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E-pub: 9781776112104

PDF: 9781776112111

J Basson

C Botha

J Odendaal

PUBLISHERS

ALLCOPY PUBLISHERS

P.O. Box 963

Sanlamhof, 7532

Email: info@allcopypublishers.co.za

Website: www.allcopypublishers.co.za

i

MATHS TEXTBOOK

GRADE 10 NCAPS INFORMATION

(Revised - New Edition)

The AUTHORS

MARK DAVID PHILLIPS

B.SC, H Dip Ed, B.Ed (cum laude) University of the Witwatersrand.

Mark Phillips has over twenty-five years of teaching experience in both state and private schools and has a

track record of excellent matric results. He has presented teacher training and learner seminars for various

educational institutions including Excelearn, Isabelo, Kutlwanong Centre for Maths, Science and

Technology, Learning Channel, UJ and Sci-Bono. Mark is currently a TV presenter on the national

educational show Geleza Nathi, which is broadcast on SABC 1. He has travelled extensively in the United

Kingdom, Europe and America, gaining invaluable international educational experience. Based on his

experiences abroad, Mark has successfully adapted and included sound international educational

approaches into this South African textbook. The emphasis throughout the textbook is on understanding

the processes of Mathematics.

JURGENS BASSON

B.A (Mathematics and Psychology) HED RAU (UJ)

Jurgens Basson is a Mathematics consultant with more than 25 years experience and expertise in primary,

secondary and tertiary education. His passion is the teaching of Mathematics to teachers, students and

learners. Jurgens founded and started the RAU / Oracle School of Maths in 2002 in partnership with

Oracle SA. Due to the huge success of this program in the community, there are now several similar

programs running in the previously disadvantaged communities that are being sponsored by corporate

companies. During 2012, one of his projects sponsored by Anglo Thermal Coal in Mpumalanga was voted

Best Community Project of the Year. Jurgens had the privilege to train and up skill more than 15 000

teachers countrywide since 2006. He was also part of the CAPS panel that implemented the new syllabus

for Grade 10 - 12 learners. He successfully co-authored the Mind Action Series Mathematics textbooks,

which received one of the highest ratings from the Department of Education.

CONRAD BOTHA

Maths Hons, PGCE, B.Sc (Mathema cs and Psychology) Rand Afrikaans University.

Conrad Botha has been an educator in both state and private schools for the past eight years. He is

currently Head of Department at The King’s School West Rand and has also been extensively involved in

teaching Maths at The Maths Centre (Grades 4-12). The institution tutors both primary and high school

learners in Maths, Science as well as conducts examination training sessions for Grade 11 and 12

learners. The experience he obtained at The Maths Centre resulted in him gaining valuable knowledge and

teaching methodology, particularly in the implementation of the new curriculum. Conrad has also done

editing work for the Learning Channel.

JACO ODENDAAL

B.Sc (Mathematics and Applied Mathematics)

Jaco Odendaal has been an educator of Mathematics and Advanced Programme Mathematics for the past

ten years. He is currently the Head of Mathematics at Parktown Boys’ High School in Parktown,

Johannesburg. He has worked as a teacher trainer in many districts in Limpopo and Mpumalanga. Jaco

has a passion for Mathematics and the impact it can have in transforming our society. He has been

successful in teaching and tutoring Mathematics at all levels, from primary school to university level. He

has also worked with learners at both ends of the spectrum, from struggling to gifted learners. He is known

for his thorough, yet simple explanation of the foundational truths of Mathematics.

ii

MATHS TEXTBOOK

GRADE 10 NCAPS INFORMATION

(Revised - New Edition)

The CONCEPT

This revised edition of the Mind Action Series Mathematics Grade 10 is suitable for both DoE and IEB

schools and is completely CAPS aligned. It contains the following exciting new features:

• The approach to Functions is more effective and includes more examples and exercises on graph

interpretation. The axes of symmetry for hyperbolas has also been included.

• Euclidean Geometry contains more challenging questions. The reasons used for statements are

aligned with the requirements of the DoE.

• Financial Mathematics contains exercises that have realistic interest rates and population growth

has been included.

• Statistics is a major improvement and percentiles are discussed in detail. The examples and

exercises are more relevant to the modern world.

• Probability is far more learner-friendly. Teaching Venn diagrams using the methods discussed will

lead to a greater understanding of the rules.

• The other topics (Trigonometry, Analytical Geometry, Number Patterns and Algebra) have also

been improved.

ENDORSEMENT

The original textbook was great, but this revised book is in a league of its own. The approaches used help

learners get to the point quickly and completing the syllabus will be a breeze. The layout of the book is

user-friendly and the exercises are not too little and not too much. The consolidation and extension

exercises are brilliant and are a must for the top kids. I am definitely going to switch to this new book. Well

done to the authors!

iii

MATHEMATICS

TEXTBOOK

GRADE 10 NCAPS

(Revised - New Edition)

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 2 EXPONENTS 32

CHAPTER 5 TRIGONOMETRY 62

iv

CHAPTER 1 ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

REVISION OF THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM

In Grade 9 you learnt about real numbers which consist of rational and irrational numbers.

Let’s briefly revise these numbers.

Rational numbers

a

A rational number is a number that can be expressed in the form where b ≠ 0 and

where a and b are integers. b

Rational numbers include all of the following numbers which can be expressed as common

fractions.

6 −2 0

For example: 6 = −2= 0=

1 1 1

(b) Mixed numbers

1 5

For example: 2 = where 5 and 2 are integers

2 2

(c) Terminating decimals

125 1

For example: 0,125 = =

1000 8

(d) Recurring decimals

A recurring decimal has an infinite pattern. For example, 0,1 = 0,111111... and

= 0,52525252........... are examples of recurring decimals.

0, 52

a

A recurring decimal like 0,111111.... can be expressed as a fraction in the form .

b

Irrational numbers

as a ratio between integers. Examples include:

• Square roots of numbers that are not perfect squares. For example: 2, 6, 8

3

• Cube roots of numbers that are not perfect cubes. For example: 2 , 35 , 39

−3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

−1, 5 −1 0 2

3 2 2 π

1

Not all calculations will produce real numbers. There are two such calculations:

• Square roots of negative numbers do not produce real numbers.

−2; −3; −4; −π ; ..

These numbers exist, but don’t have a position on the number line. We call them non-

real numbers. This can be extended to any even root of a negative number.

• Division by zero does not produce a real number.

There are no real numbers resulting from dividing by zero. Division by zero is

undefined.

a

4. Rational numbers: = : a ∈ ; b ∈ ; b ≠ 0

b

- Whole numbers and integers

- Proper fractions

- Improper fractions and mixed numbers

- Terminating decimals

- Recurring decimals

5. Irrational numbers: |

- Non-terminating, non-recurring decimals.

- Square roots of numbers that are not perfect squares, cube roots of numbers that

are not perfect cubes etc.

-π

6. Real numbers:

Any number on the number line. All rational and irrational numbers put together.

- Square roots of negative numbers

- Division by zero

EXAMPLE 1

5

(e) −16 (f) 16 (g) 0 (h)

0

(i) 0, 543215432154321... (j) 0, 7931156480518346...

3 3 π 9

(k) −27 (l) −9 (m) (n)

3 16

2

Solutions

(b) Rational (integer)

(c) Irrational (the sum of an irrational number and a rational number is always irrational)

(d) Irrational (10 is not a perfect square, therefore the square root of 10 is irrational)

(e) Neither (16 is a perfect square but, a square root of a negative is non-real)

(f) Rational (16 is a perfect square, therefore the square root of 16 is rational)

(g) Rational (whole number)

(h) Neither (division by 0 is undefined)

(i) Rational (recurring decimal)

(j) Irrational (non-terminating, non-recurring decimal)

(k) Rational (this equals −3 and −3 is an integer and an integer is rational)

(l) Irrational (real since cube roots of negatives are real, but, since 9 is not a perfect

cube, the cube root of −9 is irrational).

(m) Irrational (any fraction of an irrational number is irrational)

(n) Rational (9 and 16 are perfect squares and 169 = 43 which is a fraction)

EXAMPLE 2

1, 75

Solutions

Let x = 0,1111111...

Now what you need to do is multiply both sides by 10, 100, 1000 and so forth to

get the following equations:

x = 0,111111111... (1)

10 x = 1,111111111... (2)

100 x = 11,111111111... (3)

Look for two equations where the decimals after the comma are the same and

then subtract the equations.

Two equations where the decimals are the same after the comma are (2) and (1).

Subtract (1) from (2) as follows:

10 x − x = 1,111111111... − 0,111111111...

∴ 9 x = 1, 000000000...

∴9x = 1

1

∴ x = which is a rational number.

9

You could have also used equation (2) and (3) or (1) and (3).

3

(b) x = 1, 75757575... (1)

10 x = 17,57575757... (2)

100 x = 175, 75757575... (3)

Carefully consider the decimals of each line. It should be clear that the decimals of

(2) and (1) are not the same. Two equations where the decimals are the same after

the comma are (3) and (1). Subtract (1) from (3).

∴ 99 x = 174, 00000..........

174 58

∴x = = which is a rational number.

99 33

It may be necessary in other cases to continue multiplying by 10 until you have

established that the decimals to the right of the comma are equal.

It is useful to take note of a few patterns regarding some recurring decimals and their

equivalent fractions.

1 2 3 = 13 ; 0, 25

= 25 ; 0, 76

= 76 ; etc.

0,1 = ; 0, 2 = ; 0,3 = ; etc. and 0,13

9 9 9 99 99 99

EXERCISE 1

3

(a) From the list of numbers: −3; ; 2; 9; 0; 2; −4 , write down all the

4

(1) natural numbers (2) whole numbers (3) integers

(4) rational numbers (5) irrational numbers (6) real numbers

(b) State whether each of the following numbers are rational, irrational or neither.

3 π 1

(1) 33 (2) (3) 4,01345 (4)

2 121

2 3

(5) −2 (6) − 2 (7) (8) 27 + 1

2

(c) State why we may conclude that each number below is rational.

3 1

(1) 1 (2) −3 (3) 4 (4) −5

4 8

(5) 0, 52 (6) 1, 212

(1) 0, 4 (2)

0, 21 (3) 0,14 (4) 19, 45

(5) 0,124 (6)

0,124 (7) −1,124 (8) −2,35

EXAMPLE 3

5 3

Find a rational number between and .

7 4

Solution

Start by getting the lowest common denominator of the fractions and rewrite them over this

5 20 3 21

denominator: = and = . Since we can’t find any twenty-eights between 20

7 28 4 28

twenty-eights and 21 twenty-eights we can try doubling the denominators (and therefore

20 40 21 42 41

also the numerators): = and = . Now we have a fraction, namely, ,

28 56 28 56 56

between the two fractions.

4

EXAMPLE 4

Between which two consecutive integers do the following irrational numbers lie?

3

(a) 12 (b) − 12 (c) 20 (d) −2π

Solutions

∴ 9 < 12 < 16 ∴ 3 < 12 < 4

∴ 3 < 12 < 4 ∴−3 > − 12 > −4

∴ 12 lies between 3 and 4. ∴ − 12 lies between − 4 and − 3.

∴ 3 8 < 3 20 < 3 27 −7 < −6, 283318... < −6

∴ 2 < 3 20 < 3 ∴−7 < −2π < −6

∴ 3 20 lies between 2 and 3. ∴ −2π lies between − 7 and − 6

The rules for rounding off numbers to certain decimal places are as follows:

• Count to the number of decimal places after the comma that you want to

round off to.

• Look at the digit to the right of this decimal place.

If it is lower than 5, drop it and all the digits to the right of it.

If it is 5 or more than 5, then add one digit to the digit immediately to

the left of it and drop it and all the digits to the right of it.

If necessary, keep or add zeros as place holders.

EXAMPLE 5

Round off the following numbers to the number of decimal places indicated:

4,31437 and the answer: 4,31

(b) 1,77777 (3 decimal places)

1,77777 and the answer: 1,778

(c) 365,1534 (1 decimal place)

365,1534 and the answer: 365,2

(d) 594,2 (2 decimal places)

594,200 and the answer: 594,20

(e) 12,07963 (3 decimal places )

12,07963 and the answer: 12,080

(f) 9,998 (1 decimal place)

9,998 and the anwer: 10,0

5

EXERCISE 2

(a) Without using a calculator, determine between which two integers the following

irrational numbers lie. Then verify your answers by using a calculator.

50 29 3 45 − 54

(1) (2) (3) (4)

5 30

(5) (6) π

3 2

(1) and (2) 3,14 and π

5 3

(c) Round off the following numbers to the number of decimal places indicated.

(1) 9,23584 (3 decimal places) (2) 67,2436 (2 decimal places)

(3) 4,3768534 (4 decimal places) (4) 17,247398 (5 decimal places)

(5) 79,9999 (3 decimal places) (6) 34,27846 (4 decimal places)

(7) 5,555555 (5 decimal places) (8) 3π (3 decimal places)

Number lines, set builder notation and interval notation.

Set builder notation is a useful way of representing sets and subsets of real numbers. When

a set is represented in set builder notation, first describe the set in words before representing

it on a number line. Set builder notation consists of three parts, namely:

{ x : − 4 < x < 3 ; x ∈ }

EXAMPLE 6

{ x : x ≥ 3 ; x ∈ } 2 3 4 5 6

{x : x < 5 ; x ∈ } 1 2 3 4 5

{x : x < 4 ; x ∈ } 0 1 2 3 4

{ x : −2 < x ≤ 3 ; x ∈ }

−1 0 1 2 3

6

(e) Real numbers greater than or including 3 3 is included

{ x : x ≥ 3 ; x ∈ }

3

(f) Real numbers less than 7 7 is not included

{ x : x < 7 ; x ∈ }

7

(g) Real numbers between −5 and 4 excluding −5 but including 4]

{ x : −5 < x ≤ 4 ; x ∈ }

−5 is not included 4 is included

−5 4

Interval notation and number lines

Interval notation is another way of representing real numbers on a number line. Interval

notation may not be used to represent any subset of real numbers (natural numbers, whole

numbers, integers and rational numbers).

EXAMPLE 7

( −2 ; 4]

−2 4

[ −4 ; 7 )

−4 7

[1; ∞ ) 1

( −∞ ; − 1)

−1

EXERCISE 3

(1) { x : −1 < x < 12 ; x ∈ } (2) { x : x ≥ −4 ; x ∈ }

(3) { x : −3 ≤ x < 1 ; x ∈ } (4) { x : x < 2 ; x ∈ }

(5) {x : x > 4 12 ; x ∈ } (6) { x : x ≤ 7 ; x ∈ }

(7) { x : x < 7 ; x ∈ } (8) { x : x ≥ 0 ; x ∈ }

7

(b) Write the following sets in set builder notation:

(1) (2)

0 1 2 3 4 −6 4

(3) (4)

−7 5

(c) Represent on a number line:

(1) [ −2 ; 7 ) (2) ( −3 ; 10] (3) [ −1 ; 4 ] (4) ( −5 ; 5)

(5) [ −6 ; ∞ ) (6) ( −∞ ; 7 ] (7) ( −∞ ; 6 34 ) (8) 3 ; 8

(d) Write the following in interval notation:

(1) (2)

−7 9 −2 11

(3) (4)

−6 1

1

2

MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

a ( b + c ) = ab + ac a ( b + c + d ) = ab + ac + ad

The variable “a” is distributed to and multiplied with all the other terms in the brackets.

The FOIL method can be used to multiply two binomials. Here you must first multiply the

first terms in each bracket. Then you multiply the outer terms, then the inner terms and

finally the last terms.

OUTERS

F = Firsts

FIRSTS

O = Outers

I = Inners ( a + b )( c + d ) = ac + ad + bc + bd

L = Lasts

INNERS

LASTS

The method revised above can be extended to the product of a binomial and a trinomial.

( x + y )( a + b + c ) ( x + y )( a + b + c )

= ( x + y )a + ( x + y )b + ( x + y )c or

= ax + ay + bx + by + cx + cy

= ax + bx + cx + ay + by + cy

8

EXAMPLE 8

The examples below illustrate the methods of multiplying binomials and trinomials.

= x 2 + 2 x + 3x + 6 = 6 y 2 + 12 y − 2 y − 4

= x2 + 5x + 6 = 6 y 2 + 10 y − 4

= 2 x 2 − 6 xy − 4 xy + 12 y 2 = 2a 2b 2 − 10ab + 3ab − 15

= 2 x 2 − 10 xy + 12 y 2 = 2a 2b 2 − 7 ab − 15

(e) (2 x3 + 7 y )( x3 − 2 y ) (f) ( x − y )( x 2 − 3 xy + 2 y 2 )

= 2 x 6 − 4 x3 y + 7 x3 y − 14 y 2 = x3 − 3 x 2 y + 2 xy 2 − x 2 y + 3 xy 2 + 2 y 3

= 2 x 6 + 3 x3 y − 14 y 2 = x3 − 4 x 2 y + 5 xy 2 + 2 y 3

= 32 + 8n − 12n 2 − 3n3 − (n3 + 3n 2 + 9n − 3n 2 − 9n − 27)

= 32 + 8n − 12n 2 − 3n3 − (n3 − 27)

= 32 + 8n − 12n 2 − 3n3 − n3 + 27

= −4n3 − 12n 2 + 8n + 59

EXERCISE 4

(1) 3 x( x + 3) (2) −3a(3a3 − 6a 2 + a) (3) ( x + 5)( x + 2)

(4) ( x − 5)( x − 2) (5) ( x + 5)( x − 2) (4) ( x − 5)( x + 2)

(7) (3x − 1)(2 x + 3) (8) (7 m − 2n)(3m + 4n)

(9) (2 x 4 − 3 y 2 )(3x 4 + 2 y 2 ) (10) (4 x 4 + 3 y5 )(2 x 4 − 4 y3 )

(1) ( x + 1)( x 2 + 2 x + 3) (2) ( x − 1)( x 2 − 2 x + 3)

(3) (2 x + 4)( x 2 − 3x + 1) (4) (2 x − 4)( x 2 − 3x + 1)

(5) (3x − y )(2 x 2 + 4 xy − y 2 ) (6) (a + 2b)(4a 2 − 3ab + b2 )

(7) (3x − 2 y )(9 x 2 + 6 xy + 4 y 2 ) (8) (3x + 2 y )(9 x 2 − 6 xy + 4 y 2 )

(1) 2 x (3 x − 4 y ) − (7 x 2 − 2 xy ) (2) (5 y + 1) 2 − (3 y + 4)(2 − 3 y )

(3) (2 x + y ) 2 − (3 x − 2 y ) 2 + ( x − 4 y )( x + 4 y )

(4) x 6 + ( x 3 − 3 y )( x 3 + 3 y ) (5) (3a + b)(3a − b)(2a + 5b)

9

Special products

• Products which lead to the difference of two squares

• Squaring a binomial

• Cubing a binomial

Consider the product ( x + y )( x − y ) . The product can be simplified as follows:

( x + y )( x − y )

= x 2 − xy + xy − y 2

= x2 − y2

In other words, the pattern is as follows:

(first term + last term)(first term − last term) = (first term) 2 − (last term) 2 or

(first term − last term)(first term + last term) = (first term) 2 − (last term) 2

EXAMPLE 9

(a) (3 x + 2 y )(3 x − 2 y ) (b) ( a − 5b)( a + 5b)

= 9x2 − 4 y2 = a 2 − 25b 2

(c) (4 x 4 − 3 y 3 )(4 x 4 + 3 y 3 )

= 16 x8 − 9 y 6

(d) ( a − b + d )(a − b − d ) Alternatively we can substitute (a − b) = k

= [ (a − b) + d ][ (a − b) − d ] ∴[ (a − b) + d ][ (a − b) − d ]

= ( a − b) 2 − d 2 = ( k + d )(k − d )

= (a − b)( a − b) − d 2 = k2 − d2

= a 2 − 2ab + b 2 − d 2 = ( a − b) 2 − d 2

= a 2 − 2ab + b 2 − d 2

The alternative method makes it easier to recognise that the product leads to

the difference of two squares.

(a + b) 2 ( a − b) 2

= ( a + b )( a + b ) = (a − b)( a − b)

= a 2 + ab + ba + b 2 = a 2 − ab − ba + b 2

= a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 = a 2 − 2ab + b 2

Therefore:

( a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 and ( a − b) 2 = a 2 − 2ab + b 2

In other words, the pattern is as follows:

(first term + last term)2 = (first term) 2 + 2(first term)(last term) + (last term) 2

(first term − last term) 2 = (first term) 2 − 2(first term)(last term) + (last term) 2

10

EXAMPLE 10

Expand and simplify the following:

(d) (2 x − 4 y ) 2 (e) ( − 5 a − 2b ) 2 (f) ( a − 3b )3

Solutions

(a) ( x + 4)2 (b) ( x − 4) 2

= x 2 + 2( x)(+4) + (4)2 = x 2 + 2( x)(−4) + (−4) 2

= x 2 + 8 x + 16 = x 2 − 8 x + 16

(c) (2 x + 4 y ) 2 (d) (2 x − 4 y ) 2

= (2 x ) 2 + 2(2 x )(4 y ) + (4 y ) 2 = (2 x ) 2 + 2(2 x )( −4 y ) + ( −4 y ) 2

= 4 x 2 + 16 xy + 16 y 2 = 4 x 2 − 16 xy + 16 y 2

(e) (−5a − 2b) 2

= (−5a ) 2 + 2(−5a )(−2b) + (−2b) 2

= 25a 2 + 20ab + 4b 2

(f) This is an example where a binomial is cubed.

( a − 3b)3

= (a − 3b)1 ( a − 3b) 2

= (a − 3b)( a 2 − 6ab + 9b 2 )

= a 3 − 6a 2b + 9ab 2 − 3a 2b + 18ab 2 − 27b3

= a 3 − 9a 2b + 27 ab 2 − 27b3

EXERCISE 5

(1) ( x + 7)( x − 7) (2) ( x − 3)( x + 3) (3) (2 x − 1)(2 x + 1)

(4) (9 x + 4)(9 x − 4) (5) (3 x − 2 y )(3 x + 2 y ) (6) (4a 3b + 3)(4a 3b − 3)

(7) (6 − 3 x 4 y )(6 + 3 x 4 y ) (8) (3 x − 2 + y )(3 x − 2 − y )

(9) (1 − a 4 )(1 − a 2 )(1 + a 2 )

(1) ( x + 5) 2 (2) ( x − 5)2 (3) (2a + 3) 2

(4) (2a − 3)2 (5) (a − 4b)2 (6) (−a − 3b) 2

(7) (−3a + 5b) 2 (8) 3( x − 3 y ) 2 (9) [ 2(m − 4n)]2

(10) ( x3 − 3 y 6 ) 2 (11) (2a + 3b)3 (12) (2a − 3b)3

11

FACTORISATION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

factors. It can also be seen as the reverse procedure of the distributive law.

The following factorisation types will be revised and new types will be introduced:

• Highest common factor (revision)

• Difference of two squares (revision)

• Quadratic trinomials of the form x 2 + bx + c (revision)

• Quadratic trinomials of the form ax 2 + bx + c where a ≠ 0 (new type)

• Grouping (revision)

• Sum and difference of two cubes (new types)

The highest common factor (a) has been “taken out” of the expression ab + ac and the

expression is said to be factorised as the product a ( b + c ) .

EXAMPLE 11

The factors of 15 are 1 ; 3 ; 5 ; and 15 and the factors of 9 are 1 ; 3 ; and 9

Therefore the highest common factor between 15 and 9 is 3.

The factors of x2 are 1; x and x 2 and the factors x5 are 1 ; x ; x 2 ; x 3 ; x 4 and x 5

Therefore, the highest common factor between x2 and x5 is x 2 .

Therefore, the highest common factor between 15x2 and 9x5 is 3x2 .

We can now take out the highest common factor (HCF) as follows and thus factorise

the expression by writing it as a product of factors:

∴15 x 2 + 9 x5

= 3x 2 . 5 + 3x 2 . 3x3

= 3 x 2 (5 + 3 x3 ) Verify: 3 x 2 (5 + 3 x3 ) = 15 x 2 + 9 x5

= 3ab2 × 5a3b4 − 3ab2 ×1

= 3ab2 (5a3b4 − 1) Verify: 3ab2 (5a3b4 − 1) = 15a 4b6 − 3ab2

(c) 2a ( x + y ) − 3b( x + y )

∴ 2a ( x + y ) − 3b( x + y ) HCF = ( x + y )

= ( x + y )(2a − 3b)

12

(d) ( x − 1)7 − ( x − 1) 4 HCF = ( x − 1) 4

= ( x − 1) 4 × ( x − 1)3 − ( x − 1) 4 ×1

= ( x − 1) 4 ( x − 1)3 − 1

Alternatively we can substitute ( x − 1) = k

( x − 1)7 − ( x − 1) 4

= k7 − k4 HCF = k 4

= k 4 (k 3 − 1)

= ( x − 1) 4 ( x − 1)3 − 1

The next examples involve the sign-change rule discussed in Grade 9. Let’s revise this rule

by using the following examples.

= + (3b − 2a ) = +(−4 y + 7 x) = + ( −5b − 2a )

= −( −3b + 2a ) = −(4 y − 7 x) = −(5b + 2a )

= −(2a − 3b) ∴−4 y + 7 x = −(4 y − 7 x) ∴−5b − 2a = −(5b + 2a)

∴ 3b − 2a = −(2a − 3b)

You can simplify this method by “taking out a negative” and changing signs. Whenever you

“take out a negative sign”, the signs of the terms inside the brackets will be different to the

signs of the the terms in the original expression. Consider the following examples using this

short-cut approach.

(a) 3 y − 9x (b) −3 y − 6 x

= −3(− y + 3 x ) = −3( y + 2 x)

= −3(3 x − y ) = −3(2 x + y )

In these examples, the HCF of 3 as well as a negative sign has been “taken out”.

EXAMPLE 12

Factorise:

Solutions

(a) 2a (3 x − 2 y ) + 5b(2 y − 3 x )

= 2a (3 x − 2 y ) − 5b(−2 y + 3 x)

= 2a (3 x − 2 y ) − 5b(3 x − 2 y )

= (3 x − 2 y )(2a − 5b)

(b) 3a (5 x + y ) − ( −5 x − y )

= 3a (5 x + y ) + (5 x + y )

= (5 x + y )(3a + 1)

13

EXERCISE 6

(a) Factorise:

(1) 6 x3 + 12 x (2) 6 x3 + 4 x 2 (3) 5 x3 + 5 x

(4) 12 x3 − 18 x 2 (5) 3 x 2 − 9 y + 12 xy (6) 8a 2b 2 − 64ab

(7) 16m 4 n8 − 8m3n7 + 36m 2 n3

(b) Factorise:

(1) x (a + b) + y (a + b) (2) k ( x + y) + p( x + y)

(3) 3 p ( q + r ) − 4m( r + q ) (4) 7 k ( m − 3n) − 3 p ( m − 3n)

(5) ( x − y )2 − 3( x − y ) (6) ( a + c ) 4 + ( a + c )5

(7) ( m − n) 6 + ( m − n) 2 (8) 7 x ( m − 3n ) − 4 y (3n − m )

(9) 7 x ( m − 3n ) + 4 y (3n − m ) (10) 7 x(m + 3n) + 4 y ( −m − 3n)

(11) 2 x (3 p + q ) + 4 y ( − q − 3 p ) (12) ( a − b) − ( pb − pa )

3 3

(13) 4 x(a − 2) + (2 − a ) (14) 2 x2 (3a − b) − 12 x(b − 3a)

(15) ( a − 3b) − c (3b − a ) + d (3b − a )

The reverse process a 2 − b 2 = ( a + b)( a − b) is called the factorisation of the difference of

two squares. Another way of seeing this type of factorisation is:

a 2 − b2 = ( a 2 + b2 )( a 2 − b2 ) = ( a + b)( a − b) where a > 0, b > 0

EXAMPLE 13

Factorise fully:

(a) x2 − 25 (b) 64 x 4 − 49 y 2

= ( x2 + 25)( x2 − 25) = (8 x 2 + 7 y )(8 x 2 − 7 y )

= ( x + 5)( x − 5)

(c) 2a8 − 2b8

= 2(a8 − b8 ) [always take out the HCF first]

= 2( a 4 + b 4 )( a 4 − b 4 )

= 2( a 4 + b 4 )( a 2 + b 2 )(a 2 − b 2 )

= 2( a 4 + b 4 )( a 2 + b 2 )(a + b)(a − b)

(d) 16 − ( x − y ) 2 [alternatively: Let ( x − y ) = k ]

= [ 4 + ( x − y ) ][ 4 − ( x − y ) ] ∴16 − ( x − y ) 2

= (4 + x − y )(4 − x + y ) = 16 − k 2

= (4 − k )(4 + k )

= [ 4 + ( x − y ) ][ 4 − ( x − y ) ]

= (4 + x − y )(4 − x + y )

14

EXERCISE 7

(a) Factorise fully:

(1) x 2 − 16 (2) x 2 − 36 (3) 9 x2 − 4

(4) x2 − 1 (5) 169 x 2 − 100 (6) 16a 2 − 121b 2

(7) 100 x8 − y 6 (8) x4 − x2 (9) a 4 − 16

(b) Factorise fully:

(1) n8 − 81 (2) 12 x 2 − 75 y 2 (3) 81a3 − 49ab 2

(4) 27 a3 − 3ab 2 (5) 4 x8 y 2 − 16 y 2 (6) 25 p 4 q − 100 p 4 q 3

(7) ( a + b) 2 − c 2 (8) (2 x + y )2 − y 2 (9) 25a 2 − 16(a − b) 2

Consider the product ( x + a )( x + b)

By multiplying out, it is clear that this product will become:

( x + a )( x + b)

= x 2 + ax + bx + a × b

= x 2 + ( a + b) x + a × b Take note that x 2 has a coefficient of 1.

So the expression x 2 + ( a + b) x + ab can be factorised as ( x + a )( x + b) .

For example, the trinomial x2 + 7 x + 12 can be factorised as follows:

Write the last term, 8, as the product of two numbers ( a × b ).

The options are: 1 × 12, 3 × 4 and 2 × 6

The middle term ( a + b ) is now obtained by adding the numbers of one of the above

options. The obvious choice will be the option 3× 4 because the sum of the numbers 3 and 4

gives 7. Therefore:

x 2 + 7 x + 12

= x 2 + (3 + 4) x + (3 × 4)

= ( x + 3)( x + 4)

• Write down the last term as the product of two numbers.

• Find the two numbers (using the appropriate numbers from one of the products) which

gets the coefficient of the middle term by adding or subtracting.

• Check that when you multiply these numbers you get the last term.

EXAMPLE 14

Factorise:

(a) x2 + 5x − 36

The last term can be written as the following products: 1× 36, 2 × 18, 4 × 9, 6 × 6

We now need to get +5 from one of the options above.

Using 4 × 9 will enable us to get +5 since

−4 + 9 = 5 which is the coefficient of the middle term and ( −4)( +9) = −36 which is

the last term.

Therefore: x 2 + 5 x − 36 = ( x − 4)( x + 9)

15

(b) x 2 − 5x + 6

We now need to get the middle term −5 from one of the options above.

Try the option 3 × 2 . Clearly −3 − 2 = −5 which is the coefficient of the middle

term and −3 × −2 = +6 which is the last term.

Notice that the option 1 × 6 will not work because even though +1 − 6 = −5 is the

coefficient of the middle term, +1 × −6 = −6 , is not the last term.

Therefore: x 2 − 5 x + 6 = ( x − 3)( x − 2)

(c) 3a 2 − 21a − 24

Here it is necessary to first take out the highest common factor:

3a 2 − 21a − 24

= 3(a 2 − 7a − 8)

The last term of the trinomial in the brackets can be written as the following

products: 1 × 8, 4 × 2

The option 1 × 8 will work because: +1 − 8 = −7 which is the coefficient of the

middle term, and ( +1)( −8) = −8 which is the last term.

Therefore,

3a 2 − 21a − 24 = 3(a 2 − 7a − 8)

= 3(a + 1)(a − 8)

Take note:

• If the sign of the last term of a trinomial is negative, the signs in the brackets are

different (see Example 8a and 8c).

• If the sign of the last term of a trinomial is positive, the signs in the brackets are the

same i.e. both positive or both negative (see Example 8b)

EXERCISE 8

(1) x 2 − 11x + 28 (2) x 2 − 5 x − 84 (3) x2 + 6x + 9

(4) x 2 − 4 x − 12 (5) a 2 − 9a + 20 (6) a 2 − 11a − 12

(7) a 2 − 12a + 35 (8) a 2 − 2a − 48 (9) m 2 + 5m + 6

(10) m 2 − 5m − 6 (11) m 2 + 5m − 6 (12) m 2 − 5m + 6

(13) x 2 + 7 x + 12 (14) x 2 − 7 x + 12 (15) x 2 + 4 x − 12

(b) Factorise fully:

(1) 2 x 2 − 2 x − 12 (2) 3x 2 − 21x − 54 (3) 4a 2 + 12a − 40

(4) 6a 2 + 24a − 30 (5) x3 + 2 x 2 − 8 x (6) 90 − 45 x + 5 x 2

(c) Explain why the trinomial x2 + 4 x + 5 cannot factorise.

(d) Explain why the following factorisations are incorrect:

(1) x 2 − 5 x + 6 = ( x − 6)( x + 1)

(2) x 2 + 10 x − 24 = ( x + 6)( x − 4)

16

Factorising more advanced quadratic trinomials

The method to factorise these trinomials is a little more involved than with the previous

trinomials. A suggested method is as follows and will be discussed in the examples that

follow:

Step 1: Write down the product options of the first and last terms.

Step 2: Write the product options in a table format.

Step 3: Select any product option from the first term and last term and write these

options using what is called the “cross method”. Then multiply diagonally.

Step 4: Add and subtract the products in order to get the middle term

Step 5: Obtain the factors by reading off horizontally.

EXAMPLE 15

Factorise the following fully:

Solutions

Step 1 Write down the product options of the first and last terms:

21x 2 : 1x × 21x, 7 x × 3x

4: 1 × 4, 2 × 2

First term Last term

21x 7x 1 4 2

1x 3x 4 1 2

The product option 1 × 4 for the last term must also be written in

reverse order as 4 × 1 . This is not necessary for the product options for

the first term.

Step 3 Select any product option from the first term and last term and

write these options using what is called the “cross method” and

multiply diagonally:

7x 1 3x

3x 4 28x

Step 4 The strategy is to now get the middle term, +25x , from 3x and

28x using different signs (because the sign of the last term of the

trinomial is negative). Insert the signs as indicated below.

7x 1 −3x

3x 4 +28x

+25x

17

Step 5 The factors are now obtained by reading off horizontally.

The first factor is (7 x − 1) . The negative sign for 1 comes from

−3x . The second factor is (3 x + 4) . The positive sign for 4 comes

from +28x .

7x 1 − 3x

3x 4 + 28x

+25x

∴ 21x 2 + 25 x − 4 = (7 x − 1)(3 x + 4)

Take note: This method involves trial and error and you need to keep trying different

options until you get ones that will work. For example, the following

option will not work:

7x 4 12x These two terms cannot

give the middle term.

3x 1 7x Therefore, the options

+25x selected are not helpful.

2

(b) 12 x − 11x + 2

The product options of the first and last terms:

12 x 2 : 1x × 12 x, 4x × 3 x, 6 x × 2 x 4x 1 −3x

2: 1 × 2, 2 × 1

First term Last term 3x 2 −8x

1x 4x 6x 1 2 −11x

12x 3x 2x 2 1

The signs in the brackets must be the same because the sign of the last term of

the trinomial is positive.

∴12 x 2 − 11x + 2 = (4 x − 1)(3 x − 2)

(c) 24 x 2 − 10 xy − y 2

24 x 2 : 24 x× 1x, 8 x × 3x, 6 x × 4 x, 12 x × 2 x 12x 1y +2xy

y2 : 1y ×1y

2x 2y −12xy

First term Last term −10xy

24x 6x 12x 8x 1y

1x 4x 2x 3x 1y

The signs in the brackets must be different because the sign of the last term of

the trinomial is negative. The options that work are as follows:

∴ 24 x 2 − 10 xy − y 2 = (12 x + y )(2 x − y )

18

EXERCISE 9

(1) 3x 2 + 4 x + 1 (2) 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 (3) 12 x 2 − 7 x + 1

(4) 18 x 2 + 3x − 1 (5) 2 x2 − 5x − 3 (6) 5 x 2 + 14 x + 8

(7) 2 x2 − 7 x + 6 (8) 6 x 2 − 11x − 10 (9) 6 x 2 − 5 x − 21

(10) 20 x 2 + 24 x − 9 (11) 18 x 2 − 3x − 10 (12) 15 − x − 6 x 2

(1) 4 x 2 + 10 x − 6 (2) 15 x 2 − 18 x + 3 (3) x 2 − xy − 6 y 2

(4) 4 p 2 + 7 pq − 2q 2 (5) 10m2 − 13mn − 3n2 (6) 12a 2 + 23ab + 10b 2

(1) 10 x2 − 10 xy − 120 y 2 (2) a3 − 6a2b + 9ab2 (3) x4 − 12 x2 + 32

(4) x4 + 5x2 y 2 + 6 y 4 (5) (a + b)2 + 4(a + b) − 32

EXAMPLE 16

Factorise the following expressions fully:

(c) a 3 − 4a 2 − 4a + 16 (d) 6t 2 + 3t − 6 x − 12tx

Solutions

(a) ax + 3a + 2 x + 6

= ( ax + 3a ) + ( +2 x + 6) [put brackets around the pairs separated by a + sign]

= ( ax + 3a ) + (2 x + 6) [ +2 x = 2 x ]

= a ( x + 3) + 2( x + 3) [factorise the pairs]

= ( x + 3)( a + 2) [take out the common bracket]

(b) 2 x 2 + 4 xy − 3xy − 6 y 2

= (2 x 2 + 4 xy ) + (−3xy − 6 y 2 ) [put brackets around the pairs separated by a + sign]

= (2 x 2 + 4 xy ) − (3xy + 6 y 2 ) [apply sign-change rule]

= 2 x( x + 2 y ) − 3 y ( x + 2 y ) [factorise the pairs]

= ( x + 2 y )(2 x − 3 y ) [take out the common bracket]

(c) a 3 − 4a 2 − 4a + 16

Method 1

a 3 − 4a 2 − 4a + 16

= (a 3 − 4a 2 ) + (−4a + 16) [put brackets around the pairs separated by a + sign]

3 2

= (a − 4a ) − (4a − 16) [apply sign-change rule]

2

= a (a − 4) − 4(a − 4) [factorise the pairs]

2

= (a − 4)(a − 4) [take out the common bracket]

= (a − 4)(a + 2)(a − 2) [factorise the difference of two squares]

19

Method 2

Group the first and third terms together and the second and fourth terms together.

a 3 − 4a 2 − 4a + 16

= a 3 − 4a − 4a 2 + 16

= ( a 3 − 4a ) + ( −4a 2 + 16) [put brackets around the pairs separated by a + sign]

= ( a 3 − 4a ) − (4a 2 − 16) [apply sign-change rule]

2 2

= a ( a − 4) − 4( a − 4) [factorise the pairs]

2

= (a − 4)( a − 4) [take out the common bracket]

= ( a + 2)( a − 2)( a − 4) [factorise the difference of two squares]

(d) 6 p 2 + 12 pq − 8q − 4 p

= (6 p 2 + 12 pq ) + ( −8q − 4 p ) [put brackets around the pairs separated by a + sign]

= (6 p 2 + 12 pq ) − (8q + 4 p ) [apply sign-change rule]

= 6 pq ( p + 2q ) − 4(2q + p ) [factorise the pairs]

= 6 pq ( p + 2q ) − 4( p + 2q ) [ 2 q + p = p + 2q ]

= ( p + 2q )(6 pq − 4) [take out the common bracket]

= ( p + 2q )2(3 pq − 2) [factorise further]

= 2( p + 2q )(3 pq − 2)

EXERCISE 10

(a) Factorise fully:

(1) px + ky + px + ky (2) rx − ry + tx − ty

(3) 2 p − 2q + np − nq (4) a 2 − 2a + ab − 2b

(5) 4 x3 + 4 x 2 + 5 x + 5 (6) bx − by − ax + ay

(7) bx + by − ax − ay (8) a − b − ac + bc

(9) 3ax − 3ay − x + y (10) 3ax + 3ay − x − y

(11) x3 − 2 x 2 − 2 x + 4 (12) x3 + 2 x 2 − 2 x − 4

(13) 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 9 (14) 3x 4 − 3x 2 − 27 x 2 + 27

(15) a − b + ab − 1 (16) 6a 2 px − 4ap 2 y − 6a 2 py + 4ap 2 x

3 2

(1) 6 x − 2 x − 54 x + 18 (2) x 2 − (a + b) x + ab

(3) x 2 − 9 − ( x − 3)(1 − 2 x) (4) a 2 − b2 − a − b

(5) a 2 − 4ab + 4b 2 − 16 x 2 (Hint: Group the four terms in the ratio 3 to 1)

(2) Hence, prove by means of factorisation, that

x( x − 3) 2 − 3(3 − x ) 2 = ( x − 3)3

Show how the method of factorising the expression is different from the method of

expanding and simplifying.

20

The sum and difference of two cubes

Consider the following products.

(a) ( x + y )( x 2 − xy + y 2 ) (b) ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x + 4)

= x 3 − x 2 y + xy 2 + x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3 = x3 − 2 x 2 + 4 x + 2 x 2 − 4 x + 8

= x3 + y 3 = x3 + 8

(c) (2 x + 3)(4 x 2 − 6 x + 9) (d) (3 x + 1)(9 x 2 − 3 x + 1)

= 8 x3 − 12 x 2 + 18 x + 12 x 2 − 18 x + 27 = 27 x3 − 9 x 2 + 3 x + 9 x 2 − 3 x + 1

= 8 x3 + 27 = 27 x3 + 1

(e) ( x − y )( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) (f) ( x − 2)( x 2 + 2 x + 4)

= x 3 + x 2 y + xy 2 − x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3 = x3 + 2 x 2 + 4 x − 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8

= x3 − y 3 = x3 − 8

The answer for each product turned out to be either a sum or a difference of two cubes.

Therefore from the above products we noticed that:

x3 + y 3 = ( x + y )(x 2 − xy + y 2 ) of which we may conclude:

(first term) 3 + (last term)3 = (first term + last term) (first) 2 − (first)(last) + (last) 2

x3 − y 3 = ( x − y )(x 2 + xy + y 2 ) of which we may conclude:

(first term)3 − (last term) 3 = (first term − last term) (first) 2 + (first)(last) + (last) 2

EXAMPLE 17

Factorise the following:

(a) 8 − 27 b 3

3

Find the cube root of each of the terms: 3

8 = 2 and 27b 3 = 3b

∴ 8 − 27b3

= (23 − (3b)3 )

= (2 − 3b) (2) 2 + (2)(3b) + (3b) 2

= (2 − 3b)(4 + 6b + 9b 2 )

(b) 2 x 3 + 2000 y 6

= 2( x 3 + 1000 y 6 ) always take out the highest common factor first

= 2( x 3 + 1000 y 6 )

3

= 2( x 3 + (10 y 2 )3 ) x 3 = x and 3

1000 y 6 = 10 y 2

= 2( x + 10 y 2 )( x 2 − ( x)(10 y 2 ) + (10 y 2 ) 2

= 2( x + 10 y 2 )( x 2 − 10 xy 2 + 100 y 4 )

(c) ( x + y )3 − x 3

= [ ( x + y ) − x ] ( x + y ) 2 + ( x + y )( x ) + ( x ) 2 3

( x + y )3 = x + y and 3

x3 = x

= [ y ] x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + x 2 + xy + x 2

= y (3 x 2 + 3 xy + y 2 )

21

EXERCISE 11

(1) 27 x 3 − 1 (2) 8 x3 + 1 (3) 64 x 3 − y 3

1

(4) 125 − 729 x 3 (5) a 3b 3 − (6) 5 x 3 + 40

8

1 3

(7) 8a 4 − 64a (8) − x 3 − 27 (9) x + 216

27

1 1

(10) 8 − ( a − 1)3 (11) x3 + (12) x3 − 3

x3 x

(b) Consider x 6 − 64

(1) Factorise the above expression by using the difference of two cubes method

first.

(2) Factorise the above expression by using the difference of two squares method

first.

Two terms Three terms Four terms

Step 1: Step 1: Step 1:

Apply the sign-change rule Apply the sign-change rule if Group in pairs and put brackets

if necessary. necessary. around each pair separated by

Step 2: Step 2: the + sign.

Take out the HCF if it Take out the HCF if it exists. Step 2:

exists. Step 3: Apply the sign-change rule if

Step 3: Factorise the trinomial. necessary.

Apply difference of two Step 3:

squares or sum and Factorise the pairs.

difference of two cubes if Step 4:

possible. Take out the common bracket.

Step 5:

Factorise further if needs be.

(d) 8x3 − 27 (e) x 2 − 5x + 6 (f) 6 x2 − 2 x − 20

(g) 4x3 − x − 4 x2 + 1 (h) x2 − x − 2 (i) 16a3 − 2b3

(j) 7 x 7 y14 − 14 x14 y 7 (k) 16x2 −100 (l) 1 − x3

(m) 12 x 2 − 18 xy + 6 (n) 12 x 2 − 18 xy + 6 y 2 (o) 6 y 2 − 3 y − 18

(p) 8 x 4 y8 − 4 x 2 y 4 (q) 4 x2 − 6 x − y 2 + 3 y (r) 4 x 2 ( y − 1) + 36(1 − y)

(s) 25 − ( x − y )2 (t) (a − b)2 − 3(b − a) (u) 4ax2 − a 2 + x 2 + 4 x3

22

SIMPLIFICATION OF ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS

EXAMPLE 18

Simplify the following expressions which have monomial (single term) denominators:

4 x2 + 8x 12 x3 y + 3 xy

(a) (b)

4 x2 9 y2

Solutions

4 x2 + 8x 12 x3 y + 3 xy

(a) (b)

4 x2 9 y2

4 x( x + 2) 3 xy (4 x 2 + 1)

= =

4 x2 9 y2

x+2 x(4 x 2 + 1)

= =

x 3y

EXAMPLE 19

x 2 − 12 x + 27 x−2 x2 − 4

(a) (b) ÷

4 x 2 − 12 x x2 + 4 x − 5 x2 + 5x

x3 − 8 6 x3 − 2 x 2 x 2 − 9

(c) (d) ×

2− x −3x − 9 2 − 6 x

Solutions

Whenever the numerator and denominator contains two or more terms, both the

numerator and denominator must be factorised. Only then can you cancel and simplify.

x 2 − 12 x + 27 x−2 x2 − 4

(a) (b) ÷

4 x 2 − 12 x x2 + 4 x − 5 x2 + 5x

( x − 9)( x − 3) x−2 x2 + 5x

= = 2 × "tip and times"

4 x( x − 3) x + 4 x − 5 x2 − 4

x −9 x−2 x( x + 5)

= = ×

4x ( x + 5)( x − 1) ( x − 2)( x + 2)

x

=

( x − 1)( x + 2)

23

x3 − 8 6 x3 − 2 x 2 x 2 − 9

(c) (d) ×

2− x −3x − 9 2 − 6 x

x3 − 8 6 x3 − 2 x 2 x2 − 9

= = ×

+ (2 − x) −3( x + 3) −2(−1 + 3 x)

( x − 2)( x 2 + 2 x + 4) 2 x 2 (3x − 1) ( x − 3)( x + 3)

= = ×

−( x − 2) −3( x + 3) −2(3 x − 1)

= −( x 2 + 2 x + 4) x 2 ( x − 3)

=

= − x2 − 2 x − 4 3

EXERCISE 13

x2 − x 4a 2 − 8a 3 p2 − 6 p

(1) (2) (3)

x 4a 6p

4m 2 + 4m a3 − a2 a2 x2 − 4

(4) (5) ÷ (6)

4m 2 4 8 x2 − 2 x

x2 − 5x + 6 x2 − 9 9 p3 − 81 p 2

(7) (8) (9)

2x − 6 2 x2 − 5x − 3 6 p3

27 p3 − 8 9 − k2 6 + 9k

(10) 2

(11) 2

(12)

27 p + 18 p + 12 k − 3k 9k 2 − 4

10 − 2 x x2 ( x + 2) − 4 ( x + 2) (3 − x)2

(13) (14) (15)

x −5 ( x + 2 )2 x2 − 9

x 2 + x − 6 x 2 − 16 x2 + x x2 + 2 x + 1

(1) × 2 (2) ÷

2x − 8 x − 2x x2 x3

x 2 − 4 xy + 4 y 2 x − 2 y x 2 − 4 6 + k − k2 2k + 4

(3) ÷ × (4) ÷ ( k − 3) ÷ 2

2x − 4 x−2 4 3 + 3k k −1

2k 2 + k − 6 k 4 − 9 14 − 7 x x+2

(5) × ÷ ( 2k − 3) (6) ×

2k 2 − 6 k+2 2

x + x − 2 3x − 6

Whenever you add or subtract algebraic fractions, the first thing you need to do is to

determine the lowest common multiple of the denominators (LCD). This may have been

referred to as the LCM.

You then have to convert each fraction to an equivalent fraction so that each fraction’s

denominator is the same as the LCD.

The last thing to do is to write the numerators over the LCD. In the example below we will

establish the skill of finding an LCD for different kinds of denominators.

24

EXAMPLE 20

Determine the lowest common multiple of the denominator (LCD) for each of the following

sets of algebraic fractions.

1 1 1

(a) 2

; 3 ;

4x 3x 2 xy

For the numbers 4, 3 and 2 the lowest common multiple is 12.

For the variables x, x 2 and x 3 , the term with the highest exponent will be used in

the LCD. In this case, the term used will be x 3 .

Since there are no other terms in y, you will just use y in the LCD.

The LCD is 12 x 3 y .

1 1

(b) ; Take note that x + 2 is a binomial whereas x is a single term.

x+2 x

Therefore both the denominators have to be accounted for in the LCD.

The LCD is x ( x + 2) .

1 1

(c) ; 2 x + 2 and x2 + 2 are binomials but are not identical.

x+2 x +2

Therefore both the denominators have to be accounted for in the LCD.

The LCD is ( x + 2)( x 2 + 2) .

1 1

(d) ; ( x + 2)2 is the term with the highest exponent for ( x + 2) .

x + 2 ( x + 2)2

The LCD: ( x + 2)2 or ( x + 2)( x + 2)

1 1

(e) ; 2 x 2 + 2 x can be factorised: x 2 + 2 x = x( x + 2)

x + 2 x + 2x

Therefore there is x to consider as a single term and ( x + 2) to consider as a

binomial. The LCD is x ( x + 2)

1 1 1

(f) ; ; 4 x + 4 can be factorized: 4 x + 4 = 4( x + 1)

4x + 4 4x x + 4

Therefore there are 4 and 4x to consider as single terms and ( x + 1) and ( x + 4) to

consider as binomials.

The LCD is 4 x ( x + 1)( x + 4)

EXAMPLE 21

1 x−2

(a) 1 + 2

−

4x y 3x3

2 1

(b) x − x +

3 3

3 2

(c) − 2

x+3 x +3

25

Solutions

(a) Insert brackets around a numerator that has more than one term.

1 ( x − 2)

1 + 2

− LCD = 12 x3 y

4x y 3x3

1 12 x3 y 1 3x ( x − 2) 4 y

= × 3

+ 2

× − ×

1 12 x y 4 x 3x 3x3 4y

12 x3 y 3x 4 y ( x − 2)

= 3

+ 3

−

12 x y 12 x y 12 x3 y

12 x3 y + 3x − 4 y ( x − 2)

=

12 x3 y

12 x3 y + 3x − 4 xy + 8 y

=

12 x3 y

2 1 2 1

x − x + x − x +

3 3 3 3

1 2 2 3x − 2 3x + 1

= x2 + x − x − = find the LCD of each bracket

3 3 9 3 3

2 (3 x − 2)(3 x + 1)

9 x + 3x − 6 x − 2

= = top × top and bottom × bottom

9 9

2

9 x 2 − 3x − 2 9 x − 3x − 2

= =

9 9

3 2

(c) − 2 LCD = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 3)

x+3 x +3

3 ( x 2 + 3) 2 ( x + 3)

= × 2 − 2 ×

( x + 3) ( x + 3) ( x + 3) ( x + 3)

3( x 2 + 3) 2( x + 3)

= 2

−

( x + 3)( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x 2 + 3)

3( x 2 + 3) − 2( x + 3)

=

( x + 3)( x 2 + 3)

3x 2 + 9 − 2 x − 6 3x 2 − 2 x + 3

= =

( x + 3)( x 2 + 3) ( x + 3)( x 2 + 3)

26

EXERCISE 14

2x 1 7 2 1 3 2

(1) + (2) − + (3) + 2

3 6 6x 9 xy 3x3 x x

2a − 1 5 x+2 5 x +1

(4) 1+ a − (5) − (6) −

2 6 xy 2x 2x x−2

2 5 x+2 6 x −3 x+3

(7) + (8) 2

− (9) −

x x +1 x +2 x+2 x+3 x −3

4 x +1 2 7x + 1 5 xy

(10) 2

− (11) + 2

− + 1

(2 x + 1) 2x +1 2 xy 4x y 4

x−3 x−2 x +1 2x

(12) − + (13) x −

3 2 6 3x − 2

(b) Simplify the following and write your answers as single fractions:

2

1 1 1 1 1

(1) x + x − (2) 2 x + y 3x − y (3) x−

3 3 3 2 4

2

1 1 1 2 1 x 2

(4) x + x − (5) x + x − 1 + 2 (6) +

x x x x 2 x

(c) Simplify the following complex fractions:

1 9

2+ x−

(1) x (2) 3− x

1 x −3

x2

Simplification of expressions involving the factorisation of denominators

EXAMPLE 22

x −1 2x +1

(a) 2

−

x + 4x 4x

x −1 2x +1

− [factorise the denominators first]

x( x + 4) 4x

( x − 1) 4 (2 x + 1) ( x + 4)

= × − × [LCD = 4 x( x + 4)]

x( x + 4) 4 4x ( x + 4)

4( x − 1) (2 x + 1)( x + 4)

= −

4 x( x + 4) 4 x( x + 4)

4( x − 1) − (2 x + 1)( x + 4)

=

4 x( x + 4)

4 x − 4 − (2 x 2 + 9 x + 4)

=

4 x ( x + 4)

4x − 4 − 2x2 − 9x − 4

=

4 x( x + 1)

−2 x 2 − 5 x − 8

=

4 x( x + 1)

27

5 3x 4

(b) 2

+ +

x − x −6 3− x 2+ x

5 3x 4

= + + [factorise the denominators first]

( x − 3)( x + 2) 3− x 2+ x

[ x + 2 = 2 + x but x − 3 ≠ 3 − x and we know that 3 − x = −( x − 3)]

5 3x 4

= + +

( x − 3)( x + 2) −( x − 3) x+2

5 3x 4

= − + [LCD = ( x − 3)( x + 2)]

( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x − 3) ( x + 2)

5 3x ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 3)

= − × + ×

( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x − 3) ( x + 2) ( x + 2) ( x − 3)

5 − 3x( x + 2) + 4( x − 3)

=

( x − 3)( x + 2)

5 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 4 x − 12

=

( x − 3)( x + 2)

−3 x 2 − 2 x − 7

=

( x − 3)( x + 2)

EXERCISE 15

x 2 x 2

(1) + (2) −

x−3 3− x x+3 3+ x

2x x +1 3 x +1

(3) + (4) −

x−3 9 − x2 2

x − 3x − 4 4− x

x 5 x 2 x − 24

(5) 2

− (6) − 2

2 x + 11x + 5 5+ x 4− x x − 4x

3 2− x x+4 x x+2

(7) − (8) 2

− 2

+

6x + 6 6x x − 2x (2 − x) x−2

x+2 8x + 1

(9) 2

−

4x − 2x +1 8 x3 + 1

x 2

Simplify −

3x + 1 3x

Mr Faulty answered it in the following manner:

x 2 ( +1)

∴ − × …………..Line 1

3x + 1 3 x ( +1)

x 3

= − …………..Line 2

3x + 1 3x + 1

x−3

= …………..Line 3

3x + 1

(1) What were the fundamental errors made in line 1 and line 2?

(2) Show Mr Faulty the correct way of doing it.

28

Summary of the strategies for working with algebraic fractions

Multiplication and division Addition and subtraction

1. When dividing remember to “tip and 1. Factorise the denominators

times” when required 2. Consider the sign-change rule

2. Factorise the numerator and 3. Find the LCD and convert each

denominator fraction to an equivalent fraction

3. Consider the sign-change rule with the same denominator (LCD)

4. Cancel and simplify 4. Write your answer as one fraction

(a) State whether the following numbers are rational or irrational. If you consider the

number to be rational, provide an explanation of why it is rational.

6 5

(1) (2) −1 (3) 36

7 9

(4) 6 (5) 36 (6) 7

1

( 7)

2

(7) (8)

0, 45 (9) 6

4

3 3

(10) 8 (11) −8 ` (12) 225 + 400

(b) Without using a calculator and by showing all of your workings, determine between

which two integers the following irrational numbers lie:

4

(1) 54 (2) − 54 (3) 25

(1) { x : − 2 ≤ x < 5 ; x ∈ } (2) { x : x < 3 ; x ∈ }

(3) [4 ; ∞) (4) (− 5 ; 25

(1) (2 x − 3 y )(3 x + 2 y ) (2) ( x 2 + 1)( x 4 + 1)( x 2 − 1)

(3) −3(2 x − 5)2 (4) (9 x 2 + 12 xy + 16 y 2 )(3x − 4 y)

2 3 4

(5) x(6 x − y ) − x 4 x − y (6) ( a − 2b + 3)( a + 2b + 3)

3 2 9

(7) (3 x 2 − 4 y 3 ) 2 − ( x 2 + 2 y 3 )( − x 2 + 2 y 3 )

3 (2 x 4 + 3 x 4 )3

(8) (5a − 2b) (9)

(2 x 4 .3 x 4 ) 2

(f) Factorise the following:

(1) 3 x 2 − 5 x − 12 (2) 3 x 2 − 9 x − 12 (3) 12 − 16 x − 3 x 2

(4) x3 − 64 x (5) x3 − 64 (6) x 2 − 64

(7) 4 x 2 − 100 (8) 4 x 2 − 100 x (9) x 2 + 64

(10) x 2 ( x − 3) − 4( x − 3) (11) x 2 ( x − 3) − 4(3 − x) (12) − x 2 + 64

(13) 3x3 − x 2 + 6 x − 2 (14) 3 x3 − x 2 − 6 x + 2 (15) 2 − 16 x 3

29

(g) Simplify:

3x 2 + 6 x 3 2 x + 3 17 x

(1) (2) − −

6x 4x x 3y

x3 − 2 1 4 x4 − 8x2

(3) 3x − + (4)

4x2 12 x 8 x3

2

3 + 4x2 2x + 4 x−4

(5) 2 x − (6) 3+ +

2 x x − 2 2 x − x2

(2 − x)3 3x − 1 x

(7) (8) −

x3 − 8 x − 5 x + 6 ( x − 3) 2

2

x 4 − 16 4 x 2 + 16

(9) ÷

16 x 4 x2

(h) The number π is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.

(1) Use your calculator to determine π . Is the number π rational or irrational?

(2)

Show that the recurring decimal 3,142857 is rational.

22

(3) It has been stated in the past that π = . Is this true?

7

Use the results in (1) and (2) to justify your answer.

(2) Factorise: 9 x 2 − (3 x 2 − 2) 2

(j) Factorise: x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1

2

x−

(k) Simplify: x −1

2x

x+

x −1

(2) Hence or otherwise factorise: (a + b)2 − 12(a + b) + 32

1

(m) If x − = 7, determine the value of:

x

1 1

(1) x2 + 2 (2) x3 − 3

x x

(1) a 2 + b2 (2) a −b

a+b

(o) If a 2 + b 2 = 10 and ab = 3 calculate the value of if a + b > 0, and a > b

a −b

30

2011.(20122 − 9).2013

(q) Calculate without the use of a calculator:

2015.(20122 − 1)

(r) Factorise:

1 2 7 1 2 1 3

(1) x −x−4 (2) 3x 2 − x + 1 (3) x + x+

2 2 7 2 7

(s) Simplify: ( x −2 − y −2 ) ÷ ( x −1 + y −1 )

(t) If the product of two numbers is 40 and their sum 20. Show that the sum of their

1

reciprocals is equal to .

2

31

CHAPTER 2 EXPONENTS

REVISION OF THE EXPONENTIAL LAWS AND DEFINITIONS

an

Exponent

a n = a × a × a × a × ... (n factors)

Power

where a represents the base, n the exponent and a n the power.

Base

Here is a summary and examples of the exponential laws and definitions. The bases are

positive and the exponents are integers.

LAWS EXAMPLES

Bases are variables Bases are numerical

am y7 66

2(a) n

= a m −n ( m > n ) 4

= y3 = 62 = 36

y 4

a 6

am 1 y4 1 64 1 1

2(b) = n−m ( m < n ) = = 2=

a n

a y7 y3 66

6 36

m 3 3 3

a am 8d 2 d 8d 3 22 26 64

5. = =

= = =

b bm 12e 3e 27e3 5 53

125

DEFINITIONS EXAMPLES

Bases are variables Bases are numerical

1. a0 = 1 5x0 + (2 x)0 = 5 ×1 + 1 = 6 6 . 30 = 6 × 1 = 6

1 1 1 1

2. x −n = y −7 = 4 −2 = =

xn y7 4 2

16

a 3 1 4 4 1

3. ax − n = 3x −4 = 4.2−3 = 4. = = =

xn x4 23 23 8 2

1 1 1 1 1

4. ( ax ) − n = (2 x ) −3 = = 3 (4 × 2) −2 = =

( ax ) n (2 x ) 3

8x (4 × 2) 2

64

1 1 1

5. −n

= xn −5

= a5 −3

= 53 = 125

x a 5

32

a 7 2

6. −n

= ax n −6

= 7 y6 = 2.32 = 2.9 = 18

−2

x y 3

1 xn 1 p9 1 32 9 4

7. = = = = =1

ax − n a 8 p −9 8 5.3−2

5 5 5

1 1 1

8. −n

= ( ax ) n −4

= (2m) 4 = 16m 4 −2

= (3 × 2)2 = 62 = 36

( ax ) (2m) (3 × 2)

−n n −2 2 −2 2

a b 5x 4y 16 y 2 2 7 49 1

9. = = = = = = 12

b a 4y 5x 25 x 2 7 2 4 4

a − m bn a −5 . b −8 c6 2−3 32 9 9

10. = = = = =

b−n a m c −6 . d 2 a5 . b8 . d 2 4.3−2

4.2 3

4 . 8 32

1368 = 1

1. 1n = 1×1×1×1× .........(n times) = 1

(80 − 79)1000 = 11000 = 1

( −3) 4 = 34 = 81

2. ( − a ) n = a n if n is even ( −1) 2016 = 12016 = 1

( −2 x 3 )6 = ( −2)6 . x18 = 26 x18 = 64 x18

( −3)5 = −35 = −243

3. ( − a ) n = − a n if n is odd ( −1) 2017 = −12017 = −1

( −2 x3 )5 = ( −2)5 . x15 = −25 x15 = −32 x15

Simplify:

(4) 94. 98. 32 (5) 72. 72. 7 (6) 72 + 72 + 7

(7) 55. 55. 55 (8) 12 .1212 (9) 313. 312

(10) 88. 88 (11) 32.22 (12) 4.23

2

(13) (3 x3 y 5 ) 2 (14) 2(2a 2 )3 (15) 3(2a 2b3 )

(16) (2 x 3 )3 × (3 x 2 ) 2 (17) (25. 67 )3 (18) 3 3 3

3(3 .2 )

5 5

x x 83

(19) (20) (21)

x3 x9 8

46 −12a14 x 40 y16

(22) (23) (24)

410 −18a6 x36 y 20

2

−6a 3b10c (3x 2 y 3 )2 3a 3 . 2a 5

(25) (26) (27)

12a8b 4c (3xy )(3xy 7 ) 10

12a b

33

(b) (1) 2 p0 (2) (2 p )0 (3) 2(3a0 )2

(4) x−5 (5) ( a 2 ) −2 (6) 2−6

(7) 23. 2−5 (8) 11 y −3 .11 y 6 . y −3 (9) 4x−2

(10) (4 x) −2 (11) 3a−3 (12) (3a ) −3

1

(13) 4.2−2 (14) (4.2) −2 (15)

x −4

1 2 1

(16) (17) (18)

7 −2 3−2 2.3−2

1 1 1

(19) (20) (21)

(2.3) −2 2x −4 (2 x ) −4

−3

5 5−3 32

(22) (23) (24)

3 2−3 3−5

x −4 a 2b3c −5d 8 3 x −4 y −3

(25) (26) (27)

y −5 ab −4c −6 d 8 9 x −2 y −1

3−4 ( x −2 y 4 )2 1

(28) (29) (30) 6 x −2 .

5 . 3−5 x 2 y −3 (2 x −3 ) 2

−2

2(3a 7 ) 2 . ab −7 2( a −2b2 ) −3 × ( ab) −6 x −4 . y 8

(31) (32) (33) 2 −3

3c −1 × 4a10b 9 (2b −6 )2 x .y

(c) (1) 160 (2) (49 − 48) 47 (3) (2016 − 2015) 2014

(4) (−1)60 (5) (−1)61 (6) (48 − 49)50

(7) (2015 − 2016) 2017 (8) ( −2) 4 (9) ( −2)5

(10) ( − a )9 (11) ( − a )12 (12) −( −2)6

(13) −( −2)7 (14) ( −34 )( −33 ) (15) (−3) 4 (−3)3

(16) ( −2 a 3 ) 4 (17) ( −2 a 3 ) 5 (18) ( − a 3b )30

(19) ( − a 3b )33 (20) −( −3 xy ) 4 (21) −(−3 xy )5

(22) − ( −2 x 2 y 3 ) 4 (23) − ( −2 x 2 y 3 ) 7 (24) ( −3 x 3 ) 2 ( −3 x 3 ) 3

(4 x 4 )(4 x 4 ) = 42. x8 = 16 x8 [add the exponents of like bases]

4 x4 + 4 x4 = 8x4 [add the coefficients but not the exponents]

(d) Simplify:

(1) 12 x3 − 3x3 × 2 (2) 2 x 3 . x 2 + 3 x. x 4 (3) 3 x 3 . x − 4 x. x 3

(4) ( −2 x 2 y )( −3 xy 3 ) (5) 4 x5 . 4 x5 + 3x3 . x 6 (6) ( −2)( −2a 2b 2 )(−2a 3b3 )

(7) (5a 5 )(4a 5 ) − 15a. a 9 + 10b10 (8) ( −6 x3 . x 4 ) + (−2 x 5 )(− x 2 )

(9) ( −2 x 4 )(−3 y 2 ) − (−2 xy 2 )(−2 x 3 ) (10) −3( −2a 3 ) 2 + 2( −2a 2 )3

(11) 2 x . 3 x 4 − ( −2 x 3 ) 2 + (−3 x 2 )( −2 x 3 )

34

EXAMPLE 1

16 2. (32 ) 4 (2 x )4 . 9 x 16 x −1

(a) (b) (c)

27. 25. 81 122 x 24 x. 32

Solutions

16 2. (32 ) 4 (2 x )4 . 9 x 16 x −1

(a) (b) (c)

27. 25. 81 122 x 24 x. 32

(24 )2 . 38 24 x. (32 ) x (24 ) x −1

= = =

212. 34 (22. 3)2 x 24 x. 25

28. 38 2 4 x. 32 x 24 x − 4

= = = 4 x +5

212. 34 2 4 x. 32 x 2

34 81 =1 = 24 x−4−(4 x −5)

= =

24 16 = 24 x − 4− 4 x +5

=2

EXERCISE 2

(a) Simplify the following leaving your answers in exponential form where necessary:

34. 35 28. 24 515

(1) (2) (3)

32 25 512. 56

25. 24 (34 )2 5 . 55

(4) (5) (6)

(23 )2 35. 32 (53 )3

(2 . 5)3 (23 . 3)2 (33 )3 . 73

(7) (8) (9)

2 . 52. 53 23. 35 32. 35. 49

(32 )3 . (24 )2 363.163 (112 )5 . (7 4 ) 2

(10) (11) (12)

9 . 36. 64 62. 63. (27 )2 (11)(11)9 . 493

817. 84 1254. (52. 3) 2 . 3 (2−4 ) 4

(13) (14) (15)

3 . (312 )2 . 47 154 8 . 2−20

(1) 2 x. 2 x (2) (25 ) x (3) (3 x )3

(4) 2 x. 2 3 (5) (53. 35 ) x (6) 9 x . 32 x

5x. 5x (2 x )3. 2 x

(7) 81x. 27 2 x (8) (9)

25x 16 x

7 x. 7 2 x 25 . 9x (2 x )3 . 27 x

(10) (11) (12)

(7 2. 7) x 3x. 3x. 5 8 x. (32 ) x . 3x

−3 x

12 x. 3− x 32 x 1 1

(13) (14) (15) .

2 . 4x 4x 4 16 x

35

(c) Simplify the following:

32 x +1 2 x +5 5m+4

(1) (2) (3)

32 x 2 x+2 5m+5

23 x +6 64 x − 2 4n

(4) (5) (6)

23 x + 4 64 x − 4 2 2 n −3

7 2 x −1 9 x +1 16 p −3

(7) (8) (9)

49 x −1 32 x. 81 8 p−4

5 x. 25 x −1 9a. 4a −1 36 x + 2

(10) (11) (12)

5 .125 x 32a −1. 22a 6 2 x +5

50 x +1 5 . 45 y 18 x. 8 x −1

(13) (14) (15)

2 x +1. 25 x + 2 9 y. 5 y+2 9 x +1. 42 x −1

Exponents need not always be restricted to integers. It is possible to work with powers that

include other rational exponents such as fractions. The next example works with fractional

exponents.

EXAMPLE 2

1 − 12

(4 x3 ) 2 . x

Simplify:

x −3

Solution

1 − 12

(4 x3 ) 2 . x

x −3

1 − 12

(22 x3 ) 2 . x

= [write 4 to the base 2]

x −3

3 − 12

2x 2 . x

= [multiply exponents]

x −3

3 −1

2x 2 2 2 x1

= −3 = −3 = 2 x1. x 3 = 2 x 4 [apply exponential laws and simplify]

x x

EXERCISE 3

(a) Simplify:

1 1 1

(1) 27 3 (2) 125 3 (3) 64 6

1 1 1 1

(4) (9 x 4 ) 2 . x −2 (5) (16a 2 ) 4 . x 2 (6) (27 y 6 ) 3 . y −1

(b) Simplify:

1 1 1

(36 x 2 ) 2 (64 x −6 ) 3 (125m) 3

(1) (2) (3)

3 x −1 2 x3 25 . (m 3 )2

−1

1 1 1 −1 1

(49 x 2 ) 4 (9 x3 ) 2 . ( x 2 )−1 ( x3 ) 9 . ( x 3 ) 2

(4) (5) (6)

1 − 32 1 1

(73 ) 2 . x (3x 2 )2 ( x 6 )2

36

EXAMPLES INVOLVING FACTORISATION

EXAMPLE 3

Simplify:

3x +1 + 2 . 3x + 2 9 x + 3x − 2

(a) (b) (challenge)

7 . 3x 9x − 4

Solutions

3x +1 + 2 . 3x + 2

(a)

7 . 3x

3x. 31 + 2 . 3x. 32

= [apply the rule a m + n = a m . a n ]

7 . 3x

3x (31 + 2 . 32 )

= [factorise numerator]

7 . 3x

3x (3 + 2 . 9)

=

7 . 3x

3x (21)

=

7 . 3x

=3 [simplify]

9 x + 3x − 2

(b)

9x − 4

(32 ) x + 3x − 2 x

= [write 9 to base 3]

(32 ) x − 4

(3x )2 + 3x − 2

= [apply the rule ( a m ) n = ( a n ) m ]

(3x )2 − 4

(3x + 2)(3x − 1)

= x [factorise the numerator and denominator]

(3 + 2)(3x − 2)

(3x − 1)

= [simplify]

(3x − 2)

EXERCISE 4

(a) Simplify:

2 x + 2 + 2 x +3 3x +1 + 3x + 2 2 x + 2 − 2 x +1

(1) (2) (3)

12 . 2 x 8 . 3x +1 2 x + 2 x+2

5 x + 4 − 5 x +3 4 x + 3 . 22 x +1 (3x ) 2 − 9 x −1

(4) (5) (6)

100 . 5 x +1 7 . 22 x +1 9 x −1

8 x. 2 x + 2 .16 x +1 12 x + 4 x . 3x +1 2. 3x + 3x −2

(7) (8) (9)

11. 2 x +1 22 x + 4. 3x 5 . 2 x +1 − 7 . 3x −1

37

(b) Simplify:

9x −1 4x − 9 25 x − 36

(1) (2) (3)

3x + 1 2x − 3 5x + 6

36 x − 36 36 x − 6 x 16 x − 49

(4) (5) (6)

6x + 6 6x −1 4x + 7

9 x − 3x − 6 4x − 4 . 2x + 3 25 x − 5 x +1 − 6

(7) (8) (9)

3x − 3 2x −1 5x − 6

EXPONENTIAL EQUATIONS

In Grade 9 you learnt that in an exponential equation, the exponent is the unknown.

EXAMPLE 4

x

1

(a) 4 . 25 x +3

=4 (b) (0,5) x−1

= (c) 9x + 32x+1 = 36

4

Solutions

(a) 4 . 25 x +3 = 4

∴25x+3 = 1 [divide both sides by 4]

2 x +3 0 0

∴ (5 ) =5 [write 25 to base 5 and 1 as 5 ]

∴52x+6 = 50 [multiply exponents]

∴2x + 6 = 0 [equate exponents]

∴2x = −6

∴ x = −3

x

1

(b) (0,5) x−1 =

4

x −1 x

1 1

∴ = 2 [write 0,5 as a fraction and 4 as 2 2 ]

2 2

1

∴ (2−1 ) x −1 = (2−2 ) x [apply the definition n

= a−n ]

a

∴ 2 − x +1 = 2 −2 x [multiply exponents]

∴− x + 1 = −2x [equate exponents]

∴ x = −1 [solve]

(c) 9x + 32x+1 = 36

∴ (32 ) x + 32 x. 3 = 36 [write 9 to base 3]

∴ 32 x + 32 x. 3 = 36 [apply the rule a m + n = a m . a n ]

∴ 32 x (1 + 3) = 36 [factorise]

2x

∴ 3 (4) = 36 [simplify]

2x

∴3 = 9 [divide both sides by 4]

∴32x = 32 [write 9 to base 3]

∴2x = 2 [equate exponents]

∴x =1 [solve]

38

EXERCISE 5

(1) 2x = 1 (2) 3x = 3 (3) 3x = 27 (4) 4x = 16

(5) 74 x = 49 (6) 3.3x = 243 (7) 23 x−1 = 64 (8) 1214 x = 11

(9) 32( x−1) = 81 (10) 5.5x−5 = 5 (11) 2.3x = 162 (12) 8 x. 2 = 128

x

1 1 1 1

(13) 3x = (14) 4x = (15) 5x = (16) =4

9 16 125 2

x x x−1

1 1 1 1 1 1 2x

(17) = 16 (18) = (19) 3 = (20) . 2 =1

4 3 27 3 3 8

(b) Solve the following equations:

1

(1) 5 . 9 x−1 = 5 (2) 7 . 49 x+ 2 = 49 (3) = 343

49 x

x− 2

1 2 8

(4) 5 .125 x+3 = (5) = (6) (0, 25) x = 0,125

25 3 27

(7) (0, 2) x−2 = 0, 04 (8) x

0, 4 = 0, 064 (9) (3 x +1 )3 = 9 x −3

(10) 4x = 16 x−1 (11) 3x ⋅ 9x−1 = 81 (12) (0,5) x −1 = 4− x

(13) 812 x +1 = 27 x − 2 (14) 8− x = 2. 4 x −1 (15) 4. 2 x = (0,5) x− 2

(c) Solve the following equations:

(1) 2 x +1 + 2 x + 2 = 24 (2) 5x+1 − 2 . 5x = 75 (3) 3x + 3x + 3x = 33

(4) 7 x +1 + 14 . 7 x = 147 (5) 2 . 32 x +1 + 3 . 9 x = 243

EXAMPLE 5

1 1 1

(a) x3 = 4 (b) x 2 − 5x 4 + 6 = 0

Solutions

1

(a) x 3 = 4

1

∴ ( x 3 ) 3 = 43 [raise both sides to the reciprocal of the exponent]

∴ x = 81

1 1

(b) x 2 − 5x 4 + 6 = 0

1 1 1 1

∴ ( x 4 )2 − 5 x 4 + 6 = 0 [change the expression x 2 to ( x 4 ) 2 ]

1 1

∴ ( x 4 − 3)( x 4 − 2) = 0 [factorise the trinomial]

1 1

∴ x4 = 3 or x4 =2

1 1

∴ ( x 4 )4 = 34 or ( x 4 ) 4 = 24

∴ x = 81 or x = 16

39

EXERCISE 6

1 1 1

(1) x2 = 5 (2) x3 = 2 (3) x4 = 1

1 2 3

(4) x5 = 2 (5) x3 = 4 (6) x 2 = 27

5 7

(7) x 2 = 32 (8) x 6 = 128 (9) 3x5 = 729

1 1 1 1 1 1

(1) x 2 − 7 x 4 + 12 = 0 (2) x 2 − 8 x 4 + 16 = 0 (3) x 2 − 8x 4 + 7 = 0

1 1 1 1 1

(4) x3 − 6x 6 + 8 = 0 (5) x 7 − 3x14 + 2 = 0 (6) x − 9 x 2 + 18 = 0

(1) 2 x −2 + (2 x ) −2 (2) 2 x 0 + (2 x )0 (3) a−1 + b−1

(4) (a + b) −1 (5) (3011 − 3012)3013 (6) (3x 4 )2 . 2( x 2 ) 4

(7) (3 x 4 ) 2 + 2( x 2 ) 4 (8) (3 x3 + 3 x3 )3 (9) ( − 4 x 2 y ) 2 . ( −4 x 2 y ) 3

−2 2 1

12 x −2 y 4 32 2. 253 8 3 . (2 −3 ) 3

(10) −6 7

(11) (12) 1

18 x y 100 . 84 16 2

−1 1 1

9 x−1. 24 x+1 2 x+2 + 5 . 2 x + 2 x ( x 4 ) 8 . ( x 2 )3 . ( x 3 ) −1

(13) (14) (15) 1

27 x. 8x 5 . 2x ( x 3 )2

121x − 4 4 x − 3 . 2 x +1 − 27 50 x − 10 x

(16) (17) (18)

11x + 2 2x + 3 10 x − 2 x

(1) 4 x = 0, 25 (2) 9 . 27 x − 2 = 3 (3) 16 . 4 x +3 = 8 x − 2

3 1 1

(4) 2 x 2 = 250 (5) x 2 − 8x 4 + 15 = 0 (6) 23x+2 + 8x+1 = 48

(c) Simplify:

(1) 4 x. 4 x. 4 x (2) 4x + 4x + 4x (3) 410 + 2 . 410 + 3 . 410

36

(2) What is one sixth of 6 ?

(1) 88 + 412 + 166 + 224 = 226

(2) 330 is greater than 420

a

(f) If a = 1 + 2n and b = 1 + 2−n , show that b = .

a −1

40

CHAPTER 3 NUMBER PATTERNS

REVISION OF LINEAR NUMBER PATTERNS (GRADE 9)

In Grade 9, you studied linear number patterns in which there is a constant difference between

consecutive terms. For example, consider the sequence 5 ; 7 ; 9 ; 11 ; ...................

T2 − T1 = 7 − 5 = 2 T3 − T2 = 9 − 7 = 2 T4 − T3 = 11 − 9 = 2

There is a constant difference of 2 between

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7

consecutive terms.

We call this constant difference d.

The sequence is generated by adding d

to each term. In this example, d = 2 .

It is easy to determine consecutive terms since you are adding 2 to each previous term.

Finding the 5th, 6th, 10th or even the 20th term is easy to do. However, if you are required to

determine the 100th term, this would be extremely time-consuming. We need to therefore find

a rule which helps us do this. This rule is called the general rule for the sequence.

One way to find this general rule is to link the position of the term to the constant difference

and work from there. Notice that in the sequence above:

T1 = 5 = 2(1) + 3 where 2 is the constant difference, 1 is the position of 5 (first term) and

3 is added to keep the actual term 5.

T2 = 7 = 2(2) + 3 where 2 is the constant difference, the 2 in brackets is the position of 7

(second term) and 3 is added to keep the actual term 7.

T3 = 9 = 2(3) + 3 where 2 is the constant difference, the 3 in brackets is the position of 9

(third term) and 3 is added to keep the actual term 9.

We can continue to generate terms of the sequence in this way.

T4 = 2(4) + 3 = 11 T5 = 2(5) + 3 = 13 T6 = 2(6) + 3 = 15

The general rule is Tn = 2n + 3 and this rule can help us to find other terms:

T10 = 2(10) + 3 = 23 T100 = 2(100) + 3 = 203

A table is useful for determining the general rule of a sequence with a constant difference.

Using the previous example, draw a table as follows:

The position of the term T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T10 Tn

The constant difference

multiplied by the position of 2(1) 2(2) 2(3) 2(4) 2(5) 2(10) 2( n)

term

What to do to get the actual

+3 +3 +3 +3 +3 +3 +3

term

The actual term in the 2( n ) + 3

5 7 9 11 13 23

sequence

The general rule using the letter n is Tn = 2n + 3 where 2 represents the constant difference

and n the position of the term in the sequence. It is important to note that the value of n is

always a natural number. We say that the nth term of the sequence is Tn = 2n + 3 .

This general rule can now be used to determine any term of the sequence.

For example: T9 = 2(9) + 3 = 21 T30 = 2(30) + 3 = 63

Let’s revise another example to make sure that you fully understand these concepts.

41

EXAMPLE 1

(a) Determine the general rule (nth term).

(b) Calculate the 100th term.

(c) Which term of the sequence is equal to 242?

Solutions

The constant difference

multiplied by the position 4(1) 4(2) 4(3) 4(4) 4( n)

of term

What to do to get the actual

+2 +2 +2 +2 +2

term

The actual term in the 4( n ) + 2

6 10 14 18

sequence

(b) Tn = 4n + 2

∴ T100 = 4(100) + 2 = 402

(c) The actual term in the sequence is 242 and we want to find its position.

Let Tn = 242 where n represents the position to be determined.

Tn = 4n + 2

∴ 242 = 4n + 2

∴ 242 − 2 = 4n

∴ 240 = 4n

∴ 60 = n

∴ T60 = 242 [242 is the 60th term in the sequence]

The general rule for any linear number pattern takes the form Tn = bn + c , so let’s explore this

a little further. We can determine the first few terms using this rule.

Tn = bn + c

T1 = b(1) + c = b + c

b+c 2b + c 3b + c 4b + c

T2 = b(2) + c = 2b + c

T3 = b(3) + c = 3b + c b

b b

T4 = b(4) + c = 4b + c

The constant difference is b and the first term is b + c

b+c 2b + c 3b + c 4b + c

b b b

42

Now let’s determine the general term of the linear b+c

pattern 5 ; 7 ; 9 ; 11 ; ................... using these

findings.

b

b=2 b+c = 5 (first term)

∴2 + c = 5 (substitute b = 2 into the equation b + c = 5 )

∴c = 3

Tn = bn + c

∴ Tn = 2n + 3

EXAMPLE 2

6 ; 10 ; 14 ; 18 ; ......... is a given sequence. Determine the general rule (nth term) and hence the

1000th term.

Solutions

∴4 + c = 6

∴c = 2

Tn = bn + c b

∴ Tn = 4n + 2

[Teacher’s note: The main reason for using Tn = bn + c is to avoid confusion in Grade 11

when quadratic patterns of the form Tn = an 2 + bn + c are dealt with].

Tn = 4n + 2

T1000 = 4(1000) + 2 = 4002

EXERCISE 1

(a) For each of the following sequences, determine the general rule (nth term) and hence

calculate the 100th term.

(1) 6 ; 9 ; 12 ; 15 ; ........ (2) 9 ; 13 ; 17 ; 21 ; ........ (3) 3 ; 8 ; 13 ; 18; ........

(4) 3 ; 7 ; 11 ; 15 ; ........ (5) 10 ; 16 ; 22 ; 28 ; ..... (6) 4 ; 11 ;18 ; 25 ; .......

(7) 5 ; 0 ; − 5 ; − 10 ; ....... (8) 0 ; − 3 ; − 6 ; ....... (9) −6 ; − 11 ; − 16 ; .......

(10) 5 ; 1 ; − 3 ; − 7 ; .... (11) −5 ; − 11; − 17 ; ........ (12) 3 12 ; 4 ; 4 12 ; ........

(13) 2 12 ; 4 12 ; 6 12 ; ..... (14) 1

4

;1; 74 ; ........ (15) 0,5 ; 0, 7 ; 0,9 ; ....

(16) −13 ; − 7 ; − 1 ; ..... (17) 1 ; − 9 ; − 19 ; ....... (18) 13 ; 12 ; 11 ; 10 ; .....

(b) 4 ; 11 ; 18 ; 25 ; ......... is a given sequence.

(1) Determine the 45th term. (2) Which term of the sequence is 627?

(c) 19 ; 16 ; 13 ; 10 ; ......... is a given sequence.

(1) Determine the 65th term. (2) Which term of the sequence is −113 ?

(d) Tn = 9n − 4 is the nth term of a linear number pattern (sequence).

(1) Determine the first four terms of the sequence.

(2) Which term is equal to 986?

(e) Consider the number pattern: 4 × 7 ; 7 × 15 ; 10 × 23 ;13 × 31 ; ......

(1) Determine the nth term.

(2) Determine the 50th term

43

REVISION OF OTHER TYPES OF NUMBER PATTERNS (GRADE 9)

EXAMPLE 3

Determine the general term (nth term) and hence the 20th term of the following number

patterns:

Solutions

(a) T1 = 3 = 3 × 1 = 3 × 20 [ 1 = 20 ]

T2 = 6 = 3 × 21

T3 = 12 = 3 × 2 2

T4 = 24 = 3 × 23

The nth term is Tn = 3 × 2 n −1

∴ T20 = 3 × 219 = 1 572 864

to 6 to get 11. Increase the number added

each time by 2 to get consecutive terms.

To get the nth term of this type of sequence,

work with the position squared and take it from there.

T1 = 3 = (1) 2 + 2 [square position 1 and add 2 to get 3]

T2 = 6 = (2) 2 + 2 [square position 2 and add 2 to get 6]

T3 = 11 = (3) 2 + 2 [square position 3 and add 2 to get 11]

T4 = 18 = (4) 2 + 2 [square position 4 and add 2 to get 18]

The nth term is Tn = n 2 + 2

Tn = n 2 + 2

∴ T20 = (20) 2 + 2 = 402

EXERCISE 2

(a) For each of the following number patterns, determine the general rule and hence the 10th

term.

(1) 2 ; 4 ; 8 ; 16 ; ........ (2) 1 ; 3 ; 9 ; 27 ; ........ (3) 4 ;12 ; 36 ; ........

(4) 32 ;16 ; 8 ; 4 ; ....... (5) −2 ; − 6 ; − 18 ; ........ (6) 1 ;1; 2 ; 4 ; ........

2

(7) 16 ; 4 ;1; 14 ........ (8) 1;1;1; 1

2 4 8 16

; ........ (9) 28 ; 7 ; 74 ; 16

7 ........

(b) For each of the following sequences, determine the nth term and hence the 100th term.

(1) 1 ; 4 ; 9 ; 16 ;......... (2) 2 ; 5 ; 10 ; 17 ; ..... (3) 4 ; 7 ; 12 ; 19 ; .....

(4) 5 ; 8 ; 13 ; 20 ; .... (5) 0 ; 3 ; 8 ; 15 ; .... (6) −1 ; 2 ; 7 ; 14 ; ....

1 3 9 27

(c) Determine the general term of the sequence: ; ; ; ; ............

5 8 13 20

44

CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION EXERCISE

(1) Determine the nth term and hence the 300th term.

(2) Determine which term of the number pattern equals 448.

(b) Consider the number pattern: −2 ; − 5 ; − 8 ; − 11 ; .......

(1) Determine the nth term and hence the 145th term.

(2) Determine which term of the number pattern equals −389 .

(c) Consider the diagram made up of black dots joined by thin black lines.

(1) How many dots are there in figure 4?

(2) How many lines are there in figure 4?

(3) How many dots are there in figure 8?

(4) How many lines are there in figure 8?

(5) Determine the general rule to find the

number of dots in the nth figure.

(6) How many dots are there in the 186th figure?

(7) Which figure will contain 272 dots?

(8) Determine the general rule to find the number of lines in the nth figure.

(9) How many lines are there in the 900th figure?

(10) Which figure will contain 650 lines?

(d) Consider the following designs.

(2) Determine the number of squares in design n.

(3) How many squares are there in design 20?

5 14 22 26 30

(e) Consider the sequence: 2 ; ; ; 1; ; ; ;............

4 13 23 28 33

(1) Determine the nth term.

(2) Calculate the 20th term.

(f) Consider the number pattern: 1 ; 3 ; 1 ; 6 ; 1 ; 9 ; 1 ; 12 ; 1 ;.......

Determine the 999th and 1000th terms.

(g) Sipho wrote the name SWEET over and over again as follows:

SWEETSWEETSWEETSWEET.................................

(1) What is the 23rd letter?

(2) Find the 402nd letter.

(3) The first W is in the second position, the second W is in the seventh position, the

third W is in the twelfth position, and so forth. Determine in what position is the

100th W?

45

CHAPTER 4 EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES

LINEAR EQUATIONS (REVISION OF GRADE 9)

EXAMPLE 1

Solve the following linear equations:

4x −1 7x + 2 x

(a) 3 − 4(k + 2) = 3k + 16 (b) − =

3 6 2

Solutions

(a) 3 − 4(k + 2) = 3k + 16

∴ 3 − 4k − 8 = 3k + 16 [use the distributive law]

∴−4k − 5 = 3k + 16 [collect like terms]

∴−4k − 3k = 16 + 5 [add 5 and subtract 3k from both sides]

∴−7k = 21 [collect like terms]

∴ k = −3 [divide both sides by −7 ]

To verify that this value is the solution, substitute into the left and right sides:

Left side = 3 − 4(( −3) + 2) = 7

Right side = 3 − 4(( −3) + 2) = 7

∴ Left side = Right side

∴ k = −3 is the solution.

4x −1 7x + 2 x

(b) − =

3 6 2

The equation contains fractions. Insert brackets around the numeratorors if they

are expressions of more than a single term. Determine the lowest common multiple

of the denominators (LCD).

(4 x − 1) (7 x + 2) x

− = LCD = 6

3 6 2

Method 1 Method 2

Multiply both sides by the LCD Write every term as a fraction with

the common denominator

(4 x − 1) (7 x + 2) x (4 x − 1) 2 (7 x + 2) 1 x 3

×6 − ×6 = ×6 × − × = ×

3 6 2 3 2 6 1 2 3

6(4 x − 1) 6(7 x + 2) 6x 2(4 x − 1) (7 x + 2) 3x

∴ − = ∴ − =

3 6 2 6 6 6

∴ 2(4 x − 1) − (7 x + 2) = 3x ∴ 2(4 x − 1) − (7 x + 2) = 3x

∴ 8x − 2 − 7 x − 2 = 3x ∴ 8x − 2 − 7 x − 2 = 3x

∴ x − 4 = 3x ∴ x − 4 = 3x

∴ x − 3x = 4 ∴ x − 3x = 4

∴ −2 x = 4 ∴ −2 x = 4

∴ x = −2 ∴ x = −2

46

EXERCISE 1

(1) x + 12 = 6 − 3x (2) 2 x − 5 = 3x + 3

(3) 3( p + 2) = 2( p − 1) (4) 4( x − 3) = 3 − 6( x − 2)

(5) 7(m − 2) − 2(7 − 3m) + 2 = 0 (6) 4(2 x − 7) − 8(5 − x) = 3(2 x + 4) − 5( x + 7)

x x 3x 1 x+5

(1) − =2 (2) − x =1 (3) x+ =7

4 3 4 2 3

y + 2 y −3 2a − 1 m+2 m−6 1

(4) − =5 (5) −a +5=0 (6) − =

3 6 5 4 3 2

x+3 3 4 5 1

(7) − 2( x + 1) = 2 (8) 2k + − 4 = k −

4 2 3 4 5

has at most two real solutions. From the standard form it is clear that one side of the

equation has to equal zero. When the right hand side is zero then the quadratic expression on

the left hand side has to be factorised. Then you apply the zero-factor law, which states that

if a.b = 0 then either a = 0 or b = 0 . This is due to the fact that if you multiply any number by

zero the answer will always be zero.

For example, the zero-factor law can be applied to the equation ( x + 3)( x − 4) = 0 as

follows:

( x + 3)( x − 4) = 0

∴ x + 3 = 0 or x − 4 = 0

∴ x = −3 or x=4

EXAMPLE 2

(d) 8 x − 16 − x 2 = 0 (e) (3 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 (f ) (3 x − 1)( x + 2) = 10

Solutions

(a) x 2 − 5 x − 14 = 0

∴ ( x − 7)( x + 2) = 0 [factorise]

∴ x − 7 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 [apply the zero-factor law]

∴ x = 7 or x = −2

(b) 5x + 2 x2 = 3

∴ 2x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 [standard form]

∴ (2 x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 [factorise]

∴ 2 x − 1 = 0 or x + 3 = 0 [apply the zero-factor law]

∴ 2x = 1

1

∴x = or x = −3

2

47

(c) 2 x2 = 4 x Alternatively:

∴ 2x2 − 4 x = 0 [standard form] First divide by 2:

∴ 2 x( x − 2) = 0 [factorise] ∴ x2 = 2 x

∴ 2 x = 0 or x − 2 = 0 ∴ x2 − 2 x = 0

∴ x = 0 or x = 2 [apply the zero-factor law] ∴ x ( x − 2) = 0

∴ x = 0 or x = 2

However, please take note that you may never divide both sides by the variable you are

solving for. The reason for this is that you will lose one of the solutions.

∴ 0 = x 2 − 8 x + 16 [standard form] ∴ 3 x − 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0

∴ ( x − 4)( x − 4) = 0 [factorise] ∴ 3x = 1

1

∴x−4 = 0 [no need to write both] ∴ x = or x = −2

3

∴x = 4

(f) (3x − 1)( x + 2) = 10 The right side is not zero so proceed as follows:

∴ 3x 2 + 6 x − x − 2 = 10 [expand the product]

∴ 3x 2 + 5 x − 12 = 0 [standard form]

∴ (3x − 4)( x + 3) = 0 [factorise]

∴ 3x = 4 [apply the zero-factor law]

4

∴x = or x = −3

3

Solve each of the following equations:

(a) x 2 = 36 (b) 3 x 2 = 48 (c) x 2 + 25 = 0

(d) ( x + 5)2 = 9 (e) ( x + 5)2 = −9

Solutions

(a) x 2 = 36 Alternatively:

∴ x 2 − 36 = 0 [standard form] x 2 = 36

∴ ( x − 6)( x + 6) = 0 [factorise] x 2 = ± 36

∴ x − 6 = 0 or x + 6 = 0 ∴ x = ±6

∴ x = 6 or x = −6 ∴ x = 6 or x = −6

(b) 3 x 2 = 48 Alternatively:

∴ x 2 = 16 [divide by 3] ∴ x 2 = 16

2

∴ x − 16 = 0 [standard form] ∴ x 2 = ± 16

∴ ( x − 4)( x + 4) = 0 [factorise] ∴ x = ±4

∴ x = 4 or x = −4 ∴ x = 4 or x = −4

48

(c) x 2 + 25 = 0

The expression on the left cannot be factorised into real factors.

Proceed as follows:

x 2 = −25

∴ x = ± − 25

Since −25 is non-real, the equation has no real solutions.

2

∴ x + 10 x + 25 = 9 [expand the left side] ( x + 5) 2 = 9

∴ x 2 + 10 x + 16 = 0 [standard form] ∴ ( x + 5) 2 = ± 9

∴ ( x + 2)( x + 8) = 0 [factorise] ∴ x + 5 = ±3

∴ x = −2 or x = −8 [apply zero-factor law]

∴ x + 5 = −3 or x + 5 = 3

∴ x = −8 or x = −2

(e) ( x + 5)2 = −9

∴ x + 5 = ± −9

There are no real solutions

EXERCISE 2

(1) ( x − 3)( x + 6) = 0 (2) ( x + 4)( x − 8) = 0 (3) x ( x + 3) = 0

(4) (2 x − 5)(3 x + 1) = 0 (5) x + 4( x − 8) = 0 (6) 3 x (2 x + 5) = 0

(1) x2 = 9 (2) x 2 = 49 (3) 2 x 2 = 200

(4) x2 = 9 x (5) 9x 2 = x (6) 2 x2 = 5x

(7) 4 x 2 = 16 (8) 4 x 2 = 16 x (9) x2 − 2 x = 8

(10) x( x − 5) + 6 = 0 (11) 3x 2 − 5 x − 2 = 0 (l2) 2 x 2 − x = 10

(13) −2 x 2 − 14 x + 16 = 0 (14) ( m − 3)( m − 2) = 12 (15) ( x + 2)2 = 16

(16) 6(1 − x 2 ) = 5 x (17) ( p − 7)( p + 3) = 24 (18) x 2 = −4

(19) (2 x + 1)2 = 4 (20) ( x + 3)2 = −16 (21) 9x2 + 4 = 0

(22) 5( x − 1)2 = 45 (23) x = x2 − 2 (24) − x2 + 9 = 0

(25) (2 x − 1)2 = (2 x + 1)(2 x − 1) (26) ( x − 3)( x + 4) − (3x − 2)2 = x − 8 x( x − 1)

Sandy solved it in the following Andy solved it in the following way:

way:

2

x 2 + 64 = 0

4x = x

∴ ( x + 8)( x + 8) = 0

4 x2 x ∴ x = −8

∴ =

x x State his error(s) and then solve the

∴ 4x = 1

equation correctly.

∴x = 1

4

State her error(s) and then solve the

equation correctly.

49

EQUATIONS WITH FRACTIONS (VARIABLES IN THE DENOMINATOR)

remember that division by 0 is not permissible. You must always check that your solutions

do not make any one of the denominators 0. That is the reason why we must state

restrictions when solving equations with variables in the denominators.

EXAMPLE 4

Solve the following equations. Consider the solution(s) carefully as the solution(s) may

have been stated as a restriction.

16 4( x + 4) 4 10 2

(a) 10 + = (b) − = 2

x x x−5 x x − 5x

2x 5x − 3 x

(c) + 2

=

x−3 9− x x+3

Solutions

(a) In this example, there are variables in the denominator. Since the denominators can

never equal zero, it is important to note that x ≠ 0 .

LCD = x and the restriction is x ≠ 0

16 4( x + 4)

∴10 × x + ×x = ×x [multiply every term by the LCD]

x x

∴10 x + 16 = 4( x + 4)

∴10 x + 16 = 4 x + 16 [this is a linear equation]

∴6x = 0

∴x = 0

However, since x ≠ 0 , the equation does not have a solution.

(b) With the addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions, you needed to factorise the

denominators first before finding the LCD. With equations you will do the same.

4 10 2

− = 2

x −5 x x − 5x

4 10 2

∴ − =

x −5 x x( x − 5)

∴ LCD = x( x − 5) and the restrictions are:

x ≠ 0 and x − 5 ≠ 0

x≠5

4 10 2

∴ × x( x − 5) − × x( x − 5) = × x( x − 5) [multiply by the LCD]

x −3 x x( x − 5)

∴ 4 x − 10( x − 5) = 2

∴ 4 x − 10 x + 50 = 2

∴−6 x = 2 − 50

∴−6 x = −48

∴x = 8

This is a valid solution since it is not stated as a restriction.

50

2x 5x − 3 x

(c) + 2

=

x−3 9− x x+3

2x 5x − 3 x

∴ + 2

= [change in sign: 9 − x 2 = −( x 2 − 9)]

x−3 −( x − 9) x+3

2x 5x − 3 x

∴ + = [factorise]

x−3 −( x − 3)( x + 3) x+3

2x 5x − 3 x

∴ − =

x−3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) x+3

∴ LCD = ( x − 3)( x + 3) and the restrictions are: x ≠ 3 and x ≠ −3

2x 5x − 3 x

∴ × ( x − 3)( x + 3) − × ( x − 3)( x + 3) = × ( x − 3)( x + 3)

x−3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) x+3

∴ 2 x( x + 3) − (5 x − 3) = x( x − 3)

∴ 2 x2 + 6 x − 5 x + 3 = x 2 − 3x [this is a quadratic equation]

∴ x2 + 4 x + 3 = 0 [standard form]

∴ ( x + 1)( x + 3) = 0

∴ x = −1 or x = −3

Since x ≠ −3, the solution is x = −1

1. Apply the sign-change rule if necessary and then factorise the denominators.

2. State the restrictions.

3. Multiply every term by the lowest common denominator (LCD).

4. Identify the equation as linear or quadratic and solve the equation.

EXERCISE 3

(a) Solve the following equations. Remember to verify whether or not the solution to

the equation is viable by considering the restrictions.

6 3 1 3 1 2 5

(1) = − (2) − = +

x 2x 4 x x x 2

2 1 5 x−2

(3) + = + 1 (4) = −1

3x x 3x 2

7x 5 3 3 x+3 6

(5) 2

− = (6) + 2

=

x +x x x +1 x−2 4− x x+2

3 5 x − 24 2x + 1 5x

(7) − = 2 (8) − 2 = 2

x−6 2x − 8 x − 10 x + 24 x x − 4x

(b) Solve the following equations:

18 x−2 5 7

(1) x−3 = (2) − =

x x −1 x+2 x −1

x+6 2 −1 x2 − 1

(3) 2

− = (4) = −2

x −4 x−2 x+2 x +1

x 1 2 3x − 4 4

(5) = − (6) =

x−2 x −3 2− x 4 3x − 4

3x + 4 3x − 2 23x

(7) = − 2

x+6 x −3 x + 3x − 18

51

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS

Consider the graphs of the straight lines with equations 3 x − 2 y = 8 and 4x + 2 y = 6 . Take

careful note of the point of intersection of these two graphs, which is (2 ; − 1) . How can we

determine this point algebraically?

3

2

1

−1 0 1 2 3

−1

−2

−3

−4

The sketching of straight line graphs will be revised in Chapter 6. These two lines intersect

at the point (2 ; − 1) or at x = 2 and y = −1 . This can be verified by substituting these values

into both equations as follows:

3x − 2 y = 8 4x + 2 y = 6

3(2) − 2( −1) = 8 4(2) + 2(−1) = 6

True statement True statement

The values x = 2 and y = −1 are said to satisfy the equations simultaneously. We will now

discuss algebraic methods as an alternative method when solving two linear equations

simultaneously. There are two algebraic methods: Elimination and Substitution.

This method is the preferred method when solving two linear equations simultaneously.

EXAMPLE 5

Solve for x and y simultaneously: 3 x − 2 y = 8 and 4x + 2 y = 6

Solution

Method 1 (Eliminating y)

Label each equation as follows:

3 x − 2 y = 8.......... A

4x + 2 y = 6.......... B

By vertically adding these two equations you will eliminate one of the variables (y in this

case) and be able to solve for the other variable (x in this case):

3 x − 2 y = 8.......... A

4x + 2 y = 6.......... B

∴ (A + B) is 7 x + 0 y = 14 Add the like terms of equation A and B

∴ 7 x = 14

∴x = 2

52

Now solve for y if x = 2 . Therefore, substitute x = 2 into either A or B to get y:

If using equation A: If using equation B:

If x = 2 then 3(2) − 2 y = 8 If x = 2 then 4(2) + 2 y = 6

∴6 − 2 y = 8 ∴8 + 2 y = 6

∴ −2 y = 2 ∴ 2 y = −2

∴ y = −1 ∴ y = −1

Method 2 (Eliminating x)

3 x − 2 y = 8.......... A

4x + 2 y = 6.......... B

If we want the terms in x to be eliminated when added, the coefficients have to be additive

inverses (1 and − 1 or 2 and − 2 or 3 and − 3 etc.) . Let us therefore consider the lowest

common multiple (LCM) of 3 and 4 (the coefficients of x) in order to attain that. The LCM

is 12. We want the coefficient of x of equation A to be 12 and that of equation B to be −12 .

and call the new equation C: and call the new equation D:

3x × 4 − 2 y × 4 = 8 × 4.......... (A × 4) 4x × −3 + 2 y × −3 = 6 × −3.......... (B × −3)

∴12 x − 8 y = 32......... C −12 x − 6 y = −18.......... D

Now by vertically adding the equations C and D you will eliminate the x:

12 x − 8 y = 32............... C

−12 x − 6 y = −18.......... D

∴ (C + D) is 0 x − 14 y = 14 Add the like terms of equation C and D

∴−14 x = 14

∴ y = −1

If using equation A: If using equation B:

If y = −1 then 3 x − 2(−1) = 8 If y = −1 then 4 x + 2( −1) = 6

∴ 3x + 2 = 8 ∴ 4x − 2 = 6

∴ 3x = 6 ∴ 4x = 8

∴x = 2 ∴x = 2

EXERCISE 4

(a) x − y = 3 and 2 x + y = 9 (b) x + y = −6 and 3 x + y = −10

(c) x + 2 y = 5 and x − y = −1 (d) 3 x + 5 y = 8 and x − 2 y = −1

(e) 2 x − 3 y = 10 and 4 x + 5 y = 42 (f) 3 y − 4 x = 7 and 2x + 5 y = 16

53

THE METHOD OF SUBSTITUTION

The elimination method works mainly for two linear equations only, but the method of

substitution is a method you can use for other systems of equations as well. It may seem a

little longer than the elimination method but its process is much easier to understand.

EXAMPLE 6

Solve for x and y simultaneously: 3 x − 2 y = 8 and 4x + 2 y = 6

Solution

Label each equation as follows:

3 x − 2 y = 8.......... A

4x + 2 y = 6.......... B

Now pick either one of the equations and solve for one of the variables. Let’s solve for the

variable y in equation B as it will be the easier one because the resultant equation will have

no fractions.

4x + 2 y = 6

∴ 2 y = −4 x + 6

∴ y = −2 x + 3.........C [divide both sides by 2]

3x − 2 y = 8

∴ 3 x − 2(−2 x + 3) = 8

∴ 3x + 4 x − 6 = 8

∴ 7 x = 14

∴x = 2

Now substitute x = 2 into either equation A, B or C. Equation C will always be the

easiest choice.

If x = 2 then y = −2(2) + 3 = −4 + 3 = −1

3 x − 2 y = 8.......... A

4x + 2 y = 6.......... B

3x − 2 y = 8 4x + 2 y = 6

∴−2 y = −3x + 8 ∴ 2 y = −4 x + 6

3x

∴ y = − 4........C ∴ y = −2 x + 3.........D

2

Now you equate equations C and D because both equations are equal to y.

54

3x

− 4 = − 2x + 3

2

∴ 3x − 8 = −4 x + 6 [multiply by the LCD of 2]

∴ 3x + 4 x = 8 + 6

∴ 7 x = 14

∴x = 2

Now substitute x = 2 into either A, B, C or D

Equation C or D will be the easiest. We will choose equation D.

∴ y = −2(2) + 3 = −4 + 3 = −1

3 x − 2 y = 8.......... A

4x + 2 y = 6.......... B

Choose either one of the equations and solve for x. Let’s use equation A:

3x − 2 y = 8

∴ 3x = 2 y + 8

2y 8

∴x = + .........C [divide both sides by 3]

3 3

2y 8

Now replace the variable x in equation B with + and solve for y:

3 3

4x + 2 y = 6

2y 8

∴4 + + 2y = 6

3 3

8 y 32

∴ + + 2y = 6

3 3

∴ 8 y + 32 + 6 y = 18 [multiply by 3]

∴14 y = −14

∴ y = −1

2( −1) 8 −2 8

∴ If y = −1 then x = + = + =2

3 3 3 3

EXERCISE 5

(a) Solve for x and y by using the method of substitution:

(1) x − y = 8 and 2 x + y = 10 (2) 3 x − y = 2 and 7 x − 2 y = 8

(3) 3 x + 5 y = 8 and x − 2 y = −1 (4) 7 x − 3 y = 41 and 3 x − y = 17

(b) Solve for x and y using either the elimination or substitution method:

(1) x + y = 1 and x − 2 y = 1 (2) 3 x + 2 y = 2 and 5 x − 2 y = −18

(3) x + 4 y = 14 and 3 x + 2 y = 12 (4) 2 y − 3 x = 7 and 4 y − 5 x = 21

(5) 3 x + 2 y = 6 and 5 x + 3 y = 11

y−2 x −1 y−4 x −3

(6) − = 1 and − =1

3 2 5 4

(c) At ABC shop, 3 hamburgers and 2 cooldrinks cost R89, whereas 2 hamburgers and

3 cooldrinks cost R73,50. Determine the cost of 1 hamburger.

55

LITERAL EQUATIONS

A literal equation is one in which letters of the alphabet are used as coefficients and

constants. These equations, usually referred to as formulae, are used a great deal in

Mathematics, Science and Technology. The aim is to solve the equation or formula for a

specific letter (or to make that letter the subject of the formula). This is a very useful skill in

Grade 12.

EXAMPLE 7

(b) The area of a circle is given by A = π r 2 . Make r the subject of the formula.

(c) The surface area of a cylinder is given by A = 2πr ( h + r ) .

A − 2πr 2

(1) Show that h = .

2πr

(2) Hence determine the value of h if the radius is 3 cm and the surface area is

86 cm 2 . Round off your answer to one decimal place.

Solutions

(a) v = u + at

Subtract u from both sides:

∴ v − u = at

Divide both sides by a where a ≠ 0 :

v −u

∴ =t

a

(b) A = πr 2

Divide both sides by π :

A

∴ = r2

π

Square root both sides:

A

∴ = r2

π

A

∴r = (not ± as r is positive)

π

A

∴ = h+r [divide both sides by 2πr ]

2πr

A .

∴ −r = h

2πr

A − 2πr 2

∴ =h [LCD is 2πr ]

2πr

86 − 2 π(3) 2

(2) h= = 1, 6 cm

2 π(3)

56

EXAMPLE 8

The variable you are solving for may sometimes be present in more that one term. For these

types of equations, you will need to factorise first before solving the equation.

Solutions

(a) T = a + nd − d

∴T − a = nd − d

∴T − a = d (n − 1) [factorise]

T −a

∴ =d

n −1

∴ x 2 − 6 xy − 8 y 2 = 0 [standard form]

∴ ( x − 4 y )( x + 2 y ) = 0 [factorise]

∴ x − 4 y = 0 or x + 2 y = 0

∴ x = 4 y or x = −2 y

EXERCISE 6

(2) Make s the subject of the formula v 2 = u 2 + 2as

(1) ax + b = c (2) 3ax = 2bx + c (3) ax 2 + bx = 0

(4) 4 x2 − y 2 = 0 (5) x 2 − 5 xy + 6 y 2 = 0 (6) 18 y 2 = 8x 2

(c) Make the variable that is written in brackets after the formula the subject of the

formula.

n 9

(1) S= ( a + L), ( a ) (2) F = C + 32, (C)

2 5

mv 2

(3) F= , (g)

gr

1 1 1

(d) Make v the subject of the formula: + =

u v f

(e) Make the variable that is written in brackets after the formula the subject of the

formula.

(1) E = mc 2 , (c) (2) v 2 = u 2 + 2as, (u )

(3) mv 2

F= , (v )

gr

57

LINEAR INEQUALITIES

Consider the following true statement: −5 < 3

If we add or subtract any value to both sides, the statement above will still be true:

−5 + 2 < 3 + 2 −5 − 2 < 3 − 2

∴ −3 < 5 ∴ −7 < 1

But, if we multiply (or divide) both sides by −1 , the statement will become 5 < −3 , which

is clearly now false. However, if the direction of the inequality sign was reversed, then the

statement would become true, i.e. 5 > −3 .

Therefore the following rules are always applicable when working with inequalities:

• Change the direction of the inequality sign whenever you multiply or divide by a

negative number.

• Do not change the direction of the inequality sign if you multiply or divide by a

positive number.

• Do not change the direction of the inequality sign if you add or subtract by a

number or expression.

EXAMPLE 9

Solve the following inequalities and then represent their solutions on a number line:

(a) 2 x > −6 (b) −2 x > −6

2x −1

(c) 4(2 x − 1) > 5 x + 2 (d) ≥ 2x +1

3

Solutions

2 x −6 −2 x −6

(a) > (b) >

2 2 −2 −2

∴ x > −3 −3 ∴x < 3 3

[All real numbers larger than −3 ] [All real numbers smaller than 3]

[The inequality remains the same] [The inequality is reversed]

(d) ≥ 2x +1

∴8x − 4 > 5x + 2 3

2x −1

∴8x − 5x > 2 + 4 ∴ × 3 ≥ (2 x + 1) × 3

3

∴ 3x > 6

∴ 2x −1 ≥ 6x + 3

∴x > 2

2 ∴ 2x − 6x ≥ 3 + 1

∴−4 x ≥ 4

[All real numbers larger than 2]

∴ x ≤ −1

−1

including −1 ]

58

EXAMPLE 10

Solve the following compound inequalities and then represent the solutions on a number

line:

1

(a) −3 < 3x − 1 < 5 (b) −2 < 3 − x ≤ 5

2

Solutions

3x − 1 is smaller than 5 AND larger than −3 which implies that both the inequality

statements must be true. 2

−3 < 3x − 1 and 3x − 1 < 5 x>−

3

∴−3x < 2 and 3x < 6 x < 2

2

2 − <x<2

∴ x > − and x < 2 3

3

−2 2 2

−

∴ <x<2 3

3

∴−3 < 3 x − 1 < 5

∴−3 + 1 < 3 x − 1 + 1 < 5 + 1 [add 1 to all terms in order to get x by itself]

∴−2 < 3 x < 6 [divide all three terms by 3]

−2

∴ <x<2 [inequality signs remain the same]

3

2 2

−

3

2

[All real numbers greater than − and smaller than 2]

3

1

(b) −2 < 3 − x ≤ 5

2

1 −4 10

∴−5 < − x ≤ 2 [subtract 3 to all terms]

2

∴10 > x ≥ −4 [multiply all terms by − 2]

[Note that the inequality signs had to be reversed]

Rewrite the inequality as follows:

∴−4 ≤ x < 10

59

EXERCISE 7

(a) Solve the following inequalities and represent the solutions on a number line.

(1) x + 18 ≤ 9 − 2 x (2) x − 3 < 2x + 5

(3) 5( x − 1) > 7( x − 1) (4) 4( x − 3) − 2( x − 1) ≥ 0

(b) Solve the following inequalities and represent the solutions on a number line.

x x 3x 1 y +5

(1) − >1 (2) − x ≤1 (3) + y ≤1

3 2 4 2 3

3y + 2 y − 6

(4) − >0 (5) ( x + 3)( x − 4) ≤ ( x − 3)( x + 4)

4 3

(c) Solve the following inequalities and represent the solutions on a number line.

(1) −2 ≤ x − 1 < 5 (2) −3 < x + 2 < 4

(3) −5 ≤ 2 x + 1 ≤ 5 (4) −8 < 3x − 2 < 4

(5) −9 < 1 − 5x ≤ 21 (6) −2 ≤ 2 − x < 2

(a) Solve for x:

(1) 2 x = 5x + 3 (2) 2 x2 = 5x + 3 (3) 4 x 2 = 16 x

(4) 4 x 2 = 16 (5) − x 2 + 3 x = −10 (6) ( x − 2)(2 x + 3) = 0

(7) x − 2(2 x + 3) = 0 (8) ( x − 2)(2 x + 3) = −6

3( x − 2) 2x − 5 3 x +1 x2 + 7

(9) − = 4x (10) − =

4 2 2x 3x 6x

x2 + 6 3

(11) 2

=2 − (12) 6 x − 3 ( x + 4) < 5x

x +x 2x

4x −1 2 (3x − 5)

(13) −3 < 7 − 2 x ≤ 11 (14) − ≤ x+2

5 3

(b) Solve the following equations

(1) 3x = 9 (2) 3x = 9 (3) 3 x 2 = 27 (4) 3x 2 = 27 x

2x

(c) Solve for x: −2 < 2 − < 10

3

24

(d) (1) Solve: p + = 11

p

24

(2) Hence solve for x if: x 2 − 2 x + 2

= 11

x − 2x

Solve for x and y simultaneously using the:

(1) elimination method

(2) substitution method

(3) graphical method (sketch the two lines and find the point at which they

intersect.

(f) Solve for x and y using the method of your choice.

5x − 3 y = 10 and 2 y − 3x = 12

(g) Solve for x and represent your answer on a number line: 9 x ≤ 6 x − 10 < 14

(h) Solve for x in the equation (2 x − 1)( y + 2) = 0 if:

(1) y = −2 (2) y=4

60

1

(i) Given: x + = 5, x > 1

x

1 1 1

(1) x2 + 2 (2) x− (3) x3 + 3

x x x

1

x−

(j) Given: x =1

1

1+

x

(1) For which values of x is this equation undefined.

(2) Solve the equation.

3

(k) Consider the equation of a hyperbolic function: y = +4

x−2

(1) For what value of x will the equation be undefined?

(2) By making x the subject of the equation, show that the equation is also not

defined for y = 4 .

(l) There were 600 spectators at a tennis match. Of these 144 were children and there

were twice as many men as women. Determine how many women were there.

(m) Tickets to the DJ Sbu concert cost R200 and R300. A total of 250 tickets were sold.

The total amount taken for the show was R55 000. Determine how many of each

ticket were sold.

(n) The length of a rectangular field is 3 metres more than its breadth. The area of the

field is 70 m 2 . Calculate the length of the field.

(o) The area of a room in a house has the following measurements as indicated on the

diagram below. If the total area of the room is 43 m 2 , calculate the value of x.

3

x+

2

2x

2m

8m

61

CHAPTER 5 TRIGONOMETRY

INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY

Trigonometry can be found in many fields such as navigation, surveying, engineering and

architecture. It is the study of the relationships between the angles and the lengths of the

sides of triangles. The word “Trigonometry” is derived from two Greek words: ‘trigon’

which means triangle and ‘metron’ which means a measure and therefore trigonometry

means literally the measurement of a triangle. Angles in Trigonometry are usually indicated

by means of Greek letters: θ = theta, β = beta, α = alpha, φ = phi

Right-angled triangles

These triangles are fundamental to the study of trigonometry. In Grade 8 you were

introduced to the theorem of Pythagoras which describes the relationship between the three

sides of a right-angled triangle.

c2 = a 2 + b2

a 2 = c2 − b2

b2 = c2 − a 2

Furthermore, we will label the three sides as adjacent, opposite and hypotenuse. The

longest side (opposite the right-angle) is called the hypotenuse. The opposite and adjacent

sides are dependent on which angle is used as the reference point.

Hy Hy

po po

Opposite to B ten ten

us Adjacent to A us

e e

Adjacent to B Opposite to A

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

There are three special ratios in the sudy of Trigonometry, namely the sine, cosine and

tangent ratios. When these ratios are applied to a right-angled triangle, they define the

relationships between its sides and angles.

The triangles sketched on the next page are all similar because their corresponding angles

are equal and their corresponding sides are in proportion. Each of the triangles has

angles 30°, 60° and 90°. The lengths of the sides are also indicated.

62

30°

30°

Opposite 60°

Adjacent to 30° 30°

Adjacent to 60°

Opposite 30°

opposite side

With respect to the angle 60° in the three triangles, the ratio will be equal.

hypotenuse

opposite side 4,33

In ΔABC: = = 0,866

hypotenuse 5

opposite side 6,928

In ΔDEF: = = 0,866

hypotenuse 8

opposite side 3, 464

In ΔGHI: = = 0,866

hypotenuse 4

This will be true for any triangle with angles 30°, 60° and 90°. The constant 0,866 is called

the sine of 60°.

sine of an angle θ =

length of the hypotenuse

opposite

∴ sin θ =

hypotenuse

opposite 2,5 4 2 1

sin 30° = = = = =

hypotenuse 5 8 4 2

63

adjacent side

With respect to the angle 60° in the three triangles the ratio will be equal.

hypotenuse

adjacent side 2,5

In ΔABC: = = 0,5

hypotenuse 5

adjacent side 4

In ΔDEF: = = 0,5

hypotenuse 8

adjacent side 2

In ΔGHI: = = 0,5

hypotenuse 4

This will be true for any triangle with angles 30°, 60° and 90°. The constant 0,5 is called the

cosine of 60°.

cosine of an angle θ =

length of the hypotenuse

adjacent

∴ cos θ =

hypotenuse

cos 30° = = = = = 0,866

hypotenuse 5 8 4

opposite side

With respect to the angle 60° in the three triangles the ratio will be equal.

adjacent side

opposite side 4,33

In ΔABC: = = 1, 732

adjacent side 1,5

opposite side 6,928

In ΔDEF: = = 1, 732

adjacent side 4

opposite side 3, 464

In ΔGHI: = = 1, 732

adjacent side 2

This will be true for any triangle with angles 30°, 60° and 90°. The constant 1,732 is called

the tangent of 60°.

tangent of an angle θ =

length of the side adjacent to angle θ

opposite

∴ tan θ =

adjacent

64

Notice that in all three triangles:

opposite 2,5 4 2

tan 30° = = = = = 0,577 (rounded off to 3 decimal places)

adjacent 4,33 6,928 3, 464

We can therefore conclude that the trigonometric ratios of any two similar triangles will be

the same.

opposite adjacent opposite

sin θ = cos θ = tan θ =

hypotenuse hypotenuse adjacent

EXAMPLE 1

ˆ = β and Fˆ = θ. D

(a) Determine the length of the hypotenuse DF. β

(b) Write the value of sin θ , cos θ and tan θ .

(c) Write the value of sin β , cos β and tan β . θ

E 12 cm F

Solutions D

(a) DF2 = 52 + 122 [Pythagoras] Opposite θ

β

∴ DF2 = 169 Adjacent to β

∴ DF = 13 cm

θ

opp 5 opp 12 E 12 cm F

(b) sin θ = = (c) sin β = = Opposite β

hyp 13 hyp 13

adj 12 adj 5 Adjacent to θ

cos θ = = cos β = =

hyp 13 hyp 13

opp 5 opp 12

tan θ = = tan β = =

adj 12 adj 5

EXAMPLE 2 P S V

Determine: (a) tan Q 7 cm

9 cm

(b) cos V 25 cm

T

Solutions Q 15 cm R

(a) PR 2 = 152 − 92 (b) SV 2 = 252 − 7 2

∴ PR 2 = 144 ∴ SV 2 = 576

∴ PR = 144 = 12 cm ∴ SV = 576 = 24 cm

opp 12 4 adj 24

∴ tan Q = = = ∴ cos V = =

adj 9 3 hyp 25

65

EXERCISE 1

(a) Redraw the triangles below and indicate which sides are opposite, adjacent and

hypotenuse with respect to θ .

θ θ

(3) tan K (4) sin G

(5) cos G (6) tan G

θ

(1) sin θ (2) cos θ

(3) tan θ (4) sin α

(5) cos α (6) tan α α

θ

(2) Write the value of sin θ , cos θ and tan θ E D

(e) 5k cm

B E C O

15cm 4k cm

17 cm

P

N

Determine the value of:

(1) sin N (2) tan C

P 24cm

(f) (1) Determine cos L and cos B

L

12 cm

(2) What do you notice? N E

(3) What can you deduce about

the two triangles and why? 16cm

30cm

K B

66

CALCULATING THE TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS OF A GIVEN ANGLE

The sine, cosine and tangent ratio can be calculated with the use of a calculator which

must be on the DEG (degree) mode.

Consider the triangles we used to discover the sine, cosine and tangent ratios on page 64.

adj

We discovered that cos 60° = = 0, 5 and it is possible to use a calculator to do this

hyp

calculation as well as for the other trigonometric ratios of 60°.

On your calculator, press the button “cos” and then type in “60” (some calculators will

expect you to close the brackets first). Then press “ = ” and you will get 0,5. Now verify the

ratios of sin 60° = 0,866 and tan 60° = 1, 703 rounded to three decimal places.

EXAMPLE 3

Evaluate the following trigonometric ratios rounded off to two decimal places where

necessary.

(a) cos 35° (b) tan 36° (c) sin 83° (d) sin 43°

sin12°

(e) cos14° (f) tan 45° (g) 5cos 60° (h)

12

1 20,35

(i) tan 36° ( j) (k) sin(35° + 75°) = 0,94

3 sin 38°

(l) sin 35° + sin 75° = 1, 54

Solutions

(a) cos(35°) = 0,82 (b) tan(36°) = 0, 73 (c) sin(83°) = 0, 99

sin(12°) 1

(g) 5 cos(60°) = 2, 5 (h) = 0, 02 (i) tan(36°) = 0, 24

12 3

20,35

(j) = 33,05 (k) sin(35° + 75°) = 0, 94 (l) sin 35° + sin 75° = 1, 54

sin(38°)

Take note: sin(35° + 75°) ≠ sin 35° + sin 75° (An important result)

EXAMPLE 4

Determine the decimal value of the following if A = 23,8° and B = 18,1°

(Round off your answers to one decimal place)

(a) sin(A + B) (b) tan 2B (c) cos2 (2A − 10°)

Solutions

(a) sin(23,8° + 18,1°) (b) tan(2(18,1°)) (c) cos 2 (2(23,8°) − 10°)

= sin(41,9°) = tan(36, 2) = cos 2 (37, 6°)

= 0, 667... ≈ 0, 7 = 0, 7318... ≈ 0, 7 = (cos(37, 6°))2

= 0, 627... ≈ 0, 6

67

EXERCISE 2

(a) Calculate with the use of a calculator the following rounded off to two decimal

places where appropriate.

(1) cos 23° (2) sin 68° (3) tan 64°

(4) cos34° (5) 2cos 45° (6) 5sin 65°

(7) 7 tan 58° (8) −4sin 30° (9) 1 sin 70°

3

sin 60° cos 24°

(10) (11) (12) tan(54° + 25°)

20 24

40 sin 60° cos 70°

(13) tan 54° + tan 25° (14) (15)

−25sin 45° tan 46° sin 30°

(b) Calculate with the use of a calculator the value of the following:

2

[ sin 2 θ can be written as (sin θ)2 , eg. sin 2 23° = ( sin(23°) ) = 0,1526... ]

(1) sin 2 61° + cos2 61° (2) sin 2 49° + cos2 49°

(3) sin 2 42° + cos2 42° (4) cos2 30° + sin 2 30°

What possible conclusion can you make from the above calculations?

(c) Determine the decimal value of the following if A = 35° and B = 52°

(Round off your answers to two decimal places)

(1) cos (A + B) (2) cos A + cos B (3) 3sin 2B

1

(4) 3 tan A (5) 2sin 2 (2A − B) (6) cos 3A + sin B

3

From the previous example and exercise, we saw that the trigonometric ratio of a given

angle can easily be found by using a calculator. The reverse process is also possible. This

process is finding the size of an angle when given its sine, cosine or tangent ratio.

Consider the trigonometric equation cos θ = 0, 5 . We want to find the size of the angle that

will result in the ratio 0,5.

In order to do this, we will make use of the cos−1 function on the calculator. This function

can be found above the “cos” button. In order to use this function, you have to press the

“SHIFT” button on your calculator.

Therefore, the sequence of buttons to press on most of the calculators will be as follows:

• Press the SHIFT button followed by the “cos” button. The cos−1 will appear on

your calculator screen.

• Enter the ratio value (in this case 0.5)

• Press the “=” button (some calculators expect you to close the brackets first)

Some calculators may have the button INV or 2nd F instead of SHIFT.

68

EXAMPLE 5

(a) Determine the size of the acute angle θ in each of the following trigonometric

equations. Round your answers off to one decimal place where necessary.

(b) Solve the following equations. Round your answers off to one decimal place where

necessary. All angles are acute.

1

(3) tan 2 x = 3 (4) 1 + 2 cos( x + 10°) = 2,356

2

Solutions

∴θ = cos −1 (0,5) as it appears on the calculator screen

∴θ = 60°

(2) tan θ = 4,123 press [shift] [tan] then 4,123

−1

∴θ = tan (4,123) as it appears on the calculator screen

∴θ = 76, 4°

(3) sin θ = 0, 706 press [shift] [sin] then 0,706

−1

∴θ = sin (0, 706) as it appears on the calculator screen

∴θ = 44,9°

(b) (1) 2sin θ = 1,124 sin θ has been multiplied by 2

∴ sin θ = 0,562 isolate sin θ by dividing by 2

∴θ = sin −1 (0,562)

∴θ = 34, 2°

(2) sin(2θ) = 0, 435 insert the brackets

∴ 2θ = sin −1 (0, 435)

∴ 2θ = 25, 78529...° determine θ

∴θ = 12,9° divide by 2 and then determine θ

1

(3) tan 2 x = 3 LCD: 2

2

1

∴ 2 × tan 2 x = 3 × 2 isolate tan 2 x

2

∴ tan 2 x = 6

∴ 2 x = tan −1 (6)

∴ 2 x = 80,537...°

∴ x = 40,3°

69

(4) 1 + 2 cos( x + 10°) = 2, 356

∴ 2 cos( x + 10°) = 1,356

∴ cos( x + 10°) = 0, 678

∴ x + 10° = cos −1 (0, 678)

∴ x + 10° = 47, 3124...°

∴ x = 37, 3°

EXERCISE 3

(a) Determine the size of the acute angle θ in each of the following, rounding your

answers off to two decimal places where necessary.

(1) sin θ = 0,866 (2) cos θ = 0,866 (3) tan θ = 1, 703

(4) sin θ = 1 (5) cos θ = 1 (6) tan θ = 1

(b) Solve the following equations by finding the size of the acute angle θ in each case

rounding your answers off correct to one decimal place where necessary.

(1) cos 3θ = 0,33 (2) 3cos θ = 0,33 (3) sin 4θ = 0,888

(4) 4 sin θ = 0,888 (5) tan 4θ = 4 (6) 4 tan 4θ = 4

(c) Determine the value of the acute angle x in each of the following equations.

(1) sin( x − 20°) = 0, 678 (2) 3cos( x + 30°) = 2,121

(3) 2 tan(2 x − 10°) = 3, 4641 (4) 2 tan 2 x − 10 = 3, 4641

(d) Michael attempted to solve the equation 2 cos(4θ + 20°) = 0,8 . Identify what errors

were made by Michael in lines 1 and 2 and then provide the correct solution.

2 cos(4θ + 20°) = 0,8

Line 1 ∴ cos(2θ + 10°) = 0, 4

Line 2 ∴θ = 2 cos −1 (0, 4) + 10°

Line 3 ∴θ = 2(66, 421...°) + 10°

Line 4 ∴θ = 142,8°

Before discussing the trigonometric ratios of special angles, it is essential for you to

understand the following concepts involving surds.

(a) 2 6 +5 6 = 7 6 (add the like surds)

(b) 7 3+3 7 − 5 7 = 7 3 − 2 7 (subtract the like surds)

Note that 7 3 − 2 7 cannot be simplified any further because the surds are unlike.

Multiplication of surds

● a × b = ab for a > 0 ; b > 0

● ( a )2 = a . a = a2 = a for a > 0

70

Consider the following:

(a) 5× 7 = 5 7 (b) 3 5 × 2 = 3 5 × 2 = 3 10

2× 5 2 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 +2

(e) = =− (f) 2+ = × + =

−3 × 5 −3 5 3 2 1 2 2 2

The angles 30° , 45° and 60° are referred to as special angles. The reason for them being

called special angles is because the trigonometric ratios of these angles can be evaluated

without using a calculator.

The following two triangles can be used to determine trigonometric ratios of special angles.

Triangle A Triangle B

2

3

45°

60° 60°

For 45° we will sketch a right-angled triangle with sides 1 and 1 and then find the third side

using Pythagoras. For 30° and 60°, we will sketch an equilateral triangle with side-lengths of

2 units. The dotted line AD is a perpendicular bisector of side BD and divides Â into two

equal angles ( 30° ). We can find the length of the AD using Pythagoras.

EXAMPLE 6

Evaluate the following without using a calculator. Use the above triangles to assist you.

(a) cos 45° (b) cos 60° (c) tan 45° (d) sin 30°

Solutions

adj 1 adj 1

(a) cos 45° = = (Triangle A) (b) cos 60° = = (Triangle B)

hyp 2 hyp 2

opp 1 opp 1

(c) tan 45° = = = 1 (Triangle A) (d) sin 30° = = (Triangle B)

adj 1 hyp 2

71

EXAMPLE 7

Calculate the following without using a calculator:

(a) sin 30° + cos 60° (b) tan 60° − cos 30°

sin 60°

(c) (d) cos2 45°

tan 30°

Solutions

1 1 3 3

+ = −

2 2 1 2

=1

2 3 3

= −

2 2

2 3− 3 3

= =

2 2

1

sin 30°

(c) = 2 (d) cos 2 45° = (cos 45°) 2

tan 30° 1

2

3 1

=

1 3 3 2

= × =

2 1 2 1

=

2

EXAMPLE 8

Solve the equation 2 cos x − 3 = 0 without using a calculator where x is an acute angle.

Solution

2 cos x − 3 = 0

30° 30°

∴ 2 cos x = 3

3

3 60°

∴ cos x = 60°

2

3 is adjacent to 30° and 2 is the hypotenuse

opp 3

∴ x = 30° since cos 30° = =

hyp 2

EXERCISE 4

tan 30°

(1) sin 30° + cos 2 45° (2) cos 30° + tan 60° (3)

tan 60°

cos 30°

(4) sin 2 45° − cos 2 30° (5) tan 60° + sin 60° (6)

tan 30°

72

sin 45°.cos 45°

(7) cos 30°.tan 30° − tan 45° (8)

tan 60°.tan 30°

(9) 2 cos 45° − 3 tan 30° (10) 4 cos 2 30° + tan 30°.sin 60°

a 1 2

(b) (1) Using the fact that 1 = where a > 0 , show that =

a 2 2

(2) Hence show that:

2 3

(i) cos 45° = (ii) tan 30° =

2 3

3 3

(iii) tan 60° = (iv) sin 60° =

3 2 3

(c) Without using a calculator, solve the following equations, where the angles are acute.

1 1

(1) sin x = (2) cos x = (3) 2sin x = 3

2 2

(4) 2 cos x = 1 (5) tan x = 3 (6) 3 tan x − 1 = 0

1 2

(10) 2 cos 2 x = 2 (11) 3 tan x = 3 (12) sin 4 x =

4 8

F

In ΔFUN , FN = 10, U ˆ = 90° and N

ˆ = 28° .

Calculate the length of FU, rounded off to one decimal place. 10

.

28°

Solution N U

Let N be your point of reference (given angle).

You now need to create an equation involving

opp

the ratio and the angle 28°.

hyp

opp

= sin 28°

hyp

FU

∴ = sin 28°

10

∴ FU = 10sin 28° multiply by LCD

∴ FU = 4, 7 units

73

EXAMPLE 10 (Finding the length of a side) .

Consider the triangle sketched alongside. C O

Calculate the length of ON correct to one decimal 57°

place.

12,1 cm

Solution

You want side ON, which is adjacent to 57°.

You have side NC, which is opposite to 57°.

opp

You now need to create an equation involving the ratio and the angle 57°:

adj

opp ˆ = 33°

= tan 57° Alternatively: C (int ∠ s of Δ )

adj

12,1 From C:ˆ opp = tan 33°

∴ = tan 57° adj

ON

ON

∴12,1 = ON tan 57° ∴ = tan 33°

12,1

12,1

∴ = ON ∴ ON = 12,1tan 33°

tan 57°

∴ ON = 7,9 cm ∴ ON = 7,9 cm

Calculate the size of θ correct to one decimal place in each case.

(a) P 10 m U (b)

F

θ

13cm 11, 2cm

16 m

θ

A N

N

Solutions

Side PN is the hypotenuse.

adj

Now form an equation involving the ratio and angle θ:

hyp

adj

cos θ =

hyp

10

∴ cos θ =

16

∴ cos θ = 0, 625

∴θ = 51,3°

74

(b) We have side AF, which is adjacent to θ . Side FN is opposite θ .

opp

Now form an equation involving the ratio and angle θ :

adj

opp

tan θ =

adj

11, 2

∴ tan θ =

13

∴ tan θ = 0,8615384615 (don't round off)

∴θ = 40, 7°

EXERCISE 5

42° 3

C

P

(b) (1) Calculate the length of AB.

67°

(2) Calculate the length of BC.

5,6

B

(c) Calculate:

(1) the size of θ .

(2) the the length of AC.

θ

(d) Calculate:

α

(1) the size of α .

(2) the size of θ .

θ

(e) Calculate:

(1) the length of AC. 67°

(2) the length of AB.

75

(f) In the diagram, BD ⊥ AC .

Using the information provided, 42° 48°

calculate the length of AC.

AD = 15 cm and DB = 16 cm .

Calculate the size of θ .

40° θ

diagram, calculate the length of BC.

14°

36°

20°

3 ˆ ∈ ( 0° ; 90° ) .

It is given that AC = 4 units, tan A = and A

2

(1) Determine the length of BC without solving for Â .

the size of P̂ if it is given that

m = 40 cm, n = 30 cm and Rˆ = 80° .

76

ANGLES OF ELEVATION AND DEPRESSION

[Note that N̂ = β since alt ∠ s are equal]

EXAMPLE 12

The angle of depression of a boat on the ocean from the top of a cliff is 55° . The boat is 70

metres from the foot of the cliff.

(a) What is the angle of elevation of the top of the cliff from the boat?

55°

Solutions

(a) The angle of elevation of the top of the cliff from the boat is 55° , i.e. B̂ = 55 ° .

T

h 55°

= tan 55°

70 m h

∴ h = (70 m) tan 55°

55°

∴ h = 100 m B C

70 m

77

EXERCISE 6

to the top of Table Mountain. The cable

is 1,2 kilometers in length and makes

an angle of 40° with the ground.

Calculate the height (h) of the mountain.

40°

house is given below. The length of the A

house is to be 10 metres. An exterior

stairway leading to the roof is to form an roof

angle of elevation of 30° with ground level. θ

B D

The slanted part of the roof must be 7 metres C

in length.

(1) Calculate the height of the vertical

wall (DE).

(2) Calculate the size of θ , the angle of 30° 10 m

elevation of the top of the roof (A) F Front view of a house E

from the ceiling BCD.

(3) Calculate the length of the beam AC.

ball from a distance of 11 metres from the

goalposts (4 metres high) in order to score

a goal for his team. The shortest distance

travelled by the ball is in a straight line.

The angle formed by the pathway of the ball θ

and the ground is represented by θ .

(1) Calculate the largest angle θ for which the player will possibly score a goal.

(2) Will the player score a goal if the angle θ is 22° ? Explain.

treasure chest at the bottom of the ocean (C) at

an angle of depression of 13° from the boat to 13°

the treasure chest. They then sail for 80 metres

so that they are directly above the treasure chest

at point B. In order to determine the amount of

oxygen they will need when diving for the treasure,

they must first calculate the depth of the treasure

(BC). Calculate the depth of the treasure for the

treasure hunters.

78

ANGLES IN THE CARTESIAN PLANE

In this section, we will extend the trigonometric definitions to include angles in the interval

[0° ; 360°] .

Consider a circle with centre O(0 ; 0) and radius r with R( x ; y ) any point on the circle. θ is

the angle measured anti-clockwise from the positive side of the x-axis to the radius OR,

which is referred to as the terminal arm and θ is said to be in standard position.

For each point R( x ; y ) on the terminal arm of θ , the following trigonometric functions of θ

are defined:

opp y R(x ; y )

sin θ = =

hyp r

adj x

cos θ = = θ

hyp r

opp y

tan θ = =

adj x

The Cartesian plane is divided into four quadrants allowing for angles in the interval

(0° ; 360°)

Angles in the first quadrant will lie in the interval (0° ; 90°)

Angles in the second quadrant will lie in the interval (90° ; 180°)

Angles in the third quadrant will lie in the interval (180° ; 270°)

Angles in the fourth quadrant will lie in the interval (270° ; 360°)

90°

0°

180°

360°

270°

79

Consider the following table:

Quad θ r x y y x y Diagram

r r x

1 θ∈ (0° ; 90°) + + + + + + x+

=+ =+ =+ y+

+ + +

θ

2 θ ∈ (90° ;180°) + − + + − + x−

=+ =− =− y+

+ + −

θ

3 θ∈ (180° ; 270°) + − − − − −

=− =− =+

+ + −

θ

x−

y−

4 θ ∈ (270° ; 360°) + + − − + −

=− =+ =−

+ + +

θ

x+

y−

Conclusion

• All trigonometric functions are positive in the first quadrant.

• sin θ is positive in the second quadrant and tan θ and cos θ are negative.

• tan θ is positive in the third quadrant and sin θ and cos θ are negative.

● cos θ is positive in the fourth quadrant and sin θ and tanθ are negative.

sin θ + All +

tan θ + cos θ +

Quadrant 1 Quadrant 2 Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4

All singers (sin) take (tan) cough sweets (cos)

80

EXERCISE 7

In which quadrant does the terminal arm of the angle θ lie if:

(a) sin θ > 0 and cos θ > 0 (b) sin θ < 0 and cos θ < 0

(c) tan θ > 0 and cos θ < 0 (d) tan θ < 0 and cos θ < 0

(e) sin θ < 0 and θ∈ [90°;270°] (f) cos θ < 0 and 0° < θ < 180°

EXAMPLE 13

4

If cos θ = and θ∈ [ 0°;90°] , calculate without the use of a calculator and with the aid of a

5

diagram the value of tan 2 θ .

Solution

4 x (4 ; y )

Given : cos θ = =

5 r 5 y

and x 2 + y 2 = r 2 .......Pythagoras

θ

∴ (4) 2 + y 2 = (5) 2 4

2 x=4

∴16 + y = 25

y=3

∴ y2 − 9 = 0

r =5

∴ ( y + 3)( y − 3) = 0

∴ y = ±3 Quicker method to solve for y:

But y is positive in Quadrant 1 y2 − 9 = 0

∴y =3

∴ y2 = 9

2 2

y 3 9

∴ tan 2 θ = = = ∴y =± 9

x 4 16

∴ y = ±3

EXAMPLE 14

If 13sin θ = −5 and θ∈ [90°; 270°] calculate without the use of a calculator and with the aid

of a diagram the value of cos θ + sin θ .

Solution

13sin θ = −5

5 −5 y

x θ

∴ sin θ = − = = (r is always positive)

13 13 r

will lie in the third or fourth quadrant. y = −5

( x ; − 5) r = 13

But with θ∈ [90°; 270°] , the terminal arm will lie

in the third quadrant.

81

x 2 + y 2 = r 2 .......Pythagoras Quicker method:

∴ x 2 + (−5) 2 = (13) 2 x 2 − 144 = 0

∴ x 2 + 25 = 169 ∴ x 2 = 144

∴ x 2 − 144 = 0 ∴ x = ± 144

∴ ( x + 12)( x − 12) = 0 ∴ x = ±12

∴ x = ±12

But x is negative in Quadrant 3

∴ x = −12

cos θ + sin θ

−12 −5

= +

13 13

−17 4

= = −1

13 13

EXERCISE 8

3

(a) If sin θ = and 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° , determine by means of a diagram:

5

(1) cos 2 θ (2) 2 tan θ

5

(b) If tan θ = and sin θ > 0 , determine by means of a diagram:

12

(1) 13cos θ (2) cos2 θ + sin 2 θ

(c) If 5cos A + 3 = 0 and 180° < A < 360° , determine by means of a diagram:

sin A

(1) tan 2 A (2)

cos A

(d) If 8 tan θ + 15 = 0 and θ ∈ [90° ; 270°] , determine by means of a diagram:

(1) sin θ + cos θ (2) 34sin θ − 17 cos θ

(1) sin 2 θ + cos2 θ (2) 25 tan 2 θ

(f) If 4 tan B − 3 = 0 and cos B < 0 , determine by means of a diagram:

(1) (sin B + cos B) 2 (2) 25(sin B − cos B) 2

(g) If 2sin θ + 1 = 0 and 90° < θ < 270° calculate without the use of a calculator and with

the aid of a diagram the value of the following:

(1) 4 cos 2 θ (2) 81tan 2 θ

12 y P(b ; 18)

(h) In the diagram alongside tan θ = and P(b ; 18)

5

Determine the value of b without using a calculator.

θ x

a

(i) If tan θ = where θ ∈ [ 0° ; 90°] , determine sin 2 θ by means of a diagram.

b

82

RECIPROCALS OF THE TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

According to CAPS, the reciprocals of the trigonometric ratios are to be taught and

examined in Grade 10 only. Should you be pressurized for time, simply introduce the

reciprocals and let the learners study this topic on their own for interest.

The reciprocal of a number is a number which when multiplied by the original number gives

an answer of 1. Here are some examples:

1 1

The number 6 has a reciprocal of since 6 × = 1

6 6

2 3 2 3

The number has a reciprocal of since × = 1

3 2 3 2

We can define reciprocal funtions for the sine, cosine and tangent ratios.

The cosecant function (cosec θ ) is the reciprocal of sin θ

1 hyp

cosec θ = =

sin θ opp

1 hyp

sec θ = =

cos θ adj

1 adj

cot θ = =

tan θ opp

EXAMPLE 15

n k

(a) sin N = and cosec N =

k n

m k

(b) cos N = and sec N =

k m

n m

(c) tan N = and cot N =

m n

EXAMPLE 16

83

Solutions

2 2 1 2

= =2 = . =

1 3 3 3

1 1 1

= = 2, 05 = + = 2,36

tan 26° cos 36° sin 63°

EXAMPLE 17

Solution

cosec θ = 2 45°

2

2

∴ cosec θ =

1 45°

2 is the hypotenuse and 1 is opposite 45°

hyp 2

∴ x = 45° since cosec 45° = =

opp 1

Alternatively:

2

cosecθ =

1

1

∴ sin θ =

2

2 is the hypotenuse and 1 is opposite 45° .

opp 1

∴ x = 45° since sin 45° = =

hyp 2

EXAMPLE 18

Solve the equation sec θ = 1, 5 rounded off to two decimal places if θ is an acute angle.

Solution

sec θ = 1,5

1

∴ cos θ =

1,5

2

∴ cos θ =

3

2

∴ θ = cos −1 = 48,19°

3

84

EXERCISE 9

questions.

State the following:

(1) sec A (2) cot A

(3) cosec A (4) cot C

(5) cosec C (6) sec C

answer the questions below.

State the following: α

(3) sec θ (4) cosec α

θ

(5) tan α (6) cos α

(4) cot 60° (5) sec 2 45° (6) 2cosec2 45°

(7) cot 30°. tan 30° (8) cot 30° + tan 30° (9) cosec 30°. cosec 45°

(4) cosec 94° + sec 35° (5) 3cot 2 57° (6) ( cosec 25° )3

(e) Without using a calculator, solve the following equations if the angles are acute.

(f) Solve the following equations rounded off to two decimal places if the angles are

acute.

85

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

In this section, we will discuss the graphs of the basic functions y = sin θ and y = cos θ and

then introduce the functions y = a sin θ + q and y = a cos θ + q .

Consider y = sin θ

The following table contains specific values of θ and the corresponding y-values.

For example, if θ = 30° , then y = sin 30° = 0,5 .

y = sin θ 0 0,5 0,7 0,9 1 0,9 0,7 0,5 0

y = sin θ −0, 5 −0, 7 −0, 9 −1 −0, 9 −0, 7 −0, 5 0

We can represent the values of θ on the horizontal axis and the values of y on the vertical

axis and then draw the graph of y = sin θ .

y

θ

° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° °

1

(c) The amplitude of a graph is defined to be [distance between max and min value].

2

1

For the graph of y = sin θ , the amplitude is [1 − (−1)] = 1

2

86

(d) If we increase the values of θ , the graph of y = sin θ will repeat its basic shape over

360° intervals. Let’s draw the graph for the interval θ ∈ [0° ; 720°] .

Please note that we are dealing with angles that are greater than 360° . These types of

angles will be explained in more detail in Grade 11.

y

θ

° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° °

We say that the period of the graph of y = sin θ is 360° . The graph of y = sin θ is

therefore cyclical in nature and repeats its basic shape every 360° .

Consider y = cos θ

The following table contains specific values of θ and the corresponding y-values.

y = cos θ 1 0,9 0,7 0,5 0 −0,5 −0, 7 −0, 9 −1

y = cos θ −0,9 −0, 7 −0,5 0 0,5 0, 7 0,9 1

We can represent the values of θ on the horizontal axis and the values of y on the vertical

axis and then draw the graph of y = cosθ .

1,2

1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

θ

30 ° 60 ° 90 ° 120 ° 150° 180° 210° 240° 270° 300° 330° 360°

−0,2

−0,4

−0,6

−0,8

−1

−1,2

87

The graph of y = cos θ has the following characteristics:

(a) The maximum value is 1 and the minimum value is −1 .

(b) The range is y ∈ [−1 ; 1]

1

(c) The amplitude of a graph is defined to be [distance between max and min value].

2

1

For the graph of y = cos θ , the amplitude is [1 − (−1)] = 1

2

(d) If we increase the values of θ , the graph of y = cos θ will repeat its basic shape

over 360° intervals. Let’s draw the graph for the interval θ ∈ [0° ; 720°] .

y

1,2

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

30° 60° 90 ° 120° 150° 180° 210° 240 ° 270° 300° 330° 360 ° 390 °420 ° 450° 480° 510° 540° 570° 600° 630° 660° 690° 720°

θ

- 0,2

- 0,4

- 0,6

- 0,8

-1

- 1,2

We say that the period of the graph of y = cos θ is 360° . The graph of y = cos θ is

therefore cyclical in nature and repeats its basic shape every 360° .

EXAMPLE 19

Solution

Select a few values for θ , calculate the corresponding y-values and then draw the graphs.

y = 2 sin θ For θ = 0° y = 2 sin 0° = 0

For θ = 90° y = 2 sin 90° = 2

For θ = 180° y = 2 sin180° = 0

For θ = 270° y = 2 sin 270° = −2

For θ = 360° y = 2 sin 360° = 0

y = 4 cos θ For θ = 0° y = 4 cos 0° = 4

For θ = 90° y = 4 cos 90° = 0

For θ = 180° y = 4 cos180° = −4

For θ = 270° y = 4 cos 270° = 0

For θ = 360° y = 4 cos 360° = 4

88

y

3

y = 2sin θ

2

1

y = sin θ

θ

90° 180 ° 270 ° 360 °

-1

-2

-3

Notice that the graph of y = 2 sin θ is a vertical stretch of the basic graph y = sin θ by a

factor of 2.

The maximum value is 2 and the minimum value is −2 and the range is y ∈ [−2 ; 2] .

1

The amplitude of the graph of y = 2 sin θ is [2 − (−2)] = 2 and the period is 360° .

2

This vertical stretch of the graph of y = sin θ is called an amplitude shift.

The number 2 in the equation y = 2 sin θ tells us what the amplitude of the graph is.

θ

° ° ° °

y = cos θ

y = 4cos θ

Notice that the graph of y = 4 cos θ is a vertical stretch of the basic graph y = cos θ by a

factor of 4.

The maximum value is 4 and the minimum value is −4 and the range is y ∈ [−4 ; 4] .

1

The amplitude of the graph of y = 2 sin θ is [2 − (−2)] = 2 and the period is 360° .

2

This vertical stretch of the graph of y = cos θ is called an amplitude shift.

The number 4 in the equation y = 4 cos θ tells us what the amplitude of the graph is.

89

EXAMPLE 20

Solution

As with the graphs of other functions (See Chapter 6), the negative sign indicates a

reflection in the horizontal axis.

All you need to do is first draw the basic graph of y = sin θ , stretch this graph vertically by a

factor of 3 and then reflect this graph in the horizontal axis to obtain the graph of

y = −3sin θ .

y

44

y = 3sin θ

3

2

y = sin θ

1

θ

90 ° 180° 270° 360°

-1

-2

-3

y = −3sin θ

-4

Note:

1

The amplitude of the graph of y = −3sin θ is: [3 − (−3)] = 3 .

2

Therefore, in the equation y = −3sin θ , the number 3 tells us that the amplitude is 3 and the

negative sign indicates a reflection in the horizontal axis.

EXERCISE 10

(1) Sketch the graphs on the same set of axes for θ ∈ [0° ; 360°] .

(2) Write down the maximum and minimum values for each graph.

(3) Write down the range, amplitude and period for each graph.

(b) Given: y = 2 cos θ and y = −3cos θ

(1) Sketch the graphs on the same set of axes for θ ∈ [0° ; 360°] .

(2) Write down the maximum and minimum values for each graph.

(3) Write down the range, amplitude and period for each graph.

1

(c) Given: y = cos θ and y = − sin θ

2

(1) Sketch the graphs on the same set of axes for θ ∈ [0° ; 360°] .

(2) Write down the maximum and minimum values for each graph.

(3) Write down the range, amplitude and period for each graph.

90

SINE AND COSINE GRAPHS INVOLVING VERTICAL SHIFTS

EXAMPLE 21

Solution

The graph of y = sin θ + 1 is the graph of y = sin θ shifted 1 unit up. The graph is shown

below.

y

3

y = sin θ + 1

2

y = sin θ

θ

90 ° 180 ° 270° 360°

-1

-2

1

The amplitude is [2 − 0] = 1 and the period is 360° .

2

The graph of y = − cos θ − 1 is the graph of y = cos θ reflected in the x-axis and then shifted

1 unit down. The graph is shown below.

y

2

y = cos θ

1

θ

90 ° 180 ° 270 ° 360 °

-1

y = − cos θ

-2

y = − cos θ − 1

-3

The maximum value is 0 and the minimum value is −2 . The range is y ∈ [−2 ; 0] .

1

The amplitude is [0 − ( −2)] = 1 and the period is 360° .

2

91

EXERCISE 11

(a) Given: y = sin θ + 2 and y = cos θ − 1

(1) Sketch the graphs on the same set of axes for θ ∈ [0° ; 360°] .

(2) Write down the maximum and minimum values for each graph.

(3) Write down the range, amplitude and period for each graph.

(b) Given: y = − cos θ + 3 and y = − sin θ − 2

(1) Sketch the graphs on the same set of axes for θ ∈ [0° ; 360°] .

(2) Write down the maximum and minimum values for each graph.

(3) Write down the range, amplitude and period for each graph.

(c) Given: y = 2 sin θ + 4 and y = −3cos θ − 1

(1) Sketch the graphs on the same set of axes for θ ∈ [0° ; 270°] .

(2) Write down the maximum and minimum values for each graph.

(3) Write down the range, amplitude and period for each graph.

Consider y = tan θ

The following table contains specific values of θ and the corresponding y-values.

θ 0° 30° 45° 60° 89° 90° 91° 120° 135° 150° 180°

tan θ 0 0,6 1 1,7 57,2 error −57, 2 −1, 7 −1 −0, 6 0

θ 210° 225° 240° 269° 270° 271° 300° 315° 330° 360°

tan θ 0,6 1 1,7 57,2 error error −1, 7 −1 −0, 6 0

We can represent the values of θ on the horizontal axis and the values of y on the vertical

axis and then draw the graph of y = tan θ .

y θ = 90° θ = 270°

y = tan θ

4

3

. .

2

1

(45° ;1) (225° ;1)

. .

θ

45°4 90° 135°3 180°

8 225°2 270° 7 315° 1 360°

6

−1

(135° ; − 1) (315° ; − 1)

−2

−3

−4

(a) The graph has no maximum value, no minimum value and hence no amplitude.

(b) The range is y ∈ ( −∞ ; ∞ )

92

(c) The points (45° ;1) , (135° ; − 1) , (225° ;1) and (315° ; − 1) may be referred to as the

critical points on the basic graph y = tan θ . The points are useful when sketching

tan graphs involving vertical stretches, reflections in the x-axis and vertical shifts.

(d) As the values of θ approach 90° from the left, the values of y tend towards +∞ .

At 90° , the y-value is undefined. This means that the curve moves upwards and

never cuts or touches the line θ = 90° . As the values of θ approach 90° from the

right, the values of y tend towards −∞ . The curve moves downwards and never cuts

or touches the line θ = 90° .

An asymptote is a vertical line that a graph approaches but never touches. Therefore,

the line x = 90° is an asymptote of the graph of y = tan θ .

All of this applies to 270° . The line θ = 270° is therefore also an asymptote.

(e) If we start at −90° and then increase the values of θ , it is possible to get an idea of

how the graph of y = tan θ repeats its basic shape over 180° intervals. Let’s draw

the graph for the interval θ ∈ (−90° ; 810°) .

Please note that we are dealing with angles that are negative. These types of

angles will be explained in more detail in Grade 11.

y

θ = 90° θ = 270° θ = 450° θ = 630° θ = 810°

5

44

33

22

11

180° 360° 540° 720°

−90° 4 4 90° 0 3 8 2270° 7 1 6 0450° 5 9 4 8630° 7 2 6 810°

θ

11

22

3

−4

5

We say that the period of the graph of y = tan θ is 180° . The graph of y = tan θ is

therefore cyclical in nature and repeats its basic shape every 180° .

The graph cuts the horizontal axis at θ = 0° + k.180° where k represents integer

values. In other words, every 180° starting from 0° in a negative and positive `

direction.

For example, the graph cuts the horizontal axis at:

θ = 0° + (1).180° = 180° θ = 0° + (2).180° = 360°

θ = 0° + (3).180° = 540° θ = 0° + (4).180° = 720°

For example, the graph has asymptotes at:

θ = 90° + (−1).180° = −90° θ = 90° + (0).180° = 90°

θ = 90° + (1).180° = 270° θ = 90° + (2).180° = 450°

93

EXAMPLE 22

Solution

First draw the graph of y = 2 tan θ by vertically stretching the graph of y = tan θ by a factor

of 2. The y-values of the critical points of y = tan θ are multiplied by 2 to form the

following new points on the graph of y = 2 tan θ :

(45° ; 2) , (135° ; − 2) , (225° ; 2)

The signs of the y-values of the critical points of y = 2 tan θ now become:

(45° ; − 2) , (135° ; 2) , (225° ; − 2)

The asymptotes of this graph remain the same as well as the x-intercepts.

Now plot the critical points, x-intercepts and asymptotes for y = −2 tan θ and restrict the

graph in the interval θ ∈ [0° ; 270°) . The graph is shown below.

y θ = 90° θ = 270°

5

y = 2 tan θ

4

3

2

1

(45° ; 2)

. y = tan θ

(225° ; 2)

.

θ

.

45° 90° 135° 180° 225° 270°

−1

−2

y = −2 tan θ (135° ; − 2)

−3

−4

−5

The period of y = −2 tan θ is 180° and the asymptotes are θ = 90° and θ = 270° .

EXERCISE 12

(a) Sketch the graph of y = − tan θ for the interval θ ∈ [0° ; 360°]

(b) Sketch the graph of y = 3 tan θ for the interval θ ∈ [0° ; 360°]

(c) Sketch the graph of y = − 12 tan θ for the interval θ ∈ [0° ; 270°]

(d) Sketch the graph of y = tan θ + 1 for the interval θ ∈ [0° ; 360°]

(e) Sketch the graph of y = tan θ − 2 for the interval θ ∈ [90° ; 360°]

(f) Sketch the graph of y = −2 tan θ − 1 for the interval θ ∈ [0° ; 360°]

(g) Given: y = 2 tan θ and y = −3sin θ − 3

(1) Sketch the graphs on the same set of axes for θ ∈ [0° ; 270°] .

(2) Write down the period for each graph.

94

Summary of the trigonometric functions

For graphs of the form y = a sin x + q and y = a cos x + q :

The value of a (ignoring negative signs) represents the vertical stretch of the graph as well

as the amplitude.

If a is negative, then there is a reflection in the x-axis.

The value of q represents a vertical shift of the graph y = sin x or y = cos x up or down.

The period of these graphs is 360° .

The value of a (ignoring negative signs) represents a vertical stretch of the graph y = tan x

from the x-axis. The critical points for y = a tan x are

(45° ; a ) , (135° ; − a ) , (225° ; a ) and (315° ; − a )

If a is negative, then there is a reflection in the x-axis.

The value of q represents a vertical shift of the graph y = tan x up or down.

The equations of the asymptotes are x = 90° + k .180° where k represents integer values.

The x-intercepts are at the points (0° + k .180° ; 0) where k represents integer values.

The period of these graphs is 180° .

EXAMPLE 23

shown for the domain x ∈ [0° ; 360°] .

.

y

(270° ; 3)

3

f

2

1 .(360° ;1)

. .

x

90° 180° 270° 360°

−1

(90° ; − 1) (360° ; − 1)

−2

−3 g .

(180° ; − 3)

Note: The variable x in the equations may also be used to represent the angles.

(a) Write down the amplitude and range of f.

(b) Write down the amplitude and range of g.

(c) Determine the values of a and q.

(d) Determine the values of m and n.

Solutions

(a) For f : Amplitude: 2 Range: y ∈ [ −1 ; 3]

95

(c) Substitute two points on the graph into the equation y = a sin x + q and solve

simultaneously.

∴ −1 = a (1) + q ∴ 3 = a ( −1) + q

∴ −1 = a + q ∴ 3 = −a + q

a + q = −1 (A)

−a + q = 3 (B)

∴ 2q = 2 (A) + (B)

∴q = 1

∴ a + 1 = −1

∴ a = −2

Use the following formulae to determine the positive value of a and the value of q in

the equations of y = a sin x + q or y = a cos x + q :

1 1

a = [max − min] q = [max + min]

2 2

1

a = [3 − (−1)] = 2 (this is the amplitude)

2

The given sine graph involves a reflection in the x-axis.

∴ a = −2

1

q = [3 + ( −1)] = 1

2

Notice the transformations of y = sin x into y = −2 sin x + 1

y

3 y = −2sin x + 1

y = 2sin x

2

1

y = sin x

x

90° 180° 270° 360°

−1

−2

y = −2sin x

−3

(d) Substitute two points on the graph into the equation y = m cos x + n and solve

simultaneously:

(180° ; − 3) : −3 = m cos180° + n (360° ; − 1) : −1 = m cos360° + n

∴ −3 = m( −1) + n ∴ −1 = m (1) + n

∴−3 = −m + n ∴−1 = m + n

96

−m + n = −3 (A)

m + n = −1 (B)

∴ 2n = −4 (A) + (B)

∴ n = −2

∴ m + (−2) = −1

∴m = 1

Alternatively:

1 1

a = [max − min] q = [max + min]

2 2

1

a = [−1 − ( −3)] = 1

2

1

q = [−1 + (−3)] = −2

2

Notice the transformations of y = cos x into y = cos x − 2

y

1 y = cos x

x

90° 180° 270° 360°

−1

−2

y = cos x − 2

−3

EXERCISE 13

are shown for the domain x ∈ [0° ; 360°] .

.

y

2 (360° ; 2)

y = a cos x + q

.

1

x

90° (180° ; 0) 270° 360°

.

−1

−2 y = m sin x + n

(90° ; − 2)

(2) Write down the amplitude and range of g.

(3) Determine the values of a and q.

(4) Determine the values of m and n.

97

(b) In the diagram below, the graphs of y = f ( x) = a sin x + q and y = g ( x) = m cos x + n

are shown for the domain x ∈ [0° ; 360°] .

.

y

(180° ; 3)

3

g

2

1

−1

90° 180° 270°

.

360°

x

(360° ; − 1)

−2

−3 .

(90° ; −3)

f

(360° ; − 2)

(2) Write down the range, amplitude and period of g.

(3) Determine the values of a and q

(4) Determine the values of m and n.

(c) In the diagram below, the graphs of two trigonometric functions are shown.

4

3

y

.

(180° ; 4)

2

(45° ; 2)

1

x

45° 90° 135° 180° 225° 270°

−1

−2

(135° ; −2)

−3

−4

(2) Write down the range, amplitude and period of each graph, where possible.

The following exercise includes graph interpretation and the graphical interpretation of

inequalities dealt with in Chapter 6.

98

EXERCISE 14

(a) The diagram below represents the graphs of f ( x ) = 2 cos x and g ( x ) = − cos x for

the interval x ∈ [0° ; 360°] .

y

f

A F

C

x

E

B

g

D

(2) Determine the length of CD.

(3) Determine the length of EF if OE = 315° .

(4) Determine graphically the values of x ∈ [0° ; 360°] for which:

(i) f ( x) = 0 (ii) g ( x) = 0

(iii) f ( x) = 2 (iv) g ( x ) = −1

(v) f ( x) < 0 (vi) g ( x) ≤ 0

(vii) f ( x) ≥ g ( x) (viiii) g ( x ) > f ( x )

(5) Calculate the value of x for which f ( x ) = 1 in the interval x ∈ [0° ; 90°] .

(6) For which values of x is the graph of f ( x ) = 2 cos x increasing?

(7) For which values of x is the graph of g ( x ) = − cos x decreasing?

(8) For which values of k will the graph of y = − cos x + k not cut the x-axis?

(9) For which values of t will the graph of y = 2 cos x + t touch the x-axis in one

point only?

(b) Sketch the graphs of y = f ( x ) = − tan x and y = g ( x ) = tan x + 2 for x ∈ [ 0°; 270°]

on the same set of axes and then answer the questions that follow.

(1) Calculate f (45°) − g (45°)

(2) For which values of x is g ( x ) = f ( x ) ?

(3) For which values of x is g ( x ) ≥ f ( x ) ?

(4) For which values of x g ( x ) − f ( x) = 2 ?

(c) Sketch the graphs of y = f ( x ) = sin x and y = g ( x ) = cos x + 1 for x ∈ [ 0° ; 360°]

on the same set of axes and then answer the questions that follow.

(1) For which values of x is f ( x) = g ( x) ?

(2) For which values of x is g ( x) ≥ f ( x) ?

(3) For which values of x is f ( x) ≤ 0 ?

(4) For which values of x is g ( x) > 0 ?

(5) For which values of x is g ( x) − f ( x) = 2 ?

(6) For which values of x is f ( x ). g ( x ) ≥ 0 ?

99

CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION EXERCISE

(a) If A = 38, 6° and B = 141, 4° , determine of the following to two decimal places:

1

(1) cos 2A − sin B (2) 2 tan 2 B (3) sec A

2

(4) 2 cosec A + cot 3B

(b) Calculate θ in each case where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° (rounded off to two decimal places):

sin θ

(1) sin 2θ = 0, 4 (2) 2 sin θ = 0, 4 (3) = 0, 4

2

θ 5

(4) sin = 0, 4 (5) cosec θ =

2 2

(c) Calculate θ in each case where θ ∈ (0°;90°)

tan(θ − 13°)

(4) = 6,5 (5) sec θ = 2 (6) 3cot θ = 1

2

(d) If A = 25,34° and B = 134, 66° , determine the following to two decimal places:

sin 2A 2

(1) (2) cos 2 (A + B) (3) tan A − 2cos B

2 3

(e) Calculate the following without the use of a calculator:

(1) sin 2 45° − cos 60° (2) tan 30°.tan 60° − cos 30°.sin 60°

tan 45°. sin 60°

(3) (sin 30°)tan 45° (4)

tan 30°(1 − sin 30°)

(5) cosec 30° (6) cot 60°. sin 60°

(f) Without using a calculator, solve the following equations for θ ∈ (0°;90°) :

(1) sin θ = 0,5 (2) tan θ = 1 (3) 2 cos θ − 3 = 0

(7) cosec θ = 2 (8) 3 cot θ = 1

(1) the length of PQ and PR

42°

100

(h) Calculate the value of x in each case.

(1) (2)

38°

63°

(3) (4)

pole with height 25 m. Two cables from the top of 67°

the pole, are anchored at points C and D. From A, 75°

the angles of depression of C and D in the same

horizontal line as B are 75° and 67° .

Calculate the distance (CD) between the two

anchor points.

15

It is given that PR = 34 cm, tan P = and

8

P̂ ∈ (0° ; 90°) .

(1) Determine the length of QR without

solving for P̂ .

(2) Determine the length of QR by first

solving for P̂ .

5

(k) In ΔEAY , ES ⊥ YA , tan θ = and ES = 7, 5 cm

12

(1) Calculate the lengths of EA and YA

without solving θ .

(2) Calculate the length of YS by first solving θ . θ

101

(l) A handy man attempts to reach the roof of a hall

with a ladder 5 metres in length. Unfortunately,

the ladder is too short and a new ladder will be

required. Suppose that the length of the ladder needed

to reach the top has to be double the distance from the 2x

foot of the ladder to the wall. Also, the angle between

his current ladder and the ground will need to be

θ 5m

equal to the angle between the two ladders.

θ

(1) Calculate the value of θ

x

(2) Hence, or otherwise, determine what the length of the ladder should be to get

the handy man to the roof.

(m) On the Cartesian Plane below O is the origin. Q lies on the x-axis and P is the

point (1 ; 3) y

P(1 ; 3)

(1) Calculate θ

(2) Determine the length of OQ.

θ

x

as shown in the diagram. It has a length

of 3 m and a width of 1 m. It is inclined at

an angle of 27° to the ground.

Calculate the distance (h) of the slab’s

highest point above the ground.

27°

102

CHAPTER 6 FUNCTIONS

In this chapter, you will revise the graphs of linear functions (straight lines). Then you will

explore the graphs of quadratic functions (parabolas), hyperbolic functions (hyperbolas) and

exponential functions (exponential graphs).

We can select a few input values (x-values) and hence determine the corresponding output

values (y-values). These values will be represented in a table.

x −1 0 1

y −1 0 1

The graph of this line is obtained by plotting the points on the Cartesian plane and drawing a

solid line through the points.

y=x

2

(1;1)

1

(0 ; 0)

−2 −1 1 2

(−1;1) −1

−2

This graph is referred to as the “mother” graph of straight lines and based on this graph, we

can generate different types of straight lines depending on the value of a and q in the general

equation of a line, which is y = ax + q .

In Grade 9, you learnt about the gradient and steepness of a straight line. Let’s briefly

summarise these concepts.

The gradient of a line represents the ratio of the change of the y-values with respect to the x-

values. In other words, gradient tells us the direction (or slope) of the line.

We will revise the concept of gradient later on in this chapter. However, the focus now will be

on the steepness of a line, which is the way that the line slants upwards or downwards from

left to right. We will compare the steepness of different lines to the mother graph and show

how the mother graph is transformed by changing the value of a (the coefficient of x).

103

Let’s investigate this by comparing the graphs of the following straight lines:

1

A: y=x B: y= x C: y = 2x D: y = 3x

2

Lines A, B, C and D pass through the origin since for all of the given graphs, the y-value is 0

if x = 0 .

To sketch the graphs of these lines, select one x-value and then determine the corresponding

y-value. For all four graphs, choose x = 1 .

1 1 1

B: y = (1) = Line B passes through the points (0 ;0) and 1;

2 2 2

We will now plot the points and then draw the lines on the same set of axes.

y = 3x

y = 2x

3 (1; 3)

y = 1x

2 (1; 2) 1

y= x

2

1 (1;1)

(1 ; 12 )

(0 ; 0)

−3 −2 −1 1 2 3

−1

−2

−3

Notice that line A (the mother graph) is closer to the y-axis than line B. We say that line A is

steeper than line B. The coefficient of x in the equation of line A is greater than the coefficient

of x in line B ( 1 > 12 ). Line C is steeper line A ( 2 > 1 ) and line D is steeper than line C ( 3 > 2 ).

Line D is the steepest of all the lines.

104

Let’s now consider what happens if the value of the coefficient of x is negative.

(a) Consider the graph of y = − x

We can select a few input values (x-values) and hence determine the corresponding

output values (y-values). These values will be represented in a table.

x −1 0 1

y 1 0 −1

The graph of this line is obtained by plotting the points on the Cartesian plane and

drawing a solid line through the points.

y = −x

(−1;1) 1

(0 ; 0)

−2 −1 1 2

−1 (1; − 1)

−2

If you now compare the mother graph y = 1x to the graph of y = −1x , it is interesting

to note that the graph of y = − x is the reflection of the mother graph in the x-axis. The

negative sign therefore causes a reflection in the x-axis.

1

(b) Consider the graph of y = − x

2

1

We already know that the number affects the steepness of the line. The mother

2

graph y = x transforms into a line that is not as steep as the mother graph line.

As already seen, the negative sign causes a reflection in the x-axis.

To draw this graph involves transforming the mother graph into the less steep line

1

y= x and then reflecting this newly-formed graph about the x-axis.

2

To sketch the graph of this line, select one x-value, determine the corresponding y-

value, plot the point formed and the y-intercept (0 ;0)

Choose x = 1

1 1

y = − (1) = −

2 2

105

The line passes through the point (1; − 12 )

Now plot this point and the y-intercept and draw the graph of the line.

y = 1x

2 1

y= x

2

(1;1)

1

(1; 12 )

−3 −2 −1 1 2 3

(1; − 12 )

−1

1

y=− x

2

−2

1

Notice that the mother graph y = x is transformed into y = x and then this new line

2

1

is reflected in the x-axis to form the graph of the line y = − x .

2

Conclusion:

The value of a in the equation y = ax + q (ignoring negative signs), determines the

steepness of the line (closeness to the y-axis). The larger the value of a, the steeper the line.

A negative sign will cause a reflection in the x-axis.

For y = x + 3 :

If x = 0 then y = 0 + 3 = 3

If x = 1 then y = 1 + 3 = 4

For y = x − 2 :

If x = 0 then y = 0 − 2 = −2

If x = 1 then y = 1 − 2 = −1

106

y = x+3

4

(1; 4)

(0 ; 3) 3

y=x

2

y = x−2

1

(1;1)

(0 ; 0)

−3 −2 −1 1 2

(−1;1) −1

(1; − 1)

−2

(0 ; − 2)

It should be clear to you from the graphs that y = x + 3 is the mother graph y = x

shifted 3 units up and y = x − 2 is the mother graph y = x shifted 2 units down.

Also, the y-intercept of y = x + 3 is 3 and the y-intercept of y = x − 2 is −2 .

We will first draw the graph of y = − x which is the reflection of the mother graph

y = x in the x-axis and then based on this graph, we will form y = − x + 1 by

shifting y = − x one unit up and y = − x − 2 by shifting y = − x two units down.

y = −x +1

y = −x 3 y=x

2

y = −x − 2

1

−3 −2 −1 1 2

−1

−2

−3

shifted 1 unit up and y = − x − 2 is the line y = − x shifted 2 units down.

Also, the y-intercept of y = − x + 1 is 1 and the y-intercept of y = − x − 2 is −2 .

107

Conclusion:

The value of q in the equation y = ax + q determines the shift of the graph of y = ax up or

down. It also represents the y-intercept of the graph of y = ax + q .

EXAMPLE 1

Solution

First draw the graph of y = 2 x , reflect this graph in the x-axis to form y = −2 x and then shift

y = −2 x four units up to form y = −2 x + 4 .

y = −2 x + 4

Now choose x = 1 y = −2 x 4 (0 ; 4) y = 2x

∴ y = 2(1) = 2 3

1

Now reflect y = 2 x in the x-axis to form

(0 ; 0)

y = −2 x . The point (1; 2) transforms into 2

−2 −1 1

the point (1; − 2) . −1

−2 (1; − 2)

Then shift y = −2 x four units up.

Alternatively, you can make use of the dual-intercept method that you studied in Grade 9.

This method involves determining the intercepts with the axes algebraically. Let’s use this

method for the line y = −2 x + 4

y = −2(0) + 4 = 4 0 = −2 x + 4

∴ 2x = 4

∴x = 2

The coordinates of the y-intercept are (0 ; 4) and the coordinates of the x-intercept are (2 ; 0).

You would now plot these points and draw the straight line.

108

Revision of horizontal and vertical lines

In Grade 9 you learnt that horizontal lines have the general equation y = n where n is any real

number. Vertical lines have the general equation x = n where n is any real number.

For example, the graphs of the lines y = 2 and x = 1 are shown below.

(−2 ; 2) 2 (1; 2)

2 (1; 2)

y=2

1 1

−2 −1 1 2 −2 −1 1 2

−1 −1 (1; − 1)

−2 −2

x =1

For the line y = 2 , the y-values will be constant but the x-values will vary.

For the line x = 1 , the x-values will be constant but the y-values will vary.

EXERCISE 1

3 1

(a) Given: y=x y= x y= x

2 4

(1) Which of the three lines is the steepest? Explain

3 1

(b) Given: y = −x y=− x y=− x

2 4

(1) Which of the three lines is the steepest? Explain

(c) Given: y = −x + 4 y = 3x − 6

(3) Sketch the graphs of these two functions on the same set of axes using

transformations or the dual-intercept method.

109

(d) Match the equations on the left to the graphs on the right.

(1) y = −2 x

1

(2) y= x+2

4

(3) y = −x − 2

(4) y = 4x

1

(5) y= x

4

(6) y = −4 x

(7) x=4

(8) y=4

We can select a few input values (x-values) and hence determine the corresponding output

values (y-values). These values will be represented in a table.

x −2 −1 0 1 2

y 4 1 0 1 4

The graph of y = x 2 is obtained by plotting the points on the Cartesian plane and drawing a

curve through the points.

y = x2

Notice that:

● all output values are positive

(−2 ; 4) 4 (2 ; 4)

● the graph is not linear but rather

a curve referred to as the graph

of a parabola 3

(−1;1) 1 (1;1)

−2 −1 0 1 2

−1

110

This graph is referred to as the “mother” graph of parabolas and based on these graphs, we

can generate different types of parabolas depending on the value of a and q in the general

equation of a parabola, which is y = ax 2 + q .

Let’s investigate the effect of value of a on the shape of different parabolas by comparing the

graphs of the following parabolas:

1 2

A: y = x2 B: y= x C: y = 2x2 D: y = 3x2

2

Parabolas A, B, C and D pass through the origin. To sketch the graphs of these parabolas,

select one x-value and then determine the corresponding y-value. For all four graphs, choose

x =1.

A: y = (1) 2 = 1 Parabola A passes through the points (0 ;0) and (1;1)

1 1 1

B: y = (1)2 = Parabola B passes through the points (0 ;0) and 1;

2 2 2

C: y = 2(1) 2 = 2 Parabola C passes through the points (0 ;0) and (1; 2)

The points are plotted and the parabolas have been drawn on the same set of axes.

3 (1; 3)

2 (1; 2)

1 (1;1)

(1 ; 12 )

−2 −1 (0 ; 0) 1 2

Notice that the arms of the mother graph parabola (A) are closer to the y-axis than those of B.

The arms of parabola C are closer to the y-axis than those of A. The arms of parabola D are

closer to the y-axis than those of C. The value of the coefficient of x affects the shape of the

parabola (or what is called its vertical stretch). The greater the value of this number, the

closer the arms of the parabola will be to the y-axis. Also note that the coefficient of x2 for

each parabola is positive and the graphs are concave up (happy!).

111

Let’s now consider what happens if the value of the coefficient of x is negative.

We can select a few input values (x-values) and hence determine the corresponding

output values (y-values). These values will be represented in a table.

x −2 −1 0 1 2

y −4 −1 0 −1 −4

The graph of y = − x 2 is obtained by plotting the points on the Cartesian plane and

drawing a curve through the points.

y = x2

4

−2 −1 0 1 2

(−1; −1) −1 (1; − 1)

−2

−3

(−2 ; − 4) −4 (2 ; − 4)

y = − x2

If you now compare the mother graph y = 1x 2 to the graph of y = −1x 2 , it is interesting

to note that the graph of y = − x 2 is the reflection of the mother graph in the x-axis.

The negative sign therefore causes a reflection in the x-axis.

1

(b) Consider the graph of y = − x 2

2

1

We already know that the number affects the shape of the curve. The mother graph

2

y = x 2 transforms into a parabola with arms that arms that are less close to the y-axis.

To sketch the graph of this parabola, select one x-value, determine the corresponding

y-value, plot the point forms and the y-intercept (0 ; 0) .

Choose x = 1

1 1

∴ y = − (1) 2 = −

2 2

112

1

The parabola passes through the point 1; −

2

Now plot this point and the y-intercept and draw the graph of the parabola.

y = x2

1 2

y= x

2

2

1 (1;1)

(1 ; 12 )

−2 −1 1 2

(1; − 12 )

−1

−2

−3 1

y = − x2

2

1 2

Notice that the mother graph y = x 2 transformed into y = x and then this graph was

2

1

reflected in the x-axis to form the graph of the parabola y = − x 2

2

Conclusion:

The value of a in the equation y = ax 2 + q (ignoring negative signs), determines the

closeness of the arms of the parabola to the y-axis. The larger the value of a , the closer

the

arms are to the y-axis. A negative sign will cause a reflection in the x-axis.

If a > 0 , then the parabola is concave up (happy face!)

If a < 0 , then the parabola is concave down (sad face!)

113

Investigation of the effect of the value of q

A: y = x2 −1 B: y = x2 + 2

We will first draw the mother graph y = x 2 and then based on this graph, we will draw

parabola A and B.

The graph of A is the graph of y = x 2 shifted 1 unit down.

The graph of B is the graph of y = x 2 shifted 2 units up.

y = x2 + 2

4 y = x2 − 1

(1; 3)

3

2

(1;1)

1

(−1; 0) (1; 0)

−2 −1 0 1 2

−1 (0 ; − 1)

Conclusion:

The value of q in the equation y = ax 2 + q determines the shift of the graph of y = ax 2 up

or down. It also represents the y-intercept of the graph of y = ax 2 + q .

EXAMPLE 2

Given: y = −2 x 2 + 8 and y = −2 x 2 − 2

(b) For these graphs, determine algebraically the coordinates of the intercepts with the

axes.

Solutions

(a) Reflect the graph of y = 2 x 2 in the x-axis to form y = −2 x 2 and then shift y = −2 x 2

eight units up to form y = −2 x 2 + 8 . Then shift the graph of y = −2 x 2 two units

down to form y = −2 x 2 − 2 .

114

For y = −2 x 2 , choose x = 1

∴ y = −2(1) 2 = −2

y = −2 x 2 passes through the origin (0 ; 0) and the point (1; − 2)

8

y = −2 x 2 + 8

−4 −2 2 4

−2 (1; − 2)

−4

−6

y = −2 x 2

−8

y = −2 x 2 − 2

∴ y = −2(0) 2 + 8 = 8 ∴0 = −2x2 + 8

(0 ; 8) ∴ 2 x2 − 8 = 0

∴ x2 − 4 = 0

∴ ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0

∴ x = −2 or x = 2

(−2 ; 0) (2 ; 0)

∴ y = −2(0) 2 − 2 = −2 The graph doesn’t cut the x-axis

(0 ; − 2) There are no x-intercepts

Also notice that the equation 0 = −2 x 2 − 2

has no real solutions:

0 = −2 x 2 − 2

∴ 2 x 2 = −2

∴ x 2 = −1

∴ x = ± −1 which is non-real

115

EXERCISE 2

(1) Which parabola has arms that are closest to the y-axis?

(2) Sketch the graphs of these parabolas on the same set of axes.

1 1

(b) Given: y = − x2 y = − x2 y = − x2

2 4

(1) Which parabola has arms that are closest to the y-axis?

(2) Sketch the graphs of these parabolas on the same set of axes.

1 2 3 2

(c) Given: y= x y= x y = −4 x 2

4 2

(1) Which parabola has arms that are closest to the y-axis?

(2) Sketch the graphs of these parabolas on the same set of axes.

(2) For these graphs, determine algebraically the coordinates of the intercepts with

the axes.

(2) For these graphs, determine algebraically the coordinates of the intercepts with

the axes.

1

(f) Given: y = − x2 + 8

2

1

(1) Sketch the graph of y = − x 2 + 8

2

(2) Determine algebraically the coordinates of the intercepts of this parabola with

the axes.

116

(g) Match the equations on the left to the graphs on the right.

1 2

(1) y= x

4

1

(2) y = − x2

3

1

(3) y = − x2

5

1

(4) y = −5 x 2 −

2

(5) y = x2 −1

(6) y = 2x2

1

Consider the graph of y =

x

We can select a few input values (x-values) and hence determine the corresponding output

x −2 −1 − 12 0 1

2 1 2

y − 12 −1 −2

1

0 2 1 1

2

1

Notice from the table that if x = 0 then y = which is undefined.

0

Since the y-value is undefined at x = 0 , this means that the graph has no y-intercept.

1

∴0 =

x

There is no value of x which satisfies this equation. Hence the graph has no x-intercept.

1

The graph of y = is obtained by plotting the points on the Cartesian plane and drawing a

x

curve through the points. From the above discussion, it should be clear that the graph has no

intercepts with the axes.

The graph gets closer and closer to the axes but never actually cuts them.

117

An asymptote is a horizontal or vertical line that a graph approaches but never touches.

The vertical line x = 0 (lying on the y-axis) is called the vertical asymptote of the graph.

The horizontal line y = 0 (lying on the x-axis) is called the horizontal asymptote of the

graph.

x=0 3

1

y= 2 ( 12 ; 2)

x

1 (1;1)

(2 ; 12 )

−3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

1

(−2 ; − 2 )

(−1; − 1) −1 y=0

(− 12 ; − 2) −2

−3

This graph is referred to as the “mother” graph of hyperbolas and based on this graph, we can

generate different types of hyperbolas depending on the value of a and q in the general

a

equation of a hyperbola, which is y = + q .

x

Let’s investigate the effect of value of a on the shape of different hyperbolas by comparing

the graphs of the following hyperbolas:

1 2 4

A: y= B: y= C: y=

x x x

The graph of A is the mother graph. In order to sketch the graph of B and C, we can select a

few input values (x-values) and hence determine the corresponding output values (y-values)

for each graph.

118

2

For B: y=

x

x −2 −1 1 2

y −1 −2 2 1

4

For C: y=

x

x −4 −1 1 4

y −1 −4 4 1

Let’s now plot the points and draw the graphs of A, B and C.

4

y=

x

4 2 (1; 4)

y=

x

3

2 (1; 2)

(4 ;1)

1 1 (2 ; 1)

y=

x

−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4

(−2 ; − 1) −1

(−4 ; − 1)

(−1; − 2) −2

−3

(−1; − 4) −4

Notice that as the number in the numerator (a) gets larger, the branches of the hyperbolas

4

are stretched vertically away from the x-axis. The branches of the graph of y = are

x

2

stretched further away from the x-axis when compared to the graph of y = .

x

119

Let’s now consider what happens if the value of the number in the numerator is negative.

−1

Consider the graph of y =

x

As with lines and parabolas, the negative sign indicates a reflection in the x-axis.

3 x=0

−1

y=

x (− 12 ; 2) 2

(−1;1)

1) 1

(−2 ; 2

−3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

(2 ; − 1)

2

−1 (1; − 1)

y=0

−2 ( 12 ; − 2)

−3

1 −1

As with the mother graph y = , the graph of y = gets closer and closer to the axes but

x x

never actually cuts them.

The vertical line x = 0 (lying on the y-axis) is the vertical asymptote of the graph.

The horizontal line (lying on the x-axis) is the horizontal asymptote of the graph.

Conclusion:

a

The value of a in the equation y = + q (ignoring negative signs), determines the vertical

x

stretch of the branches of the hyperbola from the x-axis. The larger the value of a , the

further the stretch away from the axes. A negative sign will cause a reflection in the x-axis.

120

Investigation of the effect of the value of q

2

Consider the following graph: y = +1

x

1 2

The branches of the mother graph y = stretch vertically to form the graph of y = and

x x

2

then the newly-formed graph is shifted 1 unit up to form the graph of y = + 1 .

x

2

Let’s draw the graph of y = and then shift it up 1 unit and see what effect this shifting has.

x

2 2

For x = −2 y= = −1 (−2 ; − 1) lies on y =

−2 x

2 2

For x = −1 y= = −2 (−1; − 2) lies on y =

−1 x

2 2

For x = 1 y= =2 (1; 2) lies on y =

1 x

2 2

For x = 2 y= =1 (2 ;1) lies on y =

2 x

3 (1; 3)

(2 ; 2) 2

2 (1 ; 2) y= +1

x

y =1

1 (2 ;1) 2

y=

( −2 ; 0) x

−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4

( −1 ; − 1)

( −2 ; − 1) −1

( −1; − 2) −2

−3

2

Notice that the graph of y = + 1 cuts the x-axis at (−2 ; 0) .

x

The horizontal asymptote shifts 1 unit up and has the equation y = 1 .

2

The constant in the equation y = + 1 therefore represents the horizontal asymptote.

x

The vertical asymptote is still the line x = 0 (lying on the x-axis).

121

Conclusion:

a a

The value of q in the equation y = + q determines the shift of the graph of y = up or

x x

a

down. It also represents the horizontal asymptote of the graph of y = + q .

x

EXAMPLE 3

3 3 −3

Given: y = − −1 [Note: − is the same as ]

x x x

(a) Determine algebraically the coordinates of the x-intercept for this graph.

3 3

(b) Describe the different transformations of y = to y = − − 1 .

x x

3

(c) Sketch the graph of y = − − 1 on a set of axes, clearly showing the asymptotes and

x

x-intercept.

Solutions

(a) Let y = 0

−3

0= −1

x

∴ 0 = −3 − x

∴ x = −3

( −3 ; 0)

3 3

(b) y = − − 1 is the graph of y = reflected in the x-axis and then shifted 1 unit down.

x x

3 3

y= (Start with y = )

x x

−3 3

y= (Reflect y = in the x-axis)

x x

−3 −3

y= −1 (Shift y = one unit down)

x x

122

(c) First draw the horizontal asymptote y = −1 on a set of axes.

Then plot the x-intercept (−3 ; 0)

After this, select one negative x-value and one positive x-value. Find the

3

corresponding y-values by substituting these x-values into y = − − 1

x

−3

For x = −1 y= −1 = 3 −1 = 2 (−1; 2) lies on one branch

−1

−3

For x = 1 y= − 1 = −3 − 1 = −4 (1; − 4) lies on the other branch

1

We already know the shape from (b) and we can now draw the graph as follows:

3

y = − −1

x

4

2

( −1; 2)

( −3 ; 0)

−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4

y = −1

−1

−2

−3

−4 (1; − 4)

123

EXERCISE 3

1 5

(a) Given: y= and y=

x x

(1) Which graph has branches that have the furthest stretch away from the x-axis?

Explain.

5

(3) Now sketch the graph of y = − on the same set of axes.

x

2

(b) Given: y= +2

x

(1) Write down the equations of the vertical and horizontal asymptotes.

4

(c) Given: y = − −1

x

(1) Write down the equations of the vertical and horizontal asymptotes.

3

(d) Sketch the graph of y = + 2 on a set of axes. Indicate the coordinates of the

x

x-intercept as well as the asymptotes.

(e) Match the equations on the left to the graphs on the right.

2

(1) y=

x

4

(2) y=

x

3

(3) y=−

x

3

(4) y = − +1

x

124

EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS (SKETCHING EXPONENTIAL GRAPHS)

x

1

Consider y = 2 x and y =

2

A set of x-values {−1; 0 ;1} has been selected and the corresponding y-values have been

calculated in each case. The graphs are shown on the right.

y = 2x

y = 2x

x −1 0 1

2 (1; 2)

1

y 1 2

2

1

(−1; 1) (0 ;1)

2 1

2

The x-intercept is calculated by letting y = 0 :

0 = 2x −1 1

But there are no real values of x for which

2x = 0 and therefore there is no x-intercept. −1

You might like to check this by substituting a

few negative and positive values of x as well as 0 into the equation.

The graph will therefore not cut the x-axis. In fact, the graph has a horizontal asymptote

lying on the x-axis with equation y = 0 . The y-axis is not a vertical asymptote.

x

1 1

x

y= y =

2 2

(−1; 2) 2

x −1 0 1

1

y 2 1 1 (0 ;1)

2

1 (1 ; 12 )

2

−1 1

x

1

0=

2 −1

x

1

= 0 and therefore there is no x-intercept.

2

You might like to check this by substituting a few negative and positive values of x as well as

0 into the equation.

The graph will therefore not cut the x-axis. In fact, the graph has a horizontal asymptote

lying on the x-axis with equation y = 0 . The y-axis is not a vertical asymptote.

125

x

x 1

The graphs of y = 2 and y = are called the “mother graphs” of the exponential

2

functions and based on these graphs, we can generate different types of exponential graphs,

depending on the value of a, b and q in the general equation of an exponential function, which

is y = a. b x + q where 0 < b < 1 or b > 1 . These restrictions on b will be explained later in the

chapter.

Let’s investigate the effect of b on the shape of different exponential graphs by comparing the

following graphs.

(a) We will first consider graphs where b > 1 .

A: y = 2x B: y = 3x C: y = 4x

Select one other x-value and determine the corresponding y-value.

For A: Choose x = 1 y = 21 = 2 (1; 2) lies on the graph of A

The graphs are sketched below:

x x

4 3

y= y=

x

2

y=

4 (1; 4)

3 (1 3)

2 (1 ; 2)

−2 −1 0 1 2

Notice that if b > 1 , all of the exponential graphs move upwards as the x-values

increase. Also as the value of b increases in value, the steeper the graph becomes.

C is steeper than B since 4 > 3 and B is steeper than A since 3 > 2 .

126

(b) Now let’s discuss exponential graphs where 0 < b < 1 .

Consider the following graphs:

x x x

1 1 1

D: y = E: y= F: y =

2 3 4

Select one other x-value and determine the corresponding y-value. We will choose

negative x-values to avoid fractions.

−1

1

For D: Choose x = −1 y= =2 (−1; 2) lies on the graph of D

2

−1

1

For E: Choose x = −1 y = =3 (−1; 3) lies on the graph of E

3

−1

1

For F: Choose x = −1 y= =4 (−1; 4) lies on the graph of F

4

The graphs are sketched below:

y=

y= (1 y=

(1 3 ) x (1

2 ) x 4 ) x

( −1; 4)

4

( −1 3) 3

( −1; 2) 2

−2 −1 0 1 2

Notice that if 0 < b < 1 , all of the exponential graphs move downwards as the x-values

increase. Notice that as the value of the base b decreases in value, the steeper the

graph becomes. F is steeper than E since 1 < 13 and E is steeper than D since 1 < 12 .

4 3

127

Investigation of the effect of the value of a

x

x x x 1

G: y=2 H: y = 2.2 I: y = 3.2 J: y = 2.

2

We will calculate the y-intercept and one other point for each graph.

1

Select x = 1 y=2 =2 (1; 2)

1

Select x = 1 y = 2.2 = 4 (1; 4)

Select x = 1 y = 3.21 = 6 (1; 6)

0

1

For J: y-intercept Let x = 0 y = 2. = 2 (0 ; 2)

2

1

1

Select x = 1 y = 2. = 1 (1;1)

2

The graphs have been drawn below on the same set of axes.

6 (1 ; 6)

4 (1 ; 4)

2 (1 ; 2)

1 (1;1)

−2 −1 0 1 2

Notice that the value of a causes a vertical stretch of the mother graphs.

Also note that except for graphs H and J, the graphs have different y-intercepts.

128

As with lines, parabolas and hyperbolas, the negative sign indicates a reflection in the x-axis.

x

x 1

The graphs of y = −2 and y = − are reflections of the two mother graphs in the x-axis.

2

x

1 y = 2x Note:

y =

2 In the expression −2x , the value of b

is 2 and not −2 .

(0 ;1) Remember that −2 x = −(2) x and

−2 x ≠ (−2) x for all values of x

(not true for even values of x).

−1 1 For example, if x = 2 , then:

− 12

(−1; − 12 ) −22 = −4 and (−2)2 = 4

(0 ; − 1)

∴−22 ≠ (−2)2

(−1; − 2) −2 (1; − 2)

x

1 y = −2 x

y = −

2

As with other graphs discussed thus far, the graph of y = a. b x + q is the graph of y = a. b x

shifted up or down by q units.

For example, y = 2 x + 1 is the graph of y = 2 x shifted 1 unit up. The horizontal asymptote is

indicated by the constant in the equation y = 2 x + 1 . The equation of the asymptote is y = 1 .

y = 2x + 1

4

y = 2x

3 (1 ; 3)

2 (1 ; 2)

1 y =1

−2 −1 0 1 2

129

Conclusion:

The value of b in the equation y = a. b x + q determines the shape and steepness.

If b > 1 , then the graph moves upwards from left to right as the

x-values increase.

As the value of b increases, the graphs get steeper.

If 0 < b < 1 , then the graph moves downwards from left to right

as the x-values increase.

As the value of b decreases, the graphs get steeper.

The value of q represents the shift of the graph of y = a. b x up or down. It also indicates

where the horizontal asymptote cuts the y-axis.

EXAMPLE 4

x

1

Given: y = −3 + 1

3

(a) Determine algebraically the coordinates of the intercepts with the axes for this graph.

x x

1 1

(c) Describe the different transformations of y = to y = −3 + 1 .

3 3

x

1

(d) Sketch the graph of y = −3 + 1 on a set of axes, clearly showing the horizontal

3

asymptote and intercepts with the axes.

Solutions

0

1

y = −3 + 1 = −3 + 1 = −2 (0 ; − 2)

3

x-intercept: Let y = 0

x

1

0 = −3 + 1

3

x

1

∴3 = 1

3

x

1 1

∴ =

3 3

∴x =1 (1; 0)

130

x

1

(c) y = undergoes a vertical stretch to form the

3 3

x

1

graph of y = 3 with a y-intercept of 3.

3

x

1

y = 3 is then reflected in the x-axis to form

3

x

1 −3

y = −3 with a y-intercept of −3 .

3

x

1

y = −3 is then shifted 1 unit up to form the graph y =1

3

x 1

1 −2

of y = −3 + 1 with a y-intercept of −2 , x-intercept

3

of 1 and a horizontal asymptote y = 1 .

y =1

Then determine the intercepts with the 1

axes (if they exist).

(1; 0)

If there is no x-intercept, select one

−1 1

negative x-value and one positive

x-value and determine the corresponding

y-values. Plot these points and draw

the graph. −2 (0 ; − 2)

x

Check the shape by considering the 1

y = −3 + 1

transformations of the graph from the 3

mother graph.

EXERCISE 4

(a) Given: y = 2x y = 4x y = 6x

(1) Which graph is the steepest? Explain.

(2) Write down the equation of the horizontal asymptote for the three graphs.

x x x

1 1 1

(b) (a) Given: y = y = y =

2 4 6

(1) Which graph is the steepest? Explain.

(2) Write down the equation of the horizontal asymptote for the three graphs.

131

x

x x 1

(c) Given: y = 2.2 y = 4.2 y = 3

2

(1) Determine the coordinates of the y-intercept for each graph.

(2) Write down the equation of the horizontal asymptote for all three graphs.

(3) Sketch the graphs on the same set of axes indicating the y-intercept and one

other point.

x x

1 1

(d) Given: y = − y = −3

2 2

(2) Write down the equation of the horizontal asymptote for both graphs.

(3) Sketch the graphs on the same set of axes indicating the y-intercept and

one other point.

x x

1 1

(4) Explain the transformations of y = into the graph of y = −3

2 2

(e) Given: y = 2x − 2 y = 2x + 1

(6) Explain algebraically why the graph of y = 2 x + 1 does not cut the x-axis.

x

1

(f) Given: y = −4

4

(1) Determine the intercepts of this graph with the axes.

x x

1 1

(4) Explain the transformation of y = into the graph of y = − 4

4 4

132

(g) On different axes, draw neat sketch graphs of the following exponential graphs.

Indicate the coordinates of intercepts with the axes as well as the horizontal

asymptotes.

x x

1 1

(3) y = 2 − 2 (4) y = 2 + 2

4 4

(h) Match the equations on the left to the graphs on the right.

(1) y = 4x

(2) y = 2x

x

1

(3) y =

2

x

1

(4) y = −

2

x

1

(5) y=

3

x

1

(6) y = −4

2

x

1

(7) y = 4

2

For interest

Here is a short explanation as to why we restrict the base b to 0 < b < 1 or b > 1 for

exponential graphs. The values b = 0 , b = 1 and all negative values of b are excluded.

If b = 0 , then y = 0 x = 0 which is a horizontal line and not an exponential graph.

If b is negative, and you raise b to a rational power, you may not get a real number.

1

For example, if b = −2 , then (−2) 2 will not be possible to calculate since your calculator

will state Math ERROR.

1

In Grade 11 you will learn that (−2) 2 = −2 which is a non-real number.

133

Here is a short summary of the main features of the four functions discussed, the different

types of functions, how to recognise each function and the methods required to sketch the

graphs of these functions.

Linear functions ( y = ax + q )

The value of a determines the steepness of the line (ignoring negative signs). The greater

the value of a, the steeper the line. a < 0 means a reflection in the x-axis.

The value of q is the vertical shift up or down.

All of the different types of lines are shown below:

a>0 a>0 a>0 a<0 a<0

q>0 q<0 q>0 q<0

q=0 a<0

If q = 0 : Plot (0 ; 0) and one other point and draw the graph of y = ax

If q ≠ 0 : Draw the graph of y = ax and shift it up or down. Find the x-intercept.

Alternatively, use the dual-intercept method to sketch the graph.

Quadratic functions ( y = ax 2 + q ) (x has been squared)

The value of a determines the vertical stretch (ignoring negative signs). The greater the

value of a, the closer the arms are to the y-axis. a < 0 means a reflection in the x-axis.

The value of q is the vertical shift up or down.

All of the different types of parabolas are shown below:

a>0

q=0

q=0 q>0 q<0 q<0 q>0

If q = 0 : Plot (0 ; 0) and one other point and draw the graph of y = ax 2

If q ≠ 0 : Draw the graph of y = ax 2 and shift it up or down. Indicate the y-intercept.

Determine the x-intercepts, if they exist.

a

Hyperbolic functions ( y = +q) (x is in the denominator)

x

Ignoring negative signs, a determines the vertical stretch of the branches away from the

axes. The greater the value of a, the greater the stretch away from the axes.

a>0

a<0

134

The value of q is the vertical shift up or down.

The hyperbola has two asymptotes:

y = q is the equation of the horizontal asymptote

x = 0 is the equation of the vertical asymptote

All of the different types of hyperbolas are shown below:

a>0 a<0

q=0 q=0

a>0 a<0

q<0 q<0

a>0 a<0

q>0 q>0

If q = 0 : Select one negative x-value and one positive x-value and determine the

corresponding y-values. Plot these points and draw the two branches.

The asymptotes lie on the axes (vertical: x = 0 ; horizontal: y = 0 )

If q ≠ 0 : Draw the horizontal asymptote y = q . The vertical asymptote is x = 0 .

Determine the x-intercept by letting y = 0 and solving for x.

Then select one negative x-value and one positive x-value and determine

the corresponding y-values. Plot these points and draw the two branches.

Exponential functions ( y = a .b x + q ) (x is the exponent)

The value of b affects the shape and steepness of the graph:

b >1 0 < b <1

For 0 < b < 1 As the value of b decreases, the steeper the graph.

The value of a causes a vertical stretch of the mother graph and the y-intercept is affected.

a < 0 means a reflection in the x-axis.

The value of q is the vertical shift up or down.

The exponential graph has one horizontal asymptote: y = q

All of the different types of exponential graphs are shown below:

a>0 a>0

b >1 0 < b <1

q=0 q=0

a<0 a<0

b >1 0 < b <1

q=0 q=0

a>0 a>0

b >1 0 < b <1

q<0 q<0

a>0 a>0

b >1 0 < b <1

q>0 q>0

135

y a<0 y y a<0 y

b >1 0 < b <1

q<0 q<0

x x x x

a<0 a<0

b >1 0 < b <1

q>0 q>0

If q = 0 : Determine the y-intercept (let x = 0 ).

Then select one negative x-value and one positive x-value and determine

the corresponding y-values. Plot these points and draw the graph.

The horizontal asymptote will be the line y = 0 .

If q ≠ 0 : Draw the horizontal asymptote y = q

Determine the y-intercept (let x = 0 ).

Determine the x-intercept (let y = 0 ).

If the graph has no x-intercept, select one negative x-value and one positive

x-value and determine the corresponding y-values. Plot these points and

draw the graph.

The following exercise is a mixed exercise in which you will be required to identify and

sketch the graphs of all functions studied thus far. Use the above summary to guide you.

EXERCISE 5

(a) Identify the type of graph and then draw a neat sketch of the graph:

2

(1) y = 2x (2) y= (3) y = 2x2

x

(4) y=2 (5) y = 2x (6) y = x2 + 2

x

2 2 1

(7) y = −2 x + 2 (8) y = − +1 (9) y = − +1

x 2

You will need to re-work the equations algebraically into the standard equations for

the functions you have studied.

x

(1) x = 3y (2) xy = 3 (3) y=

3

x2 3− x 3− x

(4) y= (5) y= (6) y=

3 3 x

3x + 3

(7) y= (8) y = (3 − x )(3 + x ) (9) y = 3− x + 3

3

22 x − 4

(10) y = 3(3x − 1) (11) y = 2 x+1 + 2 x − 3 (12) y=

2x + 2

136

FUNCTIONAL NOTATION

Consider the function f ( x ) = 3x

The symbol f ( x) is used to represent the value of the output given an input value.

In other words, the y-values corresponding to the x-values are given by f ( x ) , i.e. y = f ( x ) .

For example, if x = 4 , then the corresponding y-value is obtained by substituting x = 4 into

3x . For x = 4 , the y-value is f (4) = 3(4) = 12 .

The brackets in the symbol f (4) do not mean f multiplied by 4, but rather the y-value when

x = 4 . Also, f ( x ) = 3x is read as “ f of x is equal to 3x ”.

We can also use other letters to name functions. For example, g ( x), h( x) and p( x) may be

used.

EXAMPLE 5

Solutions

(a) f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 1 (b) f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 1

f (2) = 3(2) 2 − 1 f (−3) = 3(−3) 2 − 1

= 3(4) − 1 = 3(9) − 1

= 11 = 26

(c) f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 1 (d) f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 1

f (a) = 3(a) 2 − 1 f (3 x ) = 3(3 x ) 2 − 1

= 3a 2 − 1 = 3(9 x 2 ) − 1

= 27 x 2 − 1

(e) f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 1 (f) f ( x) = 3x 2 − 1

∴ 3 f ( x) = 3(3 x 2 − 1) ∴ 2 = 3x 2 − 1

∴ 3 f ( x) = 9 x 2 − 3 ∴ 0 = 3x 2 − 3

∴ 3 f ( x) + 1 = 9 x 2 − 3 + 1 ∴ 0 = x2 − 1

∴ 3 f ( x) + 1 = 9 x 2 − 2 ∴ 0 = ( x + 1)( x − 1)

∴ x = −1 or x = 1

137

EXERCISE 6

1 1

(4) f (−2) (5) f (6) f −

2 2

(7) f (a) (8) f (2 x) (9) 2 f ( x)

(1) x if g ( x) = 4

(2) x if g ( x) = 20

(3) x if g ( x) = 1 − 5 x

(4) x if g ( x) = 6 x − 14

(c) Given: g ( x) = −2 x − 4

(1) f ( x) = x 2 and g ( x) = 3 f ( x)

(2) f ( x) = 2 x and g ( x) = − f ( x)

2

(3) f ( x) = and g ( x) = f ( x) + 2

x

(4) f ( x ) = x 2 + 5 and g ( x) = x 2 + 1

(5) f ( x) = 2 x 2 and g ( x) = 8 x 2

6 6

(6) f ( x) = + 1 and g ( x) = − − 1

x x

138

FURTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FOUR FUNCTIONS

In Grade 8 and 9, you learnt that a function is a rule which when applied to a given set of

input values, produces a set of output values. For example, suppose that the rule is y = 2 x .

When applied to a set of input x-values x ∈ {−2 ; − 1; 0 ;1; 2; 3} , the output y-values can be

obtained by substituting the given x-values into the equation (rule) y = 2 x . The output values

are therefore y ∈ {−4 ; − 2 ; 0 ; 2 ; 4; 6}

The domain is simply all of the inputs (x-values) that are used.

The range is the set of outputs (y-values) obtained from the input values.

EXAMPLE 6

2 (1; 2) x ∈ {−2 ; − 1 ; 0 ; 1}

(−1; 0)

y ∈ {−1; 0 ; 1; 2}

−2 −1 1 2

(−2 ; − 1) −1 For each point on the graph, there is a

y-value corresponding to an x-value.

−2

2 (1; 2) the domain from −2 to 1 (including −2 but

1 excluding 1). The domain is written as:

x ∈ [ −2 ; 1) or −2 ≤ x < 1

−2 −1 1 2

−1 There are an infinite number y-values in

(−2 ; − 1)

the range from −1 to 2 (including −1 but

−2

excluding 2). The range is written as:

y ∈ [ −1; 2 ) or −1 ≤ y < 2

You can use the vertical ruler method to obtain the domain and range:

For domain: Keep the edge of the ruler vertical and slide it across the graph from

left to right. Where the edge starts cutting the graph, the domain starts

(as read off from the x-axis). Where it stops cutting the graph the

domain ends.

For range: Keep the edge of the ruler horizontal and slide it across the graph from

bottom to top. Where the edge starts cutting the graph, the range starts

(as read off from the y-axis). Where it stops cutting the graph the range

ends.

139

(c) There are an infinite number x-values in

2 the domain (as indicated by the arrows).

x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) or x ∈

−2 −1 1 2 There are an infinite number y-values in

−1

the range (as indicated by the arrows).

−2 We write the range as follows:

y ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) or y ∈

9

the domain (as indicated by the arrows).

We write the domain as follows:

x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) or x ∈

There are an infinite number y-values in

the range from 9 downwards. The range is

written as:

y ∈ ( −∞ ; 9] or y ≤ 9

the domain (as indicated by the arrows).

We write the domain as follows:

x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) or x ∈

2

There are an infinite number y-values in

the range from 2 upwards (excluding 2).

The range is written as:

y ∈ ( 2 ; ∞ ) or y > 2

EXERCISE 7

State the domain and range of the following functions:

(a) (b) (c)

(−3 ; 2)

0

−3

(1; − 4)

140

(d) (e) (f)

2

2

For the graph of a given function, if the y-values increase as the x-values increase, then the

graph is said to be increasing. If the y-values decrease as the x-values increase, then the graph

is said to be decreasing. In short, a graph is increasing if it moves upwards when moving

from left to right and decreasing if it moves downwards when moving from left to right.

for all values of x < 0 . As we move from left to

right, the graph moves upwards. The graph is

decreasing for all values of x > 0 . As we move

from left to right, the graph moves downwards.

Increasing and decreasing depends on how we

define these concepts. For school purposes, we

will define increasing and decreasing in terms

of the gradient of the curve (positive or negative).

At x = 0 , the gradient is 0 and therefore we

exclude 0 in the solutions.

We will now briefly revise lines of the form ax + by = c , the gradient of a line and points of

intersection of lines.

EXAMPLE 7

3x + 2 y = 6 and x − 4 y = 16

The first line cuts the y-axis at A and the x-axis at B.

The two lines intersect at C. Determine: 3x + 2 y = 6

increasing or decreasing.

141

Solutions

x-intercept: Let y = 0 y-intercept: Let x = 0

∴ 3 x + 2(0) = 6 ∴ 3(0) + 2 y = 6

∴ 3x = 6 ∴2y = 6

∴x = 2 ∴y =3

B(2 ; 0) A(0 ; 3)

(b) In Grade 9, you learnt that the gradient of a line between any two points on the line is

change in y -values

given by the ratio:

change in x-values

We can determine the gradient by referring to the diagram or by re-writing the

equation of the line in the form y = ax + q , bearing in mind that the value of a

represents the gradient of the line. Between the points (0 ; 3) and (2 ; 0) ,

the y-values decrease ( −3 ) as the x-values increase ( +2 ).

−3

The gradient is therefore (0 ; 3)

2

We can also determine the gradient as follows:

3x + 2 y = 6 −3

∴ 2 y = −3x + 6 (2 ; 0)

−3

∴y = x + 3 [The coefficient of x is the gradient] +2

2

(c) x − 4 y = 16

∴−4 y = − x + 16

1

∴y = x−4

4

1

The gradient is and the y-intercept is −4

4

(d) In order to determine the coordinates of C, we need to solve simultaneous equations:

3x + 2 y = 6 (1)

x − 4 y = 16 (2)

6 x + 4 y = 12 (1) ×2

x − 4 y = 16 (2)

∴x = 4

∴ 4 − 4 y = 16 Substitute x = 4 into (2) to get the corresponding y-value

∴−4 y = 12

∴ y = −3

The coordinates of C are C(4 ; − 3)

x − 4 y = 16 increases for all real values of x.

142

Finding the equation of a linear function

EXAMPLE 8

(a) Determine the equation of the following line in the form f ( x) = ax + q .

Solution

The y-intercept is 3.

Therefore q = 3 .

∴ y = ax + 3 3

Substitute the point (8 ; − 1) to get a:

−1 = a (8) + 3

−1 = 8a + 3 (8 ; − 1)

−8a = 4

1

a=−

2

1

Therefore the equation is f ( x) = − x + 3

2

Solution

Method 1

The y-intercept is 4.

4

Therefore q = 4 .

∴ y = ax + 4

Substitute the point (−2 ; 0) to get a:

0 = a(−2) + 4 −2

0 = −2a + 4

2a = 4

a=2

Method 2

+4

The gradient is =2 +2

+2 4

The y-intercept is 4

+4

Therefore, the equation is g ( x) = 2 x + 4

−2

143

(c) Determine the equation of the following line in the form f ( x) = ax + q .

Solution

Method 1

(−1; 3)

Substitute the two points into y = ax + q and

solve simultaneous equations:

For (−1; 3) : 3 = a(−1) + q

∴3 + a = q

For (3 ; − 1) −1 = a(3) + q (3 ; − 1)

∴−1 − 3a = q

∴ 3 + a = −1 − 3a (both equal q)

∴ 4a = −4

∴ a = −1

∴ q = 3 + ( −1) = 2

Method 2

−4

The gradient is a = = −1

+4 (−1; 3)

∴ y = −1x + q

Substitute either of the two points:

into the equation y = − x + q to get q: −4

(−1; 3) : 3 = −(−1) + q

∴q = 2 (3 ; − 1)

or +4

(3 ; − 1) : −1 = −(3) + q

∴q = 2

The y-intercept is 2

Method 3

Use the Analytical Geometry formula to find the gradient (see Chapter 8)

−1 − 3 −4

Gradient = = = −1

3 − (−1) 4

Therefore a = −1 .

∴ y = −1x + q

Substitute one of the points into the equation y = − x + q to get q:

(−1; 3) : 3 = −(−1) + q

∴q = 2

The y-intercept is 2

144

EXERCISE 8

(a) In the diagram, line 4 x − 2 y = 8 cuts the axes at A and B. Line x + y = −1 cuts the

axes at C and D. The two lines intersect at E.

Determine: 4x − 2 y = 8

(1) the coordinates of A and B.

increasing or decreasing.

(1) On the same set of axes, draw neat sketch graphs of the two functions.

3 (−7 ; 2) 6

−3

(−4 ; − 1) −5

(2 ; 4) (−2 ; 7)

(2 ; 5)

−4

(−3 ; − 1)

−6

(d) (1) Determine the equation of the line passing through the point (0 ; − 1) and

parallel to the x-axis. Do you remember what the gradient of this line is?

(2) Determine the equation of the line passing through the point (−1; 0) and

parallel to the y-axis. Do you remember what the gradient of this line is?

145

THE QUADRATIC FUNCTION

EXAMPLE 9

2 2

g ( x ) = x + 6 and h( x) = 3 x are shown.

The graph of f cuts the axes at A, C and D.

h( x ) = 3 x 2

The graph of g cuts the y-axis at B. Determine:

(a) the coordinates of A, B, C and D

(b) the coordinates of E and F.

(c) the values of x for which f is increasing

(d) the values of x for which g is decreasing

f ( x) = 4 − x 2

(e) the maximum or minimum values of f and g

(f) the turning points of f and g

(g) the equation of the axis of symmetry for f and g

Solutions

A(0 ; 4) and B(0 ; 6)

Let y = 0 0 = − x2 + 4

∴ x2 − 4 = 0

∴ ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0

∴ x = −2 or x = 2

C(−2 ; 0) D(2 ; 0)

h( x ) = f ( x ) (y-values are equal at the points of intersection)

∴ 3x 2 = 4 − x 2

∴ 4x2 − 4 = 0

∴ x2 −1 = 0

∴ ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0

∴ x = −1 or x = 1

Now determine the corresponding y-values by substituting into either of the two

equations:

f (−1) = 3(−1) 2 = 3 f (1) = 3(1) 2 = 3

E(−1; 3) F(1 ; 3)

(d) g decreases for all x < 0

146

(e) The maximum value refers to the largest y-value on a graph and the minimum value

refers to the smallest y-value on a graph.

The maximum value of f is 4 and the minimum value of g is 6

(f) A turning point on a graph is the point at which the graph changes from increasing to

decreasing or decreasing to increasing.

The turning point of f is (0 ; 4) The turning point of g is (0 ; 6)

(g) The axis of symmetry of a parabola is a vertical line that divides the parabola into two

congruent halves. The y-axis is the axis of symmetry for both graphs. The equation is

x =0.

Finding the equation of a quadratic function

EXAMPLE 10

(a) Determine the equation of the following graph in the form f ( x) = ax 2 + q .

Solution

The y–intercept is 3

(2 ; 7)

∴q = 3

∴ y = ax 2 + 3

Substitute the point (2 ; 7) 3

2

into y = ax + 3 to get the value of a

∴ 7 = a (2) 2 + 3

∴ 7 − 3 = 4a

∴ 4 = 4a

∴a = 1

∴ f ( x ) = 1x 2 + 3

Solution

The x-intercept form of the equation of

a parabola can be used: (1; 6)

y = a( x − x1 )( x − x2 )

where x1 and x2 represent the x-intercepts.

∴ y = a( x − (−2))( x − 2) −2 2

∴ y = a( x + 2)( x − 2)

Substitute (1; 6) to get the value of a

6 = a (1 + 2)(1 − 2)

Notice that the x-intercept

∴ 6 = a (3)(−1)

form of y = −2 x 2 + 8 is:

∴ 6 = −3a

y = −2 x 2 + 8

∴ a = −2

∴ y = −2( x + 2)( x − 2) = −2( x 2 − 4)

∴ y = −2( x 2 − 4) = −2( x + 2)( x − 2)

= −2( x − (−2))( x − 2)

∴ f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 8

147

EXERCISE 9

(a) In the diagram, the graph of f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 2

f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 2

is shown. The graph of f cuts the axes at

A, B and C. Line h is parallel to the x-axis and

passes through A. Determine:

(1) the coordinates of A, B and C

(2) the values of x for which f is increasing

(3) the values of x for which f is decreasing

(4) the minimum value of f

(5) the turning point of f

(6) the equation of the axis of symmetry of f

(7) the domain and range of f

(8) the equation of h and the value of its gradient

(9) the domain and range of h

g ( x ) = − x 2 , h and p are shown. The graph of

f cuts the axes at A, B and C. Line p cuts the

x-axis at B and is parallel to the y-axis.

Determine:

f ( x) = − x 2 + 9

(1) the coordinates of A, B, and C.

(2) the values of x for which f is increasing

(3) the values of x for which g is decreasing

(4) the maximum value of f and g

(5) the turning points of f and g

(6) the equation of the axis of symmetry for f g ( x) = − x 2

(7) the domain and range of f and g

(8) the equation of h if h( x) = − g ( x) + 12 . Describe the transformations.

(9) the equation of p and the value of its gradient.

f ( x) = x 2 − 9

(1) Determine the coordinates of A, B, C and D

(2) Determine the coordinates of E and F.

g ( x) = − x 2 − 1

148

(d) Determine the equation of each of the following parabolas in the form f ( x) = ax 2 + q.

(−1; 6) −1

(1; − 2)

−3 3

2 (−2 ; − 5)

25

(1;15)

−2 2

−4 4 −5 5

−8

An interesting characteristic of the hyperbola is that it has two axes of symmetry.

y = −x y=x y = −x + q y = x+q

a a

y= y= +q

x x

q

y=q

EXAMPLE 11

3

Given: g ( x) = +2

x

Determine:

3

(a) the equations of the asymptotes y= +2

x

(b) the equations of the axes of symmetry

149

Solutions

(b) y = − x + 2 and y = x + 2

x ∈ (0 ; ∞) .

(d) Domain of g: x ∈ x ≠ 0

Range of g: y∈ y ≠ 2

EXAMPLE 12

a

Determine the equation of the following graph in the form f ( x) = +q.

x

Solution

∴ q = −3

a

∴ y = −3

x

y = −3

Substitute the point (3 ; − 4) :

a (3 ; − 4)

−4 = − 3

3

a

∴−1 =

3

∴−3 = a

−3

∴ f ( x) = −3

x

EXERCISE 10

−2

graph of f ( x) = + q . The graph of f cuts the

x

x-axis at A.

(1) Write down the value of q

(2) Write down the equation of f

(3) State the domain and range of f

(4) For which values of x is f increasing?

(5) Write down the equations of the asymptotes

(6) Write down the equation of the other axis of symmetry.

150

a

(b) Determine the equation of each of the following hyperbolas in the form f ( x) = + q.

x

(1) (2) (3)

(−3 ; 5)

(4 ; 3)

y=2

(−2 ; − 6)

3

−4 −2

(−8 ; − 8)

(1; − 2) (2 ; − 6)

y = x −3

−3

−4

(−1; − 8)

y = −x +1 y = x−2

(10) (11)

(2 ; 4)

5

( 14 ; 4

)

−1 1

−1 1

2

(2 ; − 6)

(c) For each function below, state the domain and range and determine the equation:

(1) y (2) (3)

(−4 ; 2)

x

y = −3

(−2 ; − 7) y = x+5 (2 ; − 4)

151

THE EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION

EXAMPLE 13

(a) Determine the equation of the given

graph in the form f ( x ) = a .2 x + q

Solution −4

x

∴ y = a .2 − 8

Substitute (0 ; − 4) :

−4 = a .20 − 8

∴−4 = a − 8

∴a = 4

∴ f ( x ) = 4.2 x − 8

equation of the given graph is 3

g ( x ) = −b x + q

−1

Solution

The horizontal asymptote is y = 3

∴ y = −b x + 3

Substitute (−1; 0) :

0 = −b −1 + 3

1

∴0 = − + 3

b

∴ 0 = −1 + 3b

∴−3b = −1

1

∴b =

3

x

1

∴ g ( x) = − + 3

3

1

b= and q = 3

3

graph in the form y = a . b x + q

(2 ;1)

Solution

1

y = a .b x −

3

The graph passes though the origin. − 13

152

Substitute the point (0 ; 0) :

1

0 = a . b0 − (2 ;1)

3

1

∴0 = a −

3

1

∴a = − 13

3

1 1

∴ y = . bx −

3 3

Substitute the point (2 ;1) :

1 1

1 = .b2 −

3 3

2

∴3 = b −1

∴ 0 = b2 − 4

∴ 0 = (b + 2)(b − 2)

∴ b = −2 or b = 2

Choose b = 2 since b ≠ −2

1 1

∴ y = .2 x −

3 3

EXERCISE 11

graph in the form f ( x ) = a .2 x + q

−3

−4

graph in the form g ( x ) = b x + q (−1; 2)

−1

graph in the form h( x ) = −b x + q

3

graph in the form f ( x ) = a . b x + q

153

(e) Determine the equation of the given 18

graph in the form f ( x ) = a . b x + q

16

graph in the form g ( x ) = a . b x + q

−4

GRAPH INTERPRETATION

This topic involves determining the lengths of line segments using the different functions

you have studied thus far. It also discusses the graphical interpretation of inequalities,

which is so important for matric.

The following information is extremely important for determining the length of line segments:

● The length of a line segment is always positive.

xA = 1 and OA = 1 unit 1

xB = −1 and OB = 1 unit −1 1

yC = 1 and OC = 1 unit

yD = −1 and OD = 1 unit −1

The y-value will be the length of OA.

Let x = 0

To determine a length OB along the x-axis, let y = 0 Let y = 0

equations of the functions ( f ( x) = g ( x) ) and solving for

x and hence for y. The value of x will give the horizontal

length OA and the value of y will give the vertical length

OB.

154

● A vertical length between two graphs can be

calculated using the formula:

ytop graph − ybottom graph

AB = yA − yB

(substitute the x-value into this formula to

get the required length)

x

A horizontal length between two graphs can be CD = xD − xC

calculated using the formula:

xright end point − yleft end point

The diagram below shows the graph of a parabola and a line. A and B are the points of

intersection of the two graphs. Both graphs cut the x-axis at −1 and the graph of the parabola

cuts the x-axis at 1.

g ( x) = − x − 1

f ( x) = − x 2 + 1

−1 1 2

We are required to determine the x-values for which the y-values of f are positive.

Where the parabola lies above the x-axis will be where the y-values are positive.

The solution lies between x-values of −1 and 1.

∴−1 < x < 1 or we can write x ∈ (−1;1)

We are required to determine the x-values for which the y-values of f are negative.

Where the parabola lies below the x-axis will be where the y-values are negative.

∴ x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 1 or we can write x ∈ (−∞ ; − 1] ∪ [1; ∞)

We are required to determine the x-values for which the y-values of g are positive.

Where the line lies above the x-axis will be where the y-values are positive.

∴ x < −1 or we can write x ∈ (−∞ ;1)

155

(d) For which values of x is f ( x) ≥ g ( x) ?

We are required to determine the values of x for which the y-values of f are greater

than or equal to the y-values of g. This is where the graph of f is above the graph of g

(between A and B).

∴−1 ≤ x ≤ 2 or we can write x ∈ [−1; 2]

We are required to determine the values of x for which the y-values of f are smaller

than the y-values of g. This is where the graph of f is below the graph of g

∴ x < −1 or x > 2 or we can write x ∈ (−∞ ; − 1) ∪ (2 ; ∞)

EXAMPLE 14

Determine:

(a) the length of OA, OB, OC and BC

g ( x) = 3x + 3

(b) the length of OD, FE, OF and DE

4

(d) the values of x for which f ( x) ≥ 0

−3

Solutions

(a) A(0 ; 3) For xB

∴ OA = 3 units 0 = −x + 3

∴x = 3

∴ OB = 3 units

For xC BC = yB − yC

0 = 3x + 3 ∴ BC = 3 − (−1)

∴−3x = 3 ∴ BC = 4 units

∴ x = −1

∴ OC = 1 unit

(b) OD = 4 units

∴ FE = 4 units (opp sides rectangle)

Substitute x = 4 into y = − x + 3

y = −4 + 3 = −1

∴ yE = yF = −1

∴ OF = 1 units and DE = 1 unit

156

(c) OJ = 3 units (d) f ( x) ≥ 0

∴ GH = 3 units (opp sides rectangle) ∴ x ≤ 3 or write x ∈ (−∞ ; 3]

Substitute y = −3 into y = 3x + 3

−3 = 3x + 3 (e) g ( x) < 0

∴−3x = 6 ∴ x < −1 or write x ∈ (−∞ ; − 1)

∴ x = −2

∴ OG = 2 units and JH = 2 units (f) f ( x) ≤ g ( x)

∴ x ≥ 0 or write x ∈ [0 ; ∞)

EXAMPLE 15

The diagram below shows the graphs of f ( x) = 3 x 2 − 12 , g ( x) = 3x − 6 and h( x) = −3x + 6 .

The graphs of f , g and h share a common x-intercept (D). The graph of f and g intersect

at D and F. The diagram is not drawn to scale.

f ( x) = 3x 2 − 12

h( x) = −3x + 6

g ( x) = 3 x − 6

Determine:

(a) the length of AB and CD.

(b) the length of OE and EF.

(c) the length of GH if OG = 3 units

(d) the length of OI if IJ = 6 units

(e) the length of KL if OR = 1 unit

(f) the length of ON if MP = 18 units

(g) the values of x for which f ( x) ≥ 0

(h) the values of x for which f ( x) < g ( x)

157

Solutions

(a) AB = yA − yB = −6 − (−12) = 6 units

Let y = 0 in y = 3 x 2 − 12

0 = 3 x 2 − 12

∴ 0 = x2 − 4

∴ 0 = ( x + 2)( x − 2)

∴ x = −2 or x = 2

CD = xD − xC = 2 − (−2) = 4 units.

3 x 2 − 12 = 3 x − 6

∴ 3x 2 − 3x − 6 = 0

∴ x2 − x − 2 = 0

∴ ( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0

∴ x = −1 or x = 2

At E, x = −1

y = 3(−1) − 6 = −9

The coordinates of E are (−1; − 9)

∴ OE = 1 unit and EF = 9 units

(c) OG = 3 which means that x = −3 at G.

Substitute x = −3 into g ( x) = 3x − 6 to get y.

g (−3) = 3(−3) − 6 = −15

∴ GH = 15 units

(d) IJ = 6 which means that y = −6 at J.

Substitute y = −6 into h( x) = −3x + 6 to get x

−6 = −3 x + 6

∴ 3 x = 12

∴x = 4

∴ OI = 4 units

(e) OR = 1 which means that x = 1

KL = yK − yL = (3 x − 6) − (3 x 2 − 12)

Substitute x = 1

∴ KL = (3(1) − 6) − (3(1) 2 − 12) = 6 units

∴18 = 6 x − 12 (since MP = 18 )

∴−6 x = −30

∴x = 5

∴ ON = 5 units

(g) f ( x) ≥ 0 for x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 2 or x ∈ (−∞ ; − 2] ∪ [2 ; ∞)

158

EXERCISE 12

(a) Two lines f ( x) = − x + 4 and g ( x) = x − 2

f ( x) = − x + 4

intersect at R. By using the information on

g ( x) = x − 2

the diagram, determine:

(1) the length of OA, OP, OB and OC

(2) the length of AP and BC

(3) the length of OD, EF, OF and DE

−2

(4) the length of OK, GH, OG and KH −1

(5) the length of RS and OS

Determine: f ( x) = x + 5

(1) the length of OP and OQ

(2) the length of AB if OB = 2 units

(3) the length of DC if OD = 7 units

(4) the length of OF if EF = 3 units

(5) the length of OH if HG = 3 units

(6) the values of x for which f ( x) < 0

intersect at E. g ( x) = x + 2

Determine:

(1) the length of AB, CD and DF

(2) the length of PQ if OR = 3 units

(3) the length of OU if ST = 8 units

(4) the length of GH if HK = 1 12

(5) the values of x for which f ( x) > 0

(6) the values of x for which g ( x) ≤ 0

f ( x) = − x + 4

(7) the values of x for which g ( x) < f ( x)

159

(d) The diagram shows the graphs of f ( x ) = x 2 − 9

f ( x) = x 2 − 9

and g ( x) = 3 − x intersecting at E and D.

The graph of f cuts the axes at B, C and D.

Determine:

(1) the length of AB, CT and CD

(2) the length of OF and EF

(3) the length of GH if OH = 1 unit

(4) the length of OV if VW = 8 units

(5) the length of JL if OK = 1 unit g ( x) = 3 − x

(6) the length of OQ if PR = 8 units

(7) the values of x for which f ( x) > 0

2

(e) The graph of f ( x) = − 2 and g ( x) = 2 is shown.

x

Determine:

g ( x) = 2

(1) the length of OA.

(2) the length of BC if OB = 4 units

(3) the length of OD and OE

(4) the coordinates of F

(5) the values of x for which f ( x) ≥ 0 2

f ( x) = −2

(6) the values of x for which f ( x) < 0 x

x

1

(f) The graph of f ( x ) = − 2 is shown.

2

Determine:

(1) the length of OA and CD.

(2) the values of x for which f ( x) > 0 x

1

(3) the values of x for which f ( x) ≤ 0 f ( x) = − 2

2

(4) the values of x for which f ( x) > −2

160

CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION EXERCISE

(1) Sketch the graph of f and g on the same set of axes.

(2) Determine the domain and range of f.

(3) If h( x) = f ( x) + 3 , write down the coordinates of the turning point of h.

(4) Determine the maximum value of p if p( x) = −h( x) .

(5) Sketch the graphs of h and p on the same set of axes.

(6) Determine the y-intercept of the graph of y = − g ( x) .

(7) Determine the x-intercept of the graph of y = g ( x + 2) .

3

(b) Given: f ( x) = 3x and g ( x) =

x

(1) Sketch the graph of h if h( x) = 3 f ( x) − 1 and describe the transformations.

(2) Sketch the graph of p if p( x) = − g ( x) + 1 and describe the transformations.

(3) Write down the range of h.

(4) Write down the domain of p.

The graphs intersect at (1; 3) . Determine:

(1) the equation of f

(2) the coordinates of the turning point of f.

(1; 3)

(3) the equation of the axis of symmetry of f.

(4) the equation of the horizontal asymptote of g

(5) the equation of g and the coordinates of A

(6) the domain and range of f and g

(7) the values of x for which f is decreasing?

x

1

(d) The graph of f ( x) = + q passes through f

2

the origin. Determine:

(1) the value of q

(2) the length of AB of OA = 2 units

(3) the length of OC if CD = 78 units

(4) the length of OT if MN = 2 units

(5) the equation of g , the image when the graph

of f is translated downwards so that the image

of M lies on the x-axis.

161

(e) The graph of f ( x) = mx + c and g ( x ) = ax 2 + b

g

intersect at D and on the x-axis at A.

H and T lie on line f . Determine:

(1) the equation of f

(2) the coordinates of A and hence C H(−1; 4)

(3) the equation of g

(4) the length of AC and OB

(5) the length of DE and DF

T(4 ; − 1)

(6) the length of ST

(7) the length of OM if QR = 45

4

f

(8) the values of x for which g ( x ) ≥ 0

G(1; − 8)

(9) the values of x for which g ( x ) < f ( x )

a

(f) The graph of f ( x) = a.b x + q and g ( x ) =+6

x

cut the x-axis at A. The graph of f passes through

the point ( −2 ; − 12) and cuts the y-axis at 4.

Determine:

(1) the range of f

(2) the equation of f

(3) the equation of g

(4) the equation of h if the graph of f is

reflected in the x-axis (−2 ; − 12)

(5) the values of x for which f is increasing

Determine:

(1) the values of x for which f ( x ) ≥ 0

f ( x) = −3x 2 + 12

(2) the values of x for which f ( x ) > g ( x )

(3) the values of x for which f ( x ) ≥ 9

(4) the values of x for which f ( x ). g ( x ) < 0

(5) the values of x for which f ( x ). g ( x ) ≥ 0

(6) the possible values of t if the graph of

f ( x ) = −3 x 2 + 12 − t

(i) does not cut or touch the x-axis. g ( x) = −3x + 6

(ii) cuts the x-axis in two distinct points.

162

CHAPTER 7 EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY

Revision of lines, angles, triangles and polygons

Line property 1

Adjacent angles on a straight line are supplementary.

• If ABC is a straight line, then Bˆ +B ˆ = 180° or

1 2

ˆ +B

• If B ˆ = 180° then ABC is a straight line

1 2

Line property 2

If two lines AB and CD cut each other (intersect) at E,

then the vertically opposite angles are equal.

Eˆ 1 = Eˆ 3 and Eˆ 2 = Eˆ 4 .

Line property 3

The angles around a point add up to 360° .

ˆ +B

B ˆ +B ˆ +B ˆ = 360°

1 2 3 4

Corresponding angles

Corresponding angles lie either both above or both below the parallel lines and on the same

side as the transversal. They are the angles in matching corners and are equal. Always look

out for the F shape.

Alternate angles

Alternate angles lie on opposite sides of the transversal and between the parallel lines. They

are equal in size. Always look out for the Z or N shape.

163

Co-interior angles

Co-interior angles lie on the same side of the transversal between the parallel lines.

These angles are supplementary. Always look out for the U shape.

ˆ +H

G ˆ = 180°

1 1

ˆ +H

G ˆ = 180° ˆ +H

G ˆ = 180°

1 1 1 1

ˆ +H

G ˆ = 180°

1 1

All three interior angles are smaller The largest interior angle is equal to 90° .

than 90° (acute). The other two angles are acute.

From Pythagoras:

AB2 = AC2 + BC2

AC2 = AB2 − BC2

BC 2 = AB2 − AC2

Obtuse-angled triangles

The other two angles are acute.

No sides are equal. Two sides are equal and the angles opposite

the equal sides are equal.

We can say that:

AB = AC if B̂ = C ˆ (sides opp = ∠ s )

ˆ if AB = AC

B̂ = C ( ∠ s opp equal sides)

Three sides are equal and the

interior angles are equal to 60° .

60°

Aˆ +B

ˆ +Cˆ = 180° (sum of the ∠ s of Δ)

2

ˆC = A

ˆ +Bˆ (ext ∠ of Δ )

60° 60° 1

164

Congruency of triangles (four conditions)

Condition 1

Two triangles are congruent if three

sides of one triangle are equal in

length to the three sides of the other

≡ ≡

triangle.

Condition 2

Two triangles are congruent if two

sides and the included angle are

equal to two sides and the included

angle of the other triangle.

Condition 3

Two triangles are congruent if two

angles and one side of a triangle are

equal to two angles and a

corresponding side of the other

triangle.

Condition 4

Two right-angled triangles are congruent

if the hypotenuse and a side of the one

triangle is equal to the hypotenuse and a

side of the other triangle.

Similar Triangles

If two triangles are similar (equiangular), then their corresponding sides are in the same

proportion.

AB BC AC

If ΔABC|||ΔDEF , then = =

DE EF DF

EXERCISE 1 (Revision)

200°

(a) In the diagram, ABCG||FD, ABCG ⊥ GH 2a − 50°

The reflex angle BFEˆ = 200° and CGD ˆ = 50° .

(1) Calculate the size of all angles

indicated by small letters.

(2) Show that DF ⊥ FE .

50°

(1) Calculate a and hence show that

AE = AF . 80°

(2) Calculate, with reasons, the value of

b, c, d and e.

165

(c) ˆ = 28° , ABD

In the diagram, CD||EF, DEF ˆ = 48° 48°

and BDEˆ = 160° . Prove that AB||CD. 160°

x

28°

(d) ˆ = 82° ,

In the diagram, PU||QT, T̂ = 42° , RQS

ˆ = y , UPT

PQT ˆ = x and QPT ˆ = x + 40° . x + 40°

42°

(1) Prove that PT||QS.

(2) Calculate y.

82°

A D

(e) ABCD is a parallelogram, ΔABE is equilateral 1

and ΔDEC is isosceles. 1 2

2

(1) Show that AE ⊥ ED

(2) Show that ED bisects D̂

1 2 3

B E C

(f) In the diagram, AB = 7 cm , AD = 12 cm ,

CE = 8 cm and DE = 17 cm .

Calculate the length of BC.

AB = AD and BC = CD .

Prove that:

(1) ΔABC ≡ ΔADC

(2) Why is Bˆ =Dˆ?

A B

(h) AB||DE and DC = CB .

Prove that:

(1) AC = CE 1

2 C

(2) AB = DE

D E

different conditions of congruency.

and QS of triangles PQR and SQR

intersect at T. PQ = SR and P̂ = Sˆ = 90° .

Prove that ΔPQR ≡ ΔSRQ .

166

(k) ˆ .

In the diagram, O is the centre of the circle. BO bisects AOC

Prove that:

(1) OB bisects AC at B.

(2) OB ⊥ AC

A, B and C. AB = AC and AO ⊥ BC.

Prove that:

(1) Oˆ =Oˆ

1 2

(2) Δ ABC is a right-angled triangle.

are similar. calculate x and y.

(1) (2) E

15

A

3 1

3

y 12

C

5

B x

D

QUADRILATERALS

A polygon is a two-dimensional figure with three or more straight sides. A quadrilateral is a

polygon with four straight sides.

90°

90°

167

Summary of the properties of quadrilaterals (Revision of Grade 8 and 9)

The diagonals of a The opposite The opposite sides

parallelogram angles of a of a parallelogram

bisect each other. parallelogram are are parallel and

equal. The interior equal.

angles add up to

360° .

The diagonals of a The opposite The opposite sides

rhombus bisect angles of a of a rhombus are

each other at right rhombus are parallel and all

angles. The equal. The interior sides are equal.

diagonals bisect angles add up to

the vertex angles. 360° .

The diagonals of a The interior angles The opposite sides

rectangle bisect of a rectangle are of a rectangle are

each other and are equal to 90° . The parallel and equal.

equal in length. interior angles add

up to 360° .

45° 45° square bisect each of a square are of a square are

45° 45° other at right equal to 90° . The parallel and all

angles and are interior angles add sides are equal.

45° 45 equal in length. up to 360° .

45° 45° The diagonals

bisect the vertex

angles.

The diagonals of a The interior angles One pair of

trapezium add up to 360° . opposite sides are

intersect but don’t parallel.

bisect each other.

They lie between

parallel lines and

therefore the

alternate angles

are equal.

The diagonals are One pair of Two pairs of

perpendicular and opposite angles adjacent sides are

one diagonal are equal. The equal.

bisects the other. interior angles add

One of the up to 360° .

diagonals bisects

the vertex angles.

168

The concept of a theorem and its converse

A theorem is a statement that can be demonstrated to be true by accepted mathematical

operations and arguments. In general, a theorem is an embodiment of some general principle

that makes it part of a larger theory. The process of showing a theorem to be correct is called

a proof. In Grade 10, we introduce the concept of a theorem and its proof.

A converse of a theorem is a statement formed by interchanging what is given in a theorem

and what is to be proved. For example, the isosceles triangle theorem states that if two sides

of a triangle are equal then the two base angles are equal. In the converse, the given (that two

sides are equal) and what is to be proved (that two angles are equal) are swapped, so the

converse is the statement that if two angles of a triangle are equal then two sides are equal.

In Grade 10, we will discuss and then prove three theorems relating to parallelograms.

PARALLELOGRAMS

Theorem 1

The opposite sides and If ABCD is a parallelogram then AD = BC , AB = DC ,

angles of a parallelogram (AD||BC and AB||DC) ˆ =C

A ˆ =D

ˆ and B ˆ

are equal.

(opp sides of parm equal)

(opp ∠ s of parm equal)

>

>

Theorem 1 (Converse)

(a) If the opposite sides If AD = BC and AB = DC then ABCD is a parm

of a quadrilateral are

equal, then the A D

quadrilateral is a

>

parallelogram.

(opp sides of quad >

equal) B C

If A ˆ and B

ˆ =D

ˆ then ABCD is a parm

angles of a

quadrilateral are A D

equal, then the

quadrilateral is a

parallelogram.

(opp ∠ s of quad

B C

equal)

Theorem 2

The diagonals of a If ABCD is a parallelogram then AE = EC and BE = ED

parallelogram bisect each

other. A D

(diags of parm bisect) E

>

>

B C

169

Theorem 2 (Converse)

If the diagonals of If AE = EC and BE = ED then ABCD is a parm

quadrilateral bisect each

A D

other, then the quadrilateral

is a parallelogram. E

(diags of quad bisect)

B C

Theorem 3

If one pair of opposite sides If AD||BC and AD = BC then ABCD is a parm

of a quadrilateral are equal

and parallel, then the

quadrilateral is a

parallelogram.

(one pair opp sides equal

and ||)

The following is information for use in the examples and exercises on parallelograms which

follow. The proofs of theorems (excluding the converses) are presented after the basic

exercises. If ABCD is a parallelogram, you may assume the following:

AD||BC ; AB||DC

=

AD = BC ; AB = DC

AE = EC ; BE = ED

ˆ =B

D ˆ ;D ˆ =Bˆ ; Cˆ = A

ˆ ;Cˆ =A

ˆ

1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1

ˆ ˆ ˆ =Dˆ

=

A =C;B

EXAMPLE 1

DELM is a parallelogram. D E

(a) Calculate the value of x and hence the sizes 2x x

of the interior angles.

(b) If DE = 2DM and ML = 10 cm , determine

the length of the other sides of DELM.

M 10 cm L

Solutions

Statement Reason

(a) 2 x + x = 180° co-int ∠ s ; DM||EL

∴ 3 x = 180°

∴ x = 60°

∴ Ê = 60° and M̂ = 60° opp ∠ s of parm equal

D̂ = 2(60 °) = 120 °

L̂ = 120° opp ∠ s of parm equal

(b) DE = 10 cm opp sides of parm

∴ DM = 5 cm DE = 2DM

∴ EL = 5 cm opp sides of parm

170

EXAMPLE 2

PT = 5 cm , TQ = 2 cm and PS = 10 cm .

Calculate the length of VR.

Solution

=

Statement Reason

QR = 10 cm opp sides of parm equal

TQ = 2 cm given

∴ TR = 12 cm

PT = 5 cm given

2 2

PR = (5) + (12) 2 ˆ = 90°

Pythagoras ; PTQ

PR 2 = 169

∴ PR = 13 cm

PV = VR diags of parm bisect

∴ VR = 6,5 cm

Note: In order to prove that a quadrilateral is a parallelogram, you will need to prove at least

one of the following:

A D AD||BC and AB||DC Opp sides ||

AD = BC and AB = DC Opp sides =

AE = EC and BE = ED Diagonals bisect

E Aˆ =C ˆ and Bˆ =Dˆ Opp angles =

AB||DC and AB = DC One pair opp sides = and ||

B C AD||BC and AD = BC One pair opp sides = and ||

EXAMPLE 3

In trapezium ABCD, AD||BC 70° 70°

with Aˆ =D ˆ = 70° and EC = DC .

Prove that ABCE is a parallelogram.

Solution

Statement Reason

Ê 2 = 70° ∠s opp = sides

Ĉ1 = 70° alt ∠ s ; AD||BC

171

ˆ =C

∴A ˆ

1

B̂ = 110° co-int ∠ s ; AD||BC

∴ Eˆ = B

1

ˆ

Therefore, ABCE is a parallelogram opp ∠ s of quad equal

EXAMPLE 4

Diagonals AC and BD of parallelogram ABCD intersect at M. AP = QC and AC = 600 mm ,

AB = 500 mm and AP = 150 mm . Prove that PBQD is a parallelogram.

Statement Reason

AM = MC diagonals of a parm

But AC = 600 mm given

∴ AM = MC = 300 mm

AP = QC = 150 mm given

PM = MQ = 150 mm

Also BM = MD diagonals of parm

∴ PM = MQ and BM = MD

∴PBQD is a parallelogram diags of quad bisect

EXERCISE 2

parallelogram ABCD.

60°

Calculate the sizes of R̂ , Sˆ , Q

1

ˆ ,Q

1

ˆ and Ŝ .

2 2

the interior angles. 5 x − 12°

3x + 18°

angles of parallelogram MENB.

172

(e) In parallelogram ABCD, AB = AD

and Ĉ = 110° . Calculate the size of all

interior angles.

Determine the interior angles of

parallelogram LMCN.

AB = AM . Ĉ = 120° . Calculate the sizes 1 2

of all interior angles.

1 2

B M C

(h) In parallelogram ABCD, AB = BE = DE . A D

2 2 1

Calculate the size D̂1 if D̂1 = x and 1

x

Â1 = 28° 2 3

1

B E C

E is a point on AD such that AB = AE and

CD = DE . Determine:

(1) DE

(2) the perimeter of ABCD.

P S

(j) In parallelogram PQRS, Q̂ = 114° , 2 1 2

1

PT bisects P̂ and TS bisects Ŝ . 1

T

Prove that PT ⊥ ST .

Q R

B C

(k) ΔABD and Δ BCD are two isosceles 1

2

ˆ = 30° .

triangles. Ĉ = 75° and ADB

Prove that ABCD is a parallelogram. 2 1

A D

(l) In quadrilateral LMNP, Ê1 = 62° , P̂1 = 68° ,

P̂2 = 56° , FP = FN and LE = LM .

Prove that:

(1 LP||MN

(2) LMNP is a parallelogram.

A F 3 cm D

(m) In quadrilateral ABCD, AB = 5 cm , BC = 10 cm ,

FD = 3 cm , BE = FD and AE = FC .

5 cm

AE ⊥ BC and CF ⊥ AD

Prove that ABCD is a parallelogram.

B E 10 cm C

173

A

(n) Δ ABC is an equilateral triangle.

D, E and F are the midpoints of the sides

of the triangle and DE||BFC . D 1 1 E

2 2 3

Prove that DECF is a parallelogram. 3

2

1 3

B F C

are parallelograms. BC = 4 units and

CD = 6 units . Prove that ABDE is a

parallelogram.

PROOFS OF THEOREMS

THEOREM 1

Required to prove: ˆ =C

AB = CD ; AD = BC ; A ˆ ;B

ˆ =D

ˆ

Proof

Draw parallelogram ABCD and join the diagonals AC and BD.

In Δ ABC and ΔCDA :

(a) ˆ = Cˆ

A alt ∠ s ; AB||DC

2 1

(b) ˆ = Cˆ

A alt ∠ s ; AD||BC

1 2

(c) AC = AC common side

∴ Δ ABC ≡ Δ CDA SAA

∴ AB = CD and AD = BC

Also Bˆ =D ˆ

Similarly, it can be proved that Δ ABD ≡ Δ CDB

∴Aˆ =C ˆ

THEOREM 2

The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.

Required to prove: AE = EC and BE = ED

Proof

Draw parallelogram ABCD and join the

diagonals AC and BD.

In Δ ABE and Δ CDE :

(a) Aˆ = Cˆ alt ∠ s ; AB||DC

2 1

(b) ˆ =D

B ˆ alt ∠ s ; AB||DC

1 2

(c) AB = DC opp sides of a parm

∴ Δ ABE ≡ Δ CDE SAA

∴ BE = ED and AE = EC

174

THEOREM 3

If one pair of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal

and parallel, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

Required to prove: ABCD is a parallelogram

Proof:

In Δ ABC and ΔCDA :

(a) ˆ =C

A ˆ alt ∠s ; AD||BC

1 2

(b) AC = AC common side

(c) AD = BC given

∴ Δ ABC ≡ Δ CDA SAS

∴A ˆ =C

ˆ

2 1

∴ AB||DC alt ∠s =

∴ABCD is a parallelogram since the opposite sides are parallel

EXAMPLE 5

ABCD is a parallelogram with ED = BF .

Prove that BEFD is a parallelogram.

Solution

Statement Reason

AD||BC opp sides of parm parallel

∴ ED||BF AED and BFC are straight lines

and ED = BF given

∴ BEFD is a parm one pair of opp sides equal and parallel

EXERCISE 3

(a) Parallelograms ABCD and ABDE

are given with DF = DB .

Prove that BCFE is a parallelogram.

DC = BN . Prove that:

(1) APNM is a parallelogram.

(2) PN = MC

intersect at T. QT = RM and SM = PT .

Prove that:

(1) RTSM is a parallelogram.

(2) QR = RN [Hint: Prove ΔPQR ≡ ΔSRN ]

175

=

(d) ABCD is a parallelogram with AE = FC .

Prove that BEDF is a parallelogram.

=

Prove that ABGE is a parallelogram.

ABCD. AO = OC and BO = OD . Prove:

(1) Δ AOD ≡ Δ COB

(2) Δ AOB ≡ Δ COD

(3) ABCD is a parallelogram in two

different ways.

The following is information for use in the exercise which follows. This exercise involves the

properties of rectangles, rhombuses, squares, trapeziums and kites. Familiarise yourself with

the properties of these quadrilaterals before attempting the exercise.

RECTANGLE

If ABCD is a rectangle, you may assume the following properties:

A D

=

1 1 AD||BC ; AB||DC

2 2 AD = BC ; AB = DC

AE = EC = BE = ED

E ˆ =B

D ˆ ;Dˆ =B ˆ ; Cˆ = A

ˆ ;Cˆ =A

ˆ

1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1

1 1 ˆ =C

A ˆ =Bˆ =Dˆ = 90°

2 2

=

B C

In order to prove that a quadrilateral is a rectangle, you will need to prove one of the

following:

(a) The quadrilateral is a parallelogram with at least one interior angle equal to 90° .

(b) The diagonals of the quadrilateral are equal in length and bisect each other.

RHOMBUS

If ABCD is a rhombus, you may assume the following properties:

A D AD||BC ; AB||DC

1

2 1 2 AD = BC = AB = DC

=

1 AE = EC ; BE = ED

>

E

>

ˆ =D

D ˆ =B ˆ =Bˆ

=

1 2 1 2

1 1

2 2 ˆ =A

A ˆ =Cˆ =C

ˆ ;Aˆ =C

ˆ ;B

ˆ =D

ˆ

1 2 1 2

B C

Ê1 = 90° ; AC ⊥ BD

176

In order to prove that a quadrilateral is a rhombus, you will need to prove one of the

following:

(a) The quadrilateral is a parallelogram with a pair of adjacent sides equal.

(b) The quadrilateral is a parallelogram in which the diagonals bisect at right angles.

SQUARE

If ABCD is a square, you may assume the following properties:

A D

1 45° >> AD||BC ; AB||DC

2 45° 1 2

= AD = BC = AB = DC

45° 45°

=

1 AE = EC = BE = ED

>

>

= ˆ =D

D ˆ =B ˆ =B ˆ =A ˆ =A

ˆ =Cˆ =C

ˆ = 45°

45° E 45° 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

=

1 1 ˆ =C

A ˆ =Bˆ =D ˆ = 90°

2 45° 45° 2

B >> C Ê1 = 90° ; AC ⊥ BD

In order to prove that a quadrilateral is a square, you will need to prove one of the following:

(a) The quadrilateral is a parallelogram with an interior right angle and a pair of adjacent

sides equal.

(b) The quadrilateral is a rhombus with an interior right angle.

(c) The quadrilateral is a rhombus with equal diagonals.

TRAPEZIUM

If ABCD is a trapezium, you may assume the

following properties:

AD||BC

Aˆ =C ˆ ; Dˆ =B ˆ

2 2 1 2

In order to prove that a quadrilateral is a trapezium, you will need to prove that AD||BC.

KITE

If ABCD is a kite, you may assume the following properties:

AB = AD

BC = DC

BE = ED

ˆ =A

A ˆ

1 2

Cˆ =C ˆ

1 2

ˆB = D

ˆ

Ê 2 = 90°

AC ⊥ BD

In order to prove that a quadrilateral is a kite, you will need to prove that the pairs of adjacent

sides are equal in length.

177

EXAMPLE 6

ABCD is a parallelogram.

BH bisects ABCˆ and

HC bisects BCDˆ .

ˆ = 60°. F̂ = 120° , BH||GC

ABC

and BG||HC. AD is produced to E such

that AB = DE = 30 cm . BC is produced

to F. Prove that:

(a) BGCH is a rectangle.

(b) DCFE is a rhombus.

Solutions

90°

30° 60°

30° 60° 120°

Statement Reason

(a) BCGH is a parallelogram BH||GC and BG||HC ; given

ˆ = 60°

ABC given

ˆ =B

∴B ˆ = 30° BH bisects ABCˆ

1 2

ˆ = 120°

BCD co-int ∠ s ; AB||DC

ˆ =C

∴C ˆ = 60° ˆ

HC bisects BCD

1 2

∴ Ĥ 2 = 90° int ∠ s of Δ

∴BGCH is a rectangle BGCH is a parm with an interior ∠ = 90°

(b) F̂ = 120° given

Cˆ + Cˆ = 120°

1 2 proved

∴ F̂ = Cˆ 1 + Cˆ 2

∴ DC||EF corr ∠s =

AD||BC ABCD is a parallelogram

ADE and BCE are straight lines given

∴ DE||CF

∴DCFE is a parallelogram opp sides ||

DC = 30 cm opp sides of parm

DC = DE = 30 cm

∴DCFE is a rhombus DCFE is a parm with adjacent sides equal

178

EXERCISE 4

Calculate the size of all other interior 35°

angles.

20°

ABCD is a rectangle with AC = 10 cm

and BC = 8 cm . D̂ 2 = 20° . Calculate the

following:

Aˆ ;Aˆ ;Bˆ ;Bˆ ; Cˆ ; Cˆ ; D ˆ , AD, AE and AB.

1 2 1 2 1 2 1

(c) ˆ = 55° .

ABCD is a square. AEB

Calculate F̂1 .

QS = 48 cm . Calculate the length of

PR.

BC = 4 x . Find the length of AC 3x

and BD in terms of x.

4x

(f) The diagonals of parallelogram

LMNP intersect at T. LT = LM

and MTNˆ = 120° .

Prove that LMNP is a rectangle.

2 1

1 2

and Ĉ1 = 50° . Prove that ABCD

2

is a rhombus. 1 3

4

40° E 50°

1 1

2 2

B C

(h) ABCD is a square. DE = DA

and DF = DC . Prove that ACEF

is a square.

179

(i) In parallelogram PQRS, NR bisects

ˆ and NS bisects PSR

SRQ ˆ . SN||RT

and NR||ST.

Prove that STRN is a rectangle.

A D

(j) ABCD is a trapezium with AD||BC. e c

a

AB = AD and BD = BC . Ĉ = 80° .

Determine the unknown angles.

d

b 80°

B C

(k) ˆ =C

ABCDE is an isosceles trapezium ( A ˆ ).

A B C

BD = CD and Ĉ = 60° . 1 2 60°

Prove that:

(1) ABDE is a parallelogram.

(2) ΔBCD is equilateral. 1

2

E D

(l) ABCD is an isosceles trapezium

with Â = x , BC = BP and AB = DB .

Prove that:

(1) P̂ = x

(2) Δ ABD ≡ Δ PDB

BD = 30 cm , AD = 17 cm and

DC = 25 cm .

Determine:

(1) AE

(2) AC

(3) B̂1 if Â1 = 20°

centre N at C and D. Prove that:

(1) MDNC is a kite.

(2) MCNˆ = MDN ˆ by using

congruency.

180

MORE ON POLYGONS

A regular polygon is a polygon in which all the sides are equal in length and all the interior

angles are equal in size. Equilateral triangles and squares are regular polygons since their

sides and angles are equal. Pentagons, hexagons and octagons can be regular polygons if their

interior angles and sides are equal. It is important to note a rhombus is not a regular polygon

since its interior angles are not all equal. A rectangle is not a regular polygon since its sides

are not equal in length. Polygons that are not regular are called irregular polygons.

The formula for calculating the sum of the interior angles of a polygon of n sides is given by

the formula: 180°( n − 2)

180°( n − 2)

The size of an interior angle of a regular polygon is given by the formula:

n

Here are the regular polygons.

3 sides Equilateral The sum of the interior angles:

60° Triangle 180°(3 − 2) = 180°

The size of an interior angle:

60° 60° 180°(3 − 2)

= 60°

3

4 sides Square The sum of the interior angles:

180°(4 − 2) = 360°

The size of an interior angle:

180°(4 − 2)

= 90°

4

5 sides Pentagon The sum of the interior angles:

108° 180°(5 − 2) = 540° .

108° 108° The size of an interior angle:

180°(5 − 2)

= 108°

108° 108° 5

The five triangles in the pentagon

54° 54° are congruent isosceles triangles.

54° 54° The five angles at the centre each

72° 72°

54°

72° 72°

54° equal 72° since 72°× 5 = 360° .

72° The base angles of each triangle

54° 54° all equal 54° .

54° 54°

120° 120°

180°(6 − 2) = 720° .

120° 120° The size of an interior angle:

180°(6 − 2)

120° 120°

= 120°

6

60° 60°

60°

The six triangles in the hexagon

60°

60° are congruent equilateral triangles.

60° 60° 60° 60°

60° 60° 60° 60°

The six angles at the centre each

60° equal 60° since 60°× 6 = 360° .

60° 60°

60° 60°

181

8 sides Octagon The sum of the interior angles:

135° 135°

180°(8 − 2) = 1 080° .

135° 135° The size of an interior angle:

180°(8 − 2)

135° 135° = 135°

8

135° 135°

The eight triangles in the octagon

67,5° 67,5° are congruent isosceles triangles.

67,5° 67,5°

The eight angles at the centre each

67,5° 67,5°

67,5° 45°

45°

45° 67,5°

equal 45° since 45°× 8 = 360° .

45° 45° The base angles of each triangle

67,5° 45° 45° 67,5°

67,5°

45°

67,5°

all equal 67,5° .

67,5° 67,5°

67,5° 67,5°

Note:

Scalene and isosceles triangles, rectangles, kites and trapeziums are irregular polygons since

their sides are not equal in length.

Rhombuses are irregular polygons since their interior angles are not equal.

EXERCISE 5

8x + 2 4x + 2

(1) Calculate the value of x.

(2) Hence show that ABCD is a

trapezium. x−2 5x − 2

A

(b) ABCD is a pentagon made up of five equal θ

sides and five equal interior angles. β 1

B E

Calculate the size of θ, β and α . α 2

C D

and ABDE is a parallelogram.

Use TWO different methods to

determine the value of x.

60°

the diagram, determine β .

θ

113°

θ 132°

182

THE MIDPOINT THEOREM IN A TRIANGLE

1 1

then DE||BC and DE = BC then AE = EC and DE = BC .

2 2

EXAMPLE 7

DB||FC and BC = 32 mm .

(b) Calculate the length of DE.

Solutions

Statement Reason

(a) AD = DB and AE = EC given

∴ DE||BC midpoint theorem

But DEF is a straight line DE is produced to F

∴ DF||BC

But DB||FC given

∴DBCF is a parallelogram opposite sides parallel

(b) BC = 32 mm given

∴ DE = 16 mm midpoint theorem

183

EXERCISE 6

(a) In ΔACD , AB = BC , GE = 15 cm ,

AF = FE = ED .

Calculate the length of CE.

In ΔACD , FG||CD.

Prove that AG = GD .

Prove that SEUT is a parallelogram.

of PQ and PS respectively.

QD = DR and SC = CR . Let AB = x

Prove that ABCD is a parallelogram

ˆ.

parallelogram. Q̂ = x and P̂ = 2Q

Calculate the sizes of the angles of

STRE.

and DE = 2DO .

DO = x . Prove that BCEF is a

parallelogram.

184

(c) ABCD is a parallelogram. BE ⊥ AC

and DF ⊥ AC . Prove that EBFD is

a parallelogram.

at E. PA = BS . Prove that ΔAEB is an

isosceles triangle.

PA = AQ and PB = BT .

Prove that:

(1) AB||QT

(2) O is the centre of the circle if

PR is a diameter.

(3) BORT is a trapezium.

to A such that CE = EA and CD = DB .

Prove that ΔBDF ≡ ΔFEA

at E. EF = FA and EG = GA . Prove that

AGEF is a rhombus.

185

(h) PQRS is a parallelogram. PQ = PE ,

QE = QR , ER = SR and PQE ˆ = x.

ˆ .

Calculate the size of QER

ˆ = 3y 3y

(i) ABCD is a rhombus. DEC

ˆ .

and Ĉ = y . Prove that EC bisects ACD

y

MF = FN . L̂1 = x . Prove that:

(a) ΔLMF ≡ ΔPLE

(b) Ĝ1 = 90°

(k) ˆ = x and FB = BC .

AFCE is a parallelogram. AB||DC and AF||BD. F̂ = FAB

Prove that:

(1) ABCD is a rhombus

(2) Â1 = 90° − x

ˆ .

AG||DJ and B̂2 = G1

Prove that:

(1) AEFD is a rectangle

(2) BGJC is a trapezium

186

(m) PSRQ is a square.

Diagonal PR and line SVT

intersect at V and Ŝ2 = 40°

PR

(2) Prove that = 2

PS

40°

AE = ED and AD = a .

GE = EF = BG = r and AB = b .

1

DF = 4r 2 − a 2

2

(1) Prove that ABCD is a rectangle.

a 2 + 4b 2

(3) Prove that r =

8b

The diagonals intersect at O and

BD is produced to A. AE is joined.

AE ⊥ ED

Prove that:

(1) AE 2 = a 2 + 2ab + d 2

(2) AE 2 = a 2 + 4ab + 4b 2 + d 2

GF = FH = x and AD = DE .

ADE is a straight line.

Prove that:

(1) DECB is a parallelogram.

(2) AG = 2GF

1

(3) FH = AF

3

187

CHAPTER 8 ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY

Analytical Geometry is the study of Geometry, using the Cartesian plane. It is an algebraic

approach to the study of Geometry. In this chapter, we will address the following concepts:

• The distance between two points (length of a line segment).

• The midpoint of a line segment.

• The gradient of a line.

Suppose that we wish to calculate the length of line segment AB, with endpoints A(−2 ; − 2)

and B(3 ; 2).

Consider the diagram below. The movement from A to B has been indicated. A right-angled

triangle ABC is formed, with lengths AC = 4 (4 units up) and CB = 5 (5 units right).

y

The theorem of Pythgoras can now be used to calculate

the length of AB:

C 5 units right B(3 ; 2) ∴ AB2 = BC2 + AC 2

∴ AB2 = (horizontal movement) 2 + (vertical movement)2

4 units up

x ∴ AB2 = 52 + 42 = 41

∴ AB = 41 ≈ 6, 40

A( − 2 ; − 2)

We can generalise this concept to create what is known as the “Distance Formula”.

Consider any two points A( xA ; yA ) and B( xB ; yB ).

y

From the diagram alongside:

C(xA ; yB ) B(xB ; yB ) BC = horizontal movement = xB − xA

AC = vertical movement = yB − yA

∴ AB2 = BC2 + AC2 Pythagoras

∴ AB2 =(xB − xA )2 + ( yB − yA )2

x

∴ AB = ( xB − xA )2 + ( yB − yA )2

A(xA ; yA )

The formula to calculate the length of a line segment between points A and B,

with A( xA ; yA ) and B( xB ; yB ), is:

AB2 = ( xB − xA ) 2 + ( yB − yA ) 2 or AB = ( xB − xA ) 2 + ( yB − yA )2

188

EXAMPLE 1

B(5 ; 7)

Calculate the lengths of line segments C( − 5 ; 6)

AB and CD in the given diagram.

A(2 ; 3)

D( − 2 ;1)

Solutions

AB2 = (5 − 2) 2 + (7 − 3) 2 CD 2 = (−2 − (−5)) 2 + (1 − 6) 2

AB2 = (3) 2 + (4) 2 CD 2 = (3)2 + (−5) 2

AB2 = 25 CD 2 = 34

AB = 25 = 5 units CD = 34 ≈ 5,83 units

EXAMPLE 2

C( − 2 ; 6) B(5 ; 7)

In the diagram, the vertices of ΔABC

are A(2 ; 3) , B(5 ; 7) and C(−2 ; 6).

(a) Show that ΔABC is an isosceles triangle.

(b) Calculate the perimeter of ΔABC

correct to one decimal place. A(2 ; 3)

Solutions

(a) We can show that ΔABC is an isosceles triangle by proving two sides equal. From the

diagram above, the obvious choice is to prove that AB = AC .

AB2 = ( xB − xA ) 2 + ( yB − yA ) 2 AC2 = ( xC − xA ) 2 + ( yC − yA ) 2

AB2 = (5 − 2) 2 + (7 − 3) 2 AC2 = (−2 − 2) 2 + (6 − 3) 2

AB2 = 25 AC2 = 25

AB = 25 = 5 units AC = 25 = 5 units

∴ AB = AC

(b) The perimeter of ΔABC is the sum of its three sides:

BC2 = ( xC − xB ) 2 + ( yC − yB )2

BC2 = (−2 − 5)2 + (6 − 7)2

BC2 = 50

BC = 50

Perimeter = AB + AC + BC

∴ Perimeter = 5 + 5 + 50 = 17,071... ≈ 17,1 units

189

EXAMPLE 3

Calculate the possible values of k, if the distance between A and B is 5 units, where A(2 ; 5)

and B(−1; k ).

Solution

AB2 = ( xB − xA ) 2 + ( yB − yA ) 2 , with AB = 5

∴ 52 = ( −1 − 2) 2 + ( k − 5) 2 [substitute into the distance formula]

∴ 25 = 9 + k 2 − 10k + 25 [quadratic equation]

∴ 0 = k 2 − 10k + 9 [solve by getting one side = 0]

∴ 0 = ( k − 9)( k − 1)

∴ k = 9 or k = 1

EXAMPLE 4

(a) Show that the point Q( − 6 ;1) is equidistant from the points P( − 4 ; 5) and R( − 2 ; 3).

(b) The point T(x ;1) is equidistant from the points A( − 2 ; − 1) and N(1; 2) . Determine

the value of x.

Solutions

(a) We are required to show that QP = QR.

QP 2 = ( xP − xQ )2 + ( yP − yQ )2 QR 2 = ( xR − xQ ) 2 + ( yR − yQ ) 2

QP 2 = ( −4 − (−6)) 2 + (5 − 1) 2 QR 2 = (−2 − (−6)) 2 + (3 − 1) 2

QP 2 = 20 QR 2 = 20

QP = 20 QR = 20

∴ QP = QR and Q is therefore equidistant from P and R.

∴ ( xA − xT )2 + ( yA − yT )2 = ( xN − xT )2 + ( yN − yT )2

∴ (−2 − x)2 + (−1 − 1)2 = (1 − x)2 + (2 − 1)2

∴ 4 + 4 x + x2 + 4 = 1 − 2 x + x2 + 1

∴ 6 x = −6

∴ x = −1

EXERCISE 1

D( − 1; 4)

(a) Calculate the lengths of the line segments A(2 ; 3)

in the given diagram.

F(2 ;1)

C( − 5 ;1)

B(5 ;1)

G(1; − 1)

E( − 5 ; − 2)

H(5 ; − 4)

190

(b) In the given diagram, two triangles C( − 5 ; 7)

have been drawn. A(2 ; 6)

(1) Show that ΔABC is an

isosceles triangle.

B( − 2 ; 3)

(2) Determine the perimeter

of ΔABD.

D(5 ; 0)

(c) Show that C(2 ; 3) is equidistant from the points A(3 ; 6) and B( −1 ; 4) .

(d) C is the point (1; − 2). The point D lies in the second quadrant and has coordinates

( x ; 5). If the length of CD is 53 units, determine the value of x.

(e) Given the points P( −3 ; 2), Q(2 ; 7) and R( −10 ; y ). Determine the values of y if P is

equidistant from Q and R.

The midpoint of a line segment is the halfway mark on the line segment. Consider the

numbers 1 and 7 for example. Halfway between 1 and 7 is 4. How do we get to 4? One way is

to take the difference between 1 and 7 (which is 6), half that (which is 3), and then add this 3

to the 1 to get to 4. (You could also subtract 3 from 7 to get to 4).

6 units

The diagram on the right illustrates this approach.

3 units 3 units

1 4 7

7 +1 8

A quicker approach is to add the two end values = =4

2 2

and then divide the answer by 2.

1 4 7

This is basically working out the average of the two end values.

If we apply this concept to a line segment joining two points on the Cartesian plane, we can

easily find the midpoint of the line segment by calculating the average of the x-values and the

average of the y-values.

x + x y + yB

∴ M( xM ; yM ) = M A B ; A M(xM ; yM )

2 2

A(xA ; yA )

The formula to calculate the midpoint of a line segment between points A and B,

x + x y + yB

with A( xA ; yA ) and B( xB ; yB ), is: M( xM ; yM ) = M A B ; A

2 2

191

EXAMPLE 5

Determine the coordinates of M, if M is the midpoint of line segment AB, where A(2 ;1) and

B(8 ; 3) .

M B(8 ; 3)

Solution

x + xB yA + yB A(2 ;1)

M A ;

2 2

2 + 8 1+ 3

= M ;

2 2

= M(5 ; 2)

EXAMPLE 6

Solutions B(5 ; 7)

Midpoint of AB is M: C( − 5 ; 6)

x + xB yA + yB M

M( xM ; yM ) = M A ;

2 2 N

1+ 5 3 + 7 A(1; 3)

∴M ;

2 2 D( − 1; 2)

∴ M(3 ; 5)

Midpoint of CD is N:

x +x y + yD

N( xN ; yN ) = N C D ; C

2 2

−5 + ( −1) 6 + 2

∴N ;

2 2

∴ N(−3 ; 4)

EXAMPLE 7

Determine the values of x and y if M(5 ; 2) is the midpoint of the line segment joining the

points A( x ;1) and B(8 ; y) .

B(8 ; y)

Solution M(5 ; 2)

xA + xB yA + yB A(x ;1)

xM = yM =

2 2

x +8 1+ y

∴5 = ∴2 =

2 2

∴10 = x + 8 ∴4 = 1+ y

∴x = 2 ∴y =3

192

EXAMPLE 8

y D

The following sketch shows parallelogram ABCD,

with P the point where the diagonals intersect. A( − 1; 3)

x

B( − 4 ; − 1)

Solutions

(a) P is the midpoint of both AC and BD, because the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect

each other.

x + xC yA + yC

P( xP ; yP ) = P A ;

2 2

−1 + 2 3 + 1

∴P ;

2 2

1

∴P ; 2

2

x + xD yB + yD

(b) P( xP ; yP ) = P B ;

2 2

x +x y + yD

∴ xP = B D and yP = B

2 2

1 −4 + xD −1 + yD

∴ = and 2 =

2 2 2

∴1 = −4 + xD and 4 = −1 + yD

∴ xD = 5 and yD = 5

∴ D(5 ; 5)

EXERCISE 2

y

(a) Determine the midpoints of the given D( − 1; 3) A(2 ; 3)

line segments.

Use the midpoint formula.

F(2 ;1)

C( − 5 ;1) B(6 ;1)

x

G(1; − 1)

E( − 5 ; − 2)

H(5 ; − 4)

(b) A circle has diameter AB with endpoints A( − 1; 4) and B(5 ; − 2).

(1) Determine the centre of the circle.

(2) Determine the radius of the circle.

193

(c) Answer the following questions. You may want to draw a diagram to help you

visualise the scenario.

(1) If M(−3 ; 2) is the midpoint of the line segment joining the points

A( x ;1) and B( −1 ; y ) , calculate the values of x and y.

(2) If M(−1; 7) is the midpoint of the line segment joining the points

A( x ; 6) and B(2 ; y ) , calculate the values of x and y.

(3) If M(−1; − 5) is the midpoint of the line segment joining the points

A( x ; y ) and B(−6 ; − 3) , calculate the values of x and y.

(d) Given below is rhombus FINE. Q is the point where the diagonals intersect.

Determine the coordinates of F.

y E(3 ; 4)

F

Q

x

N(8 ; − 1)

I(1; − 2)

(e) A( − 2 ; 3), B(x ; y ), C(1; 4) and D( − 1; 2) are the vertices of a quadrilateral. Find

B(x ; y ) if ABCD is a parallelogram.

Gradient (or slope) measures the steepness and direction of a line. A line can either slant up

(gradient is positive), slant down (gradient is negative), be horizontal (gradient is zero) or be

vertical (gradient is undefined). The symbol used for gradient is m.

In Grade 9 we calculated the gradient of a line using the concept of “rise over run”. In other

change in y -values vertical movement

words: Gradient = = .

change in x -values horizontal movement

This can easily be translated into a formula. For any two points A( xA ; yA ) and B( xB ; yB ) :

Vertical movement = yB − yA and Horizontal movement = xB − xA .

y

horizontal movement B(x ; y )

B B

ver ical movement

A(xA ; yA )

194

A formula to calculate the gradient of a line joining two points A and B, with

y − yA

A( xA ; yA ) and B( xB ; yB ), is: mAB = B

xB − xA

EXAMPLE 9

Calculate the gradients of the following lines using the formula for gradient.

y

D( − 1; 3) A(2 ; 3)

F(2 ;1)

C( − 5 ;1) B(6 ;1)

x

G(1; − 1)

E( − 5 ; − 2)

H(5 ; − 4)

Solutions

yB − yA 1 − 3 −2 1

mAB = = = =− (slopes down from left to right)

xB − xA 6 − 2 4 2

y −y 3 −1 2 1

mCD = D C = = = (slopes up from left to right)

xD − xC −1 − (−5) 4 2

y −y 1 − (−2) 3

mEF = F E = = (slopes up from left to right)

xF − xE 2 − (−5) 7

y − yG −4 − (−1) −3 3

mGH = H = = =− (slopes down from left to right)

xH − xG 5 −1 4 4

Between any two points on a horizontal line there is no vertical movement (the vertical

movement is zero). Thers is only a horizontal movement.

change in y values 0

∴ gradient horizontal line = = = 0.

change in x values horizontal movement

Between any two points on a vertical line there is no horizontal movement (the horizontal

movement is zero). There is only a vertical movement.

change in y values vertical movement

∴ gradient vertical line = = which is undefined.

change in x values 0

195

APPLICATIONS OF GRADIENT

Parallel lines

Parallel lines slope in the exactly the same direction and will therefore never intersect.

Differently stated: Lines that are parallel have equal gradients.

y

B(3 ; 5)

4 4 D(5 ; 2)

3 3

x

A( − 5 ; − 1)

C( − 3 ; − 4)

EXAMPLE 10

Given are the points A( − 1; 5), B( −2 ; 3), C(9 ;10) and D(5 ; 2). Show that AB||CD.

Solution

yB − yA 3−5 −2 −2 yD − yC 2 − 10 −8

mAB = = = = =2 mCD = = = =2

xB − xA −2 − (−1) −2 + 1 −1 xD − xC 5 − 9 −4

∴ mAB = mCD

∴ AB||CD

Collinear points

y

Points are said to be collinear when they

lie on the same line. Refer to the diagram.

A, B and C lie on the same line and are

therefore collinear. This implies that the 6

gradients between each pair of points C(4 ; 3)

are the same.

4 x

3 .

B( − 2 ; − 1)

6

A( − 5 ; − 3) 9

196

When points A, B and C are collinear: mAB = mAC = mBC

In other words: mAB = mAC and mAB = mBC and mAC = mBC

EXAMPLE 11

Show that the points A, B and C are collinear if the coordinates of the points are:

A(2 ; − 2), B(1;1) and C( − 1; 7) .

Solution

We will consider the gradients of AB and BC, but any other pair could have been used.

y − yA 1 − (−2) 3 y − yB 7 − 1 6

mAB = B = = = −3 and mBC = C = = = −3

xB − xA 1− 2 −1 xC − xB −1 − 1 −2

∴ mAB = mBC

Therefore A, B and C are collinear.

D( − 4 ; 6) y

Perpendicular lines

B(3 ; 5)

Perpendicular lines intersect at a 90°

angle. The gradients of perpendicular

lines have a particular property.

Consider the diagram on the right.

4 3

Firstly:

The gradients of the lines have opposite

signs. AB has a positive gradient whereas 3 4

CD has a negative gradient. x

Secondly:

The gradients (ignoring signs) are reciprocals A( − 5 ; − 1)

of one another. In other words, the horizontal C(2 ; − 2)

movement of AB is the vertical movement of CD and vice versa.

This can be summarised by the following relationship: The product of the gradients of

AB and CD will equal −1 when AB is perpendicular to CD.

EXAMPLE 12

Given are the points A(3 ; − 3), B(6 ; − 7), C(−5 ; 0) and D( −1; 3).

Show that AB is perpendicular to CD.

Solution

yB − yA −7 − (−3) −7 + 3 −4

mAB = = = =

xB − xA 6−3 3 3

yD − yC 3−0 3 3

mCD = = = =

xD − xC −1 − (−5) −1 + 5 4

−4 3

∴ mAB × mCD = × = −1

3 4

∴ AB ⊥ CD

197

EXAMPLE 13 y

B

In the diagram, ABCD is a rhombus. A

F is the point where the diagonals intersect.

x

(a) Determine the value of q.

F(2 ; − 1)

(b) Calculate the area of ΔCFD .

(c) What is the area of the rhombus? C(3 ; − 3)

D( − 4 ; q )

Solutions

(a) AC ⊥ BD because the diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular to each other.

∴ mAC × mBD = −1 which implies that mFC × mFD = −1

yC − yF −3 − (−1) y − yF q − (−1) q + 1

∴ mFC = = = −2 and mFD = D = =

xC − xF 3− 2 xD − xF −4 − 2 −6

1 1

∴ But mFD = (−2 × = −1)

2 2

q +1 1

∴ =

−6 2

∴ 2q + 2 = −6 cross multiplication

∴ q = −4

1 1

(b) Area of ΔCFD = b × h = (FD)(FC)

2 2

FD = ( xD − xF ) + ( yD − yF ) 2

2 2

FC 2 = ( xC − xF ) 2 + ( yC − yF ) 2

FD 2 = (−4 − 2) 2 + (−4 − (−1)) 2 FC 2 = (3 − 2) 2 + ( −3 − ( −1)) 2

FD 2 = 45 FC2 = 5

FD = 45 FC = 5

1 1

∴ Area of ΔCFD = (FD)(FC) = ( 45)( 5) = 7,5 units 2

2 2

(c) Area of Rhombus = 4 × 7,5 = 30 units 2

EXERCISE 3

(a) Calculate the gradients of the lines joining the following points.

(1) A(1; 3) and B(5 ; 7) (2) A(1; 3) and B(−5 ; − 7)

(3) A(−1 ; − 3) and B(−5 ; − 7) (4) A(−1; 3) and B(5 ; − 7)

y D(1; 4)

(b) Calculate the gradients of the line

segments in the given diagram. A(2 ; 3)

E( − 1;1)

x

G( − 2 ; − 1)

C( − 6 ; − 1) H(5 ; − 1)

F( − 1; − 3) B(4 ; − 3)

198

(c) Determine whether line segments AB and CD are parallel, perpendicular or neither, in

each of the following cases.

(1) A(−1; − 3), B(2 ;1) and C(4 ; − 1), D(7 ; 3) .

(2) A(1; − 3), B(2 ;1) and C(4 ; − 1), D(7 ; 3)

(3) A(1; − 3), B(2 ;1) and C( −3 ; 1), D(1; 0)

B( −3 ; a ) are points on AB. C(−4 ; − 3) and D(−1; 3) are points on CD.

Calculate the value of a.

(2) Line segment AB is perpendicular to line segment CD. A(−5 ; 2) and

B(b ; − 1) are points on AB. C(−4 ; − 3) and D(−1; 3) are points on CD.

Calculate the value of b.

(e) Show that points F, R and N are collinear if F(3 ; 2), R(4 ; − 2) and N(7 ; − 14).

(f) Calculate the value(s) of x if R ( x ; 4), U( x − 1; x + 4) and N(0 ;13), are collinear.

(g) A(3 ; 4), B( − 1; 7), C(x ; − 1) and D(1; 8) are points on the Cartesian plane.

Calculate the value of x in each case if:

(1) AB||CD (2) AB ⊥ CD (3) B, C and D are collinear

y

(h) Determine the x-intercept A, and the E(1; 7)

y-intercept B of lines LI and VE respectively.

L(−6 ; 5) B

A x

I(8 ; − 2)

V(−4 ; − 3)

A( − 1; − 2) and C(3 ; 4).

Determine the gradient of BD.

A( − 1; − 2) D

y

(j) In the diagram below, a circle with centre

P is drawn. A, B and C are points on

the circle, with AC the diameter. C( − 2 ; 7)

(1)

(2)

Determine the length of the radius.

Determine the coordinates

of P.

.

P(a ; b)

A(4 ; 3)

(4) Hence determine the area B(−1; 2)

of ΔABC.

x

199

MORE ON QUADRILATERALS

We will now discuss some of the most effective ways to show that a quadrilateral is a

parallelogram, rhombus, rectangle or square, using the methods of Analytical Geometry.

Proving that a quadrilateral is a parallelogram

If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

To demonstrate this on a Cartesian plane we will show that the diagonals share the same

midpoint.

EXAMPLE 14

y I(5 ; 5)

Quadrilateral TIME is drawn on the Cartesian plane.

Prove that it is a parallelogram.

Solution T(0 ; 2)

xE + xI yE + yI P

Midpoint of IE: ;

2 2

x

−2 + 5 −3 + 5

= ;

2 2 M(3 ; 0)

3

= ;1

2 E( − 2 ; − 3)

x + x y + yT

Midpoint of TM: M T ; M

2 2 Take note:

3+ 0 0 + 2 Proving that both pairs of opposite

= ; sides are parallel, OR

2 2

that both pairs of opposite sides are

3 equal, OR

= ;1

2 that one pair of opposite sides are

3 parallel and equal could have also

∴ P ;1 is the midpoint of both diagonals. been used.

2

Quadrilateral TIME is a parallelogram, because its diagonals bisect each other.

A rhombus can be defined as a parallelogram in which the adjacent sides are equal, OR as a

parallogram in which the diagonals are perpendicular (i.e. a parallelogram in which the

diagonals bisect at a 90° angle). The latter will be quicker to prove and will be the approach

that we will use.

EXAMPLE 15

A( − 3 ; 7) y

H(4 ; 0), E( −1 ; 2), A( −3 ; 7) and R(2 ; 5) are the vertices

of quadrilateral HEAR. R(2 ; 5)

(a) Prove that quadrilateral HEAR is a parallelogram.

M

(b) Prove that quadrilateral HEAR is a rhombus.

E( − 1; 2)

x

H(4 ; 0)

200

Solutions

(a) We are required to prove that diagonals HA and ER share the same midpoint.

x + x y + yH xE + xR yE + yR

Midpoint of HA: A H ; A Midpoint of ER: ;

2 2 2 2

−3 + 4 7 + 0 −1 + 2 2 + 5

= ; = ;

2 2 2 2

1 7 1 7

= ; = ;

2 2 2 2

1 7

∴ M ; is the midpoint of both diagonals.

2 2

Quadrilateral HEAR is a parallelogram because its diagonals bisect.

(b) We are required to prove that the diagonals bisect at a 90° angle. We have already

proven that they bisect. We need to prove that HA ⊥ ER , in other words prove that

mHA × mER = −1.

y − yH 0−7 y − yE 5−2

mHA = A = = −1 and mER = R = =1

xA − xH 4 − (−3) xR − xE 2 − (−1)

∴ mHA × mER = (−1) × (1) = −1

∴ HA ⊥ ER

Quadrilateral HEAR is a rhombus because its diagonals bisect at 90°.

A rectangle can be defined as a parallelogram of which the diagonals are equal, OR as a

parallelogram with one interior angle equal to 90°. The latter will be quicker to prove and will

be the approach that we shall use.

EXAMPLE 16

y A(4 ; 9)

Quadrilateral LAND is shown in the given diagram.

(a) Prove that quadrilateral LAND is a

parallelogram. N(6 ; 6)

rectangle. L( − 5 ; 3)

Solutions x

D( − 3 ; 0)

(a) We are required to prove that diagonals

NL and DA share the same midpoint.

x + x y + yL x + x y + yA

Midpoint of NL: N L ; N Midpoint of DA: D A ; D

2 2 2 2

6 + (−5) 6 + 3 −3 + 4 0 + 9

= ; = ;

2 2 2 2

1 9 1 9

= ; = ;

2 2 2 2

201

1 9

∴ M ; is the midpoint of both diagonals.

2 2

Quadrilateral LAND is a parallelogram, because its diagonals bisect each other.

(b) We are required to prove that one interior angle of parallelogram LAND is 90°. We

need to prove that LA ⊥ LD , in other words prove that mLA × mLD = −1.

y − yL 9−3 2 y − yL 0−3 3

mLA = A = = and mLD = D = =−

xA − xL 4 − ( −5) 3 xD − xL −3 − ( −5) 2

2 3

∴ mLA × mLD = × − = −1.

3 2

∴ LA ⊥ LD

Quadrilateral LAND is a rectangle because it is a parallelogram with one interior angle

equal to 90°.

Square

Several approaches can be used to prove that a quadrilateral is a square. We will discuss two

approaches.

First approach: A square is a rhombus with one interior angle 90°.

First prove that the quadrilateral is a rhombus and then prove one

interior angle 90°.

Second approach: A square is a rectangle of which the adjacent sides are equal.

First prove that the quadrilateral is a rectangle, and then prove one pair

of adjacent sides equal.

Trapezium

Simply prove that one pair of opposite sides are parallel.

Kite

Simply prove that two pairs of adjacent sides are equal OR prove that one diagonal is bisected

by the other at 90°.

EXERCISE 4

(a) Quadrilateral DEFG is formed by the points D( − 5 ; 3), E(3 ; 5), F(2 ;1) and

G( − 6 ; − 1) . Show that DEFG is a parallelogram.

(b) Given: A( − 4 ; 3), B(3 ; 4), C(8 ; − 1) and D(1; − 2) . Show that ABCD is a rhombus.

(Hint: First show that it is a parallelogram)

(c) Given: A(0 ; − 3), B(4 ; 0), C( − 2 ; 8) and D( − 6 ; 5) . Show that ABCD is a rectangle.

(d) M( − 3 ; 2), N(3 ; 6), O(9 ; − 2) and P(3 ; − 6) are the points of quadrilateral MNOP.

Show that:

(1) MNOP is a parallelogram. (2) MNOP is not a rectangle.

(e) A( − 2 ; 3), B(x ; y ), C(1; 4) and D( − 1; 2) are the vertices of a quadrilateral. Determine

B(x ; y ) if ACDB is a parallelogram. Drawing a diagram will be useful.

202

B

(f) In the following sketch ABCD is a parallelogram.

The diagonals AC and BD intersect in P( − 1,5 ; 3).

D is a point on the x-axis. The gradient of BD is 6. C

P

(1) Determine the coordinates of C and D.

(2) Use Analytical techniques to determine A(3 ; 2)

whether or not ABCD is a rhombus.

x

D

CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION EXERCISE

(a) A(4 ; 3) and B(10 ; 5) are two points on a Cartesian plane.

(1) Calculate the length of AB. Round off your answer to one decimal place.

(2) Determine the coordinates of M, the midpoint of AB.

(3) Determine the coordinates of P if B is the midpoint of AP.

(b) ΔABC has coordinates A( −4 ; 2), B(1 ; 2) and C( −1 ; 6)

(1) Determine the perimeter of ΔABC

(2) What kind of triangle is ΔABC?

(3) Explain why ΔABC cannot be right-angled. Show all workings.

(c) Points F( −3 ; − 4), A(1 ; b) and N(3 ; 5) are collinear. Determine the value of b.

(1) Determine the gradient of AC.

(2) Determine the length of BC

(one decimal place).

(3) Determine the coordinates of M,

the midpoint of line AB.

(4) Determine the coordinates of D.

(5) Show that BD ⊥ AC .

B(4 ; 0)

A( −3 ; − 4)

go through the origin. U is the midpoint of AE

and RU ⊥ AE .

(1) Determine the coordinates of U. U

(2) Determine the gradient of RU.

(3) Show that the origin lies on

the line RU.

(4) Calculate the area of ΔARE . E( − 10 ; − 5)

R(8 ; − 6)

(f) On the Cartesian plane below M( a ; 1) is y

A(−2 ; 4)

the midpoint of line AB with A( − 2 ; 4)

and B(5 ; k ) . Point D lies on the x-axis.

The length of MD is 21,25 . M(a ;1)

This graph is not sketched according to scale. 21, 25

(2) Determine the coordinates of D. D

Show all calculations. B(5 ; k )

203

y

(g) The sketch alongside is a circle with centre V E( − 7 ;15)

through points S, A and E.

(1) Determine the length of the radius

.

of the circle.

(2) Determine the coordinates of V.

(3) Show that SE ⊥ SA . S( − 15 ; 3) V

x

A(3 ; − 9)

(h) Use analytical methods to show that Q(3 ; 6)

PQRS is a parallelogram if P( −3 ; 2) ,

Q(3 ; 6) , R(10 ; − 1) and S(4 ; − 5) .

P( − 3 ; 2)

R(10 ; − 1)

S(4 ; − 5)

LMNP.

(1) Determine the coordinates of N.

(2) Show that MP ⊥ LN and state what type of quadrilateral LMNP is

other than a parallelogram.

(3) Show that LMNP is a square.

y R(6 ; 8)

(j) SRQP is a parallelogram. S lies on the y-axis.

Determine the value of b and the coordinates of S.

Q(b ;1)

x

P(−3 ; − 1)

(k) In the diagram below, two circles centres M(2 ; 2) and C respectively are drawn such

that they are tangential (touching) at P. B is a point on the larger circle such that MBC

is a right-angled triangle. If the radius of the smaller circle is 2 with MB = 4 units and

BC = r .

Determine:

(1) the co-ordinates of B.

(2) the co-ordinates of C in terms of r.

(3) the length of the radius of the larger circle.

204

yB − yA

(l) In this Chapter, the gradient of a line using the formula was used.

xB − xA

In Chapter 6, you determined the equation of a line given the y-intercept and another

point on the line. The coefficient of x in the equation y = ax + q represents the

gradient

or slope of the line and q represents the y-intercept. Use this information to determine

the equation of each of the following lines.

(1) (2)

B(1; 4) A( −7 ; 2)

B( −2 ; − 3)

A( −4 ; − 1)

205

CHAPTER 9 FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS

In any financial situation in the real-world, the interest rate is the percentage charged, or paid,

for the use of money. It is charged when money is being borrowed, and paid when it is being

loaned. The function of banks is to grant loans or hold deposits. Banks convince people to

make deposits by paying interest to them. They are paying depositors for the right to use their

money.

They then use that money to grant loans. The interest rate for borrowers is higher than the

interest rate for depositors. Banks want to charge as much interest as possible on loans, and

pay as little as possible on deposits, so they can be more profitable.

There are two main types of interest rates that you were introduced to in previous grades:

simple interest and compound interest.

If interest is calculated using only the original amount of money saved or borrowed, then it is

called simple interest. Simple interest is used for short-term loans (hire-purchase accounts)

and investments.

If interest is calculated on the original sum plus interest already earned, then it is called

compound interest. Compound interest is used with long-term loans and investments. Saving

money over a long term-period (five or more years) with a compound interest rate well above

the inflation rate, will help you to accumulate wealth. Compounding can be your friend if you

are saving money over a long-term period. It can also be your worst enemy if you are paying

back a bank loan over a long-term period.

Let’s revise simple and compound interest in the following examples.

EXAMPLE 1

R5 000 is invested in a bank. Calculate the accumulated amount after three years if the

interest rate is:

(a) 3,75% per annum simple interest (b) 3,75% per annum compound interest

Solutions

A = 5 000 + 3, 75% of 5 000 A = 5 000 + 3, 75% of 5 000

A = 5 000 + 0, 0375 × 5000 A = 5 000 + 0, 0375 × 5 000

∴ A = 5 000 + 187,50 ∴ A = 5 000 + 187,50

∴ A = R5 187,50 ∴ A = R5 187,50

After 2 years: After 2 years:

A = 5 187,50 + 0, 0375 × 5 000 A = 5 187,50 + 0, 0375 × 5 187,50

∴ A = 5 187,50 + 187,50 ∴ A = 5 187,50 + 194,53

∴ A = R5 375 ∴ A = R5 382,03

After 3 years: After 3 years:

A = 5 375 + 0, 0375 × 5 000 A = 5 382,03 + 0, 0375 × 5 382,03

∴ A = 5 375 + 187,50 ∴ A = 5 382,03 + 201,83

∴ A = R5 562,50 ∴ A = R5 583,86

Notice that after 1 year, the amount accumulated is the same for both the simple and

compound interest rates. After this, the amount accumulated using the compound interest rate

will always be higher than the amount accumulated using the simple interest rate.

206

This method of calculation is somewhat tedious. Let’s revise the formulae for simple and

compound interest rate calculations that you dealt with in Grade 9.

Simple interest formulae Compound interest formulae

n

rn r

A = P 1 + or A = P(1 + in) A = P 1 + or A = P(1 + i ) n

100 100

where:

A = accumulated amount P = original amount borrowed or invested

n = number of years r = interest rate as a percentage

r

i= = interest rate as a decimal Note: r = i × 100

100

Let’s now use these formulae to verify the answers in Example 1 and focus on some further

examples.

EXAMPLE 2 (Calculating the value of A)

R5 000 is invested in a bank. Calculate, using the appropriate formulae, the accumulated

amount after three years and the total interest received, if the interest rate is:

(a) 3,75% per annum simple interest (b) 3,75% per annum compound interest

Solutions

3, 75

A=? P = 5 000 i= = 0, 0375 n=3

100

(a) A = P(1 + in) (b) A = P(1 + i ) n

∴ A = 5 000(1 + 0, 0375 × 3) ∴ A = 5 000(1 + 0, 0375)3

∴ A = R5 562,50 ∴ A = R5 583,86

Interest received over 3 years Interest received over 3 years

= R5 562,50 − R5000 = R5 583,86 − R5 000

= R562,50 = R583,86

R562,50

= R187,50 each year

3

Five years ago, a certain amount of money was invested in a bank. The value of the

investment is currently R200 000. Calculate the original amount invested (P) if the interest

rate was:

(a) 5% per annum simple interest (b) 5% per annum compound interest

Solutions

5

A = 200 000 P=? i= = 0, 05 n=5

100

(a) A = P(1 + in) (b) A = P(1 + i ) n

∴ 200 000 = P(1 + 0, 05 × 5) ∴ 200 000 = P(1 + 0, 05)5

∴ 200 000 = P(1,25) ∴ 200 000 = P(1, 05)5

200 000 200 000

∴ =P ∴ =P

(1, 25) (1, 05)5

∴ P = R160 000 ∴ P = R156 705,23

207

Alternative method for (b):

200 000 = P(1, 05)5

200 000

∴ =P

(1, 05)5

1

∴ 200 000(1,05) −5 = P [apply the exponent rule = a−m ]

am

∴ P = 200 000(1,05) −5

∴ P = R156 705,23

The compound interest formula can therefore be written in the form P = A(1 + i ) − n . This new

formula can be used to calculate P when given A, i and n. With this formula, the interest is

removed from A to get back to P.

In the previous example, you can calculate P directly as follows:

P = 200 000(1 + 0,05)−5

∴ P = R156 705,23

Rachel has just opened a small business and takes out a loan to provide for the initial start-up

costs. She agrees to repay the loan four years later by means of a payment of R1 200 000. The

bank charges her an interest rate of 18% per annum compounded annually. What was the

amount of money she originally borrowed?

Solution

18

A = 1 200 000 P=? i= = 0,18 n=4

100

P = A(1 + i ) − n

∴ P = 1 200 000(1 + 0,18) −4

∴ P = R618 946,65

How long would it take for an investment of R40 000 to increase by R5 000 if the interest rate

is 4,5% per annum simple interest?

Solution

4,5

A = 45 000 P = 40 000 i= = 0, 045 n=?

100

A = P(1 + in)

∴ 45 000 = 40 000(1 + 0, 045 × n) Note:

45 000 Calculating the value of n in the compound

∴ = 1 + 0, 045n interest formula is not part of the Grade 10

40 000

syllabus since this requires the use of

∴1,125 = 1 + 0, 045n logarithms which are studied in Grade 12.

∴1,125 − 1 = 0, 045n

∴ 0,125 = 0, 045n

0,125

∴n = = 2, 7777..... years

0, 045

This is the same as 2 years and approximately 9 months [0, 7777.... × 12 = 9,3333333....]

208

EXAMPLE 6 (Calculating the value of i)

Joseph invests R18 000 and it grows to R25 000 over a period of two years. Calculate the

interest rate to one decimal place if the investment earned:

(a) simple interest (b) compound interest

Solutions

A = 25 000 P = 18 000 r =? n=2

∴ 25 000 = 18 000(1 + i × 2) ∴ 25 000 = 18 000(1 + i ) 2

∴ 25 000 = 18 000(1 + 2i ) 25 000

∴ = (1 + i ) 2

25 000 18 000

∴ = 1 + 2i

18 000 25

∴ = (1 + i ) 2

25 18

∴ − 1 = 2i

18 25

7 ∴ = 1+ i

∴ = 2i 18

18

25

7 1 1 ∴i = −1

∴ × = 2i × 18

18 2 2

7 ∴ i = 0,178511302....

∴ =i ∴ r = 0,178511302.... ×100

36

∴ i = 0,194444... ∴ r = 17,9%

∴ r = 0,194444... × 100

∴ r = 19, 4%

EXERCISE 1

(a) Trevor invests an amount of R20 000 in a bank. Calculate, using appropriate formulae,

the accumulated amount after six years and the total interest he will receive, if the

interest rate is:

(1) 4,5% per annum simple interest

(2) 4,5% per annum compound interest

(b) Refilwe wants to purchase a stove costing R12 000. She wants to pay back this amount

with interest in two years’ time. The interest rate is 24% per annum simple interest.

(1) Calculate the amount that she will repay in two years’ time.

(2) If she wants to pay the loan off in monthly payments over the two-year period,

what will her monthly payments be?

(c) Nceba invested R500 000 in the share market. He managed to secure an average

compound interest rate of 14% per annum during the first two years.

(1) Calculate the value of his investment at the end of the two-year period.

(2) During the next three years, he managed to secure an average compound

interest rate of 12% per annum. What was his investment then worth at the end

of the next three years?

(d) Seven years ago, a certain amount of money was invested in a bank. The value of the

investment is currently R350 000. Calculate the original amount invested (P) if the

interest rate was:

(1) 3,25% per annum simple interest

(2) 3,25% per annum compound interest

209

(e) What amount must be invested now in order to receive R650 000 in five years’

time if the compound interest rate is 6% per annum?

(f) How long would it take for an investment of R50 000 to increase to R65 000 if the

interest rate is 5,5% per annum simple interest?

(g) Calculate how long it would take for an investment of R9 000 to double if the simple

interest rate is 11% per annum.

(h) Paul invests R35 000 and it accumulates to R55 000 over a period of five years.

(1) What simple interest rate would you need to secure?

(2) What compound interest rate would you need to secure?

(i) Janet invests R80 000 and it accumulates to R90 000 over a period of two years.

(1) What simple interest rate will she need to receive in order to achieve this?

(2) What compound interest rate will she need to receive in order to achieve this?

HIRE-PURCHASE AGREEMENTS

A Hire Purchase Agreement (HP) is a short-term loan. Household appliances and furniture are

often bought on HP. The buyer signs an agreement with the seller to pay a specified amount

per month. The interest paid on a hire purchase loan is simple interest and it is calculated on

the full value of the loan over the repayment period. Normally a deposit is paid initially and

the balance is paid over a short time period. The buyer will be required to pay the total interest

charged on the loan even if the loan can be paid off in a shorter time period.

EXAMPLE 7

Vanessa buys a laptop costing R16 000. She pays a 10% deposit and then takes out a twenty

four month hire-purchase loan on the balance. The interest rate charged on the loan is 22% per

annum simple interest. Calculate her monthly payments and what she will actually pay for the

computer.

Solution

= 0,1× 16 000 = R1 600

A = P(1 + in)

∴ A = 14 400(1 + 0, 22 × 2)

∴A = R20 736

Monthly payments:

R20 736

∴ = R864

24

210

EXAMPLE 8

Mike buys a mobile phone costing R8 000 on HP, pays a deposit of R800, and then pays 36

monthly payments of R344. Calculate the simple interest rate.

Solution

R8 000 − R800 = R7 200 (P)

R344 × 36 = R12 384 (A)

12 384 = 7 200(1 + i × 3)

12 384

∴ = 1 + 3i

7 200

12 384

∴ − 1 = 3i

7 200

18

∴ = 3i

25

18 1 1

∴ × = 3i ×

25 3 3

∴ i = 0, 24

∴ r = 24%

EXERCISE 2

(a) David buys a computer which costs R17 000. He takes out a 36-month hire purchase

agreement. He pays a deposit of 10% and the interest charged on the balance is 14%

per annum simple interest. What will his monthly payments be and what will he

actually pay for the laptop?

(b) Patricia wants to buy a furniture suite for R38 000. She decides to take out a hire-

purchase loan involving equal monthly payments over five years. The deposit is 20%

and the simple interest rate charged per annum is 15%. Calculate:

(1) how much must be paid each month

(2) the amount of interest paid

(3) the actual amount paid for the furniture suite

(c) Shaun buys a smartphone on HP which costs R11 799,90. He will have to pay R639

per month for 24 months. No deposit will be required. Calculate the simple interest

rate.

(d) A tablet with WiFi costs R10 579. Mark buys a tablet on HP and agrees to pay a

deposit of R1 500 and 36 monthly payments of R350. Calculate the total simple

interest paid and the rate of simple interest.

(e) A hire purchase contract for a sound system requires James to pay a deposit of R2 000

and to then make six monthly payments of R3 375. If the price of the sound system is

R20 000, calculate the total simple interest paid and the rate of simple interest.

(f) Belinda buys a flat screen plasma television costing R20 000 on hire purchase. She

traded in an old television for R3 000 and paid a deposit of R 2000. The balance was

paid by means of monthly instalments of R900 over two years. Calculate the total

simple interest paid and the rate of simple interest.

211

(g) Jeremy wants to buy a motorbike. He can only afford to pay R3 000 per month. He

wants to take out a hire purchase loan over 24 months at an interest rate of 12% per

annum simple interest. Calculate the price of the computer that he can afford to buy.

(h) Ayanda wants to buy a new car and can afford to pay R4 899 per month. A car

dealership offers her a payment plan over 72 months at a simple interest rate of 10,5%

per annum. What is the price of the car she can afford to buy?

Inflation is the steady increase in the prices of goods and services over time throughout the

economy. It is measured by defining a ‘shopping basket’ of goods and services used by a

typical South African household and then keeping track of the cost of the basket. The

consumer price index, or CPI, is the cost of a shopping basket. For example, in one year, the

cost of the basket may rise by 4%. This increase of 4% in the CPI is referred to as the inflation

rate. The rate of inflation is therefore the percentage of money you’ll need more every year to

buy the same things you were able to buy the previous year. Inflation eats away at the value of

people’s money. With the same amount of money, fewer goods can be bought than before.

Inflation is caused by a wide range of factors. A few of them are:

An increase in the demand for goods due to shortage, which leads to prices going up. If there

are 100 consumers wanting to buy a product, but only 90 products are available, the price of

the product will increase.

Increases in production charges due to such factors as exchange rates, oil and petrol prices

will cause the producer to pass on the higher prices to the consumer in order to stay in

business. A higher petrol price has both an impact on the general price level, as it not only

impacts on the price we pay for petrol, but also on the whole range of goods and services that

are subject to transport costs.

EXAMPLE 9

In January 1985, the average home cost about R72 000. Assuming an average annual inflation

rate of 8,6% from 1985 up to 2015, which is a period of thirty years, what did the same house

cost in January 2015?

Solution

A = P(1 + i ) n

∴ A = 72 000(1 + 0, 086)30

∴ A = R855 514,26

EXAMPLE 10

The average salary of a computer programmer in South Africa in 1995 was R4 500. Assuming

an annual average rate of inflation of 6,1%, would a salary of R9 000 have the same buying

power in 2015?

Solution

A = P(1 + i ) n

∴ A = 4 500(1 + 0, 061) 20

∴ A = R14 706,87

A salary of R9 000 would be way below the buying power of a salary of R14 706,87.

212

EXERCISE 3

(a) Arnold paid R2 599,99 for a car sound system in 1997. Assuming an average inflation

rate of 7% per annum, what did he pay for a sound system with the equivalent value in

2014?

(b) The average price of a hamburger and milkshake in 1991 was R6,60. Assuming an

average inflation rate of 8% per annum, what did hamburger and milkshake cost in

2006?

(c) The average salary of a domestic worker in South Africa in the year 2000 was R2 000.

Assuming an annual average rate of inflation of 5,7%, would a salary of R3 000 have

the same buying power in 2015?

(d) University fees for a student stuying a bachelor’s degree are, on average, about

R34 000 per year. Assuming an average inflation rate of 5% per annum, what will the

fees be in twenty years’ time?

(e) Forty years ago, John deposited R5 000 in a bank paying him 3% per annum

compound interest. The average inflation rate over the forty years was 6%.

(1) How much money will he have saved after forty years?

(2) Calculate the buying power of R5 000 after forty years.

(3) Comment on the value of John’s savings after forty years.

(f) If salaries double every seven years, what will the rate of inflation be?

(g) Suppose that a person earns a monthly salary of R20 000. What would this salary have

been 30 years ago, assuming an annual average rate of inflation of 4,5%?

(h) Suppose that a cold drink costs R4,50 now but will cost double in eight years’ time.

What will the average inflation rate be?

EXCHANGE RATES

There are different money systems in different countries. Currency is the term used to

describe the particular money system of a country. Here are the currencies of a few countries.

South Africa Rand R

United States of America US dollar $

United Kingdom British Pound £

Several European countries Euro €

In every country, in order to purchase goods and services, you would need to use their

currency. In the USA, you would not be able to use rands to pay for things. This is because

the USA uses the dollar. Therefore, you would need to convert rands to dollars before you can

spend money in America. Because the rand is much weaker than the American dollar or

British pound, you will need to exchange a lot more rands for dollars and even more for

pounds. For example, say you want to buy an item online costing one pound in England. You

would therefore need about R18 to buy that item because the pound is much stronger than the

rand.

EXAMPLE 11

Sean wants to buy the latest DJ equipment, which has been advertised in a US catalogue for

$4 000. He wants to order and pay for the equipment online. The current rand/dollar exchange

rate is R12,56 to the US dollar. Calculate the cost in rands of the DJ equipment.

Solution

$1 = R12, 56

∴$1 × 4 000 = R12,56 × 4 000

213

∴$4 000 = R50 240

The DJ equipment will cost R50 240.

EXAMPLE 12

Simone is on a trip to the UK to visit her mom. The current rand/pound exchange rate is

R18,50 to the British pound. She has R40 000 to spend in the UK. How many pounds does

she have to spend?

Solution

£1 = R18,50

£1 R18,50

∴ =

18,50 18,50

£1

∴ = R1

18,50

£1

∴ × 40 000 = R1× 40 000

18,50

∴ £2162,16 = R40 000

Judy has £2 162,16 to spend in London.

EXERCISE 4

(a) The latest Playstation game costs $645 in New York. What would it cost in South

Africa if the rand/dollar exchange rate is R12,25 to the US dollar?

(b) Conrad wants to buy a fitness book costing £30 in London. How much will it cost

him in rands? The rand/pound exchange rate is R17 to the British pound.

(c) Mark wants to buy Japanese sweets costing 50 yen (¥). If the rand/yen exchange rate is

one rand to 17,76 yen, calculate the cost of the sweets in rands.

(d) Jill is visiting a friend in California for a week. She has R3 000 to spend and will

exchange the money for US dollars. How many dollars will she have to spend if the

rand/dollar exchange rate is R11,28 to the US dollar?

(e) Nathan wants to purchase electric drums from a music dealership in England. The

drums cost £4 000 and Nathan has saved R75 000. The rand/pound exchange rate is

R18,24 per one pound. Will he have enough money, in rands, to buy the drums? Show

your reasoning.

(f) One yen costs R0,22. How much yen can you spend in Japan if you have R4 500

available to you?

(g) A married couple living in England, having saved £4 000, decided to have a holiday in

South Africa. The airfare cost £1 100 and they converted the balance of their money

into rand which they intended to spend in South Africa. They actually spent R23 000

in South Africa and converted their remaining rands back into pounds when they

returned to England. The exchange rate on arrival in South Africa was R18,24 to the

pound and R18,46 to the pound when they departed from South Africa.

(1) How much, in rands, had the couple planned to spend in South Africa?

(2) How many pounds did they take back to England?

(h) A certain watch costs €350 in Germany or £245 in England. Which price is better for

the South African buyer if the exchange rates are R11,24 to the euro and R18,06 to the

pound?

(i) A South African teacher works in England for two years. He saves £400 every month.

How much money in rand would he save in this time if the average exchange rate

during the two years is R18,54 to the pound?

214

(j) Brenda won a competition where she can fly to three international destinations free of

charge with spending money. The destinations she chose were Germany, Japan and

England. For Germany, she was allocated €9 000. For Japan, she was allocated ¥30

000. For England, she was allocated £2 500. Use the exchange rates in the table on the

next page to calculate the total amount she had been allocated in rands.

Exchange Rates

Germany (€) Japan (¥) England (£)

R10,46 R0,29 R17,12

POPULATION GROWTH

Population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population. The population

growth rate is the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given

time period as a fraction of the initial population. It measures how the size of the population is

changing over time.

In the first few years, a population grows exponentially in the same way that money grows

through compounding. As time progresses, any population of living creatures is constrained

by the availablility of food, water, land or other important resources. Populations therefore

don’t always grow exponentially. In this section, we will focus on the early years of

exponential growth of populations. There are other models of population growth that are

studied at university which take into consideration changing population growth rates due to

the constraining factors mentioned.

The formula for calculating exponential growth of a population is similar to the compound

interest formula:

n

r

Pfuture = Ppresent 1 + where:

100

Ppresent = present size of the population

Pfuture = future size of the population

r = average population growth rate expressed as a percentage

n = the number of years

EXAMPLE 13

The mid-year population in South Africa in 2014 was 54 002 200. Calculate the size of the

population in five years’ time if the average population growth rate is 1,56%.

Solution

n

r

Pfuture = Ppresent 1 +

100

5

1,56

∴ Pfuture = 54 002 200 1 +

100

∴ Pfuture = 58 347 857,54

The population size will be approximately 58 347 857 people in five years’ time.

215

EXERCISE 5

(a) The mid-year population in South Africa in 2008 was 48 910 000. Calculate the size of

the population in two years’ time if the average population growth rate was 1,34%.

(b) The number of people in the USA as at June 2014 was estimated at 318 857 056. If the

average population growth rate was 1,42%, calculate the estimated population size of

the USA in June 2017.

(c) The number of black rhinos in Africa during 2012 was estimated at 5 487. If the

average population growth rate of black rhinos is 4,9% per annum, calculate how

many rhinos were there in Africa in 2007.

(d) The world population during the year 2015 was estimated to be 7 320 248 940. If the

average annual exponential growth rate was 1,14%, what was the population in the

year 2000?

(e) A family of 6 mice can multiply into a family of 60 mice in 3 months.

(1) Calculate the estimated monthly growth rate for the mice population.

(2) If not controlled, how many mice will there possibly be in one year if the initial

population is 6 mice?

(f) You are studying the population growth of a species of frog. In a pond constructed for

the frogs, you start off with 50 frogs and notice that after 10 months, the number of

frogs has increased to 61. What is the average monthly growth rate?

EXAMPLE 14

R8 000 is deposited into a savings account. The interest rate for the first three years is 3% per

annum compounded annually. Thereafter, the interest rate changes to 4% per annum

compounded annually. Calculate the value of the investment at the end of the eighth year.

Solution

Time lines are useful when dealing with interest rate changes.

T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

Method 1 Method 2

∴ A = 8 741,816 of 8 000(1, 06)3 , you can do both

calculations in one line as follows:

A = 8 741,816(1 + 0,04)5 (at T8 ) A = 8 000(1, 03)3 . (1, 04)5

∴ A = R10 635,76

∴ A = R10 635,76

216

EXAMPLE 15

A certain amount of money was invested ten years ago and is now worth R200 000. The

interest rate during the first 6 years was 3,5% per annum compounded annually and for the

remaining four years, the interest rate was 4,6% per annum compounded annually. How much

money was invested ten years ago?

Solution

T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10

Method 1 Method 2

of 200 000(1, 046) −4 , you can do both

∴ P = 167 071,8407

calculations in one line as follows:

P = 167 071,8407(1 + 0,035)−6 (at T0 ) P = 200 000(1, 046)−4 . (1, 035)−6

∴ P = R135 913,05 ∴ P = R135 913,05

EXERCISE 6

(a) R24 000 is deposited into a bank account. The interest rate for the first seven years is

2,25% per annum compounded annually. Thereafter, the interest rate changes to 3,5%

per annum compounded annually. Calculate the value of the investment at the end of

the thirteenth year.

(b) Portia invests R500 000 in the share market. Over a fifteen-year period, the average

interest rate was 6% per annum compounded annually for the first eight years and 7%

per annum compounded annually for the remaining seven years. How much money

will she have saved at the end of the fifteen-year period?

(c) David invested R50 000 for nine years. The interest rate changed three times during

the nine-year period. At the start, the interest rate was 4,35% per annum compounded

annually. After two years, it increased by 1% and four years later, it decreased by 2%.

How much was David’s investment worth at the end of the investment period?

(d) A certain amount was invested in the share market seven years ago and is now worth

R1 300 000. The average interest rate during the first five years was 9% per annum

compounded annually and for the remaining two years, 10% per annum compounded

annually. How much money was originally invested?

(e) Sibongile wants to travel to New York in five years’ time. She estimates that, by then,

the cost of the trip will be R250 000. Suppose that the bank will give her a fixed

compound interest rate of 5% for the first year and 6% per annum for the remaining

four years, how much will she need to invest now in order to save R250 000?

(f) Thembi invested R6 000 at the beginning of the year 2010. The interest rate then was

2% per annum compounded annually. At the beginning of the following year, the

interest rate increased to 2,5%. One year later, the interest rate increased by 0,8%. One

year after this, the interest rate dropped by 2%. How much money did Thembi save at

the beginning of the year 2015?

217

CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION EXERCISE

(a) Sam invests R28 000 for two years ands earns 4,7% per annum compound interest.

(1) Calculate the accumulated value at the end of the two-year period.

(2) He leaves the money in the account for a further two years. The interest rate

changes to 6% per annum simple interest. How much money will he then have

saved?

(b) What amount must Tanisha invest now if she wishes to accumulate R1 000 000 in ten

years’ time given that the interest rate is:

(1) 13% per annum simple interest?

(2) 13% per annum compound interest?

(c) Theresa believes that she has the potential to double her money in three years by

investing in the share market. If she deposits R60 000 into a share-market investment

account,

(1) what simple interest rate will be required in order for her to do this?

(2) what compound interest rate will be required in order for her to do this?

(d) Manhatten Island is said to have been bought from the Indians in 1626 for $24. If,

instead of making this purchase, the buyer had put the money in a savings account

drawing compound interest at 6% per annum, what would that account be worth in the

year 2015?

(e) On his trip to New York, Robert booked into a hotel for three nights. The cost per

night was $450. How much did Robert spend in rands for the three nights if the

exchange rate at that time was $1 = R12,12 .

(f) On his trip to London, Mark decides to buy a tablet from a computer store. The tablet

costs R10 000 in South Africa. How much is this in pounds if the exchange rate on the

day is £1 = R17, 30 ?

(g) Ernest wants to buy a car costing R240 000. He wants to pay cash for this model of car

but can only do this in one and a half years’ time. If the inflation rate is running at 6%

per annum, calculate the cost of this car in one and a half years’ time.

(h) A population of Canadian swans doubles every seven years. Calculate the average

annual growth rate of this swan population.

(i) One pair of German cockroaches can theoretically produce enough offspring in one

year to carpet the floors of the average home to a depth of 1 metre per year. Reasearch

has found that one female cockroach give birth to 400 000 offspring in one year!

What is the annual growth rate for this population?

[http://www.stephentvedten.com/27_Roaches.pdf]

(j) An investment of R9 000 earns 6% per annum compounded annually for a period of

four years. Thereafter, the interest rate changes to 7% per annum compounded

annually for a further two years. Calculate the future value of the investment at the end

of the six-year period.

(k) Peter invests a certain sum of money for five years at 12% per annum compounded

annnually for the first two years and 14% per annum compounded annually for the

remaining term. The money grows to an amount of R65 000 at the end of the five-year

period. How much did Peter originally invest?

(l) R6000 is deposited into a savings account. Four years later, R7000 is added to the

savings. The interest rate for the first three years is 8% per annum compounded

annually. Thereafter, the interest rate changes to 9% per annum compounded annually.

Calculate the value of the savings at the end of the seventh year.

(m) Christo invests R12 000 in a savings account in order to save up for an overseas trip in

five years’ time. The interest rate for the five-year period is 11% per annum

compounded annually. At the end of the third year, Christo runs into financial

difficulty and withdraws R5 000 from the account. How much money will he have

saved at the end of the five-year period?

218

CHAPTER 10 STATISTICS

REPRESENTING UNGROUPED DATA

Ungrouped data is a set of individual values or observations. The data is discrete since the

values are distinct values. For example, the set of final examination marks of thirty university

students is referred to as ungrouped data. Another example could be the number of goals

scored by Kaizer Chiefs. Ungrouped data can be represented in different ways. The three most

common ways are: frequency tables, bar graphs and stem-and-leaf plots.

EXAMPLE 1

The American company Deloitte made a prediction that in 2014, the increase in

the number of smartphones being used world-wide would be the greatest for

people over 55 years.

In a survey conducted in a shopping mall during 2014, different people were

approached and asked what type of phone they were using. The following table shows the

ages of thirty people between the ages of 15 and 60 using smartphones.

[www2 deloitte com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/Technology-Media-Telecommunications/gx-tmt-2014prediction-smartphone pdf]

16 17 17 17 17 18 18 25 25 27 28 28 28 28 28

28 32 34 34 34 46 46 48 54 55 56 56 56 56 56

(d) Do the results of the survey prove that Deloitte was correct in their prediction?

Solutions

(a) A frequency table shows the different observations and how many times they occur.

16 | 1

17 |||| 4

18 || 2

25 || 2

27 | 1

28 |||| | 6

32 | 1

34 ||| 3

46 || 2

48 | 1

54 | 1

55 | 1

56 |||| 5

n = 30

219

(b) In a stem-and-leaf plot, the tens digit is used as a “stem” and the units as a “leaf”.

Ensure that the “leaves” are equally spaced.

1 6 7 7 7 7 8 8

2 5 5 7 8 8 8 8 8 8

3 2 4 4 4

4 6 6 8

5 4 5 6 6 6 6 6

(c) The individual ages are on the horizontal axis and the frequencies on the vertical axis.

It might be useful to place the ages into age groups rather than individual ages.

(d) Although the bar graphs indicate that there were a high number of over-55’s using

smartphones, there is not enough data to prove this prediction. The sample was too

small. It would be far more feasible to increase the number of people surveyed to well

in the millions to get a better idea. Also, one would have needed to compare sales in

previous years.

220

EXERCISE 1

(a) The manager of a computer store assessed the quality of

service at his store based on the feedback from thirty

customers. The rating scale was as follows:

Extremely poor (0) Poor (1)

Average (2) Good (3)

Very good (4) Outstanding (5)

The scores of the thirty customers are provided below.

0 3 4 3 4 1 4 2 4 5 4 2 4 4 2

3 4 4 5 3 4 2 1 1 3 4 3 5 2 4

(2) Draw a frequency bar graph for this data.

(b) A number of seeds of a particular variety of flower were sown. All germinated, but not

all at the same time. The following bar graph shows how many seeds germinated after

various number of days.

(2) After how many days did the first seed germinate?

(3) What percentage of seeds germinated within the first 8 days?

(c) Donating blood can help to save the life of someone and even

yours should you be in an accident one day and require blood.

The ages of forty people who donated blood on a particular day

are provided below.

18 42 17 35 19 35 20 39 35 26

41 53 42 50 57 43 35 24 55 54

64 22 35 17 65 18 47 19 48 53

27 35 63 24 66 34 39 27 66 35

(1) Draw a stem-and-leaf plot for this data.

(2) Draw a frequency bar graph for this data. Group the data into appropriate age

groups (10-19 year olds, 20-29 year olds, etc).

(3) Which age group donated the most blood?

221

(d) The number of air conditioners sold by fifty sales representatives in the year 2015 are

recorded below:

25 22 19 27 27 19 23 21 14 12

13 13 9 4 21 18 30 31 28 21

20 3 7 14 14 9 7 27 21 39

18 22 27 30 23 14 14 14 8 1

3 14 4 18 5 24 20 8 10 8

(1) Draw a stem-and-leaf plot for this data.

(2) Draw a frequency bar graph for this data.

(3) How many agents sold twenty or more air conditioners?

(4) What percentage of the agents sold less than 20 air conditioners?

tasks on your laptop or mobile phone. The word “app” is an

abbreviation for “application”. By the year 2016, there will be

almost 310 billion downloaded apps generating close to $74 billion

in revenue. With nearly two million apps already developed,

competition for someone wanting to develop a successful app is fierce. Having an app in

the top 25 will require at least 33 downloads per hour. Two companies recorded the

number of downloads per hour for one of their new apps over a period of 15 hours.

Company A 23 30 32 11 33 13 42 41 14 22 33 22 22 33 44

Company B 10 20 11 23 44 24 34 35 43 33 29 32 33 43 43

(1) Using today’s exchange rates, convert $74 billion to rands, pounds and euros.

(2) Draw a back-to-back stem-and-leaf diagram for the two companies.

(3) What percentage of Company A’s downloads were more than 33 per hour?

(4) What percentage of Company B’s downloads were less than 33 per hour?

(5) In your opinion, which company has the better chance of success with their new

app? State a reason for your answer.

(f) The following back-to-back stem-and-leaf diagram shows the average number of hours

spent per week on social networking websites by learners from two different classes.

CLASS A CLASS B

8 7 7 7 5 5 5 1 1 0 0 1 2 3 3 4 6 6 7 8 9

1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

9 2 1

3 0

(2) How many learners are there in Class B?

(3) How many learners in Class A spend exactly one hour per week on a social

networking website?

(4) How many learners in Class B spend more than five hours per week on a social

networking website?

(5) Which class spends more time, in total, on a social networking website?

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(g) The following bar graph shows the weekly social networking usage on smartphones by

different age groups in developed countries.

[Source: Deloitte Global Mobile Consumer Survey, Developed countries, May-July 2014]

(1) In which age group does 44% use smartphones for social networking?

(2) What percentage of the over 65-year olds do not use smartphones for social

networking?

(3) If there are 200 000 people in the 25-34 year age group, how many will be using

smartphones for social networking?

(4) If there are 375 000 people in the 18-24 age group using smartphones for social

networking, how many people in this age group are not using smartphones for

social networking?

Central tendency is the clustering of data around a central or middle value. A measure of

central tendency is a single value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the

central position within that set of data. As such, measures of central tendency are sometimes

called measures of central location. They are also classed as summary statistics. The mean

(often called the average) is most likely the measure of central tendency that you are most

familiar with, but there are others, such as the median and the mode.

THE MEAN

The mean or average of the data (referred to as x-bar or x ), is the sum of the data values

divided by the total number of data values (n). We refer to the data values as the x-values.

x=

sum of all x -values

=

x

total number of x -values n

Whenever the number of data values is large and there are no extreme values (outliers), then

the mean is a good measure of central tendency.

EXAMPLE 2

1 3 3 3 3 4 5 9 9 9

Solution

x=

x = 1 + (3 × 4) + 4 + 5 + (9 × 3) = 49 = 4, 9

n 10 10

223

THE MEDIAN

The median is the middle-most number when the data values are written in ascending order.

In order to determine the correct position of the median in the data, use the following formula:

Position of median = 12 (n + 1) where n represents the number of data values.

If the data set contains an odd number of values, then the median will be part of the data set.

1 ( n + 1)

2

will be an integer. If the data set contains an even number of values, then the median

1 ( n + 1)

will not be part of the data set. 2

will not be an integer. The median will be the average

between the two middle numbers in the data set.

EXAMPLE 3

Determine the median for the following data set: 2 9 5 12 10

Solution

2 5 9 10 12

There is an odd number of values and therefore the median will be part of the data set.

The median is therefore 9 and it divides the data into two equal halves.

25 9 10 12

lower half upper half

EXAMPLE 4

Determine the median for the following data set: 3 9 10 12 15 18

Solution

The data is arranged in ascending order.

There is an even number of values and therefore the median will be not part of the data set.

1 1

The position of the median = (6 + 1) = (7) = 3,5th position.

2 2

This means that the median is the average between the 3rd and 4th data values.

10 + 12 22

Median = = = 11

2 2

3

9 10

12 15 18

↑

11

The median is 11 and it divides the data into two equal halves.

It is not a value in the data set.

224

The median may be a better indicator of the most typical value if a data set has an outlier,

which is an extreme value that differs greatly from the other values.

EXAMPLE 5

(b) Which value is an outlier?

(c) Which measure of central tendency is more representative of the data set?

Solutions

5 7 7 8 9 12 36

5 + 7 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 12 + 36 84

x= = = 12

7 7

There is an odd number of values and therefore the median will be part of the

data set.

1 1

The position of the median = (7 + 1) = (8) = 4th position.

2 2

The median is 8 and it divides the data into two equal halves.

It is a value in the data set.

5

7 7 8 9

12 36

(c) The outlier has inflated the mean. It is therefore not a good value to use as a measure

of central tendency. The median is not affected by the outlier and is therefore a

much better measure than the mean.

THE MODE

The mode of a data set is the value that occurs most frequently. If two numbers tie for the

most frequent occurrence, the data set has two modes and is called bimodal. If three numbers

tie for the most frequent occurrence, the data set has three modes and is called trimodal. If a

data set has an outlier, the mode, like the median, may also be a better indicator of the most

typical value.

EXAMPLE 6

1 2 2 2 2 3 5 6 6 7 8 8 8 8 9 10 12

Solution

These values occur four times each in the data set. The data set is therefore bimodal.

225

EXAMPLE 7

Consider the data collected in Example 1. The ages of thirty people using smartphones

between the ages of 15 and 60 were recorded.

16 17 17 17 17 18 18 25 25 27 28 28 28 28 28

28 32 34 34 34 46 46 48 54 55 56 56 56 56 56

1 6 7 7 7 7 8 8

2 5 5 7 8 8 8 8 8 8

3 2 4 4 4

4 6 6 8

5 4 5 6 6 6 6 6

(b) Determine the median.

(c) Determine the mode.

Solutions

16+(17×4)+(18×2)+(25×2)+27+(28×6)+32+(34×3)+(46×2)+48+54+55+(56×5)

(a) x= 30

= 34, 27

(rounded off to two decimal places)

The median is the average between the 15th and 16th data values.

It is not part of the original data set but it divides the data set into two equal halves.

1 6 7 7 7 7 8 8

2 5 5 7 8 8 8 8 8 8

3 2 4 4 4

4 6 6 8

5 4 5 6 6 6 6 6

16 17 17 17 17 18 18 25 25 27 28 28 28 28 28

28 32 34 34 34 46 46 48 54 55 56 56 56 56 56

28 + 28

The median = = 28

2

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EXERCISE 2

(a) Find the mean, median and mode of the following sets of data values:

(1) 4 ; 13 ; 5 ; 7 ; 9 ; 6 ; 5

(2) 8 ; 22 ; 3 ; 18 ; 4 ; 14 ; 8 ; 5 ; 10 ; 8 ; 10

(3) 13 ; 2 ; 11 ; 2 ; 10 ; 4 ; 5 ; 10 ; 8 ; 10

(4) 9;1;4;4;2;8;5;2;5;5

(b) The mean weight of ten people entering in a lift is 75 kg. The lift has a weight limit of

1 000 kg. Approximately how many more people can get into the lift assuming that the

mean weight remains at 75 kg?

(c) The monthly salaries of nine employees in a small business are:

R15 400 R16 800 R86 300

R13 200 R16 900 R11 900

R17 100 R16 200 R16 900

(1) Calculate the mean, median and mode for this data.

(2) Which measure of central tendency is a sensible measure of the “typical”

monthly salary of an employee in this business? Explain.

(d) A salesman at a shoe store sold eight pairs of men’s shoes one

morning. The sizes of the eight pairs of shoes were as follows:

8 12 6 10 8 12 8 7 12 9 8 12

Which measure of central tendency best describes the typical shoe

size for this data?

(e) A teacher records the following results for an examination out of 100:

98 63 79 76 58 71 86 78 91 87

89 41 19 88 41 99 97 83 78 90

Which measure of central tendency best describes these results?

(f) A dairy farmer has 32 cows for sale. The weights of these cows in kilograms are

recorded below. The total weight of the cows is 5 060 kg.

80 82 83 83 84 85 85 86

86 87 87 88 88 89 90 92

92 93 94 95 97 153 153 154

155 321 371 376 377 381 382 391

(1) Calculate the mean and the median.

(2) The farmer describes the cows to a buyer and states that the average weight is

over 158 kg. Which measure of central tendency did the farmer use to describe

the cows and does this measure describe the cows fairly?

(g) The following stem-and-leaf diagram represents the ages of forty people who donated

blood. Refer to Exercise 1 no (c). The total of all the ages is 1 544.

1 7 7 8 8 9 9

2 0 2 4 4 6 7 7

3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 9

4 1 2 2 3 7 8

5 0 3 3 4 5 7

6 3 4 5 6 6

(1) Calculate the mean, median and mode for this data.

(2) Comment on the usefulness of these measures of central tendency.

227

(h) The following stem-and-leaf diagram represents the number of air conditioners sold by

fifty sales representatives. Refer to Exercise 1 no (d). The total number of air

conditioners is 843.

0 1 3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 8 8 9 9

1 0 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 9 9

2 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 7 7 7 7 8

3 0 0 1 9

(1) Calculate the mean, median and mode for this data.

(2) Comment on the usefulness of these measures of central tendency.

(i) Research was done on families having six children. The table

below shows the number of families in the study with the

indicated numbers of boys.

Number of boys 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Frequency 1 24 45 54 50 19 7

(1) Calculate the mean, median and mode for this data.

(2) Comment on the usefulness of these measures of central tendency.

(j) (1) The mean of 3 ; 4 ; 8 ; 9 ; x is 7. Determine x.

(2) The median of five consecutive natural numbers is 12. What is the mean?

(3) The numbers 4 ; 6 ; 8 ; 9 ; x are arranged from smallest to biggest. If the mean

and the median are equal, determine x.

(4) The mean of five numbers is 27. The numbers are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5.

Determine the five numbers.

(5) Write down three possible sets of five numbers such that the median is 4, the

mean is 5 and the mode is 3.

(6) The mean of six numbers is 44 and the mean of five of these numbers is 46.

What is the sixth number?

MEASURES OF POSITION

Measures of position divide a set of data into equal groups. There are two measures of

position that we will discuss:

Quartiles: which divide the data set into four equal parts

Percentiles: which divide the data set into one hundred equal parts

Quartiles

Consider an ordered set of numbers whose median is m. The lower quartile is the median of

the numbers that occur before m and the upper quartile is the median of the numbers that

occur after m. The lower quartile is also called the first quartile ( Q1 ). The median is called the

second quartile ( Q 2 or M ) and the upper quartile is called the third quartile ( Q3 ). The three

quartiles divide the data into four quarters. One quarter of the data values are less than the

lower quartile and three quarters of the data values are less than the upper quartile.

The following steps may be used to determine the lower and upper quartiles:

(1) Order the data (from smallest to biggest) and find the median ( Q 2 or M ).

(2) Find the median of the lower half of the data (exclude the median of the entire set).

This is the lower quartile ( Q1 ).

(3) Find the median of the upper half of the data (exclude the median of the entire set).

This is the upper quartile ( Q3 ).

228

EXAMPLE 8

Calculate the quartiles for the following sets of data:

(a) 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 9 10

(b) 2 3 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 10

Solutions

(a) 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 (11 values)

The median is 7 (the 6th value). It is a value in the data set.

1 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 9 10

The lower quartile is the median of the lower half (consisting of 5 values).

The position of the lower quartile = 12 (5 + 1) = 3

The lower quartile is 4 (the 3rd value). It is a value in the lower half.

1 3 4 5 6

The upper half of the data set is: 8 8 9 9 10

The upper quartile is the median of the upper half (consisting of 5 values).

The position of the upper quartile = 12 (5 + 1) = 3

The upper quartile is 9 (the 3rd value). It is a value in the upper half.

8 8 9 9 10

Let’s consider the quartiles together:

Q1 Q2 Q3

Solution

The median is 6 (the 7th value). It is a value in the data set.

2 3 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 10

The lower half of the data set is: 2 3 4 5 5 5

The lower quartile is the median of the lower half (consisting of 6 values).

The position of the lower quartile = 12 (6 + 1) = 3,5

The lower quartile is the average between the 3rd and 4th values. It is not a value

in the lower half.

4+5

∴ Q1 = = 4,5

2

229

The upper half of the data set is: 7 7 8 9 10 10

The upper quartile is the median of the upper half (consisting of 6 values).

The position of the upper quartile = 12 (6 + 1) = 3,5

The upper quartile is the average between the 3rd and 4th values. It is not a value

in the upper half.

8+9

∴ Q3 = = 8,5

2

Let’s consider the quartiles together:

Q2

Q1 Q3

12 60 95 105 120 125 130 135 140 142

120 + 125

∴ Q2 = = 122,5 (the average between the 5th and 6th values)

2

The lower half of the data set is: 12 60 95 105 120

The lower quartile is the median of the lower half (consisting of 5 values).

The position of the lower quartile = 12 (5 + 1) = 3

The lower quartile is the 3rd value. It is a value in the lower half.

∴Q1 = 95

The upper half of the data set is: 125 130 135 140 142

The upper quartile is the median of the upper half (consisting of 5 values).

The position of the upper quartile = 12 (5 + 1) = 3

The upper quartile is the 3rd value. It is a value in the upper half.

∴Q3 = 135

Q1 Q3

Q2

EXERCISE 3

(a) Find the quartiles for the following sets of data:

(1) 2 3 5 8 10 12 13

(2) 1 4 6 7 11 13 15 15 20

(3) 3 6 7 9 14 18 20 21

(4) 5 6 8 9 16 19 23 25 28 30

(5) 6 7 9 9 10 12 16 21 23 26 27 28 30 32

230

(b) The number of matches played by Argentina in past world cups are recorded below.

Determine the quartiles for the number of matches.

Number of matches 1 3 3 4 6 7 5

Number of matches 7 7 4 5 3 5 8

(c) A salesman at a shoe store sold eight pairs of men’s shoes one morning. The sizes of the

eight pairs of shoes were as follows:

8 12 6 10 8 12 8 7 12 9 8 12

Determine the quartiles for this data.

(d) A teacher records the following results for an examination out of 100:

98 63 79 76 58 71 86 78 91 87

89 41 19 88 41 99 97 83 78 90

Determine the quartiles for this data.

(e) The estimated overall population percentage growth rates of South Africans over the

past 14 years are given below.

1,27 1,29 1,32 1,35 1,38 1,40 1,43

1,46 1,49 1,52 1,55 1,57 1,58 1,59

Determine the quartiles for this data.

(f) Refer to Exercise 2 no (f). Determine the quartiles for this data.

(g) Refer to Exercise 2 no (g). Determine the quartiles for this data.

(h) Five data values are represented as follows: 2 x ; x + 1 ; x + 2 ; x − 3 ; 2 x − 2

(1) Determine the value of x if the mean of the data set is 15.

(2) Calculate the quartiles.

Percentiles

Percentiles are often used by academic institutions to compare student marks. Defining and

determining percentiles is not that straightforward as there are many different approaches.

There is no universally accepted definition of a percentile. Using the 65th percentile as an

example, the 65th percentile can be defined as the lowest score that is greater than 65% of the

scores. The 65th percentile can also be defined as the smallest score that is greater than or

equal to 65% of the scores. Percentiles are more appropriate with data sets containing a large

number of values. Note that the lower quartile is also the 25th percentile, the median is the

50th percentile and the upper quartile is the 75th percentile. We will use the following method

to determine percentiles.

p

Compute index i , the position of the pth percentile using the formula: i = 100 ( n)

If i is not an integer, round up. The pth percentile is the value in the i th position.

If i is an integer, the pth percentile is the average of the values in positions i and

i +1 .

The following example involves a small number of data values. In the exercise which follows,

you will be given data sets with a large number of data values.

231

EXAMPLE 9

A Maths professor at a university posted a list of marks, without names, on the notice board

outside his office. The students were informed as to the percentile they were in. There are 45

students in his class and the marks are as follows:

66 86 65 78 32 52 69 85 87 28 90 98 73 64 56

58 78 65 50 36 67 55 72 57 64 70 92 95 33 32

24 42 54 55 54 68 65 88 80 84 68 61 75 76 82

(a) Jaco scored in the 70th percentile. What is his mark?

(b) Michael scored in the 20th percentile. What is his mark?

(c) Dimpho scored in the 50th percentile. What is her mark?

Solutions

(a) Arrange the marks in ascending order:

24 28 32 32 33 36 42 50 52 54 54 55 55 56 57

58 61 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 68 68 69 70 72 73

75 76 78 78 80 82 84 85 86 87 88 90 92 95 98

70

i = 100 × (45) = 31,5

All we now do is round this number up to 32 and the 70th percentile is the 32nd mark

which is 76%. Jaco therefore obtained 76% and scored better than 70% of all students.

20

(b) i = 100 × (45) = 9

The 20th percentile is the average between the 9th and 10th mark: 52+254 = 53

There is no score of 53 in the data and therefore Michael will have obtained 54% and

will have scored better than 20% of all students.

50

(c) i = 100 × (45) = 22,5

The 50th percentile is the 23rd mark which is 66.

Dimpho obtained 66% and scored better than 50% of all students.

EXERCISE 4

(a) Tobacco use is a leading cause of death in the United States. Nicotine found in tobacco

is rapidly metabolised in the liver to a substance called cotinine. The levels of cotinine

in the body are measured in nanograms per millilitre (ng/ml). A nanogram is one-

billionth of a gram. Consider the following cotinine levels of 50 smokers:

5 6 6 8 22 40 43 44 48 86

88 103 113 122 123 130 131 149 165 168

174 174 198 208 210 223 224 227 233 245

249 250 253 265 267 277 280 284 286 289

290 313 313 314 350 360 401 460 476 490

(2) Calculate the 30th percentile.

(3) Calculate the 65th percentile.

(4) Calculate the 80th percentile.

(b) A research survey was conducted to investigate how long people live, on average, in

different countries of the world. The table on the next page has the average life

expectancies of people in 216 different countries. [Source: CIA World Factbook]

232

1 Chad 48,49 73 Bangladesh 70,06 145 United Arab Emirates 76,71

2 Guinea-Bissau 49,11 74 Iran 70,35 146 New Caledonia 76,94

3 South Africa 49,41 75 Honduras 70,71 147 Saint Lucia 77,04

4 Swaziland 49,42 76 Iraq 70,85 148 Argentina 77,14

5 Afghanistan 49,72 77 Cape Verde 71,00 149 Kuwait 77,28

6 Cent Afr Republic 50,48 78 Suriname 71,12 150 Georgia 77,32

7 Zimbabwe 51,82 79 Guatemala 71,17 151 Czech Republic 77,38

8 Somalia 50,80 80 Greenland 71,25 152 Dominican Republic 77,44

9 Lesotho 51,86 81 Azerbaijan 71,32 153 Slovenia 77,48

10 Mozambique 52,02 82 The Bahamas 71,44 154 Albania 77,59

11 Nigeria 52,05 83 Belarus 71,48 155 Libya 77,83

12 Namibia 52,17 84 Fiji 71,59 156 Cuba 77,87

13 Gabon 52,29 85 Indonesia 71,62 157 Costa Rica 77,89

14 Malawi 52,31 86 Trinidad 71,67 158 British Virgin Islands 77,95

15 Zambia 52,57 87 Micronesia 71,80 159 Panama 77,96

16 Mali 53,06 88 Philippines 71,94 160 Chile 78,10

17 Tanzania 53,14 89 Marshall Islands 72,03 161 Bahrain 78,29

18 Uganda 53,45 90 Palau 72,06 162 Taiwan 78,48

19 Niger 53,80 91 Nicaragua 72,18 163 United States 78,49

20 Burkina Faso 54,07 92 Vietnam 72,41 164 Guam 78,50

21 Angola 54,59 93 Samoa 72,66 165 Portugal 78,70

22 Cameroon 54,71 94 Peru 72,73 166 Denmark 78,78

23 Congo 55,27 95 Turkey 72,77 167 Gibraltar 78,83

24 Botswana 55,74 96 Uzbekistan 72,77 168 Saint Helena 78,91

25 Sierra Leone 56,55 97 Brazil 72,79 169 Bosnia 78,96

26 Ethiopia 56,6 98 Egypt 72,93 170 Puerto Rico 79,07

27 Cote d’Ivoire 57,25 99 Latvia 72,93 171 Wallis and Futuna 79,12

28 Liberia 57,41 100 Grenada 73,30 172 South Korea 79,30

29 Rwanda 58,44 101 Montserrat 73,41 173 Finland 79,14

30 Guinea 58,61 102 Jamaica 73,43 174 Virgin Islands 79,47

31 Burundi 59,24 103 Armenia 73,49 175 Belgium 79,65

32 Senegal 60,18 104 Estonia 73,58 176 Luxembourg 79,75

33 Benin 60,26 105 El Salvador 73,69 177 Malta 79,85

34 Ghana 61,45 106 Seychelles 73,77 178 Faroe Islands 79,85

35 Western Sahara 61,52 107 Bulgaria 73,84 179 Austria 79,91

36 Mauritania 61,53 108 Malysia 74,04 180 Saint Pierre 80,00

37 Djibouti 61,57 109 Gaza Strip 74,16 181 Greece 80,05

38 Haiti 62,51 110 Romania 74,22 182 United Kingdom 80,17

39 Sudan 62,57 111 Saudi Arabia 74,35 183 Jordan 80,18

40 Comoros 62,74 112 Solomon Islands 74,42 184 Germany 80,19

41 Equatorial Guinea 62,75 113 American Samoa 74,44 185 Ireland 80,32

42 Laos 62,77 114 Oman 74,47 186 Norway 80,32

43 Eritrea 62,86 115 Barbados 74,52 187 New Zealand 80,71

44 Cambodia 63,04 116 Serbia 74,56 188 Isle of Man 80,76

45 Kenya 63,07 117 Maldives 74,69 189 Cayman Islands 80,80

46 Togo 63,17 118 Mauritius 74,71 190 Bermuda 80,82

47 Sao Tome 63,49 119 Algeria 74,73 191 Netherlands 80,91

48 Madagascar 64,00 120 Columbia 74,79 192 Anguilla 80,98

49 Yemen 64,11 121 China 74,84 193 Iceland 81,00

50 Kiribati 64,76 122 Syria 74,92 194 Israel 81,07

51 Vanuatu 65,06 123 Cook Islands 74,92 195 Switzerland 81,17

52 Tuvalu 65,11 124 Hungary 75,02 196 Sweden 81,18

53 Burma 65,24 125 Lebanon 75,23 197 Spain 81,27

54 Nauru 65,70 126 West Bank 75,24 198 France 81,46

55 Pakistan 66,35 127 Tunisia 75,24 199 Jersey 81,47

56 Tajikistan 66,38 128 Macedonia 75,36 200 Canada 81,48

57 Russia 66,46 129 Tonga 75,38 201 Liechtenstein 81,50

58 Papua New Guinea 66,46 130 Lithuania 75,55 202 Italy 81,86

59 Nepal 66,51 131 Antigua 75,69 203 Australia 81,90

60 India 67,14 132 Aruba 75,93 204 Hong Kong 82,12

61 Guyana 67,39 133 Sri Lanka 75,94 205 Guernsey 82,24

62 Bhutan 67,88 134 Ecuador 75,94 206 Andorra 82,50

63 Bolivia 67,90 135 Croatia 75,99 207 Northern Mariena 82,51

64 East Timor 68,27 136 Slovakia 76,03 208 Saint Kitts 82,53

65 Belize 68,28 137 Morocco 76,11 209 Gambia 82,54

66 Mongolia 68,63 138 Dominica 76,18 210 Scotland 82,55

67 Ukraine 68,74 139 Poland 76,25 211 Wales 83,01

68 Turkmenistan 68,84 140 Brunei 76,37 212 San Marino 83,07

69 North Korea 69,20 141 French Polynesia 76,39 213 Singapore 83,75

70 Kyrgyzstan 69,45 142 Paraguay 76,40 214 Japan 83,91

71 Moldova 69,51 143 Uruguay 76,41 215 Macua 84,43

72 Kazakhstan 69,63 144 Mexico 76,66 216 Monaco 89,68

233

(1) Calculate the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles.

(2) Calculate the 90th percentile.

(3) Calculate the 60th percentile.

(4) Calculate the 45th percentile.

(5) To what factors would you attribute high life expectancy averages in the top ranking

countries?

FIVE-NUMBER SUMMARIES AND BOX-AND-WHISKER PLOTS

numbers are the minimum, the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, and the maximum.

These values have been selected to give a summary of a data set because each value describes

a specific part of a data set: the median identifies the centre of a data set; the upper and lower

quartiles span the middle half of a data set; and the highest and lowest observations provide

additional information about the actual dispersion of the data. This makes the five-number

summary a useful measure of spread.

In 1977, John Tukey published an efficient method for visually displaying a five-number

summary referred to as the box-and-whisker plot. A box-and-whisker plot is a visually

effective way of viewing a clear summary of one or more sets of data. It is particularly useful

for quickly comparing different data sets.

EXAMPLE 10

Determine the five-number summary and draw a box-and-whisker plot for the following data:

1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 6 7 8 8 9 10 10 10

Solution

Minimum: 1 Maximum: 10

2+3

Lower Quartile ( Q1 ): Q1 = = 2, 5

2

Median ( M or Q2 ): Q2 = 4

8+9

Upper Quartile ( Q3 ): Q3 = = 8, 5

2

Box-and-whisker plot:

Q1 Q2 Q3

234

Note:

• Half of the values lie between the minimum value and the median.

• Half of the values lie between the median and the maximum value.

• One quarter of the values lies between the minimum value and the lower quartile.

• One quarter of the values lies between the lower quartile and the median.

• One quarter of the values lies between the median and the upper quartile.

• One quarter of the values lies between the upper quartile and the maximum value.

• Half of the values lie between the lower quartile and upper quartile.

Box-and-whisker plots provide useful information about how data is distributed. Take note of

the following three types of distributions that are frequently encountered in Statistics.

Type 1 Box-and-whisker plots where the data is positively skewed.

Data is positively skewed if there are some very high values which cause the

mean to be greater than the median.

Type 2 Box-and-whisker plots where the data is negatively skewed.

Data is negatively skewed if there are some very low values which cause the

mean to be less than the median.

Type 3 Box-and-whisker plots where the data is symmetrical.

Mean = Median

EXERCISE 5

(a) Consider the following data: 1 1 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 10

(1) Determine the five-number summary.

(2) Draw a box-and-whisker plot.

(3) Calculate the mean.

(4) How is the data distributed? Explain.

(b) Consider the following data: 1 2 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10

(1) Determine the five-number summary.

(2) Draw a box-and-whisker plot.

(3) Calculate the mean.

(4) How is the data distributed? Explain.

235

(c) Consider the following data: 2 5 7 9 12 13 15

(1) Determine the five-number summary.

(2) Draw a box-and-whisker plot.

(3) Calculate the mean.

(4) How is the data distributed? Explain.

(d) Consider the following data: 2 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 10 10 10

(1) Determine the five-number summary.

(2) Draw a box-and-whisker plot.

(3) Calculate the mean.

(4) How is the data distributed? Explain.

(e) A salesman at a shoe store sold eight pairs of men’s shoes one morning. The sizes of the

eight pairs of shoes were as follows:

8 12 6 10 8 12 8 7 12 9 8 12

Draw a box-and-whisker plot for this data.

(f) A teacher records the following results for an examination out of 100:

98 63 79 76 58 71 86 78 91 87

89 41 19 88 41 99 97 83 78 90

Draw a box-and-whisker plot for this data.

(g) The estimated overall population percentage growth rates of South Africans over the

past 13 years are given below.

1,27 1,29 1,32 1,35 1,38 1,40 1,43

1,46 1,49 1,52 1,55 1,57 1,58 1,59

Draw a box-and-whisker plot for this data.

(h) The prize money allocated to the first ten positions in the 2015 Comrades Marathon

were as follows:

Position 1 Position 2 Position 3 Position 4 Position 5

R350 000 R175 000 R130 000 R65 000 R50 000

Position 6 Position 7 Position 8 Position 9 Position 10

R30 000 R25 000 R22 000 R18 500 R16 500

[http://www.comrades.com/marathoncentre/faq/2-race-info/322-medals-and-prizes]

(2) How is the data distributed in the box-and-whisker plot? Explain.

(i) Refer to Exercise 3 no (f). Draw a box-and-whisker plot for this data.

(j) Refer to Exercise 3 no (g). Draw a box-and-whisker plot for this data.

(k) The box and-whisker plots below summarise the final test scores for two Mathematics

classes from the same grade.

(1) Describe the features in the scores that are the same for both classes.

(2) The Head of Department considers the median of each class and reports that there

is no significant difference in the performance between them. Is this conclusion

valid? Support your answer with reasons.

236

(l) Consider the following box-and-whisker plot:

The data set contains a total of nine numbers. The second and third number of the data

set are the same. The seventh and eighth numbers are different. The mean for the data

set is 40. Write down a possible list of nine numbers which will result in the above box-

and- whisker plot.

MEASURES OF DISPERSION

Measures of dispersion help us to determine how data is spread around the mean or median.

This enables one to establish whether the data is grouped closely or scattered more widely.

There are three measures of dispersion that we will consider: range, interquartile range and

semi-interquartile range.

The range

The range is the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a data set and is the

simplest measure of spread. We calculate the range as follows:

Range = maximum value − minimum value

The disadvantage of the range is that a great deal of information is ignored when calculating

the range, since only the largest and smallest data values are considered. The range is greatly

influenced by the presence of just one unusually large or small value (outlier).

The interquartile range is the difference between the upper and lower quartiles. It spans 50%

of a data set and eliminates the influence of outliers because, in effect, the highest and lowest

quarters are removed. It is a good measure of the spread of the data either side of the median.

The semi-interquartile range

The semi-interquartile range is the half the difference between the upper and lower quartiles

and is also not affected by extreme scores. It is a good measure of spread for skewed

distributions.

EXAMPLE 11

1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 6 7 8 8 9 10 10 30

(b) Which measure of dispersion is more suitable for this data, the range or interquartile

range?

237

Solutions

(a) Range = 30 − 1 = 29

2+3

Lower Quartile: Q1 = = 2,5

2

8+9

Upper Quartile: Q3 = = 8,5

2

IQR = Q3 − Q1 = 8,5 − 2,5 = 6

(b) The range is too inflated due to the influence of the maximum value 30.

The interquartile range is a more realistic measure of dispersion.

EXERCISE 6

[Use your work done in Exercise 5 to save you time in this exercise]

Determine the range, interquartile range and semi-interquartile range for the following sets of

data. Refer to Exercise 5 (a)-(d).

(a) 1 1 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 10

(b) 1 2 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10

(c) 2 5 7 9 12 13 15

(d) 2 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 10 10 10

(e) Determine the range, interquartile range and semi-interquartile range for the shoe sizes

in Exercise 5 (e).

(f) Determine the range, interquartile range and semi-interquartile range for the marks in

Exercise 5 (f).

(g) Determine the range, interquartile range and semi-interquartile range for the population

growth rates in Exercise 5 (g).

(h) Determine the range, interquartile range and semi-interquartile range for the prize

money in Exercise 5 (h).

(i) Determine the range, interquartile range and semi-interquartile range for the data in

Exercise 5 (i). Which measure of dispersion is more suitable for the data?

(j) Determine the range, interquartile range and semi-interquartile range for the data in

Exercise 5 (j). Which measure of dispersion is more suitable for the data?

(k) Consider the two classes A and B in Exercise 5 (k).

(1) Compare the classes in terms of the range and interquartile range.

(2) Compare the classes in terms of the semi-interquartile range.

(l) Six data values are represented as follows: 3x ; x + 4 ; 2 x + 2 ; 5x ; 4 x + 1; 6 x + 2

(1) Calculate the value of x if the mean is 12.

(2) Determine the interquartile range.

(m) In a data set made up of five numbers, the mean, median, mode and range are all equal.

Determine this data set.

(n) The table below contains the mean, median and range of the Mathematics final exam for

a large group of students.

Mean Median Range

56 51 86

The Mathematics teacher added 3 marks to each of the students’ marks. Write down the

mean, median and range for the new set of Mathematics.

238

REPRESENTING GROUPED DATA

In the section on representing ungrouped data, the values we dealt with were discrete.

Discrete data can only take on certain values. For example, the number of goals scored by a

football team is discrete since the team can score 1, 2, 3 or more goals, but not 2,5 goals. The

data is restricted to natural numbers. However, data can also be continuous and take on an

infinite number of real values within a range. For example, data containing the heights of

people is continuous since heights are not restricted to integer values. One person may be 1,63

m tall, while another may be 1,64 m tall. It is also possible for someone to have a height of

say 1,6399999 metres which lies between 1,63 m and 1,64 m.

Large sets of continuous data are grouped into class intervals. A class interval has a given

range and consists of class boundaries. The upper class boundary is the maximum possible

value which could be in the class interval and the lower class boundary is the minimum

value which could be in the class interval. Since the data we are dealing with is continuous,

the class intervals will overlap since there are no “gaps” in the data as in the case of discrete

data.

We will work with continuous grouped data and discuss the following concepts: the

estimated mean, the median class interval and the modal class interval. These concepts will be

explained in the following example.

EXAMPLE 12

Medical science has always recognised human growth and height as an important measure of

the health and wellness of individuals. Research into the average height of people in different

countries revealed that the tallest race of humans is the Nilotic peoples of Sudan having an

average height of 1,83 m.

The tallest man currently living is Sultan Kösen from Turkey who measures 2,51 m. The

average heights (ranging from 150-185 cm) of people in 135 countries have been grouped into

class intervals.

[Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Average_height_around_the_world]

(average heights in cm) (number of countries)

150 ≤ x < 155 12

155 ≤ x < 160 15

160 ≤ x < 165 19

165 ≤ x < 170 25

170 ≤ x < 175 33

175 ≤ x < 180 22

180 ≤ x < 185 9

(a) Calculate an estimated value for the mean.

(b) What is the modal class?

(c) In which class interval does the median lie?

Solutions

(a) The data is continuous and the actual average heights per class interval are not known.

It is therefore impossible to calculate the actual mean for this data. We can, however,

calculate an estimated value for this mean using the following method.

Calculate the midpoint of each class interval, which represents the average of all

heights in that class interval. Simply calculate the average of the lower and upper class

boundaries. Then multiply the frequencies with the corresponding midpoint. Add up

the results, divide by the total frequencies and calculate the estimated mean for the data.

239

Class intervals Frequency Midpoint Freq × Midpt

150+155

150 ≤ x < 155 12 2

= 152,5 12 ×152,5 = 1 830

155+160

155 ≤ x < 160 15 2

= 157,5 15 ×157,5 = 2 362,5

160+165

160 ≤ x < 165 19 2

= 162,5 19 ×162,5 = 3 087,5

165+170

165 ≤ x < 170 25 2

= 167,5 25 ×167,5 = 4 187,5

170+175

170 ≤ x < 175 33 2

= 172,5 33 ×172,5 = 5 692,5

175+180

175 ≤ x < 180 22 2

= 177,5 22 ×177,5 = 3 905

180+185

180 ≤ x < 185 9 2

= 182,5 9 ×182,5 = 1 642,5

Totals 135 22 707,5

22 707,5

Estimated mean = = 168, 2037037 cm

135

Note: The upper boundary of the class interval 150 ≤ x < 155 can have a value that

is extremely close to 155. There may be a height of 154,999999…

It therefore makes sense that the average of the class interval is the average

of the lower and upper boundaries.

(b) Since 170 ≤ x < 175 contains the highest frequency of heights, this class interval will

be the modal class.

(c) It is not possible to determine the actual median. There are 135 values and therefore

the position of the median is 12 (135 + 1) = 68 . The 68th value lies in the class interval

165 ≤ x < 170 (there are 46 values below 165 and 71 below 170).

This class interval is called the median class.

Please take note that with discrete data represented in class intervals, some difficulties arise,

especially when the actual data values are not known and just the frequencies are available.

Consider the class interval 150 ≤ x < 155 . Suppose that the actual unknown data values are

whole numbers. Then the possible values in the class interval will be 150, 151, 152, 153 and

154. This means that the upper boundary will be 154 rather than 155.

The midpoint would then be 150+2154 = 152 rather than 150+2155 = 152,5 since 155 is excluded. If

154 is not in the class interval, then the upper boundary will be one of the other values. This

complicates the calculation of the midpoint. Statisticians have developed advanced formulae

to calculate estimated values for the mean, mode and median in grouped data with discrete

values. This is not part of the school curriculum and therefore we will focus on estimating the

mean in continuous grouped data.

EXERCISE 7

(a) A stopwatch was used to find the times that it took a group of athletes to run 100 m.

(Time in seconds) (number of athletes)

10 ≤ x < 15 6

15 ≤ x < 20 16

20 ≤ x < 25 21

25 ≤ x < 30 8

(1) Calculate the estimated mean.

(2) What is the modal class?

(3) In which class interval does the median lie?

240

(b) In a research survey, a gym measured the weights (in kg) of a number of members.

(weights in kg) (number of members)

30 ≤ x < 35 11

35 ≤ x < 40 13

40 ≤ x < 45 15

45 ≤ x < 50 17

50 ≤ x < 55 19

55 ≤ x < 60 26

60 ≤ x ≤ 65 36

(2) What is the modal class?

(3) In which class interval does the median lie?

(c) The raw data below shows an athlete’s different times in seconds in the 400 m.

43,0 43,1 45,3 44,8 44,9 46,3 44,8 46,3 46,1

45,4 44,7 43,1 44,9 45,3 45,2 45,5 45,6 45,0

45,1 46,2 45,9 43,2 43,3 43,8 43,9 43,7 45,3

45,7 44,7 46,2 45,7 44,9 45,0 45,5 46,0 46,9

(1) Draw a stem-and-leaf diagram for this data.

(2) Complete the following table:

43, 0 ≤ x < 44, 0

44, 0 ≤ x < 45, 0

45, 0 ≤ x < 46, 0

46, 0 ≤ x < 47, 0

(3) Calculate the actual mean, median and mode for this data.

(4) Calculate the range and interquartile range.

(5) Draw a box-and whisker plot for the data.

(d) The number of litres of diesel purchased by 30 truck drivers at a petrol station is

presented below (litres are rounded off to the nearest whole number).

82 64 55 50 49 44 52 59 68 74

71 78 88 98 96 77 75 54 57 56

64 66 80 84 88 72 71 65 68 97

(1) Draw a stem-and-leaf display for this data.

(2) Organise the data into class intervals of your choice.

(3) Calculate the actual mean and median for this data.

(4) Calculate the interquartile range.

(a) A small company pays their employees hourly rates. The hourly rates of eight

employees are as follows:

R36 R270 R90 R72 R54 R90 R54 R54

(1) Calculate the mean, median, mode and range for this data.

(2) Which measure would the employer use to claim that the staff were well-paid?

(3) Which measure would the employee use to claim that the staff were badly-paid?

241

(b) A gardener buys ten packets of seeds from two different companies. Each pack contains

25 seeds. The gardener records the number of plants which grow from each pack.

Company A: 25 25 10 25 11 25 25 25 13 25

Company B: 22 23 20 21 23 23 22 20 22 23

(1) Which company does the mode suggest is best?

(2) Which company does the mean suggest is best?

(c) A fisherman records the number of fish caught over a number of fishing trips:

3 0 0 5 0 0 13 0 2 0 0 4 16 0 2 0 1

Why does the fisherman object to the mode and median of the number of fishes caught?

(d) A school has to select one learner to take part in a Mathematics Quiz. Sandy and Paul

took part in six trial quizzes and the following are their scores:

Sandy: 29 25 22 28 25 27

Paul: 34 20 17 33 35 19

By using the mean and range, which learner qualifies to represent the school in your

opinion?

(e) The following frequency bar graph shows the number of laptops sold at a computer

store per week for six weeks.

(f) A traffic officer is trying to work out the mean number of parking tickets she has issued

per day. She produced the table below, but some of the data has been erased.

0 1

1 1

2 10

3 7

4 20

5 2

6

Totals 26 72

Complete the table for her and then calculate the mean, median and mode.

242

(g) In a certain school, 60 learners wrote examinations in Maths and Science. Information

for each subject is provided below.

Maths Science

Minimum 30 Minimum 30

Maximum 85 Range 55

Median 45 Upper quartile 70

Lower quartile 40 Interquartile range 30

Upper quartile 50 Median 55

(1) Draw a box-and-whisker plot for both subjects.

(2) The teacher argues that the number of learners who scored between 30 and 45 in

Maths is smaller than the number who scored between 30 and 55 in Science.

Does she have a valid argument? Explain.

(h) The following table represents the percentage of monthly income spent on petrol and

car expenses by fifty people. Calculate the estimated mean, modal class and the interval

containing the median.

Percentage Frequency

12 ≤ p < 18 8

18 ≤ p < 24 20

24 ≤ p < 30 12

30 ≤ p < 36 8

36 ≤ p ≤ 42 2

(i) The mean height of a class of 30 learners is 164 cm. A new boy of height 148 cm joins

the class. Calculate the mean height of the class now.

(j) After five matches, the mean number of goals scored by Orlando Pirates per match is

1,8. If Pirates scores three goals in their next match, what is the mean then?

(k) The mean weight of 27 learners in a class is 62 kg. The mean weight of a second class

of 30 learners is 59 kg. Calculate the mean weight of all the learners.

(l) The mean monthly salary of the eight people who work for a small company is R18 000.

When an extra employee is hired, this mean drops to R17 000. How much does the new

employee earn?

(m) Consider the following set of data values: x ; 2 x − 1 ; 2 x ; 2 x + 2 ; 3 x − 1

The inter-quartile range is 6. Determine the value of x.

243

CHAPTER 11 MEASUREMENT

In Grade 9 you studied the surface area and volume of cubes, cuboids (rectangular prisms),

triangular prisms as well as cylinders. You also discussed the effect on surface area and

volume when the dimensions are multiplied by a scale factor (k). In Grade 10, we will revise

this Grade 9 work and then we also study the surface area and volume of right pyramids,

cones and spheres.

Cuboid Sum of the areas of the six Area of a chosen base

(Rectangular prism) rectangles: multiplied by the distance

Surface area moved by the base (height).

= 2ab + 2ac + 2bc Volume

= (ab) × c

= abc

squares: multiplied by the distance

Surface area moved by the base (height).

Volume

= 2(a)(a) + 2(a)(a) + 2(a )(a )

= a3

= 6a 2

triangles and three rectangles. multiplied by the distance

Surface area moved by the base (height).

1 Volume

= 2 (b × h) + ad + bd + cd 1

2 = (b × h) × d

= bh + ad + bd + cd 2

1

= bhd

= bh + d (a + b + c) 2

circles and a curved surface. multiplied by the distance

moved by the base (height).

If the cylinder is closed: Volume = πr 2 h

2

Surface area = 2πr + 2πrh

Surface area = πr 2 + 2πrh

Surface area = 2πrh

244

Converting between units

× ×

10 10 10 10 10 10 100 100 100 100 100 100

km m cm mm km 2

m 2

cm 2

mm2

÷ ÷

Converting between volumes Converting between capacities

× ×

1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

3

1000

3 1 ml = 1 cm3

km3 m3 cm 3

mm 3 m l cm

÷ kl ml 1 kl = 1 m 3

÷

EXAMPLE 1

Calculate:

Solutions

(a) Let’s first calculate the external surface area of the top triangular prism ABCDEF

which is open at the bottom.

AC 2 = (1,96) 2 + (2,12) 2

∴ AC 2 = 8,336

∴ AC = 8,336 = 2,887213189 m

The triangular prism is made up of

two triangles and two rectangles ΔEFD

(bottom of prism is open)

1

Area of ΔABC = (2,12)(1,96) = 2, 0776 m 2

2

1

Area of ΔEFD = (2,12)(1,96) = 2, 0776 m 2

2

Area ABFE = (5,13)(1,96) = 10, 0548 m 2 ΔABC

245

Surface area of top triangular prism

= 2, 0776 m2 + 2, 0776 m2 + 10, 0548 m2 + 14,81140366 m2

= 29, 02140366 m2

Now let’s calculate the surface area of the bottom rectangular prism (open on top)

= (5,13)(2, 79) = 14, 3127 m 2

= (2, 79)(2,12) = 5,9148 m 2

Area HIJC

= (5,13)(2,12) = 10,8756 m 2

= 2 × 14,3127 m 2 + 2 × 5,9148 m 2 + 10,8756 m 2

= 51,3306 m 2

= 29, 02140366 m 2 + 51,3306 m 2

= 80,35 m 2

(b) Let’s first calculate the volume of the top triangular prism ABCDEF.

Volume

= area of base × distance moved by base

= area of base × height

1

= (2,12)(1,96) × 5,13

2

= 10, 658088 m3

246

Now let’s calculate the volume of the bottom rectangular prism.

Volume

= area of base × distance moved by base

= area of base × height

= (2, 79)(2,12) × 5,13

= 30,342924 m3

= 10, 658088 m3 + 30,342924 m3

= 41, 001012 m3

(c) The volume in cm3 is 41, 001012 m 3 × 1000 × 1000 = 41 001 012 cm 3

EXAMPLE 2

and a top curved part made of glass and which is hollow and

open on top. Calculate:

Solutions

Remember that the volume is the amount of space occupied by the prism whereas the

capacity is the amount of substance that the prism can hold.

16 mm ÷10 = 1, 6 cm

Volume (space occupied by entire glass)

= area of base × distance moved by base

= π(4)2 ×10,6

= 532,81 cm3

= area of base × distance moved by base

= π(4)2 × 9

= 452,3893421 cm3

= 0, 4523893421 l

(c) Internal surface area (open on top and therefore excludes the top circle)

= π(4)2 + 2π(4)(9)

= 276,46 cm 2

247

EXERCISE 1 (Revision)

In this exercise, answers must be rounded off to two decimal places where appropriate.

(a) Consider the following three closed hollow prisms:

(2) Calculate the surface area ( cm 2 ) of each of the three prisms.

(3) If the cylinder and cuboid (rectangular prism) are open on top, calculate the

surface area of these prisms.

(b) Three solid wooden objects, a rectangular prism (A), a cube (B) and a cylinder (C), are

shown below.

20

cm

π

(2) Calculate the value of r for which C has the same volume as A and B.

(3) Assuming that the radius of C is the same as the value calculated in (2), which

prism will have the largest surface area?

(c) A company manufacturing solid chocolate bars has two new packaging containers that

will have same amount of chocolate inside. The one container is a triangular prism

with an equilateral triangle as a base. The other is a rectangular prism. The company

wants to cut down on the cost of the cardboard used for making a container.

Determine which container will be the least expensive to wrap.

(d) (1) The surface area of a rectangular prism is 136 cm 2 . If the length is 80 mm and

the width is 4 cm, calculate the height of the prism.

(2) If the volume of a triangular prism is 1 400 cm3 and the height is 20 cm, then

calculate the area of the base.

(3) The surface area of a cube is 384 cm 2 . Calculate the length of a side.

(4) The surface area of a closed cylinder is (120π) cm 2 . If the height is 7 cm,

calculate the radius.

248

(e) The holes on a minigolf course consist of a variety of

designs. An example is shown alongside. The diagram

below shows a hole consisting of a triangular prism

made of cement (A), a rectangular prism made of

wood (B) and a larger hollow rectangular prism made of

steel which is open on top (C) and is filled with water.

Area D is a flat rectangle with the small hole for the ball

to be putted into.

The external surface area of the structure (excluding the bottom of A, B and C and the

top of C) as well as the rectangle D (excluding the small hole) is covered with a green

material.

1m

(1) Calculate the volume of the structure (A, B and C) in cm3 and l.

(2) Calculate the capacity of the structure (the total amount of water that can be

contained in C) in ml and l.

(3) Calculate the amount of green material used to cover the external surface area

of the structure and the area D. Express your answer in cm2 .

THE EFFECT OF MULTIPLYING DIMENSIONS BY A SCALE FACTOR

In Grade 9, you studied the effect on volume and surface area when multiplying any

dimension by a scale factor. You will have discovered that when the dimensions of a prism

are multiplied by a number k (called the scale factor), then the relationship between the

surface area and volume is as follows:

The surface area of the new prism formed after multiplying the dimensions of the original

prism by a scale factor k is equal to k 2 × surface area of original prism. (See Ex 2 no (a))

The volume of the new prism formed after multiplying the dimensions of the original prism

by a scale factor k is equal to k 3 × volume of original prism. (See Ex 2 no (a))

If k > 1 then the new prism formed is an enlargement of the original prism.

If 0 < k < 1 then the new prism formed is a reduction of the original prism.

The original prism and the enlarged (or reduced) prism are similar to each other.

EXAMPLE 3

The surface area of a cube is 2 400 cm2 and its volume is 8 000 cm3 . Determine the surface

area and volume of the cube formed if the dimensions of the original cube are multiplied by a

scale factor of 3.

Solution

Surface area of larger cube = 32 × 2 400 cm2 = 21 600 cm2

Volume of larger cube = 33 × 8 000 cm2 = 216 000 cm2

249

EXERCISE 2

(a) A cylinder has a height of 6 cm and a diameter of 8 cm. The dimensions are doubled.

(1) What is the scale factor?

(2) Show that the surface area of the enlarged cylinder is k 2 × surface area of original.

(3) Show that the volume of the enlarged cylinder is k 3 × surface area of original.

(b) The surface area of a cuboid is 0,0292 m 2 and its volume is 24 cm3 .

(1) Determine the surface area (in cm 2 ) and volume (in cm3 ) of the cuboid formed

if the dimensions of the original cuboid are multiplied by 5.

(2) Suppose that the volume of the original cuboid is increased by 8 times its value.

What is the surface area of the enlarged cuboid?

(c) The surface area of a cube is 96 x 2 and its volume is 64 x3 . Determine, in terms of x:

(1) the surface area and volume of the cube formed if the dimensions of the original

cube are halved.

(2) the length of a side of the reduced cube.

(d) A cylinder has a height of 8 cm and a radius of 7 cm. The height remains constant but

the radius is doubled.

(1) What is the volume of the enlarged cylinder?

(2) How does the volume of the larger cylinder relate to the volume of the original

cylinder?

(3) What is the surface area of the enlarged cylinder?

(4) How does the surface area of the larger cylinder relate to the surface area of the

original cylinder?

(1) Determine the volume and surface area in terms of a and b.

(2) If you want to double the volume but keep the radius the same, by what

scale factor will the height increase?

(3) If the radius is doubled but the height stays the same, by what number will

the area of the base of the cylinder increase?

(4) If the radius is doubled but the height stays the same, by what number will

the area of the side surface of the cylinder increase?

(1) Calculate the scale factor and hence the volume of B.

(2) Calculate the ratio of the surface areas of A and B.

240 cm3

(g) Two soup tins are similar. Tin P can hold 500 grams of soup

while tin Q can hold 750 grams of soup. The height of tin P

is 11 cm.

(1) Calculate the height of tin Q. 500 g 750 g

(2) Calculate the ratio of the areas of the circular bases.

(h) The heights of two similar cuboids are in the ratio 4:5.

(1) Calculate the ratio of the surface areas of the cuboids.

(2) Calculate the the ratio of the volumes of the cuboids.

250

PYRAMIDS, SPHERES AND CONES

are based on the sides of the polygonal base and meet in one

point called the apex of the pyramid. Right pyramids are such

that the apex is perpendicularly above the centre of the regular base.

The right pyramid shown has a square base and four congruent

triangles meeting at the apex of the pyramid.

that resembles the shape of a completely round ball. It is not a

polyhedron. The points on the surface of the sphere are the same

distance from the centre. The radius is the straight line from any

point on the sphere to its centre.

The difference is that it has a circular base.

Formulae for the surface area and volume of right pyramids, spheres and cones

In the CAPS curriculum, we focus on the surface area and volume of right pyramids with

bases that are either equilateral triangles or squares, cones and spheres.

1

Right triangular pyramid Sum of the area of the base V = (A × H)

(equilateral triangle) and 3

three congruent triangles. where:

A = area of base

H = height

1

Right square pyramid Sum of the area of the base V = (A × H)

(square) and four 3

congruent triangles. where:

A = area of base

H = height

251

4 3

Sphere S = 4πr 2 where r is the V= πr

radius of the sphere 3

1

Cone S = πrl + πr 2 where: V = πr 2 h

3

l is the slant height

πrl is the area of the

curved surface

πr 2 is the area of the

circular base

EXAMPLE 4

The Louvre Pyramid located in Paris is a large right square

pyramid made of metal and glass. It serves as the main

entrance to the Louvre Museum which houses famous

paintings such as the Mona Lisa. The length of one side of

the base is 35,4 m and the height is 21,6 m. The base of the

pyramid is open.

A

Calculate:

(a) the exterior surface area of the pyramid (metal and glass).

B

17,7 m F

35

,4

G D

m m

3 5 ,4

Solutions C

(a) The exterior surface area consists of the sum of the areas of the four congruent triangles:

ΔABC , ΔACD , ΔAED and ΔABE

1 1

Area of ΔABC = (BC)(AG) = (35,4)(AG)

2 2

1 1

Now GF = CD = (35, 4) = 17, 7 m

2 2

AG = (17, 7) + (21, 6)2

2 2

∴ AG 2 = 779,85

∴ AG = 27,92579453 m

1

∴Area of ΔABC = (35,4)(27,9257953) = 494, 2865631 m 2

2

252

The total exterior surface area

= Area ΔABC + Area ΔACD + Area ΔAED + Area ΔABE

= 4 × 494, 2865631 m 2

= 1 977,15 m 2

1 1

(b) The volume (V) of the pyramid = (A × H) = (A × 21,6)

3 3

A = Area of base BCDE = (35, 4)(35, 4) = 1 253,16 m 2

1

V = (1 253,16 × 21, 6) = 9 022,75 m3

3

EXAMPLE 5

Calculate the surface area and volume of the following closed solids:

Solutions

Use Pythagoras to get the height (h):

h 2 = (13) 2 − (5) 2

∴ h2 = 144

∴h = 12 cm

Surface area of cone (S) = π(5)(13) + π(5) 2 = (90π) cm 2 = 282, 74 cm 2

1

Volume of cone (V) = π(5) 2 (12) = (100π) cm3 = 314,16 cm3

3

4 500π

Volume of sphere = π(5)3 = 3

cm = 523, 60 cm

3

3 3

= curved surface + circular base

1

= [4π(5) 2 ] + π(5) 2 = (75π) cm 2 = 235, 62 cm 2

2

1 4 250

Volume of hemisphere g = × π (5)3 = π = 261,80 cm3

2 3 3

253

EXERCISE 3

(a) Calculate the surface area and volume of the following closed solids. Round your

answers off to two decimal places.

triangle. The height of the prism is 12 cm and the length

of a side of the triangular base is 10 cm. Calculate:

similar larger cone. The height of the small cone is 20 cm

and the height of the larger cone is 40 cm. The diameter

of the larger cone is 30 cm.

Calculate:

254

(d) The given solid made of clay consists of a cone

20 cm

and a cylinder. The dimensions are shown in the

diagram. The solid is re-moulded into a sphere.

Calculate the radius of the sphere.

70 cm

(e) A solid right circular cone is placed centrally

within a container in the shape of a hemisphere.

The radius of the hemisphere is 20 cm and the

distance from the circular base of the cone to the

top of the hemisphere is 2 cm. Calculate the

volume of the right circular cone. Round off

your answer to the nearest whole number.

The room space is constructed as a right rectangular

prism with a square base. The length of one side of

the base of the prism is equal to 15 metres.

The height of the wall of the room is 20 metres.

The roof is constructed in the form of a right triangular

pyramid with a height of 10 metres. The base of the roof

is open.

Calculate:

(1) the total exterior surface area of the barn.

(2) the volume of the barn.

prism and a prism with a trapezium base.

The formula for the area of a trapezium is:

1 (sum of the || sides) × ⊥ height

2

(1) the volume of the prism

(2) the external surface area of the prism

255

(b) A closed prism of height 8 cm has a regular hexagonal

base with each side equal to 5 cm. The hexagonal base

is made up of six equilateral triangles. Calculate:

(1) the area of the hexagonal base ABCDEF.

(2) the volume of the hexagonal prism.

wedge. The dimensions are shown in the diagram.

The depth of the box is 7 cm.

twice the volume of the original box,

calculate the depth of the new box.

and 10 m high. The water depth is 8 m. A large metal

ball of diameter 7 m is dropped into the water and it

sinks to the bottom. Calculate the rise in the water

level (rounded off to three decimal places).

pyramid. The radius of the cone’s base is r units.

The height of both prisms is h units.

circle base to the area of the square base.

volume to the square pyramid’s volume? D

(3) What is the square pyramid’s volume A

in terms of r and h? r

E

1 C

(4) Hence show that the cone’s volume is πr 2 h

3

B

256

CHAPTER 12 PROBABILITY

THE PROBABILITY SCALE

In Grade 8 and 9 you were introduced to the concept of probability and the probability scale.

Remember that the probability of an event happening is a number in the interval [0 ; 1] .

We may regard an event with a probability of 0 as impossible and events with probabilities

close to 0 as unlikely. Events with a probability of 1 are certain to happen and events with

probabilities close to 1 are likely to happen.

0 1 1 3 1

6 2 4

−20°C

EXPERIMENTS, SAMPLE SPACES AND EVENTS

An experiment is a natural or man-made occurrence that can have different possible

outcomes. Examples include: tossing a coin, rolling a die or tomorrow’s weather. An event is

a collection of outcomes that satisfy a certain condition. If you roll a die, the die can land on

1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. These are the six outcomes of the experiment. The outcomes can be

described as ‘the die lands on an even number’.

The probability of an event occuring

The probability of an event can be calculated as follows:

number of outcomes in the event

Probability of event =

total number of outcomes in the experiment (sample space)

EXAMPLE 1

A six-sided die is rolled. What is the probability that it lands on an even number?

Solution

3 1

Probability = =

6 2

EXAMPLE 2

Solution

1

Probability =

4

257

The relative frequency of an event

When an experiment is repeated many times, the number of times a certain event takes place

is called its frequency. When this is divided by the number of times the experiment was

repeated, the result is called the relative frequency of the event:

frequency of event

Relative frequency of event =

Total number of times experiment is repeated

When the experiment is repeated many times, the relative frequency should eventually

approach the calculated or theoretical probability of the event.

EXAMPLE 3

A coin is tossed 100 000 times. The coin lands on heads 49 996 times. Calculate the relative

frequency of this event and establish whether it approximates the theoretical probability.

Solution

1

Probability that the coin lands on heads == 0,5

2

frequency of event 49 996

Relative frequency = = = 0, 49996

Total number of times experiment is repeated 100 000

EXAMPLE 4

A die is rolled 12 000 times. Approximately how many times do you expect the die to land on

a factor of 6.

Solution

Outcomes: { 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 } Factors of 6: { 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 6 }

4 2

Theoretical probability ==

6 3

frequency f 2

Relative frequency = = ≈

number of repetitions 12 000 3

2

∴ f ≈ ×12 000 = 8 000 times

3

EXAMPLE 5

The letters of the word EXCELLENCE are written on different cards and placed in a box.

(a) Determine the probability of taking out, at random, the letter E.

(b) Determine the probability of taking out, at random, the letter X or C.

(c) Suppose that the letter N is taken out of the box and not placed back into the box.

What is the probability of now taking out one letter E?

Solutions

(a) Probability = 104 = 2

5

[there are 4 E’s out of a total of 10 letters in the given word]

(b) Probability of X or C = 101 + 102 = 103

(c) If the letter N is not replaced, then there will be 9 letters to choose from.

Probability = 94

258

EXERCISE 1

(a) 70 tickets were sold in a competition. The prize is a smartphone. Mpho decided to buy

12 tickets. What is the probability that he will:

(1) win the prize? (2) not win the prize?

(b) A six-sided die is thrown. Determine the probability of:

(1) throwing a 6 (2) throwing a 3 or a 4

(3) throwing an even number (4) not throwing a 2

(c) A container is filled with 5 blue blocks, 8 red blocks, 6 green blocks and 9 white

blocks. A block is taken out of the container at random. Find the probability of taking

out:

(1) a blue block (2) a white block

(3) a red or green block (4) a brown block

(5) any block that is not white

(d) A cupboard contains 5 shirts, 3 pairs of jeans and 8 pairs of socks.

(1) What is the probability of taking out, at random, one pair of socks?

(2) What is the probability of taking out, at random, a shirt or pair of jeans?

(3) What is the probability of not taking out a pair of jeans?

(4) Assuming that you have already taken out a pair of socks from the cupboard and

put them on your feet. What will the probability now be of taking out a shirt?

(e) There are 52 cards in a standard deck of cards of which 13 are hearts. A card is drawn

at random, returned, and then the deck is reshuffled. This is repeated 50 000 times.

Which of the following do you consider to be the most reasonable answer for the

number of times that a card of hearts was chosen? Motivate your answer.

A. 31 210 B. 2003 C. 12 685 D. 25 443

(f) The letters of the word IMAGINATION are written on different cards and placed in a

box.

(1) Determine the probability of taking out, at random, the letter I.

(2) Determine the probability of taking out, at random, the letter G or N.

(3) Suppose that the letter T is taken out of the box and not placed back into

the box. What is the probability of now taking out one letter A?

(g) A card is drawn from a pack of 52 cards. Determine the probability of drawing:

(1) a heart (2) a jack of clubs (3) an ace

(4) a king or queen (5) neither a heart or a spade

(h) Complete the following table. Determine the probabilities in common fraction form.

information of event

A standard six-sided die No additional The die lands

is rolled. information. on a number (1)

less than 3.

Two standard six-sided The number on the The sum of the

dice are rolled (one green green is less than the two numbers is (2)

and one red) number on the red. seven.

A couple has two No additional At least one of

children information. the children is (3)

female.

A couple has two The oldest child is Both children

(4)

children male. are male.

A couple has two At least one of the Both children

(5)

children children is male. are male.

259

(i) A dart is thrown at random onto a board that has the

shape of a circle as shown in the figure. Calculate the

probability that the dart will hit the shaded region.

The two circles are concentric (have the same centre).

E, F, G and H are the midpoints of the sides of rectangle

ABCD. Let ED = x and DH = y .

Calculate the probability of the arrow:

(1) landing in ΔAEF .

(2) landing in the shaded region.

(3) landing in either in ΔCGH or the unshaded area.

The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment is called the sample space and is denoted

by the symbol S. When rolling a die, the sample space is given by the set

S = {1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6} . An event is a subset of the sample space and is denoted by a given

capital letter A, B, C and so forth. When rolling a die, if A is the event in which the die lands

on an even number, then A = {2 ; 4 ; 6} . We use a special diagram, called a Venn diagram to

represent events in a sample space. The sample space is represented by a rectangle and the

events by circles inside the rectangle. There are three types of Venn diagrams:

(1) Venn diagrams showing the actual outcomes

(2) Venn diagrams showing the number of outcomes

(3) Venn diagrams showing probabilities

EXAMPLE 6

A die is rolled. Let A be the event in which the die lands on an even number. Draw a Venn

diagram showing the:

(a) outcomes (b) number of outcomes (c) probabilities

Solutions

S S

(a) (b) (c)

A A

3 1

2 1

3 2

are shown. The three are shown. The number getting an even

even numbers 2, 4 and 3 for there being 3 even number is 12 . This

6 are written in the numbers is written inside is written inside

circle with the odd the circle and the

the circle. The 12

numbers 1, 3, and 5 on number 3 for there being

the outside of the circle. 3 odd numbers is written outside the circle

outside of the circle. is for the odd

numbers.

260

The formula for the probability of an event

n(E)

The probability of event E occurring is given by the formula: P(E) =

n(S)

where P(E) is the probability of event E occurring, n(E) is the number of outcomes in E and

n(S) is the number of outcomes in the sample space.

EXAMPLE 7

The letters of the word ENGLISH are written on cards and placed in a hat. One card is drawn

randomly. Let A be the event in which a consonant is drawn.

(a) Draw a Venn diagram showing all outcomes.

(b) Write down the outcomes of the sample space (S) and event A in set form.

(c) Write down n(A) and n(S)

(d) Calculate P(A)

Solutions

Event A = { N ; G ; L ; S ; H}

(c) n(A) = 5 n(S) = 7

n(A) 5

(d) P(A) = =

n(S) 7

Sometimes we can consider more than one event simultaneously. When doing this we must

establish whether the events overlap (share outcomes or not).

EXAMPLE 8

A 12-sided dodecahedral die is rolled.

The following events are defined:

A = {multiples of 3}

B = {factors of 9}

C = {multiples of 5}

(a) List the outcomes in set form.

(b) Draw a Venn diagram to represent these events.

(c) Determine P(A) , P(B) and P(C) .

Solutions

Notice that A and B have outcomes 3 and 9 in common whereas C has no outcomes

in common with A or B.

n(A) 4 1

(b) (c) P(A) = = =

n(S) 12 3

n(B) 3 1

P(B) = = =

n(S) 12 4

n(C) 2 1

P(C) = = =

n(S) 12 6

261

EXERCISE 2

(a) A six-sided die is rolled. Let A be the event “getting an odd prime number”.

(1) Write down the set A, n (A) and P(A) .

(2) Draw a Venn diagram showing the actual outcomes.

(3) Draw a Venn diagram showing the number of outcomes.

(4) Draw a Venn diagram showing the probabilities.

(b) The letters of the word RANDOMLY are written on cards and placed in a hat. One card

is drawn randomly. Let A be the event in which a vowel is drawn.

(1) Draw a Venn diagram showing all outcomes.

(2) Write down the outcomes of the sample space (S) and event A in set form.

(3) Write down n (A) and n(S)

(4) Calculate P(A)

(c) A twelve-sided die is rolled. The following events are defined:

A = {the first five natural numbers} B = {the first two multiples of 5}

(1) Write down the set A, n (A) and P(A) .

(2) Write down the set B, n (B) and P(B) .

(3) Draw a Venn diagram to represent the actual outcomes.

(4) Draw a Venn diagram to represent the number of outcomes.

(5) Draw a Venn diagram to represent the probabilities.

(d) A twelve-sided die is rolled. The following events are defined:

A = {the first five prime numbers} B = {the first two multiples of 6}

(1) Write down the set A, n (A) and P(A) .

(2) Write down the set B, n (B) and P(B) .

(3) Draw a Venn diagram to represent the actual outcomes.

(4) Draw a Venn diagram to represent the number of outcomes.

(5) Draw a Venn diagram to represent the probabilities.

(e) Consider the given Venn diagram.

(1) Write down the sets S, A, B and C.

(2) Write down n (A) , n (B) and n (C) .

(3) Calculate P(A) , P(B) and P(C) .

(4) Redraw the Venn diagram showing the

number of outcomes.

(5) Redraw the Venn diagram showing the

probabilities.

(f) In a survey conducted at a music store in Johannesburg, it was found that 120 people

bought only Trance music, 150 bought only Deep House music and 100 people bought

both. Twenty people did not buy either Trance or Deep House music.

Let T = {Trance music} and D = {Deep House music}

(1) Draw a Venn diagram to represent events T and D.

(2) Determine n (T) , n (D) and n(S) .

(3) Calculate the probability of selecting, at random, a person who likes only Deep

House music.

(4) Calculate the probability of selecting, at random, a person who likes only Trance

music.

(5) Calculate the probability of selecting, at random, a person who likes neither types

of music.

(6) Calculate the probability of selecting, at random, a person who likes both types of

music.

262

DERIVED EVENTS (COMPLEMENT, INTERSECTION AND UNION)

The complement of an event

The complement of an event A is the event consisting of

all outcomes that are in the sample space, but not in A.

We write the complement of A as not A.

For example, if you roll a die and A is the event in which

the die lands on an even number, then:

S = {1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6} A = {2 ; 4 ; 6} not A = {1 ; 3 ; 5}

The intersection of two events, event A and event B, is

the event consisting of all outcomes that are in both A

and B simultaneously. We write this intersection of

event A and event B as A and B.

For example, if you roll a die and A is the event in which

the die lands on an even number and B is the event that the

die lands on a prime number, then:

A = {2 ; 4 ; 6} B = {2 ; 3 ; 5} A and B = {2}

The union of two events, event A and event B, is the event

consisting of all outcomes that are in at least one of these

events. The union consists of outcomes that are either in A,

or in B, or in both. This basically means that we put all

of the outcomes of A and B together by uniting them into

one big set. We write the union of event A and event B as

A or B. For example, if you roll a die and A is the event in

which the die lands on an even number and B is the event that the

die lands on a prime number, then:

A = {2 ; 4 ; 6} B = {2 ; 3 ; 5} A or B = {2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6}

EXAMPLE 9

In a certain experiment, the sample space is S = {a ; b ; c ; d ; e ; f ; g ; h} .

Events A and B are defined as follows:

A = {a ; b ; c ; d ; e} B = {d ; e ; f ; g ; h}

(b) List the outcomes in:

(1) not A (2) A and B (3) A or B

(c) What is the value of:

(1) n(not A) (2) n(A and B) (3) n (A or B)

(d) Determine:

(1) n(not A and B) (2) P(not A and B)

(3) n(not A or B) (4) P(not A or B)

(5) P(not A or not B) (6) P(not A and not B)

263

Solutions

(a)

(3) A or B = {a ; b ; c ; d ; e ; f ; g ; h}

(3) n(A or B) = 8

8

B = {d ; e ; f ; g ; h}

∴ not A and B = { f ; g ; h}

8

B = {d ; e ; f ; g ; h}

∴ not A or B = {d ; e ; f ; g ; h}

not B = {a ; b ; c} P(not A or not B) = 0

8

=0

not A or not B = {a ; b ; c ; f ; g ; h}

6 3

P(not A or not B) = 8

= 4

EXAMPLE 10

The diagram shows the subjects taken by the matric

group in Kwazamakuhle FET school with respect to

Geography (G) and Accounting (A).

(a) How many learners take:

(1) both Geography and Accounting?

(2) neither Geography nor Accounting?

(3) at least one of the subjects?

(4) Geography but not Accounting?

(b) If a learner is chosen at random from this group, determine:

(1) P(not A) (2) P(G or (not A))

(3) P((not G) and A) (4) P(not(G and A)).

Solutions

(a) (1) 30 learners (2) 90 learners

264

(b) (1) n(not A) = 10 + 90 = 100 n(S) = 150

100 2

∴ P(not A) = =

150 3

(b) (2) Mark G with and (not A) with ×

Take all numbers marked with either

or × or both. This is a total of: ×

10 + 30 + 90 = 130 learners

∴ P(G or (not A)) =

130 13

=

×

150 15

Take the number with both markings.

∴ n((not G) and A) = 20 learners × ×

20 2

∴ P((not G) and A) = =

150 15

n(G and A) = 30

(4)

∴ n(not(G and A)) = 10 + 20 + 90 = 120

120 4

∴ P(not(G and A)) = =

150 5

EXAMPLE 11

In a group of 50 people, 30 can speak Afrikaans (A) and 40 can speak IsiZulu (I). There are

25 of these people that can speak both languages.

(a) Draw a Venn diagram showing this information.

(b) How many of these 50 people cannot speak either of the two languages?

(c) If a person is chosen from this group at random, find the probability that this person

can speak:

(1) at least one of the two languages

(2) IsiZulu but not Afrikaans

Solutions

(a) Start in the middle with the intersection and then work your way outwards.

30 − 25 40 − 25

50 − 5 − 25 − 15

(b) 5 people

5 + 25 + 15 45 9

(c) (1) Probability = = =

50 50 10

15 3

(2) Probability = =

50 10

265

EXERCISE 3

(a) A twelve-sided die is rolled.

(1) Write down the sample space in set form.

(2) Determine the probability that the die will land on an even number.

(3) Determine the probability that the die will land on a prime number.

(4) Determine the probability that the die will land on an even and prime number.

(5) Determine the probability that the die will land on an even or prime number.

(6) Determine the probability that the die will land on a prime number, given that the

number is greater than 8.

(b) You are given the sample space S = {a ; b ; c ; d ; e ; f ; g} with the following events:

A = {a ; b ; c} B = {e ; f } C = {c ; d ; e}

Determine:

(1) P(A) (2) P(A and C) (3) P(A or C)

(4) P(B or C) (5) P(not A) (6) P(not B)

(c) A = {a ; b ; c ; d ; e} , not A = { f ; g ; h} and B = {c ; d ; e ; f } are given. Determine:

(1) the sample space S (2) P(A) (3) P(A and B)

(4) P(A or B) (5) P(not A) (6) P(not B)

(d) A twelve-sided die is rolled. Suppose that the following events are given:

A = {multiples of 3} B = {factors of 12}

Determine:

(1) n(A and B) (2) n (A or B) (3) n(not A)

(4) n(not B) (5) P(A and B) (6) P(A or B)

(7) P(not A) (8) P(not B) (9) n((not A) and B)

(10) P((not A) and B) (11) n(A and (not B)) (12) P(A and (not B))

(13) n((not A) or B) (14) P((not A) or B) (15) n(A or (not B))

(16) P(A or (not B)) (17) n(not(A and B)) (18) P(not(A and B))

(19) n(not(A or B)) (20) P(not(A or B)) (21) P((not A) and (not B))

(e) In a recent sports survey, it was found that 120 people enjoy watching cricket only, 95

people enjoy watching rugby only and 45 people enjoy watching both sports. There

were 40 people who don’t watch either sport.

(1) Draw a venn diagram to illustrate this information.

(2) How many people watch cricket in total?

(3) How many people watch rugby in total?

(4) How many people were there in the survey?

(5) Determine the probability that a person selected watches both sports.

(6) Determine the probability that a person selected watches none of the sports.

(7) Determine:

(i) P(C or (not R)) (ii) P(R and (not C))

(f) In a survey on brain diseases conducted by medical researchers, it was found that of a

total of 1 520 genes, 454 are associated with Alzheimer’s disease, 1 091 are associated

with Multiple Sclerosis and 40 genes are associated with both diseases.

(1) Draw a venn diagram to illustrate this information.

(2) How many genes are not associated with either of the diseases?

(3) Determine the probability that a gene, selected at random, will be associated with

Alzheimer’s disease and Multiple Sclerosis.

(4) Determine the probability that a gene, selected at random, will be associated with

at least one of the diseases.

(5) Determine the probability that a gene, selected at random, will be associated with

only one of the diseases.

266

(6) Determine:

(i) P((not A) or (not M)) (ii) P((not A) and (not M))

(g) A travel agency recorded the travel destinations of 60 South African tourists last month.

Of the 60 tourists, 30 visited Europe, 28 visited the UK, 9 visited America and 12

visited both Europe and the UK. Five tourists did not visit America, Europe or the UK.

(1) Draw a Venn diagram to represent this information.

(2) Determine the probability that a tourist, selected at random, visited Europe only.

(3) Determine the probability that a tourist, selected at random, visited America.

(4) Determine the probability that a tourist, selected at random, visited both Europe

and the UK.

(5) Determine:

(i) P((not E) or A) (ii) P((not A) and UK)

(h) The probability that Tumi will not see a movie today is 0,3. The probability that he will

go to a restaurant today is 0,6. The probability of him seeing a movie and going to a

restaurant today is 0,4. Determine the probability that he:

(1) doesn’t go to a movie or a restaurant. (2) only goes to a movie.

(3) only goes to a restaurant. (4) doesn’t go to a movie.

(5) doesn’t go to a restaurant. (6) goes to either one or the other.

(i) 100 boys – 60 from school P and 40 from school K – were included in a survey in

which they were asked whether or not they liked Mathematics. The results were as

follows:

Like Mathematics Don’t like Mathematics

School K 16 24

School P 40 20

A learner is chosen at random from this group. Suppose that the following events are

defined: A = {learners from school P} and B = {learners who don't like Maths}

(1) Describe the event (not A) and B in words.

(2) Calculate:

(i) P(A) (ii) P(A or B) (iii) P(A and (not B))

(j) The following diagram shows the gender and qualification of 10 applicants for a job.

A stands for Accounting, E stands for Economics and M stands for Management.

A M E A M A E M E M

(1) Determine the probability that a randomly selected applicant is female and has an

Economics qualification.

(2) In order to appoint a candidate for the job, the company demands that the person

is female or has a qualification in Management. How many applicants qualify for

appointment?

(3) A person is selected randomly from the applicants. Let event A be the event in

which a male applicant is chosen and event B the event in which an applicant

with an Accounting qualification is chosen. Determine:

(i) n (A or B) (ii) n(not (A or B)) (iii) P(A and B)

(iv) P(A and (not B)) (v) P(not A or B)

[Hint: A Venn diagram is useful for the questions in (3)]

267

FURTHER PROBABILITY QUESTIONS USING VENN DIAGRAMS

The following events represented by shaded regions in a Venn diagram are useful:

A and (not B) A or (not B) not (A and B)

EXAMPLE 12

Given two events, A and B, with P(A) = 0, 4 , P(B) = 0, 5 and P(A and B) = 0,1

Determine P((not A) and B) .

Solution

Remember

0,4 − 0,1 0,5 − 0,1 that all

probabilities

1 − 0,3 − 0,1 − 0,4 add up to 1

Take the number marked with both and ×

∴ P((not A) and B) = 0, 4

EXAMPLE 13

If P(A) = 0,3 ; P(B) = 0, 6 and P(A or B) = 0, 7 , find P(A or (not B)) .

Solution

We are not given the intersection (A and B)

so let P(A and B) = x

P(A or B) = 0, 7

∴ (0,3 − x) + x + (0, 6 − x) = 0, 7

0,3 − x x 0,6 − x

∴ 0,9 − x = 0, 7

∴ x = 0, 2

Now update the Venn diagram.

To locate A or (not B):

Mark A with and (not B) with × ×

Take all numbers marked with either or × or both. 0,1 0,2 0,4

∴ P(A or (not B)) = 0,1 + 0, 2 + 0, 3 = 0, 6 ×

0,3

268

EXERCISE 4

(a) Consider the following Venn diagrams:

A: C:

B: D:

In each case, choose the diagram in which the shaded region represents the event:

(1) (not X) and Y (2) not (X and Y) (3) (not X) or Y

(4) (not X) and (not Y) (5) (not X) or (not Y) (6) not (X or Y)

What can you conclude about [not (X or Y)] and [(not X) and (not Y)]?

What can you conclude about [not (X and Y)] and [(not X) or (not Y)]?

(b) X and Y are events such that P(X) = 0,6 ; P(Y) = 0,3 and P(X and Y) = 0, 2 .

Draw a Venn diagram and hence find the value of P((not X) or (not Y)) .

(c) X and Y are events such that P(X) = 0,35 ; P(Y) = 0,7 and P(X and Y) = 0, 2 .

Draw a Venn diagram and hence find the value of P((not X) and (not Y)) .

(d) Two events, A and B, are such that P(A) = 0,5 ; P(not B) = 0, 7 and P(A and B) = 0, 2

Draw a Venn diagram and hence determine P((not A) or B) .

(e) If P(A) = 0,6 ; P(B) = 0,5 and P(A or B) = 0,9 , determine:

(1) P(A and B) (2) P((not A) and B) (3) P(A or (not B))

(f) In a class of 28 learners, 20 take Science and 15 take Biology. There are 3 learners

who don’t take either of these two subjects. Draw a learner at random. Let C be the

event in which the learner chosen takes Science and B the event in which the learner

takes Biology. Determine:

(1) P(C or B) (2) P(C and B) (3) P((not C) and B)

(4) P((not B) or (not C))

The following two laws are always valid and form the basis of probability theory. When used

correctly, they can make many probability problems much easier to solve.

Consider the following Venn diagram:

6 5 2

P(A) = P(B) = P(A and B) =

10 10 10

9

P(A or B) =

10

6 5 2 9

Now P(A) + P(B) − P(A and B) = + − =

10 10 10 10

Therefore we can conclude that P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A and B)

4 6 4

Also P(not A) = and 1 − P(A) = 1 − =

10 10 10

Therefore we can conclude that P(not A) = 1 − P(A)

269

Summary of the two rules of probability

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A and B) P(not A) = 1 − P(A)

or or

P(A and B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A or B) P(A) = 1 − P(not A)

EXAMPLE 14

If P(A) = 0, 7 ; P(B) = 0,5 and P(A and B) = 0, 4 , determine:

(a) P(A or B) (b) P(not A) (c) P(not (A or B))

Solutions

(a) P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A and B) (b) P(not A) = 1 − P(A)

∴ P(A or B) = 0,7 + 0,5 − 0,4 = 0,8 ∴ P(not A) = 1 − 0,7 = 0,3

(c) P(not (A or B)) = 1 − P(A or B)

∴ P(not (A or B)) = 1 − 0,8 = 0, 2

EXAMPLE 15

If P(not A) = 0, 25 ; P(A or B) = 0,8 and P(A and B) = 0,15 , determine:

(a) P(A) (b) P(B) (c) P(A and (not B))

(d) P((not A) or B)

Solutions

(a) P(A) = 1 − P(not A) (b) P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A and B)

∴ P(A) = 1 − 0,25 = 0, 75 ∴ 0,8 = 0,75 + P(B) − 0,15

∴ P(B) = 0, 2

× × ×

Two events are mutually exclusive if they do not share any common outcomes and can

therefore never both take place at the same time. If events A and B are mutually exclusive,

then A and B = ∅ (the empty set). Also P(A and B) = 0 which means that:

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A and B)

∴ P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) − 0

∴ P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)

P(A and B) = 0 and P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)

n(A and B) = 0 P(A and B) = 0

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)

270

Exhaustive and complementary events

Two events A and B are said to

be exhaustive if, together,

they cover all elements of the

sample space, i.e. P(A or B) = 1

6 8

P(M or N) = =1 P(X or Y) = =1

6 8

Two events, A and B, are said to be

complementary if they are both

exhaustive and mutually exclusive.

∴ P(A or B) = 1 and P(A and B) = 0

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A and B)

6 0

∴1 = P(A) + P(B) − 0 P(A or B) = =1 P(A and B) = =0

6 6

∴ P(A) + P(B) = 1

P(A and B) = 0 (mutually exclusive) and P(A or B) = 1 (exhaustive) and P(A) + P(B) = 1

EXAMPLE 16

If P(A) = 0,3 and P(B) = 0, 4 where A and B are mutually exclusive events, determine:

(a) P(A and B) (b) P(A or B) (c) P(not (A or B))

Solutions

(a) P(A and B) = 0 (c) P(not (A or B)) = 1 − P(A or B)

∴ P(not (A or B)) = 1 − 0,7 = 0,3

EXAMPLE 17

A and B are mutually exclusive events with P(not A) = 0,3 and P(A or B) = 0,8

(a) Determine P(B) .

(b) Explain why A and B are not complementary.

Solutions

(a) P(A) = 1 − P(not A) = 1 − 0,3 = 0, 7

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)

∴ 0,8 = 0,7 + P(B)

∴ P(B) = 0,1

(b) P(A) + P(B) = 0, 7 + 0,1 = 0,8 ≠ 1

Also P(A or B) = 0,8 ≠ 1 which means that

A and B are not exhaustive.

Therefore A and B are not complementary

(mutually exclusive but not exhaustive)

271

EXAMPLE 18

If P(A) = 0, 6 and P(B) = 0, 5 , prove that A and B cannot be mutually exclusive.

Solution

If A and B are mutually exclusive then: P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) = 0, 6 + 0,5 = 1,1

This is impossible since probabilities can never exceed 1. Therefore the events can never be

mutually exclusive.

Note: If two events are not mutually exclusive then

there will be an intersection and P(A and B) ≠ 0 .

The two events are then said to be inclusive.

In Example 18, the two events are inclusive.

There is an intersection and P(A and B) = 0,1 ≠ 0

EXERCISE 5

(a) If P(A) = 0, 5 ; P(B) = 0, 7 and P(A and B) = 0, 3 , determine:

(1) P(A or B) (2) P(not A) (3) P(not B)

(4) P(not (A or B)) (5) P(not (A and B)) (6) P((not A) and B)

6

(b) If P(A) = 74 ; P(A or B) = 7

and P(A and B) = 17 , determine:

(1) P(B) (2) P(not A) (3) P(not (A or B))

(4) P((not A) or B) (5) P(A or (not B)) (6) P((not A) and B)

(c) If P(not A) = 0, 4 ; P(A or B) = 0, 9 and P(A and B) = 0, 2 , determine:

(1) P(A) (2) P(B) (3) P(A and (not B))

(4) P((not A) or B) (5) P(A or (not B)) (6) P((not A) and B)

(d) If P(A) = 0,38 ; P(B) = 0, 45 and P(not(A or B)) = 0, 4 , determine:

(1) P(A or B) (2) P(A and B) (3) P(A and (not B))

(e) If P((not B) and A) = 0,3 ; P(A and B) = 0,1 and P(not (A or B)) = 0, 2 , determine

(1) P(A or B) (2) P(B or (not A)) (3) P(B and (not A))

(f) A and B are mutually exclusive events such that P(A) = 0, 6 and P(B) = 0, 3 .

Determine P(A and B) and P(A or B) .

(g) A and B are mutually exclusive events such that P(A) = 0, 25 and P(not B) = 0,58 .

Determine P(A or B) .

(h) The events C and D are mutually exclusive with P(not C) = 0,3 and P(C or D) = 0,8 .

Determine P(D) .

(i) If P(A) = 0, 4 and P(A or B) = 0,5 , determine P(B) if:

(1) A and B are mutually exclusive (2) P(A and B) = 0,3

(j) Determine whether the following events are complementary if S = {a ; b ; c ; d ; e ; f ; g}:

(1) A = {a ; b ; c ; d } and B = {d ; e ; f ; g} (2) A = {a ; b ; c ; d } and B = {e ; f }

(3) A = {a ; b ; c ; d } and B = {e ; f ; g}

(k) If P(A) = 0, 25 ; P(B) = 0, 5 and P(A or B) = 0, 625

(1) Calculate P(A and B)

(2) Are events A and B are complementary? Give reasons.

(l) A smoke detector system in a large warehouse uses two devices, A and B. If smoke is

present, the probability that it will be detected by device A is 0,95. The probability that

it will be detected by device B is 0,98 and the probability that it will be detected by both

devices simultaneously is 0,94. What is the probability that the smoke will not be

detected?

272

CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION EXERCISE

(a) In a survey on internet usage, it was found that out of a total of 27 people, 16 use ADSL

lines, 15 use wireless internet and 3 use neither of the two. What is the probability that a

person chosen at random uses both internet connections?

(b) Simon and his girlfriend decide to go out one evening. They can see a movie, go to a

restaurant or do both. The probability of them seeing a movie is 0,6. The probability

of them going to a restaurant is 0,7. The probability of them seeing a movie without

going to a restaurant is 0,2. What is the probability of them not seeing a movie and not

going to a restaurant?

(c) If n(S) = 46 , n(A) = n(B) = 19 and n(not (A or B)) = 11 , determine:

(1) P(A and B) (2) P(A or B) (3) P((not A) and B)

(d) Determine whether the following events are complementary:

(1) A and B, if P(A) = P(not B) = 52

(2) C and D, if P(C) = 12 , P(D) = 23 and P(not (C or D)) = 0

9 8

(3) F and G, if P(not F) = 11 , P(G) = 11 and F and G are mutually exclusive.

(e) G and H are inclusive events in a sample space S. If it is given that P(G or H) = 43 ,

P(G) = 25 and P(H) = 12 , determine P(G and H) and the value of P(not G) .

(f) Two events, K and L, are such that P(K) = 0, 7 ; P(L) = 0, 4 and P(K or L) = 0,8 .

Determine:

(1) P(K and L) (2) P(K and (not L))

(3) n(L) if K = {a ; b ; c ; d ; e ; f ; g }

(g) Given event A = {1; 2 ; 3 ; 4} , event B = {5 ; 6} and P(A or B) = 23 .

(1) Determine the values of P(A) and P(B) .

(2) A third event C is mutually exclusive with A as well as B and P(B or C) = 13 .

Determine P(A or C) .

(h) The diagrams below represent a class of learners. A is the set of girls and B is the set of

learners that like rugby.

(1) the girls who like rugby (2) the boys who like rugby

(3) the girls who dislike rugby (4) the boys who dislike rugby

(5) P(A and B) (6) P((not A) and B)

(7) P(A and (not B)) (8) P((not A) and (not B))

(i) You are given a group of eight students studying different degrees in Management.

Consider the gender and degree in Logistics (L), Marketing (M) or Human Resources

(HR)) that a student from this group is registered for:

L M HR L M L HR M

Calculate the probability that a student selected at random from this group:

(1) is male (2) is female and studies Marketing

(3) studies Logistics or is male (4) must be female and studies Logistics

273

CHAPTER 13 SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES

CHAPTER 1 (ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS)

EXERCISE 1

3 3

(4) −3; ; 0; 2; 9 (5) 2 (6) −3; ; 2 ; 9 ; 0; 2

4 4

(b) (1) Irrational (2) Irrational (3) Rational (4) Rational

(5) Neither (6) Irrational (7) Rational (8) Irrational

(5) Terminating (6) Terminating

4 7 13 1751

(d) (1) (2) (3) (4)

9 33 90 90

28 124 371 106

(5) (6) (7) − (8) −

225 999 330 45

EXERCISE 2

(a) (1) 7 and 8 (2) 5 and 6 (3) 3 and 4 (4) −8 and −7

(5) 1 and 2 (6) 3 and 4

19

(b) (1) (There are other possibilities) (2) 3,1409 (There are other possibilities)

30

(c) (1) 9,236 (2) 67,24 (3) 4,3769 (4) 17,24740

(5) 80,000 (6) 34,2785 (7) 5,55556 (8) 9, 425

EXERCISE 3

(a) (1)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

(2) (3)

−4 −3 1

(4) 2 (5)

4 12

(6) (7) 0 7

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(8)

(b) (1) { x : 0 ≤ x ≤ 4 ; x ∈} (2) { x : −6 ≤ x < 4 ; x ∈}

(3) { x : x < −7 ; x ∈ } (4) {x : x ≥ 5 ; x ∈}

−3 10

(3) (4)

−5 5

−1 4

(5) (6)

7

−6

(7) (8)

3 8

6 3

4

1

(d) (1) [ −7 ; 9 ) (2) ( −2 ;11] (3) [−6; ∞ ) (4) −∞ ;1

2

274

EXERCISE 4

(4) x2 − 7 x + 10 (5) x2 + 3x − 10 (6) x2 − 3x − 10

(7) 6 x2 + 7 x − 3 (8) 21m2 + 22m − 8n2 (9) 6 x8 − 5 x 4 y 2 − 6 y 4

(10) 8 x 8 − 16 x 4 y 3 + 6 x 4 y 5 − 12 y 8

(b) (1) x3 + 3x 2 + 5 x + 3 (2) x3 − 3 x 2 + 5 x − 3 (3) 2 x 3 − 2 x 2 − 10 x + 4

(4) 2 x3 − 10 x 2 + 14 x − 4 (5) 6 x 3 + 10 x 2 y − 7 xy 2 + y 3 (6) 4a3 + 5a 2b − 5ab2 + 2b3

(7) 27 x 3 − 8 y 3 (8) 27 x 3 + 8 y 3

(c) (1) − x 2 − 6 xy (2) 34 y 2 + 16 y − 7 (3) − 4 x 2 + 16 xy − 19 y 2

(4) 2 x6 − 9 y 2 (5) 18a 3 + 45a 2 b − 2ab 2 − 5b3

EXERCISE 5

(4) 81x2 − 16 (5) 9x2 − 4 y2 (6) 16a6b2 − 9

(7) 36 − 9 x 8 y 2 (8) 9 x 2 − 12 x + 4 − y 2 (9) 1 − 2a 4 + a8

(b) (1) x2 + 10 x + 25 (2) x2 − 10 x + 25 (3) 4a2 + 12a + 9

(4) 4a2 − 12a + 9 (5) a 2 − 8ab + 16b2 (6) a2 + 6ab + 9b2

(7) 9a 2 − 30ab + 25b2 (8) 3 x 2 − 18 xy + 27 y 2 (9) 4m 2 − 32mn + 64n 2

(10) x 6 − 6 x 3 y 6 + 9 y12 (11) 8a 3 + 36a 2 b + 54ab 2 + 27b3

(12) 8a 3 − 36a 2 b + 54ab 2 − 27b3

EXERCISE 6

(a) (1) 6 x ( x 2 + 2) (2) 2 x 2 (3 x + 2) (3) 5 x ( x 2 + 1)

(4) 6 x 2 (2 x − 3) (5) 3( x 2 − 3 y + 4 xy ) (6) 8 ab ( ab − 8)

2 3 2 5 4

(7) 4 m n (4 m n − 2 mn + 9)

(b) (1) ( a + b )( x + y ) (2) ( x + y )( k + p ) (3) ( q + r )(3 p − 4 m )

(4) ( m − 3n )(7 k − 3 p ) (5) ( x − y )( x − y − 3) (6) ( a + c ) 4 [1 + ( a + c ) ]

(10) (m + 3n)(7 x − 4 y ) (11) 2(3 p + q)( x − 2 y ) (12) ( a − b)(1 + p )

3

(13) ( a − 2)(4 x − 1) (14) 2 x(3a − b)( x + 6) (15) (a − 3b)(1 + c − d )

EXERCISE 7

(a) (1) ( x + 4)( x − 4) (2) ( x + 6)( x − 6) (3) (3 x + 2)(3 x − 2)

(4) ( x − 1)( x + 1) (5) (13 x + 10)(13 x − 10) (6) (4 a + 11b )(4 a − 11b )

4 3 4 3 2

(7) (10 x + y )(10 x − y ) (8) x ( x − 1) x + 1) (9) ( a 2 + 4)( a + 2)( a − 2)

(b) (1) ( n 4 + 9)( n 2 + 3)( n 2 − 3) (2) 3(2 x + 5 y )(2 x − 5 y ) (3) a (9a + 7b)(9a − 7b)

(4) 3a (3a + b )(3a − b ) (5) 2 4

4 y ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4

(6) 25 p 4 q − 100 p 4 q 3

(7) (a + b + c)(a + b − c) (8) 4 x( x + y ) (9) (9a − 4b)(a + 4b)

EXERCISE 8

(4) ( x − 6)( x + 2) (5) ( a − 5)( a − 4) (6) ( a − 12)( a + 1)

(7) ( a − 7)( a − 5) (8) ( a − 8)( a + 6) (9) ( m + 3)( m + 2)

(10) ( m − 6)( m + 1) (11) ( m + 6)( m − 1) (12) ( m − 3)( m − 2)

(13) ( x + 4)( x + 3) (14) ( x − 4)( x − 3) (15) ( x + 6)( x − 2)

(b) (1) 2( x − 3)( x + 2) (2) 3( x − 9)( x + 2) (3) 4( a + 5)( a − 2)

(4) 6(a + 5)(a − 1) (5) x ( x + 4)( x − 2) (6) 5( x − 6)( x − 3)

275

(c) The only product option for the last term is 5 × 1 . The signs in the brackets have to be the same. There is no

way to obtain the middle term 4 x using the option of 5 × 1 .

(d) (1) The product of the lasts is not + 6 . The signs in the brackets are supposed

to be the same.

(2) The product option 6 × 4 is incorrect because + 6 − 4 ≠ 10 .

EXERCISE 9

(a) (1) (3 x + 1)( x + 1) (2) (2 x − 1)( x − 1) (3) (4 x − 1)(3 x − 1)

(4) (6 x − 1)(3 x + 1) (5) (2 x + 1)( x − 3) (6) (5 x + 4)( x + 2)

(7) (2 x − 3)( x − 2) (8) (3 x + 2)(2 x − 5) (9) (3 x − 7)(2 x + 3)

(10) (10 x − 3)(2 x + 3) (11) (6 x − 5)(3 x + 2) (12) (5 + 3 x )(3 − 2 x )

(b) (1) 2(2 x − 1)( x + 3) (2) 3(5 x − 1)( x − 1) (3) ( x − 3 y )( x + 2 y )

(4) (4 p − q )( p + 2 q ) (5) (5 m + n )(2 m − 3n ) (6) (4 a + 5b )(3a + 2b )

(c) (1) 10( x − 4 y )( x + 3 y ) (2) a ( a − 3b )( a − 3b ) (3) ( x 2 − 8)( x + 2)( x − 2)

(4) ( x 2 + 3 y 2 )( x 2 + 2 y 2 ) (5) (a + b + 8)( a + b − 4)

EXERCISE 10

(a) (1) ( x + y )( p + k ) (2) ( x − y )( r + t ) (3) ( p − q )(2 + n )

2

(4) ( a − 2)( a + b ) (5) ( x + 1)(4 x + 5) (6) ( x − y )(b − a )

(7) ( x + y )(b − a ) (8) ( a − b )(1 − c ) (9) ( x − y )(3a − 1)

2

(10) ( x + y )(3a − 1) (11) ( x − 2)( x − 2) (12) ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2)

(13) (2 x − 3)( x 2 − 3) (14) 3( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3)( x − 3) (15) (b + 1)(a − 1)

(16) 2ap(3a + 2 p)( x − y )

(b) (1) 2(3x − 1)( x + 3)( x − 3) (2) ( x − b)( x − a ) (3) ( x − 3)(3 x + 2)

(4) (a + b)(a − b − 1) (5) ( a − 2b + 4 x )( a − 2b − 4 x )

EXERCISE 11

(3) (4 x − y )(16 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 ) (4) (5 − 9 x)(25 + 45 x + 81x 2 )

1 2 2 1 1

(5) ab − a b + ab + (6) 5( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x + 4)

2 2 4

(7) 8 a ( a − 2)( a 2 + 2 a + 4) (8) −( x + 3)( x 2 − 3x + 9)

1 1 2

(9) x + 6 x − 2 x + 36 (10) (3 − a )(3 + a 2 )

3 9

1 2 1 1 2 1

(11) x + x x − 1 + 2 (12) x − x x + 1 + 2

x x

(b) (1) ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x 4 + 4 x 2 + 16) (2) ( x − 2)( x 2 + 2 x + 4)( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x + 4)

EXERCISE 12

(a) (2a + 5)( a − 3) (b) 5(a − 3)(a − 1) (c) x 2 (1 − x )(1 + x )

2

(d) (2 x − 3)(4 x + 6 x + 9) (e) ( x − 3)( x − 2) (f) 2(3x + 5)( x − 2)

(g) (2 x − 1)(2 x + 1)( x − 1) (h) ( x − 2)( x + 1) (i) 2(2 a − b )(4 a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 )

(j) 7 x7 y7 ( y7 − 2 x7 ) (k) 4(2 x − 5)(2 x + 5) (l) (1 − x )(1 + x + x 2 )

(m) 6(2 x 2 − 3 xy + 1) (n) 6(2 x − y )( x − y ) (o) 3(2 y + 3)( y − 2)

2 4 2 4

(p) 4 x y (2 x y − 1) (q) (2 x − y )(2 x + y − 3) (r) ( y − 1)(2 x − 6)(2 x + 6)

(s) (5 − x + y )(5 + x − y ) (t) (a − b)(a − b + 3) (u) ( x + a )( x − a + 4 x 2 )

EXERCISE 13

p−2 m +1

(a) (1) x −1 (2) a−2 (3) (4)

2 m

276

x+2 x−2 x+3

(5) 2(a − 1) (6) (7) (8)

x 2 2x + 1

3( p − 9) 3p − 2 −3 − k 3

(9) (10) (11) (12)

2p 3 k 3k − 2

x−3

(13) −2 (14) x−2 (15)

x+3

( x + 3)( x + 4) x2 ( x − 2 y )( x − 2)( x + 2)

(b) (1) (2) (3)

2x x +1 8

−k −1 k2 + 3 −7

(4) (5) (6)

6 2 3( x − 1)

EXERCISE 14

4x + 1 21x 2 y − 4 x 2 + 6 y 3x + 2 3

(a) (1) (2) 3

(3) 2

(4)

6 18 x y x 2

2

5 − 3xy − 6 y −2 x + 3 x − 10 7x + 2 −5 x 2 + 4 x − 8

(5) (6) (7) (8)

6 xy 2 x ( x − 2) x ( x + 1) ( x + 2)( x 2 + 2)

−12 x −2 x 2 − 3 x + 3 11x + 1 − 5 x 3 y 2 + 4 x 2 y

(9) (10) (11)

( x + 3)( x − 3) (2 x + 1) 2 4x2 y

1 3x2 − 4 x

(12) (13)

6 3x − 2

9 x2 − 1 36 x 2 − y 2 16 x 2 − 8 x + 1

(b) (1) (2) (3)

9 6 16

x4 − 1 x6 + 1 x 4 + 8 x 2 + 16

(4) (5) (6)

x2 x3 4 x2

2x − 3

(c) (1) 2x 2 + x (2)

x

EXERCISE 15

x−2 x−2 2 x2 + 5x − 1 x2 + 2x + 4

(a) (1) (2) (3) (4)

x−3 x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) ( x − 4)( x + 1)

−9 x − 5 −x − 6 x2 + 2x − 2 x3 − 2 x − 8

(5) (6) (7) (8)

(2 x + 1)( x + 5) x 6 x ( x + 1) x ( x − 2) 2

2 x2 − 3x + 1

(9)

(2 x + 1)(4 x 2 − 2 x + 1)

(b) (1) Line 1: Identified the LCD incorrectly Line 2: 3x× (+1) is not equal to 3x + 1 (2)

2

3x − 6 x − 2

3 x (3 x + 1)

(5) Rational (6) Irrational (7) Rational (8) Rational

(9) Rational (10) Rational (11) Rational (12) Rational

(b) (1) 7 and 8 (2) −8 and −7 (3) 2 and 3

1

(c) 1 ;2;3

2

(d) (1) − 2 −1 0 1 2 3 4

(2)

−2 −1 0 1 2 3

(3) (4)

4 5 6 7 − 5 5

(e) (1) 6 x 2 − 5 xy − 6 y 2 (2) x8 − 1 (3) −12 x 2 + 60 x − 75

277

(4) 27 x 3 − 64 y 3 (5) −2x 2 (6) ( a + 3) 2 − 4b 2

125

(7) 10 x 4 − 24 x 2 y 3 + 12 y 6 (8) 125a3 − 150a 2b + 60ab 2 − 8b3 (9)

x4

2

(4) x( x − 8)( x + 8) (5) ( x − 4)( x + 4 x + 16) (6) ( x − 8)( x + 8)

(7) 4( x − 5)( x + 5) (8) 4 x( x − 25) (9) 1( x 2 + 64)

(10) ( x − 3)( x − 2)( x + 2) (11) ( x − 3)( x 2 + 4) (12) −( x − 8)( x + 8)

2 2

(13) (3 x − 1)( x + 2) (14) (3 x − 1)( x − 2) (15) 2(1 − 2 x )(1 + 2 x + 4 x 2 )

x+2 −27 y − 24 xy − 68 x 2 33 x 3 + x + 6

(g) (1) (2) (3)

2 12 xy 12 x 2

x2 − 2 9 5 x 2 − 3x + 4

(4) (5) (6)

2x 4x 2 x ( x − 2)

−(2 − x)2 2 x2 − 8x + 3 x( x − 2)( x + 2)

(7) 2

(8) 2

(9)

x + 2x + 4 ( x − 3) ( x − 2) 16

22

(h) (1) π = 3,141592654..... Irrational (2)

7

22 22

(3) π is an irrational number but is rational. In fact, is a rational approximation of π .

7 7

(i) (1) −9 x 4 + 21x 2 − 4 (2) (3 x − 3 x 2 + 2)(3 x + 3 x 2 − 2) (j) ( x + 1)( x 2 + x + 1)

x−2

(k) (l) (1) ( p − 8)( p − 4) (2) (a + b − 4)(a + b − 8)

x

1

(m) (1) x2 + = 51 (2) 364

x2

(n) (1) a 2 + b 2 = 14 (2) a − b = ± 18 (o) 2

(p) a = 2, b = 3, p = 12 (q) 2009

1 1 1

(r) (1) ( x − 4)( x + 2) (2) (3 x − 2)(2 x − 1) (3) (2 x − 3)( x − 2)

2 2 14

y−x 1

(s) (t)

xy 2

CHAPTER 2 (EXPONENTS)

EXERCISE 1

(5) 16 807 (6) 105 (7) 515 (8) 1213

25 16

(9) 3 (10) 8 (11) 36 (12) 32

2

(13) 9x 6 y10 (14) 16 a 6 (15) 6a 2 b3 (16) 72 x13

1

(17) 215. 6 21 (18) 310. 2 9 (19) x2 (20)

x4

1 2a8 x4

(21) 64 (22) (23) (24)

256 3 y4

−b 6 x2 1

(25) 5

(26) (27)

2a y2 4a 4 b 2

1 1

(b) (1) 2 (2) 1 (3) 18 (4) (5)

x5 a4

1 1 4 1

(6) (7) (8) 121 (9) (10)

64 4 x2 16 x2

278

3 1 1

(11) 3

(12) 3

(13) 1 (14) (15) x4

a 27a 64

9 x4

(16) 49 (17) 18 (18) (19) 36 (20)

2 2

27 8 y5

(21) 16x 4 (22) (23) (24) 2 187 (25)

125 125 x4

1 3 y11 3x 4

(26) ab7 c (27) (28) (29) (30)

3x 2 y 2 5 x6 2

3a 5 c 1 x12

(31) (32) (33)

2b16 2 y 22

(c) (1) 1 (2) 1 (3) 1 (4) 1 (5) −1

(6) 1 (7) −1 (8) 16 (9) −32 (10) −a9

(11) a12 (12) −64 (13) 128 (14) 2 187 (15) −2 187

(16) 16a12 (17) −32a 15

(18) a 90 b 30 (19) −a b 99 33

(20) − 81x 4 y 4

(21) 243x 5 y 5 (22) − 16 x 8 y12 (23) 128 x14 y 21 (24) − 243 x15

(6) −8a5b5 (7) 5 a10 + 10b10 (8) −4x 7 (9) 2x4 y2 (10) −28a 6

(11) 12 x 5 − 4 x 6

EXERCISE 2

1

(a) (1) 37 (2) 27 (3) (4) 8 (5) 3

125

1 4 8 4

(6) (7) (8) (9) 63 (10)

125 25 27 9

3 27 512

(11) (12) 49 (13) (14) (15) 2

2 4 3

(b) (1) 22 x (2) 25 x (3) 33 x (4) 2 x+ 3 (5) 53 x. 35 x

(6) 34 x (7) 310 x (8) 1 (9) 1 (10) 1

1 3x

(11) 5 (12) 1 (13) (14) 2 (15) 22 x

2

1

(c) (1) 3 (2) 8 (3) (4) 4 (5) 36

5

1

(6) 8 (7) 7 (8) 9 (9) 2p (10)

125

3 1 1 1 1

(11) (12) 6

(13) 25

(14) (15)

4 5 18

EXERCISE 3

(6) 3y

2 m x2 1

(b) (1) 2x2 (2) 5

(3) (4) (5)

x 5 7 3

(6) 1

EXERCISE 4

1 2 1

(a) (1) 1 (2) (3) (4) 1 (5)

2 5 2

3 1 1

(6) 8 (7) (8) (9)

2 4 6

(b) (1) 3x − 1 (2) 2x + 3 (3) 5x − 6 (4) 6x − 6 (5) 6x

(6) 4x − 7 (7) 3x + 2 (8) 2x − 3 (9) 5x + 1

279

EXERCISE 5

1

(a) (1) x=0 (2) x =1 (3) x=3 (4) x=2 (5) x=

2

7 1

(6) x=4 (7) x= (8) x= (9) x=3 (10) x=5

3 8

(11) x=4 (12) x=2 (13) x = −2 (14) x = −2 (15) x = −3

3

(16) x = −2 (17) x = −2 (18) x=3 (19) x=3 (20) x=

2

3

(b) (1) x =1 (2) x = − 32 (3) x=− (4) x = −4 (5) x=5

2

3

(6) x= (7) x=4 (8) x=3 (9) x = −9 (10) x=2

2

1

(11) x=2 (12) x = −1 (13) x = −2 (14) x= (15) x=0

5

3

(c) (1) x=2 (2) x=2 (3) x=2 (4) x =1 (5) x=

2

EXERCISE 6

(6) x=9 (7) x=4 (8) x = 64 (9) x=3

(b) (1) x = 256 (2) x = 256 (3) x = 2 401 (4) x = 256 (5) x = 214

x = 81 x =1 x = 16 x =1

(6) x = 36

x=9

CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION EXERCISE

9 b+a 1

(a) (1) 2

(2) 3 (3) (4) (5) −1

4x ab a+b

9 y6

(6) 18x16 (7) 11x8 (8) 216x9 (9) − 1024x10 y 5 (10)

4 x8

625 1 8

(11) (12) (13) (14) 2 (15) 1

8 2 3

(16) 11x − 2 (17) 2x − 9 (18) 5x

5

(b) (1) x = −1 (2) x= (3) x = 16 (4) x = 25 (5) x = 625 x = 81

3

(6) x= 2

3

(c) (1) 43 x (2) 3 . 4x (3) 3 . 2 21

(d) (1) 223 (2) 635

(e) (1) 226 (2) 330 > 4 20

CHAPTER 3 (NUMBER PATTERNS)

EXERCISE 1

(3) Tn = 5n − 2 ; T100 = 498 (4) Tn = 4n − 1 ; T100 = 399

(5) Tn = 6n + 4 ; T100 = 604 (6) Tn = 7n − 3 ; T100 = 697

(7) Tn = −5n + 10 ; T100 = −490 (8) Tn = −3n + 3 ; T100 = −297

(9) Tn = −5n − 1 ; T100 = −501 (10) Tn = −4n + 9 ; T100 = −391

(11) Tn = −6n + 1 ; T100 = −599 (12) Tn = 12 n + 3 ; T100 = 53

(13) Tn = 2 n + 12 ; T100 = 200 12 (14) Tn = 34 n − 12 ; T100 = 74 12

(15) Tn = 0, 2n + 0,3 ; T100 = 20,3 (16) Tn = 6n − 19 ; T100 = 581

(17) Tn = −10n + 11 ; T100 = −989 (18) Tn = −n + 14 ; T100 = −86

280

(b) (1) Tn = 7n − 3 ; T45 = 311 (2) n = 90 ; T90 = 627

(c) (1) Tn = −3n + 22 ; T65 = −173 (2) n = 45 ; T45 = −113

(d) (1) T1 = 5 ; T2 = 14 ; T3 = 23 ; T4 = 32 (2) n = 110 ; T110 = 996

(e) (1) Tn = (3n + 1)(8n − 1) (2) T50 = 60 249

EXERCISE 2

(a) (1) Tn = 2 × 2 n −1 ; T10 = 1 024 (2) Tn = 1 × 3n −1 ; T10 = 19 683

(3) Tn = 4 × 3n −1 ; T10 = 78 732 (4) Tn = 32 × ( 12 ) n −1 ; T10 = 1

16

(7) Tn = 16 × ( 14 ) n −1 ; T10 = 1

16 384

(8) Tn = ( 12 ) × ( 12 ) n −1 ; T10 = 1

1 024

(9) Tn = 28 × ( 14 ) n −1 ; T10 = 7

65 536

(3) Tn = n + 3 ; T100 = 10 003

2

(4) Tn = n + 4 ; T100 = 10 004

2

n −1

1× 3

(c) Tn =

n2 + 4

CONSOLIDATION AND REVISION EXERCISE

(a) (1) Tn = 9n − 2 ; T300 = 2 698 (2) n = 50 ; T50 = 448

(b) (1) Tn = −3n + 1 ; T145 = −434 (2) n = 130 ; T130 = −389

(c) (1) Figure 4: 14 (2) Figure 4: 20

(3) Figure 8: 26 (4) Figure 8: 40

(5) Figure n: Tn = 3n + 2 (6) T186 = 560

(7) n = 90 Figure 90 will contain 272 dots (8) Figure n: Tn = 5n

(9) T900 = 4 500 (10) n = 130 Figure 130 will contain 650 lines.

(d) (1) Design 1: 2 = T1 = (1) 2 + (1) Design 2: 6 = T2 = (2) 2 + (2)

Design 3: 12 = T3 = (3) 2 + (3) Design 4: 20 = T4 = (4) 2 + (4)

Design 5: 30 = T5 = (5) 2 + (5)

(2) Design n: Tn = n 2 + n (3) T20 = (20) 2 + (20) = 420

4n + 2 41

(e) (1) Tn = (2) T20 =

5n − 2 49

(f) T999 = 1 T1000 = 1500

(g) (1) E (2) W (3) 497

EXERCISE 1

(a) (1) x = − 32 (2) x = −8 (3) p = −8 (4) x=4

(5) m=2 (6) x=3

(b) (1) x = −24 (2) x = −6 (3) x = − 12 (4) y = 23

(5) a =8 (6) m = 24 (7) x= − 75 (8) k =1

EXERCISE 2

(a) (1) x = 3 ; x = −6 (2) x = −4 ; x = 8 (3) x = 0 ; x = −3 (4) x= 5

2

; x = − 13

32

(5) x= 5

(b) (1) x = 3 ; x = −3 (2) x = 7 ; x = −7 (3) x = 10 ; x = −10 (4) x =0 ; x=9

(5) x=0;x= 1

9

(6) x=0;x= 5

2

(7) x = −2 ; x = 2 (8) x=0;x=4

(9) x = 4 ; x = −2 (10) x =2 ; x =3 (11) x = − 13 ; x = 2 (12) x= 5

2

; x = −2

(13) x = −8 ; x = 1 (14) m = 6 ; m = −1 (15) x = −6 ; x = 2 (16) x= 2

3

; x = − 23

281

(17) p = 9 ; p = −5 (18) non-real solution (19) x = − 32 ; x = 12 (20) non-real solution

(21) non-real solution (22) x = 4 ; x = −2 (23) x = 2 ; x = −1 (24) x = 3 ; x = −3

(25) x = 12 (26) x=4

EXERCISE 3

(a) (1) x = −18 (2) no solution (3) no solution (4) x=0

(5) x = −5 (6) x= 15

4

(7) x = 54 (8) x = −1

(b) (1) x = 6 ; x = −3 (2) x = 13 ; x = −1 (3) real numbers (4) no solution

(5) x=4 (6) x=0;x= 24

9

(7) x=0

EXERCISE 4

(a) x = 4 ; y =1 (b) x = −2 ; y = −4 (c) x =1 ; y = 2 (d) x =1 ; y =1

1

(e) x =8 ;y =2 (f) x= 2

;y=3

EXERCISE 5

(a) (1) x = 6 ; y = −2 (2) x = 4 ; y = 10 (3) x =1 ; y =1 (4) x = 5 ; y = −2

(b) (1) x =1 ; y = 0 (2) x = −2 ; y = 4 (3) x=2;y=3 (4) x = 7 ; y = 14

(5) x = 4 ; y = −3 (6) x = 7 ; y = 14

(c) R24

EXERCISE 6

v −u v2 − u 2

(a) (1) a= (2) s=

t 2a

c −b c b 1 1

(b) (1) x= (2) x= (3) x=0 ; x=− (4) x=− y;x= y

a 3a − 2b a 2 2

3 3

(5) x = 3y ; x = 2 y (6) x=− y;x= y

2 2

2S − nL 5F − 160 mv 2

(c) (1) a= (2) C= (3) g=

n 9 Fr

uf

(d) (1) v=

u− f

E Fgr

(e) (1) c= (2) u= v 2 − 2 as (3) v=

m m

EXERCISE 7

(a) (1) x ≤ −3 (2) x > −8 (3) x <1

−3 −8 1

(4) x≥5

5

(b) (1) x < −6 (2) x ≥ −6 (3) y ≤ − 12

−6 −6 − 12

(4) y > −6 (5) x≥0

−6 0

−1 6 −5 2 −3 2

(4) −2 < x < 2 (5) −4 ≤ x < 2 (6) 0< x≤4

−2 2 −4 2 0 4

282

CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION EXERCISE

(a) (1) x = −1 (2) x = − 12 (3) x=0 ;x=4 (4) x = 2 ; x = −2

(5) x = 5 ; x = −2 (6) x=2;x=− 3

2

(7) x = −2 (8) x=0;x= 1

2

(9) x= 4

17

(10) x = 5 ; x = −5 (11) x = −2 (12) x= 5

2

; x = −3

33

(b) (1) x=2 (2) x=3 (3) x = ±3 (4) x=0 ;x=9

(c) −12 < x<6

(d) (1) p =8 ;p =3 (2) x = 4 ; x = −2 ; x = 3 ; x = −1

(e) (1) x = 1 ; y = −2 (2) x = 1 ; y = −2 (3) 3 y

>

2

(f) (1) x = 56 ; y = 90 (2) x = 56 ; y = 90 1

x

(g) x≤ − 103 –2

1

2 4 6>

1 –2

(h) (1) real numbers (2) x= 2 > –3

–4

(i) (1) 23 (2) 21 –

(3) 120

>

6

2y − 5

(k) (1) x = −1 (2) x= ; y≠4

y−4

(l) 152 (m) 200 of the R200 tickets were sold and 50 of the R300 tickets were sold.

(n) 10 metres (o) x=3

CHAPTER 5 (TRIGONOMETRY)

EXERCISE 1

adjacent hypotenuse k g

(a) θ θ (b) (1) sin K = (2) cos K =

m m

opposite

hypotenuse opposite adjacent k g

(3) tan K = (4) sin G =

g m

k g

(5) cos G = (6) tan G =

m k

r p r p

(c) (1) sin θ = (2) cos θ = (3) tan θ = (4) sin α =

q q p q

r p

(5) cos α = (6) tan α =

q r

10 5 24 12 10 5

(d) (1) EF = 676 = 26 (2) sin θ = = cos θ = = tan θ = =

26 13 26 13 24 12

8 3k 3

(e) (1) sin N = (2) tan C = =

17 4k 4

24 4 16 4 4

(f) (1) cos L = = cos B = = (2) Both equal (3) Triangles are similar

30 5 20 5 5

EXERCISE 2

(a) (1) 0,92 (2) 0,93 (3) 2,05 (4) 0,69

(5) 1,41 (6) 4,53 (7) 11,2 (8) −2

(9) 0,31 (10) 0,04 (11) 0,04 (12) 5,14

(13) 1,84 (14) −2, 26 (15) 0,57

(b) (1) 1 (2) 1 (3) 1 (4) 1

(c) (1) 0,05 (2) 1,43 (3) 2,91 (4) 0,62

(5) 0,19 (6) 0,73

283

EXERCISE 3

(a) (1) θ = 60° (2) θ = 30° (3) θ = 59,58° (4) θ = 90°

(5) θ = 0° (6) θ = 45°

(b) (1) θ = 23,6° (2) θ = 83,7° (3) θ = 15,7° (4) θ = 12,9°

(5) θ = 19,0° (6) θ = 11,3°

(c) (1) x = 62,7° (2) x = 15,0° (3) x = 29,6° (4) x = 38,7°

(d) θ = 23,2°

EXERCISE 4

3 3 1 1

(a) (1) 1 (2) (3) (4) −

2 3 4

3 3 3 1 1

(5) (6) (7) − (8)

2 2 2 2

7

(9) 0 (10)

2

(c) (1) x = 30° (2) x = 60° (3) x = 60° (4) x = 45°

(5) x = 60° (6) x = 30° (7) x = 45° (8) x = 15°

(9) x = 25° (10) x = 22,5° (11) x = 30° (12) x = 11,25°

EXERCISE 5

(a) PQ = 2,2 (b) (1) AB = 5, 2 (2) BC = 2, 2

(c) (1) θ = 37,9° (2) AC = 11,4

(d) (1) α = 53,1° (2) θ = 36,9°

(e) (1) AC = 20,5 (2) AB = 18,8

(f) AC = 70,4 m (g) θ = 41,8° (h) BC = 28,7mm

(i) (1) BC = 6 (2) B̂ = 33, 7° (3) AB = 7, 2

h h

(j) (1) sin P = (2) sin R = (4) P̂ = 47, 6°

m n

EXERCISE 6

(a) h = 0,8 km (b) (1) DE = 5,8 m (2) θ = 44, 4° (3) AC = 4,9 m

(c) (1) θ = 20° (2) No

(d) BC = 18,5 m

EXERCISE 7

(a) Quad 1 (b) Quad 3 (c) Quad 3

(d) Quad 2 (e) Quad 3 (f) Quad 2

EXERCISE 8

16 3

(a) (1) (2) (b) (1) 12 (2) 1

25 2

16 4 7

(c) (1) (2) (d) (1) (2) 38

9 3 17

49

(e) (1) 1 (2) 144 (f) (1) (2) 1

25

a2

(g) (1) 3 (2) 27 (h) b = 7,5 (i)

b2 + a2

EXERCISE 9

5 3 5 4 5 5

(a) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

3 4 4 3 3 4

k j g g j k

(b) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

g k j j k g

284

2 1

(c) (1) (2) 2 (3) 1 (4) (5) 2

3 3

4

(6) 4 (7) 1 (8) (9) 2

3

(d) (1) 1,47 (2) 4,81 (3) 0,49 (4) 2,22 (5) 1,27

(6) 3,64

(e) (1) x = 60° (2) x = 60° (3) x = 30°

(f) (1) θ = 56, 44° (2) x = 77,16° (3) x = 13,28°

Trigonometric functions

EXERCISE 10

y

(a) (1) 4 (2) y = 3sin θ : max = 3 min = −3

3

y = −2sin θ y = −2 sin θ : max = 2 min = −2

2

1 (3) y = 3sin θ : range: y ∈ [ −3 ; 3]

90° 180° 270 ° 360°

θ amplitude = 3

-1 period = 360°

-2

y = 3sin θ y = −2 sin θ : range: y ∈ [−2 ; 2]

-3

-4 amplitude = 2

period = 360°

y

(b) (1) 4 (2) y = 2 cos θ : max = 2 min = −2

3 y = −3cos θ y = −3cos θ : max = 3 min = −3

2

1

(3) y = 2 cos θ : range: y ∈ [−2 ; 2]

90 ° 180 ° 270 ° 360°

θ amplitude = 2

-1 period = 360°

-2 y = 2cos θ y = −3cos θ : range: y ∈ [ −3 ; 3]

-3

-4

amplitude = 3

period = 360°

y

(c) (1) 2 (2) y = 12 cos θ : max = 1

2

min = − 12

1

y = − sin θ : max = 1 min = −1

1

y = cos θ 1

2 (3) y= 2

cos θ : range: y ∈ [ − 12 ; 12 ]

θ

90 ° 180° 270° 360° amplitude = 1

2

-1 period = 360°

y = − sin θ

y = − sin θ : range: y ∈ [−1 ; 1]

-2

amplitude = 1

period = 360°

EXERCISE 11

y

(a) (1) (2) y = sin θ + 2 : max = 3 min = 1

4

3 y = cos θ − 1 : max = 0 min = −2

y = sin θ + 2

2 (3) y = sin θ + 2 : range: y ∈ [1 ; 3]

1

θ

amplitude = 1

-1

90° 180 ° 270 ° 360 ° period = 360°

-2 y = cos θ − 1 : range: y ∈ [−2 ; 0]

y = cos θ − 1

-3 amplitude = 1

-4 period = 360°

(b) (1) y (2) y = sin θ + 2 : max = 3 min = 1

5

y = − cos θ + 3 y = cos θ − 1 : max = 0 min = −2

4

3

(3) y = sin θ + 2 : range: y ∈ [1 ; 3]

2 amplitude = 1

1

θ

period = 360°

-1

90° 180 ° 270 ° 360 ° y = cos θ − 1: range: y ∈[−2 ; 0]

-2 amplitude = 1

-3

-4

y = − sin θ − 2 period = 360°

285

y

(c) (1) 7 y = 2sin θ + 4 (2) y = 2sin θ + 4 : max = 6 min = 2

6

5 y = −3cos θ − 1 : max = 2 min = −4

4

3

2

(3) y = 2sin θ + 4 : range: y ∈ [2 ; 6]

1

θ

amplitude = 1

90° 180° 270°

-1 period = 360°

-2 y = −3cos θ − 1

-3 y = −3cos θ − 1 : range: y ∈ [−4 ; 2]

-4

-5 amplitude = 3

period = 360°

EXERCISE 12

y θ = 90°

y θ = 90°

θ = 270°

(a) 3 (b) 5 θ = 270°

y = − tan θ 4

. .

. .

2 3

(45° ; 3) (225° ; 3)

(135° ;1) (315° ;1) 2

1 y = 3tan θ

1

θ θ

.

45 ° 90 ° 135 ° 180

.

225 ° 2 0° 3 5° 360°

-1

45 ° 90 ° 135 ° 180 ° 225° 270 ° 3 5° 360°

. .

-1

(45° ; − 1) (225° ; − 1) -2

-2 -3 (315° ; 3)

(135° ; − 3)

-4

-3 -5

y y

(c) 2

θ = 90°

θ = 270°

(d) 5

θ = 90° θ = 270°

1 4

y = − tan θ

1

2

. 1

3

2 y = tan θ + 1 . (225° ; 2

.

(45° ; 2)

.

(135° ; )

2 1 (315° ; 0)

(135° ; 0)

. .

θ θ

45° 90° 135° 180 ° 225° 270° 45 ° 90 ° 135 ° 180° 225 ° 270° 3 5° 360 °

-1

1 1 -2

(45° − ) (225° − )

-1 2 2

-3

-4

-2 -5

y

(e) θ = 90° θ = 270°

3

y = tan θ − 2

2

1

−1

45° 90° 135° 180°

.

225°

. 270° 315° 360°

θ

. .

(135° ; − 1)

−2

(135° ; − 3) (180° ; − 2) (315° ; − 3)

−3

−4

−5

y θ = 90° θ = 270°

(f) (g) y

y = 2 tan θ θ = 90° θ = 270°

4 6

y = −2 tan θ − 1 5

3

. . . .

4

2

(135° ;1) (315° ;1) 3

1 2 (45° ; 2) (225° ; 2)

θ 1

45° 90 ° 135 ° 180 ° 225 ° 270 ° 3 5° 360 ° θ

-1

-2

-3 .

(45° ; − 3)

.(225° ; − 3)

-1

-2

-3

45 ° 90 °

.

135°

(135° ; − 2)

180 ° 225° 2 0°

-4

-4 -5

-5 -6

-7

y = −3sin θ − 3

-6

y = −3sin θ − 3 : 360°

EXERCISE 13

(a) (1) Amplitude = 1 Range is y ∈ [0 ; 2] (2) Amplitude = 2 Range is y ∈ [−2 ; 2]

(3) a =1 q =1 (4) m = −2 n = 0

(b) (1) Amplitude = 1 Range is y ∈ [−3 ; − 1] Period = 360°

(2) Amplitude = 2 Range is y ∈ [−1 ; 3] Period = 360°

(3) a = −1 q = −2 (4) m = −2 n = 1

286

(c) (1) y = 2 tan x for x ∈ [0° ; 270°) y = −3cos x + 1 for x ∈ [0° ; 270°]

(2) y = 2 tan x :

Range is y ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) No Amplitude Period = 180°

y = −3cos x + 1

Range is y ∈ [−2 ; 4] Amplitude = 3 Period = 360°

EXERCISE 14

(4) (i) 90° ; 270° (ii) 90° ; 270° (iii) 0° ; 360° (iv) 0° ; 360°

(v) 90° < x < 270° (vi) 0° ≤ x ≤ 90° ; 270° ≤ x ≤ 360°

(vii) 0° ≤ x ≤ 90° ; 270° ≤ x ≤ 360° (viii) 90° < x < 270°

(5) x = 60° (6) 180° < x < 360° (7) 180° < x < 360°

(8) k < −1 or k > 1 (9) t=2

(b) (1) −4 (2) x = 135° (3) 0° ≤ x < 90° ; 135° ≤ x < 270°

(4) x = 0° ; x = 180°

(c) (1) x = 90° ; x = 180° (2) 0° ≤ x ≤ 90° ; 180° ≤ x ≤ 360° (3) 180° ≤ x ≤ 360°

(4) 0° < x < 360° ; x ≠ 180° (5) x = 0° ; x = 360° (6) 0° ≤ x ≤ 180° ; x = 360°

CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION EXERCISE

(a) (1) −0,72 (2) 1,27 (3) 1,28 (4) 3,69

(b) (1) θ = 11,79° (2) θ = 11,54° (3) θ = 53,13° (4) θ = 47,16°

(5) θ = 23,58°

(c) (1) θ = 21,14° (2) θ = 33,69° (3) θ = 75,52° (4) θ = 98,60° s

(5) θ = 60° (6) θ = 71,52°

(d) (1) 0,39 (2) 0,88 (3) 1,96

1 1

(e) (1) 0 (2) (3) (4) 3

4 2

1

(5) 2 (6)

2

(f) (1) θ = 30° (2) θ = 45° (3) θ = 30° (4) θ = 30°

(5) θ = 45° (6) θ = 60° (7) θ = 30° (8) θ = 60°

(g) (1) PQ = 25, 41 (2) K̂ = 49,18°

PR = 18,88

(h) (1) x=5 (2) x = 14,59 (3) x = 68, 68° (4) x = 41, 27°

(i) CD = 3,91 m

(j) (1) QR = 30 (2) QR = 30 (k) (1) EA = 19,5cm (2) YS = 3,125

YA = 21,125cm

(l) (1) θ = 30° (2) 8,66 m (m) (1) θ = 60° (2) OQ = 4

(n) h = 3,13 m

CHAPTER 6 (FUNCTIONS)

EXERCISE 1

(2) y = 32 x (2) y = −x

y = − 32 x

the x-axis and then translated 4

(1 ; 32 ) y= x

units up.

(1 ; 1) y = 14 x y = − 14 x

(1 ; 14 ) (2) The graph of y = x is stretched

(1 ; − 14 )

vertically by a factor of 3 and

(1 ; − 1)

then translated down by 6 units.

(1 ; − 32 )

(3) y = −x + 4 y = 3x − 6

(5) E (6) H (7) B (8) C 2

4

−6

287

EXERCISE 2

(a) (1) y = 4 x2 (b) (1) y = − x2 (c) (1) y = −4 x 2

(2) y

(2) (2)

3 2

y = 4 x2 y= x

2

y = 3x 2

1 2

y= x

4

y = x2

y = − x2

x

1

y = − x2 y = − 1 x2

2 4 y = −4 x 2

(3) concave up ( a > 0 ) (3) concave down ( a < 0 )

y-int: (0 ; 3) Third one convave down

y = x2 − 4

x-int: none

(1 ; 4)

y = x2 − 4 :

3

y-int: (0 ; − 4)

−2 2

x-int: (−2 ; 0) (2 ; 0)

−4

y

(e) (1) 4 (2) y = −4 x 2 + 4 (f) (1)

8

y = −4 x 2 + 4 y-int: (0 ; 4)

x-int: (−1 ; 0) (1 ; 0) 1

y = − x2 + 8

2 2

−1 1 y = −x − 2

−2 y-int: (0 ; − 2)

x

x-int: none −4 4

y = − x2 − 2

(2) y-int: (0 ; 8)

(g) (1) C x-int:

(2) E (−4 ; 0) (4 ; 0)

(3) D

(4) F

(5) B

(6) A

EXERCISE 3

5

(a) (1) y= ( 5 >1) (b) (1) x=0 ; y=2 (c) (1) x = 0 ; y = −1

x

(2) (2) (−1 ; 0) (2) (−4 ; 0)

5 5

y=− y= (3) (3)

x x

4

y = − −1

(1 ; 4) x

1

y=

x

(−4 ; 0)

y=2

y = −1

(−1 ; 0)

(1 ; − 5)

2

y= +2

x

(3) see (2)

288

(d) (e) (1) B (2) A

(1 ; 5)

(3) C (4) D

y=2

(−1 12 ; 0)

3

y= +2

x

EXERCISE 4

(a) (1) y = 6 x (largest base) (b) (1) y = 6 x (smallest base)

(2) y=0 (2) y=0

x

(3) y = 6x (3) 1

y =

6

(1 ; 6) ( −1 ; 6)

x

y = 4x 1

y =

4

(1 ; 4) ( −1 ; 4)

y = 2x 1

x

y =

2

(1 ; 2) ( −1 ; 2)

y = 4 2x

(c) (1) y = 2.2 x y-int: (0 ; 2) (3) x

1

y = 3

y = 4.2 x y-int: (0 ; 4) 2 (1 ; 8) y = 2 2x

x

1

y = 3 y-int: (0 ; 3)

2

(2) y=0 4 (1 ; 4)

3

2 (1 ; 1 12 )

x

1

(d) (1) y = − : y-int: (0 ; − 1) (3)

2

x x

1 1 −1

y = −3 : y-int: (0 ; − 3) y = −

2 x

1

2 y = −3

(−1 ; − 2) 2

−3

(2) y=0

x

1

(4) y = is vertically stretched to form

2

x

1

the graph of y = 3 and then

2 ( −1 ; − 6)

x x

1 1 y = 2x + 1

y = 3 is reflected in the y-axis to form the graph of y = −3

2 2

(e) (1) x-int: (1 ; 0) (3)

y-int: (0 ; − 1) y = 2x − 2

(2) y = −2 (0 ; 2)

y =1

(4) y = 2 x − 2 is the graph of y = 2 x

shifted 2 units down. (0 ; − 1) (1 ; 0)

(5) see diagram

y = −2

(6) The equation 0 = 2 x + 1 has no solution.

289

(f) (1) y-int: (0 ; − 3) (3)

x-int: (−1 ; 0)

(2) y = −4 ( −1 ; 0)

x x

1 1

(4) y = − 4 is the graph of y =

4

4

shifted 4 units down. x

1

y = −4

(0 ; − 3) 4

y = −4

(g) (1) y = 2 4x − 2

(2) (3) (4)

(1 ; 10) ( −1 ; 10)

(1 ; 6) ( −1 ; 6)

y = 2 4x + 2 1

x

x

y = 2 − 2 1

(0 ; 4) 4 y = 2 + 2

(0 ; 4) 4

(0 ; 0)

(0 ; 0)

y=2

y=2

y = −2

y = −2

EXERCISE 5

(a) (1) (2) (3) (4)

2 y = 2 x2

y= (1 ; 2)

(1 ; 2)

x ( −1 ; 2) (1 ; 2) y=2

y = 2x

( −1 ; − 2)

y = 2x 2

y = −2 x + 22 (0 ; 2) y = − +1

(1 ; 2) ( −1 ; 3) (1 ; 3) ( −1 ; 2) x

(0 ; 1) y =1

( −1 ; 0) (1 ; 0)

(0 ; 2)

(2 ; 0)

y =1 ( −1 ; 0) (1 ; 2)

1

(0 ; 0) (1 ; 2

) (0 ; 0)

x

(0 ; − 2)

1 y = −2

y = − +1 y = −2 x − 2

2 x=2

1 2

y= x

(1 ; 13 ) 3 (1 ; 3) 1 3

y= (1 ; 3

)

x ( −1 ; 13 ) (1 ; 13 )

1 1

y= x y= x

3 3

( −1 ; − 3)

(5) (6) 3

(7) (8)

1 y= −1

y = − x +1 x y = − x2 + 9 (0 ; 9)

3

(3 ; 0) (0 ; 1 13 ) (1 ; 2)

(0 ; 1)

(3 ; 0)

( −3 ; 0) (3 ; 0)

y =1

y = −1

( −1 ; − 4)

290

(9) (10) (11) (12)

x

( −1 ; 6) 1 y = 2x − 2

y = +3 (1 ; 6)

3 y = 3.3x − 3 x

y = 3.2 − 3

(0 ; 4) (1 ; 3)

(0 ; − 1) (1 ; 0)

(0 ; 0) (0 ; 0)

y=3

y = −2

y = −3

y = −3

EXERCISE 6

(5) 1 (6) 2 (7) 2a 2 − a + 1 (8) 8x2 − 2 x + 1

(9) 4 x2 − 2 x + 2 (10) 2

2x − x + 3 (11) 2x2 + x + 1 (12) 2 x2 − 5x + 4

(13) 4 x 2 − 10 x + 5 (14) 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 − x − h + 1 (15) 4 xh + 2h 2 − h

(b) (1) x = −3 or x = 3 (2) x = −5 or x = 5 (3) x = −6 or x = 1 (4) x=3

(c) (1) −2 p + 6 (2) − 72

(d) (1) f is vertically stretched by a factor of 3 to form g (2) f is reflected in the x-axis to form g

(3) f is shifted 2 units up to form g (4) f is shifted 4 units down to form g

(5) f is vertically stretched by a factor of 4 to form g (6) f is reflected in the x-axis to form g

EXERCISE 7

(b) x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y ∈ ( −∞ ; ∞ )

(c) f: x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y ∈ [0 ; ∞) g: x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y ∈ (−∞ ; − 3]

(d) x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) x ≠ 0 y ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y≠0

(e) x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) x ≠ 0 y ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y≠2

(f) f: x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y ∈ (−∞ ; 1) g: x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y ∈ (2 ; ∞)

EXERCISE 8

(5) E(1 ; − 2) (6) 4 x − 2 y = 8 increases for all real values of x

x + y = −1 decreases for all real values of x

(b) (1) 3x − y = 4 (c) (1) y = x+3

2x − y = 5

(2) y = −x − 5

(3) y = 2x + 6

(1 13 ; 0)

(2 12 ; 0)

(4) y = − 32 x − 6

(5) y = x+2

(6) y = − 12 x + 6

(0 ; − 4)

(0 ; − 5)

(d) (1) y = −1 Gradient is 0

(−1 ; − 7)

(2) x = −1 Gradient is undefined

(2) (−1 ; − 7)

EXERCISE 9

B( − 1 ; 0) (5) A(0 ; − 2) (6) x=0 (7) x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y ∈ [−2 ; ∞)

C(1 ; 0) (8) y = −2 Grad = 0 (9) x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y ∈ {−2}

291

(b) (1) A(0 ; 9) (2) x<0 (3) x>0 (4) −2

B( − 3 ; 0) (5) 9; 0 (6) (0 ; 9) ; (0 ; 0)

C(3 ; 0) (7) For f : x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) For g: x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞)

y ∈ (−∞ ; 9] y ∈ ( −∞ ; 0]

(8) h( x) = x 2 + 12 h is the graph of g reflected in the x-axis and then shifted 12 units up.

(9) x = −3 Gradient is undefined (10) x ∈ {−3} y ∈ ( −∞ ; ∞ )

(c) (1) A(0 ; − 1) B(0 ; − 9) C( − 3 ; 0) D(3 ; 0) (2) E( − 2 ; − 5) F(2 ; − 5)

(d) (1) 2

f ( x) = 4 x + 2 (2) 2

f ( x) = − x − 1 (3) f ( x) = x 2 − 9

(4) f ( x) = − x 2 + 16 (5) f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 8 (6) f ( x) = − x 2 + 25

EXERCISE 10

−2

(a) (1) q=4 (2) f ( x) =

+4 (3) x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) x ≠ 0 y ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y ≠ 4

x

(4) ( −∞ ; 0) ; (0 ; ∞) (5) x=0 y=4 (6) y = −x + 4

12 4 −15 −5

(b) (1) f ( x) = (2) f ( x) = +2 (3) f ( x) = (4) f ( x) = +3

x x x x

32 −8 5 4

(5) f ( x) = −4 (6) f ( x) = −4 (7) f ( x) = − 3 (8) f ( x) = + 1

x x x x

−6 1 4

(9) f ( x) = −2 (10) f ( x) = − + 1 (11) f ( x) = + 2

x 2x x

(c) (1) x ∈ ( −∞ ; 0) (2) x ∈ ( −∞ ; 0) (3) x ∈ (0 ; ∞)

y ∈ (0 ; ∞) y ∈ (−∞ ; − 3) y ∈ ( −∞ ; 5)

−8 8 −18

f ( x) = x<0 f ( x) = −3 x < 0 f ( x) = +5 x > 0

x x x

EXERCISE 11

x

1

(a) f ( x) = 2 x − 4 (b) g ( x) = − 1 (c) h ( x ) = −3 x + 3

3

x

1

(d) f ( x ) = 3.2 x (e) f ( x) = −2.3x + 18 (f) g ( x ) = 4. − 4

4

EXERCISE 12

(3) OD = 2 EF = 2 O F = 4 DE = 4 (4) O K = 1 G H = 1 OG = 5 KH = 5

(5) RS = 1 OS = 3 (6) x≤4 (7) x<2 (8) x>3

(b) (1) OP = 5 OQ = 5 (2) AB = 7 (3) DC = 2 (4) OF = 2

(5) OH = 8 (6) x < −5

(c) (1) AB = 6 CD = 2 DF = 2 (2) PQ = 4 (3) OU = 5

(4) GH = 3 (5) x<4 (6) x ≤ −2 (7) x <1

(d) (1) AB = 12 CT = 6 CD = 6 (2) O F = 4 EF = 7

(3) GH = 4 (4) OV = 11 (5) JL = 10 (6) OQ = 4

(7) x < − 3 or x > 3 (8) x ≤ − 4 or x ≥ 3

1

(4) F( ; 2)

2

(5) 0 < x ≤1 (6) x<0 or x > 1 (7) x>0

1

(8) 0< x< 2

(f) (1) OA = 1 CD = 1 (2) x < −1 (3) x ≥ −1

(4) All real values of x (5) x<0 (6) x≥0

292

CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION EXERCISE

(a) (1) (2) x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) (3) (0 ; 2) (4) −2

f ( x) = x 2 − 1 y ∈ [−1 ; ∞)

(5) y = x2 + 2 (6) (0 ; 1) (7) (−1 ; 0)

g ( x) = x − 1 (−1 ; 3) (1 ; 3)

(0 ; 2)

−1 1

(0 ; − 2)

−1

(−1 ; − 3) (1 ; − 3)

y = − x2 − 2

y = 3.3x − 1 3

( −1 ; 4) y = − +1 (4) x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) x ≠ 0

x

(0 ; 2) y =1

( −1 ; 0)

(3 ; 0)

y = −1

vertically by a factor of 3 and the x-axis and then shifted 1

then shifted 1 unit down. unit up.

(c) (1) f ( x) = x 2 + 2 (2) (0 ; 2) (3) x=0 (4) y=2

1

(5) g ( x) = + 2 ; A( − 12 ; 0)

x

(6) f: x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y ∈ [2 ; ∞) g: x ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) x ≠ 0 y ∈ (−∞ ; ∞) y ≠ 2

(7) x<0

3

(d) (1) q = −1 (2) AB = (3) OC = 3 (4) OT = 1

4

x

1

(5) g ( x) = − 2

2

(e) (1) f ( x) = − x + 3 (2) A(3 ; 0) ; C(−3 ; 0) (3) g ( x) = x 2 − 9 (4) AC = 6

(5) DE = 7 ; DF = 4 (6) ST = 8 (7) OM = 3

2

(8) x ≤ −3 or x ≥ 3

(9) −4 < x < 3

x

1 6

(f) (1) y ∈ (−∞ ; 6] (2) f ( x ) = −2 + 6 (3) g ( x) = +6

x 3 x

1

(4) h( x ) = 2 − 6 (5) All real values of x

3

(g) (1) −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 (2) −1 < x < 2 (3) −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 (4) x < −2

(5) x ≥ −2 (6) t > 12 (7) t < 12

CHAPTER 7 (EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY)

EXERCISE 1

(a) (1) a = 70° b = 70° c = 70° d = 110° e = 70° f = 20° g = 40°

h = 100° i = 60°

(b) (1) a = 40° (2) b = 20° c = 80° d = 100° e = 80°

(d) (2) y = 56° (f) BC = 674 cm

EXERCISE 2

ˆ =Q

1

ˆ = Sˆ = 60°

2 2

293

(d) B̂ = 65° Ê 2 = 65° M̂ 2 = 115° N̂1 = 115°

(e) Â = 110° ˆ =D

B ˆ = 35° ˆ =D

B ˆ = 35°

1 1 2 2

(f) ˆ ˆ

C = L 2 = 60° ˆ ˆ

M 2 = N 2 = 120°

(g) ˆC = Mˆ = 120° Aˆ =A ˆ = 60° ˆ =B

D ˆ =Mˆ = 60°

2 1 2 1

(i) D E = 50 cm (2) 300 cm

EXERCISE 4

(a) ˆ = Sˆ = Q

Q ˆ = 35° Rˆ = Pˆ = 110°

2 1 1

(b) Â1 = 70° Â 2 = 20° B̂1 = 20° B̂2 = 70° Ĉ1 = 70° Ĉ 2 = 20° D̂1 = 70°

AD = 8 cm A E = 5 cm AB = 6 cm

(c) F̂1 = 80° (d) PR = 20 cm (e) AC = B D = 5 x

(j) a = 80 ° b = 20° c = 20 ° d = 20 ° e = 140 °

(m) (1) A E = 8 cm (2) AC = 28 cm (3) B̂1 = 70°

EXERCISE 5

(d) β = 115°

EXERCISE 6

(a) C E = 60 cm

(h) QERˆ = Eˆ = 72° (m) (1) (n) (2)

2

EXERCISE 1

(c) AC = BC (d) x = −1 (e) y = 3 or y = 1

EXERCISE 2

−3 −1 −5

(a) Midp AB = (4 ; 2) Midp CD = (−3 ; 2) Midp EF = ; Midp GH = 3 ;

2 2 2

(b) (1) (2 ; 1) (2) 4,2

(c) (1) x = −5 ; y = 3 (2) x = −4 ; y = 8 (3) x = 4 ; y = −7

(d) F( − 4 ; 3) (e) B(0 ; 5)

EXERCISE 3

(a) (1) grad AB = 1 (2) gradAB = 53 (3) grad AB = 1 (4) grad AB = − 53

(b) grad AB = −3 gradCD = 75 grad EF is undefined grad GH = 0

(c) (1) Parallel (2) Neither (3) Perpendicular

(d) (1) a=3 (2) b =1

(e) mFR = mRN (f) x = ±3

(g) (1) x = 13 (2) x = − 23

4

(3) x = −17

(h) x = 4; y =5 (i) mBD = − 2

3

294

EXERCISE 4

(a) Diagonals bisect (b) Diagonals bisect at right angles

(c) Diagonals bisect and one interior angle is a right angle

(d) (1) Diagonals bisect (2) Interior angle is not 90°

(e) B( − 4 ; 1)

(f) (1) C( − 6 ; 4) ; D( − 2 ; 0) (2) AP is not perpendicular to DP

(a) (1) AB = 6, 3 (2) M(7 ; 4) (3) P(16 ; 7)

(b) (1) 14,5 (2) Isosceles (3) No pair of sides form a right angle

(c) b=2

(d) (1) grad AC = 2 (2) BC = 5, 6 (3) M ( 12 ; −2 ) (4) D(0 ; 2)

1

(5) grad BD ×grad AC = − × 2 = −1

2

(e) (1) U(−4 ; 3) (2) grad RU = − 34 (3) grad UO = grad UR = − 34 (4) 150

(f) (1) a = 32 ; k = −2 (2) D( − 3 ; 0)

(g) (1) 12 (2) V(−2 ; 3) (3) grad SE × grad AS = 23 × − 32 = −1

(h) Diagonals bisect

(i) (1) N(3 ; 5) (2) grad MP × grad LN = − 23 × 23 = −1 ; LMNP is a rhombus

(3) ˆ =N

grad LM × grad MN = −5 × 15 = −1 ; M ˆ = Lˆ = Pˆ = 90°

(j) b = 3 ; S(0 ; 6)

(k) (1) B(6 ; 2) (2) C(6 ; 2 + r ) (3) r =3

(l) (1) y = x+3 (2) y = −x −1

EXERCISE 1

(a) (1) R 5 400 (2) R6 045,20

(b) (1) R17 760 (2) R740

(c) (1) R649 800 (2) R912 922,21

(d) (1) R285 132,38 (2) R279 793,50

(e) (1) R485 717,81 (f) 5 years, 5 months (g) 9 years, 1 month

(h) (1) 11,4% (2) 9,5%

(i) (1) 25% (2) 6,1%

EXERCISE 2

(a) R603,50 ; R23 426

(b) (1) R886,67 (2) R22 800 (3) R60 800

(c) 15%

(d) 12,9%

(e) R2 250 ; 25%

(f) R6 600 ; 22%

(g) R58 064,52

(h) R216 397,55

EXERCISE 3

(a) R8 212,89 (b) R20,94 (c) No (d) R90 212,12

(e) (1) R16 310,19 (2) R51 428,59

(f) 10,5% (g) R5 340 (h) 9,1%

EXERCISE 4

(a) $645 = R7 901,25 (b) 30£ = R 510 (c) R2,82 = ¥50

(d) $265,96 = R3 000 (e) £4 000 = R 72 960 (f) ¥20 454,55 = R4 500

(g) (1) 1£ = R18,24 (2) £1 619,50

295

(h) Germany

(i) R177 984

(j) R145 640

EXERCISE 5

(a) R50 229 570 (b) R332 634 162 (c) R4 319 (d) R6 175 634 873

(e) (1) 115,4% (2) R60 000

(f) 2%

EXERCISE 6

(a) R34 474,39 (b) R1 279 685,86 (c) R74 032,86 (d) R698 273,39

(e) R188 593,73 (f) R6 564,25

(a) (1) R30 693,85 (2) R34 377,11

(b) (1) R434 782,61 (2) R294 588,35

(c) (1) R=33,3% (2) 26%

(d) R167 568 672 700 (e) R 16 362 (f) $578, 03 = R10 000

(g) R261 920,83 (h) 10,4% (i) 39 900 000% (j) R13 008,69

(k) R34 975,41 (l) R19 734,32 (m) R14 060,20

CHAPTER 10 (STATISTICS)

EXERCISE 1

0 1

1 3

2 5

3 6

4 12

5 3

n = 30

(c) (1) 1 7 7 8 8 9 9

2 0 2 4 4 6 7 7

3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 9

4 1 2 2 3 7 8

5 0 3 3 4 5 7

6 3 4 5 6 6

(d) (1) 0 1 3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 8 8 9 9

1 0 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 9 9

2 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 7 7 7 7 8

3 0 0 1 9

296

(2) (3) 21 agents (4) 58%

4 3 1 1 0 1

3 2 2 2 2 0 3 4 9

3 3 3 2 0 3 2 3 3 4 5

4 2 1 4 3 3 3 4

(g) (1) 45-54 (2) 72% (3) 132 000 (4) 125 000

EXERCISE 2

(a) (1) x =7 Median = 6 Mode = 5

(2) x = 10 Median = 8 Mode = 8

(3) x = 7, 5 Median = 9 Mode = 10

(4) x = 4, 5 Median = 4,5 Modes = 2 ; 4

(b) 3 people

(c) (1) x = R23 411,11 Median = R16 800 Mode = R16 900

(2) The mean has been inflated by the outlier (R86 300). The median and mode are better measures.

(d) Median and mode

(e) Mean

(f) (1) x = 158 Median = 92 (2) Mean

(g) (1) x = 38, 6 Median = 35 Mode = 35

(2) All three measures are useful since most of the ages are in the 30-year old group.

(h) (1) x = 16,86 Median = 18 Mode = 14

(2) The mean and median are probably the best measures. The mode is too low.

(i) (1) x =3 Median = 3 Mode = 3

(2) All three measures are the same indicating that 3 boys are typical of a family with six children.

(j) (1) x = 11 (2) x = 12 (3) x = 13 (4) 9 ; 18 ; 27 ; 36 ; 45

(5) 3 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 10 3;3;4;6;9 3;3;4;7;8 (6) 34

EXERCISE 3

(a) (1) M=8 Q1 = 3 Q3 = 12 (2) M = 11 Q1 = 5 Q 3 = 15

(3) M = 11, 5 Q1 = 6, 5 Q 3 = 19 (4) M = 17, 5 Q1 = 8 Q3 = 25

(5) M = 18,5 Q1 = 9 Q3 = 27

(b) M=5 Q1 = 3 Q3 = 7 (c) M = 8 12 Q1 = 7 34 Q3 = 8 34

(d) M = 81 Q1 = 67 Q 3 = 89, 5 (e) M = 1, 445 Q1 = 1,35 Q3 = 1,55

(f) M = 92 Q1 = 86 Q3 = 154,5 (g) M = 35 Q1 = 25 Q 3 = 51, 5

(h) (1) x = 11 (2) M = 13 Q1 = 10 Q 3 = 21

EXERCISE 4

(a) (1) The 25th percentile is the 13th value which is 113.

The 50th percentile is the average of the 25th and 26th values: 216,5

The 75th percentile is the 38th value which is 284.

(2) The 30th percentile is the average of the 15th and 16th values: 126,5

297

(3) The 65th percentile is the 33rd value which is 253.

(4) The 80th percentile is the average of the 40th and 41st values: 289,5

(b) (1) The 25th percentile is the average of the 54th and 55th values: 66, 03

The 50th percentile is the average of the 108th and 109th values: 74,1

The 75th percentile is the average of the 162nd and 163rd values: 78, 485

(2) The 90th percentile is the 195th value which is 81,17.

(3) The 60th percentile is the 130th value which is 75,55.

(4) The 60th percentile is the 98th value which is 72,93.

(5) The top ranking countries tend to have better medical facilities and the employment figures are higher,

meaning less poverty.

EXERCISE 5

(a) (1) Minimum = 1 Maximum = 10 M = Q2 = 4 Q1 = 2 Q3 = 8

(2) Q1 Q2 Q3 (3) x = 4, 7

(4) Mean > Median (positively skewed)

(2) Q1 Q2 Q3 (3) x = 7, 25

(4) Mean < Median (negatively skewed)

(2) Q1 Q2 Q3 (3) x =9

(4) Mean = Median (symmetrical)

(2) Q1 Q2 Q3 (3) x =6

(4) Mean = Median (symmetrical)

(e) Q1 Q 2 Q3

7 12 8 12 8 34

(f) Q1 Q2 Q3

Q1 Q2 Q3

(g)

298

(h) (1) Q1 Q 2 Q3 (2) Mean > Median

(positively skewed)

(i) Q1 Q 2 Q3

(j) Q1 Q2 Q3

(2) Not valid. Although both classes have the same median which means that half the scores are above 80

and half are below 80, none of the scores for Class B are below 66. For Class A, one quarter of the

scores are below 66, Therefore Class B performed better than Class A.

(l) A possible set of nine numbers are: 10; 20; 20; 34; 45; 47; 51; 53; 80

EXERCISE 6

(a) Range = 10 − 1 = 9 IQR = 8 − 2 = 6 Semi-IQR = 12 (8 − 2) = 3

(b) Range = 10 − 1 = 9 IQR = 9 − 7 = 2 Semi-IQR = 12 (9 − 7) = 1

(c) Range = 15 − 2 = 13 IQR = 13 − 5 = 8 Semi-IQR = 12 (13 − 5) = 4

(d) Range = 10 − 2 = 8 IQR = 9 − 3 = 6 Semi-IQR = 12 (9 − 3) = 3

(e) Range = 10 − 6 = 4 IQR = 8 34 − 7 34 = 1 Semi-IQR = 12 (8 43 − 7 43 ) = 1

2

(f) Range = 99 − 19 = 80 IQR = 22,5 Semi-IQR = 12 (22, 5) = 11, 25

(g) Range = 0,32 IQR = 0, 2 Semi-IQR = 12 (0, 2) = 0,1

(h) Range = 333 500 IQR = 108 000 Semi-IQR = 12 (108 000) = 54 000

(i) Range = 311 IQR = 68, 5 Semi-IQR = 12 (68, 5) = 34, 25

(j) Range = 49 IQR = 26,5 Semi-IQR = 12 (26, 5) = 13, 25

(k) (1) Class A Range = 96 − 30 = 66 IQR = 84 − 66 = 18

Class B Range = 96 − 66 = 30 IQR = 90 − 72 = 18

The range for Class A is greater than the range for Class B. The minimum value for Class A is an

outlier and has affected its range. Both classes have the same interquartile range.

(2) Semi-IQR for both classes is 9.

(l) (1) x = 3 (2) IQR = 15 − 8 = 7

(m) Possible numbers are: 2 5 5 6 7 2 4 4 4 6 1 6 6 8 9

(n) Mean = 59 Median = 54 Range = 86

EXERCISE 7

(a) (1) 20,54 (2) 20 ≤ x < 25 (3) 20 ≤ x < 25

(b) (1) 51,33 (2) 60 ≤ x ≤ 65 (3) 50 ≤ x < 55

(c) (1)

43 0 1 1 2 3 7 8 9

44 7 7 8 8 9 9 9

45 0 0 1 2 3 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 9

46 0 1 2 2 3 3 9

299

(2) Class interval Frequency

43, 0 ≤ x < 44, 0 8

44, 0 ≤ x < 45, 0 7

45, 0 ≤ x < 46, 0 14

46, 0 ≤ x < 47, 0 7

(3) Actual mean = 45,01 Median = 45,15 The modes are 44,9 and 45,3

(4) Range = 3,9 IQR = 1

(5) Q1 Q2 Q3

(d) (1) 4 4 9

5 0 2 4 5 6 7 9

6 4 4 5 6 8 8

7 1 1 2 4 5 7 8

8 0 2 4 8 8

9 6 7 8

(3) Actual mean = 70, 07 Median = 69,5 (4) IQR = 80 − 57 = 23

(a) (1) x = R90 Median = R63 Mode = R54 Range = R234

(2) The mean since it is the highest measure of central tendency.

(3) The mode since it is the lowest measure of central tendency.

(b) (1) Company A since its mode of 25 is higher and more frequent than the mode for Company B.

(2) Mean for Company A = 20,9 Mean for Company B = 21,9

The mean suggests that Company B is the best since the mean is the higher of the two.

(c) Mode = 0 Median = 0

The mode and median suggest that he caught no fish.

(d) Sandy: x = 26 Range = 7

Paul: x = 26,3 Range = 18

For Paul, the mean is slightly higher than the mean for Sandy. The range is significantly higher for Paul

indicating that Sandy tends to be more consistent than Paul. This suggests that Sandy is the best to consider.

(e) x = 6, 5

(f) Tickets per day Frequency No of tickets × frequency

0 1 0

1 1 1

2 10 20

3 7 21

4 5 20

5 2 10

6 0 0

Totals 26 72

x = 2, 77 Median = 3 Mode = 2

(g) (1) Maths: Science:

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q1 Q2 Q3

50% of the learners scored between 30% and 55% in Science.

50% of the learners scored between 30% and 45% in Maths.

Therefore, the numbers will be equal.

300

(h) Estmated mean = 24,12 Median class: 18 ≤ p < 24 Modal class: 18 ≤ p < 24

(i) x = 163, 48 (j) x =2 (k) x = 60, 42

(l) R9 000 (m) x =5

CHAPTER 11 (MEASUREMENT)

EXERCISE 1

(a) (1) Cuboid: V = 126 cm3 Cylinder: V = 318, 09 cm3 Triangular prism: V = 18 cm3

(2) Cuboid: S = 162 cm2 Cylinder: S = 268, 61 cm 2 Triangular prism: S = 63 cm 2

(3) Cylinder: S = 204,99 cm 2 Cuboid: S = 120 cm2

(b) (1) Volume of A and B is 8 000 cm3 (2) r = 20 cm (3) C

(c) The triangular prism

(d) (1) 3 cm (2) 70 cm2 (3) 8 cm (4) 5 cm

3

(e) (1) 7 875 000 cm = 7 875 l (2) 3000 000 ml = 3 000 l (3) 189 105,63 cm2

EXERCISE 2

(a) (1) k =2

(2) Original: S = (64π) cm 2 Enlarged: S = (2) 2 × (64π) cm 2

(3) Original: V = (96 π) cm 3 Enlarged: V = (2)3 × (96π) cm 3

(b) (1) 7 300 cm 2 ; 3 000 cm3 (2) 1 168 cm 2

(c) (1) 24x 2 ; 8x3 (2) 2x

(d) (1) (1 568π) cm 3 (2) Vnew = 4 × Voriginal (3) (616π) cm 2

(4) Snew = 4, 2 × Soriginal

(e) (1) V = πa 2b ; S = 2πa 2 + 2πab (2) scale factor of 2 (3) 4 times

(4) 2 times

3

(f) (1) k = ; 810 cm3 (2) SA : SB = 4 : 9

2

(g) (1) hQ = 12,59 cm (2) Area of base P : Area of base Q = 1 : 1,31

(h) (1) Senlarged : Soriginal = 25 :16 (2) Venlarged : Voriginal = 125 : 64

EXERCISE 3

(a) (1) 684, 00 cm2 ; 1 045,33 cm3 (2) 7 539,82 cm 2 ; 37 699,11 cm3

(3) 26, 62 m 2 ; 12,57 m3 (4) 1 809,56 cm2 ; 7 238,23 cm3

(5) 84,82 m 2 ; 56,55 m3 (6) 1 403,07 cm 2 ; 19 893,61 cm3

(b) (1) 43,30127019 cm 2 (2) 63, 78675411 cm 2

(3) 234, 66 cm2 (4) 173, 21 cm3

(c) (1) 7,5 cm (2) 8 246,68 cm3

(d) 30,81 cm (e) 1 432,57 cm3

(f) (1) 1800 m 2 (2) 5250 m3

(b) (1) 64,95190528 cm 2 (2) 519, 62 cm3

(c) (1) 209, 4395102 cm 2 (2) 1 466,08 cm3 (3) 8,82 cm

(d) 1,361 cm

π π 4 2

(e) (1) (2) (3) V= r h

4 4 3

301

CHAPTER 12 (PROBABILITY)

EXERCISE 1

6 58 29

(a) (1) (2) =

35 70 35

1 2 1 3 1 5

(b) (1) (2) = (3) = (4)

6 6 3 6 2 6

5 9 14 1 0 19

(c) (1) (2) (3) = (4) =0 (5)

28 28 28 2 28 28

8 1 8 1 13 5 1

(d) (1) = (2) = (3) (4) =

16 2 16 2 16 15 3

(e) 12 500 C is the closest answer

3 3 2 1

(f) (1) (2) (3) =

11 11 10 5

13 1 1 4 1 8 2 26 1

(g) (1) = (2) (3) = (4) = (5) =

52 4 52 52 13 52 13 52 2

2 1 3 1 3 1 1

(h) (1) = (2) = (3) (4) (5)

6 3 15 5 4 2 3

192π 3 1 1 5

(i) = (j) (1) (2) (3)

256π 4 8 2 8

EXERCISE 2

2 1

(a) (1) A = {3 ; 5} n(A) = 2 P(A) = =

6 3

(2) A 1 S (3) (4)

3 2 2 4

5 4 6 6

6

2 1

(3) n(A) = 2 ; n(S) = 8 (4) P(A) = =

8 4

5 2 1

(c) (1) A = {1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5} n(A) = 5 P(A) = (2) B = {5 ; 10} n(A) = 2 P(B) = =

12 12 6

(3) (4) (5)

4 1 1

12 12 12 6

12

5 2 1

(d) (1) A = {2 ; 3 ; 5 ; 7 ; 11} n(A) = 5 P(A) = (2) B = {6 ; 12} n(A) = 2 P(B) = =

12 12 6

(3) (4) (5)

5 2

12 12

5

12

(e) (1) S = {a ; b ; c ; d ; e ; f ; g ; h ; i ; j ; k ; l ; m ; n}

A = {a ; b ; c ; d ; e} B = {d ; e ; f ; g ; h ; i} C = { j ; k}

(2) n(A) = 5 n(B) = 6 n(C) = 2

5 6 3 2 1

(3) P(A) = P(B) = = P(C) = =

14 14 7 14 7

(4) (5) S

B

A 4

14

2 C

3 14

14 2

3 14

14

302

(f) (1) (2) n(T) = 220 n(D) = 250 n(S) = 390

150 5 120 4 20 2

(3) = (4) = (5) =

390 13 390 13 390 39

100 10

(6) =

390 39

EXERCISE 3

6 1 5

(a) (1) S = {1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 10 ; 11 ; 12} (2) = (3)

12 2 12

1 5 1

(4) (5) (6)

12 12 12

3 1 5 4 4

(b) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

7 7 7 7 7

5

(6)

7

5 3 6 3

(c) (1) S = {a ; b ; c ; d ; e ; f ; g ; h} (2) (3) (4) =

8 8 8 4

3 4 1

(5) (6) =

8 8 2

3 1

(d) (1) 3 (2) 7 (3) 8 (4) 6 (5) =

12 4

7 8 2 6 1 3 1

(6) (7) = (8) = (9) 3 (10) =

12 12 3 12 2 12 4

1 11

(11) 1 (12) (13) 11 (14) (15) 9

12 12

9 3 9 3 5

(16) = (17) 9 (18) = (19) 5 (20)

12 4 12 4 12

5

(21)

12

(e) (1) (2) 165 (3) 140 (4) 300

45 3 40 2

(5) = (6) =

300 20 300 5

205 41 95 19

(7) (i) = (ii) =

300 60 300 60

40 1

(f) (1) (2) 15 (3) =

1 520 38

1 505 301 1 465 293

(4) = (5) =

1 520 304 1 520 304

1 480 37 15 3

(6) (i) = (ii) =

1 520 38 1 520 1 024

18 3 9 3

(g) (1) (2) = (3) =

60 10 60 20

12 1

(4) =

60 5

30 1 28 7

(5) (i) = (ii) =

60 2 60 15

(h) (1) 0,1 (2) 0,3 (3) 0,2

(4) 0, 2 + 0,1 = 0,3 (5) 0,3 + 0,1 = 0, 4 (6) 0, 3 + 0, 4 + 0, 2 = 0,9

303

(i) (1) Learners that are not in School P that dislike Maths. In other words, learners in School K that

dislike Maths.

60 3 84 21 40 2

(2) (i) = (ii) = (iii) =

100 5 100 25 100 5

2 1 6 1 7

(j) (1) = (2) + =

10 5 10 10 10

2 1

(3) (i) 5 (ii) 5 (iii) =

10 5

2 1 8 4

(iv) = (v) =

10 5 10 5

EXERCISE 4

(a) (1) B (2) C (3) D (4) A (5) C (6) A

(b) (c) (d)

× ×

×

(e) (1) 0,2 (2) 0,3 (3) 0,7

25 10 5 5 18 9

(f) (1) (2) = (3) (4) =

28 28 14 28 28 14

EXERCISE 5

(a) (1) 0,9 (2) 0,5 (3) 0,3 (4) 0,1 (5) 0,7 (6) 0,4

3 3 1 4 5 2

(b) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

7 7 7 7 7 7

(c) (1) 0,6 (2) 0,5 (3) 0,4 (4) 0,6 (5) 0,7 (6) 0,2

(d) (1) 0,6 (2) 0,23 (3) 0,15

(e) (1) 0,8 (2) 0,7 (3) 0,4

(f) 0,9

(g) 0,67

(h) 0,1

(i) (1) 0,1 (2) 0,4

(j) (1) not complementary (2) not complementary (3) complementary

(k) (1) 0,125 (2) not complementary

(l) 0,01

CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION EXERCISE

7 3 35 16 8

(a) (b) 0,1 (c) (1) (2) (3) =

27 46 46 46 23

(d) (1) complementary (2) not complementary (3) not complementary

3

(e)

5

(f) (1) 0,3 (2) 0,4 (3) 4

4 2 5

(g) (1) P(A) = ; P(B) = (2)

9 9 9

(h) (1) Diagram 2 (2) Diagram 1 (3) Diagram 4 (4) Diagram 3

(5) Diagram 2 (6) Diagram 1 (7) Diagram 4 (8) Diagram 3

3 2 1 4 1 1

(i) (1) (2) = (3) = (4)

8 8 4 8 2 8

304

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