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Proceeding of International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems 2007, Oct.

8~11, Seoul, Korea

A Novel Adaptive Commutation Angle Method for Single Phase BLDC Motor
Jian Ni, Lijian Wu, Bo Zhang, Wanbing Jin, Jianping Ying DELTA ELECTRONICS(SHANGHAI) CO., LTD. No.238 Minxia Road, Pudong, Shanghai, 201209, China

Abstract- Single-phase BLDC motor is widely applied in cooling fan, pump and blower. Due to high energy price, efficiency is gotten more attention. Commutation angle is one of key factors determining efficiency of BLDC motor. The optimal commutation angle increases with speed increasing. Generally commutation angle is adjusted by software, but the cost of such system is high. In this paper, a novel low-cost adaptive commutation angle method is proposed to improve the performance of single - phase BLDC motor. Analysis and simulation verify its effectiveness. Experimental results show the motor efficiency using adaptive commutation angle is about average 4% higher than that without adaptive commutation angle.

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Fig.2. Expansion figure of Hall element position
12V Vm

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I.

INTRODUCTION

Diode

Single-phase BLDC motor is widely used in cooling fan, pump and blower for its simple structure, easy assembly and low cost. A typical structure of the single-phase BLDCM is shown in Fig.1. The control system of traditional single phase BLDC motor is shown in Fig.3. A position detector such as Hall sensor is employed to detect the rotor position. Hall IC’s position is shown in Fig.2. And the drive system switches the current in the winding according to the position signal. The interaction between two magnetic fields produced by stator winding and permanent magnet drives the rotor to rotate. Commutation angle [1], which is an angle between voltage commutation in motor windings and zero-crossing point of back EMF, is one of key factors determining BLDC motor’s performance. Optimal commutation angle depends on winding voltage, speed, load and winding inductance etc. Generally optimal commutation angle increases with speed increasing [2]. If a large commutation angle fit for high speed is set, the commutation is advanced at low speed. It will bring on high efficiency at high speed but low efficiency at low speed.
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Hall IC

Hall Signal

Drive Circuit

Triode Triode

Fig. 3. Control system

Otherwise if a small commutation angle fit for low speed is set, the commutation is lagged at high speed. It will lead to high efficiency at low speed but low efficiency at high speed. Based on above analysis, it’s important to auto-adjust motor commutation angle according to speed changing. Some methods have been introduced such as adaptive commutation angle based on software. But the cost of such system is high. So developing low-cost adaptive commutation angle is significant. In this paper a novel adaptive commutation angle method based on RC circuit is developed. The operating principle is analyzed in detail below. Using this method, system cost is low. II. ADAPTIVE COMMUTATION ANGLE METHOD For BLDC motor, regulating average voltage of motor winding (Vm) means to tune the rotational speed. The general method is to set an original commutation angle firstly. And delaying an angle makes commutation optimal. The delay angle is implemented by Delaytime in (1). The needed delaytime could be gotten by simulation or experiment. From (1), it is also founded that needed delaytime that makes commutation angle optimal decreases as speed increasing. In

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Fig. 1. Cross-section of single phase BLDC motor

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traditional adaptive commutation angle method, software is used to implement needed delaytime. α opt = α orig − Needed _ Delaytime × ω (1) In this paper needed delaytime is implemented by hardware, not software. There exists a delay circuit between Hall signal and Drive circuit. Hall signal is from Hall element. Control signal is connected to drive circuit. Delay time is generated by a delay circuit according to Vm (represent speed). Fig.4 shows the fundamental principle during Hall signal jumping from zero to a positive signal. If Hall signal is zero, the capacitor voltage is zero too and control signal is zero. If Hall signal jumps to a positive value, the capacitor voltage begins to increase. When the capacitor voltage reaches Vref, the control signal will step into a positive signal. There exists a Delaytime between Hall signal and control signal. When Hall signal jumps from zero to a positive value, capacitor starts being charged. The capacitor voltage is described as VC = Vm(1 − e −t / τ ) (2) Where τ=R*C When VC reaches Vref, the Control signal will step into a positive value. Vc=Vref (3) By (2) and (3), the hardware delaytime between position signal and control signal can be described as

III. MODEL VERIFICATION The proposed model was applied to the design and simulation of a prototype single-phase BLDCM. The crosssection of the motor is shown in Fig.1 and its drive circuit is shown in Fig.3. The rated voltage of the motor is 12V. A. Needed Delaytime In this paper, the needed delaytime of the motor is obtained by experiment. When initial commutation angle is set a value fit for high speed running (aorig= a0, ,a0 is an angle fit for high speed running), the needed delaytime is shown in table.1. The relationship between Vm and n (speed) is also given by experiments, as in Fig.6. This relationship can be approximated as n=230.77*Vm (6) Then table.1 can be described as the relationship between needed delaytime and Vm, as in Fig.7.
TABLE I Relationship between needed delaytime and speed Speed(rpm) Needed Delaytime(us) 2800 2400 2000 1600 1203 1098.1 991.1 895 796.4 703.9 601 499.8 0 75 150 225 300 350 375 425 475 575 625 750

Vm Hardware _ delaytime = τ ln( ) Vm − Vref

(4)

Where Vref is a reference voltage. Fig.5 shows the function of delay circuit. From (4) it is founded that hardware delaytime decreases due to Vm (represent speed) increasing. It’s the same changing rule as needed delaytime. Equati on (5) shows least square technology is used to get optimized aorig, τ and Vref that make hardware delaytime closing needed delaytime more. By this method optimal commutation angle is gotten in whole speed range. n  Min ∑ ( Needed _ delaytime − Hardware _ delaytime)2  (5) i =1   Vm
Hall signal 2.5v COMP R C Vc Vref COMP Control Signal

Fig. 4. Delay circuit principle

Hall Signal

time

Control Signal

Fig. 6. Relationship between speed and
time

Fig. 5. Function of delay circuit

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C. Parameters Calculation With α orig = α 0 aorig= a0 means origin commutation angle is set a value fit for motor high speed running. Method of least squares is used here to minimize error between needed delaytime and hardware delaytime in whole speed range. In this condition, the optimal parameters are Vref=1.488V and τ=880us. The result of curve approaching is shown as Fig.10. Considering practical condition, tolerance rank of resistor and capacitor should be taken into account. ±5% tolerance capacitor and ±1% tolerance resistor are selected. Considering tolerance, the result of curve approaching is shown as Fig.11. When aorig= a0, the absolute error between needed delaytime and hardware delaytime is shown as Fig.12.

Fig. 7. Relationship between needed delaytime and Vm

B. Delay Circuit Frame Fig.8 shows the integral frame of delay circuit. The Hall signal is from Hall IC. The Control signal is connected to drive circuit. If Hall signal jumps from zero to positive, the C1 voltage is charged and Vout1 is connected to Control signal. When the C1 voltage reaches Vref, the control signal will step into a positive signal. There exists a delay time between Hall signal and Control signal. And when Hall signal is positive, C2 is discharged Otherwise if Hall jumps from positive to zero, the C2 voltage is charged and Vout2 is connected to Control signal through a negation. When the C2 voltage reaches Vref, the control signal will step into zero. There exists a delaytime between Hall signal and control signal. And when Hall signal is zero, C1 is discharged.The hardware Delaytime is decided by (4). Fig.9 shows the relationship between hardware delaytime and Vm.
Vm Hall signal 2.5v COMP R C Vref Vm 2.5v R COMP C Vref COMP Vout2 S1 Control Signal COMP Vout1 ENHall signal

Dotted: needed delaytime Curve: hardware delaytime

Fig. 10. Relationship between needed delaytime and hardware

Fig. 8. Delay circuit

Fig.11. Optimized result considering tolerance when aorig= a0

Fig. 9. Relationship between hardware delaytime and Vm

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Fig. 12. Absolute error when

Fig. 15. Absolute error when aorig= a0+10

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aorig= a0
efficien cy

0.7 0.6

D. Parameters Calculation With α orig > α 0

0.5 aorig> a0 means origin commutation angle is set a value large than the value fit for high speed running. If aorig> a0, needed Large commutation angle 0.4 delaytime is different from table.1. 0.3 Small commutation angle Through calculation we find that as aorig increasing 0.2 Euclidean distance decreases. Through calculation, the Our solution optimized parameters are Vref=0.9444V, τ=4930us and 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0 aorig= a0+10 . The result of curve approaching is shown as speed (rpm) Fig. 16. Efficiency comparison of three methods Fig.13. Considering tolerance, the result of curve approaching is Comparing Fig.15 with Fig.12, if resistor and capacitor had shown as Fig.14. no tolerance or very small tolerance rank, moving Hall element Then absolute error of curve approaching is shown as Fig.15. to a proper position (aorig= a0+100) would get a smaller Euclidean distance. Considering component tolerance, moving Dotted: needed delaytime Hall element to such a “proper” position couldn’t keep a Curve: hardware delaytime smaller absolute error and error range. So aorig= a0 is selected.

IV. CONCLUSIONS This method makes it possible to improve efficiency with low cost. By this method, the motor efficiency (shown in Fig.16) is about average 4% higher than the efficiency without adaptive commutation angle. This paper presented a novel commutation angle auto-adjustment method based on RC circuit. This technique makes it possible to improve efficiency with low cost. The relationship between commutation angle and delay time is given. The operating principle of this method is detailed analyzed and simulated. With this technique, the motor efficiency is about 4% higher than the efficiency of a traditional motor. Experimental results verified that the commutation angle auto-adjustment method is high efficiency and low cost. REFERENCES
[1] [2] Fig. 14. Optimized result considering tolerance when Z.Q. Zhu, S. Bentouati and D. Howe "Control of single-phase permanent magnet brushless dc drives for high-speed," IEE Power Electronics and Variable Speed Drives, 18-19, September 2000. C.M. Chao, C.P. Liao, D.R. Huang and T.F. Ying "A New Automatic Phase Adjustment of Optical Drive Signal," IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, vol. 34, No. 2, March 1998

Fig. 13. Optimized result when aorig= a0+10

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aorig= a0+100

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