Faces of an Object Selecting the Face or Object Behind Selecting Faces by Name Selecting Faces by Plane Creating a Face List Face Selection Toolbar Icons Select Edges. right-click in the view window. Use Ctrl-click to select additional faces. and click the icon. 4. in the 3D You can also select faces in the Select Multi mode.HFSS Online Help • • Click Edit>Select>Faces. no objects should be selected to start. faces. select use the face selection toolbar icons. and then click All Object Faces on the shortcut menu. This contains a list of the available objects. Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. edges or vertices) with the faces you want to select. Click Edit>Select>By Face menu to the right of the or in the toolbar. edges or vertices) Selecting All Faces of an Object 1. As another alternative. Optionally. If you selected multiple objects. 2. 3. select the object (or objects. When the mouse hovers over a face in the view window. 2. 4. select Face or Multi from the drop-down icon. If an object is not selected. which indicates that it will be selected when you click. All the faces of the object are selected. Selecting a face ID from the list highlights the face in the 3D window. that face is highlighted. You can also use the By Face dialog to select from a list of faces associated with an object: 1. Switch to face selection mode by pressing the shortcut key F. all faces of those Drawing a Model 7-101 . This displays the By Face dialog. Click Edit>Select>All Object Faces. Selected faces become the color specified under the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. All other objects and faces become relatively transparent.

The selected faces are highlighted. In the Object name list. Click OK. or Global:XZ) to display the selected global plane. The object’s faces are listed in the Face ID column. Related Topics Selecting Faces Creating a Face List or in the toolbar. You can select more than one. Global:YZ. click the name of the object with the face you want to select. use one of the following two methods. expand the Planes icon. Related Topics Selecting Faces Creating a Face List 7-102 Drawing a Model . In the History Tree. 5. 3. 1. 2. 2. 2. expand the Planes icon. select Face from the dropdown menu to icon and click the icon. click Faces on Plane. Make sure that the modeler is in face selection mode by pressing the shortcut key F. Related Topics Selecting Faces Selecting the Face or Object Behind Creating a Face List Face Selection Toolbar Icons Selecting Faces by Name 1. 3. Global:YZ. Click Edit>Select>By Name the right of the object selection The Select Face dialog box appears. The face is selected in the view window. Make sure that the modeler is in face selection mode by pressing the shortcut key F. The selected faces are highlighted. Selecting Faces by Plane To select a face that is aligned with a global plane. or Global:XZ) to select the global plane and display a pull-down menu. Right-click on a plane (Global:XY. 3. Click Edit>Select>Faces on Plane. In the History Tree. On the pulldown menu. 4. Click the face you want to select in the Face ID column.HFSS Online Help objects are selected. Left-click on a plane (Global:XY. Alternative method: 1.

faces. The same face can be included in several different lists. Select vertices selects the vertices of the selected face or faces. The additional selection modes are available under Edit->Select and via the toolbar icons. edges and vertices. Select Vertices. Select connected edges selects the edges of the selected face or faces. Select face chain Select connected faces Select connected edges Select connected vertices You can use these icons to modify the selection: • • • • Select face chain selects faces that touch each other. connected edges for a face/edge/vertex and connected vertices for a face/edge/vertex. In particular it is useful to find the connected faces for a face or edge or vertex. edges or vertices) Creating a Face List Create a face list when you want to define a list of object faces.HFSS Online Help Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. Select connected faces selects faces connected to the current selection. Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. Creating a face list is a convenient way to identify and select a specific set of surfaces for a field plot or calculation. It allows faces that are part of a "protrusion" to be selected. Related Topics Selecting All Faces of an Object Selecting the Face or Object Behind Selecting Faces by Name Selecting Faces by Plane Creating a Face List Select Edges. Drawing a Model 7-103 . faces. it is sometimes useful to examine faces. Selecting an object face enables the face selection icons in the toolbar. edges or vertices) Face Selection Toolbar Icons While working on analyzing complex objects.

To change the name of a face list (for example. that edge is highlighted. Select Edge from the pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Selection toolbar. To select multiple edges. The default name is Facelistn. Selecting an edge enables the following toolbar icons. The face list will be listed in the Geometry window of the Fields Calculator. When the mouse hovers over an edge in the view window. when you select Surface. you can make boundary assignments or execute the Move Faces geometry operations for faces on the list. Select the object faces you want to include in the face list. 2. click Edit>Select>Edges Press the “E” key to enter edge selection mode. The lists appear in alphanumeric order. select the list in the History Tree and Edit Properties.HFSS Online Help To create a face list: 1. which indicates that it will be selected when you click. Selected edges become the color specified under the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. Click Modeler>List>Create>Face List. Make sure that the modeler is in face selection mode by pressing the shortcut key F. The face list will be treated as one selection of surfaces when you are plotting and performing fields calculations. All other objects become relatively transparent. Editing the Name property changes the name. hold the CTRL key as you click the edges. 3. It is listed in the history tree under Lists. simply click an object’s edge in the view window and it will be selected. If you right-click on an existing face list and click Select Assignment from the shortcut menu. Switch to edge selection mode using one of the following methods: • • • From the menu bar. the list order in the History tree changes for the new name. 7-104 Drawing a Model . Related Topics Selecting Faces Radiated Fields Post Processing Setting Up a Near-Field Sphere Setting up a Far-Field Infinite Sphere Selecting Edges If the modeler is in edge selection mode. The face list is created. If necessary. to a name describing the listed faces as ports or boundaries).

1.HFSS Online Help Select edge chain Select connected faces Select connected edges Select connected vertices You can use these icons to modify the current selection. • Alternatively. all edges of those objects are selected. Select the object or face with the edges you want to select. right-click in the view window. You may also select a single edge of the object or face. Select connected faces selects faces touching to the current selection. Select connected edges selects the edges that touch the current selection. 2. edges or vertices) Selecting All Edges of an Object or Face This option allows you to select all edges of an object or face after first selecting the object or face. Related Topics Selecting Faces Drawing a Model 7-105 . Select vertices selects the vertices of the selected edge or edges. Click Edit>Select>All Object Edges or Edit>Select>All Face Edges. faces. • • • • Select edge chain selects the edges that touch the selected edge. All the edges of the object or face are selected. Related Topics Moving Edges Along the Normal Selecting All Faces of an Object Selecting the Face or Object Behind Selecting Faces by Name Selecting Faces by Plane Creating a Face List Select Edges Select Vertices Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. If you selected multiple objects. and then click All Object Edges or All Face Edges on the shortcut menu.

All other objects become relatively transparent. • • • Select connected faces selects faces touching to the current selection. Related Topics Selecting All Faces of an Object Selecting the Face or Object Behind Selecting Faces by Name Selecting Faces by Plane Creating a Face List Select Edges Select Vertices Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. hold the CTRL key as you click the vertices. Select vertices selects the vertices of edges that touch the current selection. Select Vertex from the pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Selection toolbar. Press the “V” key to enter vertex selection mode. To select multiple vertices. Select connected faces Select connected edges Select connected vertices You can use these icons to modify the current selection. Select connected edges selects the edges that touch the current selection. Switch to vertex selection mode using one of the following methods: • • • Click Edit > Select>Vertices. simply click an object’s vertex in the view window and it will be selected. faces. Selecting a vertex enables the following selection icons. that vertex is highlighted.HFSS Online Help Selecting the Face or Object Behind Creating a Face List Face Selection Toolbar Icons Selecting Vertices If the modeler is in vertex selection mode. Selected vertices become the color specified under the Display tab of the Modeler Options dialog box. edges or vertices) 7-106 Drawing a Model . which indicates that it will be selected when you click. When the mouse hovers over a vertex in the view window.

within 10 pixel radius. depending on where you click. Face_id in the case of faces. as you hover the cursor over an entity. and Vertex to the right of the Multi mode selection menu. or Vertex selection by clicking the associated icon. 3. or edges. Click Edit>Select>Multi. Edge. click near an edge (and 10 pixels away from vertex). indicate the type/ID of entity (object name in the case of objects. You can also add the Mode selection menus from the Commands tab by selecting 3D Modeler Selection from the Category list. This very useful in conjunction with Measure Mode. Edge. click anywhere else on the interior of face. Unchecking a box cancels the selection behavior for that category. To select a vertex.HFSS Online Help Selecting Multi (a Mode for Selecting Objects. To add the Multi Mode selection menu and icons to the toolbar: 1. This displays the Customize dialog with the Toolbars tab selected. you can enable or disable Object. This displays a dialog with check boxes for Object. and so on). To select an object. By holding down the Ctrl key. Related Topics Controlling the Selection in Multi Mode Controlling the Selection in Multi Mode You can control the behavior of this mode by clicking Edit>Select Multi Mode Settings. Drawing a Model 7-107 . This adds the Mode selection menu and icons to the toolbar. between 10 and 20 pixels. and then click Select Multi. and Vertex. Right-click in the view window. vertices. To select an edge. With Multi mode active: Tooltips. To select a face. Vertices or Edges) The Select Multi mode permits you to select objects. Enter Select Multi mode by one of the following methods: • • • • • • • • Press the shortcut key M. Face. and dragging the icons to the toolbar. When Multi is selected as the mode. click little farther from edge. This feature helps you distinguish between face-of-sheet-object pick versus sheet-object pick. Select Multi from the pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Selection toolbar. click near a vertex. You can also control the behavior of this mode by clicking the icons for Object. Select 3D Modeler Selection mode from the toolbars list by checking it. 2. Select Tools>Customize. for measuring the distances between different entities. Edge. Face. you can make multiple selections. faces. Face. Faces.

Vertex. Edge.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Selecting All Faces of an Object Selecting the Face or Object Behind Selecting Faces by Name Selecting Faces by Plane Creating a Face List Select Edges Select Vertices Selecting the Face or Object Behind Clearing a Selection Measure Modes Clearing a Selection To clear an object. Selecting the Face. vertex. or vertex selection. • • Press the shortcut key B. or object behind another selected face. or object that is in the interior of a model. edge. the one selected relatively close to the cursor. Related Topics Selecting Objects and Surfaces that Lie Inside Other Objects 7-108 Drawing a Model . Right-click in the view window and click Next Behind. vertex. When there are multiple faces behind. or object. Press Shift+Ctrl+A. click a point away from the object name in the history tree. the one selected is relatively close to where you rightclick. Click Edit>Deselect All. edge. This option is useful when you are trying to select a face. face. edge. To clear an object selection. vertex. The items are no longer selected. Press Ctrl+B. do one of the following: • • Click Edit>Select>Next Behind. or Object Behind To select the face. edge. do one of the following: • • • • Click the view window at a point where an object does not exist. or when you do not want to change the model view to select an item. When there are multiple faces behind.

• Right-click an object or surface. This is useful when you want to select objects using the mouse. which lists the variables in your design. This command chooses objects or faces depending on the graphical pick mode. By default. you do do so as follows: 1. You can resize and move the dialog.HFSS Online Help Selecting Objects and Surfaces That Lie Inside Other Objects To select objects and surfaces that lie inside other objects (such as an object that lies within an air box. do one of the following: • Click the object directly. All Object Faces Faces on Plane The snap mode defines how items are selected by the mouse. You can also use the keyboard shortcut B. or the background object). If your design includes variables. you can select the interior surfaces or objects by clicking on them. and use one of the Select commands on the shortcut menu. Click Edit>Select>By Variable. Next Behind does nothing if no object has previously been selected or if the object you select has nothing behind it. This displays the Select by Variable dialog. • • Use the Edit>Select>By Name command to select objects or surfaces inside the model. do one of the following: • Make the objects on the outside of the model invisible using the View>Visibility commands. The following commands appear on the shortcut menu: • • • Select Objects Select Faces Next Behind: Use this command to select the object or face that lies behind the currently selected object or face. Both columns are sortable by clicking the header. This selects the object that lies behind the one you initially selected. This command does nothing if no objects have previously been selected. Since the mouse cannot select invisible objects. Use the Next Behind command on the shortcut menu. a conductive shield. • • Selecting Objects by Variable You can select an object based on a variable that affects it. When you next Drawing a Model 7-109 . Related Topics Selecting the Face or Object Behind Using the Mouse to Select Objects To select objects or surfaces. Grid and Vertex snaps are enabled.

the additional object can be highlighted. without clearing the current selection(s). When you next open it. You can resize and move the dialog. Select the variable of interest. If you execute the command again. and the object affected by the variable is highlighted in the Modeler window.HFSS Online Help open it. 2. The Message window contains a reference that you can select and use to go to the affected object. it uses that size and location. The dialog closes. and click OK. 7-110 Drawing a Model . it uses that size and location.

Move the cursor to the desired reference point and press Ctrl+Click or right click and select Set Reference Point from the short cut menu. and other geometry items. and z directions in the X. rather than setting the reference point with the cursor. The reference point is displayed with a mini xyz-axis: To change the reference point: 1. Related Topics Assigning Coordinates to New Objects Choosing the Movement Mode Choosing Snap Settings Drawing Objects Defining Cartesian Coordinates When you draw an object. define a point using Cartesian coordinates by typing the point’s distance from the origin in the x. If you choose. 2. • Setting the Reference Point • • • • Defining Cartesian Coordinates Defining Spherical Coordinates Defining Relative Coordinates Defining Absolute Coordinates Setting the Reference Point When you draw objects. y. you can press Tab to activate a text cursor in the status bar fields.HFSS Online Help Assigning Coordinates to New Objects When you insert and draw new 3D. The Measure Data dialog updates. Select the drawing command to use. distances between objects. When defin- Drawing a Model 7-111 . Y. The coordinates boxes in the Status bar change to accept relative distance information. This moves the reference point marker to the new location. you need to define coordinate systems and locations of points. respectively. and enter coordinates directly. As you move the cursor over the modeler window. the top line in the measure dialog shows the coordinates of the current reference point. the cursor’s location is always relative to a reference point. or 1D objects in the geometry model. The Measure Data dialog opens. 2D. and Z text boxes.

1. the angle from the x-axis in the Theta text box. Press Ctrl+Tab to move to the previous coordinate text box. and z directions in the dX. Alternatively. 1. dTheta. y-. select Cylindrical from the pull-down list in the status bar. Select Cartesian from the pull-down list in the status bar. and dZ text boxes. Hint Press Tab to move from one coordinate text box to the next. and z-coordinates in the R. Theta. and dZ text boxes. When drawing objects other than polylines and helices. theta-. the second point you select is relative to the first point. Alternatively. Type the second point’s distance from the previously selected point in the x. • 4. Type the point’s r-. respectively. Y. y. the second point you select is relative to the first point. specify its distance from the previously selected point in the x. After clicking the desired drawing command. 2.HFSS Online Help ing a second point. click the point in the view window. Select the desired drawing command. Type the point’s x-. When drawing objects other than polylines and helices. dY. 2. and dZ text boxes. Press Ctrl+Tab to move to the previous coordinate text box. and dZ text boxes. and z-coordinates in the X. When defining a second point. and Z text boxes. 3. Type the second point’s distance from the previously selected point in the dR. measured from the origin. specify the point’s radius. click the point in the view window. dTheta. respectively. in the R text box. specify its distance from the previously selected point in the in dR. dY. • 3. y. Related Topics Defining Cartesian Coordinates Defining Spherical Coordinates Defining Relative Coordinates Defining Absolute Coordinates 7-112 Drawing a Model .. Hint Press Tab to move from one coordinate text box to the next. Related Topics Defining Cylindrical Coordinates Defining Spherical Coordinates Defining Cylindrical Coordinates To define a point using cylindrical coordinates. and the distance from the origin in the z direction in the Z text box. and Z boxes. and z directions in the dX.

specify its distance from the previously selected point in the in dRho. and Phi text boxes in the status bar. Type the point’s r-. specify the point’s radius. 1. dTheta. measured from the origin. in the Rho text box. Note Even though you are inputting spherical coordinates. Hint Press Tab to move from one coordinate text box to the next. all data is internally stored in Cartesian coordinates. theta-. When drawing objects other than polylines and helices. the angle from the x-axis in the Theta text box. 2. Theta. To define a point in spherical coordinates. and phi-coordinates in the Rho. dTheta. Type the second point’s distance from the previously selected point in the dRho. and dPhi text boxes. After clicking the desired drawing command. the second point you select is relative to the first point. Alternatively. click the point in the view window. When selecting a second point.HFSS Online Help Defining Spherical Coordinates To define a point in spherical coordinates. and the angle from the origin in the z direction in the Phi text box. • 3. and dPhi text boxes. Related Topics Defining Cartesian Coordinates Defining Cylindrical Coordinates Drawing a Model 7-113 . select Spherical from the pull-down list in the status bar. Press Ctrl+Tab to move to the previous coordinate text box.

Related Topics Defining Relative Coordinates Using Relative Coordinates When entering a point’s coordinates. Select Absolute from the Absolute/Relative pull-down list in the status bar. For example: 3. When you are in relative mode. To enter a point’s relative coordinates: 1. the text boxes for a coordinate show an “d” before the coordinate description. 3. you can specify them in absolute or relative coordinates.HFSS Online Help Defining Relative Coordinates Defining Absolute Coordinates Using Absolute Coordinates When entering a point’s coordinates. Be sure to select Absolute from the Absolute/ Relative pull-down list in the status bar if you want the second point to be relative to the working coordinate system. 0). Click the desired drawing command. This is the default setting for the first point you select after clicking a drawing command. Absolute coordinates are relative to the working coordinate system’s origin (0. Type the point’s coordinates in the appropriate text boxes in the status bar. Relative coordinates are relative to the reference point. To enter a point’s absolute coordinates: 1. the second point you select is relative to the first point. Specify the point’s coordinates in one of the following ways: • • Note Click the point. Specify the point’s coordinates in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. 7-114 Drawing a Model . Relative coordinates are relative to the reference point. 0. to indicate “distance from” the working reference. or the previously selected point. Click the desired drawing command. or the previously selected point. When drawing objects other than polylines and helices. 0). 0. by default. you can specify them in absolute or relative coordinates. 2. Select Relative from the Absolute/Relative pull-down list in the status bar. 2. Type the point’s coordinates in the appropriate text boxes in the status bar. Relative is automatically selected in the Absolute/ Relative pull-down list in the status bar. Absolute coordinates are relative to the working coordinate system’s origin (0.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Defining Absolute Coordinates Drawing a Model 7-115 .

Click the desired drawing command. move the cursor to the desired point and press Ctrl+Click. 7-116 Drawing a Model . displayed with a black diamond that indicates it has snapped to the grid. The next point you select will be on the same plane as the reference point. The cursor’s location. You can move the cursor to one of the following points: • • • • • • In the same plane as the reference point (in-plane movement mode). The reference point is displayed with a mini xyz-axis: To change the reference point. Moving the Cursor In Plane To move the cursor to a point on the same plane as the reference point 1. Perpendicular to the reference point (out-of-plane movement mode). Changes you make to the movement mode persist until you change them again.HFSS Online Help Choosing the Movement Mode When drawing objects. Along the y-axis. Along the z-axis. If an object is present to snap to a point in 3D space (3D movement mode). Click In Plane in the movement mode pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar. the cursor’s location is always relative to a reference point. is on the same plane as the reference point. Do one of the following: • • Click 3D Model > Movement Mode>In Plane. Along the x-axis. 2.

Do one of the following: • • Click 3D Model > Movement Mode>3D. which is now perpendicular to the reference point. If an object is not within snapping range. is perpendicular to the reference point. the cursor will snap to the nearest point in 3D space occupied by the object. 3D movement mode is identical to the in-plane Drawing a Model 7-117 . Click 3D in the movement mode pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar. 2. Click the desired drawing command.>Out of Plane. A dashed line is displayed between the reference point and the cursor’s location. displayed with a black diamond that indicates it has snapped to a grid point. The cursor’s location. click 3D Model > Movement Mode. Moving the Cursor in 3D Space To move the cursor to a point in 3D space relative to the reference point: 1.HFSS Online Help Moving the Cursor Out of Plane To move the cursor to a point perpendicular to the drawing plane and that intersects the reference point: • After clicking the desired drawing command. If one of an object's snapping centers is within snapping range.

2. 1.HFSS Online Help movement mode.0).5. Click the desired drawing command. Moving the Cursor Along the X-Axis To move the cursor to a point away from the reference point in the x direction: 1. 7-118 Drawing a Model . displayed by a circle that indicates it has snapped to a face center. Hold the shortcut key X. The cursor’s location. Do one of the following: • • • Click Modeler>Movement Mode>Along X Axis.5. a point in 3D space relative to the reference point. 0. is (0. Click Along X Axis in the movement mode pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar: The next point you select will be on the same plane as the reference point in the positive or negative x direction.

Click Along Y Axis in the movement mode pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar: The next point you select will be on the same plane as the reference point in the positive or negative y direction. Hold the shortcut key Y. Do one of the following: • • • Click Modeler>Movement Mode>Along Z Axis. Click the desired drawing command. Click the desired drawing command. Drawing a Model 7-119 .HFSS Online Help Moving the Cursor Along the Y-Axis To move the cursor to a point away from the reference point in the y direction: 1. Click Along Z Axis in the movement mode pull-down list in the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar: The next point you select will be on the same plane as the reference point in the positive or negative z direction. Do one of the following: • • • Click Modeler>Movement Mode>Along YAxis. Moving the Cursor Along the Z-Axis To move the cursor to a point away from the reference point in the z direction: 1. 2. Hold the shortcut key Z. 2.

select Vertex or the icon . select Quadrant or the icon To snap to the center of an arc. it will change to one of the following snap mode shapes: Grid Vertex Edge Center Face Center Quadrant Arc Center Note By default. Related Topics Snap Setting Guidelines 7-120 Drawing a Model . select Arc Center or the icon . a vertex. rather than the exact location of the mouse. the Snap Mode window appears. The center point . and the nearest quadrant. • • • • • • When the cursor snaps to a point. To modify the default snap settings for the active design and all new designs. a face center. Click Modeler>Snap Mode or click the toolbar icons. select Face Center or the icon To snap to the nearest quarter point on an edge.HFSS Online Help Choosing Snap Settings By default. If you want the cursor to snap to a point on the grid. you can use either the Modeler menu or the toolbar icons : 1. To snap to the center of an object face. The cursor changes to the shape of the snap mode when it is being snapped. a point on the grid when the cursor hovers over it. modify the selections under the Drawing tab in the Modeler Options dialog box. . To change the snap settings for the active design. the mouse is set to snap to the grid. To snap to the center point of an edge. or 3D object edge. select Grid or the icon To snap to a vertex. the selection point and graphical objects are set to "snap to". The coordinates of this point are used. . or adhere to. . 2D. an edge center. Specify the snap mode settings you want. 2. select Edge Center or the icon may be on a 1D. If you select the menu command.

or 1D). even if the point has 3D coordinates when you are working in a 2D plane). if the cursor approaches a snap point (gets closer in terms of screen coordinates. select at least one of the snap options in the Snap Mode window. it becomes selected. This can cause problems when you are trying to create closed objects.HFSS Online Help Snap Setting Guidelines For each object (3D. not 3D coordinates). when moving in the Modeler window. 2D. If none of these options are selected. the software is in "free mode" and selects whatever point you click. regardless of its coordinates. the snap point is highlighted. you may not have actually clicked the exact coordinates of the point. you can define snapping points. even if that point is out of the plane you are working in (for example. If you then click it. Then. Drawing a Model 7-121 . Although the point you select may appear to be the vertex point of an open object. In general.

you can still see this if you select the polyline in the History tree) The length of an edge The location of a vertex.HFSS Online Help Measure Modes for Objects The Measure modes lets you measure the position. or Object to measure the distance and angle between two selected items: 7-122 Drawing a Model . To use Measure>Edge. The length of a polyline (in edge selection mode. As you move the cursor. 1. To access the Measure mode. With Measure>Position selected. With two faces selected. (Position1) The current cursor location. with two edges selected. Face. or Object selected. Select Position to obtain location and distance information between a specified reference point and the cursor location. Clicking on a new vertex updates the reference to the new location. Select Modeler>Measure. The Y distance. The X distance. The area of a face. the information displayed for each selected object is the name and: • • • • • The area and volume of a 3D object. the information displayed includes: • • • • • • • Note The location of the current reference point. the Measure Information dialog displays the current cursor location and measurement information from the reference. see Measuring Position and Distance 3. The Z distance. The angle between the current reference point and the current cursor location. For more information on cursor and reference point behavior in this mode. and volume of objects. The Measure Information dialog box appears. The Measure Position mode dynamically measures the distance between a reference point and the cursor location. Face. area. or with an edge and a face selected. With Measure>Edge. Face and Object. a cascading menu appears for Position. (Position2) The distance between the Reference and Current location. Right-click and select Measure from the short-cut menu. length. the Measure Mode displays the angle and distance between them. Edge. After you select Measure. either: • • 2.

Y. The shortcut menu displays the Hints item. edges or vertices) Measuring Position and Distance To measure the distance between any cursor location relative to a designated reference point: • Select Modeler>Measure>Position. in plane. It also lists the distance between those points. Y. • • • 4. and Z distances. Related Topics Measuring Position and Distance Setting Coordinate Systems Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View Choosing Snap Settings Choosing Movement Mode (3D. Origin-P2 line. To exit the Measure mode. it shows the last position as a red square. In these cases. If you click. the X. When Hints are on (the default). click Close on the Measure Information dialog. This enables the Measure Position mode opens the Measure Data dialog. the distance between the points and the angle between Origin-P1. the Measure Information dialog displays the angle/distance between them. or Z) Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. explaining how to set the reference point. a text display in the lower right of the 3D Modeler window. Click the first and Ctrl-click to select the second. and ways to control the movement mode.HFSS Online Help • Select two points. and the angle between them. vertex/edge. and the current position as a black cursor. faces. The function is similar when you select two edges and when you select an edge and a face. The dialog lists the coordinates of the current reference point (Position1)and the cursor location (Position2). You can also measure distance between vertex/face. X. The Measure Information dialog displays the coordinates of each point. Select two faces. use the Select Multi mode. Drawing a Model 7-123 .

you can also use the X. The reference point display moves to the selected point. If you drag the cursor off design objects. This becomes the coordinate for Position1 in the Measure Data dialog. Drag the cursor to the second point. The cursor changes shape to provide information about the object at the corresponding coordinate. To close the dialog box and exit Measure mode. You can restrict movement to in a specific plane. Distance.x. 2. or z. See Choosing a Movement Mode. 7-124 Drawing a Model . X distance Y Distance.: Grid point Vertex Edge Center Face Center Quadrant To measure the distance between two points: 1. and Z keys to restrict movement. click the Close button. You can also use the ESC key to exit Measure mode. Z Distance. or y. Ctrl-click to set the reference point. it follows the 3D surfaces of the object. The value of the Position2 dynamically changes as you drag the cursor. by default. 3. it moves in the xy-plane. • The cursor leads a diamond-shape selection marker that snaps from grid point to grid point.HFSS Online Help • The reference point is displayed as a mini x-y-z-axis: Use Ctrl-Click to set the reference point at a new location. out of plane. Besides the context menu for movement. dropping a dashed reference line to a point on the current plane. Select Modeler>Measure>Position to enter Measure Position mode. You do not need to click. for further details. If you drag the selection marker over an object. The values shown include: • • • • 4. Y. The Measure Data dialog also provides a text identification of the current grid points.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Measure Modes for Objects Setting Coordinate Systems Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View Choosing Snap Settings Choosing Movement Mode (3D. Y. X. in plane. or Z) Select Multi (a mode for selecting objects. faces. edges or vertices) Drawing a Model 7-125 .

Its origin and orientation can be set relative to an existing CS.0. that will be the orientation. It cannot be edited or deleted. default CS for each new project.0) of every CS is located at the intersection of the x-. A face CS is also user-defined. The origin (0. it uses the CS designated as working CS when you last saved. If you modify a relative CS. Every coordinate system (CS) has an x-axis that lies at a right angle to a y-axis. The Properties dialog box lists the CS associated with an object as the Orientation. this is Global. Cylindrical. User-defined CSs are saved with the active project. and z-axes. you specify whether to express the coordinates as Absolute or Relative Coordinates. Its origin is specified on a planar object face. This feature provides a way for objects made of the same anisotropic materials to have different orientations. You can define a relative CS to be offset and/or rotated from an existing CS. Face CSs enable you to easily draw objects that are located relative to an object’s face. or Spherical. A relative CS is user-defined. When you open a project. y-. When you set a new relative coordinate system. You have choices for expressing the coordinates as Cartesian. The working CS is indicated by a red W that appears at the lower-left corner of the CS name in the history tree. all objects drawn on that CS will be affected and change position accordingly. Absolute uses the specified values in terms of the global coordinate system. Related Topics Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating a Face Coordinate System Setting the Working Coordinate System Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View Assigning Material Property Types Change the Orientation of an object 7-126 Drawing a Model . and face CSs by changing the working CS. You can click on the current orientation to see a drop down list of other orientation that you can assign for an object. Relative CSs enable you to easily draw objects that are located relative to other objects. Switch between global. A relative coordinate system. The global coordinate system (CS) is the fixed. Simply click the CS you want to use in the history tree. By default. Relative interprets the values as differences from the current working CS. These are evaluated as cartesian for the coordinate system properties. and a z-axis that is perpendicular to the xy plane. relative. A face coordinate system. but if you have created the object under a different coordinate system.HFSS Online Help Setting Coordinate Systems The modeler has three types of coordinate systems that enable you to easily orient new objects: • • • Aglobal coordinate system.

Objects that you draw hereafter will be associated with the CS you selected. Click Modeler>Coordinate System>Set Working CS. 3. you can easily add an object that is turned at an angle relative to another object. You can also create a relative CS that is both offset and rotated. use the Movement Mode commands on the shortcut menu. On the Relative CS menu. Its origin has moved from the previous working CS. indicating that it is the working CS. Click a CS in the list. 2. use the drop down menu to select the system for expressing coordinates (Cartesian. Creating an Offset Relative CS To create a relative CS with an origin that lies a specified distance from another CS’s origin: 1. click the CS upon which you want to base the new relative CS. At the lower right of the modeler window.HFSS Online Help Setting the Working Coordinate System The working coordinate system (CS) is the current CS with which objects being drawn are associated. A red W appears at the lower-left corner of the CS name in the history tree. making it the working CS. Cylindrical. that is. without having to add or subtract the existing object’s coordinates. Click Select. The new relative CS is created. It automatiDrawing a Model 7-127 . click Offset . a relative CS whose origin lies a specified distance from another CS’s origin. that is. you can enter coordinates relative to an existing object. To select a point that does not lie in the current plane. By rotating the axes of a CS. 2. or follow this procedure: 1. select either relative or absolute coordinates. The Select Coordinate System dialog box appears. a relative CS whose axes are rotated away from another CS’s axes. Select the working CS by clicking its name in the history tree. Related Topics Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System When creating a relative CS. or Spherical). By moving a CS’s origin. You can create a rotated relative CS. The working CS can be the global CS or a user-defined relative CS or face CS. you have the following options: • • • You can create an offset relative CS. 3. but its axes remain the same. then select the units. and type the CS origin coordinates in boxes. In the history tree. Point to Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Relative CS. Select the origin in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. It is listed in the history tree under Coordinate Systems. 4.

Specify the x-axis by selecting a point on the axis in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. It is automatically calculated to be at a right angle to the y-axis. and xz planes. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. Related Topics Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating an Offset and Rotated Relative CS Creating an Offset and Rotated Relative CS To create a new relative CS that is both offset and rotated from an existing CS: 1. use the Movement Mode commands on the shortcut menu.HFSS Online Help cally becomes the working CS. It automatically becomes the working CS. In the history tree. At the lower right of the modeler window. Select the origin in one of the following ways: 7-128 Drawing a Model . but its axes are rotated. 3. select the CS upon which you want to base the new relative CS. Default planes are created on its xy. click Both . and type the CS origin coordinates in boxes. select either relative or absolute coordinates. To select a point that does not lie in the current plane. select the CS upon which you want to base the new relative CS. yz. In the history tree. objects that you draw hereafter will be based on the coordinates of this relative CS. 2. use the drop down menu to select the system for expressing coordinates (Cartesian. Related Topics Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating an Offset and Rotated Relative CS Creating a Rotated Relative CS To create a new relative CS with its axes rotated away from another CS’s axes: 1. Specify the xy plane by selecting any point on it in one of the following ways: • • Click the point. Point to Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Relative CS. Click Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Relative CS>Rotated . and dZ boxes. making it the working CS. 3. It has the same origin as the previous working CS. Default planes are created on its xy. 2. On the Relative CS menu. then select the units. 4. The new relative CS is created. making it the working CS. 4. It is listed in the history tree under Coordinate Systems. Type the coordinates of a point that is relative to the previously selected point in the dX. You do not need to specify the z-axis. yz. objects that you draw hereafter will be based on the coordinates of this relative CS. dY. or Spherical). and xz planes. Cylindrical.

dY. objects that you draw hereafter will be based on the coordinates of this relative CS. dY. Click the point. The new relative CS is created. objects that you draw hereafter will be referenced to the coordinates Drawing a Model 7-129 . and dZ boxes. Type the point’s coordinates in the X. Select the object face upon which you want to create the face CS. 3. Click the point on the face. • • 4. Default planes are created on its xy. Specify the x-axis by selecting a point on the object face in one of the following ways: • • You do not need to specify the y. 5. use the Movement Mode commands on the shortcut menu. It automatically becomes the working CS. Related Topics Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating a Face Coordinate System 1. and type the CS origin coordinates in boxes. 2. Click the point. use the drop down menu to select the system for expressing coordinates (Cartesian. and xz planes. where d is the distance from the previously selected point.or z-axes. It automatically becomes the working CS. Specify the x-axis by selecting a point on the axis in one of the following ways: • • 6. and dZ boxes. It is automatically calculated to be at a right angle to the y-axis. The new face CS is listed in the history tree under Coordinate Systems.HFSS Online Help • • • Click the point. Click Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Face CS Select the origin in one of the following ways: . At the lower right of the modeler window. and dZ boxes. yz. It is listed in the history tree under Coordinate Systems. where d is the distance from the previously selected point. Click the point. Y. Cylindrical. The modeler assumes that the z-axis is normal to the object face and the y-axis is automatically calculated to be at a right angle to the z-axis. Type the coordinates of a point that is relative to the previously selected point in the dX. or Spherical). Type the coordinates of a point that is relative to the previously selected point in the dX. select either relative or absolute coordinates. To select a point that does not lie in the current plane. and Z boxes. dY. then select the units. Type the coordinates of a point that is relative to the origin in the dX. Specify the xy plane by selecting any point on it in one of the following ways: • • You do not need to specify the z-axis.

the box will move. Cylindrical. 1. The object you draw is oriented according to the new face CS. There are two ways to modify a coordinate system: you can select the coordinate system in the history tree in the modeler window. is not affected by operations that occur after it is created. For example. All objects drawn on a CS that was defined relative to that CS.HFSS Online Help of this face CS. 2. when you select a face. or Spherical). then a face CS on a face of the box. the cylinder will move accordingly. Default planes are created on its xy. 7-130 Drawing a Model . But if you rotate the box using the Edit>Arrange>Rotate command. Related Topics Creating a Face Coordinate System Modifying Coordinate Systems Keep in mind that when you edit a CS. 3. and then a cylinder on the face CS. affect objects dependent upon that face CS. All CSs that were defined relative to that CS. A face CS. or to change how you express the coordinates (as Cartesian. a new face CS will be created on the face. and xz planes. Related Topics Automatically Creating Face Coordinate Systems Setting the Working Coordinate System Modifying Coordinate Systems Setting Coordinate Systems Automatically Creating Face Coordinate Systems You can instruct the modeler to automatically create a new face CS every time you draw on an object’s face. Note The modeler will not automatically create a new face CS if a face CS has already been assigned to the selected face. the following will also be affected: • • • All objects drawn on the CS. If you then edit the box’s dimensions in the Properties dialog box. and open its properties dialog. suppose you create a box. or objects created on it. and in turn. Now. This approach does not also allow you to change whether the coordinate system is Absolute or Relative. Click OK. and then click a drawing command. The modeler automatically sets the new face CS as the working CS. The Modeler Options dialog box appears. Select Automatically switch to face coordinate system. Only operations listed in the history tree before the face CS’s creation will affect the face CS. yz. but the cylinder will not move because the operation occurs later in the history tree. Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options.

Related Topics Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating a Face Coordinate System Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View Expressing Cartesian. y. and tab to the next fields. and to change how your express the coordinate. Select the units from the drop down menu. Click the CS you want to modify. or Spherical. Y.HFSS Online Help If you want to also modify the whether the coordinate system is Absolute or Relative. Cylindrical. You can select Absolute or Relative as the Coordinate system If you selected a relative CS. After you click the cursor in the first field. and z directions in the X. they are evaluated as Cartesian for the Properties window for that coordinate system. If you selected a face CS. 3. Cylindrical. • Cartesian. 2. The Select Working CS window appears. Tab to the next fields. follow the directions for creating a relative CS. Cylindrical. 4. follow the directions for creating a face CS. Click Modeler>Coordinate System>Edit. 6. you can type in values. In each case. You select the coordinate system from the drop down menus as Cartesian. After you enter values or variables in the text fields. Drawing a Model 7-131 . This selects that coordinate system and enables the editable fields at the lower right of the Modeler window. Click the cursor in the first text field to begin entering values or variables. that is the point’s distance from the origin in the x. or Spherical Coordinates You have choices for expressing the coordinates for as Cartesian. or Spherical. and Z text boxes. 5. do the following: 1. you also specify whether to enter the coordinates as Absolute or Relative to the working coordinate system. The value you give here is translated to Cartesian coordinates in the Properties for the Coordinate system. and Enter when your are done. Click Select.

that is. that is. Further. the angle from the x-axis in the Theta text box. the point’s radius. and the angle from the origin in the z direction in the Phi text box. The CS will be deleted and all objects drawn on it will be deleted. 2. • Spherical. Click Edit>Delete . measured from the origin. and the distance from the origin in the z direction in the Z text box. • Alternatively.HFSS Online Help • Cylindrical. Related Topics Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating a Face Coordinate System Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View 7-132 Drawing a Model . in the R text box. in the Rho text box. in the point’s radius. measured from the origin. the angle from the x-axis in the Theta text box. Related Topics Defining Absolute Coordinates Defining Relative Coordinates Defining Cartesian Coordinates Defining Cylindrical Coordinates Defining Spherical Coordinates Deleting Coordinate Systems 1. Click the name of the CS you want to delete in the history tree. any CS that was dependent upon the deleted CS will be deleted and any objects that were drawn on the dependent CS will also be deleted. press Delete.

YZ. next to the Movement mode pull-down list.HFSS Online Help Setting the Drawing Plane The Drawing plane pull-down list is available on the Modeler Draw toolbar. and then select a grid plane: XY. do one of the following: • • Select XY from the Drawing plane pull-down list on the Modeler Draw toolbar. Click Modeler>Grid Plane. Drawing a Model 7-133 . or XZ. To set the drawing plane.

HFSS Online Help 7-134 Drawing a Model .

Represents an imperfect conductor. Represents a resistive surface. Assigning Boundaries 8-1 . HFSS and HFSS-IE designs have different menu options for boundaries. Represents an open boundary condition using several layers of specialized materials that absorb outgoing waves. Represents a surface on which the E-field at each point is matched to another surface (the slave boundary) to within a phase difference. You may assign the following types of boundaries to an HFSS design: Perfect E Perfect H Impedance Radiation PML Finite Conductivity Symmetry Master Slave Represents a perfectly conducting surface. Represents a surface on which the tangential component of the H-field is the same on both sides. Represents a surface on which the E-field at each point has been forced to match the E-field of another surface (the master boundary) to within a phase difference.8 Assigning Boundaries Boundary conditions specify the field behavior at the edges of the problem region and object interfaces. Represents an open boundary by means of an absorbing boundary condition (ABC) that absorbs outgoing waves. Click here for HFSS-IE boundaries. Represents a perfect E or perfect H plane of symmetry.

inductor. select the Sheets icon and right-click to display the Group Sheets by Assignment checkbox. you can access the Edit Global Materials command from the Boundaries menu. and/or capacitor in parallel on a surface. This zooms the view in the Modeler window in or out to show the 8-2 Assigning Boundaries . You may also choose to designate a perfect E. Note By default. Represents a boundary condition used to replace a surface a planar screen or grid with periodic geometry. In the case of very large models with many boundaries. right-click on a boundary name in the Project and select the Zoom to command on the popup menu. Represents a structure with multiple layers as one impedance surface. For convenience. the history tree in the 3D modeler window groups sheet objects according to boundary assignment. or impedance boundary as an infinite ground plane if you want the surface to represent an electrically large ground plane when the radiated fields are calculated during post processing.HFSS Online Help Lumped RLC Screening Impedance Layered Impedance Represents any combination of lumped resistor. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment. finite conductivity. Related Topics Technical Notes: Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Designating Infinite Ground Planes Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Reassigning Boundaries Reprioritizing Boundaries Edit Global Materials Environment Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Reviewing Boundaries and Excitations in the Solver View Setting Default Values for Boundaries and Excitations Assigning HFSS-IE Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary To zoom to a selected boundary. Note Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment. To change this. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps.

and the base names for each. The base names for boundaries and excitations are incremented from the base names here. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names To change the default boundary or excitation base names. Click Boundary>Set Default Base Name or Excitation >Set Default Base Name. This can be very useful checking the assigned geometry. Edit the text fields to your preferred naming conventions. This displays the Set Default Boundary/Excitation Base dialog.HFSS Online Help selected boundary. The base names for each type have editable text fields. 2. This contains a list of all boundary and excitation types. The current orientation does not change. so that subsequent names increment from the base of your choosing: 1. Assigning Boundaries 8-3 .

If you want to revert all or selected names to Ansoft defaults. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries 8-4 Assigning Boundaries . use the Revert All or Revert Selected buttons. Click OK to accept the changes or Cancel to close the dialog without accepting changes.HFSS Online Help 3.

HFSS Online Help Assigning Perfect E Boundaries A perfect E boundary is used to represent a perfectly conducting surface in a structure. Getting Started Guides: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna Getting Started Guides: Patch Antenna Assigning Boundaries 8-5 . multiple infinite ground planes are supported. To create a Perfect E boundary 1. 2. For HFSS projects. you can select Infinite Ground Plane if you want the surface to represent an electrically large ground plane when the radiated fields are calculated during post processing. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Boundaries>Assign>Pefect E to bring up the Perfect E Boundary dialog box. Related Topics Technical Notes: Perfect E Boundaries Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. For PEC boundaries only.

HFSS Online Help Assigning Perfect H Boundaries A perfect H boundary represents a surface on which the tangential component of the H-field is the same on both sides. this results in a boundary that simulates a perfect magnetic conductor in which the tangential component of the H-field is zero. For internal surfaces. this results in a natural boundary through which the field propagates. Related Topics Assigning Boundaries Technical Notes: Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Getting Started Guides: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna 8-6 Assigning Boundaries .. No parameters need be set. 2. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Pefect H to bring up the Perfect H Boundary dialog box. For surfaces on the outer surface of the model. To Assign a Perfect H Boundary: 1.

HFSS does not actually simulate any fields inside the resistor. Note You can assign a variable as the resistance and reactance values. Note that if you select Infinite Ground Plane. but the radiated fields will be computed as if the lossy ground plane is perfectly conducting. HFSS-IE does not support infinte ground plane for impedance boundaries. a frequencydependent impedance boundary condition. Only one infinite ground plane is permitted in designs with impedance boundaries. Eigenmode designs cannot contain design parameters that depend on frequency. Related Topics Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Technical Notes: Impedance Boundaries Assigning Boundaries 8-7 .HFSS Online Help Assigning Impedance Boundaries An impedance boundary represents a resistive surface. 3. The behavior of the field at the surface and the losses generated by the currents flowing inside the resistor are computed using analytical formulas. the effect of the impedance boundary will be incorporated into the field solution in the usual manner. for example. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Boundaries>Assign>Impedance to bring up the Impedance Boundary dialog box. 2. For HFSS designs you can select Infinite Ground Plane if you want the surface to represent an electrically large ground plane when the radiated fields are calculated during post processing. Enter the Resistance and Reactance. To assign an impedance boundary: 1.

these are sometimes described as Absorbing Boundary Condition. To assign a radiation boundary: 1. such as antenna designs. Incident Field . In some cases the radiation boundary may be located closer than one-quarter wavelength. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS >Boundaries>Assign>Radiation to bring up the Radiation Boundary dialog box. and located at least a quarter wavelength from the radiating source.this refers to the original radiating surface properties (the default). the scattered field formulation is applied. Designate the boundary as either: 3.the incident field source patterns are projected on these surfaces and are • 8-8 Assigning Boundaries . such as portions of the radiation boundary where little radiated energy is expected. HFSS absorbs the wave at the radiation boundary. If your project uses a field solution from another source. Meshes are not invalidated. See the discussion here. your "target" project must have radiation boundaries with Advanced Options defined in order to specify where the fields from the "source" project enter.HFSS Online Help Assigning Radiation Boundaries For Driven Modal or Driven Terminal Designs A radiation boundary is used to simulate an open problem that allows waves to radiate infinitely far into space. but it must be exposed to the background. it invalidates those solutions that can possibly have fields. Note Whenever additions/changes are made to radiation boundaries that affect fields. 2. A radiation surface does not have to be spherical. • Radiating Only . In HFSS. If you do not select this radio button the total field formulation is applied. convex with regard to the radiation source. If you select this option. (See Technical Notes). essentially ballooning the boundary infinitely far away from the structure. (See Technical Notes). or ABC.

Enforced Field . applies it to the port and expects a reflected field pattern which radiates back. 0.this uses integral equation formulation. It can be close to or on the structures. The IE boundary should enclose the entire structure by itself. or by checking). you can designate that the surface is included in near/far field calculation by checking.5 wavelength is recommended. Model Exterior as HFSS-IE Domain. you can also specify whether the surface is used as Reference for FSS. it behaves as if you excited the project by an ideal current source (enforced current). you must turn off curvilinear elements. All Radiation Only surfaces are included in the near/far field calculation. Using the Incident Field option together with Reference for FSS is advantageous for highly reflective and resonant structures. you should avoid internal surfaces.If you select Radiation Only. Reflection/Transmission coefficients for FSS designs can be viewed in the solution data panel as S-parameters or you can create an S-parameter report. HFSS knows the incident field pattern.” • • • Note If you select either Enforced Field or Incident Field you should run a validation check in order to avoid an invalid setup.this surface become the input surface for calculations of the reflection/transmission coefficients. that is. In other words. • If you select Radiating Only or Incident Field. This is like a generalized space port. internal objects with Enforced/Incident Field BC should be substructed to become background. the Include in near/far field calculation option is grayed out but checked. the Use IE Formulation option is grayed out. The setup is invalid if any of these surfaces are internal. Assigning Boundaries 8-9 . but for performance. Include for nearfield/far field calculation . The IE Boundary will be most effective and efficient for smaller radiating structures such as RFID antennas. If you select Enforced Field. The other radiating surface automatically becomes output. Only one FSS can be defined in a given model. If you select either Enforced Field or Incident Field in most cases. it behaves as if you excited the project by a Norton or Thevenin generator using an impedance which is the free space wave impedance. as a Frequency Selective Surface . In other words. If you do not include any surfaces in the near/far field calculation (whether as Radiating Only. when you select default radiation surfaces at the near/far field calculation setup panel an error message states that “No radiating surface has been selected. or PEC material should be assigned to these objects to become "NoSolveinside". If it is on a surface. which is is an exact transparent condition.this has the H tangential component of the incident field directly applied on these surfaces. When you select Incident Field or Enforced Field.HFSS Online Help backed by ABC or PML. It is an inhomogeneous Newmann BC. or with an Infinite ground plane.. In order to do that.

The only exception is when one object is a perfectly matched layer boundary (PML) and the other is the PML base object.HFSS Online Help Note Do not define a surface that cuts through an object to be a radiation boundary. In general. Related Topics Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Assigning PML Boundaries Technical Notes: Radiation Boundaries Getting Started Guides: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna Getting Started Guides: UHF Probe Getting Started Guides: Patch Antenna 8-10 Assigning Boundaries . do not define the interface of two internal objects to be a radiation boundary.

PML radiation boundaries are not generated in eigenmode projects. However. When you create a PML that completely covers an object. instead of placing a radiation boundary on its surfaces. you can select non rectangular sheet objects as long as they do not touch any other selected face. Draw a PML base object at the radiation surface. PMLs also require significantly more RAM. In creating PMLs. ABCs efficiently absorb normal incident waves. 2. Create PMLs manually. Within these groupings. as Incident Wave Port) in order to set up the right total field excitation based on the physical optics approach. What do you want to do? Create PMLs automatically. or you can create them manually. You can assign variables to the dimension properties of the base object. If there are faces that touch. you can put PMLs much closer to the discontinuities. Changing the variable values also changes the associated PMLs. PMLs in general make it more difficult for the iterative solver to reach convergence compared to the same model with using ABCs. The PML boundaries are grouped in the Project tree under the Boundaries icon. As a result. Setting up a PML boundary is similar to setting up a radiation boundary. You have to put ABCs far away enough from the discontinuities. for example. the touching faces must be locally box-like. This gives a smaller model. which create absorbing boundary conditions (ABC). you can edit the radiation parameters (for example. HFSS creates a separate PML object for each covered face. HFSS can create PMLs automatically. The underlying object does not have to be a box. You start by drawing a virtual object around the radiating structure. Create PMLs automatically if the base object touching the PML is planar and its material is homogenous.HFSS Online Help Assigning PML Boundaries A perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary is used to simulate materials that absorb outgoing waves. Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries Related Topics Assigning Boundaries Technical Notes: Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Getting Started Guides: Radar Cross Section (RCS) Creating PMLs Automatically 1. you add PMLs to fully absorb the electromagnetic field. an airbox around an Assigning Boundaries 8-11 . The advantages for PMLs are that they absorb a much wider range of waves in terms of frequency and direction. Depending on the design you may select either faces of the object or the entire object. PML Compared to Radiation Boundaries Compared to Radiation boundaries.

planar faces and exclude faces defined as symmetry boundaries. you can select Use Selected Object objectName as PML Cover. If you want to be able to modify the thickness. HFSS knows the incident field pattern. Click HFSS > Boundaries>PML Setup Wizard. In these cases. Names are automatically given to the layers. If the selected faces are on a box object. 3. Under Base Face Radiation Properties. assign a variable as the thickness value. 5. ensuring complete coverage. For Radiating Only or Incident Field. you can also specify whether the surface is used as Reference for FSS. Click Next. The layer thickness cannot be modified directly after PML objects have been created. This is like a generalized space port. The PML Setup wizard appears. select Create PML Cover Objects on Selected Faces. it behaves as if you excited the project by a Norton or Thevenin generator using an impedance which is the free space wave impedance. which is necessary for HFSS to recognize them as PMLs. Edge and corner PML objects will be created to join adjacent PML surfaces together. 8. If you have selected object faces. you can see the option to select Create joining corner and edge objects. 6. you may find it convenient to select the object and have a boundary applied to all faces of the object. select only external. If you check Reference for FSS.the incident field source patterns are projected on these surfaces and are backed by ABC or PML.the radiation surface (default). HFSS creates PMLs from the faces you selected. The other radiating surface automatically becomes output. Only one FSS can be defined in a given model. Using the Incident Field option together with Reference for FSS is advantageous for highly reflective and resonant structures. you can select Use Default Formula to have HFSS calculate a value for you based on geometrical analysis. that start with PML. 8-12 Assigning Boundaries . Note If you do not assign a value. the PML objects will stay visible. Reflection/Transmission coefficients for FSS designs can be viewed in the solution data panel as S-parameters or you can create an Sparameter report. as a Frequency Selective Surface . Type the thickness of each layer in the Uniform Layer Thickness text box. that is. 7. 4. You can select the faces of the PML base object to turn into PMLs. applies it to the port and expects a reflected field pattern which radiates back.this surface becomes the input surface for calculations of the reflection/transmission coefficients.HFSS Online Help antenna. In other words. You can assign a variable as the thickness value. If you have selected a non-planar object for a PML or one that completely covers another object. click a radio button to specify one of the following: • • Radiating Only . Incident Field .

12. You may choose to have HFSS calculate the value by clicking Use Default Formula. Select Use Selected Object as PML Cover. 1. 6. 3. Click HFSS>Boundaries>PML Setup Wizard. you can select Use Default Formula to have HFSS calculate a Assigning Boundaries 8-13 . If you do not assign a value. 2. HFSS calculates the appropriate PML materials based on the settings you specified and the material of the base object. Type the thickness of each layer in the Uniform Layer Thickness text box. The PML material characteristics depend on the cumulative effect of their near fields at the location of the PML surfaces. from the pull-down list. Related Topics Creating PML Boundaries Manually Modifying PML Boundaries Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries Technical Notes: PML Boundaries Assigning Radiation Boundaries Creating PML Boundaries Manually See Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries. Click Next. enabling you to modify the settings you specified. The PML Setup wizard appears. • b. 4. 5. and assigns these materials to the objects in the PML group. Select the Corresponding Base Object. A summary dialog box appears. PML Objects Continue Guided Waves if the PMLs terminate in a transmission line. Then enter the lowest frequency in the frequency range you are solving for in the Min Frequency text box. Draw the PML object at the radiation surface. • 10. You can assign a variable as the thickness value. the object touching the PML. The default distance is based on the extent of base object geometry. Then specify the propagation constant at the minimum frequency. and then select it. give the object a name with the prefix PML. 11. Click Finish. PML Objects Accept Free Radiation if the PMLs terminate in free space. Specify the minimum distance between the PMLs and any of the radiating bodies in the Minimum Radiating Distance text box. Specify how the PMLs terminate by selecting one of the following: a.HFSS Online Help 9. Object names that start with PML are necessary for HFSS to recognize them as PMLs. In the Properties window.

a. The default distance is based on the extent of base object geometry. as a Frequency Selective Surface . 13. the direction of outward propagation. and assigns this material to the PML. • 11. Click Next. enabling you to modify the settings you specified. PML Objects Continue Guided Waves if the PML terminates in a transmission line. This is like a generalized space port. in the relative. 7. coordinate system. The other radiating surface automatically becomes output. Click Finish. If you check Reference for Frequency Selective Surface (FSS). Only one FSS can be defined in a given model. Under Base Face Radiation Properties.HFSS Online Help value for you based on geometrical analysis. or local. In other words. HFSS knows the incident field pattern. Related Topics Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries 8-14 Assigning Boundaries . For Radiating Only or Incident Field. 10.the radiation surface (default). click a radio button to specify one of the following: • • Radiating Only . 8. A summary dialog box appears.this surface becomes the input surface for calculations of the reflection/transmission coefficients. You may choose to let HFSS calculate the value by clicking Use Default Formula. 12. PML Objects Accept Free Radiation if the PML terminates in free space. that is. HFSS calculates the appropriate PML material based on the settings you specified and the material of the base object.the incident field source patterns are projected on these surfaces and are backed by ABC or PML. Select the orientation of the PML object. Reflection/Transmission coefficients for FSS designs can be viewed in the solution data panel as S-parameters or you can create an Sparameter report. Specify the minimum distance between the PML and the radiating body in the Minimum Radiating Distance text box. Using the Incident Field option together with Reference for FSS is advantageous for highly reflective and resonant structures. The PML material characteristics depend on the cumulative effect of their near fields at the location of the PML surfaces. Specify the propagation constant at the minimum frequency. Specify how the PML terminates by selecting one of the following: • b. Enter the lowest frequency in the frequency range you are solving for in the Min Frequency text box. the PML objects will stay visible. Incident Field . 9. Click Next. applies it to the port and expects a reflected field pattern which radiates back. it behaves as if you excited the project by a Norton or Thevenin generator using an impedance which is the free space wave impedance. you can also specify whether the surface is used as Reference for FSS.

One PML could be drawn to terminate the microstrip and another could correspond to the substrate. Create as many PML objects as there are subsections of material properties in the base object. Create separate PMLs for each segment. the greater the accuracy of the corresponding PML.HFSS Online Help Modifying PML Boundaries Technical Notes: PML Boundaries Assigning Radiation Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Guidelines for Assigning PML Boundaries Keep the following guidelines in mind when assigning PML boundaries: • • When automatically creating PMLs. HFSS calculates the PML material properties using the normal vector at the center of the base object’s face. If the PMLs in your design vary in thickness. If the face is curved. This results in the z direction of the PML object coinciding with the normal direction of the base object’s face. HFSS treats PMLs uniformly with regard to thickness. Related Topics Creating PML Boundaries Manually Technical Notes: PML Boundaries Assigning Radiation Boundaries Modifying PML Boundaries You can modify parameters of PML boundaries through the PML Setup Summary dialog. The view angle of the segments should be no wider than 45 degrees. the normal vector changes with position. It is a good idea to segment the curved surface of the base object for greater accuracy. The base object is curved. An example is a metal-shielded microstrip line with a substrate. Note that each segment’s thickness is treated uniformly. The smaller the angle of each segment. create a separate PML group for each thickness. Assigning Boundaries 8-15 . You should manually create a PML in the following situations: • • The material of the corresponding base object touching the PML is not homogenous. You can also modify the dimensions of PML boundaries by editing the History tree properties for the original object for which you assigned the PML boundaries. The PML materials will only be good approximations if the normal vector at each point on the face is close to the normal vector at the face center. HFSS creates a new relative coordinate system for each PML object.

A table shows each PML Group. Click Finish. 5. the PML materials will be invalid and must be recalculated in the PML Setup Wizard. In the Properties dialog for that geometry command. A Radio button lets you select either the Free Radiation minimum frequency and units. By default the Show Objects in groups box is not checked. click Update. Click HFSS>Boundaries>PML Setup Wizard. its thickness. 4. Modify the PML parameters. or ZSize as required. If more than one group of PMLs were defined. and material status. if the material of the PML base object is modified. Select the CreateBox command for each part of the geometry you want to modify. To modify PML parameters: 1. If objects are modified after PMLs are created. Click Recalculate Materials to apply the updates. For example. HFSS automatically recalculates and assigns the appropriate PML materials to the objects in the PML group. Note Related Topics Assigning PML Boundaries Assigning Radiation Boundaries Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names 8-16 Assigning Boundaries . Checking the box causes the table list the objects under each group. select the PML group you want to modify from the table. Make sure that nothing is selected in the 3D Modeler window. The changes to the CreateBox parameters apply to the associated PML objects.HFSS Online Help To modify dimension properties for the original PML object: 1. Go to the History tree and open the hierarchy under the original PML base object. If you make changes. or the Guided Wave propagation constant at a minimum frequency. YSize. You can also specify a Minimum Radiating distance and units. This performs the update and enables the Recalculate Materials button. Note that you can create variables to parameterize these properties. 3. edit the properties for XSize. 3. 2. 2. the associated PML materials must be recalculated in the PML Setup Wizard. The Summary dialog box of the PML Setup wizard appears. 7. 6.

2. microns) from the pull down menu. 4. Note that if you select Infinite Ground Plane. click the default material name button .HFSS Online Help Assigning Finite Conductivity Boundaries A finite conductivity boundary the behavior of the field at the object surface. but the radiated fields will be computed as if the lossy ground plane is perfectly conducting. enter a value for Surface Roughness and select the units (default.) Assigning Boundaries 8-17 . the effect of the finite conductivity boundary will be incorporated into the field solution in the usual manner. The conductivity and permeability values of the material you select will be used for the boundary. To specify the roughness of surfaces such as the interface between the conductor and the substrate for a microstrip line. Select Use Material. and then enter the permeability. that is. The finite conductivity boundary is valid only if the conductor being modeled is a good conductor. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Finite Conductivity to bring up the Finite Conductivity Boundary dialog box. 3. Select Infinite Ground Plane if you want the surface to represent an electrically large ground plane when the radiated fields are calculated during post processing. and then choose a material from the material editor. To assign a Finite Conductivity boundary: 1. Do one of the following: • • Enter the conductivity in inverse ohm-meters. if the conductor’s thickness is much larger than the skin depth in the given frequency range. (This may be more intuitive than using a layered impedance boundary to model the effects. Note that selecting a perfectly conducting material for a finite conductivity boundary triggers a validation error.

To specify a layer thickness.HFSS Online Help 5. You can assign a variable as the conductivity or permeability values. click the checkbox to enable the Layer Thickness field. and enter a value and select units. Note Related Topics Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Technical Notes: Finite Conductivity Boundaries 8-18 Assigning Boundaries .

The finite conductivity boundary is valid only if the conductor being modeled is a good conductor. You can assign a variable as the conductivity or permeability values. To specify the roughness of surfaces such as the interface between the conductor and the substrate for a microstrip line. enter a value for Surface Roughness and select the units (default. that is.HFSS Online Help Assigning Finite Conductivity Boundaries in HFSS-IE A finite conductivity boundary approximates the behavior of the field at the object surface. (This may be more intuitive than using a layered impedance boundary to model the effects. click the checkbox to enable the Layer Thickness field. if the conductor’s thickness is much larger than the skin depth in the given frequency range. and then choose a material from the material editor. 4. Select Use Material. Do one of the following: • • Enter the Conductivity and the Relative Permeability. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS-IE>Boundaries>Assign>Finite Conductivity to bring up the Finite Conductivity Boundary dialog box. Note that selecting a perfectly conducting material for a finite conductivity boundary triggers a validation error. click the material name button.. Note Assigning Boundaries 8-19 . microns) from the pull down menu. 2. The conductivity and permeability values of the material you select will be used for the boundary. and enter a value and select units. To assign a Finite Conductivity boundary: 1. 3.) To specify a layer thickness.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Zoom to Selected Boundary Setting Default Boundary Base Names Technical Notes: Finite Conductivity Boundaries Getting Started Guides: A 20 Ghz Waveguide Combiner 8-20 Assigning Boundaries .

Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Symmetry to bring up the Symmetry Boundary dialog box. Type a value in the Impedance Multiplier box. Symmetry boundaries enable you to model only part of a structure. and then click OK. 3. Click Impedance Multiplier. 2. Select the type of symmetry plane the boundary represents: Perfect E or Perfect H.HFSS Online Help Assigning Symmetry Boundaries For Driven Modal or Eigenmode Designs A symmetry boundary represents a perfect E or perfect H plane of symmetry. which reduces the size or complexity of your design. you must adjust the impedance multiplier or the computed impedances will not be for the full structure. To assign a Finite Conductivity boundary: 1. 4. Related Topics Technical Notes: Symmetry Boundaries Setting the Impedance Multiplier Technical Notes: Impedance Multipliers Getting Started Guides: A Dielectric Resonator Antenna Getting Started Guides: A 20 Ghz Waveguide Combiner Assigning Boundaries 8-21 . If the design includes a port. The Port Impedance Multiplier dialog box appears.

You must specify the coordinate system in the plane on which the boundary exists. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Master to bring up the Master Boundary dialog box. which must be on the boundary’s surface. The Master Boundary dialog box disappears while you draw the U vector. The Master Boundary dialog box reappears and the model display shows the U vector and V vector as red and blue arrows respectively. 2. d. If necessary. Select a point on the u-axis to indicate the U vector direction. First draw the U vector of the coordinate system. and Z boxes. Select the U vector’s origin. If you need to reverse the direction of the V vector. HFSS uses the U vector that you draw and the normal vector of the boundary face to calculate the Vvector. Typing the point’s coordinates in the X. Select New Vector from the U Vector pull-down list. select Reverse Direction. either by: • • c. 8-22 Assigning Boundaries . a. you can reverse the direction of the V vector.HFSS Online Help Assigning Master Boundaries Master and slave boundaries enable you to model planes of periodicity where the E-field at every point on the slave boundary surface is forced to match the E-field of every corresponding point on the master boundary surface to within a phase difference. b. The transformation used to map the Efield from the master to the slave is determined by specifying a coordinate system on both the master and slave boundaries. To assign a Master boundary: 1. Y. Clicking the point for the vector origin.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Master and Slave Boundaries Assigning Slave Boundaries Getting Started Guides: Floquet Ports Assigning Boundaries 8-23 .HFSS Online Help HFSS will compute the E-field on this boundary and map it to the slave boundary using the transformation defined by the master and slave coordinate systems.

in one of the following ways: • • 8-24 Assigning Boundaries Click the point for the vector origin. 2. HFSS uses the U vector that you draw and the normal vector of the boundary face to calculate the Vvector. If a master boundary has not yet been defined. The Slave Boundary dialog box disappears while you draw the U vector. which must be on the boundary’s surface. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Slave to bring up the Slave Boundary dialog box. Select New Vector from the U Vector pull-down list. Select the corresponding master boundary from the Master Boundary pull-down list. . First draw the U vector of the coordinate system. If necessary. b. and Z boxes. Y. To assign a Slave boundary: 1. return to make this selection when it has been defined. you can reverse the direction of the V vector. Select the U vector’s origin. Type the point’s coordinates in the X. 3. a.HFSS Online Help Assigning Slave Boundaries Master and slave boundaries enable you to model planes of periodicity where the E-field at every point on the slave boundary surface is forced to match the E-field at every corresponding point on the master boundary surface to within a phase difference. You must specify the coordinate system in the plane on which the boundary exists. The transformation used to map the Efield from the master to the slave is determined by specifying a coordinate system on both the master and slave boundaries.

and then enter the phase difference. select Use Scan Angles to Calculate Phase Delay to enable the Scan Angle fields. The phase delay is calculated from the scan angles. 4. Related Topics Technical Notes: Master and Slave Boundaries Assigning Master Boundaries Getting Started Guides: Floquet Ports Assigning Boundaries 8-25 . if you know the phase delay. For Eigenmode problems. You have the option to relate the slave boundary’s E-fields to the master boundary’s E-fields in one of the following ways: • For driven designs. or phase delay.HFSS Online Help c. Then enter Phi and Theta scan angles. These apply to whole model. you may enter it directly in the Phase Delay box below. The Slave Boundary dialog box reappears and the model display shows the U vector and V vector as red and blue arrows respectively. theta. Select Field Radiation. Note • Note HFSS will compute the E-field on the master boundary and map it to this boundary using the transformation defined by the master and slave coordinate systems. Select a point on the u-axis to indicate the U vector direction. select Reverse Direction. between the boundaries’ E-fields in the Phase Delay box. Click Next. If you need to reverse the direction of the V vector. however. The phase delay applies only to this boundary. the Use Scan Angles to Calculate Phase Delay fields are disabled. in the global coordinate system. You can assign a variable as the phi. 5. d. or phase delay values.

2. a lumped RLC serial circuit connection can be modeled with three connected RLC surfaces: one with only resistance. The selection field initially appears as Undefined. and/or capacitor applied to a surface. Select Resistance. HFSS and HFSS-IE issue a warning. Inductance. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Boundaries>Assign>Lumped RLC to bring up the Lumped RLC Boundary dialog box. you can assign a variable to any of these values. Select New Line to define a vector line on the boundary surface.HFSS Online Help Assigning Lumped RLC Boundaries A lumped RLC boundary represents a parallel combination of lumped resistor. inductor. define a Current Flow Line. one with only inductance. To create a lumped RLC boundary: 1. but proceed with the solution. If you assign a non-rectangular face. Multiple RLC boundaries can be used to model other circuit configurations. Optionally. To specify where on the surface the current and voltage will be controlled. Using a non-rectangular face can result in less accurate representation of the lumped RLC. and one with only capacitance. 8-26 Assigning Boundaries . HFSS and HFSS-IE assume the lumped RLC is assigned to a rectangular face. 3. and Capacitance as needed and specify values and units for each selected element. Note Related Topics Technical Notes: Lumped RLC Boundaries Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. For example. See the technical notes on RLC boundaries for more information.

The dialog box disappears while you draw the vector line. Once the line has been defined. 4.HFSS Online Help Vector Line To draw a vector line: 1. Select the start point in one of the following ways: • • 3. 2. Select the endpoint using the mouse or the keyboard. Select New Line from the dialog’s pull-down list. Type the point’s coordinates in the in the X. reversing the line’s direction. Y. Click the point. and Z boxes. you can edit it as follows: Select Swap End Points from the dialog pull-down list to switch the start and endpoints of the line. Assigning Boundaries 8-27 .

Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS >Boundaries>Assign>Screening Impedance to bring up the Screening Impedance Boundary dialog. the Resistance and Reactance fields are 5. Click Next or the Screening Impedance tab. An anisotropic boundary must not touch ports in a design. This menu lists the Global Coordinate system and any relative coordinate systems if you have defined them in the design. Checking the Anisotropic Impedance box enables the Coordinate System drop-down menu. If you defining an anisotropic impedance. there will be two buttons: Setup X Direction Link and Setup Y Direction Link. The boundary applies a homogeneous characteristic impedance to the surface in an effort to create an equivalent electrical representation of the geometric grid pattern. (See Creating a Relative Coordinate System.HFSS Online Help Assigning Screening Impedance Boundaries Planar screens or grids of large extent with periodic geometry can be replaced by a screening impedance boundary.) Note 3. 2. click the check box. 4. If you want to use an external design to define the screening impedance. If the boundary requires anisotropic impedance. If you have not selected Use External Design. click the Get Impedance from External Design checkbox to enable the Setup Link button. Select the Coordinate System that defines the anisotropic characteristic of the impedance boundary. depending on the general option setting.. To assign a Screening Impedance boundary 1. 8-28 Assigning Boundaries .

Then select Setup Y Direction Link button to chose a design which will define the impedance in the Y direction. Click the Setup button to display the Setup Link dialog. the current Project File is automatically filled in. A product specific solution of this setup becomes the default solution. 2.] lets you look through your file system. That is. the Project File is automatically filled in. 4. If you select the current model. A browse button [. select Setup X Direction Link button to chose a design which will define the impedance in the X direction. In a Transient solution type." Note The solution in the source design must provide data for the target design's adaptive frequency as well as its sweeps. Use the radio button to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the source project or This project. The "Default" solution is the product dependent solution of the first Setup. That is the setup listed first in the source design's project tree (alphanumerical order).. the wizard shows Resistance and Reactance fields for X Axis alignment and Y axis alignment. A drop down list lets you select from the available solutions. Design. If the source is in the current design. Specify the Solution to use. For anisotropic impedance cases. 5. the adaptive frequency for the target design must be included in the sweep in the source design. If necessary. Specify the Project file for the design that is the source. In most products. Specify the Design for the source. Assigning Material Property Types Change the Orientation of an object Creating a Relative Coordinate System Creating a Face Coordinate System Setting the Working Coordinate System Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View Technical Notes: Screening Impedance Get Impedance from External Design To get impedance from an external design: 1.. it is "Transient. you can open the source design and add an appropriate frequency point to an existing sweep. Assigning Boundaries 8-29 3. and Solution.HFSS Online Help enabled. In these fields. The Setup Link dialog has three fields under the General tab: Project File. Related Topics Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. it is LastAdaptive. you set the Resistance and Reactance. . If you do not specify a project file. but select the current model. you can select this from a drop down menu. If Anisotropic Impedance is checked.

same named variables are mapped automatically. Under the Variable Mapping tab.HFSS Online Help 6. you can choose to Map Variable By Name. If the source and target designs contain same named variables. Click OK to close the Setup Link dialog and return to the Screening Impedance Boundary dialog. Use the checkbox specify whether to Force source design to solve in the absence of linked data in the target design. Note that in Extractor mode. Related Topics Assigning Screening Impedance Boundaries 8-30 Assigning Boundaries . 7. you can set the desired variable values in the source design. In this case. 8. Use the checkbox to specify whether to preserve the source design solution. 9. Extractor mode means that the software is opened during the link solely for the purpose of solving. the source project will be saved upon exit.

To assign a Layered Impedance boundary 1. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS >Boundaries>Assign>Layered Impedance to bring up the Layered Impedance Boundary dialog box. 2. except that HFSS calculates the impedance of the surface based on data you enter for the layered structure. If the layered structure is internal to the design. 3. The effect is the same as an impedance boundary condition. only one infinite ground plane can exist in the design. The layered impedance boundary is supported for single-frequency solutions and for Discrete and Interpolating frequency sweeps. enter the average surface roughness of the two outermost sides. do the following: Assigning Boundaries 8-31 . Enter the Surface Roughness for the layered structure. You can assign a variable as this value. 4. Select Infinite Ground Plane if you want the surface to represent an electrically large ground plane when the radiated fields are calculated during post processing. a frequency-dependent impedance boundary condition. Eigenmode designs cannot contain design parameters that depend on frequency: for example.HFSS Online Help Assigning Layered Impedance Boundaries A layered impedance boundary is used to model multiple thin layers in a structure as one impedance surface. For designs with layered impedance boundaries. Click Next or the Layers tab. If the layered structure is external to the design. 5.. depending on the general option setting. Surface roughness is also taken into account.

Click Calculate. The real and imaginary components of the HFSS-calculated layered impedance value appear. 6. To change the first layer’s material. Related Topics Technical Notes: Layered Impedance Boundaries 8-32 Assigning Boundaries . do the following: a. since the impedance may only be accurate for the center frequency. click the first row square and drag the row to the desired position. To add a new layer to the structure: a. 8. Optionally. to view the impedance values that will be calculated based on the data provided. the outermost layer of the structure is listed. To change the layer’s material. Select the Internal option. click vacuum and follow the procedure for assigning a material. to reorder layers. 9. Perfect E. You can assign a variable as this value. b. c. Click New Layer. do the following: a. click vacuum and follow the procedure for assigning a material. Optionally. Note A warning will be posted if a fast sweep is defined in a design that contains a layered impedance boundary. b. Enter the frequency at which the solution is being solved in the Test Frequency text box. or Perfect H layer from the Thickness/Type list. HFSS assumes the layered structure is external to the design. If the layered structure is within the 3D model. b.HFSS Online Help • By default. Select whether this layer is an Infinite. Enter a thickness for the layer in the Thickness/Type column. The new layer is added at the end of the list. 7. You can assign a variable as this value. Enter a thickness for the first layer in the Thickness/Type column.

) Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries HFSS-IE Feature Assigning Boundaries 8-33 . Create a 2D sheet object on the XY plane at the elevation of ground plane. (To change the default base name to one of your choosing. you essentially create a hole on the 3D object. So if the 2D object touches the surface of 3D object. If the 2D object is touching ground plane. Apertures can be assigned to any 2D objects (only objects: faces are not allowed). 3. To create an aperture in the infinite ground plane: 1. see Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. • • Aperture boundary can only be assigned on sheet objects. 2.HFSS Online Help Assigning Aperture Boundaries in HFSS-IE An aperture boundary represents holes in the design. and you assign an aperture to the 2D object. that means aperture is on ground plane. This objected will be meshed as part of the solution process. Select the object and right-click on Boundaries>Assign>Aperature to display the Aperature dialog. Type the boundary’s name in the Name text box or accept the default name.

To change the material. 4. A Select Material button displays the name of the default material. To assign an infinite ground plane geometry in HFSS-IE: 1. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Assigning Materials HFSS-IE Feature 8-34 Assigning Boundaries . The Infinite Ground Plane will not be assigned to any geometry. 3. Set the surface roughness and units. You can accept the default name. click the button to display the materials dialog.HFSS Online Help Assigning Infinite Ground Plane Boundaries in HFSS-IE An HFSS-IE design can contain an Infinite Ground Plane boundary aligned with the global XY plane. or specify one. and select Assign>Infinite Ground Plane to display the Infinite Ground Plane dialog. since it will often exist in a location that does not have an appropriate face or sheet for assignment. Specify the Z location and the units. With no objects selected. right-click on Boundaries in the Project tree. 2. 5.

HFSS assumes the layered structure is external to the design. 5. To assign a Layered Impedance boundary 1. or Perfect H layer from the Thickness/Type list. 2. 4. a frequency-dependent impedance boundary condition. Select a surface on which to assign the boundary and click HFSS-IE >Boundaries>Assign>Layered Impedance to bring up the Layered Impedance Boundary dialog box. do the following: • By default. 6. Select the Internal option. If the layered structure is within the 3D model. depending on the general option setting. To add a new layer to the structure: Assigning Boundaries 8-35 . The effect is the same as an impedance boundary condition. do the following: a. To change the first layer’s material. the outermost layer of the structure is listed. Perfect E. You can assign a variable as this value. Surface roughness is also taken into account. Enter the Surface Roughness for the layered structure. Select whether this layer is an Infinite.. Eigenmode designs cannot contain design parameters that depend on frequency: for example. You can assign a variable as this value. If the layered structure is internal to the design.HFSS Online Help Assigning Layered Impedance Boundaries in HFSS-IE A layered impedance boundary is used to model multiple thin layers in a structure as one impedance surface. click vacuum and follow the procedure for assigning a material. b. Enter a thickness for the first layer in the Thickness/Type column. 3. Click Next or the Layers tab. except that HFSS calculates the impedance of the surface based on data you enter for the layered structure. The layered impedance boundary is supported for single-frequency solutions and for Discrete and Interpolating frequency sweeps. enter the average surface roughness of the two outermost sides. If the layered structure is external to the design.

Enter the frequency at which the solution is being solved in the Test Frequency text box. to view the impedance values that will be calculated based on the data provided. b. Note A warning will be posted if a fast sweep is defined in a design that contains a layered impedance boundary. Click New Layer. Related Topics Technical Notes: Layered Impedance Boundaries Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Assigning Materials HFSS-IE Feature 8-36 Assigning Boundaries . 7. to reorder layers. since the impedance may only be accurate for the center frequency. 8. Click Calculate.HFSS Online Help a. Enter a thickness for the layer in the Thickness/Type column. click the first row square and drag the row to the desired position. Optionally. b. click vacuum and follow the procedure for assigning a material. To change the layer’s material. The new layer is added at the end of the list. c. The real and imaginary components of the HFSS-calculated layered impedance value appear. You can assign a variable as this value. Optionally. do the following: a.

multiple antenna ground planes are supported. you will receive a warning. Layered Impedance. and Finite Conductivity Boundary conditions. or impedance boundary condition. HFSS models the boundary as a finite portion of an infinite. If the infinite ground plane does not touch a radiation boundary. For Impedance.and far-field radiation during post processing.HFSS Online Help Designating Infinite Ground Planes To simulate the effects of an infinite ground plane in an HFSS design: • Select the Infinite ground plane check box when setting up a perfect E. This selection only affects the calculation of near. For PEC. finite conductivity. Related Topics Technical Notes: Infinite Ground Planes Assigning Boundaries 8-37 . A finite sheet. which does not touch the radiation boundary condition cannot be an infinite ground plane. HFSS supports only one infinite boundary condition per design. perfectly conducting plane.

and then click Properties on the shortcut menu.HFSS Online Help Modifying Boundaries To change the properties of a boundary. in which you can modify the properties of one or more boundaries. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Deleting Boundaries 8-38 Assigning Boundaries . in which you can edit its properties. The Design List dialog box appears. do one of the following: • • • Double-click the boundary’s icon in the project tree. The boundary’s dialog box appears. Right-click the boundary in the project tree. The boundary’s dialog box appears. in which you can edit its properties. Click HFSS>List.

Click Delete. To delete all boundaries: • Click HFSS>Boundaries>Delete All. The Design List dialog box appears. 2. On the Edit menu. click Delete . click List. You can also delete one or more boundaries in the Design List dialog box: 1. click the row of the boundary you want to delete. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Assigning Boundaries 8-39 . Click HFSS menu. 2. Under the Boundaries tab. Select the boundary you want to delete by selecting its icon in the project tree. 3.HFSS Online Help Deleting Boundaries To delete one boundary: 1.

the second object’s boundary will become invalid because united objects maintain the characteristics of the first object selected. Select the object or object face to which you want to assign an existing boundary. and then click Reassign on the shortcut menu. invalidating the boundaries. Note When reassigning a boundary that includes vectors in its definition. but this is not always possible. 2. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries 8-40 Assigning Boundaries . if you unite two objects with assigned boundaries. and then click OK. For example. Click HFSS>Boundaries>Reassign. you would need to reassign the boundary or delete it 1. select the object or object face to which you want to assign an existing boundary. This is useful when you have modified objects with assigned boundaries. In this case. Select an existing boundary from the list. Alternatively. 3. HFSS attempts to preserve the vectors with the new assignment. The Reassign Boundary window appears. The boundary is reassigned to the object or object face. Right-click the existing boundary in the project tree.HFSS Online Help Reassigning Boundaries You can reassign a boundary to another surface.

1. Click HFSS>Boundaries>Reprioritize to reprioritize boundaries. When two boundary definitions overlap. The order of boundaries is important because. You can change the priority of a previously assigned boundary to be greater than a more recently assigned boundary. the one with the higher priority is visible to the solvers. 2. The order does not correspond to the order of boundaries and excitations visible to the solvers. The lowest priority assignment appears at the top of the list. Ports are automatically placed at the bottom (highest priority) of the list. The order the boundaries and excitations appear in the list indicates the order in which they were defined. The Reprioritize Boundaries window appears.HFSS Online Help Reprioritizing Boundaries Each boundary you assign overwrites any existing boundary which it overlaps. Note Related Topics Reviewing Boundaries and Excitations in the Solver View Assigning Boundaries 8-41 . for any given triangle of the mesh. Other boundaries and excitations appear between these two extremes. Drag the boundary you want to change to the desired order of priority. Magnetic Bias Excitations (if any) have the lowest priority. The order of boundaries and excitations in the project tree is alphabetical. you cannot move a boundary to a higher priority than a port. only one boundary or excitation can be visible to the solvers.

This setting tells HFSS what material properties to use when calculating far fields. This lets you work with the materials library. The default setting is vacuum. By clicking the Material button. Selecting anisotropic material is disabled because the solver doesn't support that. Related Topics Viewing and Editing Material Attributes Far Field Wave 8-42 Assigning Boundaries . you can access the Select Definition dialog. you should set the GlobalMaterial Environment to water.HFSS Online Help Global Material Environment The HFSS>Boundaries>Edit Global Material Environment command displays the Global Material Environment dialog. for example. If you simulate an antenna underwater.

select Duplicate boundaries with geometry. 4. For example: 1. Under Boundaries. 2. Select the face to which you want to assign the boundary. Click Tools>Options>HFSS Options.HFSS Online Help Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry To duplicate a boundary or excitation when its geometry is pasted or duplicated: 1. Assign the boundary to the new face object. 3. All boundaries and excitations will be duplicated with their associated geometries until you choose to clear this option. Related Topics Copying and Pasting Objects Assigning Boundaries 8-43 . Click Modeler>Surface>Create Object From Face. Copy and paste the new face object to copy and paste the boundary. 2. Hint Use this option to copy and paste boundaries.

The boundary or excitation will only be visible in the active view window if it is selected. Select the Visibility option for boundaries or excitations that you want to show in the active view window. select the Visibility option for the objects you want to show in the active view window.HFSS Online Help Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations You can choose to show or hide a boundary or excitation’s geometry. 3. Select the tab for the objects you want to show or hide. name. You can invert the order by clicking the Name bar above the Name fields. Clear the Visibility selection of boundaries or excitations that you want to hide from view. objects are listed in alphabetical order. By default. Color Key objects. You can also use the toolbar icons to Show/Hide selected objects in all views and Show/Hide 8-44 Assigning Boundaries . and Fields Reporter objects. Excitations. Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment. or select the Active View Visibility Note Click the Excitations tab if you want to show or hide excitations. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps. click Active View Visibility icon in the toolbar. Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations in the Active View Window 1. in the active view window or in all view windows. The Active View Visibility dialog box appears. 5. Click the Boundaries tab if you want to show or hide boundaries. The boundary or excitation will be visible in the active view window when it is selected or when it is not selected. 2. you can resize the dialog for easier selection. In the case of very large models with many boundaries. On the View menu. What do you want to do? Show or hide a boundary or excitation in the active view window. The dialog contains tabs for 3D Modeler objects. Boundaries. Show or hide a boundary or excitation in every view window. You can also use the Name field to type in an object name and apply the visibility via the Show and Hide buttons. 6. Under the tab you need. The objects you select and designate as Visible (by selecting the property or using Show) appear. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment. A triangle in the bar indicates the direction of the listing. or vectors. • • • For designs with large numbers of objects. 4.

Clear the View Geometry. Note Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment. Click HFSS>Boundaries>Visualization if you want to show or hide boundaries. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment. Click HFSS>Excitations>Visualization if you want to show or hide excitations. In the case of very large models with many boundaries. Select the options you want to show.HFSS Online Help selected objects in active views. Assigning Boundaries 8-45 . Show selected object in all views Show selected object in active view Hide selected object in all views Hide selected objects in active view Hide/Show overlaid visualization in the active view icon Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations in Every View Window 1. or View Vector selection of boundaries and excitations that you want to hide from view. The options affect all view windows. View Name. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps. 2.

Visible to Solver will appear in the Solver Visibility column for each boundary or excitation that is valid. To check the solver’s view of boundaries and excitations: 1. The Solver View of Boundaries window appears. The selected boundary or excitation will appear in the 3D Modeler window in the color it has been assigned. click Boundary Display (Solver View). Select the Visibility option for the boundary or excitation you want to review. Reviewing the solver’s view of the model’s boundaries and excitations enables you to verify that their order during the solution process will be as you intended. • • 3. 4. Related Topics Technical Notes: Default Boundary Assignments 8-46 Assigning Boundaries . Overridden will appear in the Solver Visibility column for each boundary or excitation that will be ignored by the solver as a result of it overlapping an existing boundary or excitation with a higher priority. If the order of priority is not as you intended. which lists all the boundaries and excitations for the active model in the order specified in the Reprioritize Boundaries and Excitations dialog box. Verify that the boundaries or excitations you assigned to the model are being displayed as you intended for solving purposes.HFSS Online Help Reviewing Boundaries and Excitations in the Solver View After you have assigned all the necessary boundaries and excitations to a model. 2. reprioritize the boundaries and excitations. On the HFSS menu. you should review their order of priority according to the HFSS solver. HFSS generates an initial mesh and determines the locations of the boundaries and excitations on the model.

HFSS Online Help Setting Default Values for Boundaries and Excitations When assigning a boundary or excitation. Assign a boundary or excitation. Related Topics Showing and Hiding Boundaries and Excitations Modifying Boundaries Deleting Boundaries Assigning Boundaries 8-47 . the defaults are set via a formula. The values assigned to this boundary are saved as the default values and will be assigned when new boundaries of this type are created. 6. These default values are initially set by HFSS. To modify the default values associated with a specific boundary or excitation type: 1. Optionally. The default values you set for this boundary type will be cleared and will revert to the default values set by HFSS. Close the boundary or excitation’s dialog box. 4. 3. 5. click Save Defaults. many of the fields in the boundary and excitation dialog boxes have default values associated with them. Re-open the new boundary or excitation’s dialog box. Under the Defaults tab. but can be overridden. Modify any default values. It now includes a Defaults tab. 2. Note For PML boundaries. rather than a value. click Revert to Standard Defaults.

HFSS Online Help 8-48 Assigning Boundaries .

Deembed the port. Delete it. effectively. Represents the surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. Modify the impedance multiplier. you can modify it in some of the following ways. You can assign terminals manually or automatically. For HFSS Transient solutions. effectively a semi-infinite wavegyude attached to the model. Available excitation differ for each. or voltages on objects or surfaces in the design. render it Active or Passive. and HFSS-IE are used to specify the sources of electromagnetic fields and charges. currents. if applicable to the excitation type: • • • • • • • • Change its properties. Represents an internal surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry.. a small imedance pole for exiting the structure. • • • HFSS Excitations HFSS-IE Excitations HFSS Transient Excitations After assigning an excitation. You may assign the following types of excitations to a Driven solution-type HFSS design: Wave Port Lumped Port Terminal. Reprioritize it.9 Assigning Excitations Excitations in HFSS. Hide it from view. Assigning Excitations 9-1 .. Reassign it to another surface. HFSS Transient. Represents a terminal.

For HFSS Transient designs. Represents a constant electric field across feed points. You can assign terminals manually or automatically. Represents a constant electric field across feed points. typically within a wave length. You can assign terminals manually or automatically. You can assign the following types of excitation in an HFSS Transient design.. usually more than a wave length distance) from an antenna to approximate as a plane wave. A Near Field wave is close enough to the antenna source for near field effects to occur. Represents an internal surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry.. enabling you to designate each excitation as Active or Passive. Incident Wave Voltage Source Current Source Magnetic Bias You can assign the following types of excitation in an HFSS-IE design: Lumped Port Terminal. the Properties for each excitation includes a Transient tab. A Far field wave is sufficiently far (that is. Represents a terminal. Represents a terminal.HFSS Online Help Floquet Port Used exclusively with planar-periodic structures. a small imedance pole for exiting the structure.. Used to define the net internal field that biases a saturated ferrite object. Near field waves include evanescent field behavior. effectively a semi-infinite wavegyude attached to the model. Plane Incident Wave Far Field Wave Near Field Wave Represents an internal surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. Represents a propagating wave impacting the geometry. Wave Port Lumped Port Terminal. Chief examples are planar phased arrays and frequency selective surfaces when these may be idealized as infinitely large. Plane Wave Voltage Source Current Source Related Topics Technical Notes: Port Solution Theory Technical Notes: Excitations Technical Notes: Excitations in the Time Domain Zoom to Selected Excitation 9-2 Assigning Excitations Represents the surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. Represents a constant electric current across feed points. effectively. Represents a propagating wave impacting the geometry.. . Represents a constant electric current across feed points. Represents a wave that propagates in one direction and is uniform in the directions perpendicular to its direction of propagation.

and right-click. the popup menu includes a Zoom to command. Assigning Excitations 9-3 .HFSS Online Help Zoom to Selected Excitation When you select on an excitation name in the Project tree. Selecting this command zooms the view in the 3D Modeler view in or out to show the selected excitation. This can be very useful in looking at problem areas.

rectangular or circular).. They are used when modeling strip lines and other waveguide structures (for example. The setup of wave ports varies slightly depending on whether your solution is modal or terminal. For each port. depending on your General Options Assignment options selection for Use wizards. (To change the default base name to one of your choosing. When you select an Assign>portType command. see Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. (Also see Selecting the Solution Type). you see either the Wave Port wizard.HFSS Online Help Assigning Wave Ports Wave ports represent places in the geometry through which excitation signals enter and leave the structure. you type the port’s name in the Name text box or accept the default name. or a multitab properties dialog with the General tab selected. Related Topics Assigning Wave Ports for Modal Solutions Assigning Wave Ports for Terminal Solutions Technical Notes: Wave Ports 9-4 Assigning Excitations .) Note A wave port can be placed internal to a model as long as it is backed by a PEC object.

The mode table is updated to include the total number of modes. To specify an integration line for a port mode. 3.HFSS Online Help Technical Notes: Port Solution Theory Assigning Wave Ports for Modal Solutions 1. or the Modes tab to show the Modes window. For analytic port types. define integration lines for each mode. Click Next. the table cell under the Integration line heading changes from "None" to "Defined. you can choose to Align modes analytically using coordinate systems. 2. Select coplanar face(s) and click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Wave Port to see the Wave Port dialog with the General tab. and specify whether to filter modes for the reporter. Note When you have defined an integration line. Here you specify the number of modes for a port." Clicking on the cell now shows a drop down list of options: • • • Defined None Swap Endpoints Assigning Excitations 9-5 . the characteristic impedance. follow the directions for defining an integration line.

HFSS Online Help • • Duplicate Line. The modes area contains three radio buttons: • • • None means that you don’t want to align the E-field of the modes with the integration line. repeat the process for each.and Calculating the PV Impedance. which lets you use a checkbox to designate a mode For Reporter.. 6. or integration lines. If a solution exists adding or changing integration lines invalidates them. HFSS uses Zpv. Click Next or the Post Processing tab to display the Wave Port: Post Processing window. use the options for this line. this function will simplify your selections when you create traces for reports. The Characteristic Impedance (Zo) column shows the Zpi method usually used to calculate the characteristic impedance.. This adds a new column to the Mode table. New Line. If so. For definitions of how HFSS defines these values. materials. For designs with multiple modes. However. you define the U Axis Line. 5. see Calculating the PI Impedance. and issues a warning.. 9-6 Assigning Excitations . Align modes using integration lines causes polarization for non-analytic ports to align the E-field of the modes with the integration line. Choose whether to use analytic modes for polarization.. which must split the port symmetrically. If you change an existing integration line. if there are no conductors on the port and Zpi is near zero. There is no restriction on the port geometry. If you need to define an integration line for one or more modes. If desired. The V direction is computed automatically and can be reversed using the "Reverse V Direction" checkbox. The solver polarizes the fields by aligning them with analytic mode patterns that are generated on the U-V coordinate system. you can check the Filter Modes for Reporter checkbox. 4. Align modes analytically using coordinate system requires that the port corresponds to an analytic port type.

the Renormalize Specific Modes is enabled. The default impedance for re-normalization of each mode is 50 ohms. If you want to enter a complex impedance. Renormalize All Modes.HFSS Online Help Values here affect S-Parameters only. Alternatively. This disables the Renormalize mode selections here. If there are multiple modes. a blue arrow depicts the embedding distance in the graphics window when the port is selected. After you enter the value. and then type the deembedding distance to add and select the units to use. A positive distance value will de-embed into the port. To deembed the port. A negative distance value will deembed out of the port. You can subsequently edit this value. click Get Distance Graphically to draw a line with a length representing the de-embed distance. This opens a editable table with the impedances for each mode. enter it in the following form: <re> + <im>j • 7. Note • Related Topics Selecting the Solution Type Defining Integration Lines Assigning Excitations 9-7 . This enables the Full Port Impedance text box. Click this to enable the Edit Mode Impedances button. the Distance field shows the specified distance. You can assign a variable as this value. After you draw the line in the 3D window. The Port Renormalization choices include: • • Do Not Renormalize (the default). select Deembed.

a terminal is associated with the port containing the signal and reference conductors that define the terminal. you can set the renormalizing impedance for all terminals. That would be defined as a terminal in the user interface. Setup for Ports and Terminals At either the port level or for all excitations. and whether you are using a legacy project or script.HFSS Online Help Technical Notes: Wave Ports Technical Notes: Analytic Port Types Technical Notes: Calculating Characteristic Impedance Technical Notes: Deembedding Getting Started Guides Assigning Wave Ports for Terminal Solutions Assigning wave ports for terminal solutions can be manual or automatic depending on whether you are creating the first port or terminal in a project. in the sense that if you operate on the geometries in their assignments. or zoom to it in the model window just like you can for a port. Associating Ports and Terminals HFSS can automatically associate terminal definitions if you define ports after defining terminals or if you define terminals on the Excitations level (in the Project tree) when ports already exist. You can control the terminal base name and terminal name using the Set Default Boundary/Excitation Base Name command. For auto assign terminals. A terminal is defined by one or more conductors in contact with the port. and the terminal is represented in the project tree nested beneath its associated port. The geometric edge can extend outside the port. the associations between ports and terminals may change. you must check the Auto-assign terminals on ports option on the Tools>Options>HFSS Options dialog on the General tab. With geometry copy/ 9-8 Assigning Excitations . but only the portion of the edge that overlaps the port is used to define the terminal edge for the solver. Selection of a port does not visually indicate its terminals. Terminal naming conventions default to be based on the first geometry in the assignment selection for the terminal. Editing Operations and Port/Terminal Associations Port and terminal definitions are synchronized. However. In either case. A terminal is a geometry selection consisting of one or more faces and/or edges that should be fully contained within the port face(s). For this to occur automatically. you can also specify whether naming uses the conductor name or port object name. you can select a terminal in the project tree and see its selection highlighted.

both ports and their associated terminals will duplicate. Related Topics Selecting the Solution Type Auto Assign Terminals Manually Assigning Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port Manually Assigning a Lump Port Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals HFSS Options: General Options Tab Technical Notes: Terminals Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals The setup panel for each terminal includes its post processing renormalizing impedance. However. You can set this value either for all excitations. If the object(s) containing the terminal assignment are also copied and pasted along with the objects containing the port assignment. Either right click on the Excitations icon in the Project tree and select Set Terminal Renormalizing Impedances. In the field for Impedance. the setup panel also includes radio buttons to either Do Not Renormalize Any Terminals. or Renormalize All Wave Port Terminals. Then you will see the proper port/terminal associations established right after the paste without requiring any action on your part. 1. or for a specific port. however. then the terminals will detach from the old port and attach instead to the new one. To set the renormalizing impedance for all excitations: 1. with modified assignments to match the pasted geometries. Click the Apply button to close the dialog and apply the change. If a design includes at least one wave port. set the value.HFSS Online Help paste operations. 3. 2. a terminal is defined on edge(s) or face(s) of object(s). but move the original objects out of range before pasting. However. if you have opted for boundary duplication. do your copy. or click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Set Terminal Renormalizing Impedances. and select the units from the pull down. the assignment of terminals to ports is arbitrary. The Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals dialog appears. which allows use of a dataset for frequency dependent impedance. and likely the old ports will get the additional terminal assignments. move the pasted objects to non overlapping locations. This value can be a variable. Right click on the Port icon in the Project tree and click Set Terminal Renormalizing ImpedAssigning Excitations 9-9 To set the reference for all terminals on a port: . If you want to see this in one step. which are not necessarily on the same objects as the port face(s). If you. This variable can be dependent on the frequency. then the terminals are pasted in with the ports. because the location of the pasted object(s) may coincide with that of their source object(s).

To auto assign terminals: 1. 3. This command also appears on the shortcut menu when you right-click on Excitations. all conductors contacting the port will be located and the Reference Conductors for Terminals dialog will display. Related Topics Auto Assign Terminals Manually Assigning Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions Manually Assigning a Lump Port Plotting in the Time Domain Technical Notes: Terminals Auto Assign for Terminals The HFSS menu lists the HFSS>Excitations>Auto Assign Terminals command. Once one or more ports are defined. Click the Apply button to close the dialog and apply the change. (HFSS>Excitations>Auto Assign Terminals. This resizable dialog contains a table of avail- 9-10 Assigning Excitations . 2.) For each port specified. In designs with at least one wave port.HFSS Online Help ances. and select the units from the pull down. you can use the port or Excitation level commands to Auto Assign Terminals. where you want to view un-renormalized Zo impedance in either the Matrix data or in a report. You can also set the Terminal Reference Impedance on a port by selecting the port and editing the value in the Properties dialog.. set the value. you can select the Do Not Renormalize Any Wave Port Terminals radio button. which allows use of a dataset for frequency dependent impedance. The Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals dialog appears. It differs from the related command for all excitations by specifying that the Renormalizing Impedance is for terminals on the selected port. or on a single port in the Project tree. In the field for Impedance. This value can be a variable. This variable can be dependent on the frequency.

HFSS Online Help able geometries that are Conducting Objects. Note Identification of conductors depends on a threshold conductivity value. 4. 3. Select OK to close the Reference Conductors for Terminals dialog. All remaining conductors on each affected port will be used. For each conductor. Set the terminal naming by selecting Use conductor name or Use Port object name. selecting any conductor in the table highlights it in the modeler window. The example shown includes four conductors. 2. HFSS will then generate terminal Assigning Excitations 9-11 . Ports are named by appending the terminal name (the default name is T) to the specified conductor or port base name. If you check the Highlight selected conductors box. The threshold is based on the material assignment or the boundary assignment if a conducting boundary is assigned to the object. you can check the box in the Use as reference column to so designate it. All other conductors will be considered for terminal assignment.

or on the Project tree. select Excitations and right click to display the shortcut menu and select Assign>Single Terminal. All geometries to be used as the assignment for a terminal should be connected. After you add new model objects or new port definitions. you can define multiple terminals with a single selection entity per assignment (or a single terminal with just one selection entity) via Assign Excitation >Terminal or Excitations >Assign>Terminal. When defining terminals for a particular port. To define a terminal explicitly: 1. 5. 9-12 Assigning Excitations . create the terminals.HFSS Online Help assignments. the conducting faces on a port that touch each other are recognized as defining a single terminal. or from the menu bar select HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Terminal or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Terminal. Related Topics HFSS Options: General Options Tab Manually Assigning Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions Manually Assigning a Lump Port Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals Technical Notes: Terminals Example Projects: Package (terminal) Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient Manually Assigning Terminals If you want a terminal assignment to include multiple geometry selections. Note With complicated arrangement of conductors or geometry that has slight coordinate misalignments. and associate the terminals with the correct port. Note Multiple reference conductors touching a port must all be connected in the plane of the port. you must assign it as a Single Terminal. auto assign may create either too few or too many terminals on a port. Select the face(s) and/or edge(s) that contact the port and which define the terminal. 2. When you execute Auto Assign Terminals. as are conducting edges that touch each other. Terminals can be defined only after ports are defined. As a convenience. Existing terminals will not be affected or duplicated. so you should review the result before solving. Assign as an excitation in the modeler window via right mouse click to display the shortcut menu and select Assign Excitation>Terminal. the right click menu for the port in the project tree has Assign Terminal. you can again Auto Assign Terminals to add new terminals where appropriate.

3. or for all excitations by using the Set Terminal Renormalizing Impedance command. Select the object face to which you want to assign the port and click HFSS>Excita- Assigning Excitations 9-13 . Set up terminal definitions as long as they contact the port in some way.HFSS Online Help Terminals should be completely contained inside or on the perimeter of their ports. Related Topics Auto Assign Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions Manually Assigning a Lump Port Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals Technical Notes: Port Solution Theory Technical Notes: Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions 1. The solver uses a mesh based test to verify that the number of terminals on a port is equal to the number of distinct conductors minus one. you can set a Resistance value and units for the Terminal Renormalizing Impedence. Unless the Post Processing tab selection for the Port is set to Do Not Renormalize. This value can also be set at the port level.

Double click the wave port in the Project tree to display the Properties window for the wave 9-14 Assigning Excitations . 4." Specify which conductors to Use as Reference. 5. Clicking OK adds the Wave port and terminal to the Project tree. Specify the convention for terminal naming as "Use conductor Name" or "Use port object name. 3. By option you can check Highlight selected conductors.HFSS Online Help tions>Assign>Wave Port. 2.

If you want to enter a complex impedance. The Port Renormalization choices include: • • Do Not Renormalize (the default). Values here affect S-Parameters only. To specify a different impedance. the Distance field shows the specified distance. you must open the Properties for the terminal and specify a value in the Terminal Renormalizing Impedance field. enter it in the following form: <re> + <im>j • 6. Alternatively. The default impedance for re-normalization of each port is 50 ohms.HFSS Online Help port. You can subsequently edit this value. Click this to enable the Edit Terminal Impedances button. A negative distance value will deembed out of the port. Renormalize All Terminals. After you enter the value. and then type the deembedding distance to add. Selecting this disables the Impedance fields for the port and terminals. To deembed the port. Select the Post Processing tab. you can designate a port as Active or Passive. click Get Distance Graphically to draw a line with a length representing the de-embed distance. After you draw the line in the 3D window. A positive distance value will de-embed into the port. select Deembed. For HFSS Transient solutions. a blue arrow depicts the embedding distance in the graphics window when the port is selected. This opens a editable table with the impedances for each terminal. Note • 7. Assigning Excitations 9-15 . Renormalizing Impedance for Specific Terminals is enabled. You can assign a variable as this value. If there are multiple modes.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Auto Assign Terminals Manually Assigning Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions Manually Assigning a Lump Port Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient Technical Notes: Port Solution Theory Technical Notes: Terminals Technical Notes: Deembedding 9-16 Assigning Excitations .

HFSS-IE Lumped Ports Assigning Excitations 9-17 . Each terminal that is identified by an edge selection must have each edge contained by some non port face. The following restrictions apply: • • • • The complex full port impedance must be non-zero and the resistance must be non-negative. or one terminal if it is a terminal solution. you should abort the solve and correct the geometry. Note Use wave ports to model exterior surfaces through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. The default boundary is perfect H on all edges that do not come in contact with the metal or with another boundary condition. but can be located internally and have a complex user-defined impedance. If you see the error message. an error message is issued. An example use is modeling microstrip structures. An integration line must be defined for driven ports. Their setup varies slightly depending on whether the solution is modal or terminal.HFSS Online Help Assigning Lumped Ports Lumped ports are similar to traditional wave ports. Only one port mode is allowed. Lumped ports compute S-parameters directly at the port. If this condition is not satisfied. A lumped port can be defined as a rectangle from the edge of the trace to the ground or as a wave port.

For HFSS-IE: • For auto assignment to work you must enable Auto-assign terminals on ports on the HFSSIE Options: General Options Tab. Define the complex Full Port Impedance in the Resistance and the Reactance text boxes. Click Next to display the Lumped Port: Modes window. The HFSS-IE lumped ports impress a one volt difference between the terminal and its reference while an HFSS lumped port impresses an electric field between the terminal and its reference. Select a surface to which you want to assign the port and click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Lumped Port to bring up the Lumped Port dialog. a warning occurs. Manually assign a terminal. Select Excitations>Auto Assign Terminals.” Otherwise. which allows use of a dataset for frequency dependent impedance. 3. The number of Modes is not edit- 9-18 Assigning Excitations . 2. If this condition is violated. for either HFSS or HFSS-IE: • • Related Topics Assigning Lumped Ports for Modal Solutions Assigning Lumped Ports for Terminal Solutions HFSS-IE Options: General Options Tab Technical Notes: Lumped Ports Technical Notes: Terminals Technical Notes: Calculating Characteristic Impedance Assigning Lumped Ports for Modal Solutions 1. This variable can be dependent on the frequency. Select any connected edge(s) and/or face(s) of conductors that touch the port. the maximum distance from the terminal to the reference should be less than a twentieth of a wavelength. To ensure a valid port. You can assign a variable to these values. This will bring up a dialog box for you to select the objects used for “reference conductors.HFSS Online Help The lumped ports in HFSS-IE ports are different than those in HFSS.

Values here affect S-Parameters only.and Calculating the PV Impedance. 5. By default. The Characteristic Impedance (Zo) column shows the Zpi method usually used to calculate the characteristic impedance. Click Next or select the Post Processing tab. Related Topics Defining an Integration Line Technical Notes: Lumped Ports Manually Assigning Lumped Ports for Terminal Solutions 1. lumped ports are renormalized to a 50 Ohm full port impedance. Follow the directions for defining an integration line. However. This variable can be dependent on the frequency. To specify a renormalization impedance. HFSS uses Zpv. 2. Values here affect S-Parameters only. if there are no conductors on the port and Zpi is near zero. enter it in the following form: <re> + <im>j If you do not want to renormalize the port impedance. 3. select Do Not Renormalize. Port processing operations do not affect field plots. This displays the Lumped Port: Post Processing window. see Calculating the PI Impedance.HFSS Online Help able. which allows use of a dataset for frequency dependent impedance. Click HFSS> or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Lumped Port. Select the object face to which you want to assign the port. the port renormalizing impedance for all terminals is 50 Ohms. 4. Assigning Excitations 9-19 . You can assign a variable as these values. Select the corresponding unit in the drop down menu. 4. Define the complex Full Port Impedance of the port in the Resistance and the Reactance text boxes. By default. If you want to enter a complex impedance. Each terminal that is identified by an edge selection must have each edge contained by some non-port face. select Renormalize All Modes and type a value in the Full Port Impedance text box. For definitions of how HFSS defines these values. Click Next or the Post Processing tab to display the Lumped Port: Post Processing window.

type a value in the Full Port Impedance text box. To specify a different full port impedance. enter it in the following form: <re> + <im>j 5. Select the corresponding unit in the drop down menu. Related Topics Technical Notes: Lumped Ports Auto Assign Terminals Manually Assigning Terminals Manually Assigning a Wave Port for Terminal Solutions Manually Assigning a Lump Port Set Renormalizing Impedance for Terminals Technical Notes: Terminals 9-20 Assigning Excitations .HFSS Online Help If you want to enter a complex impedance.

The top box is the unit cell for the region above the plane. A simple HFSS model for the unit cell consists of two boxes. The bottom box represents the feeding waveguide and a Wave port on the bottom face provides the cell excitation. but not with terminal ports. Chief examples are planar phased arrays and frequency selective surfaces when these may be idealized as infinitely large.HFSS Online Help Assigning Floquet Ports The Floquet port in HFSS is used exclusively with planar-periodic structures. Floquet ports can be combined with lumped ports. Assigning Excitations 9-21 . Select the top face of the unit cell for the region above the plane. This displays the Floquet Port dialog with the General tab selected. consider an infinite array of radiating rectangular apertures in a ground plane. Linked boundaries are defined on the cell walls and a Floquet port on the top face represents the open boundary. The dimensions and geometry of the unit cell reflect the lattice vectors of the array. As a simple example. and right-button click Assign Excitation > Floquet Port. This example illustrates a key requirement to keep in mind when setting up the unit cell--the perimeter of a Floquet port must be covered by Master and Slave boundaries. To set up a Floquet port: 1.

This window displays a field for the Number of Modes. The default mode table specifies a pair of Floquet modes. The numbers in the this column are computed by the modes calculator to help you decide which modes to keep. Thus when the table gives a value of 0 dB.HFSS Online Help 2. 9-22 Assigning Excitations . Click Next to display the Modes Setup window. the attenuation displayed is the "worst case" in that it is the least amount of attenuation experienced by the mode over all the specified scan directions. is available to set these up for the user. You should keep in mind that the displayed attenuation for a mode is a function of both the frequency and the scan angle set specified in the modes calculator. Specify the A and B directions for the Lattice coordinate system. These designations resemble the textbook notation for rectangular waveguide modes. The vector arrows must start and end at points on the face of the Floquet port and must have a common initial point. Similarly. only the same or larger attenuations (for example. When the later includes more than one scan direction. other higher-order Floquet modes will be required. invoked by selecting the Modes Calculator button. For general frequency and scan conditions. and a table 3. The values represent the modal loss in amplitude along the direction normal to the Floquet port plane in model units of dB per model unit length. Specular modes are always an essential part of the Floquet mode set. At any given direction. Floquet modes are specified by two modal indices and a polarization setting. In general. say 60 dB. but sometimes one of the two polarizations may be omitted. when the table displays. a button for access to the Modes Calculator. These define the periodicity of the planar lattice. a 60 dB per unit length is the least amount of attenuation at all specified scan directions. at one or more scan directions specified in the modes calculator the particular mode propagates without attenuation. 70 dB per length) will occur. The default modes both have modal indices equal to zero and are sometimes called the "specular" modes. A modes calculator. The final column of the mode table is labeled "Attenuation". such as ``TE10''.

For antenna array simulations in which the active impedance or embedded-element pattern is sought. If the field patterns of certain modes represent the fields of interest and others do not. a frequency-selective surface) you will set up a second Floquet port. To enable the Deembed settings. With this in mind. if the per-cell RCS is of interest. or negative distance to deembed out of the port. Click Next for the Post Processing tab. the Wave or Lumped ports modeling the feed structure provide the fields of interest. excluding the latter from the adapt process will result in a "targeted" mesh that better represents the excitation field pattern. click the Get Distance Graphically button.HFSS Online Help 4. On the other hand. general guidelines follow. Do this by editing the “Number of Nodes” value” in the Modes Setup tab. In this case. To change the order of items in the final Modes list. Note that when you do this that HFSS automatically copies the lattice vectors. Selecting more than this may reduce the efficiency and accuracy of the solution process. and 3D refinement settings from the first Floquet port to the second. 7. specular modes provide the fields of interest and should be selected to participate in the 3D adapt process. click the checkbox. Similarly for a FSS simulation with two Floquet ports. 8. To set the distance graphically. Click Next for the 3D Refinement tab. modes table. This panel contains settings which affect the fields once the field solution is complete. no Floquet modes should be included in the adapt process. 6. This panel contains Affects Refinement checkboxes which allow you to specify Floquet modes in the 3D adaptive refinement process. In 3D adaptive refinement the generated mesh is a compromise which simultaneously represents the 3D field patterns of every mode included in the adapt process. Related Topics Technical Notes: Master and Slave Boundaries Assigning Slave Boundaries Assigning Master Boundaries Technical Notes: Deembedding Technical Notes: Floquet Ports Getting Started Guides: Floquet Ports Assigning Excitations 9-23 . In certain simulations (for example. Note that the list is trimmed from the bottom up. Typically. This enables the distance and units field for the positive distance to deembed into the port. drag each corresponding line by the square box at the left of each row. you select no modes or only one or both specular (TE00 or TM00) modes. 5. one or both specular Floquet modes provide the fields of interest and should be included in the 3D adapt process by checking the corresponding Affects Refinement boxes. to eliminate any modes that are not necessary. It is generally good policy in terms of simulation efficiency as well as ease of interpretation of results.

and drag and click to specify the position 2 point that defines the direction from that origin. Clicking the second point closes the Measure Data dialog. for each Vector (A and B Direction): 1. The vector arrows must start and end at points on the face of the Floquet port and must have a common initial point. if you select the Modes calculator button . Drag the marker to select a location for the Direction vector. Click to set the origin point. This opens a Measure Data dialog and causes the cursor to drag a visual marker that drops a dashed line to the reference plane below. 2. Select the drop down menu and click New Vector. The calculator asks for the following inputs: 9-24 Assigning Excitations . the Mode Table Calculator window displays.HFSS Online Help Floquet Ports: Lattice Coordinate System In the Floquet Port dialog. In the Floquet Port: Modes tab. and shows a location indicator on the Floquet plane. The drop down menus for Position A and Position B now include an entry called “Defined” along with “Undefined” and “New Vector. Related Topics Assigning Floquet Ports Floquet Port: Modes Calculator 1. General tab.” 3. and exits the New Vector mode.

if the problem setup contains one or more frequency sweeps. as you learn which modes are needed and which are not. 2. Frequency . The inputs are used by the mode selection algorithm but do not affect the problem setup. The new modes table appears on the Modes Setup tab of the Floquet Port properties/setup window. These inputs constitute the information required to create a set of recommended modes for the Floquet port. including Start.you can trim this value later. Related Topics Assigning Floquet Ports Assigning Excitations 9-25 . Click OK to leave the Mode Table Calculator and to compute the recommended list of modes. The attenuation associated with a listed mode represents the minimum (or worst case) for that mode over the range of scan angles. The Mode Table Calculator calculates a set of Floquet modes on the basis of all the angles defined. and Step size.HFSS Online Help • • • Number of modes . you usually set this value to the highest frequency. Stop. Scan Angles -enter the values and select units for Phi and Theta.

HFSS Online Help

Defining an Integration Line
An integration line is a vector that can represent the following:

• •

A calibration line that specifies the direction of the excitation field pattern at a port. An line along which to integrate E.dl to compute a voltage for Zpv or Zvi impedance of a port.

To define an integration line: 1. Go to the Modes tab for the port. If you are defining an integration line for an existing port, select the port excitation in the project tree, open the properties dialog for the Wave Port or Lumped Port dialog, and click the Modes tab. If you are defining a new port, select the appropriate object face, and click HFSS>Assign>Excitation> and the appropriate wave or lumped port. This displays the Create Port dialog, where you click Next or tab to show the Modes page. On the Modes tab or page, select New Line from the mode’s Integration Line list. The port dialog box disappears. Depending on the Modeler Options: Drawing tab selection, the Measure Data dialog appears while you draw the vector. The Measure Data dialog displays data for the face area, and the Positions for the reference point (start point) and end point (end point) as you define them. 3. Select the start point of the vector in one of the following ways:

2.

• •

Click the point. The cursor moves only in plane of the face for which you are defining the port and line. Type the point’s coordinates in the X, Y, and Z boxes.

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4.

Select the endpoint of the vector using the mouse or the keyboard. The endpoint defines the direction and length of the integration line. The Wave Port or Lumped Port dialog box reappears.

Note

You can select a drawing plane (for example, XY or XZ) to constrain the mouse cursor movement when you define the end point.

Related Topics Guidelines for Defining Integration Lines Duplicating Integration Lines Modifying an Integration Line Technical Notes: Setting the Field Pattern Direction

Guidelines for Defining Integration Lines
An integration line is a vector that can represent the following:

• •

A calibration line that specifies the direction of the excitation field pattern at a port. If you are analyzing more than one mode at a port, define a separate integration line for each mode; the orientation of the electric field differs from mode to mode. An line along which to integrate E.dl to compute a voltage for Zpv or Zvi impedance of a port. In this case, select two points at which the voltage differential is expected to be at a maximum. For example, on a microstrip port, place one point in the center of the microstrip, and the other directly underneath it on the ground plane. In a rectangular waveguide, place the two points in the center of the longer sides. For definitions of how HFSS defines these Zpv and Zvi values, see Calculating the PV Impedance, and Calculating the VI Impedance.

Duplicating Integration Lines
After you have defined an integration line for a mode, you can duplicate it along a vector one or more times. You can then assign the duplicates to additional modes at the port. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Wave Port dialog box, click the Modes tab. Select the mode row containing the integration line you want to duplicate. Select Duplicate Line from the row’s Integration Line list. The dialog box disappears while you draw the vector along which to paste the duplicate. Draw the vector along which the duplicate will be pasted: a. Select an arbitrary anchor point on the edge of the port face in one of the following ways:

• •
b.

Click the point. Type the point’s coordinates in the in the X, Y, and Z boxes.

Select a second point using the mouse or the keyboard. This point defines the direction and distance from the anchor point to duplicate the line.
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The Duplicate Port Line dialog box appears. 5. Type the total number of lines, including the original and duplicates, to make in the Number of Duplicates box. If you type a value that is greater than the number of assigned modes, the extra duplicates will appear as gray integration lines until they are assigned to a mode. 6. 7. Optionally, select Assign to existing modes. The duplicates will be assigned to the modes defined for the port, beginning with the mode after the one with the line that was duplicated. Click OK. The duplicates are pasted along the vector you specified.

Modifying Integration Lines
Modify an existing integration line under the Modes tab in the Wave Port or Lumped Port dialog boxes. To swap the coordinates of an integration line’s start point and endpoints:

Select Swap Endpoints from the mode’s Integration Line list. The line’s direction will be reversed.

To copy a previously defined Wave Port integration line’s points:

Select Copy from Moden from the mode’s Integration Line list. The new integration line will have the same start and endpoints as the selected mode’s integration line.

To delete a defined integration line for a mode:

Select None from the mode’s Integration Line list.

Setting up Differential Pairs
A differential pair represents two circuits, one positive and one negative, routed close together so they will pick up nearly the same amount of noise. The two signals are subtracted from each other by a receiver, yielding a much more noise-free version of the signal. You can define one or more differential pairs from terminal excitations defined on existing wave ports. Differential pairs can span ports, use lump ports, and be enabled and disabled. To allow automated calculation of differential S-parameters from lump ports, you can select terminals from two
arbitrary ports, whether wave ports or lumped ports, for use in a differential pair.

Because differential pairs can span ports or occur within a port, the Differential Pairs command is accessible at corresponding levels in the Project tree via the right click menu both at the Excitations level, and at the port name level. If a differential pair involves terminals from two different ports, the Differential Pairs command for those ports can only be accessed at the Excitations level. If an individual wave port has multiple terminals defined, the Differential Pairs command is enabled when you select that port and right click to display the shortcut menu. In order to combine differential pairs across ports, both ports must have the same renormalization setting; that is, either port ports have "Do not renormalize" on, or both have it off.

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To set up a differential pair: 1. Click HFSS>Excitations>Differential Pairs, or right-click on Excitations in the Project tree and click Differential Pairs on the shortcut menu, or, for a multi terminal wave port, select that port in the Project tree and click Differential Pairs on the shortcut menu. This displays the Differential Pairs window. This contains table headers for the rows of values defined for each pair. It also contains a field for the Renormalizing impedance value and units.

2.

Click New Pair. This adds existing pairs to the Terminals list, and sets default values for the Differential Mode and Common mode. All values can be edited. It also lists which terminal is Positive, which is Negative. By selecting the dropdown menus in these fields, you can reassign these values. The table row shows the checkbox for the newly defined pair as Active. Unchecking the box disables the definition for that pair. This can be useful if you later want to redefine terminal normalization, without having to remove the defined pair altogether.

3. 4.

If other pairs can be created from the existing Terminals, the New Pair button remains enabled. Under Differential Mode headers in the table, do the following: a. If desired, type a new name for the differential mode in the Name text box. The default base name is Diff. To specify a new default see: Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. Unless the Post Processing tab selection for the Port is set to Do Not Renormalize, you can edit the renormalize impedance value here. You can either specify a real valued renormalizing impedance for the differential mode in the Ref. Z text box or use the Full Port Renormalizing Impedance text box and the Set All Diff. Zref. button or the Set All Zref

b.

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button to set the values. Note 5. The value fields in the table support Ctrl/C to copy selected text from a cell, and Ctrl/V to paste text to a selected cell.

Under Common Mode headers in the table, do the following: a. If desired, type a name for the common mode in the Name text box. The default base name is Comm To specify a new default name, see Setting Default Boundary/Excitation Base Names. Either specify a real valued renormalizing impedance for the common mode in the Ref. Z text box, or use the Full Port Renormalizing Impedance text box and the Set All Comm. Zref. button or the Set All Zref button to set the values.

b.

6.

If the New Pair button is enabled, you can define additional differential pairs. You can use the command buttons in the Differential Pairs window to Remove Pair, or Remove All Pairs.

7.

To accept the assignments, click OK to close the Differential Pairs window.

After HFSS has generated a solution, view the common and differential quantities of the differential pair under the Matrix tab of the Solution Data window. When the design has differential pairs (link), the reporter can display quantities for the defined pairs or for the single-ended terminals upon which they are based. A pulldown will appear in the Context area of the Report creation dialog which allows the user to select which quantities will be displayed.

You can freely mix differential and single-ended terminal quantities. However, single ended quantities are computed as if no differential pairs existed. So, in the unlikely case of several terminals where only a subset are combined into pairs, the results may not be as expected.

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Related Topics For plotting differential pairs, see Creating a New Report and specifically see Context Section for Reports. Technical Notes: Computing Differential Pairs

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Assigning Incident Waves
HFSS allows you to assign seven different types of incident wave sources. 1. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave. The HFSS cascade menu allows you to select one of the following types of incident waves: Plane Wave Hertzian-Dipole Wave Cylindrical Wave Gaussian Beam Linear Antenna Wave Far Field Wave Near Field Wave HFSS-IE allows you assign three types of incident wave sources. 1. Click HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave. The HFSS cascade menu allows you to select one of the following types of incident waves: Plane Wave Far Field Wave Near Field Wave HFSS Transient allows you to assign incident Plane Wave.

Note

Whenever additions/changes are made to incident waves that affect fields, it invalidates those solutions that can possibly have fields. Meshes are not invalidated.

Using Field Solutions from Other Simulations HFSS and HFSS-IE can use field solutions from other simulations as sources for new simulations. The other simulations can be done in HFSS, in SIwave or in Maxwell3D. Some examples are (1) a detailed and optimized design of a cell phone radiating in a larger environment (HFSS-HFSS), (2) a complicated printed circuit board causing EMC/EMI problems in and around its housing (SIwave HFSS) or (3) an electromechanical component causing EMC/EMI problems in a vehicle (Maxwell3D - HFSS). In all cases, radiated fields from the "source" project are imposed as an incident wave in the "target" project. These radiated fields can both be far fields and near fields, depending on your judgment of what fits a particular situation. In the "target" project, they are defined through Incident Wave / Far Field

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HFSS Online Help

Wave and Incident Wave / Near-Field Wave. There, the link to the "source" project can be established. Note The environment variable SIWAVE_INSTALL_DIR should be set before executing the parent application like HFSS/Designer because SIwave is launched from HFSS/ Designer and not separately.

Also, in the "target" project, radiation boundaries with Advanced Options must be defined in order to specify where the fields from the "source" project enter the "target" project.

Incident Plane Wave
An incident Plane wave is a wave that propagates in one direction and is uniform in the directions perpendicular to its direction of propagation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the point for the Plane wave and click HFSS or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave>Plane Wave. Select the Vector Input Format as Cartesian or Spherical coordinates. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). Click Next or the Cartesian or Spherical Input Vector tab. If you selected Cartesian, the Incident Wave Source: Cartesian Vector Setup page appears. Define the propagation vector, k, and the E-field polarization vector, E0: a. b. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-components for k vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes. Enter the coordinates for E0 vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes. A single incident wave will be defined. Continue with Step 8 below. Note When entering the propagation vector, k , and E-field polarization vector, E0 , using Cartesian coordinates, keep the following guidelines in mind:

• • •
6. a. b. c.

To define an incident wave traveling in the positive z direction, enter (0, 0, 1) as the k vector coordinates. The magnitude of the E0 vector cannot be zero. k must be orthogonal to E0.

If you selected Spherical, the Incident Wave Source: Spherical Vector Setup page appears. Under IWavePhi, enter Start and Stop points and the number of sweep Points. Click View Point List to see the values of φ. Under IWaveTheta, enter values for Start, Stop, and Points. Click View Point List to see the values of θ. Enter the φ and θ components of E0 in the Phi and Theta boxes. A spherical grid is created when θ is swept through each φ point. At each grid point, an incident wave is present traveling towards the origin of the coordinate system for the
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design. The number of incident waves and grid points can be calculated by multiplying the number of φ points by the θ points. Note 7. 8. Only a single incident wave angle can be defined for periodic structures which are defined with master and slave boundaries

Click Next for the Incident Wave Source: Plane Wave Options page. Select the Type of Plane Wave. a. b. c. If you select Regular/Propagating, no other fields are active. If you select Evanescent, the Propagation Constant fields become active. Enter the Real and Imaginary parts of the Propagation Constant. If you select Elliptically Polarized, the Polarization Angle and Polarization Ratio fields become active. (See Polarization of the Electric Field for a technical discussion of polarization angles, and a definition of Polarization Ratio.) To restore the default (Regular/Propagating), click the Use Defaults button.

d. 9.

Click Finish.The incident wave you defined is added to the Excitations list in the Project.

Related Topics Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient Technical Notes: Incident Waves Technical Notes: Evanescent Plane Wave Equations

Incident Hertzian-Dipole Wave
An incident Hertzian-Dipole wave can be specified as either an Electric dipole or a Magnetic dipole. The Electric dipole simulates the field of an elementary short dipole antenna placed at the origin. The Magnetic dipole is useful for EMC/EMI applications. 1. 2. 3. 4. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave>Hertzian-Dipole Wave. Select the Vector Input Format as Cartesian or Spherical coordinates. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). Click Next. a. b. If you selected Cartesian, the Incident Wave Source: Cartesian Vector Setup page appears. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-components for the vector I*Dipole Length in the X, Y, and Z boxes. I is the current amplitude (peak value). Units are Amp-meters (A*m). (For Magnetic Dipole, step 10 shows the vector definition.) A single incident wave will be defined. Continue with Step 8 below. 5. If you selected Spherical, the Incident Wave Source: Spherical Vector Setup page appears. a. Under IWavePhi, enter Start and Stop points and the number of sweep Points.: Click View Point List to see the values of φ.
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b. c.

Under IWaveTheta, enter values for Start, Stop, and Points. Click View Point List to see the values of θ. Enter the φ and θ components of the vector I*Dipole Length in the Phi and Theta boxes. I is the current amplitude (peak value). Units are Amp-meters (A*m). (For Magnetic Dipole, step 10 shows the vector definition.) A spherical grid is created when θ is swept through each φ point. At each grid point, an incident wave is present traveling towards the origin of the coordinate system for the design. The number of incident waves and grid points can be calculated by multiplying the number of φ points by the θ points.

Note 6. 7.

Only a single incident wave angle can be defined for periodic structures which are defined with master and slave boundaries

Click Next. the Incident Wave Source: Hertzian-Dipole Wave Options page appears. Select the Radius of Surrounding Sphere. Inside this sphere, the field magnitude will be made equal to the field magnitude calculated on the surface of the sphere. To restore the default (10 mm), click the Use Defaults button. Specify the type of Dipole as Electric Dipole [Magnetic current loop] or Magnetic Dipole [Electric current loop]. If you select Magnetic Dipole [Electric Current Loop], and click the back button to view the Vector Setup, notice that the text indicates that the vector is now defined as: Im*dl*normal(LoopSurface)

8.

9.

Click Finish.The incident wave you defined is added to the Excitations list in the Project.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Technical Notes: Spherical Wave (Electric Hertzian Dipole) Equations Technical Notes: Spherical Wave (Magnetic Hertzian Dipole) Equations

Incident Cylindrical Wave
An incident Cylindrical wave is a wave that simulates the far field of an infinite line current placed at the origin. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave>Cylindrical Wave. Select the Vector Input Format as Cartesian or Spherical coordinates. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). Click Next. If you selected Cartesian, the Incident Wave Source: Cartesian Vector Setup page appears. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-components for the I Vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes. I is the current
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amplitude (peak value). Units are Amps (A). A single incident wave will be defined. Continue with Step 8 below. 6. If you selected Spherical, the Incident Wave Source: Spherical Vector Setup page appears. a. b. c. Under IWavePhi, enter Start and Stop points and the number of sweep Points.: Click View Point List to see the values of φ. Under IWaveTheta, enter values for Start, Stop, and Points. Click View Point List to see the values of θ. Enter the φ and θ components of the I Vector in the Phi and Theta boxes. I is the current amplitude (peak value). Units are Amps (A). A spherical grid is created when θ is swept through each φ point. At each grid point, an incident wave is present traveling towards the origin of the coordinate system for the design. The number of incident waves and grid points can be calculated by multiplying the number of φ points by the θ points.

Note 7. 8.

Only a single incident wave angle can be defined for periodic structures which are defined with master and slave boundaries

Click Next. the Incident Wave Source: Cylindrical Wave Options page appears. Select the Radius of Surrounding Cylinder. Inside this cylinder, the field magnitude will be made equal to the field magnitude calculated on the surface of the cylinder. To restore the default (10 mm), click the Use Defaults button. Click Finish.The incident wave you defined is added to the Excitations list in the Project.

9.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Technical Notes: Cylindrical Wave Equations

Incident Gaussian Beam Wave
An incident Gaussian Beam wave propagates in one direction and is of Gaussian distribution in the directions perpendicular to its direction of propagation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave>Gaussian Beam. Select the Vector Input Format as Cartesian or Spherical coordinates. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). Click Next. If you selected Cartesian, the Incident Wave Source: Cartesian Vector Setup page appears. Define the propagation vector, k , and the E-field polarization vector, E0 : a. b. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-components for k vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes. Enter the coordinates for E0 vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes.

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A single incident wave will be defined. Continue with Step 8 below.

Note

When entering the propagation vector, k, and E-field polarization vector, E0, using Cartesian coordinates, keep the following guidelines in mind:

• • •
6. a. b. c.

To define an incident wave traveling in the positive z direction, enter (0, 0, 1) as the k vector coordinates. The magnitude of the E0 vector cannot be zero. k must be orthogonal to E0.

If you selected Spherical, the Incident Wave Source: Spherical Vector Setup page appears. Under IWavePhi, enter Start and Stop points and the number of sweep Points. Click View Point List to see the values of φ. Under IWaveTheta, enter values for Start, Stop, and Points. Click View Point List to see the values of θ. Enter the φ and θ components of E0 in the Phi and Theta boxes. A spherical grid is created when θ is swept through each φ point. At each grid point, an incident wave is present traveling towards the origin of the coordinate system for the design. The number of incident waves and grid points can be calculated by multiplying the number of φ points by the θ points.

Note 7. 8.

Only a single incident wave angle can be defined for periodic structures which are defined with master and slave boundaries

Click Next. The Incident Wave Source: Gaussian Beam Options page appears. Select the Beam Width at Focal Point. By definition, this refers to the radius (wo) of the beam waist (not the diameter), where the beam waist is the minimum width. To restore the default (10 mm), click the Use Defaults button. Click Finish.The incident wave you defined is added to the Excitations list in the Project.

9.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Technical Notes: Gaussian Beam Equations

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Incident Linear Antenna Wave
An incident linear antenna wave is a wave that simulates the far field of a linear antenna placed at the origin. 1. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave>Linear Antenna Wave. You see either the Incident Wave Source wizard or the General tab.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Select the Vector Input Format as Cartesian or Spherical coordinates. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). Click Next. If you selected Cartesian, the Incident Wave Source: Cartesian Vector Setup page appears. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-components for the I Vector in the X, Y, and Z boxes. I is the antenna current amplitude (peak value). Units are Amps (A). A single incident wave will be defined. Continue with Step 8 below. If you selected Spherical, the Incident Wave Source: Spherical Vector Setup page appears. a. b. c. Under IWavePhi, enter Start and Stop points and the number of sweep Points.: Click View Point List to see the values of φ. Under IWaveTheta, enter values for Start, Stop, and Points. Click View Point List to see the values of θ. Enter the φ and θ components of the I Vector in the Phi and Theta boxes. I is the antenna current amplitude (peak value). Units are Amps (A). A spherical grid is created when θ is swept through each φ point. At each grid point, an

6.

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incident wave is present traveling towards the origin of the coordinate system for the design. The number of incident waves and grid points can be calculated by multiplying the number of φ points by the θ points. Note 7. 8. 9. Only a single incident wave angle can be defined for periodic structures which are defined with master and slave boundaries

Click Next. The Incident Wave Source: Linear Antenna Wave Options page appears. Select the Length of the Antenna. Select the Radius of Surrounding Cylinder. Inside this cylinder, the field magnitude will be made equal to the field magnitude calculated on the surface of the cylinder.

10. To restore the defaults (10 mm), click the Use Defaults button. 11. Click Finish.The incident wave you defined is added to the Excitations list in the Project. Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Technical Notes: Linear Antenna Equations

Far Field Wave
A Far field wave is sufficiently far (that is, usually more than a wave length distance) from an antenna to approximate as a plane wave. Far field waves are mostly homogeneous. 1. 2. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Far Field Wave or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Far Field Wave Click Next or the Far Field Wave Options tab. A page appears that contains a Setup Link button to browse for a Source of Field and entry fields for specifying the linked design orientation relative to this design.

3.

As the Source of Field Data, you can specify either: A Linked Design, for which you click the Setup Link button. An External Data file defining the incident wave, for which you select the ellipsis button to browse for the file.
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4. 5.

If necessary, specify the Translation of Source Origin Relative to this design. If needed check to show that Source Design is Fully Inside This Design. When a source project is totally inside the target project, it should not be included into the near/far field calculation. If it is totally outside, the far field calculation should integrate over the radiation surfaces of the source project, too.

6.

If needed check to Include Source Power in Antenna Parameters. The antenna parameters include power-related entries such as incident power, accepted power, radiated power. If you check Include Source Power in Antenna Parameters the antenna parameters in the design that receives the fields from a "source" design will be based on the power set for the excitations in the "source" design under HFSS>Fields >Edit Sources. For instance, this can be the power with which a port in a source antenna is excited. If the antenna in a source design is excited with 10 W, then the antenna parameters panel in the receiving design will show an incident power of 10 W. See Computing Antenna Parameters for a description of how to obtain antenna parameters during post processing.

7.

Click Finish to close the dialog. The Far Field wave source point and direction is highlighted in the modeler window, and the wave appears in the Excitations list in the Project.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Clear Linked Data Using Field Solutions from Other Simulators

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Setup Link for Far Field or Near Field Wave
You access this Setup Link dialog from the Far Field Wave options dialog or Near Field Wave options..

1. 2.

Select the Product from the menu. Specify the Source Project for the design that is the source of the Far Field or Near Field wave. If you check Use This Project, the field for the project name is automatically filled in and editing is disabled. It also disables the radio button to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the source project or This project. If you clear Use This Project, you can type in a path, or use a browse button [...] to navigate your file system for a source project. When you specify a project, you can use the radio button to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the source project or This project.

3.

Specify the Design for the source of the Far Field or Near Field wave. If the source is in the current design, you can select this from a drop down menu. If you select the current model, the Project File is automatically filled in. The source design does not need to have ports. Specify the Solution to use. A drop down list lets you select from the available solutions. The "Default" solution is the product dependent solution of the first Setup. That is the setup listed first in the source design's project tree (alphanumerical order). A product specific solution of this setup becomes the default solution. In most products, it is Last-

4. 5. 6.

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Adaptive. In a Transient solution type, it is "Transient." Note The solution in the source design must provide data for the target design's adaptive frequency as well as its sweeps. That is, the adaptive frequency for the target design must be included in the sweep in the source design. If necessary, you can open the source design and add an appropriate frequency point to an existing sweep. 7. 8. Use the checkbox specify whether to Force source design to solve in the absence of linked data in the target design. Use the checkbox to specify whether to preserve the source design solution. Note that in Extractor mode, the source project will be saved upon exit. Extractor mode means that the software is opened during the link solely for the purpose of solving. Under the Variable Mapping tab, you can set the desired variable values in the source design. If the source and target designs contain same named variables, you can choose to Map Variable By Name. In this case, same named variables are mapped automatically.

9.

10. Click OK to close the Setup Link window and return to the Far Field Incident Wave Source window or the Near Field Incident Wave Source window.

External Data File for Far Field Wave
You can define a Far Field Incident Wave Source as a data file. The fields can be constant or frequency dependent. If the file contains constant far fields (not depending on frequency), then the format is very simple. No keywords are used. The first two lines contain doubles representing start, stop, and num points for sweeps of theta and phi. Then, the subsequent lines give the complex components of electric field in the theta and phi directions. All of these are doubles. For these lines, theta will be held constant while phi is swept through all values, then theta will increment to the next value, etc. So the lines will correspond to (th1, ph1), (th1, ph2), (th1, ph3),…,(th1,phN), (th2,ph1), (th2,ph2), etc… Note that this format enforces a strict uniform grid of theta and phi samples. ThetaStart ThetaStop ThetaNumPoints PhiStart PhiStop PhiNumPoints E_theta_real E_theta_real E_theta_real E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_imag E_phi_imag E_phi_imag

Repeat for all theta and phi sweep points If the file contains frequency-dependent far fields, the data is given in blocks. Keywords (shown in bold below) are used to identify the frequency information. After initial data for theta and phi, the file has a keyword and integer for the number of frequencies. Then there is a block for the far fields at each frequency. Each block starts with a keyword and double for the frequency, followed by the far field data, given exactly as shown for the constant case above.

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ThetaStart ThetaStop ThetaNumPoints PhiStart PhiStop PhiNumPoints Frequencies Frequency E_theta_real E_theta_real E_theta_real NumFrequencies FrequencyValue E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_imag E_phi_imag E_phi_imag

… repeat for all theta and phi sweep points Frequency E_theta_real E_theta_real E_theta_real FrequencyValue E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_theta_imag E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_real E_phi_imag E_phi_imag E_phi_imag

… repeat for all theta and phi sweep points … repeat for a total of NumFrequencies

Translation of Source Relative to Design
If the coordinate system you are using in the source design (the project/design to which you are linking) is different from that in the target design (the design in which you are creating the link), you must define the relationship between those coordinate systems. The relationship between two coordinate systems can always be defined as a translation and a rotation. The translation is the offset between the origins of the two coordinate systems, and the rotation can be defined through the use of Euler angles.

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11. Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the Excitation Location and/or Zero Phase Position (the origin for the incident wave). This represents the translation of the source design’s origin with respect to the target design’s origin. For instance, if the source design’s origin is located in the target design at (-2, -2, 1), then the translation between the two coordinate systems is (-2, -2, 1). 12. You can define the Rotation of this Design Relative to the Source Design Euler Angles. Similarly to the definition of translation, these angles represent the three rotations that the source design must undergo to align with the target design’s coordinate system. Enter the Euler angles in the respective text fields and use the pull-down menus to specify the units (degrees or radians):

• • •

Phi (+ or - rotation about the Z-axis). Theta (+ or - rotation about the X-axis). Psi (+ or - rotation about resultant Z-axis).

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X,Y, Z Source Coordinate System X", Y", Z" Source Coordinate System After Rotation by φ [phi]

X’, Y’, Z’ Source Coordinate System After Rotation by θ [theta]

X, Y, Z Source Coordinate System After Rotation by ψ [psi]

Return to the Far Field Wave or the Near Field Wave.

Near Field Wave
A Near Field wave is close enough to the antenna source for near field effects to occur, typically within a wave length. Near field waves tend to be evanescent, that is, non-homogeneous. 1. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Near Field Wave or HFSS-IE>Excitations>Assign>Near Field Wave. A Setup Link appears for you to browse for a Source of Field and entry fields for specifying
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the linked design orientation relative to this design. 2. 3. After closing the Setup Link dialog, if necessary, specify the Translation of Source Origin Relative to this design. If needed check to show that Source Design is Fully Inside This Design. When a source project is totally inside the target project, it should not be included into the near/far field calculation. If it is totally outside, the far field calculation should integrate over the radiation surfaces of the source project, too. 4. If needed check to Include Source Power in Antenna Parameters. The antenna parameters include power-related entries such as incident power, accepted power, radiated power. If you check Include Source Power in Antenna Parameters the antenna parameters in the design that receives the fields from a "source" design will be based on the power set for the excitations in the "source" design under HFSS>Fields >Edit Sources. For instance, this can be the power with which a port in a source antenna is excited. If the antenna in a source design is excited with 10 W, then the antenna parameters panel in the receiving design will show an incident power of 10 W. See Computing Antenna Parameters for a description of how to obtain antenna parameters during post processing. 5. Click Finish to close the dialog. The Near Field wave source point and direction is highlighted in the modeler window, and the wave appears in the Excitations list in the Project.

Note

The Near field link uses a default mesh density on the surfaces that link to the other design. If this default mesh density is not sufficient to obtain a desired accuracy, you can select these surfaces and assign a surface mesh seeding. Once the Near Field link has obtained the near fields from the other design, it continues to work with this information regardless of later mesh changes that resulted from adaptive passes or mesh operations. To enforce the Dynamic Link to use a newly seeded mesh, clear the linked data by using Clear Linked Data.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Incident Waves Clear Linked Data Using Field Solutions from Other Simulators

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HFSS-IE Link
You can link HFSS and HFSS-IE projects. This link is controlled with a "Near Field" or "Far-Field" Incident Wave source that is grouped with the Excitations.

• •

Far Field Wave Near Field Wave

Related Topics HFSS-IE Feature

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Assigning Voltage Sources
Assign a voltage source when you want to specify the voltage and direction of the electric field on a surface. A voltage source is used when the feed structure is very small compared to the wavelength and a constant electric field may be assumed across the feed points. In this case, HFSS assigns a constant electric field across the gap on which you specified the voltage. 1. Select the object face to which you want to assign the voltage source, and click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Voltage to display the Voltage Source dialog box.

2. 3.

Type the value of the source, in volts or amps, in the Magnitude box. You can assign a variable as this value. You can also specify the Phase. Specify the direction of the electric field by drawing a vector.

When the source is selected, an arrow indicates the direction and a letter v indicates the type of source. Related Topics Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient

Modifying Voltage Sources
To change the name, value, or electric field direction of an assigned voltage source: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the source’s icon under Excitations in the project tree. The Voltage Source dialog box appears. Edit the name or value of the source. To reverse the direction of the e-field:

Select Swap Endpoints from the E-Field Direction pull-down list.

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The start and endpoints of the E-field line are switched; the line’s direction is reversed.

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Assigning Current Sources
Assign a current source when you want to define the magnitude and direction of the current flow through a surface. A current source is used when the feed structure is very small compared to the wavelength and the electric current on the surface is assumed to be constant across the feed points. 1. Select the object face to which you want to assign the current source and click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Current to display the Current Source dialog box.

2. 3.

Type the value of the source, in volts or amps, in the Magnitude box. You can assign a variable as this value. You can also specify the Phase. Specify the current flow direction by drawing a vector:

When the source is selected, an arrow indicates the direction and a letter i indicates the type of source. Related Topics Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient

Modifying Current Sources
To change the name, value, or current flow direction of an assigned current source: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the source’s icon under Excitations in the project tree. The Current Source dialog box appears. Edit the name or value of the source. To reverse the direction of the current flow:

Select Swap Endpoints from the Current Flow Direction pull-down list.

The start and endpoints of the current flow line are switched; the line’s direction is reversed.
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Assigning Magnetic Bias Sources
When you create a ferrite material, you must define the net internal field that biases the ferrite by assigning a magnetic bias source. The bias field aligns the magnetic dipoles in the ferrite, producing a non-zero magnetic moment. 1. 2. 3. Select the 3D ferrite object to which you want to assign the magnetic bias source. Click HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Magnetic Bias. Specify whether the applied bias field is Uniform or Non-uniform. If a design already contains a magnetic bias field, you cannot assign another of a different type. If a single bias field exists in a design, you can edit the type. 4. If you selected the Uniform radio button, click Next and do the following: a. b. In the Internal Bias field, type the value of the ferrite in amperes/meters. You can assign a variable as this value. Enter the rotation of the permeability tensor with respect to the xyz-coordinate system in the X Angle, Y Angle, and Z Angle boxes. You can assign variables to these values.

If you selected Non-uniform, select the Setup Link... button to display the Setup Link dialog. Under the General tab, do the following: a. Select the radio button for Extractor Mode (the default) or Interactive Mode. Note that in Extractor mode, the source project will be saved upon exit. Extractor mode means that the software is opened during the link solely for the purpose of solving. Selecting Interactive Mode launches Maxwell. (If you open the Setup dialog for a pre-existing Magnetic Bias source, the General tab shows radio buttons for View Only and Edit Link. With View Only selected (the default), all of the link settings are grayed out. Selecting Edit Link enables the fields and changes the radio buttons to Extractor Mode and Interactive Mode.) b. Type the name of a Maxwell 3D Field Simulator project in the Project File box, or click the ellipsis [...] browse button display a file browser to select the project. HFSS uses the Maxwell 3D project as the source of the non-uniform magnetostatic field information during solution generation. Linking invokes a Maxwell 3D window to provide the solution for the targeted HFSS project. c. d. If there are multiple designs available for the project, you can select from the drop down menu. If there are multiple solutions available, you can select from the drop-down menu.
The "Default" solution is the product dependent solution of the first Setup. That is the setup listed first in the source design's project tree (alphanumerical order). A product specific solution of this setup becomes the default solution. In most products, it is LastAdaptive. In a Transient solution type, it is "Transient."

e. f.

Use the radio button to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the source project or This project. Use the checkbox specify whether to Force source design to solve in the absence of
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linked data in the target design. g. Use the checkbox to specify whether to preserve the source design solution. Note that in Extractor mode, the source project will be saved upon exit. Extractor mode means that the software is opened during the link solely for the purpose of solving.

The Setup Link dialog also contains a Variable Mapping tab. It lists variables available within the Maxwell 3D Field Simulator and the value can (and often will) be a variable in the HFSS Setup. You can edit the Value fields by typing, and the Units fields by selecting from a drop down list. You can choose to Map Variable By Name. In this case, same named variables have their values mapped automatically. Different named variables are unaffected. To accept the settings and close the Setup Link dialog, click OK 5. Click Finish to close the Magnetic Bias wizard. The magnetic bias source is assigned to the selected object. If you have set up a link, HFSS invokes a Maxwell 3D window to provide the solution for the targeted HFSS project. You can also access and edit the magnetic bias source information via the Properties dialog for the source. Magnetic bias sources always have the lowest priority compared to boundaries and other excitations in the solver view.

Note

The Tools>Options>HFSS Options dialog has a setting for Use wizards for data input when creating new boundaries that controls the appearance of the Next button.

Related Topics Reprioritizing Boundaries and Excitations. Technical Notes: Magnetic Bias Sources Technical Notes: Uniform Applied Bias Fields Technical Notes: Non-uniform Applied Bias Fields Technical Notes: Magnetic Saturation

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Setup Link Dialog
Linked data can be mesh, field or some other post-processing data that the source design generated. The Setup link dialog permits you to link the current project to another for:

• • • • •

Magnetic Bias source Near Field Wave source Far Field Wave source Initial Mesh source Screening Impedance Boundaries

Use the hypertext links above to see the procedure for setting the link of interest. You can link HFSS and HFSS-IE projects. This link is controlled with a "Near Field" or "Far-Field" Incident Wave source that is grouped with the Excitations. Related Topics Clear Linked Data Export Results to Thermal Link for ANSYS Mechanical

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Modifying Excitations
To change the properties of an excitation, do one of the following:

• • •

Double-click the excitation’s icon under Excitations in the project tree. The excitation’s properties window appears, in which you can modify its properties. Right-click the excitation in the project tree, and then click Properties on the shortcut menu. The excitation’s dialog box appears, in which you can modify its properties. On the HFSS menu, click List. The Design List dialog box appears. Under the Excitations tab, you can modify the properties of one or more boundaries.

Related Topics Active and Passive Excitation in HFSS Transient

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Deleting Excitations
To delete one excitation: 1. 2. Select the excitation you want to delete by clicking its icon in the project tree. Click Edit>Delete . The excitation is removed from the design and the project tree. For terminal solutions, if you delete a port with terminals associated with it, deleting the port also removes the associated terminals. To delete all excitations:


1. 2. 3.

Click HFSS>Excitations>Delete All. Click HFSS>List. The Design List dialog box appears. Under the Excitations tab, click the row of the excitation you want to delete. Click Delete.

You can also delete one or more excitations in the Design List dialog box:

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Reassigning Excitations
You can reassign an excitation to another surface. This is useful when you have modified objects with assigned excitations, invalidating the excitations. For example, if you unite two objects with assigned excitations, the second object’s excitation will become invalid because united objects maintain the characteristics of the first object selected. In this case, you would need to reassign the excitation or delete it. 1. 2. 3. Select the object or object face to which you want to assign an existing excitation. Click HFSS>Excitations>Reassign. The Reassign Excitation window appears. Select an existing excitation from the list, and then click OK. The excitation is reassigned to the object or object face. Note When reassigning an excitation that includes vectors in its definition, HFSS attempts to preserve the vectors with the new assignment, but this is not always possible.

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Duplicating Excitations with Geometry
See Duplicating Boundaries and Excitations with Geometry.

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Showing and Hiding Excitations
See Setting Boundary and Excitation Visualization Options.

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Setting the Impedance Multiplier
For designs with ports. If one or more symmetry planes have been defined or if only a wedge of a structure is modeled, you must adjust the impedance multiplier or the computed impedances will not be for the full structure.

Note 1. 2. 3.

Changing the impedance multiplier invalidates solutions in projects where lumped ports are defined. In such projects, you need to re-solve the project after the change.

Click HFSS>Excitations>Edit Impedance Multiplier. The Port Impedance Multiplier dialog box appears. Type a value in the Impedance Multiplier box. You can assign a variable as this value. Click OK.

Related Topics Technical Notes: Symmetry and Port Impedance Technical Notes: Impedance Multipliers

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HFSS Online Help

Renormalizing S-Matrices
You can renormalize an S-matrix to a specific port impedance when you set up a wave port. (It is the final step in the Wave Port wizard.) Or you can return to the Wave Port dialog box by doubleclicking the wave port icon in the project tree, and then clicking the Post Processing tab. For driven modal problems, you can also edit the renormalization settings and impedance value in the wave port Properties dialog. To renormalize an S-matrix to a specific port impedance: 1. If you have already set up the wave port on the desired object face, double-click the wave port’s icon in the project tree. The Wave Port dialog box appears. 2. Click the Post Processing tab. The Port Renormalization choices include:

• •

Do Not Renormalize (the default) Renormalize All Modes. This enables the Full Port Impedance text box. The default impedance for re-normalization of each port is 50 ohms.
For a driven modal solution, if you want to enter a complex impedance, enter it in the follow-

ing form:

<re> + <im>j
(For a driven terminal solution using a waveport, only the real part of the impedance is required.)


3.

If there are multiple modes, you can select Renormalize Specific Modes. This enables the Edit Mode Impedances button. This opens a editable table with the impedances for each mode.

Click OK to apply the selected values and close the dialog.

For wave ports in driven modal problems, if you choose to edit the renormalize values through the Properties dialog: 1. 2. 3. Select the wave port to edit. The docked Properties dialog shows the properties for the wave port. Check the Renormalize All Modes box. This enables the Renorm Imped field. Set the Impedance value. You do not need to re-run a simulation in order to renormalize a port. Post-processing reports are automatically updated to reflect the renormalized S-matrix. If you export matrix data to Touchstone format, you can choose to override the renormalization impedances set here. See Exporting Matrix Data. Related Topics Exporting Matrix Data
9-60 Assigning Excitations

Note

HFSS Online Help

Technical Notes: Renormalized S-Matrices

Assigning Excitations 9-61

HFSS Online Help

De-embedding S-Matrices
To compute a de-embedded S-matrix: 1. If you have already set up the wave port on the desired object face, double-click the wave port’s icon in the project tree. The Wave Port dialog box appears. 2. 3. Click the Post Processing tab. Select Deembed, and then, either:

Enter the length to be added in the Distance text box. A positive value de-embeds into the port. A negative value de-embeds out of the port. You can assign a variable as this value. Alternatively, click Get Distance Graphically to draw a line with a length representing the de-embed distance. After you draw the line in the 3D window, the Distance field shows the specified distance. You can edit this value.

After you enter the value, a blue arrow depicts the embedding distance in the model window while the port is selected. After you enter the value, a blue arrow depicts the de-embedding distance in the graphics window while the port is selected. In cases of a unit cell modelling equivalent screening impedance, the de-embedding distances should point to the nearest surfaces of the substrate even if there is a thickness between these surfaces. Note that a very thick substrate may lead to inaccurate results because HFSS replaces the composite material of the substrate with a sheet. Note Deembedding the reference plane of a port with a decaying propagation constant can result in nonphysical values due to numerical uncertainties. When some of the S parameters are below the noise floor of the numerical simulation, deembedding them into the object with a long distance and/or a high decaying factor can magnify the uncertain low values to non-physical ones. Hint: Avoid deembedding with long distances when the real part of the propagation constant is not small enough. 4. Click OK to assign that length to the selected port. You do not need to re-run a simulation in order to de-embed the S-matrix. Postprocessing reports are automatically updated to reflect the de-embedded S-matrix.

Note

Related Topics Technical Notes: De-embedded S-Matrices Technical Notes: Deembedding

9-62 Assigning Excitations

You can also open the Select Definition window in one of the following ways: • In the Properties dialog box for the object. Select the object to which you want to assign a material. click the material name under the Attributes tab. 2.. • • Right-click Model in the project tree. they will also be available to assign to objects in other designs. Editing definitions from the project window does not modify the configured libraries for any particular design. Click Modeler>Assign Material . button that opens the Select Definition window. and edit materials in two main ways: • • Using the Tools>Edit Configured Libraries>Materials menu command. When the Show all libraries checkbox is selected. follow this general procedure: 1. remove. The Select Definition window appears. and then click Assign Material on the shortcut menu.10 Assigning Materials You can add. use the Tools>Edit Configured Libraries option. Assigning Materials 10-1 . Selecting one of these materials provides another way to assign materials to an object. Right-click the object in the history tree. A drop-down menu shows an Edit. The menu also lists materials included in the current project. To consider the current design. Doing so ensures that new libraries are added to the configured list for the current design. Right-clicking Materials in the project tree and selecting Edit All Libraries.. To assign a material to an object. If you edit materials from this command for the current and then export them. and then click Assign Material on the shortcut menu. the window lists all of the materials in Ansoft’s global material library as well as the project’s local material library.

Click OK. Note In the history tree. To change the default. Solver assumes vacuum as background material. 4. You cannot set background material in the solver. Note If the material you want to assign is not listed. You can search the listed materials by name or property value. select the object icon and right-click to display the Group Objects by Material checkbox. problems with dielectrics will generally run more slowly. add a new material to the global or local material library. In HFSS-IE: • • • • Only isotropic materials are allowed Frequency dependent materials are allowed. Select a material from the list. and then select it. The material you chose is assigned to the object. by default. Related Topics Solve Inside or On a Surface Assigning DC Thickness Searching for Materials Adding New Materials Assigning Material Property Types Defining Variable Material Properties Defining Frequency Dependent Material Properties Defining Material Properties as Expressions Defining Functional Material Properties Viewing and Modifying Material Attributes Validating Materials Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library 10-2 Assigning Materials . No spatial dependent materials are allowed. Note For HFSS-IE. HFSS groups objects by material. so HFSS-IE issues a warning for this case.HFSS Online Help 3.

HFSS Online Help Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries Setting the Temperature of Objects Assigning Materials 10-3 .

clear the Solve Inside option in the Properties window. If you elect to generate a solution on the surface of the object. HFSS will create a mesh inside the object and generate a solution from the mesh. Under the General tab. Related Topics Assigning DC Thickness 10-4 Assigning Materials . By default. Solve Inside is selected for all objects with a bulk conductivity less than 105 siemens/ meter and for perfect insulators. select Solve Inside in the Properties window. By default. enter a new value in the Solve Inside threshold text box. HFSS implicitly places a finite conductivity boundary condition on the surfaces of an object that should not be solved inside based on the material properties of that object. Click Tools>Options> HFSS Options.HFSS Online Help Solving Inside or on the Surface For HFSS designs. If you elect to generate a solution inside the object. when you assign a material to an object. 2. If you want a solution to be generated inside an object. if you want a solution to only be generated on the surface of an object. the Solve Inside option in the Properties window is clear for perfect conductors. you can specify whether to generate a field solution inside the object or on the surface of the object. HFSS will create only a surface mesh for the object. Conversely. do the following: 1. You can also incorporate a DC Thickness for the implicit boundary condition by setting an appropriate thickness value as described in Assigning DC Thickness. To change the threshold for solving inside objects.

Objects to which the thickness can be applied are listed in the Object Name column.HFSS Online Help Assigning DC Thickness You can select the Assign DC Thickness option to more accurately compute DC resistance of a thin conducting object for which Solve Inside is not selected. or by specifying a value for a selected object. Manually assigned per object. or Infinite per object. To see the Assign DC Thickness dialog: 1. you can assign a DC thickness. Selecting an object highlights the Thickness field and the Set Thickness button. This option also exists for finite conductivity boundaries. The Assign DC Thickness option on the HFSS>Boundaries menu is enabled if at least one object contains a good conducting isotropic material (such as copper). Skin impedance of the object will be calculated using the defined finite thickness. You can select objects either by: • • Clicking on the Object Name to highlight it. either by enabling the automatic default. Select HFSS>Boundaries>Assign DC Thickness. Select the objects to assign a value. This displays the Thickness of Objects for DC Resistance dialog with the DC Thickness tab selected. and the Solve Inside property is not selected. If the object meets these conditions. Use the Select By Name field to type the object name. Assigning Materials 10-5 . The first object to match the name is highlighted. and click the Search button. which can be Automatic (the default). 2.

If you enter a “0” for the thickness. This applies the value to the selected object and changes the Use Thickness selection for that object to Manual. this calculation will not work as well. the automatic effective DC thickness will be about Ro. The intention is that the auto-thickness will provide an accurate representation the majority of the time and is superior to not using any DC thickness setting. For example. a rectangular microstrip trace described by a box with dimensions 100 by 10 by 1 the volume is 1000 and the surface area is 2022 resulting in an apparent thickness of . close to the geometric thickness of "1". You can also manually select or deselect the box and manually enter or delete a thickness value in the table. enter a Thickness value. Another example is the case of a cylindrical wire (e. For example. 6.g. For arbitrary shapes of "thicker" objects. Note 5. click OK to close the dialogue. 4. When the automatic value is not appropriate. It is accurate just for TE/TM waves when the widths are infinite which clearly never occurs in a "real" design. You can disable automatic assignment on the Defaults tab of the Assign DC Thickness dialog. bond wire). For a "thin" object this will work well. you can specify that the value the object uses is Automatic. The fact that the object is finite causes an increase of the effective impedance due to current crowding/edge effects.3333. By returning a DC thickness smaller than the geometric thickness the automatic DC thickness compensates for this underestimation resulting in a slightly higher impedance as desired.HFSS Online Help 3. or Manual. and a resulting apparent thickness of . The Automatic value is calculated as Thickness ~ 2* Volume / Surface Area It should be noted that this is a calculation for an "effective" DC thickness to be used by the correction calculation. select the units and click the Set Thickness button. select the Clear Thickness button and then enter a different value. Thus entering the exact geometrical thickness would actually underestimates the impedance. Infinite. To change the value. DC thickness impedance is an approximation. When you have assigned the values you need. To manually apply a value. In this case. you can override it using the manual technique. In the Use Thickness column.99891. HFSS gives a warning that this will cause infinite impedance that causes isolation. which gives us the best approximation of the DC resistance of a cylindrical wire. a cube with sides of 1 will have volume of 1 and surface area of 6. Related Topics Technical Notes: Calculating Finite Thickness Impedance 10-6 Assigning Materials .

type a value for the property in the Search by Property text box. type a material name in the Search by Name text box. select by Name. The materials are sorted according to the value you entered. you can search the materials in the Select Definition window by name or by material property. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. Type a new value in the Search by Property text box. The row containing the material name most similar to the one you typed will be selected. Type a new material name in the Search by Name text box. In the Search Criteria area of the Select Definition window. Use the keyboard’s arrow keys to scroll up or down the list of materials. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. Select a material property from the pull-down list: By default. 2. The material with the property value closest to the one you typed will be selected. select by Property. If the selected material is not the one you are searching for. In the Search Criteria area of the Select Definition window. Searching by Material Name 1. In the Search Parameters area. Searching by Material Property Note 3. 2. do one of the following: • • Use the keyboard’s arrow keys to scroll up or down the list of materials. see Filtering Materials. do one of the following: • • 1. Assigning Materials 10-7 . and then click Search. To view the complete table of properties. In the Search Parameters area. If the selected material is not the one you are searching for.HFSS Online Help Searching for Materials If there is a specific material or material property value that you want to assign to an object.

This Product. or All Products. which can be opened from either the Select Definition dialog box or the Edit Libraries dialog box. you can also rightclick Materials. click Add Material. 6. To make the new project material available to all projects. Select a material property type . and select Edit All Libraries. 5. you must export the material to a global user-defined material library. 2. Select one of the following from the Material Coordinate System Type pull-down list: To open the Edit Libraries dialog box: • To add a new material: 1. or accept the default. You can also enable the View/ Edit Modifier checkbox for Thermal Modifier. This Product to display properties commonly used by this product. Checking this box causes the Thermal Column to display at the right side of the Properties of the Material table.Simple or Anisotropic . 3. This enlarges the table of properties to show all properties possible.HFSS Online Help Adding New Materials You can add a new material to a project or global user-defined material library. To open the Select Definition dialog box: • Click Modeler>Assign Material. Materials are added using the View/Edit Material dialog box. Click Tools>Edit Configured Libraries>Materials.) The Edit Libraries dialog box appears.for each property from the Type 10-8 Assigning Materials . The View/Edit Material dialog box appears. Cartesian (default) Cylindrical Spherical Use the radio buttons in the View/Edit section to specify whether the new materials apply to Active Design. Type a name for the material in the Material Name text box. Type a new name for the material in the Material Name text box or accept the default. From either the Select Definition dialog box or the Edit Libraries dialog box. All Products to display all properties available. • • • Active Design to display properties used in the active design. (In the project tree. The Select Definition dialog box appears. You can use the scroll bars or size the dialog to see all properties. Selecting Edit rather than None causes display of the Edit Thermal Modifier dialog. • • • 4.

HFSS Online Help pull-down list. To view the complete table of properties. its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor. 7. conductivity. permeability.Measured Frequency value (default 9. Note 8. click Set Frequency Dependency. see Filtering Materials. and then follow the directions for defining frequency dependent materials. The material’s characteristics vary with direction. and magnetic loss tangent. The new material is added to the material library. If one or more of the material properties are dependent on frequency. If the material property is anisotropic. You may enter a variable name or mathematical expression in the Value box. You may also choose to enter values in the Lande G Factor and Delta H Value boxes. Assigning Materials 10-9 . Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis. enter values for the following material properties in the Value boxes: • • • • • Relative Permeability Relative Permittivity Bulk Conductivity Dielectric Loss Tangent. and then select a new unit system. double-click the Units box. To modify the units for a material property. Related Topics Defining Variable Material Properties Assigning Material Property Types Defining Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Specifying Thermal Modifiers Assigning Material Property Types Each material property can be assigned one of the following material property types: Simple Anisotropic The material is homogeneous and linear. 9. You must define three diagonals for anisotropic permittivity. Magnetic Loss Tangent If the material is a ferrite. electric loss tangent. 10. Because Delta H values are measured at specific frequencies. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table.4 Ghz). Click OK. enter a value greater than 0 in the Magnetic Saturation Value box. Note By default. you should also enter a . If the material is linear. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed.

Related Topics Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors If the material property is anisotropic.HFSS Online Help These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property. If the relative permeability is the same in all directions. Enter the relative permeability along one axis of the material’s permeability tensor in the Value box of the T(1. its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor. These values can also be defined as variables. 1. several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently.3) row. Enter the relative permeability along the third axis in the Value box of the T(3.1) row.2) row. select Anisotropic from the Type pull-down list. Enter the relative permeability along the second axis in the Value box of the T(2. By specifying different orientations. 3. 4.2) and T(3. You must define three diagonals for anisotropic permeability. 2. several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently. In the Relative Permeability row in the View/Edit Material window. These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property. Three rows named T(1. By specifying different orientations. Related Topics Technical Notes: Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors 10-10 Assigning Materials . T(2. Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis.3) are added below the Relative Permeability row. use the same values for each axis.1).

In the Bulk Conductivity row in the View/Edit Material window. You must define three diagonals for anisotropic conductivity.3) are added below the Relative Permittivity row. These values can also be defined as variables. Related Topics Technical Notes: Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors If the material property is anisotropic. Enter the relative permittivity along the second axis in the Value box of the T(2. By specifying different orientations. several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently. By specifying different orientations. Three rows named T(1.3) are added below the Bulk Conductivity row.3) row.2) and T(3.2) and T(3.2) row. T(2. Three rows named T(1.1). Enter the relative permittivity along the third axis in the Value box of the T(3. its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor. These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property. select Anisotropic from the Type pull-down list. 1. 4. select Anisotropic from the Type pull-down list.1). You must define three diagonals for anisotropic permittivity. Enter the material’s relative permittivity along one tensor axis in the Value box of the T(1. use the same values for each axis.1) row. its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor. 1. 3. These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property. Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis. If the relative permittivity is the same in all directions.HFSS Online Help Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors If the material property is anisotropic. In the Relative Permittivity row in the View/Edit Material window. T(2. Assigning Materials 10-11 . Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis. 2. several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently.

2) row. The values of the conductivity along the third axis applies to the zcomponent. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permittivity to the real relative permittivity in one direction in the Value box of the T(1. You must define three diagonals for electric loss tangent.3) row. 10-12 Assigning Materials . do the following: 1. 4. use the same values for each direction. 4. 2. In the Dielectric Loss Tangent row in the View/Edit Material window.3) are added below the Dielectric Loss Tangent row. If electric loss tangent is anisotropic.HFSS Online Help 2. If the electric loss tangent is the same in all directions. Enter the conductivity along the second axis in the Value box of the T(2. Related Topics Technical Notes: Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors If the material property is anisotropic. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permittivity to the real relative permittivity in the third orthogonal direction in the Value box of the T(3. T(2.3) row. Enter the conductivity along the third axis in the Value box of the T(3. its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor. 3.1) row. Enter the conductivity along one axis of the material’s conductivity tensor in the Value box of the T(1. These values can also be defined as variables. Three rows named T(1. The values of the conductivity along the first and second axis apply to all axes that lie in the xy cross-section being modeled. select Anisotropic from the Type pull-down list. These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property. These values affect current flowing in dielectrics between the conductors.1).1) row. By specifying different orientations. Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis. These values can also be defined as variables.2) and T(3. 3.2) row. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permittivity to the real relative permittivity in the second direction in the Value box of the T(2. several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently.

You must define three diagonals for anisotropic magnetic loss tangent. several objects can share the same anisotropic material but be oriented differently.1). By specifying different orientations. select Anisotropic from the Type pull-down list.1) row.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Technical Notes: Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Defining Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors If the material property is anisotropic. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permeability to the real relative permeability in the third direction in the Value box of the T(3. If the magnetic loss tangent is the same in all directions. 4.2) and T(3. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permeability to the real relative permeability in one direction in the Value box of the T(1. use the same values for each direction. T(2. In the Magnetic Loss Tangent row in the View/Edit Material window. 1.3) are added below the Magnetic Loss Tangent row. its characteristics are defined by its anisotropy tensor.2) row.3) row. Related Topics Technical Notes: Anisotropic Magnetic Loss Tangent Tensors Setting Coordinate Systems Creating a Relative Coordinate System Change the Orientation of an object Defining Anisotropic Relative Permeability Tensors Defining Anisotropic Relative Permittivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Conductivity Tensors Defining Anisotropic Dielectric Loss Tangent Tensors Assigning Materials 10-13 . 3. Three rows named T(1. Each diagonal represents a tensor of your model along an axis. 2. These values can also be defined as variables. Enter the ratio of the imaginary relative permeability to the real relative permeability in the second direction in the Value box of the T(2. These tensors are relative to the coordinate system specified as the object’s Orientation property.

Related Topics Working with Variables Assigning Material Property Types Defining Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Specifying Thermal Modifiers Defining Frequency-Dependent Material Properties HFSS provides several frequency-dependent material models. In HFSS.HFSS Online Help Defining Variable Material Properties When defining or modifying a material’s properties. each material property value in the View/Edit Material window can be assigned a project variable. which notifies HFSS that the variable is a project variable. For example. The HFSS Design Settings also include an automatic Djordjevic-Sarkar model to ensure ensure causal solutions when solving frequency sweeps for simple constant material properties. in the View/Edit Mate- 10-14 Assigning Materials . define a project variable with the name MyPermittivity and define its value as 4. With respect to a material selected in the Select Definition window. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. but you should only provide the loss once. Simply type the project variable’s name in the appropriate Value box. and so they should only be used for frequency-domain applications. 1. The Debye and Djordjevic-Sarkar models apply only to the electrical properties of dielectric materials. they do not guarantee that the material satisfies causality conditions. or as a loss tangent. type $MyPermittivity in the Relative Permittivity Value box for the material. Note By default. and so are preferred for applications (such as TDR or Full-Wave Spice) where time-domain results are needed. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. The Piecewise Linear and Frequency Dependent Data Points models apply to both the electric and magnetic properties of the material. To view the complete table of properties. This provides flexibility. you can assign conductivity either directly as bulk conductivity. However. Be sure to include the prefix $ before the project variable name. These models satisfy the Kramers-Kronig conditions for causality. see Filtering Materials. Project variables are used for material properties because materials are stored at the project level. To assign this property value to a material. The solver uses the loss values just as they are entered.

Select Debye Model Input. HFSS linearly interpolates the material properties. You will specify the property's values at an upper and lower corner frequency. HFSS allows you to specify an upper and lower measurement frequency. linear. click Set Frequency Dependency. • • • • • The generated expressions provide the new value for the material properties of relative permittivity and loss tangent. This dataset can be modified with additional points if desired. above and below the corner frequencies. Both the expressions and data triples can be saved and reloaded. This defines the material property values as a restricted form of piecewise linear model with exactly 3 segments (flat. and the loss tangent and relative permittivity values at these frequencies. Select Djordjevic-Sarkar Model Input. HFSS extrapolates the property values as constants. In the Frequency Dependent Material Setup Option window.HFSS Online Help rial window. ion and dipole polarization dominate and a single pole Debye model is adequate. Between these corner frequencies. This lets you provide the data of relative permittivity and loss tangent versus frequency. do one of the following: • Select Piecewise Linear Input. the DC conductivity. The input dialog plots these expressions together with your input data through the linear interpolations. This is a single-pole model for the frequency response of a lossy dielectric material. You may optionally enter the permittivity at optical frequency. Select Multipole Debye Model Input. up to about a 10-GHz limit. and a constant relative permeability. This model was developed for low-loss dielecAssigning Materials 10-15 . Based on this data the software dynamically generates frequency dependent expressions for relative permittivity and loss tangent through the Multipole Debye Model. 2. In some materials. flat).

Related Topics Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input Multipole Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Modifying Datasets 10-16 Assigning Materials . HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property. Select Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points. Any number of data points may be entered. and in particular the nearly constant loss tangent. Note Neither the piecewise or the loss models ask for frequency dependent conductivity because there the constant sigma represents the DC loss and the frequency dependent loss tangent represents the polarization losses. In effect. A dialog appears. You may optionally enter the relative permittivity and conductivity at DC. you receive error messages. import or edit frequency dependent data sets for each material property. • 3. HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation. New default function names appear in the material property text boxes. Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input Multipole Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points After you have entered the data for your selection. based on your selection. This allows you to enter. HFSS allows you to enter the relative permittivity and loss tangent at a single measurement frequency. If you try to enter invalid values for the Djordjevic-Sarkar model. of these materials. Based on a varying property’s dataset. you return to the View/Edit Material window. Click OK. see Modifying Datasets. To modify the dataset with additional points. it uses an infinite distribution of poles to model the frequency response. This is an arbitrary piecewise linear model.HFSS Online Help tric materials (particularly FR-4) commonly used in printed circuit boards and packages.

Note Neither the piecewise or the loss models ask for frequency dependent conductivity because there the constant sigma represents the DC loss and the frequency dependent loss tangent represents the polarization losses. you enter the required values in the dialog displayed: 1. HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property. enter the same value you entered for the permittivity’s lower frequency. HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation.HFSS Online Help Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Piecewise Linear Input Having selected Piecewise Linear Input as the model for the frequency dependent material property. and magnetic loss tangent. To modify the dataset with additional points. you return to the View/Edit Material window. see Modifying Datasets. New default function names appear in the material property text boxes. Based on a varying property’s dataset. Follow the same procedure for entering values for permeability. If the permittivity of the material does not vary with frequency. dielectric loss tangent. HFSS assumes that the material’s property values remain constant between these frequencies. 3. Enter Upper and Lower Frequency Range. After you have entered the data for your selection. 2. Enter the Upper and Lower Relative Permittivity of the material. Related Topics Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input Multipole Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Assigning Materials 10-17 .

Enter the Upper and Lower Frequencies to define the range: HFSS assumes that the material’s property values remain constant between these frequencies. Enter the Upper and Lower Relative Permittivity of the material. For Conductivity or Dielectric Loss Tangent. 2. enter the same value you entered for the permittivity’s lower frequency 3.HFSS Online Help Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Modifying Datasets Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Debye Model Input Having selected Debye as the model for the frequency dependent material property. 4. check the box to enable the value field. If you need to specify a value for a High/Optical Frequency. select the radio button for either At DC or for 10-18 Assigning Materials . you enter the required values in the dialog displayed: 1. If the permittivity of the material does not vary with frequency.

Related Topics Piecewise Linear Input Multipole Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Modifying Datasets Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Multipole Debye Model Input Having selected Multipole Debye as the model for the frequency dependent material property. HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation. Relative Permittivity and Dielectric Loss Tangent The frequency can be ranged from 0 to unlimited. To modify the dataset with additional points. HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property. see Modifying Datasets. You can enter data either into the columns for Frequency (GHz). New default function names appear in the material property text boxes.0 to unlimited and loss tangent is ranged from 0 to unlimited. To get Assigning Materials 10-19 .HFSS Online Help Upper and Lower Frequencies. you return to the View/Edit Material window. The relative permittivity is ranged from1. Note Neither the piecewise or the loss models ask for frequency dependent conductivity because there the constant sigma represents the DC loss and the frequency dependent loss tangent represents the polarization losses. 1. After you have entered the data for your selection. you enter the required values in the dialog displayed. Based on a varying property’s dataset.

.7500 3.64160 10.00000 2.10000 1.01500 0. You can also import the data from a tab format text file. and then can be modified. Below is an example of the file format.6325 3.6742 3.15444 3.7914 3.0000 21.00702 0.01000 0. 0.00700 0. The import data will be shown in the data table.01750 .01750 0.6186 3.00010 0. The file is a tab file with extension . you should provide more than 5 frequency points.5444 10-20 Assigning Materials 3.17000 4. Permittivity.00001 0.tab (same as dataset import/export file).5777 3.00700 0. You can export current input data to a file.5458 0.00128 0.6354 3.00700 0.8136 3. Each row provides Frequency (GHz).7119 3.01073 0.00700 0. and Loss Tangent.6346 3.00100 0.00520 0.HFSS Online Help the good results.

HFSS Online Help 26. . • • The generated expressions provide the new value for the material properties of relative permittivity and loss tangent.01750 During the data input. Based on this data the software dynamically generates frequency dependent expressions for relative permittivity and loss tangent through the Multipole Debye Model. The input data are also linearly interpolated and drawn on the plot for comparison.01750 0. The input dialog plots these expressions together with your input data through the linear interpolations.4160 50. After you have entered the data for your selection.01750 0.5148 3.0000 46.5383 3. Both the expressions and data triples can be exported and re-imported. the frequency dependent expressions for permittivity or loss tangent are calculated using Multipole Debye model.0000 3. you return to the View/Edit Material winAssigning Materials 10-21 .5119 0. 2. and are plotted for reference.

Based on a varying property’s dataset. you enter the required values in the dialog displayed. Related Topics Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input 10-22 Assigning Materials . 1. HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation. Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Djordjevic-Sarkar Model Input Having selected Djordjevic-Sarkar as the model for the frequency dependent material property. HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property. Based on a varying property’s dataset. HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation. HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property.HFSS Online Help dow. Enter the Properties at DC. . New default function names appear in the material property text boxes. Enter the values for Properties at Frequency: 2. After you have entered the data for your selection. New default function names appear in the material property text boxes. This includes Conductivity and can include relative permittivity. you return to the View/Edit Material window.

When you click OK on the on after selecting Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points on the Frequency Dependent Material Setup dialog box.HFSS Online Help Multipole Debye Model Input Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Modifying Datasets Assigning Frequency Dependent Material: Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points 1. the cell is disabled. When enabled. it contains a dropdown menu with a list Assigning Materials 10-23 . If a property can not be set as frequency-dependent dataset. the Enter Frequency Dependent Data points dialog box appears. Freq Dependent: Check the box to indicate if the property is expressed as frequencydependent dataset. It shows a table with four columns: • • • Name: the name of the selected material property. Dataset column: this is disabled unless Freq Dependent is checked or the property cannot be set as frequency dependent.

The values you add are interactively displayed on the graph to the right of the table. the Add Dataset dialog appears. If you select Add/Import dataset. The default is ds1. The Coordinates table. Freq As: after a dataset is successfully imported or added. The Import from File button. • 2. This opens a file browser for you to select an existing dataset.. or Append a specified number rows.to add or import new dataset. 10-24 Assigning Materials . This contains X and Y text fields in which you can enter data points. You can also Add rows above or below a selected row.HFSS Online Help of existing datasets and the Add/Import dataset. Delete rows.. This contains the following fields: • • • The name field for the current dataset. there are two choices available: "X datapoint" or "Y datapoint".

This causes the Properties of the Material table to expand to include a Thermal Modifier column. With Expression selected. 4. Related Topics Piecewise Linear Input Debye Model Input Multipole Debye Model Input Djordjevic-Sarkar Technical Notes: Frequency-Dependent Material Properties Modifying Datasets Specifying Thermal Modifiers To specify Thermal modifiers for a material: 1. Checking Use temperature dependent data set disables the Modifier text field. in the Basic Coefficient tab. HFSS can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation. Selecting Edit. rather than None causes the Edit Thermal Modifier dialog to appear. To modify the dataset with additional points. you can write an equation for a thermal modifier in the Parameters Modifier text field. This lets you define the thermal modifier as a data set. HFSS automatically created a dataset for each material property. and OK the dialog. the Thermal Modifier property is set to None.. from the drop down menu. see Modifying Datasets. 2. In the View/ Edit materials dialog you must enable the View/ Edit Modifier checkbox for Thermal Modifier. you return to the View/Edit Material window. • • With the Quadratic radio button selected.. After you OK the Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points dialog shows the new values. After you have specified or imported the data points. Note Neither the piecewise or the loss models ask for frequency dependent conductivity because there the constant sigma represents the DC loss and the frequency dependent loss tangent represents the polarization losses. New default function names appear in the material property text boxes. 3.TempRef) + C2(Temp . You can then use the drop down menu to select Add/Import Dataset. Based on a varying property’s dataset. and fields for C1 and C2 for the following equation: P(Temp) = Pref[1+ C1(Temp . After you have entered the data for your selection. you can edit fields for the TempRef and units. By default. the Enter Frequency Data Points dialog shows the Dataset Name and the Freq As value.HFSS Online Help 3. Select Expression radio button to display the Parameters Modifier text field or the Quadratic radio button to display the tabs for Basic Coefficient Set and Advanced Coefficient Set.TempRef)^2] Assigning Materials 10-25 .

-. but do not include project variables. To view the complete table of properties. Note By default. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. these are automatically calculated. 4. each material property value in the View/Edit Material window can be assigned a mathematical expression. you can edit fields for lower and upper temperature limits (TL and TU respectively) and select their units from the drop down. one relating it to frequency or another property’s value. Related Topics Defining Mathematical Functions Defining Variable Material Properties 10-26 Assigning Materials . in the Advanced Coefficient Set tab. Expressions typically contain intrinsic functions. and arithmetic operators. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. • With the Quadratic radio button selected. see Filtering Materials. When defining or modifying a material’s properties. and /. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. see Filtering Materials. Uncheck the Auto Calculate TML and TMU to specify new values for thermal modifier lower (TML) and thermal modifier upper (TMU). Note By default.HFSS Online Help where the Pref is defined as the reference relative permittivity. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. Simply type the expression in the appropriate Value box. Related Topics Adding Datasets View/ Edit materials dialog Defining Material Properties as Expressions When defining or modifying a material’s properties. such as +. You can also edit the constant value limit for the thermal modifier values outside the limits. Click OK to accept the edits and return to the View/ Edit materials dialog. *. This is useful when you are defining a material property whose value is given by a mathematical relationship — for instance. Related Topics Defining Variable Material Properties Defining Functional Material Properties Any material property that can be specified by entering a constant can also be specified using a mathematical function. such as sin(x). By default. simply type the name of the function in the appropriate Value box. To view the complete table of properties.

.HFSS Online Help Assigning Materials from the Object Properties Window The Properties dialog for each object includes a materials property. command and a list of materials in the current project. You can select from the list of current materials to assign the selected material to that object. If you click on the current material property you see a drop down list that includes and Edit . Related Topics Assigning Materials Assigning Materials 10-27 .

The material name and its property values are listed. For Non-Linear. This Product to display properties commonly used by this product. d. You can use the scroll bars or size the dialog to see all properties. you provide a Vector Mag. the solution will be invalid. You can modify the material as follows: a. Change the units for a material property. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. 2. Under Type. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. or for Relative Permeability. The View/Edit Material window appears. For Vector. This enlarges the table of properties to show all properties possible. see Filtering Materials. Provide new material property values in the Value boxes. select the material you want to view or modify. 4. Note: Materials stored in Ansoft’s global material library cannot be modified. select: • • • 3.HFSS Online Help Viewing and Modifying Material Attributes 1. c. If you modify a material that is assigned in the active project after generating a solution. Note By default. All Products to display all properties available. Warning Related Topics Validating Materials Defining Variable Material Properties Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library 10-28 Assigning Materials . To view the complete table of properties. In the Select Definition window. For Simple. Vector and Vector Mag. Active Design to display properties used in the active design. Anisotropic. Non-linear. as required for that property. b. specify whether a material property is Simple. Under View/Edit Material for. you provide tensor values. and then click View/Edit Materials. For Anisotropic. Provide a new name for the material in the Material Name text box. Click OK to save the changes and return to the Select Definition window. you provide a value or variable. you provide a Data Set.

HFSS Online Help Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries Assigning Materials 10-29 .

If the parameters are valid. If a material’s property parameters are invalid. For example. an error message will appear in the lower-right corner of the View/Edit Material window. and then click Validate Now. Related Topics Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries 10-30 Assigning Materials . To validate the material attributes listed in the View/Edit Material window: • Select a product from the Select Ansoft Product area.HFSS Online Help Validating Materials HFSS can validate a material’s property parameters for an Ansoft software product. it will check if the range of values specified for each material property is reasonable. a green check mark will appear there.

Click OK to save the copy in the active project’s material library. follow the directions for modifying materials. and then click Clone Material. 2. 3.HFSS Online Help Copying Materials 1. To modify the material’s attributes. select the material you want to copy. Related Topics Validating Materials Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries Assigning Materials 10-31 . In the Select Definition window.

select a material you want to remove from the active project’s material library. you may want to use the Project>Remove Unused Definitions command to remove selected materials definitions that your project does not require. Related Topics Validating Materials Copying Materials Export Materials to a Library Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries 10-32 Assigning Materials . In a project library. Click Remove Material. Materials that have been assigned to objects in the active project.HFSS Online Help Removing Materials 1. Note The following materials cannot be deleted: • • Materials stored in Ansoft’s global material library. The material is deleted from the project material library. In the Select Definition window. 2.

Click PersonalLib to export the material to a local project directory. 4. select the material you want to export. In the Select Definition window.HFSS Online Help Exporting Materials to a Library 1. Click UserLib to export the material to a a library that is shared by more than one user. Related Topics Validating Materials Copying Materials Removing Materials Sorting Materials Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries Assigning Materials 10-33 . Type the library’s file name and then click Save. The Export to material library file browser appears. 2. usually in a central location. 3. accessible only to the user that created it. Click Export Material to Library.

The arrow will point down. library location.HFSS Online Help Sorting Materials You can change the order of the materials listed in the Select Definition window. not all of the available properties are displayed in the materials table. To change the order of the listed materials: • Click the column heading by which you want to order the materials. If the arrow in the column heading points up. Related Topics Validating Materials Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library Filtering Materials Working with Materials Libraries 10-34 Assigning Materials . or material property value. see Filtering Materials. Only the properties commonly used by the product are displayed. click the column heading again. To view the complete table of properties. the material data will be listed in ascending order (1 to 9. Z to A). Note By default. A to Z) based on the values in the column you chose. You can sort the list of materials by name. If you want the material data to be listed in descending order (9 to 1.

To filter out or show additional material properties in the Materials tab: 1. use the filter options under the Material Filters tab. Click Clear to clear all product selections. This Product to display properties commonly used by this product.HFSS Online Help Filtering Materials If you want to remove certain materials or material properties from the list in the Select Definition window. Under Filter Materials and Properties for. With All Libraries checked. the materials table shows only the materials used in the project. Related Topics Validating Materials Copying Materials Removing Materials Export Materials to a Library Sorting Materials Working with Materials Libraries Assigning Materials 10-35 . You can use the scroll bars or size the dialog to see all properties. 2. And you can remove the filtering in order to see all available material properties. Active Design to display properties used in the active design. but may not show all available properties. using the choices in the Materials tab: 1. To filter materials or material properties listed in the Select Definition window. 2. Selecting this enlarges the table of properties shown under the Materials tab to show all properties possible. Click the Material Filters tab. Selecting the listed library highlights it and cause the table to display the materials in that library. select one of the radio buttons: • • • • 3. you can check or uncheck boxes to show or hide Project Definitions and All Libraries. You can also filter out material properties and types of material properties. the table shows all materials and highlights those used in the project. With only Project Definitions checked. Above the Libraries area. Click the Materials tab to save your selections. You can filter out materials based on the product or library with which they are associated. • • • With both unchecked. nothing appears in the materials table. Click Select All to select all of the products listed. Click Cancel to revert back to the last saved selections. With both checked. The text field under Libraries lists the libraries for the project. the table displays all materials. All Products to display all properties available.

HFSS Online Help Working with Material Libraries There are two different kinds of materials libraries in HFSS. Set of selection arrows allows you to move a highlighted library to the Configured list. 10-36 Assigning Materials . Related Topics Exporting Materials to a Library. • Using right-click on Materials in the project window to display the Edit All Libraries shortcut menu. You can also create a personalized local user library that is used only in the active HFSS project. User. and Project. Clicking displays the Edit Libraries window. or system library of predefined materials. • Using Tools>Edit Configured Libraries>Materials from the menu bar takes the current design into account and adds any new libraries to the configured list for the design. Global materials in the Ansoft system library are available in every HFSS project. or user library. From this window you can view the available libraries for System. Editing definitions from the project window does not modify the configured libraries for any particular design. A checkbox permits you to specify a configured library as default. since this is editing in general. and which of these libraries has been configured. Working with User Material Libraries You can create your own personalized global material library. Editing Libraries There are two different methods of editing libraries. that can be used in any HFSS project only by the user that created it. User-defined global materials can be modified at any time. a system library and a user library. Configuring Libraries Use Tools>Configure Libraries to display the Configure Design Libraries window. They cannot be modified. You can create a global system library that is stored in a common location and available to multiple users. Related Topics Editing Libraries Configuring Libraries Working with Ansoft’s System Material Library HFSS provides you with a global.

Render objects as wireframes. What do you want to do? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Set the View Options Rotate the view.11 Modifying the Model View You can modify the view of contents in the 3D Modeler window without changing their actual dimensions or positions. Use Clip Planes Related Topics Assigning Color to an Object Modifying the Model View 11-1 . Modify the appearance of the grid. Set the projection view. Show or hide boundaries or excitations. Modify the appearance of the coordinate system axes. Pan the view. Modify the lighting. Set the Surface Visualization Modify the view orientation. Set the background color. Show or hide objects. or smooth-shaded solids. flat-shaded. Zoom in or out. Fit contents in the view window.

HFSS Online Help Assigning Transparency to an Object 11-2 Modifying the Model View .

Related Topics Modeler options Rotate the view. enabled) Set transparency of selected objects Set transparency of non-selected objects. disabled) Show Ansoft Logo in Prints (default. disabled) Drag Optimization (default. This lets you set defaults for the following view options: • • • • • • • • • • Stereo Mode (default. Model Center Current Axis Screen Center (default) Where there is a selection option: Default screen rotation about When you select one of these as the default. Modifying the Model View 11-3 . disabled) Default Color Key Height (the maximum number of values displayed) Selection always visible (default.HFSS Online Help View Options: 3D UI Options Use the View>Options command to open the 3D UI Options dialog. the View>Rotate selection menu changes to show that the Alt-Drag combination attaches to your selection.

click the spin icon on the toolbar Drag the mouse left or right at the speed you want to spin the view. or click the icon again or press ESC. the Screen Center. 4. When you select one of these as the View>Options default. click in the view window. Or. 3. or the Current Axis. click Spin again on the View menu or press ESC. on the toolbar. Hold down the ALT key as you drag the mouse. To rotate the view around the screen center: 1. • • 2.HFSS Online Help Rotating the View You can rotate the view relative to the Model Center. 2. or click the icon again or press ESC. To end Spin mode. icon on the toolbar. Hint Alternatively. To exit Rotate mode. Click View>Rotate>Rotate Screen Center or click the rotate icon Drag the mouse up and down at the speed you want to rotate the view. The view spins continually in the direction and at the speed you dragged the mouse. 2. click View>Rotate>Rotate Screen Center. 3. and then click View>Rotate on the shortcut menu. 11-4 Modifying the Model View . Right-click in the view window. Click View>Rotate>Rotate Model Center or click the Drag the mouse in the direction you want to rotate the view. and then click View>Spin. To stop spinning the view. rotate the view using one of the following methods: . Related Topics Pan the view. The view rotates until you release the mouse button. To rotate the view around the current axis: Click View>Rotate>Rotate Current Axis. Alternatively. click View>Rotate>Rotate Model Center again. right-click in the view window. To end Rotate mode. To rotate the model center from the menus or icons: 1. • • 1. the View>Rotate selection menu changes to show that the Alt-Drag combination attaches to your selection. 3.

To exit Pan mode. and then click View>Pan on the shortcut menu.HFSS Online Help Panning the View To move (pan) the view: 1. 2. Hint Alternatively. Click View>Pan . click Pan on the View menu again or press ESC. pan the view using one of the following methods: • • Hold down the SHIFT key as you drag the mouse. Drag the mouse in the direction you want to pan the view. 3. The view will pan until you release the mouse button. Modifying the Model View 11-5 . Right-click in the view window.

To zoom out using hotkeys: • Press the minus sign (-) key or press the Ctrl-F keys. 1. drag the mouse towards the top of the view window. Click View>Zoom In or View>Zoom Out . Use the mouse to draw a rectangle (or square) by selecting two diagonally opposite corners. To zoom out. To zoom using the mouse. 11-6 Modifying the Model View . right-click in the view window. and then click View>Zoom In or View>Zoom Out on the shortcut menu.HFSS Online Help Zooming In and Out You can magnify (zoom in) or shrink (zoom out) the contents in the view window using hot keys or mouse zoom mode. The objects in view decrease in size as you drag. To end Zoom mode. The rectangular area is magnified or decreases in size. The objects in view expand as you drag. To zoom in. Click View>Zoom . click View>Zoom again or press ESC. Alternatively. The view zooms out 5 percent. axis labels and ticks will adjust automatically during the zoom operation and will rescale to their final value after the zoom operation is complete. Related Topics Zooming In or Out on a Rectangular Area Fitting Objects in the View Window Zooming In or Out on a Rectangular Area To magnify or shrink a specific rectangular area in the view window: 1. Hint Alternatively. zoom in or out on the view using one of the following methods: • • Hold down the ALT+SHIFT keys as you drag the mouse. 2. drag the mouse towards the bottom of the view window. 3. The view zooms in 5 percent. This is the area of magnification that will be increased or decreased. and then click View>Zoom on the shortcut menu. • 2. When zooming on a 2D report. To zoom in using hotkeys: • Press the plus sign (+) or (=) keys or press Ctrl-E keys. Right-click in the view window. When zooming on a view of model objects the absolute size of the model does not change.

To end Zoom mode. 3. axis labels and ticks will adjust after the zoom operation is complete.HFSS Online Help When zooming on a view of model objects. When zooming on a 2D report. click View>Zoom In or View>Zoom Out or press ESC. Related Topics Zooming In and Out Fitting Objects in the View Window Modifying the Model View 11-7 . the absolute size of the model does not change.

All view windows displaying the active design change to include all model objects.HFSS Online Help Fitting Objects in the View Window What do you want to do? • • Fit all objects or traces in a view window. 3. Fit selected objects in a view window. select the objects you want to fit in the view. Hint Alternatively. When you are working on a report. the window is automatically rescaled to fit all traces in the window and the axis label and ticks are rescaled. Related Topics Fitting All Objects in a View Window 11-8 Modifying the Model View . To fit the selection in the active view window: Click View>Fit Selection>Active View. The view in the active Modeler window changes to include all model objects. fit the selection in the active view window by clicking View>Fit Selection on the shortcut menu. Hint Alternatively. fit all objects in the active view window using one of the following methods: • • Press CTRL+D. To fit the selection in every open view window of the active design: Click View>Fit Selection>All Views. select the traces you want to fit. Fitting All Objects in a View Window To fit all the views: click View>Fit All>All Views. When Fit All is used in a report view. To fit only the active view: click View>Fit All>Active View. Related Topics Fitting a Selection in a View Window Fitting a Selection in a View Window 1. When you are working on a model view. Right-click in the view window. and then click View>Fit All on the shortcut menu. 2.

HFSS Online Help Hiding Objects from View To hide selected objects. You can also use the Hide icons in the toolbar to hide selected objects in all views or the active view. Active View to hide the selected object in the active view window. In the case of very large models with many boundaries. Hide selected objects in all views Hide selected objects in active view Hide/Show overlaid visualization in the active view icon The objects you selected are hidden. 1. 2. Related Topics Showing Objects Active View Visibility Modifying the Model View 11-9 . Click View>Hide Selection. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps. Select the object you want to hide from view. Note Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment. and one of the following commands: • • All Views to hide the selected object in every open view window. If there are many objects. Object visibility is saved with the project. you may find it easier to hide objects using the Active View Visibility dialog.

By default. Under the tab you need. The Active View Visibility dialog box appears. Select the tab for the objects you want to show or hide. you can resize the dialog for easier selection. You can also use the Name field to type in an object name and apply the visibility via the Show and Hide buttons. Color Key objects. The objects you select and designate as Visible (by selecting the property or using Show) reappear. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps. The dialog contains tabs for 3D Modeler objects.HFSS Online Help Showing Objects To show one or more objects that are currently hidden: 1. select the Visibility option for the objects you want to show in the active view window. Click View>Show All. Click View>Active View Visibility . and one of the following commands: • • All Views to show all objects in every open view window Active Views to show all objects in the active view window. You can invert the order by clicking the Name bar above the Name fields. Click View>Show Selection and one of the following. Note Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment. You can also use the toolbar icons to Show selected objects in all views and Show selected 11-10 Modifying the Model View . and Fields Reporter objects. 3. Hidden items are selected once the node corresponding to them is clicked in the history tree. To show selected objects that are currently hidden: 1. In the case of very large models with many boundaries. A triangle in the bar indicates the direction of the listing. The selected objects reappear. • • All Views to show selected objects in every open view window Active Views to show selected objects in the active view window. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment. Select the object. 2. objects are listed in alphabetical order. 2. • • • For designs with large numbers of objects. Boundaries. To show all objects that are currently hidden: 1. Excitations.

Object visibility is saved with the project. Related Topics Hiding Objects Active View Visibility Modifying the Model View 11-11 . Show selected object in all views Show selected object in active view Hide/Show overlaid visualization in the active view icon The selected objects reappear.HFSS Online Help objects in active views.

Click View>Active View Visibility. Select the tab for the objects you want to show or hide. Related Topics Showing Objects Hiding Objects 11-12 Modifying the Model View . Boundaries. you can resize the dialog for easier selection. Note Hiding boundaries also turns off a check for boundary overlaps during boundary assignment. 2. You can also use the Name field to type in an object name and apply the visibility via the Show and Hide buttons.HFSS Online Help Active View Visibility Dialogue If there are many objects. For designs with large numbers of objects. or click the Hide/Show icon on the menu bar. In the case of very large models with many boundaries. The dialog contains tabs for 3D Modeler objects. By default. The Active View Visibility dialog box appears. Object visibility is saved with the project. You can invert the order by clicking the Name bar above the Name fields. objects are listed in alphabetical order. Full model validation will subsequently check for boundary overlaps. The objects you designate are hidden. it may be easier to show or hide objects using the Active View Visibility dialog 1. • • • 3. Color Key objects. Excitations. hiding boundaries can prevent delays during boundary assignment. clear the Visibility option for the objects you want to hide in the active view window. A triangle in the bar indicates the direction of the listing. Under the tab. and Fields Reporter objects.

Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. Click OK. To render a single object in the view window as a wireframe outline: 1. select Display Wireframe. Related Topics Setting the Default View Rendering Mode Setting the Surface Visualization Setting the Default View Rendering Mode To set a default rendering mode for all objects created in the active design and in future designs: 1. 2. You can also use the F7 key or the shade icon to toggle the display to smooth shaded. The objects in the view window are displayed as shaded objects with smooth edges. enabling you to see all sides of the objects at one time. The rendering mode will be applied to all new objects you create. • Wireframe. enabling you to see all sides of the objects at one time. Click the Display tab. The objects in the view window will be displayed as skeletal structures. You can also use the F6 key or the shade icon to toggle the display to wireframe. 2. under the Attribute tab. Select one of the following from the Default View Render Mode pull-down list. • 4. Modifying the Model View 11-13 . Hint You can also press F6 (Wire Frame) and F7 (Smooth Shaded) to toggle between these two views. Click View>Render and click one of the following: • Wireframe. The objects in the view window are displayed as skeletal structures. The objects in the view window will be displayed as shaded objects with smooth edges. Select the object you want to render as a wireframe: In the Properties dialog box.HFSS Online Help Rendering Objects as Wireframes or Solids To render (display) all objects in the view window as wireframe outlines. Smooth Shaded. • Smooth Shaded. or smooth-shaded solids: 1. flat-shaded solids. 3.

sphere with a radius of 10 has same number of facets as a sphere with a radius of 1. When set as Absolute Deviation. This means that CPU cost does not increase based on the model dimension. Wire bodies cannot be rendered with a Maximum Normal Deviation value less than 1 degree. 6. This command displays the Curved Object Vizualization dialog for the active modeler window. and the Maximum Normal deviation. 3. That means when you open the design again. enter a value in the text field. Set the Maximum Deviation by first selecting from the radio buttons for Ignore. Any values you provided through Save As Default remain on the drop down menus for the fields for surface and normal 11-14 Modifying the Model View . The Restore Defaults button lets you return to the original values. you should not save a project with other than the default settings. Note 5. it will apply saved visualization settings and NOT the default settings. the maximum surface deviation for both the spheres will be approximately same since a bigger sphere has more facets than a smaller one. 4. Selecting the later two radio buttons enables the value field. enter a value in the field. The dialog contains areas for setting the Maximum Deviation. To set the Curved Object Visualization for the active modeler window: 1. cpu/memory consumption vs. When using a setting less than 1 degree all wire bodies will be rendered with a setting of 1 degree and all closed bodies will be rendered with the dialog box setting. Changes apply to the current model until they are changed again. Improved image quality comes at the cost of increased CPU consumption.HFSS Online Help Setting the Curved Surface Visualization HFSS allows you to specify the faceting for rendering true curves by using the View>Curved Object Visualization command. Units are degrees. When set as Relative Deviation. Because this affects the CPU and memory required to open the project. those settings are saved with design unless you change it again. For example. This means that the most CPU cost applies to the larger objects. The Save As Default button lets you Save any values you change to the drop down menus for the fields. Click View>Curved Object Visualization. graphical display) for various model complexities. set as Relative Deviation or set as Absolute Deviation. This resembles the Mesh surface approximation settings. Any changes reset the default. Reduce either or both of the allowed deviations to improve the image quality. the actual surface deviation depends on the model size. 2. If you selected the radio buttons for Relative or Absolute Deviation for Maximum Deviation. The default gives satisfactory results (i. There are two options for control--maximum surface deviation and maximum normal deviation. typically. When you change Curved Object Visualization settings and apply them to a design.e. The settings ignore surface deviation and use a 15 degree normal deviation. To change the Maximum Normal Deviation.

and Close or Cancel to close the dialog without changing settings.HFSS Online Help deviations 7. Related Topics Rendering Objects as Wireframes or Solids Modifying the Model View 11-15 . Click Apply to apply the current values to the active modeler window.

2. When parts of the model are hidden by a clip plane. Of you want to use selection.. normal. the image shows the clipped plane. model selection works as though only the visible parts are present. and then click Add>Use Selection. the clip plane is 11-16 Modifying the Model View .HFSS Online Help Using Clip Planes The View>Clip Plane command lets you define a clip plane that you can use to interactively make any desired cut-away view of a model. • If you first select a face or cut plane. To add a clip plane: 1. If you use Edit>Copy Image or Modeler>Export>image format with the clip plane active.. This displays the Clip Plane dialog with the Plane tab selected. Click View>Clip Plane. The Add button contains a drop down menu with choices for Specify center. you must first select a face or a cut plane. and Use selection.

HFSS Online Help added on that face. a rectangle represents the clip plane. If you select Add>Specify center. When you move the cursor. a. this launches a Measure dialog and enters a mode for you click to first define the start location. normal. Modifying the Model View 11-17 . and a vector the current direction. shown as a triad.

and shows the handle. The handle is visible as a circle with a sphere at the center. shows the cap (which is the plane surface). The Clip Planes dialog shows the clip plane name. If you uncheck Show cap and/or show handle. that it is enabled.HFSS Online Help b.The Flip selection lets you reverse the direction of the clip plane. The handle changes appearance and function relative to the position of the 11-18 Modifying the Model View . Click again to set the reference position. the clip plane is active. 3. you can use the handle to manipulate the location and orientation of the clip plane. After the second click. and an arrow pointing the normal for the plane. they disappear from the display. With Show Handle enabled.

Disable clip plane when drawing a new clip plane. Dragging the cursor makes use of the current function. You can save your choices as new defaults. This slider lets you resize the radius of the handle to the most convenient size. • • • Force opaque for the unclipped portion. 4. The Options tab for the Clip Planes dialog contains four options. The radius resizes dynamically. Select a default or custom color and click OK. Plane handle color The button shows the current color. • Plane handle radius. When you close and reopen the modeler window. Related Topics Copy Image Exporting Graphics Files Modifying the Model View 11-19 . the last selected size persists.HFSS Online Help cursor. Click the button to display a color selection dialog.

either in the current project or future projects. The orientation you set will be saved with the design. New orientations assigned to other designs after this point will not affect this orientation. any additional orientations that you have added. Bottom. It includes a table of names of six basic orientations (Top. Related Topics Applying a New Orientation Removing an Orientation 11-20 Modifying the Model View . Click Make Default if you want the selected viewing direction to be the initial viewing direction when a 3D Modeler window is opened. Click View>Modify Attributes>Orientation. Click Apply. Click Close.HFSS Online Help Modifying the View Orientation To change the orientation of the view (the viewing direction) in the view window: 1. The table includes columns that show the input angles. Click Apply to View for the selected view to appear in the view window. 2. 3. A dialog box with orientation settings appears. 5. Front. Click one of the orientation names listed in the viewing directions list. and the equivalent vector components. and a section for adding new orientations. A dialog box with orientation settings appears. Apply a default orientation to the view or create and apply a new orientation. Related Topics Applying a Default View Orientation Applying a New Orientation Removing an Orientation Applying a Default View Orientation To apply a default viewing direction to the active view window: 1. You can use the Reset View Orientation button to restore the view to the original angle. Back). 2. Left. The viewing direction will be applied to the active view window. 4. You can use the Reset View Orientation button to restore the view to the original angle. Click View>Modify Attributes>Orientation. 4. 3. Click Close to dismiss the dialog box. Right.

Vy. A dialog box with orientation settings appears. 2. 2. Click View>Modify Attributes>Orientation. A dialog box with orientation settings appears. phi and theta text boxes. click Get Current View Direction. or Vz text boxes. select Input angles under Add Orientation to List. To modify the selected orientation’s vector components. The viewing direction is removed from the list. Click the viewing direction you want to delete from the list of names. 5. Click Remove. select Input vector components under Add Orientation to List. click the existing orientation name in the viewing directions list. 3. Related Topics Applying a Default View Orientation Applying a New Orientation Modifying the Model View 11-21 . This operation cannot be undone. Uy. To modify the selected orientation’s input angles. • • 3. Related Topics Applying a Default View Orientation Removing an Orientation Removing an Orientation To remove a viewing direction from the list in the orientation settings dialog box: 1. Click View>Modify Attributes >Orientation. and the Up vector boxes for Ux. Click Close. The new orientation is added to the list of viewing directions. and then modify the values in the psi. Type a name for the new orientation in the Name text box. and Uz. Click Make Default if you want the new viewing direction to be the initial viewing direction when a 3D Modeler window is opened in the current project or future projects. and then modify the values in the Vx. 6. To create a viewing direction that is based on a default viewing direction. 4. To create a viewing direction based on the current view in the 3D Modeler window.HFSS Online Help Applying a New View Orientation To create and apply a new viewing direction to the active view window: 1. Click Add/Edit.

Click Save As Default if you want the new lighting settings to be the defaults for all 3D Modeler windows. will not affect these lighting settings. Select Do Not Use Lighting to turn off ambient and distant lighting. and Vz sliders to specify the Cartesian coordinates dynamically. Clear this option to activate ambient and distant lighting. Click OK to dismiss the dialog box. • • b. and then clicking Clone. To surround the model with light.HFSS Online Help Modifying the Lighting You have the option to emit the following types of light on a design: • • Ambient lighting surrounds the model evenly with light. do one of the following: a. Use the φ and θ sliders to specify the spherical coordinates dynamically. Distant lighting directs a ray of light at the model in a direction you specify. Y. either in the current project or future projects. New lighting applied to other designs after this point. Add a new distant light by clicking Add. 8. All objects are lit evenly in every direction by a color of light that you specify. To modify the direction by specifying the spherical coordinates. and then select a color for the surrounding light from the Color palette. Enter the new Cartesian coordinates in the X. The Lighting Properties dialog box appears. The lighting settings will be saved with the design. 11-22 Modifying the Model View . and Z boxes. Click View>Modify Attributes>Lighting. Use the Vx. b. including new default settings. 5. Vy. 3. By default. specify the vector direction: a. do one of the following: To modify the lighting: 1. 2. c. To modify the direction by specifying Cartesian coordinates. click Reset. To revert to the default ambient and distant light settings. Select a default distant light to modify by selecting it in the Distant Light Vectors table. two distant light vectors are in effect for every new view window. 4. Copy an existing distant light that you intend to modify by first selecting it in the Distant Light Vectors table. click the Ambient Light Properties color button. 7. To modify the distant light on a model. For the selected distant light vector. Enter the new spherical coordinates in the φ and θ boxes. do one of the following: • • 6.

Click View>Modify Attributes>Projection. 5. The last view you specified in the projection window remains visible in the view window. Click Close to accept the projection setting and dismiss the window. 4. The projection view you set will be saved with the design. the view. Select Perspective to change the angle of the view. Modifying the Model View 11-23 . the view. • Move the slider to the right to increase the proximity. Move the slider to the left to decrease the proximity. 3. or flatten. The Select Projection Type window closes.HFSS Online Help Setting the Projection View To modify the projection of model objects (the camera angle) in the view window: 1. or widen. Click Reset to return the model to its original view. The Select Projection Type window appears: 2. Objects that are closer appear larger relative than objects that are farther away. New projection views assigned to other designs after this point will not affect this projection setting. Select Orthographic to view the model without distortion. The slider is disabled because a distortion scale is no longer applicable.

To assign a background color that gradually changes from one color to another. do the following: a.HFSS Online Help Setting the Background Color To set the color of the background in the view window: 1. Click Reset to revert to the default background colors. The background color you set will be saved with the design. b. click Top Color or Bottom Color and use the RGB sliders to specify the color’s red. Click Save As Default if you want the new background color to be the background color for all 3D Modeler windows in either the current project or future project. Select Gradient Background. 2. Use the RGB sliders under Change View Color Dynamically to specify the color’s red. green. Modify the background color in one of the following ways: • • 3. green. Under Change View Color Dynamically. New background color settings assigned to other designs after this point. will not affect this design. b. To assign a solid background color. click the Top Color button and select a color from the Color palette. The Select Background Color window appears. and blue values. Click OK. Under Select Background Type. 11-24 Modifying the Model View . Click the Background Color button and then select a color from the Color palette. 6. Click View>Modify Attributes>Background color. Then click the Bottom Color button and select a color from the Color palette. including new default settings. Select Plain Background. and blue values. 5. Specify the background color at the top and bottom of the view window in one of the following ways: • • 4. do the following: a.

Click View>Coordinate System. and z-axes at the lower right of the active view window. then click one of the following: Enlarging or Shrinking the Axes • • Large to display the x-. y-. This displays the Modeler Options dialog. Show to display the x-. 2. y-. Show the coordinate system axes for selected objects. To show the triad: 1. Show or hide the coordinate system axes. y-. y.HFSS Online Help Modifying the Coordinate System Axes View The coordinate system axes displays the x. Click OK to close the dialog. It can be shown or hidden separately from the selected coordinate system. z orientation from the origin point for the current working coordinate system. 1. y-. Select Show orientation of selected objects. 4. Show or hide the triad axes. Click View>Coordinate System. Auto to generally hide the triad axes. What do you want to do? • • • • 1. It shows the orientation of the currently selected working coordinate system. and z-axes in the active view window. Modifying the Model View 11-25 . Show to display the triad x-. Hide to hide the x-. Select the Display tab. Small to display the x-. Enlarge or shrink the size of the coordinate system axes. then click one of the following: • • • Hide to hide the triad x-. then click one of the following: Showing or Hiding the Axes • • 1. and z-axes in the lower right active view window. and z-axes in a smaller size in relative to the edges of the active view window. and z-axes in the active view window. Show the Axes for Selected Objects Click Tools>Options>Modeler Options. Showing or Hiding the Triad Axes The triad is a secondary depiction of the coordinate system that appears at the lower right of the Modeler window. y-. Click View>Coordinate System>Triad. y-. and z-axes as extending to the edges of the active view window. 3.

Select a grid type for the active view window: Cartesian for a rectangular grid or Polar for a circular grid. Setting the Grid Style 1. The Grid Settings window appears. you will define a coordinate by specifying its radius from the origin in the R text box and its angle from the x-axis in the Theta text box or its relative distance from the previously selected point in the dR and dTheta text boxes. the location of points on the grid are defined by intersections of planes that are perpendicular to and along the x-. The grid in the active view window is centered at the origin of the working coordinate system. the location of points on the grid are defined by intersections of planes that are perpendicular to the local radius and angle coordinates. Grid spacing is set according to the current project's drawing units. y-. you will define a coordinate by specifying its distance from the origin along each axis in the X. and dZ text boxes. Setting the Grid Type For Cartesian grids. Click View>Grid Settings. Y. 2. 11-26 Modifying the Model View . For Cartesian grids.You can control the following aspects of the grid: • • • • • • • 1. dY. For polar grids.HFSS Online Help Choosing Grid Settings The grid displayed in the 3D Modeler window is a drawing aid that helps to visualize the location of objects. and Z text boxes or its relative distance from the previously selected point in the dX. The division (the distance between neighboring parallel planes perpendicular to the same axis) can be set. Type (rectangular or circular) Style (dots or lines) Density Spacing Visibility Snap settings Grid plane Click View>Grid Settings. and z-axes. The division (the distance between neighboring parallel planes perpendicular to the same radius and angle) can be set. The Grid Settings window appears. For polar grids.

If you selected a Cartesian grid type. type the values of dX. Click it again to show the grid. do one of the following: Modifying the Model View 11-27 . Specify a distance between grid points by typing a value in the pixels box. Click OK. do the following: a. dY.HFSS Online Help 2. and dZ. Displays lines between grid points. The Grid Settings window appears. Click View>Grid Settings. The distance between grid points will increase and decrease proportionately as you zoom in and out in the active view window. do the following: a. click the Grid toolbar icon: Alternatively: 1. These values represent the difference between one grid point and the next in the x. b. If you do not want the grid density to change when you zoom in or out. Clear the Auto adjust density to option. 2. If you want to change the density of the grid in the active view window as you zoom in or out on objects. dTheta is the difference between angles. but instead want to specify a constant grid spacing. 2. Related Topics Setting the Grid Plane Setting the Grid Plane To specify the plane on which you want to display the grid in the active view window. 3. The default is set to 30 pixels. Clear the selection to make the grid invisible. Specify the grid’s spacing in the active design’s units. Select Grid Visible to make the grid visible in the active 3D Modeler window. y. Setting the Grid Density and Spacing 1. 4. and z directions. If you selected a polar grid type. dR represents the difference between each radius. The Grid Settings window appears. type the values for dR and dTheta. . Select one of the following grid styles for the active view window: Dot Line Displays each grid point as a dot. Setting the Grid’s Visibility • To hide the grid. which is generally the best setting for displaying objects. Select Auto adjust density to. Click View>Grid Settings. b. respectively.

YZ.HFSS Online Help • • Click Modeler>Grid Plane. Click a grid plane on the pull-down list on the 3D Modeler Draw toolbar: 11-28 Modifying the Model View . or XZ. and then select a grid plane: XY.

Surface approximation settings are only applied to the initial mesh. you may also want to create a mesh operation that modifies HFSS’s surface approximation settings for one or more faces.12 Defining Mesh Operations In HFSS. What do you want to do? • • • • • • Perform length-based mesh refinement on object faces. that is. mesh operations are optional mesh refinement settings that provide HFSS with mesh construction guidance. Specify automatic or specified model resolution for a selection. the mesh that is generated the first time a design variation is solved. These types of mesh operations are performed on the current mesh. You can also choose to override automatic choice of which mesher HFSS uses. See the technical notes for more details about HFSS’s application of mesh operations. In a few circumstances. Modify surface approximation settings for one or more faces. Perform skin depth-based mesh refinement on object faces. You can instruct HFSS to reduce the maximum size of tetrahedral elements on a surface or within a volume until they are below a certain value (length-based mesh refinement) or you can instruct HFSS to refine the surface triangle length of all tetrahedral elements on a surface or volume to within a specified value (skin depth-based mesh refinement). Specify the initial mesh settings Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process Defining Mesh Operations 12-1 . by using the HFSS>Mesh Operations>Initial Mesh Settings command. Seeding is performed using the Mesh Operations commands on the HFSS menu. This technique of guiding HFSS’s mesh construction is referred to as "seeding" the mesh. Perform length-based mesh refinement inside objects. the most recently generated mesh. that is.

HFSS Online Help Technical Notes: Seeding the Mesh Technical Notes: Guidelines for Seeding the Mesh Technical Notes: Surface Approximation Settings Getting Started Guides: A Spiral Inductor 12-2 Defining Mesh Operations .

the refinement criterion you specified is used. Type the maximum length of the tetrahedral edges touching the faces in the Maximum Length of Elements text box. 2 -----. Enter the Maximum Number of Elements to be added. To restrict the length of tetrahedra edges touching the faces: a. amaximum length of boundary surfaces. HFSS will refine the element edges touching the selected faces until their lengths are equal to or less than this value. Alternatively. some elements may exceed the requested maximum element length. 3. If the maximum number of elements is reached. c. a. 2. Type a name for the mesh operation in the Name text box or accept the default name. select an object if you want HFSS to refine every face on the object. Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: Length-Based Mesh Refinement Technical Notes: Seeding the Mesh Technical Notes: Guidelines for Seeding the Mesh Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement Inside Objects Applying Mesh Operations without Solving Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process Defining Mesh Operations 12-3 .HFSS Online Help Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement on Object Faces 1. Click OK. Select Restrict the Number of Elements. 5. b. Click HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>On Selection>Length-Based. The default value is set to 20% of the maximum edge lengths of the bounding boxes of each selected face. Select Restrict Length of Elements.λ is recommended for radiation 10 To restrict the number of elements added during refinement of the faces: When the mesh is generated. The Element Length-Based Refinement dialog box appears. Select the faces you want HFSS to refine. b. 4. For first order basis functions.

b. c. Type the maximum length of the edges inside the object in the Maximum Length of Elements text box.HFSS Online Help Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement Inside Objects To instruct HFSS to refine every face of an object and its interior: 1. Select Restrict the Number of Elements. Select Restrict Length of Elements.If the maximum number of elements are reached. 3. HFSS will refine the element edges inside the object until they are equal to or less than this value. Click HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>Inside Selection>Length-Based. 5. Enter the Maximum Number of Elements to be added. Type a name for the mesh operation in the Name text box or accept the default name. b. 4. When the mesh is generated. 2. Select the object you want HFSS to refine. it may result in some elements exceeding the requested maximum element length. Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: Length-Based Mesh Refinement Technical Notes: Seeding the Mesh Technical Notes: Guidelines for Seeding the Mesh Assigning Length-Based Mesh Refinement on Object Faces Applying Mesh Operations without Solving Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process 12-4 Defining Mesh Operations . Click OK. The default value is set to 20% of the maximum edge lengths of the bounding boxes of each selected object’s faces. To restrict the number of elements added during the refinement inside the object: a. the refinement criterion you specified will be used. To restrict the length of the tetrahedral element edges inside the object: a. The Element Length-Based Refinement dialog box appears.

The Skin Depth-Based Refinement dialog box appears. Type the skin depth within which to refine the mesh in the Skin Depth text box. For example. The Calculate Skin Depth dialog box appears. Type a name for the mesh operation in the Name text box or accept the default name. 5. Click HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>On Selection>Skin-Depth-Based. but it is not guaranteed to prevent tetrahedra from crossing slab interfaces. Select the faces you want to be refined. Enter the material’s Relative Permeability and Conductivity. d. The default value is set to 20% of the maximum edge lengths of the bounding boxes of each selected face. c. 2. Click OK. if HFSS added 10 points to satisfy the Surface Triangle Length. To restrict the number of elements added during refinement on the faces: a. HFSS will add an equivalent number of mesh points to each layer. Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: Skin Depth-Based Mesh Refinement Defining Mesh Operations 12-5 . calculate the skin depth based on the object’s material permeability and conductivity and the frequency at which the mesh will be refined: a. 3. b. Alternatively. Type the maximum edge length of the surface mesh in the Surface Triangle Length text box. select an object if you want HFSS to refine every face on the object. Click Calculate Skin Depth. Specify the Frequency at which to refine the mesh. Click OK.HFSS Online Help Assigning Skin Depth-Based Mesh Refinement on Object Faces 1. Caution should be used with this mesh operation. 4. Enter the Maximum Number of Surface Elements to be added. type the number of layers to add perpendicular to the object’s surface. c. 6. Select Restrict the Number of Surface Elements. as very thin layers may cause a reduction in mesh quality or unnecessarily cause the generation of a very large mesh. HFSS will refine the surface triangle mesh (the faces of the tetrahedra touching the surface) until their edge lengths are less than or equal to the specified value. 7. HFSS calculates the skin depth and enters its value in the Skin Depth text box. In the Number of Layers of Elements text box. b. the refinement criteria you specified will be used. When the mesh is generated. This operation will be approximately the same as having slabs of tetrahedra. Alternatively. it will add 10 points to each layer.

HFSS Online Help Technical Notes: Seeding the Mesh Technical Notes: Guidelines for Seeding the Mesh Applying Mesh Operations without Solving Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process 12-6 Defining Mesh Operations .

they will not affect the mesh for that design variation. This value determines the shape of the triangles. Select Use defaults if you want to use HFSS’s default normal deviation setting for the selected faces. do one of the following: • • 7. Defining Mesh Operations 12-7 . Alternatively. Surface approximation makes sense for curved surfaces.) You can set the surface representation as normal or high.5 degrees.a very small port in a large model. for which the mesh will not exactly reproduce the surface shape. 1. High . Select the Surface Representation Priority for Tau Mesh: In most cases. Select Ignore if you do not want to use surface deviation settings for the selected faces. It also can be used to restrict the aspect ratio of triangles on planar surfaces. (See Initial Mesh Settings. the thinner the triangles. and then type a value in the text box. do one of the following: • • 6. If you modify HFSS’s default settings after the initial mesh has been generated. The Surface Approximation dialog box appears with the Surface Approximation tab select. Values close to 1 will result in equilateral triangles. but it can also be very expensive and can cause the mesher to fail.. Under Maximum Surface Deviation. which are 10 for curved surfaces and 200 for planar surfaces. and then type the angular distance between the normal of the true surface and the corresponding mesh surface in the text box. Select Set maximum surface deviation (length). A ratio of 200 corresponds roughly to a triangle with an interior angle of one half degree.) The choice of "High" can help to mesh some difficult or small surfaces. which is 22. Normal . Click HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>Surface Approximation. do one of the following: • • 5. Type a name for the group of settings in the Name text box or accept the default name.Use only on critical surfaces. 3. Under Maximum Aspect Ratio. allowing loose tolerances. The group of settings is listed in the project tree under Mesh Operations. and then type the distance between the true surfaces of the selected faces and the meshed faces in the text box. select an object if you want to modify the surface approximation settings of every face on the object. Select Use defaults if you want to use HFSS’s default aspect ratio settings for the selected faces. • 2. Select Set aspect ratio.HFSS Online Help Modifying Surface Approximation Settings HFSS applies surface approximation settings when it generates the initial mesh. Under Maximum Surface Normal Deviation. Click OK. The higher the value. 4. (For example. The settings will be applied to the initial mesh generated on the selected surface.use for normal situations for the Tau Mesh. • • 8. Select Set maximum normal deviation (angle). meshing is done by Tau Mesh. Select the faces for which you want to modify the surface approximation settings.

HFSS Online Help Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: Surface Approximation Settings Technical Notes: Guidelines for Modifying Surface Approximation Settings Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process 12-8 Defining Mesh Operations .

You can set Model Resolution on one or more objects to remove unnecessary details from the mesh representation. Select the object or objects on which to specify a Model Resolution operation. For example. Use the Auto Simplify selection: • • • • To remove many details while retaining an object’s overall shape and size. This can be used to reduce the mesh complexity of the selected objects. 1. which can effectively remove some of your boundary conditions. This displays the Model Resolution Mesh Operation dialog. For example. Right-click on either Mesh Operations in the Project Tree. Use Model Resolution length This enables fields for you to specify the resolution value and units. The resolution only controls how the mesh for the model is represented. This setting controls how large a feature must be to be resolved by the meshmaker. While removing small details. For objects of generally uniform thickness. This can only happen if faces are closer together than the model resolution distance you specify. b. if the meshmaker finds that the representation of the model is not accurate enough. The meshmaker then starts with the most accurate representation and prunes away the details smaller than the model resolution length. you can display the same dialog if you: a. It returns an error if the specified model resolution length forces the final representation to deviate too greatly from the model. One mesh operation can be assigned to many objects. Alternatively. Click on HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>Model Resolution. A cautionary note is needed concerning the use of model resolution. the thin section of the object shown Defining Mesh Operations 12-9 . It can sometimes make model faces fail to be represented in the mesh. Use this selection for: • • Tighter control of mesh accuracy. it returns an error condition. any model features smaller than 20 mm are not represented in the mesh. Neither the model nor the model files are changed.HFSS Online Help Specifying the Model Resolution The model resolution parameter is used by the meshmaker to distinguish large features from small features in the model. and each will be simplified based on its own dimensions. or right-click in the 3D Modeler window to display the respective shortcut menu. Objects of non-uniform thickness. 2. if you set the model resolution length to 20 mm. The Model Resolution Mesh Operation dialog contains text fields for the mesh operation Name and radio buttons with choices for the following • Auto Simplify Using Effective Thickness The mesher calculates the resolution length based on each object’s effective thickness. Click on Assign>Model Resolution in the Project Tree menu or click on Assign Mesh Operation>Model Resolution on the shortcut menu. To assign one mesh operation to many objects.

This adds the named Model Resolution operation under the Mesh Operations icon in the Project Tree. Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Setting the Healing Options Technical Notes: Model Resolution 12-10 Defining Mesh Operations . click OK. After defining the operation. 3. the smaller length will apply for the common regions. Note Setting Model Resolution will invalidate any existing solutions. When two objects in contact have different model resolution lengths.HFSS Online Help below might be lost with Auto Simplify.

but does not include lambda refinement or defined mesh operations. and do not want to use the existing current mesh. You can do this for all solve setups at once by selecting the command through Analysis in the menu system or project tree. If you have modified the design setup. or for a specific solve setup via its right mouse click menu in the project tree.HFSS Online Help Reverting to the Initial Mesh The initial mesh is the mesh that is generated the first time a design variation is solved. revert to the initial mesh prior to solving. Reverting to the initial mesh is useful when you want to evaluate how a different solution frequency affects the mesh generated during an adaptive analysis. Related Topics Plotting the Mesh Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process Defining Mesh Operations 12-11 . You lose all solution data for a solve setup and all of its sweeps when you revert to the initial mesh for that setup. It includes surface approximation settings. • On the HFSS>Analysis Setup>Revert to Initial Mesh.

do the following after defining mesh operations: • Click HFSS>Analysis Setup>Apply Mesh Operations. HFSS will not re-apply a modified mesh operation. but you can discard them by closing the project without saving them. or the HFSS Server Setup dialog may appear to allow you to interactively specify a solve machine if "Prompt for analysis machine when launching analysis" is selected under Tools>Options>General Options>Analysis Options tab.HFSS Online Help Applying Mesh Operations without Solving If you want to refine the mesh on a face or volume. but do not want to generate a solution. If a current mesh has not been generated. HFSS will refine it using the defined mesh operations. or right click on the Analysis or Setup icon in the Project window to display the shortcut menu and click Apply Mesh Operations. or by reverting to the initial mesh. • • • • If a current mesh has been generated. HFSS will apply the mesh operations to the initial mesh. If an initial mesh has not been generated. HFSS will generate it and apply the mesh operations to the initial mesh. If the defined mesh operations have been applied to the selected face or object. the current mesh will not be altered. You cannot undo the applied mesh operations. Hint Define a new mesh operation rather than modify an existing mesh operation. Related Topics Technical Notes: The Mesh Generation Process Plotting the Mesh Specifying the Analysis Options General Options: Analysis Options Tab Remote Analysis 12-12 Defining Mesh Operations . Applying mesh operations without solving enables you to experiment with mesh refinement in specific problem regions without losing design solutions. The mesh operation will be sent to the default solve machine. The same solve machine rules that apply to solving any other setup also apply here.

and then type a value in the text box. You can also uncheck or check Apply curvilinear elements. The Initial Mesh Settings dialog appears with the Surface Approximation tab selected.HFSS automatically selects the mesher. size and design characteristics. Values close to 1 will result in well-formed. balancing mesh reliability. Select Set aspect ratio. Select to the Meshing Method tab.. HFSS predicts which one gives the best results. Select HFSS>Mesh Operations>Initial Mesh Settings. the thinner the triangles. resolves surfaces and contacts more accurately. See Rectilinear Elements and Curvilinear Elements. Select Set maximum normal deviation (angle). wide triangles. quality. it looks for specific features (for example.HFSS Online Help Specifying Initial Mesh Settings You can specify the initial mesh settings. do one of the following: • • 4. and then type the distance between the true surfaces of the selected faces and the meshed faces in the text box. speed. though it costs more memory. you may choose to uncheck the setting. In most cases. To make your choice the default. This value determines the shape of the triangles. right-click on Mesh Operations. Select Set maximum surface deviation (length). For most designs. including the surface approximation and the meshing approach. rather than the Ansoft classic mesh. 3. In a few cases. In some situations. Select Use defaults if you want to use HFSS’s default aspect ratio settings for the selected faces. Under Maximum Surface Deviation. this increases accuracy. Under Maximum Surface Normal Deviation. Select Ignore if you do not want to use surface deviation settings for the selected faces. Type a name for the group of settings in the Name text box or accept the default name. do one of the following: • • 5. Under Maximum Aspect Ratio. For models with curved surfaces. this will be Ansoft TAU mesh. which are 10 for curved surfaces and 200 for planar surfaces. stacks of large planar parallel facets with small gaps) and situations where the initial Ansoft Tau mesh is 4 times larger than the Ansoft Classic. Select Use defaults if you want to use HFSS’s default normal deviation setting for the selected faces. To do so: 1. In general. and then type the angular distance between the normal of the true surface and the corresponding mesh surface in the text box. you may decide to override the automatic choice and designate the mesher to use. • • Auto (the default)-. It contains radio buttons for: 7. The higher the value.5 degrees. do one of the following: • • 6. HFSS uses Ansoft TAU mesh. 2. 8. and select Initial Mesh Settings from the shortcut menu. or in the Project tree. but takes more Defining Mesh Operations 12-13 . you can let HFSS automatically choose which of two meshing approaches to take. In most cases.. Strict performs stitching. Ansoft TAU Mesh--this includes Surface representation choices for Strict or Tolerant. use the Save as default checkbox. which is 22.

To make your choice the default. use the Save as default checkbox. 10. Related Topics Defining Mesh Operations 12-14 Defining Mesh Operations .HFSS Online Help time and may cause issues for dirty models. • 9. Click OK to apply your choices. which may be better for dirty or very complex geometry. Tolerant uses a looser tolerance for surface representation. The settings will be applied to the initial mesh generated on the selected surface. Ansoft Classic Mesh--this is based on the HFSS 11 mesher.

Defining Mesh Operations 12-15 . deleted mesh operations will not be used again after reverting to the initial mesh. However.HFSS Online Help Deleting All Previously Assigned Mesh Refinements To delete previously-assigned mesh refinement data: • Click HFSS>Mesh Operations>Delete All. Note This will not alter any existing meshes that have already made use of one or more mesh refinement operations.

3. 2. The Design List dialog box appears. Right-click Mesh Operations. Click Done to close this dialog box. do the following from the project tree: 1. 12-16 Defining Mesh Operations .HFSS Online Help Viewing List of Mesh Operations To list all mesh operations for the project. A shortcut menu appears. Select List from the shortcut menu. with the Mesh Operations tab displayed.

Right-click the mesh refinement you had previously completed.HFSS Online Help Reassigning a Mesh Operation To reassign a previously-assigned mesh setup. if you want to see information about a mesh that has been generated. To view the objects to which a mesh operation is assigned: 1. 2. 3. The objects to which the operation is assigned are selected. Under Mesh Operations. do the following in the project tree: 1. 2. Select the object or objects to which you want to reassign the mesh operation. right-click the mesh refinement you had previously defined. 3. In the Project tree. see Viewing Mesh Statistics. Select Show Assignment from the shortcut menu. select the mesh operation. Related Topics Defining Mesh Operations Defining Mesh Operations 12-17 . However. A shortcut menu appears. The mesh operation is reassigned to the currently selected objects. Select Reassign from the shortcut menu. Note This pertains to mesh setup operations only. A shortcut menu appears.

12-18 Defining Mesh Operations . right-click the mesh refinement you had previously completed. do the following in the project tree: 1. Under Mesh Operations. 2.HFSS Online Help Viewing Mesh Properties To view mesh properties. Select Properties from the shortcut menu. A shortcut menu appears.

Each solution setup includes the following information: • • • General data about the solution’s generation. you can add a frequency sweep. You can define more than one solution setup per design. Adaptive mesh refinement parameters.13 Specifying Solution Settings Specify how HFSS or HFSS-IE will compute a solution by adding a solution setup to the design. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Specifying Solution Settings 13-1 . If you want to solve of a range of frequencies. if you want the mesh to be refined iteratively in areas of highest error.

Enter the Solution Frequency and select the frequency units from the pull down list. Enter the Number of Modes. The number must be greater than 0 and less than 20. you can click Add Dependent Solve Setup. It is divided among the following tabs: General Options Advanced Expression Cache Derivatives Defaults 3. Optionally. • • • Alternatively. the Order of Basis setting. right click Analysis in the project tree. Click HFSS>Analysis Setup>Add Solution Setup . Enter a Setup Name or accept the default. do the following: a. Includes a list of expressions (including post processing variables) that you can use for convergence for adaptive analysis. and Thermal Feedback from Ansys Mechanical. adaptive analysis and solution options. 4.HFSS Online Help Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design To add a new solution setup to a design: 1. Enter the Minimum Frequency and the frequency units. they are listed here. The Enabled checkbox on General tab permits to you to disable a setup so that it does not run when you select Analyze All. do the following: 6. Includes general solution settings. If you have already created a solution and you want to use an existing mesh. HFSS can calculate derivatives for your variables. If your design contains variables. Includes settings for mesh linking. Enables you to save the current settings as the defaults for future solution setups or revert the current settings to HFSS’s standard settings. 5. entering 0 will enable 13-2 Specifying Solution Settings . and then click Add Solution Setup on the shortcut menu. For Eigenmode solutions. If you are performing an adaptive analysis. The Solution Setup dialog box appears. and then edit parameters. absorbing boundaries on ports. If you have an existing setup. enter 2 or more passes in the Maximum Number of Passes box. select Solve Ports Only. For Eigenmode solution types. you can Copy and Paste it. Includes settings for lambda refinement. if you are not performing an adaptive analysis. a. 2. and waveport adapt options. For Driven solution types. b. b. and whether to enable the use of solver domains. Click the General tab. and then specify the remaining adaptive analysis parameters for HFSS. Select a design in the project tree.

8. Optionally. Related Topics Add Dependent Solve Setup Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters for HFSS Technical Notes: The HFSS Solution Process Copying a Solution Setup Renaming a Solution Setup Specifying Solution Settings 13-3 . For driven problems HFSS always requires at least one adaptive pass. Entering 1 will also bypass adaptive analysis. add a frequency sweep to the solution setup. Click OK. 7. generating a solution only at the solution frequency you specified.HFSS Online Help you to bypass the adaptive analysis process and just perform a frequency sweep.

you do this just as you would for a new setup. Select an existing setup in the project tree. The dependent setup uses the mesh from the parent setup. 2." All of the settings from the parent setup are copied to the child setup. to apply all settings from an existing setup to a child setup: 1. which has an altered graphic to distinguish it from the parent setup icon. If you intend to change any of the settings. A dependent setup icon appears. You can add a dependent setup to another dependent setup. The child setup name is "parent_setup name_1.HFSS Online Help Add Dependent Solve Setup For driven setups (not Eigenmode). and then click Add Dependent Solve Setup on the shortcut menu. Specifying a Source for the initial mesh. Related Topics Specifying Solution Settings 13-4 Specifying Solution Settings . the Analyze command on the shortcut menu for the Project tree is disabled and the Enable Setup command is available. Right click on the setup in the project tree. and form of the name shows the hierarchical dependence by appending "_1" to show further dependence. This is shown under the Advanced tab of the Solution Setup dialog. If a solve is disabled. The Enabled checkbox on General tab permits to you to disable a setup so that it does not run when you select Analyze All.

In the project tree. and press Enter. Related Topics: Copying a Solution Setup Specifying Solution Settings 13-5 . right-click the setup you want to rename. 2. 3. Select Rename from the shortcut menu. The setup name text is highlighted in the project tree. You can also rename the solution setup by changing the text in the Name text box of the appropriate Solve Setup dialog box. A shortcut menu appears. Type the new name for the setup.HFSS Online Help Renaming a Solution Setup Do the following to rename a solution setup: 1. under Analysis.

under Analysis. 2. or where minor changes to a setup are being evaluated. This is beneficial for setups having a large number of parameters to specify. In the project tree. 3. Select Copy from the shortcut menu. In the project tree. The setup parameters are copied to the clipboard. The setup parameters are copied to the Analysis folder as a new setup. A shortcut menu appears. Related Topics: Renaming a Solution Setup 13-6 Specifying Solution Settings . A shortcut menu appears. right-click the setup you want to copy. right-click on the Analysis folder to receive the copied setup.HFSS Online Help Copying a Solution Setup Solution setups may be copied and pasted within a design or across designs of the same type. Select Paste from the shortcut menu. Do the following to copy a solution setup: 1. 4.

For every Driven solution setup. If a frequency sweep is solved. Note For Fast sweeps.HFSS Online Help Setting the Solution Frequency For Driven solution types. • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. If you want to solve over a range of frequencies.) Otherwise the middle of the frequency range is used as the center frequency. an adaptive analysis is performed only at the solution frequency. Specifying Solution Settings 13-7 . specify the frequency and units at which to generate the solution. enter a value for Solution Frequency and select the frequency units from the pull down list. HFSS uses the solution frequency as the center frequency if it is within the frequency range (greater than the start frequency and less than the stop frequency. define a frequency sweep.

Related Topics Port Field Display Technical Notes: Port Solutions 13-8 Specifying Solution Settings . select Solve Ports Only. impedances. These 2D field patterns serve as boundary conditions for the full 3D problem. and propagation constants at each port: • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box.HFSS Online Help Solving for Ports Only For Driven solution types with ports. This disables the remaining settings for Maximum number of passes and Convergence per pass. HFSS calculates the natural field patterns (or modes) that can exist inside a transmission structure with the same cross-section as the port. To quickly compute only the 2D excitation field patterns.

HFSS tries to solve a nearly-singular matrix. HFSS searches for the user-specified number of modes with a higher resonant frequency than the Minimum Frequency value. if the frequency is set too low.HFSS Online Help Setting the Minimum Frequency For Eigenmode solution types. Warning Because the minimum frequency is used to normalize some matrices. Specifying Solution Settings 13-9 . do not enter a frequency less than 0. Click OK to close the dialog. • • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. specify the minimum frequency at which to search for eigenmodes. You can set the Minimum frequency as a variable by typing a name in the field and pressing Enter. which may erode the accuracy of the calculations. The variable is listed in the Setup and in the Design Properties. value for Minimum Frequency.01 times the suggested. This displays the Add Variable dialog for you to enter the value and units. type a Minimum Frequency and the frequency units. or default. For every Eigenmode solution setup. As a general rule.

13-10 Specifying Solution Settings . specify the number of eigenmode solutions that the solver finds. If you enter 5. • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. the solver calculates the first 5 eigenmode solutions above the minimum frequency. The Eigenmode solver can find up to 20 eigenmode solutions.HFSS Online Help Setting the Number of Modes For Eigenmode solution types. enter a value for Number of Modes. For every Eigenmode solution setup.

you can edit the following settings. or magnetic bias). Here you can set matrix values for convergence. If the maximum numSpecifying Solution Settings 13-11 . if the maximum number of passes has been completed. specify Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass and. you can create and manage expressions to use for adaptive convergence. Under the Derivatives tab of the Solution Setup. • • • • Initial Mesh Options for mesh linking Port options (Maximum Delta Zo. you can edit the following settings: • • • • • • • • Under the Advanced tab of the Solution Setup. Lambda Refinement Maximum Refinement Per Pass Maximum Refinement Minimum Number of Passes Minimum Number of Converged Passes Order of Basis functions Enable Iterative Solver and associated Relative Residual Setting Enable Use of Solver Domains Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. if desired. Related Topics HFSS-IE Feature Setting the Maximum Number of Passes The Maximum Number of Passes value is the maximum number of mesh refinement cycles that you would like HFSS to perform. including maximum delta for Mag S and Phase S. define the following parameters under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box: • • • • Maximum Number of Passes Maximum Delta S or Use Matrix convergence (for designs with ports). the adaptive analysis stops.HFSS Online Help Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters for HFSS When you set up an adaptive analysis. incident waves. current sources. depending on the solution type. Maximum Delta Energy for convergence per pass (for designs with voltage sources. Converge on Real Frequency Only. including no Link. Enable Thermal Feedback from ANSYS Mechanical Under the Expression Cache tab of the Solution Setup. whether to Use Radiation Boundary on Ports and Min/Max Port Triangle settings) Linked Solve options. This value is a stopping criterion for the adaptive solution. For Eigenmode solutions. you can: • Specify which variables to use for calculating derivatives.

Entering 1 will bypass adaptive analysis. For driven problems HFSS always requiring at least one adaptive pass. The value you set for Maximum Delta S is a stopping criterion for the adaptive solution. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Setting the Maximum Delta S Per Pass For designs with ports or Transient Solutions for Device Characterization. Not applicable to designs with ports. the adaptive analysis will continue unless the convergence criteria are reached.after the Sparameters have been de-embedded and renormalized. enter a value for Maximum Number of Passes. Delta S data is available only after HFSS completes two iterations of the adaptive analysis process.modal or terminal .HFSS Online Help ber of passes has not been completed. Note Delta S is computed on the appropriate S-parameters . Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Viewing the Maximum Magnitude of Delta S Between Passes Technical Notes: Maximum Delta S Setting the Maximum Delta Energy Per Pass For designs with voltage sources. 13-12 Specifying Solution Settings . the adaptive analysis stops. The delta S is the magnitude of the change of the S-parameters between two consecutive passes. To set the maximum number of passes for an adaptive analysis: • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. incident waves or magnetic bias or Transient Solutions for Field Visualization. it continues until the requested number of passes is completed. Note The size of the finite element mesh — and the amount of memory required to generate a solution — increases with each adaptive refinement of the mesh. enter a value for Maximum Delta S. To set the maximum delta S per adaptive pass: • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. generating a solution only at the solution frequency you specified. Setting the maximum number of passes too high can result in HFSS requesting more memory than is available or taking excessive time to compute solutions. current sources. If the magnitude of the change of all S-parameters are less than this value from one iteration to the next. Otherwise.

Delta Energy data is available only after HFSS completes two iterations of the adaptive analysis process. Otherwise. Related Topics Specifying Convergence on Real Frequency Only Specifying Convergence on Real Frequency Only For Eigenmode solution types. If the eigenmode frequencies change by a percentage amount less than this value from one pass to the next. the adaptive analysis stops. The Max Delta or the Max Percent Delta defined for expression convergence represents the difference in values of the expressions between consecutive adaptive passes. the imaginary parts of the frequencies are ignored. select Converge on Real Frequency Only. it continues until the convergence criteria are reached. it continues until the maximum number of passes is completed. Selecting Converge on Real Frequency Only causes the percent difference calculation among a set of frequencies to be based only on the real parts of the frequencies. The value you set for Maximum Delta Energy is a stopping criterion for the adaptive solution. Related Topics Viewing the Delta Magnitude Energy Technical Notes: Maximum Delta Energy Setting the Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass For Eigenmode solution types The delta Frequency is the percentage difference between calculated eigenmode frequencies from one adaptive pass to the next. enter a value for Maximum Delta Energy. Otherwise. If the delta Energy falls below this value. To set the maximum delta Energy per adaptive pass: • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. the adaptive analysis stops. If the difference in the Specifying Solution Settings 13-13 . Delta Frequency data is available only after HFSS completes two iterations of the adaptive analysis.HFSS Online Help The delta Energy is the difference in the relative energy error from one adaptive solution to the next. enter a value for Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass. Specifying Expressions for Adaptive Convergence You can specify additional convergence criteria through the use of expressions and output variables. The value you set for Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass is a stopping criterion for the adaptive solution. To set the Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass: • Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog.

you do not need context other than the Solution. Emission Test also requires a digital signal. Maximum Delta E. Otherwise. the solution continues until the requested number of passes is completed. Fields or Near Fields also require a geometry such as a polyline. or alternate matrix convergence criteria are achieved in addition to any specified expression convergence criteria. if the Maximum Delta S. Far Field field also requires a geometry such as an infinite sphere. if the Maximum Delta Frequency Per Pass criteria is achieved in addition to any specified expression convergence criteria. the adaptive analysis stops. Selecting a listed category lists the Quantities and Functions available for each category. If desired. Otherwise. Double-click on the setup icon in the Project tree to open the Solution Setup dialog. If you have defined one or more output variables. you can see them listed as Quantities by selecting the Output Variables Category. Quantity and Function lists to create expressions. Under the Trace tab. the adaptive analysis stops.. The Output Variables button opens a dialog that lets you define additional output variables. select from the Category. the solution continues until the requested number of passes is completed. For eigenmode solutions. Specify the context for the expression you define. For Modal Solution Data. • For driven solutions. 3. When you have created an expression. you can use the Range Function button to select range functions to apply to the expres- 13-14 Specifying Solution Settings . Click the Expression Cache tab in the Solution Setup and click the Add. • To set expressions as Convergence criteria: 1. 2.. button to open the Add to Expression Cache dialog.HFSS Online Help value of the expression between consecutive passes is less than the Max Delta or the Max Percent Delta value this part of the convergence criteria is satisfied. Other selections require more context: • • • 4. it appears in the Expression field of the Trace tab.

When you have added the expressions you want. • • • • The Title field is editable. 5. To excite particular sources for particular output variables. You can also assign a PP Variable to a coordinate system (CS) that is not associated with model objects. You can select any additional expressions with contexts and add them in the same way. you can control convergence based on several combinations of active sources. You can also use this feature to assign variables to non-model objects (for example. but removing underscores.. or the appropriate geometry for Fields calculations. If necessary. click the ellipsis [. such as for renormalization or deembedding. you can assign a post process variable to the magnitude of sources you might want to edit.HFSS Online Help sion.] in the Edit column to display a list of the variable values Specifying Solution Settings 13-15 . If the column button shows None you cannot edit the value. Under the Calculation Range tab. click the Add Calculation button. by default showing the name as built from the expression. Clicking the ellipsis [. The PP Variables column contains a checkbox that lets you designate post processing variables. click Done to close the Add to Expression Cache dialog.. you can view the values of available sweep variables. and assign the expression value in the Expression Cache. The Context column shows None for Modal solutions. When you have created an expression that you want to add to the cache.] button in the Edit column opens a list of values. The Expression field shows the full expression.. sheet or lines used for field calculations). • The Intrinsics column shows a clickable button that opens an Edit Calculation Range dialog. the properties of a solid. With PP Variables. 6. The Expression Cache tab of the Solution Setup lists the expressions you have added as a table. you can resize the Solution Setup dialog. You can also resize each column in the table. This adds the selected expression and the associated context to a table in the Expression Cache tab.. If the button shows variables.

To specify a source for the initial mesh: 1. 2. 7. This displays the Setup Link dialog. Note that when you setup a link to an external source. 13-16 Specifying Solution Settings . By default. click the Open button to accept the project file for the setup. click the field for the Convergence column for each expression... Click OK to close the Solution Setup dialog. This opens an Adaptive Convergence dialog. To designate one or more expressions for convergence. When you selected the project. Check Use this expression for convergence to enable the radio buttons. You can then specify the Max Delta between passes or the Max Percent Delta criteria. In that case adaptive refinement continues until you get to the maximum number of passes. If you uncheck Use This Project. 8. the Source Project checkboxes for Use This Project and the Source Design checkbox for Use This Design are selected. you enable fields for selecting a different project and radio buttons to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the selected project or This project. click the checkbox for Import Mesh.HFSS Online Help that you can select. The Max Delta solves a potential issue if your expression is essentially zero and the numeric noise from pass to pass causes the maximum percentage delta to remain high. Related Topics Viewing Convergence Data Viewing the Output Variable Convergence Specifying Output Variables Specifying a Source for the Initial Mesh You may choose to specify a source for the initial mesh from either the current design or another design. the Lamda refinement option is deselected under the Options tab to avoid over-refinement of the linked mesh. The source mesh should represent a geometrically equivalent model. Click OK to close the Edit Calculation Range dialog and apply your selections to the Expression Cache.] button to open a file browser window. To specify a Source Project file click the ellipsis [. Under the Advanced tab of the Solution Setup dialog box.

you can uncheck Use This Design to enable the a dropdown menu for to select from other available designs. if you leave Use This Project checked. For the Source Solution field. you can use the dropdown menu to select from other possible solutions. it is "Transient. In a Transient solution type. The "Default" solution is the product dependent solution of the first Setup. That is. Extractor mode means that the software is opened during the link solely for the purpose of solving. it is LastAdaptive. Variable Mapping. you can choose to "map" these variables to constant values." Note The solution in the source design must provide data for the target design's adaptive frequency as well as its sweeps. the source project will be saved upon exit. Use the checkbox specify whether to Force source design to solve in the absence of linked data in the target design. Use the radio buttons to specify whether to save the source path relative to The project directory of the selected project or This project. the adaptive frequency for the target design must be included in the sweep in the source design. In most products. Variable mapping becomes more important when the datalink type requires source and target design to be geometrically identi- 7. 3. 5. expressions or variables in the target designs. you can open the source design and add an appropriate frequency point to an existing sweep. Note that in the Extractor mode. the Design field and the Solution field are filled in with default values. Use the checkbox to specify whether to preserve the source design solution. The second tab.HFSS Online Help You can use the checkbox to Open as read only. A product specific solution of this setup becomes the default solution. If necessary. For the Source Design. That is the setup listed first in the source design's project tree (alphanumerical order). and the drop down menus contain any available Projects and solutions. When there are variables in the source design. 6. 4. lets you view any variables contained in the Project you select. When you select a Project File. Specifying Solution Settings 13-17 .

You can exit the Setup Link dialog directly by selecting "Accept Setup and Exit Dialog" or reexamine the parameter mapping by selecting "Return to Setup Dialog". for linked designs with variables of the same name. Click OK to proceed without the variable mapping. In the Setup Link dialog. you can click Map Variables by Name to automatically map same named variables. When a variable in the target design has the same name of a source design variable but the 2 variables are not mapped. and retains its value in the source design.HFSS Online Help cal and source design is geometrically parameterized. whereas the variable does not have a same named counterpart. In this example the variables height and weight are mapped to the Source. 13-18 Specifying Solution Settings . the Parameter tab will become the active tab with the following message box popped.

The target design for the link caches these data internally to minimize the need to activate the source design. If you make the Specify Use Current Mesh From selection as the Current design. If you make the Specify Use Current Mesh From selection as Other design and Setup the Link. Clearing linked data for some link types requires HFSS to revert to the initial mesh. It is recommended and selected by default. You can also clear linked data through HFSS>Results>Clean Up Solutions. therefore invalidating the solutions. the default changes automatically. For example. or as part of other deletions. This removes the linked data for all links in a design. Enter a value for the wavelength in the Target field or accept the defaults. which displays a dialog that includes options that let you selectively delete linked data only. For eigenmode solutions and a First Order basis function. Setting the Order of Basis affects the default value of the Lambda Refinement Specifying Solution Settings 13-19 . or Ignore mesh operations in target design (default). Related Topics Deleting Solution Data Setting Lambda Refinement Lambda refinement is the process of refining the initial mesh based on the material-dependent wavelength. Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. The Target defaults depend on the Order of Basis function selections. Do Lamda Refinement is deselected. the Do Lamda Refinement fields are disabled. If you have previously setup links to a design. the default target is 0. To specify the size of target value by which HFSS will refine the mesh: 1. the Do Lamda Refinement fields remain enabled so that you can select it if desired. For Mesh Operations. If you select the Use Current Mesh From option under the Advanced tab. this command removes the current mesh of the target design. 2. which means that HFSS will refine the mesh until most element lengths are approximately one-third wavelength. This enables the Target field and the Use free space lambda check box. the HFSS>Analysis Setup menu contains an option to Clear Linked Data. you can check Perform port adapt in target solve setup.2 If you change the Order of Basis functions in the Solution Setup dialog. field or some other post-processing data that the source design generated. Thus in some cases. for Driven solutions and a First Order basis function.HFSS Online Help 8. you can select radio buttons to either Apply mesh operation in target design on the imported mesh. For Port Adapt. You can select the Additional mesh refinements tab to specify the following: • • 9. select Do Lambda Refinement.3333. Related Topics Clear Linked Data Setting Lambda Refinement Clearing Linked Data Linked data can be mesh. the default target is 0. Click OK to accept the setup and close the Setup dialog box.

To specify the size of wavelength by which HFSS-IE will refine the mesh: 1.2 (as is) eigenmode 0. If you want the initial mesh to be refined based on the wavelength in free space. driven 0.1. Zero order: First order: Second order: Mixed order 3. driven 0. driven 0.HFSS Online Help in the Solution setups as follows.3333. 2. It is recommended and selected by default.6667 eigenmode 0. Material-dependent lambda refinement will be deactivated. This enables the Target field and the Use free space lambda check box. Enter a value for the wavelength in the Target field or accept the defaults.4 eigenmode 0. To set the percent refinement per adaptive pass: 13-20 Specifying Solution Settings .6667 If you want the initial mesh to be refined based on the wavelength in free space. select Use free space lambda. Changing the Lambda refinement target invalidates any solutions that were performed with the previous lambda refinement. driven 0.6667. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Setting the Percent Maximum Refinement Per Pass The value you set for percent Maximum Refinement Per Pass determines how many tetrahedra are added at each iteration of the adaptive refinement process. Note Related Topics Setting the Max Order of Solution Basis Specifying a Source for the Initial Mesh Setting Lambda Refinement for HFSS-IE Lambda refinement is the process of refining the initial mesh based on the material-dependent wavelength. select Do Lambda Refinement. Note Changing the Lambda refinement target invalidates any solutions that were performed with the previous lambda refinement. select Use free space lambda. Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box.1 eigenmode 0. The tetrahedra with the highest error will be refined. The default value is 30%. Material-dependent lambda refinement will be deactivated.

enter a value for Minimum Number of Passes. to that there is no maximum. To set a new value for the Maximum Refinement: 1. By default. you can click the checkbox for Use Max Refinement to apply the value in the Max Refinement text field.HFSS Online Help • Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. Specifying Solution Settings 13-21 . If you enable the Maximum Refinement. even if convergence criteria have been met. click the Maximum Refinement checkbox to enable the text field. and that is not ports only. validation produces a warning message. Setting the Minimum Number of Passes An adaptive analysis will not stop unless the minimum number of passes you specify has been completed. 2. Enter the number of tetrahedra for Maximum Refinement. Related Topics Technical Notes: Percent of Tetrahedra Refined Per Pass Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Setting the Maximum Refinement This specifies the maximum number of tetrahedra that can be added during an adaptive pass. With the properties window displayed. The convergence criteria must be met for at least this number of passes before the adaptive analysis will stop. the initial value is 1000000. enter a value for percent Maximum Refinement Per Pass. this unchecked. Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Adding an Solution Setup to an HFSS-IE Design Setting the Minimum Number of Converged Passes An adaptive analysis will not stop unless the minimum number of converged passes you specify has been completed. • Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. enter a value for Minimum Converged Passes. Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. You can also control these values in the docked properties window that displays when you select the setup with the View>Properties enabled. • Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. no sweeps. Note For a solve setup with zero passes.

For the selection All. If you chose Selected Entries. from pass to pass from Entry 1 to Entry 2. (The default). To set the matrix convergence: 1. Select one of the following from the Entry Selections pull-down list: All Diagonal/OffDiagonal Selected Entries Sets all of the matrix entries at once. enter the convergence criteria for the Maximum Delta (Mag S) and the Maximum Delta (Phase S) in the fields to the right. in degrees. In the Phase box. In the Magnitude box. The adaptive analysis will continue until the magnitude and phase of the entries change by an amount less than the specified criteria from one pass to the next. the Matrix Convergence dialog displays some new fields: • • • a. The Matrix Convergence dialog box appears. enter the maximum change in phase. This is done in the Matrix Convergence dialog box. Sets all of the diagonal matrix entries at once. to enable the convergence criteria field or fields. Off-Diagonal Entries. c. 4. To select the desired ports and mode (or terminal) pairs. you can set the Ignore Phase when Mag is less than value. Sets individual matrix entries that you will select. For both of these Entry Selections. 2. do the following: 13-22 Specifying Solution Settings . enter the maximum change in magnitude from pass to pass from the Entry 1 to Entry 2. See the note on technical issues under step 4 c. and the Delta Mag and Delta Phase. Then enter the convergence criteria for the Maximum Delta (Mag S) and the Maximum Delta (Phase S) in the fields to the right. select Use Matrix Convergence. Click Set Magnitude and Phase. Under the General tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. 3. You can specify different stopping criteria for specific entries in the S-matrix. or until the number of requested passes is completed. all off-diagonal matrix entries at once. or both. a table showing columns for Matrix Entry 1.HFSS Online Help Related Topics Adding a Solution Setup to an HFSS Design Setting Matrix Convergence Criteria For designs with ports. For the selection Diagonal/Off-Diagonal. or both diagonal and off diagonal entries at once. first check Diagonal Entries. an Insert button with which to move selections from the port list selections to the table Select Entry 1 and Entry 2 from their drop down lists. Matrix Entry 2. Entry 1 and Entry 2 fields which contain drop down lists of ports and associated modes (or terminals). b.

under these conditions the adaptive process never stops. This can be First Order (the default). since S11 ~0 and its phase changes with the mesh noise because the phase is indefinite. This calls for caution if you want to see a good phase convergence for S12 which is near to 1. Zero order: First order: Second order: Mixed order driven 0. If you set a small delta_phi with small delta_s. The higher order options solve pro- Specifying Solution Settings 13-23 .05 magnitude threshold that caused that Phase Margin to be discarded. In other words. However. Zero Order. but the model size is small compared to wavelength.HFSS Online Help Note: When the Mag S becomes small (near to zero) its phase becomes indefinite and insignificant due to mathematical issues. Click Insert. d. the magnitude threshold has been removed. For this reason. 5. Second Order.6667. Clicking in the Delta Mag and Delta Row fields of the selected row enables editing in those fields. select Order of Basis. S12 will converge.4 eigenmode 0.3333. driven 0. Setting the Order of Basis functions affects the default value of the Lambda Refinement in the Solution setups as follows.1.6667 eigenmode 0. so you should abort it.2 (as is) eigenmode 0. • Under the Options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. driven 0. Related Topics Viewing the Magnitude Margin Viewing the Phase Margin Viewing Delta (Mag S) Viewing Delta (Phase S) Setting the Order of Basis Functions You can change the basis functions HFSS uses to interpolate field values from nodal values. but S11 never.6667 The Zero order option is useful when a model requires a mesh that produces more than 100.000 tetrahedra. Selecting a Row in the table enables the Delete button. The entries appear in the table above. all combinations of matrix entry1 and matrix entry2 populate the table. or Mixed order. after a couple of passes. In HFSS 10 and 11 there was a 0. some users may want to continue running additional passes to stabilize phase margins even when the S-parameter magnitude is below this threshold. if you need to remove a row from the table.1 eigenmode 0. driven 0. Click OK to close apply the values and close the dialog. If you have selected multiple entries.

HFSS automatically invokes the iterative solver when it decides that the matrix is conditioned well enough to take advantage of the iterative approach. this option is usually selected in combination with a specific lambda refinement setting. all tetrahedra in the model must have edge lengths less than 1/20th wavelength. This enables the Relative Residual checkbox. see the technical notes for Iterative Matrix Solver. For more detail. and you must have allocated at least three distributed machines to the solve pool. Note The Iterative Solver is not available for zero order basis solutions. Warning If you select Zero Order Solution Basis. Options tab. The number of domains that the solver creates is at least one less than the number of distributed machines available in the pool. and it can also provide a savings in the solution time for large simulations. and lower order where fields are weaker. Before enabling solver domains.HFSS Online Help gressively more unknowns for each tetrahedra. HFSS uses the multi-frontal solver if the matrix does not meet this requirement. you must have the distributed solve option. check the Enable Iterative Solver check box. Related Topics Technical Notes: Basis Functions Setting Lambda Refinement Enable Iterative Solver Enable Iterative Solver The iterative solver provides an alternative to the multi-frontal solver when a matrix is well-conditioned for an iterative solution. The iterative solver significantly reduces memory usage. Thus. Enter a value for the Relative Residual. Mixed order uses higher order where more accuracy is required. On the Solution Setup dialog. When you select the Enable Iterative Solver option. The residual measures the convergence of the iterative solver. Domain use can be invoked for a solve when • The Enable Use of Solver Domains check box under the Solution Setup Options tab is 13-24 Specifying Solution Settings . Related Topics Technical Notes: Iterative Matrix Solver Enable Use of Solver Domains If a problem is too large to solve on one machine HFSS can automatically partition a design into domains that can be solved by separate processes. 2. The first machine in the list acts as a master node that performs the meshing and domain iteration but does not solve a domain. To enable the Iterative solver: 1. The default value is 1E-4.

• • You have provided at least three distributed machines in the pool The solver determines that the problem is large enough (the mesh has enough tets) to bother with domains. Eigenmode solution type. you should provide balanced resources. As an example of balancing the load. the problem is solved with the non-domain solver defined under the solution options. Fast frequency sweeps. Mixed order basis. The number of domains chosen will likely be close to the maximum. You should use this capability to maintain a balanced load. The solver creates the domain meshes of roughly the same size Domain meshes are created every time the global mesh changes (before each adaptive pass) Note • • You provide resources for the distributed solve by adding machines to the distributed machine pool. based on the machines available. A machine can appear in the pool more than once. suppose that machine called Patriot has 256 GB and another called Cutlass has 64 GB. Specifying Solution Settings 13-25 . it makes sense to enter Patriot in the pool four times and Cutlass once. When these conditions are met: • • • The solver chooses the number of domains to use. Because the domains should be roughly the same size. If you want up to five domains. The design cannot contain master and slave boundaries. Related Topics HFSS Options: Solver Tab General Options: Analysis Options tab Configuring Distributed Analysis Selecting an Optimal Configuration for Distributed Analysis Balancing Resources for Solver Domains Technical Notes: Domain Decomposition Method Balancing Resources for Solver Domains The Use Solver Domains option for large models requires that you provide resources for the distributed solve by adding machines to the distributed machine pool. Because the domains should be roughly the same size.HFSS Online Help checked. Restrictions on solver domains are that the design and analysis setup cannot include: • • • • If any condition is not met. The maximum is one less than the total because the first machine in the pool is used to control domain iterations. you should provide balanced resources.

In most cases this setting has a limited effect on the overall fields or post processed quantities. In the example above. • • If you select this setting. If you check Set Triangles for Wave Port. 13-26 Specifying Solution Settings . a good choice for Mem_Limit_Soft would be 64 GB. Higher numbers of triangles would not benefit a solution setup in this case. the Number of Processors is also set per domain. Under HFSS Options. Related Topics HFSS Options: Solver Tab General Options: Analysis Options tab Configuring Distributed Analysis Selecting an Optimal Configuration for Distributed Analysis Technical Notes: Domain Decomposition Method Use Radiation Boundary on Ports If the design includes waveports. If you do not select the setting. Recommendation: it is more important to use memory efficiently than to use all the processors. Four processors on Cutlass will be unused. Use Radiation Boundaries on Ports Set Triangles for Wave Port .change to Zo specified as a target percentage. You can edit the default values of 100 for the minimum and 500 for the maximum.unchecked by default. The first machine in the pool is used to control domain iterations. the Use Radiation Boundary on Ports option is enabled under the Advanced options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box. edges which are assigned to ABC and touch a port have an radiation boundary condition applied during the port solution. a perfect conducting boundary condition is used during the port calculations. a machine named Patriot has 16 processors and a machine named Cutlass has 8 processors. you should set the Desired RAM Limit (Mem_Limit_Soft) to the memory desired for each individual domain. For designs with lumped ports. Remember: • • • A machine can appear in the pool more than once. The user should use this capability to maintain a balanced load. The default is 2%. the Minimum and Maximum fields are enabled. Port Options If the design includes waveports. These options include: • • • Maximum Delta Zo . In the example above. so Number of Processors should be set to 4. this option is not active.HFSS Online Help Under HFSS Options. Four domains will go on Patriot. the Port Options options appear under the Advanced options tab of the Solution Setup dialog box.

a new file centroid.xml is written. for this kind of project. Before the first HFSS or Maxwell solve.THM subdirectory to the solution directory for the Project involved will be created will be created when Workbench imports the results from HFSS or Maxwell. Select it if you intend to use the two-way thermal link between HFSS or Maxwell and ANSYS Workbench. If you check Enable Thermal feedback from ANSYS Mechanical. a .HFSS Online Help Enable Thermal Feedback from ANSYS Mechanical This option appears on the Advanced tab of the Solution Setup. It will enable you later in the two-way thermal process to export a temperature distribution from ANSYS Workbench to HFSS or Maxwell. You need to make this selection before solving. to be used Specifying Solution Settings 13-27 .. Within that directory. you set an initial value for temperature dependent objects.

HFSS Online Help for later mapping. The ANSYS Workbench 12 subsequently exports the temperature information to a file named mechanical.ths in the same Project subdirectory. 13-28 Specifying Solution Settings .

without you having to solve again.HFSS Online Help ANSY Workbench 12 includes a command to Export Results. Derivatives can be used through the Tune Reports command for interactive exploration of small variations in the design. Furthermore. the SNLP optimizer will take advantage of the derivatives when they are available. 2. plus the derivatives contain all the information needed for you to approximate the solution for small variations in the design. The "nominal" solution. for Optimetrics. which can reduce the number of simulations needed to find the optimum. the Derivatives tab of the Solution Setup lists them. Related Topics Export Transfer File for ANSYS Re-solving After ANSYS Thermal Link Feedback Produce Derivatives for Selected Variables If your design has variables with specified units. Open the Derivatives tab of the Solution Setup For the desired variable. Specifying Solution Settings 13-29 . To have HFSS calculate derivatives for any of these variables: 1. click the checkbox in the Use column.

They cannot be used for frequencies and local quantities like fields. Related Topics Setting Adaptive Analysis Parameters Derivative Tuning for Reports 13-30 Specifying Solution Settings .HFSS Online Help These derivatives can be used by the Derivative Tuning feature (the Results menu Tune Reports command) in relation to quantities like S-parameters.

To add a frequency sweep: 1. the copy is named Sweepn. use the Edit commands to Copy it. so that you can run only the adaptive solution (or a ports-only solution) without the sweep. you can change a specific parameter. Fast. Frequencies to solve. 2. stop. You can also right-click on the setup in the Project tree and select Add Sweep from the shortcut menu/ The Edit Sweep dialog box appears. You can select an existing sweep.) You can edit the new copies of the sweep to make desired changes. Click OK. and then and Paste the sweep into the Project tree. add a frequency sweep to the solution setup. To use previously saved settings. start. a sweeps can only be pasted in a setup. (By default. you cannot paste between Driven and Eigenmode designs) and context sensitive (for example. If you plan to perform a Full-Wave SPICE analysis. Once you have created a sweep. If you expect to use the same settings often. Also see the Requirements for Full-Wave SPICE. Select the solution setup to which the sweep applies and click OK. You can also disable a sweep. where n increments with each new sweep. Specify the following sweep parameters: . Selecting the sweep icon causes the docked properties dialog to show the name. Sweep type . whether to Generate fields (All frequencies). the sweep is the only solution generated. click Time Domain Calculation tool to obtain assistance determining a suitable frequency sweep range for the solutions. an icon for the sweep appears in the Project tree under the associated setup. To generate a solution across a range of frequencies. • • • • 4. Click HFSS>Analysis Setup>Add Sweep A dialog appears which lists the solution setups. If an adaptive solution is not requested. Whether you want to save the fields (not available for interpolating. then later reactivate the sweep definition. The Paste command for sweeps is design sensitive (that is. and sweep type.) Specifying Solution Settings 13-31 . It also includes an Enabled checkbox. 6. For example. which is default) For Fast Sweeps only. or for a distributed solve. you could assign different start and end points for each copy of the setup. you can click the Set Defaults button.HFSS Online Help Adding a Frequency Sweep For Driven solution types. HFSS or HFSS-IE performs the sweep after the adaptive solution. step size.Discrete. or Interpolating (the default). 3. 5. click the Use Defaults button.

When you select Interpolating sweeps in the Edit Sweep dialog. the Setup Interpolation options section is activated. Note For a solve setup with zero passes. and that is not ports only. Best when the frequency range is wide and the frequency response is smooth. Best for models that will abruptly resonate or change operation in the frequency band. no sweeps. you must use an interpolating sweep. You are warned if the dependent setup is already in the design and setup is not pasted again. validation produces a warning message. Estimates a solution for an entire frequency range. Related Topics Disabling a Frequency Sweep Technical Notes: Frequency Sweeps Selecting the Sweep Type For Driven solution types. To use previously saved settings. A Fast sweep will obtain an accurate representation of the behavior near the resonance.HFSS Online Help Dependent setups are pasted along with the copied setup. Best when only a few frequency points are necessary to accurately represent the results in a frequency range. Fast sweeps are disabled if an anisotropic boundary condition is present. All discrete basis solutions are solved prior to interpolating sweeps because it is possible that an interpolating sweep can re-use already solved frequencies from a discrete sweep. Choose one of the following sweep types: Fast Generates a unique full-field solution for each division within a frequency range. or if the memory requirements of a Fast sweep exceed your resources. and other interpolation values. If you expect to use the same settings often. you can click the Set Defaults button. This lets you specify a maximum number of solutions. Specify the type of sweep you want to perform in the Edit Sweep dialog box. click the Use Defaults button. For Time Domain Reflectometry plots (TDR). Related Topics Technical Notes: Frequency Sweeps Discrete Interpolating (default) 13-32 Specifying Solution Settings . Generates field solutions at specific frequency points in a frequency range.

and saves them.HFSS Online Help Options for Discrete Sweeps For Discrete sweeps. This value represents the smallest frequency in the sweep for which a full solution is generated. This has two advantages: (a) It is much faster. (This field is disabled under a Solve Ports Only setup. Options for Interpolating Sweeps For Interpolating sweeps.) If you expect to use the same settings often. click the Use Defaults button. it doesn't apply to existing solutions. click the Use Defaults button. • DC Extrapolation options 1. all frequencies are saved. the Edit Sweep dialog options you can set include • • • Sweep Name Frequency Setup Whether to Save Fields (for all Frequencies). checking the box generates a warning that disk space use may be excessive. To use previously saved settings. HFSS solves the fast sweep and then computes the fields at each freq in the sweep. all fields are saved. By default. Enabling this option for a previously solved sweep and re-solving will access the previously solved data and generate the requested fields. By default. Options for Fast Sweeps For Fast sweeps. Enter a value for the Minimum Solved Frequency. the Edit Sweep dialog options you can set include: • • • • Sweep Name Frequency Setup Whether to Save Fields. Since this option is exercised at solve time. Whether to Generate Fields (All Frequencies). 2. By default. If you select this option. If you expect to use the same settings often. (b) So post processing is much faster. the Edit Sweep dialog options you can set include: • • • • • Sweep Name Max Solutions Error Tolerance Frequency Setup Interpolation Convergence Specifying Solution Settings 13-33 . you can click the Set Defaults button. The default is 100 Mhz. fields are not generated. Select Extrapolate to DC to enable the DC Extrapolation options. To use previously saved settings. you can click the Set Defaults button. If you have more than 100 frequencies. You can view port fields for the discrete frequencies under the port field display in the project tree.

unchecked.. This controls the points at which the interpolating sweep is broken up and prevents redundant effort caused by neighboring interpolating sweeps solving the same point. Setup Interpolating Sweep Advanced Options For HFSS and HFSS-IE Interpolated sweeps. If the step size is greater than that value. To change the value: type a new value in the Minimum Solutions box. 13-34 Specifying Solution Settings . to Use Selected Entries. click the Use Defaults button. If you select Use Selected. HFSS Interpolating Sweep Advanced options incldues addition selections: • • Whether to use all or selected entries in the matrix of data types for the convergence. Derivatives.. Port Impedance . if the design contains them. click the Select Entries button to display the Interpolation Basis Convergence dialog. the 1GHz to 4GHz and the 4GHz to 9 GHz sweeps do not both solve the 4 GHz data point. 3D Solution Interpolating sweeps: • • • • S-Matrix .HFSS Online Help Click the Advanced Options. The end points and middle of each subrange will be solved.checked T-Matrix . The default is 100 Mhz. Setting a minimum number of solutions can eliminate non-physical Sparameter spikes and oscillations. Note If you expect to use the same settings often. This number acts as an initial condition on the sweep to force initial even breakup of the null range into subranges. The Data Types for Convergence. you can click the Set Defaults button. To use previously saved settings. then once the sweep reaches convergence it simulates at two extra frequencies. it won't go below the step size (assuming the stop frequency is a multiple of step size). This resembles the minimum number of converged adaptive passes in a regular simulation. Select Extrapolate to DC to enable the DC Extrapolation options. not a requirement. For interpolating sweeps the default is 0. This value represents the a recommendation for the smallest frequency in the sweep for which a full solution is generated. The default selections are: For Driven modal. Enter a value for the Minimum Solved Frequency. You can select Use All Entries (the default). • DC Extrapolation options 1. • Specify a Minimum Number of Sub Ranges. only the check box for S-Matrix is enabled. if this value is three. the Setup Interpolating Sweep Advanced Options dialog lets you specify the following settings for a sweep: • The Minimum Solutions value is the minimum number of converged solutions that will be solved for the frequency range. and. The Minimum Solved Frequency that you enter is a recommendation. For example. To choose. button to open the Interpolating Sweep Advanced Options dialog.unchecked. For example. Propagation constants . 2.checked.

checked. 2. ports-only. Setting the Maximum Number of Solutions For Interpolating sweeps. Port Impedance . you can click the Set Defaults button. ports-only.checked.checked.checked T-Matrix . interpolating For Driven terminal. S-Matrix . To set the error tolerance for an Interpolating sweep: 1.unchecked Port impedance . Setting the Error Tolerance For Interpolating sweeps. To use previously saved settings. you can also set the Error Tolerance. click the Use Defaults button.unchecked Port impedance . Note If a driven setup’s ports-only setup changes and then the problem type switches between driven modal and driven terminal. If you expect to use the same settings often.checked Propagation constants .checked For Driven modal. Type a value in the Error Tolerance box. overriding the tolerance specified in the Edit Sweep dialog.unchecked T-Matrix .5 percent for interpolating sweeps is usually satisfactory. Open the Edit Sweep dialog box (by either viewing the properties of an existing Sweep or by Adding a Frequency sweep to an existing Setup). Specifying Solution Settings 13-35 . interpolating If you select Derivatives. Propagation constants . The default 0.HFSS Online Help For Driven terminal. HFSS resets the interpolation basis data types for the interpolating sweep.checked S-Matrix . The Error Tolerance value is the maximum relative difference allowed between two successive interpolation solutions. 3D Solution Interpolating sweeps: • • • • • • • • • • • • S-Matrix .unchecked Propagation constants .unchecked T-Matrix .

(The default). Selects all of the matrix entries at once. Note HFSS automatically subdivides the interpolating sweep range so that no single subrange gets too many basis elements. For example. If you expect to use the same settings often. Select in conjunction with All. Selects all of the off-diagonal matrix entries at once. Selects only the dominant mode matrix entries. select the Use Selected Entries radio button to enable the Select Entries button. you can click the Set Defaults button. 1. To change the value: 1. Interpolation Basis Convergence From the Setup Interpolations Basis dialog. you use the Set. Select in conjunction with All. and Clear All buttons in connection with the Entry Selection and Mode Selection settings. or Off-Diagonal entry selections. without incurring any basis seeding performance penalty. or Off-Diagonal entry selections. The Clear button is not enabled until there are entries in the waveport matrix to clear and those selections are permitted by the entry selection. Select this to display the Interpolation Basis Convergence dialog. click the Use Defaults button. Selects only the higher-order mode matrix entries. Diagonal. or Off-Diagonal entry selections. you may fine-tune the matrix entry selection process by selecting one of the following options from the Mode Selection pull-down list: All Dominant Only Higher Order Only Selects all of the mode matrix entries. The Set button is not enabled unless the available mode selections permit entries to be set. Diagonal. You can also select individual entries in the waveport matrix by clicking on grid cells. Diagonal. Selects all of the diagonal matrix entries at once. As you select the waveports for convergence. Type a value in the Max Solutions box and click OK. Clear. Select in conjunction with All. Diagonal. This dialog permits you to specify the convergence basis. or Off-Diagonal. Open the Edit Sweep dialog box (by either viewing the properties of an existing Sweep or by Adding a Frequency sweep to an existing Setup). For fast sweeps and for interpolating sweeps the default is 250. If you chose All. 13-36 Specifying Solution Settings . 2. The effect is that you can now (if appropriate) request hundreds of basis elements in the Max Solutions box for interpolating sweep setup. These buttons are enabled when the waveport matrix state and selection settings permit them do something. This action displays a dropdown menu that lets you select ON or "-". To use previously saved settings. Select one of the following from the Entry Selections pull-down list: All Diagonal Off-Diagonal 2.HFSS Online Help The Max Solutions value is the maximum number of solutions that will be solved for the frequency range.

2. A logarithmic range of frequency points in which you specify a frequency range and a samples number. click Linear Step in the Type pull-down list. You can select one entry at a time via the dropdown in the matrix cell. or count. the dash in the display is replaced by ON. type the ending frequency of the frequency sweep. In the Stop text box. For Discrete sweeps. HFSS always solves the frequencies from highest to lowest. You can also Clear only the entries specified by the Entry and Mode selection settings (such as off-diagonal. higher order). In the Edit Sweep dialog box. Specifying Solution Settings 13-37 . or clear the entire table with the Clear All button. Related Topics Setup Interpolations Basis Specifying the Frequency Points to Solve You can specify the following types of frequency points to solve within a frequency sweep: Linear Step Linear Count LogScale Single Points A linear range of frequency points in which you specify a constant step size. HFSS solves the solution beginning with the frequency entered in the Start box and ending with the frequency entered in the Stop box. 3. particularly if you intend to perform Full-Wave Spice analysis. Related Topics Change the Value of an Existing Frequency Point Specifying Single Frequency Points Deleting Frequency Points Insert Frequency Points Specifying Frequency Points to Solve Specifying Frequency Points with a Linear Step Size 1. 4.HFSS Online Help 3. Specify Entry Selections and Mode Selections as desired and click SET. of points within the frequency range. fourth column. and then Set Selection places an ON in the first row. For Discrete sweeps. Individual frequency points. For example. selecting the first element in the row list and the fourth element in the column list. A linear range of frequency points in which you specify the number. Click OK to close apply the selections and close the dialog. or click individual waveport cells and select ON. For Discrete sweeps. Select the type of frequency point entry from the Type pull-down list The Edit Sweep dialog contains a Time Domain Calculation tool that you can use to help calculate frequency step sizes and maxim