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ARS NOVA Es la polifonía francesa del siglo XIV (1320).

Ars Nova fue el primer nombre de un tratado teórico que escribió en 1320 Philippe de Vitry que era compositor. Nova = Técnicas nuevas, tipos de notación nueva, elementos novedosos. En el siglo XIX para estudiar esta época se dan cuenta de que son dos Ars distintas y por ello designan al último como Ars Nova y al de la época anterior Ars Antiqua. 4.1. Contexto histórico. El hecho más importante del siglo XIV es el declive moral y de prestigio de la Iglesia y del Papado, es decir, la crisis de la Iglesia. Esto tendrá trascendencia para el arte en general. Desde la literatura se escandalizan y se divulgan las vergüenzas del alto clero. Por ello, se producirá un cisma y habrá dos papas. La intervención de la Iglesia en los asuntos políticos irá desapareciendo (se separan la Iglesia y el Estado). Consecuencias para el arte: Música más profana. Se compone poca música religiosa. Una figura relevante de este período será Guillaume de Machaut (compositor). Se componen casi solo Motetes profanos. La música refleja la corrupción del clero, críticas hacia la sociedad de la época, política... Llevará al Renacimiento y al antropocentrismo. Los textos ya no son sólo amorosos, sino que muchos hablarán de política, del clero, etc. El Ars Nova es la transición entre dos épocas. 4.2. Innovaciones de Philippe de Vitry. 1º Innovaciones rítmicas: Aparición de dos figuras, mínima y semimínima . Con lo que nos quedan: doble longa, longa, breve, semibreve, mínima y semimínima. En el Ars Antiqua el compás más utilizado fue el ternario, ahora de Vitry comenzará a utilizar de igual modo tanto los binarios como los ternarios. 2º Innovaciones: Podían aparecer notas igual a dos o tres valores diferentes (según la posición). Ahora se podrán dividir según convenga. Esta mezcla será una de las técnicas nuevas del Ars Nova y producirá una variedad de compases inconcebibles para un músico del Ars Antiqua. El uso de la división binaria y ternaria, se indicará mediante unos signos a modo de compás, los cuales se colocarán al principio de la pieza o cuando los cambios van a ser prolongados. Si el cambio era sólo para pocas notas, éstas irán en tinta roja siendo éste uno de los usos de la llamada notación roja de este período. Vitry utilizó los términos modo, tiempo y prolación para definir las relaciones entre los distintos valores. Modo = Indicaba la relación entre longa y breve, perfecto (subdivisión ternaria) imperfecto (subdivisión binaria) Tiempo = Indicaba la relación breve semibreve, según los mismos criterios (perfecto 3, imperfecto 2). Prolación= Indicaba la relación entre semibreve y mínima. Mayor (ternario) Menor (binario) Por lo tanto: tiempo perfecto (ternario = breve semibreve) y prolación mayor (ternario = semibreve mínima) tiempo imperfecto (binario = breve semibreve) y prolación menor. Cada voz podía tener su signo. NOTACIÓN ROJA: Sirvió para cambio inverso del compás (si era con roja era ). También se usó para música ficta (falsa). En esta música no se escribían las alteraciones para que el intérprete recordase qué notas se tenían que alterar. El Motete isorrítmico del siglo XIV Isorritmia = Talea Isomelodismo = Color Definición: Las taleas son las diferentes secciones de una melodía con = número y disposición de los valores rítmicos. Isorritmia = Misma medida. Se cambian las notas pero no las figuras rítmicas. Se aplica este concepto a la voz de abajo o tenor. Es una forma de componer matemática. Definición isomelodismo : Los colores son fragmentos melódicos que se repiten periódicamente. Es una época de música complicada y más armónicamente complicada y disonante. 4.4. Guillaume de Machaut (1300 1377). Es el autor más importante de esta época. Nació en Reims (Francia), músico y poeta, fue secretario de un rey y a causa de ello viajó por bastantes países de Europa, lo que le ayudó a conocer más música. Termina su andadura en Reims como canónigo. 2Estilo musical: Utilizó las innovaciones del ritmo y la medida introducidas por Philippe de Vitry.

Uso frecuente de la técnica isorrítmica (sobre todo en las voces inferiores, y, ocasionalmente en todas). Empleo del Hóguetus, hace refrencia a un tipo de estructura para componer, corriente sobre todo al final de las obras. También dio nombre cuando predominaba esa forma, en una obra. Hoguet = Sollozo en francés. Consisitía en combinar en una voz notas rápidas con silencios, encontrándola a modo de sollozos, procurando que los silencios de una voz coincidieran con las notas de otra, y dando la sensación de que se les respondían entre ellas. Con esto se eliminaban problemas de simultanear algunas notas disonantes entre las voces. Aplicó la polifonía a formas profanas como las baladas y rondeaus, que hasta ahora habían sido monódicas. Utiliza muchas síncopas entre las voces. Complejidad armónica (las voces son consonantes al tenor, pero no entre ellas). Obra: Escribió más música profana que religiosa Religiosas: Misa de Notre Dame (a cuatro voces) Hóguetus David (a tres voces) Profanas: Polifónicas 23 motetes (a tres y cuatro voces) 22 rondeaus (dos, tres y cuatro voces) 42 baladas (dos, tres y cuatro voces) Monódicas Virelays Chanson royal La obra profana polifónica: baladas y rondós están escritos en estilo más de discanto (nota contra nota) que los motetes, en los que sigue la estructura de dos voces de abajo (notas largas), dos de arriba (notas cortas). Los textos suelen ser franceses, excepto el tenor, ya que la mayoría de las veces era latino, aunque no religioso. La Misa de Notre Dame: Esta misa tiene mucha importancia. Está escrita a 4 voces, pone polifonía sólo a las partes del ordinario mientras que las del propio de la misa para que varíe las hace monódicas. Con lo que nos queda polifónicas: Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Ite missa est. Ha sido la 1ª misa de la historia que es polifónica y que está escrita enteramente por un solo compositor. (El único antecedente es la misa de Tournai, aunque en ésta cada parte está escrita por una persona diferente). Además la de Machaut es una misa que unifica, ya que utiliza un mismo motivo melódico que repite en todas las partes. Gloria y Credo tienen mayor texto y están escritos en conductus polifónico (el tenor inventado y estilo silábico). El Kyrie, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Ite missa est tienen escritura como de motetes (dos abajo largas, dos arriba cortas, tenor gregoriano, isorritmia). Audición: Agnus Dei (Machaut) La frase 1 y la 3 son la misma y la de en medio cambia (ABA). Utiliza isorritmia (sobre todo en las voces inferiores). Empieza en Qui tollis... 4.5. Ars Nova en España. En esta época casi toda la península pertenecía a la Corona de Aragón. Se vio invadida por músicos franceses por lo que estuvo muy influida por el Ars Nova francés. Destaca el Códice de la Huelgas que se copió a principios del siglo XIV por lo que contiene Ars Antiqua y dos obras del Ars Nova: Credo a tres voces Lección de solfeo Mucho más importante es una recopilación de obras llamado Llibre Vermell, conocido así por el color de la encuadernación y que se le dio en el s. XIX. También cuenta o recoge todo lo relacionado con los peregrinos que iban al Monasterio de Montserrat. Era la música que cantaban los peregrinos en los alrededores de la abadía de Montserrat o de noche dentro de la Iglesia. No se cantaba en la celebración de la liturgia, ya que era música profana, sino que eran canciones para distraer a los peregrinos. Contiene 12 piezas. 5 de ellas son cánones a cazas a dos o tres voces. El más importante es el llamado O Virgo Splendes . (Se piensa que este cánon es el primer cánon escrito a tres voces que se conserva en España). Presenta isorritmia (influencia del motete francés).

Ars nova en Francia Desde finales del siglo XIII, las innovaciones rítmicas introducidas por Petrus de Cruce abrieron camino para nuevas audacias. Los testimonios en que los propios músicos reconocían la innovación de la música de principios de este siglo aparecen hacia 1320, en la forma de dos tratados: el Ars Nove Musice de Johannes de Muris y el Ars Nova de Philippe de Vitry. El tratado de Johannes de Muris es probablemente el más antiguo de los dos, pero fue la obra de Vitry la que prestó su nombre a la música del siglo XIV. En él completó y

Ars nova en Italia Paralelamente. piezas que son manifestación de una renovada tradición y. sin antecedentes aparentes. alrededor de un tercio se deben al talento del mayor compositor italiano del siglo XIV Francesco Landini. J. poco a poco. que ya había adelantado el ars antiqua. La polifonía profana italiana apareció y floreció de forma repentina en el siglo XIV. La mayor parte de obras de esta época las conocemos gracias al Codex Squarcialupi. Este movimiento musical tuvo sus centros en Aviñón.S. división de la semibreve se subdivide asimismo en dos o tres semimínimas. La ballata es una pieza de origen danzable que fue perdiendo. cada una de las cuales presenta el esquema melódico AaB. Formas y técnicas compositivas En el ars nova francés Los géneros tendían a diversificarse. pero el motete siguió siendo la forma más en auge aunque su estructura interna evolucionará hacia el motete isorrítmico. se denominó Ars Nova italiano o Trecento. las formas fijas de canción en el siglo XIV. se desarrolló un dulce género nuevo de composición que. de una tercera estrofa con la misma melodía que el estribillo (volta) y de una repetición final del estribillo -ABbaA-. más bien. quedando así constituido el cuarteto vocal. que se desarrolló de manera especialmente brillante en Francia y que tuvo como principal manifestación el motete politextual. obras que ya anticipan la complejidad rítmica y la inventiva melódica delArs Subtilior. por otro. y escribían obras sólo para dos o tres voces orientadas. como fueron Johannes Ciconia. Suele componerse de un número indeterminado deestrofas que se suceden con la misma melodía. que recoge más de cuatrocientas muestras. En el ars nova o trecento italiano El madrigal es una forma poético-musical bastante libre. Guillaume de Machaut supuso un verdadero punto de inflexión en el panorama musical de su tiempo. hacia la búsqueda de la gracia melódica. que conoció una intensa vida musical al convertirse en la sede papal en la época del cisma de Occidente. la última estrofa se canta con una melodía distinta. Por fin se daba un sistema coherente y aparecían unos signos de compases para determinar el movimiento o la unidad sobre la que basar el movimiento. pero la intervención de la cuarta era cada vez más frecuente. tomando en préstamo el término que define la música francesa de esa misma época. Al tono idílico del madrigal se oponen la jovialidad y el carácter popular de lacaccia (una especie de canon) y. Matteo da Perugia e incluso en las últimas obras de Francesco Landini. por un lado. cabe citar una pléyade de músicos de la generación siguiente: J. monódica o polifónica tiene una estructura poético musical preestablecida: consta de una estrofa a modo deestribillo (ripresa). Su utilización como canción es posterior a la del madrigal y en un principio fue sobre todo monódica. Aragón y el sur de Francia. anticipando ya un género musical más internacional. Notación musical Los signos se multiplicaron con indicaciones precisas de pausas y nuevas figuras de valor cada vez más breve.Cesaris. algo más tarde. la ballade y el virelay. Esta proliferación de valores permitió la dislocación de los modos rítmicos y una búsqueda de ritmos contrapuestos entre las diversas voces. más ajeno a las diferencias nacionales y que se manifestaría en su plenitud en el siglo XV. dando como resultado. En el se funden la rica tradición musical de los troveros. La mínima. Se seguía componiendo a dos o tres voces (cantus firmus y duplum o también triplum). el virelay es presenta la estructura melódica ABbaA. La escritura musical sufrió modificaciones. Gracias a la precisión de esta notación musical se generalizó el hoquetus.codificó todo el arsenal de signos musicales utilizados en su tiempo. Por ello. Ars subtilior Las últimas décadas del siglo XIV fueron testigos de una de las evoluciones más extrañas de la historia de la música: el género conocido como Ars Subtilior (arte más sutil). . frecuentemente de temática amatoria o pastoril. ese carácter. la expresividad y refinamiento de la ballata. años más tarde. forma musical que. todos ellos de un acentuado manierismo. pero tuvo también una influencia notable en compositores establecidos en el norte de Italia. tal vez porque lo consideraban demasiado intelectual. ballatas). Artísticamente. resultado directo de la progresiva complejidad rítmica y sutileza melódica que fue adquiriendo el Ars Nova francés. se ha argumentado que el término "Ars Nova" no debería aplicarse a una música que parece haber surgido con independencia de las formas musicales y del sistema de notación que caracteriza al Ars Nova francés.. En Francia se le denominó contre-teneur. Ars antiqua Ars antiqua o ars vetus. Compositores y teóricos Francia fue el primer país en el que se desarrollaron estas nuevas técnicas y sobre todo en la zona del norte del Loira. La ballata. Junto a éstos. considerada la forma polifónica ideal hasta principios del siglo XVII. etc. En algunos casos. También encontramos muestras de la nueva tendencia musical en la región deAviñón. El Codex de Chantilly recoge muestras musicales del Ars subtilior. terminaría imponiéndose sobre las otras dos. con las innovadoras teorías de Philippe de Vitry. y el rondeau es una forma poética de ocho versos con la estructura musical ABaAabAB. a la que se da el nombre de ritornello y en la que se suele emplear además un ritmo contrastante con el resto de la canción. Balde Cordier. llamadas así porque siguen un esquema métrico determinado: La ballade se estructura en tres estrofas poéticas. donde destacaban los brillantes compositores Philippe de Vitry y Guillaume de Machaut. que crea la sensación del uso sistemático de la síncopa. ignoraban el motete. lo cual supuso una innovación extraordinaria. Esta voz era inferior al cantus firmus y poseía valores del mismo orden de duración respecto a la voz principal. seguida de dos estrofas con melodía distinta (piedi). Los compositores que escogían obras en verso para ponerles música (madrigales. es el término que la musicología utiliza para referirse a la música polifónica de un período no del todo concreto pero en todo caso anterior al siglo XIV. de Haspre. posteriormente. La misma evolución tuvieron el rondeau.

La mayoría de la música escrita que conservamos del siglo XII utiliza los modos rítmicos tal y como fueron definidos Garlandia. entre los que se encuentran dos que pasaron a la historia por ser los primeros autores polifónicos conocidos: Léonin y Pérotin. y El conductus. por los mismos años. con exclusión de la canción profana de los trovadores y troveros. la mayoría de ellas en cuanto a la concepción y la notación del ritmo. Jacobo de Lieja. De todos modos. Tiene la peculiaridad de que cada voz independiente tiene un texto diferente y un ritmo también diferente. Finalmente. es decir. aunque a veces se utiliza para hacer referencia a más o menos toda la música europea del siglo XIII y un poco antes. anterior al 1320. El centro principal de actividad se sitúa en la denominada Escuela de Notre Dame de la cual formó parte un grupo de músicos. La diferencia con las demás formas polifónicas es que aquí hay una sola melodía pero cantada o tocada en tiempos diferentes. Tischler.Por lo general el término se limita a la música sacra. consideran que sólo debe aplicarse a la música polifónica de la segunda mitad del siglo XIII. Europa conoció tiempos de extraordinaria prosperidad cultural. nota que muchas veces tenía el apoyo de algún instrumento. llamada cantus firmus . otro grupo considera que es la música polifónica de entre los años 1100 y 1300 aproximadamente8 o bien los dos siglos: el XII y el XIII de modo que sí incluyen la música de la Escuela de Notre Dame. que definió y dilucidó los modos rítmicos de una forma más completa. el Ars Antiqua abarca toda la polifonía anterior al Ars Nova. por lo que resulta una música muy vivaz y contrastada. es decir la que Philippe De Vitry consideraba especialmente pasada de moda y que viene representada por Petrus de Cruce (Pierre de la Croix) y por Franco de Colonia. otro teórico y compositor hacía una defensa de este estilo en su tratado Speculum Musicae. El teórico musical más famoso de la primera mitad del siglo 13. que es una forma polifónica en la que hay una sola melodía pero que se va repitiendo mediante entradas sucesivas de diferentes voces o instrumentos. un arte antiguo o ars antiqua.4 Jane Chance5 o diferentes profesores de la Universidad de Salamanca. llamada voz organalis. En esta época se desarrolla la técnica conocida como "nota contra nota" o contrapunctus. Hans: Propos Meter and Rhythm in the Ars Antiqua. En este tratado hacía una contraposición entre el carácter innovador de su estilo -que él consideraba como ars nova. acuñada en el siglo XIV con un cierto carácter depreciativo. También están los que lo hacen coincidir con todo el siglo XIII. que constituye la gran invención de esta escuela. la opinión mayoritariamente aceptada como más autorizada considera que. en el que la melodía principal no es gregoriana. por tanto . Entre estos habría Leigh Gerdine. en el extremo contrario. Johannes de Garlandia. que es el período de la actividad musical aproximadamente entre 1310 y 1375. esta denominación abarca desde la Escuela de Notre Dame hasta el advenimiento del Ars Nova. cuando aparecen las primeras formas polifónicas: y El organum. y El canon. que es un nuevo sistema polifónico nacido con la citada Escuela de Notre Dame. Innovaciones teóricas En la teoría de la música. que con el tiempo se va elaborando cada vez más fundamentalmente en la parte rítmica llegando a cantar muchas notas por cada nota del tenor. Formas y técnicas compositivas El ars antiqua es una consecuencia del desarrollo musical ocurrido entre los siglos IX y XII. El término Ars Antiqua se utiliza en oposición a Ars Nova . es lo que la modernahistoriografía musical utiliza para referirse a la música polifónica europea de un período que no coincide2 en todas las fuentes: En opinión de algunos. Las composiciones de todos ellos se conocen como la música de la Escuela de Notre Dame y se encuadra en el ars antiqua. con un ritmo más o menos procesional. Historia En la segunda mitad de siglo XII. durante el ars antiqua tuvieron lugar varias mejoras respecto de las prácticas anteriores. que consideraba totalmente pasado de moda y. Esta fue una innovación que tuvo un fuerte impacto en la historia posterior de la música europea.10 es decir. A pesar del carácter peyorativo que adquiere la expresión en el tratado que le da nacimiento. Otros. Se trata de un canto a dos o tres voces de carácter contrapuntístico. y El discantus. Un poco más tarde el teórico alemán Franco de Colonia fue el primero en describir un sistema de notación musical en el que a los diferentes valores rítmicos se asocian signos distintivos (en Ars cantus mensurabilis escrito hacia 1260).y el estilo imperante en la segunda mitad del siglo XIII. que consistía en dos voces que se mueven por movimiento contrario. fue el autor del tratado De mensurabili musica(alrededor de 1240). Se empiezan a construir las grandes catedrales góticas como laCatedral de Notre Dame en París que será crucial para el Ars antiqua. desde aproximadamente 1150 hasta 1300 o 1320. que consistía en añadir a una melodía gregoriana. sino inventada por el compositor. a menudo. Compositores y teóricos .1 Esta denominación. Esta técnica se desarrolló en el marco de la música religiosa. Otros avanzan su inicio a finales del siglo XII. una segunda voz a la distancia de un intervalo de cuarta o quinta. y El motete. La denominación arranca del compositor francés del siglo XIV Philippe de Vitry que tituló su tratado publicado en 1322 Ars Nova.

el ars antiqua era una musica modesta. Los textos no tenían que ver nada entre sí. sólo queda esta forma (prácticamente se dejan de componer conductus y organa).1180 . no original. incluso en distinto idioma). indulgente. es decir. cada una con un texto y un carácter distintos. y el triplum. mote') es una composición polifonica nacida en el siglo XIII para cantar en las iglesias. y sensual. . lo que hizo que el motete se convirtiera en una forma independiente y saliera del contexto litúrgico. incluso en obras de uso religioso. En la segunda mitad del siglo XIII existe un motete con tres voces diferenciadas. finales del siglo 12) y Pérotin (fl. en francés y texto profano. se encuentran composiciones a tres (esto era lo más frecuente en la época) o cuatro voces. En ese sentido el motete sucedió al conductus. las voces se contestaban silencio contra nota. incluso en su vertiente más reivindicativa. El primer tratado en el que aparece este tipo de notación es el "Ars cantus mensurabilis". alternativamente. Para Jacobo. Los motetes dejan de escribirse en forma de partitura (es decir. como se verá más adelante. que lleva texto profano en francés. A partir de ahí. el tenor ocupaba menos espacio que las voces superiores). Se les añade un texto nuevo (y diferente. relaciones y metáforas entre sus significados (como ya encontrábamos en los conductus). por ejemplo). se añadirían textos profanos en francés a las voces superiores. y en la parte superior. etc. en la cual. ya que incluso en algún caso esto se indica claramente (como en el 'In seculum viellatoris' del Codex Bamberg. su forma es muy similar a la del conductus: se le llama motete-conductus. de texto comúnmentebíblico. Los más primitivos ejemplos son cláusulas de discanto a dos voces en las que al duplum se le añade un texto religioso en latín que comenta el canto. creadas a partir de cláusulas sustitutivas: se le añade un texto diferente a cada una de las voces superiores (incluso en diferentes idiomas). con lo cual comienza la existencia de música profana polifónica (aunque realmente se desconoce todavía su uso práctico concreto). Entonces. de Franco de Colonia. añade un texto silábico para las voces superiores (el mismo texto para todas ellas). y se les llama Duplum y Motetus (y si hay más voces. el tenor va en valores más largos y tiene texto en latín mínimo (se trata de un cantus firmus). sobre los Tenores o las partes de organum o discantus. De los teóricos cabe destacar Jacobo de Lieja. Sus comentarios pueden considerarse un modelo para los críticos de música desde la Edad Media hasta la actualidad. c. Aparece así una característica muy importante del motete de esta época: la politextualidad. normalmente a partir de los de Perotin. defendiendo vigorosamente al estilo antiguo. 1320) lanzó un violento ataque contra un ars nova "irreverente y corrupto". En este motete. Quadruplum. con carácter dramático e imitativo. Hasta el siglo XVII seguía siendo una de las formas musicales más importantes de la música polifónica. Incluso existen motetes bilingües en los cuales el duplum puede ir en latín y llevar texto religioso. Aunque el estilo del ars antiqua comenzó a pasar de moda durante las primeras dos décadas del siglo XIV. la melodía dada era de origen profano. pero de carácter más alegre y de ritmo más rápido. la cual podía ser cantada o tal vez tocada con algún instrumento.1220) fueron los dos compositores conocidos por el nombre de la escuela de Notre Dame. Motete El motete (del francés motet.). El motete desarrollado a partir del organum. en parte. se diera porque los pergaminos eran escasos y caros (aparte. tuvo su último defensor en Jacobus de Lieja. una voz sobre otra) y se escriben en formato de libro de coro. Triplum. El texto de las voces superiores era ahora silábico (siendo difícil adaptar el texto y reconocer el modo rítmico). Algunas composiciones eran casi completamente hoquetus. El término "motete" se comienza a utilizar cuando pierde su uso litúrgico ("mot" significa "palabra" en francés). y el ars nova era musica lasciva. que en su obra Speculum Musicae (c. En un período algo posterior tenemos a Petrus de Cruce. Con el tiempo. Su origen se encuentra en un tipo de 'tropo vertical'. Es posible que este cambio. pasó a ser profano y luego volvería a ser sacro.Casi todos los compositores del ars antiqua son anónimos. "hueco"). pero sólo en apariencia. Este moteteconductus no gozó de evolución posterior. La evolución del motete surge de las letras añadidas a las cláusulas (secciones de discanto) de los antiguos organa. Una técnica compositiva usada frecuentemente al final de los motetes era el hoquetus ("eco". "hipo". un compositor de motetes. Por encima del tenor estaba elduplum. a partir de 1250. con texto profano en francés de carácter melancólico. Edad Media El uso medieval del término motete corresponde a una composición vocal a varias voces. Léonin (fl. y éste de mot: 'palabra. La evolución del motete en la historia de la música fue muy curiosa: su origen fue sacro. Es el motete característico deFranco de Colonia. ya que el sistema rítmico modal que se utilizaba hasta entonces en los organa no era el más adecuado. En ocasiones. El motete pasa a convertirse en la forma musical más importante del siglo XIII. se encontraba el triplum. por lo que en la segunda mitad del siglo XIII se empieza a desarrollar un tipo de notación mensural que indica el valor absoluto de las notas independientemente del lugar dónde se encontrasen (en su mayor parte). También se caracterizó por poseer varias melodías (polifonía) En el siglo XV y siglo XVI se expande como pieza vocal polifónica sin acompañamiento instrumental (a capella). definida no tanto por su función sino por su forma particular: estaba basada sobre una melodía litúrgica "dada" (es decir. no compuesta especialmente) llamada 'ténor' (acentuada en la 'e'). Con estos motetes había un problema. que es uno de los pocos cuyo nombre se ha conservado. indecente. normalmente a doble página (el duplum un lado. el motetus en el otro y el tenor bajo los dos).c. caprichosa. y también a Franco de Colonia y Adam de la Halle. ya que normalmente habían sido seleccionados para crear complicados simbolismos.

En la música religiosa En los siglos XIII y XIV. y la del texto ABCADEAB. Se convierte en una composición coral sobre cantus firmus. Haydn. en el rondó generalmente aparecen frases de paso que las ligan. llamadas «final abierto» y «final cerrado». En lugar de frases independientes. A. Pervive gran número de ellos escritos en la Francia del siglo XV. Un uso más bien excepcional del término motete es cuando se aplica a una obra de carácter parecido al anterior (coral. las otras eran labalada y el rondó). es una forma musical basada en la repetición de un tema musical. En el período clásico. Es el equivalente en la Iglesia Católica Romana de la ántiphon ('antífona'. llamada «forma bar». deja de ser politextual. Su estructura musical era ABAAABAB. Es lo que se denomina «sonata rondó». F. Tema principal. Couperin lo definía como una forma que se basa en «un tema principal que reaparece y se alterna con diferentes temas intermedios. y también semejante al zéjel hispanoandalusí. que utiliza más de un coro para crear 'efectos espaciales'. y se convierte en una composición continua. Primer episodio en otra tonalidad (de dominante o relativo mayor/menor). usualmente en latín. llamada vuelta. cuya estructura se empleó para las sonatas instrumentales. Estas repeticiones se alternan con temas musicales o episodios llamados contrastes: A. ronda o danza en círculo). una forma lied compuesta. y la rima final se recupera como rima inicial de la estrofa siguiente. Segundo episodio en otra tonalidad A. Repetición del tema (a veces con coda) El rondó como forma lied compuesta La forma de rondó puede también considerarse. Mozart y Beethoven incorporaron el rondó al último movimiento de sus sonatas. B. canto responsorial inglés de la Iglesia de Inglaterra). repite la estructura métrica del estribillo y se canta con la misma melodía. Un virelay es una forma musical similar a un rondó. el motete se convirtió en una serie de variaciones polifónicas corales religiosas. Virelay Un virelay (pl. Couperin utilizó un tema principal que ocupaba unos ocho compases y dos o tres episodios más o menos de la misma extensión. sobre un texto en general no litúrgico. a la que Josquin des Prés da su forma definitiva dentro de la polifonía renacentista. Repetición del tema principal. sirviendo así de engarce musical. con la Escuela de Borgoña el motete recobra su carácter sacro. Cada estrofa tiene dos rimas. llamadas mudanzas. la música de cámara y las sinfonías. llamados couplets». en cierto modo. La palabra «virelay» procede del francés virer (girar) + lai (lay). los compositores franco-flamencos hacen del motete un género tan importante como la misa. Esta característica da al rondo un aspecto formal más compacto y unitario. Sin embargo. Forma musical Generalidades En un rondó. En la segunda mitad del siglo XVI aparece el motete policoral de la escuela Veneciana. «virelayes» o «virelais») es una forma poética medieval. El rondó en la historia de la música En la música tardomedieval el rondeau fue una forma concreta de canción profana. La segunda sección (B) de cada estrofa. con la primera y última secciones compartiendo la misma letra. con la misma estructura métrica que se cantan con la misma melodía. normalmente se componen grupos de temas que pueden presentar en su estructura formal organizaciones tipo liedmenores. Consta de un estribillo más o menos extenso que alterna con varias estrofas divididas en dos secciones: la primera sección (A) se subdivide a su vez en dos mitades. En la segunda mitad de siglo. pues. forma AAB. el inglés Parry denominó motetes a sus Songs of Farewel (Canciones de adiós). C. con acompañamiento instrumental. La estructura musical subyacente es también un casi invariable AbbaA. variando a veces el final para terminar con dos cadencias distintas. tales como ecos o pregunta-respuesta. sobre un solo texto y sin cantus firmus.Renacimiento Ya a finales del siglo XIV. Por ejemplo. aunque especialmente en el XV y XVI. y fue una de las métricas más comunes en Europa desde la segunda mitad del siglo XIII hasta finales del XV. de carácter serio) pero no es eclesiástica. frecuentemente musicada. Es la misma forma que la ballata-italiana. . El rondó era una forma muy atractiva para los compositores y los clavecinistas barrocos del siglo XVII y principios del siglo XVIII. Aparece el motete para voz solista. el tema principal (A) suele desarrollarse tres veces o más. Las estrofas tienen. mientras en el lied las partes se presentan yuxtapuestas sin pasaje de transición. Rondó El rondó (del francés rondeau. Es una de las tres formes fixes (formas fijas.

Se pueden encontrar tipos de ballate más largos que siguen el patrón AbbaAbbaA. La isorritmia también se trasladó del motete a los movimientos de la misa y de la cantilena. Se utilizó en el análisis de la estructura de los motetes de la escuela polifónica Ars nova de los siglos XIV y XV. Philippe de Vitry y Guillaume de Machaut ya componían motetes isorrítmicos en la década de 1320. es más parecida a la forme fixe de la música francesa llamada virelay (y no la balada aunque el nombre pueda sugerir lo contrario). 1360) de Guillaume de Machaut. Descripción La isorritmia va más allá de la isoperiosidad: no solo es igual la estructura de los periodos. mientras que la cuarta línea "a" se llama "volta" (vuelta). y fueron de los últimos en hacerlo. y Guillaume Dufay (c. y se escribían numerosos virelayes (así como baladas y rondós) sin intención de que fueran musicados. 1400 1474). La ballata fue una de las formas musicales profanas más importantes durante el Trecento. la isorritmia crea el equilibrio hacia lamelodía expresiva y el incremento de la coloración armónica (terceras. las dos líneas "b" por lo general tienen exactamente la misma música y sólo en las ballate más tardías aparecen los finales: primero (abierto) y segundo (cerrado) de clara influencia francesa. y la forma musical sin duda comenzó siendo música destinada al baile. Más adelante. que también escribía las letras. El término fue acuñado por Friedrich Ludwig en1904 para referirse a esta técnica. Las primeras ballate. La ballata italiana fue utilizada por los compositores del Trecento. pasando por el Ars Nova. denominado talea. Compositores El compositor más relevante de ballate es Francesco Landini. así como Bartolino da Padova. hasta los compositores franco-flamencos del siglo XV. La organización racional del tenor con subdivisiòn en Color (Alturas de sonido) y talea (Duración de sonido) también se extendió. cuyos tenores o cantus firmus se distinguían por la continuidad de un esquema rítmico. teniendo la primera y última estrofas los mismos textos. aunque las notas cantadas sean distintas. El motete isorritmico constituye el pináculo en materia de estructuracion racional en la música gòtica. Tenor isorrítmico del kyrie de la Messe de Nostre Dame (c. La primera y la última "A" se llama ripresa. Johannes Ciconia. Ballata La ballata (plural: ballate) es una forma poética y musical italiana. escrita por Lorenzo da Firenze). perteneciente a la segunda mitad del siglo XIV. se pueden encontrar ballate polifónicas escritas a dos o tres voces. "cadencia" o "ritmo") es una técnica musical que sigue un patrón fijo dealtura y repite un ritmo característico a lo largo de una pieza musical. uno de los más tempranos (m. tanto Arnold de Lantins como Guillaume Dufay escribieron ballate. a las voces superiores. En el siglo XV. constituido por células idénticas que se aumentaban o disminuían. El máximo exponente de esta técnica se puede encontrar en la obra de Guillaume de Machaut. Un"color" de 28 notas se establece con una "talea" de 4 notas que se repite siete veces. Presenta la estructura musical AbbaA. Por tanto. el período a menudo conocido como el Ars Nova italiano. que significa "semejante". 1304). casi siempre con la forma métrica del zéjel. Al mismo tiempo. Uno de los compositores más célebres de virelayes esGuillaume de Machaut (1300 1377). y Zacara da Teramo. o bien la mayoría de sus partituras se han perdido. y es la base también de losvillancicos polifónicos de los siglos XV y XVI. El término proviene del verbo ballare (bailar). especialmente Francesco Landini. cromatismo). . Se conservan 33 composiciones suyas en esta forma. La misma forma musical aparece con frecuencia en las Cantigas de Santa María. sino que también lo son los valores de las notas de los periodos. y rithmos. tales como las que se encuentran en el Codex Rossi son monofónicas. Otros compositores de virelayes sonJehan de Lescurel. Las ballate se cantan al final de cada día del Decameron de Boccaccio (sólo se conserva una versión musical de estos poemas. uno de los más tardíos.La forma del virelay la encontramos en la música francesa desde los últimos troveros. y que con el tiempo se extendería también a otras voces. que estuvo en uso desde finales dle siglo XIII hasta finales del siglo XV. etc. Isorritmia Los términos isorritmia o isorritmo (del griego isos. Un ejemplo lo constituye el Agnus Dei de la misa de Guillaume de Machaut. Hacia la mitad del siglo XV la forma poética se había alejado mucho de la musical. de ese modo. Otros compositores de esta forma son Andrea da Firenze. A diferencia del virelay. un contemporáneo de Landini. la "b" son las líneas denominadas piedi (pies).

4. and the latter in engaging melodies. one in Avignon and one in Rome. King Philip IV (the Fair) of France engineered the election of a French pope. especially the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) between France and England. with one pope in Rome and one in Avignon (France) for most of the fourteenth century. The economy and population of western Europe declined. Survivors often fled Europe's cities.El motete isorrítmico Éstos motetes. 3. Yet the fourteenth century was also a period of remarkable creativity. y (c) una transcripción parcial del inicio de cada una de las nueve taleae en notación moderna. The elite music of the time is characterized by an interplay between structure and pleasure. and an increasing interest in the world. Chapter Outline: I. (b) el tenor plasmado en notación mensural. cada una en una medida diferente. La imagen muestra (a) el cantus firmus preexistente del gregoriano. a. and new possibilities in rhythm and meter. the individual. who resided in Avignon rather than Rome. CHAPTER 6 FRENCH AND ITALIAN MUSIC IN THE FOURTHEEN CENTURY After the comparative stability of the thirteenth century. Presenta un color de 24 "longae" (48 compases en notación moderna). Su longitud es disminuida posteriormente por los factores 9:6:4. 1. led to criticism of the church. A division of the Church. the fourteenth saw disruption and turmoil. 1. and human nature led to art and literature that was more true to life and more eager to please its audience. strained the economy. Conflicts and scandals tarnished the Church. Cooler weather reduced agricultural production. b. . Conditions were more difficult for Europeans than in the thirteenth century. and plague. more frequent imperfect consonances. Floods caused famines in northwestern Europe. ofrecen los principios isorhythmic de talea y de color. compuesta por Philippe de Vitry en el temprano a los mediados del siglo XIV. European Society in the Fourteenth Century A. Los compositores incluyen Machaut yPhilippe de Vitry. Un ejemplo de un motet isorhythmic es la Nova fert/Neuma de Garrit Gallus/In . B. chromatic inflections. El motete isorrítmico Sub Arturo plebs de Johannes Alanus es un motete medieval tardío. The desire to understand and control nature spurred advances in science and technology. 2. During the Great Schism of 1378-1417 there were two claimants to the papacy. divididas en tres taleae . Victims died in agony within days of contracting the plague. war. escritos durante Ars Nova el período del siglo XIV. ravaged by famine. Frequent wars. The Black Death (bubonic and pneumonic plagues) killed a third of Europe's population from 1347-50. 2. and revolts challenged secular authorities. the former evident in the rhythmic and melodic patterning known as isorhythm and in standardized forms for secular song. El color se repite tres veces.

3. though sacred music continued to be composed. including isorhythm.. Avarice. king and bishop Aside from the treatise. C. E. Clergy were often corrupt. there was an increase in attention to secular song. Philosophers such as William of Ockham (ca. written ca. the Ars Nova. 5. changed society's perceptions. II. Villainy ("u" and "v" were interchangeable). 3. 2. d. The name is an anagram for Flattery. He marries and produces offspring who destroy the world. Isorhythm 1. 1. Science and secularism 1. and Lâcheté (cowardice). Variété (fickleness). Prolation was indicated by the presence or absence of a dot. 2. b. 2. 4.2) contains 169 pieces of music interpolated within the poem. 1320: "this completes the Ars nova of Magister Philippe de Vitry. The tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm. 3. b. the use of duple division. a. c. By the end of the century. page 121) criticized the new ways. Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361) 1. Imperfect time with imperfect prolation came down to us as the sign for 4/4 meter. c. Dante Alighieri and Boccacio in Italian Geoffrey Chaucer in English In music. 6. New technologies. especially "perfection brought low [and] imperfection is exalted. In the fourteenth century." i. The arts 1. 2. a. mechanical clocks. Allegorical poem that satirizes corrupt politicians and church officials Fauvel is the central character. Time was indicated with a complete or incomplete circle. Fauvel is a horse that rises to a powerful position. C. and the magnetic compass. Envy. a. 1285-1349) and his followers believed that knowledge of nature and of humanity should rest on experience of the senses. D. pages 122-23) 1. mensurations signs indicated divisions of time and prolation. including some of the first examples in the new style.1) Increased literacy led to more literature in the vernacular. b. 3. More naturalistic style in art (see HWM Figure 6. symbolizing a world turned upside down. Both duple and triple division of note values possible for the first time Division of the semibreve into smaller note values called minims Conservative writers (see HWM Source Reading on Jacques de Liège. After a few additional modifications in the Renaissance. church canon. Motets by Philippe de Vitry are among the earliest musical works to employ developments of the Ars Nova. B. The Ars Nova in France A. the tenor pattern was longer and more complex. and administrator for a duke. Thirteenth-century motets often employed short repeating patterns in the tenor. 2." Poet. composer. . a. such as eyeglasses. which drew criticism. One manuscript (HWM Figure 6. making syncopation possible. 2. this system developed into the one we use today. An emphasis on natural explanations rather than supernatural ones led to increasing secularization. Ars Nova innovations in the notation of rhythm (see HWM Innovations: Writing Rhythm.3. The term ars nova comes from the final words of a treatise attributed to de Vitry.e. The Roman de Fauvel (Story of Fauvel) captured the spirit of the turn of the century. b. Noteshapes retained their value regardless of their context (unlike Franconian notation). he is named in another source as the "inventor of a new art" (Ars Nova).

TGreater prominence of imperfect consonances Cadences required perfect consonances. accompanying the king on his travels Resided in Reims after 1340. . First composer to compile his complete works and to discuss his working method a. Biography 1. A few cycles were assembled from individual movements.2). NAWM 24 In arboris/Tuba sacre fidei/Virgo sum. and Italy set individual movements polyphonically. b.1). B. He composed many major musical works and numerous narrative poems. 2. c. 6. HWM Example 6. 5.6) A. most from early in his career Twenty are isorhythmic. The rhythmic pattern is called the talea. d. The melody is called the color and may repeat. Parallel octaves and fifths continued to be used. and HWM Figure 6. d. with time to write poetry and music despite his position as canon of the cathedral there Royal patrons supported him. measures 25-28). The leading composer of the French Ars Nova Born in northeastern France. 2. but their resolution could be sustained (e. He was happiest when the music was sweet and pleasing. b. Two voices alternating in rapid succession. worked as secretary for John of Luxembourg. b. 5. The tenor includes two statements of the color (HWM Example 6. b. In the fourteenth century. Hocket technique (HWM Example 6. Motets 1. Pieces that use the technique exclusively are called hockets and could be performed by voices or instruments. 8. 2.c. Guillaume de Machaut (ca. page 127. c. Messe de Notre Dame (Mass of Our Lady) 1. each resting while the other sounds. C. 1300-1377. three of which use secular songs as tenors Often include hockets Four four-voice motets He paid for the preparation of several illuminated manuscripts of his works. III. 3. The color statements include three repetitions of the talea. In the fourteenth century. King of Bohemia. then the music. Performed at a Mass for the Virgin Mary celebrated every Saturday After Machaut's death. anonymous composers in France.g. see biography. The device was developed in the thirteenth century. e. probably to a middle-class family Educated as a cleric and took Holy Orders Ca. attributed to Vitry a. Red ink (coloration) marks a change of meter from duple to triple division of the long. Twenty-three motets. c. an oration for Machaut's soul was added to the service. Harmonic practice a. 4. including the kings of Navarre and France. 3. 4. He wrote his poems first. 1323-1340. Probably the earliest polyphonic setting of the Mass Ordinary to be composed by a single composer and conceived as a unit a. d. Composed for the cathedral in Reims a. The slow pace of the tenor makes it less a melody and more of a foundational structure. c. 3. but not necessarily with the rhythm. The upper voices are isorhythmic during the duple sections of the tenor (HWM Example 6. b.. England. 4.2a. 7. b. the technique often marks a repetition of the talea in the tenor.2) a.

6. e. Rhythmic repetition in the upper voices makes the recurring talea easier to hear. Du Fay. 5. each sung to the same music and ending with the same line of poetry The musical form of the stanza resembles bar form (AAB) The ending of the B section sometimes has the same music as the end of the A. The formes fixes were originally genres for dancing. Sustained chords emphasize important words.. Rondeaux a. Three stanzas. 2. d. . 3. b. b. b. 5.c. c. f. One of the three formes fixes (fixed forms) Refrain form with stanzas using new material as well as refrain music Typical form is A bba A bba A bba A Three stanzas typical The number of poetic lines for each section of music varied. It continued to be performed there until the fifteenth century. c. The treble or cantus carries the text A slower-moving. b. b. In the opening of the Christe section. untexted tenor supports the cantus. b. b. three. b. D.g. Machaut's monophonic virelais could be used for dancing (see HWM Figure 6. d. Machaut sometimes wrote a triplum in the same range and style as the cantus. Treble-dominated songs were a major innovation of the Ars Nova period.8). a. Elements of Machaut's style in the Christe a. Sanctus. A contratenor may be added. Most of Machaut's virelais are monophonic. 4. b. Jesu Christe and ex Maria Virgine. c. Later composers continued to use the form (e. Repeating figuration generates rhythmic activity (HWM Example 6. missa est are isorhythmic. Monophonic songs in the trouvère tradition 1. the upper two voices are partly isorhythmic.. Fifteen monophonic Four with polyphony E. e. and four voices. Two musical phrases and a refrain Form: AbaAabAB Most are for solo voice with accompanying tenor or tenor and contratenor. and Ite. Polyphonic songs (chansons. c. Refrains were typical of dance genres. 4. c. Isorhythmic movements (NAWM 25 and HWM Example 6. b. Kyrie.g. "songs") in the formes fixes 1. Ballades a. Lais (similar in form to the sequence) a. Machaut composed ballades for two. Recurring motives Tonal focus on D in the first three movements and on F in the last three All six movements are for four voices. The texts of the stanzas sometimes invested the words of the refrain with new meaning. Virelais a. but eight are polyphonic.3). HWM Chapter 8). c. Agnus Dei.3) a. Unifying devices a. including a contratenor (against the tenor) that moves in the same range as the tenor. Conductus style movements a. c. Sustained notes contrast with lively rhythms. a. e. 2. The Gloria and Credo are syllabic and largely homorhythmic. 3.

5. Each stanza set to the same music. and Perugia were the main centers for secular polyphony. satire. Italy. Typical Machaut characteristics a. Ritornello (Italian for "refrain"). 4. with a portrait of each composer at the beginning of the section containing his works (see HWM Figure 6. Breves could be divided into two to twelve equal semibreves. Milan. grouped by composer. not unified as France was. 2. One of the main sources for Italian secular polyphony from pre-1330 Named for a former owner 354 pieces.5) by Johannes Ciconia (ca. B. including supple syncopations Stepwise melody Long melismas fall on structural points. Florence. 4. 3. Boccacio's Decameron describes music in social life (see HMW Source Reading. 6. The two voices are relatively equal. but a few notated works have survived. Longer melismas than in Machaut's chansons. Fenice fú by Jacopo da Bologna (fl.9 Love songs intended for an elite audience Rhythmic complexity 1. 6. including Chaucer. NAWM 26 Rose. liz. B. The Ars Subtilior A. page 135) Italian notation differed from French Ars Nova notation. 2. 1370-1412) 1. b. 1340-1386) a. 4. probably added later. Several city-states cultivated secular polyphony. C. Sus un fontayne (NAWM 27. 2. 2. Church polyphony was mostly improvised. 1. Varied rhythms. Bologna. set to different music in a different meter NAWM 28. 5. 3. The three voices move in different meters. 2. Padua. pastoral life Form a. across southern France. 3. Machaut's poetry influenced other poets. HWM Example 6.10) D. 3. and throughout northern Italy cultivated complex secular music. printemps. as in HWM Figure 6. Groupings of semibreves are marked off by dots (akin to the modern bar line). with a few sustained sonorities as guideposts Each phrase has a distinctive rhythmic profile. The top voice (cantus) carries the main melody. Subjects: love. Polyphonic songs in the formes fixes Notation of duple and triple meter using coloration Pieces notated in fanciful shapes. V. . Modena. Italy was a collection of city-states. 4. Song for two or three voices without instrumental accompaniment All voices sing the same text. IV. Italian for "1300") A. Squarcialupi Codex (copied about 1410-15) 1. A virelai composed for Ciconia's patron in Padua. F. Modern performance of the tenor and contratenor can be either vocal or instrumental. c. 3. Continuation of Ars Nova traditions 1. 3. Composers at the court of the Avignon pope. Italian Trecento Music (from mille trecento. b. 2. Fourteenth-century madrigal (not related to the sixteenth-century madrigal) 1.d. verdure has a fourth voice. a closing pair of lines. 1. C. 2. Complexity to an extent not known again until the twentieth century Voices in contrasting meters and conflicting groupings Harmonies purposely blurred through rhythmic disjunction D.

the closing line sung to the music of the ripresa. 2. b. Fourteenth-Century Music in Performance A. page 139. "hunt") 1. Haut ("high") instruments were loud. French influence overtook the Italian style at the end of the century. HWM Figure 6. The upper voice descends a step before leaping a third to the octave resolution with the tenor. Worked for a monastery and a church but composed mainly secular ballate y y y 2.g. c. b. Caccia (Italian. b. The ripresa (refrain) is sung before and after a stanza. e. battles. 2. Stringed instruments such as harps. a. Called the Landini cadence. like a single stanza of a French virelai. and HWM Figure 6. for outdoor entertainment and dancing. 2. VI. E. 4. 1. NAWM 29. 3. c. b. Pictorial and literary sources indicate vocal. 5. though it is common in both Italian and French music 4. Ballata 1.b. Popular later than the madrigal and caccia (after 1365) Influenced by the treble-dominated French chanson The form is AbbaA. Purely vocal performance was most common. lutes. Similar to the French chace (French for "hunt"). 6. Imitations of hunting horns High-spirited and comic Other texts concern pastoral settings. B. 1325-1397. 2. Francesco Landini (ca. Biography a. The last accented syllable of each poetic line is set with a long. descriptive words Popular from 1345-1370 Two voices in canon at the unison with an untexted tenor Sometimes the text plays on the concept of a hunt. typical of Trecento music a.13 shows a singer accompanied by an organist. c. 89 two-part ballate 42 three-part ballate Nine surviving in both two. 3. Instruments 1. or a dialogue. a.. There was no uniform way to perform polyphonic music. He played many instruments but was a virtuoso on the small organ (organetto). see biography. a popular-style melody set in strict canon with lively. florid melisma.12) 1. and mixed groups. and vielles . G. Cornetts (wooden instruments with finger holes and brass-type mouthpieces) Trumpets Shawms Bas ("low") instruments were soft in volume. Some caccias end with a hocket or echo effects between the voices. b. a. Arching melodies that are smoother than Machaut's melodies despite syncopation Melismas on the first and penultimate syllables of a poetic line (characteristic of the Italian style) Under-third cadence. a. 3. F. a. The stanza consists of two piedi (feet) and the volta. Tosto che l'alba by Ghirardello da Firenze. He was blind from boyhood. b. instrumental. though never at the beginning or end of a section.and three-part versions NAWM 29 Non avrà ma' pietà Sonorities containing thirds and sixths are plentiful. 3.

literature in vernacular languages. B. art. ideals. From the early fifteenth century on. especially songs in vernacular languages and music for instruments. The Reformation brought new forms of religious music for Protestant churches and. musicians frequently held positions outside their native regions. E. Here we will set the stage by placing the changes in music in the wider context of the Renaissance.imitative counterpoint andhomophony.10). or ficta. The greater use of thirds and sixths required new tuning systems. All of these changes have affected music in fundamental ways ever since. In some aspects it began in the 1300s. from oil painting to the printing press. In his 1855Histoire de France. Raising or lowering a note by a half-step to avoid a tritone Pitches could also be altered to make a smoother melodic line. D. so that the Renaissance is best understood as a time of continual and overlapping changes rather than as a unified style or movement. literature. Currents already strong in the late Middle Ages continued. new styles for Catholic music. so the accidentals were rarely notated. But scholarship. They did not all occur at once. The Renaissance (French for "rebirth") began at different times for different aspects of culture. classical antiquity provided the inspiration for something really new. including new ways to read and understand the Bible. 2. showing some parallels with the other arts. In many cases. D. Musica Ficta: Chromatic Alterations A. Often used at cadences 1. including a renewed interest in ancient Greek theory and ideals for music and a new focus on setting words with correct declamation while reflecting the meanings and emotions of the text. 2. Instrumental dance music was likely memorized or improvised. (Modern editions put these accidentals above the staff. now widely used to designate the historical period after the Middle Ages. 1.b. The late fifteenth century saw the emergence of two principal textures that would predominate in sixteenth-century music. and the introduction of new technologies. both upper voices could be raised for a double leading-tone cadence. literature. in reaction. and values of ancient Greece and Rome. VII. To some at the time. 3. Instrumental music 1. The idea of rebirth captures the aims of scholars and artists to restore the learning. brought radical changes. Portative organs Transverse flutes and recorders Percussion instruments were common in all kinds of ensembles. Italian. Amateurs bought music to perform for their own entertainment. especially in Italy. Keyboard instruments 1. The development of music printing in the early sixteenth century made notated music available to a wider public. C. art. C. Fifteen istampitas survive. 3. Jules Michelet crystalized this notion in the termRenaissance (French for "rebirth"). 2. it seemed that the arts had been reborn after a period of stagnation. and realism and perspective in painting. Some areas experienced a renaissance beginning in the 1500s. and English traditions and new rules for polyphony based on strict control of dissonance. Singers were trained to recognize situations in which a pitch needed alteration. encouraging composers to produce new and more popular kinds of music. Chapter Outline: I. the revival of classical learning had many parallels in music. To make the sixth preceding an octave a major sixth rather than minor In three-voice pieces. and music did far more than revive the old. this period saw numerous developments. In music. In the later fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. These developments will be taken up individually in the next five chapters. Renaissance in Culture and Art A. . c. Large organs began to be installed in German churches. and music.) CHAPTER 7 THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were a period of great change for European culture. 2. Portative and positive organs were common in secular music (see HWM Figure 6. This led to the creation of a new international style drawing on elements of French. Instruments played vocal music. The resulting pitches lay outside the gamut and were thus false.

C. 3. Humanism 1. New rules for counterpoint controlled dissonance and elevated thirds and sixths in importance.1) depicted the beauty of the human figure. rhetoric. the opposite of the ornate decoration of the Gothic style. c. An international style developed due to composers from northern Europe working in Italy. d. The Church borrowed from classical sources and supported humanists. Byzantine scholars fled to Italy because of Ottoman attacks. history. The middle class continued to grow in numbers and influence. Clarity and clean lines are the new architectural style. Printing made notated music available to a wider public. and Architecture A. taking ancient Greek writings with them. B. b. 2. Humanists emphasized the study of grammar. Trade between regions with specialized products brought wealth to towns. 4. Musicians consulted Greek theoretical treatises for ideas on how to create classical beauty in music. cities. 3. a method of showing three dimensions on a flat surface by orienting objects on a single point with vanishing lines toward it. 3. poetry. things pertaining to human knowledge) a. 2. Classical models of beauty 1. B. 4. a. b.3. Chiaroscuro. Access to Greek writings influenced thinkers. 1. Realistic depictions in painting 1. 2. Columbus's 1492 trip led to Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas. Interest in individuals . III. Renaissance Sculpture. Italian scholars learned Greek and translated Greek texts into Latin. II. 2. and individuals. as opposed to human shame in medieval art. Developments in music 1. followed by colonies established by other countries. Rulers glorified themselves and their principalities. including amateurs. c. They believed that the humanities prepared students for lives of virtue and service. 5. Impressive palaces and country houses Decoration with new artwork and artifacts from ancient civilizations Lavish entertainment Private chapels staffed by professional musicians C.2. the period includes the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries." that is.3 uses perspective and light to create a more-realistic image than the medieval image in HWM Figure 7. 3. The term was coined in 1855 by a French historian. For the purposes of HWM. The Reformation generated changes in music for both Protestant and Catholic churches. The predominant textures were imitative counterpoint and homophony. Classical Greek and Roman styles were used to portray Christian themes. Europeans established colonies around the world. D. "the study of the humanities. The works of Plato and the Greek plays and histories became available to western Europeans for the first time. The European economy stabilized around 1400. Nude statues based on Greek ideals (see HWM Figure 7. B. a. Humanism (from the Latin studia humanitatis. and moral philosophy. c. 2. European expansion 1. Europe in the Renaissance (Refer to Timeline: The Age of the Renaissance) A. naturalistic treatment of light and shade HWM Figure 7. Perspective. b. 2. made more-realistic images possible. Painting.

Johannes Tinctoris: Liber de arte contrapuncti (A Book on the Art of Counterpoint. administrators. F. In the sixteenth century. 2. . they could be called upon for secular entertainment as well as sacred functions. a. 1477. Repetitions are usually a fourth. b. 3. now seen as consonances. so musical humanism does not imitate Greek music. E. Minor figures in paintings were painted in detail. Rulers. not the Church. HWM Figure 7. Noblewomen and women in convents received some musical instruction. Most musicians had other duties as servants. He references composers active ca. page 159). Antwerp. which was home to the most renowned centers for musical training: Cambrai. Voices echo each other. 2. Paris. not to any actual pieces. Expansion of range. Music education 1. D. 3.6). and Italian styles merged into one international style in the fifteenth century (see HWM Chapter 8). Interest in individuals is reflected in unique personal styles and memorial works. IV. 3. and the Netherlands (Franco-Flemish). 4. 1430-1477. E. fifth. His rules for counterpoint include rules for the treatment of dissonance. 2. and Lyons (see HWM Figure 7. New compositional methods and textures 1. c. Instrumentalists trained in the apprentice system. clerics. Flanders. The new counterpoint 1. Musicians at the chapels were on salary. Court musicians in Italy came from France. Gioseffo Zarlino's Le istitutioni harmoniche (The Harmonic Foundations. music theory. French. counterpoint.5) 1. 2. b. B. 2. Rome and Venice became centers of musical training. 4. Patronage for music 1. b. 2. Patrons commissioned paintings to memorialize themselves. aristocrats. Because they worked for the ruler. or church officials. c. Musical parallels 1.. All voices became equal by the second half of the fifteenth century. Competition for the best composers and performers erased regional differences. Without access to examples from ancient Greece. Renaissance musicians could refer only to treatises from ancient Greece. and academic subjects to boys. Composers were able to compose in regional vernacular song styles because of their travels. Choir schools in cathedrals and chapels taught singing. or octave away. The Musical Renaissance A.1.. allowing contrast between high and low registers and fuller textures Clarity of musical structure through frequent cadences and stylistic contrasts Focusing on a single tonal center was the equivalent of using a single vanishing point in perspective. 3. 1558) synthesizes the rules for counterpoint as developed after Tinctoris. HWM Source Reading. repeating a motive or phrase. Composers stopped basing works on the cantus-tenor relationship and began composing all voices simultaneously (see Pietro Aaron HMW Source Reading. 3. 4. Bruges. including suspensions. Court chapels (e. Tinctoris uses these composers as models for "the arranging of concords. Most prominent composers of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries came from northern Europe. and church leaders had their own chapels. 2. Two textures emerged: imitative counterpoint and homophony.g. and more composers were Italian. C. required new approaches to counterpoint.e. Imitative counterpoint a." i. Thirds and sixths. including many discussed in upcoming chapters of HWM. English. 4. page 158) a.

H. c. b. Tuning and temperament 1. e. in keeping with humanist principles. Temperament was now governed by accommodations to the ear rather than adherence to past authority. Reawakened interest in Greek theory 1. He laid the foundation for tuning based on simple ratios for thirds (5:4) and sixths (6:5). b. 2. 1547). b. Franchino Gaffurio (1451-1522) a. b. 4. f. . Aristides Quintilianus Claudius Ptolemy Cleonides Aristotle's Politics Plato's Republic By the end of the fifteenth century. Based on fourths and fifths and used during the Middle Ages Created dissonant-sounding thirds and sixths using complex ratios The ratio for a major third was 81:64. y y c. Pythagorean intonation a. Tuning systems designed to create the best-sounding intervals over the range of a keyboard were developed to accommodate works that used pitches outside the gamut. and tuning. composers frequently used C and A as tonal centers. c.5. The structure of the text dictated the structure of the music. I. All voices move together in essentially the same rhythm. d. relationship of music and words. they had been translated into Latin. c. G. b. Topics influenced by Greek theory included the modes. a. with the final on A Ionian and Hypoionian with the final on C By his time. which sounds out of tune compared to the pure major third (5:4 or 80:64) Just intonation a. 3. Music as a social accomplishment Music as a servant of the words a. 3. d. In 1482 Bartolomé Ramis de Pareia proposed a system now known as just intonation to create perfectly tuned thirds and sixths. The most influential treatise writer of his time Gaffurio incorporated ideas from Greek treatises into his. but keyboards could not do this. Homophony a. 1300. b. Aeolian and Hyperaeolian. Heinrich Glareanus (1488-1563) a. 2. c. Swiss theorist He added four new modes in his book Dodekachordon (The Twelve-String Lyre. Walter Odington observed that musicians used simpler ratios in practice ca. Singers could sing G-Sharp and A-Flat at slightly different pitches. Music using thirds and sixths requires more sophisticated tuning than styles emphasizing perfect consonances. consonance and dissonance. Temperaments a. c. Mean-tone temperament employs fifths tuned slightly smaller than perfect in order to create consonant thirds and usable black keys. b. 2. New applications of Greek ideas 1. Greek writings on music came to the West during the Renaissance. The lower parts accompany the cantus line with consonant sonorities.

By the end of the sixteenth century. 3. preventing other publishers from using it.7 a. 1. 6. whose beautiful melodies and "new practice of making lively consonance" made their music better than that of all their predecessors in France (see Source Reading. inspired by the chromatic genus of ancient Greek music Music printing and distribution (see HWM Innovations: Music Printing. pages 164-65) 1. c. composers used various compositional devices to convey the feeling of the text. e. . 1501. b. Composers' works could be heard throughout Europe and the Americas. composers were following the rhythm of speech as well. He held a patent on the three-impression process. creating a large market for printed books (see HWM Figure 7. 3. published by Ottaviano Petrucci (1466-1539). 1494-1551/52) Staff lines were not continuous. D. Conveying emotion through music a. and musical aesthetics have persisted to the present. HWM Figure 7. and the words in separate passes over the paper. Music as a Renaissance Art A. Printing from movable type began around 1450 for text and in the 1450s for chant notation. 5. d. Amateur musicians used partbooks (each book contained one voice or part) for home gatherings. 2. Inspired by ancient Greek descriptions of the emotional effects of music By ca. c. The first collection of polyphonic music printed entirely from movable type One Hundred Polyphonic Songs (actually only ninety-six) Volumes B and C followed a few years later. Johannes Tinctoris looked back to these same three composers as the founders of a new art (see Source Reading in chapter 7). Pieces of type contained the printed staff. b. A generation later. J. He printed both vocal and instrumental music. Consonance Natural declamation of the words Emotional expressivity Developments in musical language. Guillaume Du Fay and Binchois. He attributed the "marvelous pleasingness" of their music to their adoption of what he called the contenance angloise (English guise or quality) and their emulation of English composer John Dunstable.8) a. The music of the Renaissance is available to modern performers and scholars. and the text together. Harmonice musices odhecaton A. the notes. French poet Martin Le Franc lauded two composers. 3. p. b. but the method was a commercial success. Greek descriptions of the qualities of the modes inspired composers to connect modes with emotional effects. CHAPTER 8 ENGLAND AND BURGUNDY IN THE 15 CENTURY In about 1440. Renaissance counterpoint continued to be the main style for Catholic church music through the eighteenth century. d. V.b. Printing from three impressions: the printing press created the staff. 1520 Pierre Attaingnant in Paris (ca. notes. 4. 168). c. temperament. B. d. 4. 2. Printing from a single impression (see HWM Figure 7. either through publication or through the growth of their reputations. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. New musical styles evolved to satisfy demands for popular and regional styles. scholars began transcribing Renaissance works into modern notation. b. c.9). John Rastell in London after ca. The humanist focus created a musical style that would appeal to the listener. Effect of music printing a. Chromaticism. Composers could make more money. C. 1500.

Influence of English Music on Continental Style A. Along the way. c.1) is the primary source of fifteenth-century English polyphony a. 2. B.g. Contenance angloise ("English guise" or quality) 1. 6. c. The English presence in France 1. English Music in the Early Fifteenth Century A. b. B. The largest number of pieces are settings from the Mass Ordinary. not based on chant Homorhythmic Streams of sixths alternate with other consonances. The word might derive from "burden" for the lowest voice and "fa" for the need to use B-Flat. Hundred Years' War (1337-1453): England and France fighting for control of France English rulers brought musicians with them. and what made the music of these three composers so appealing to their age. Kings of England held territory in northwest and southwest France. hymns. especially to Belgium and Burgundy. 2. 3. 7. and sequences. Chapter Outline: I. b. Tinctoris (HMW Source Reading. Characteristics a. Du Fay and Binchois were the main composers influenced by the English style. 3. Preference for thirds and sixths. Cantilena a.Alleluia: A newë work) a. . Improvised 6-3 sonorities There are a few notated examples. Isorhythmic motets until ca. 5. It also include motets. d. and Binchois. e. Credo) 1. b.2 and NAWM 31. 4. HWM Example 8. 4. c. Freely composed piece. alongside the development of a new international style of polyphony and of the polyphonic mass cycle." in the soft hexachord. b. c.The influence of English music on Continental composers in the early fifteenth century has become a central theme of music history of this era. especially in parallel motion Simple melodies Few dissonances Syllabic text setting Homophonic Polyphony on Latin texts (e. Du Fay.1. we will examine what English elements were taken over into Continental music. Religious songs in Latin or English Favorite topics were Christmas and the Blessed Virgin Mary. Characteristics of English music (review of chapter 5 concepts) 1. both indebted to English influence. In this chapter. focusing on the music of Dunstable. 2. who from their time to ours have been considered the greatest composers of their generation. The carol in the fifteenth century (HWM Example 8. what changes in values this adoption reflects. Faburden a. II. "fa. 3. b. 5. we will explore these three themes. page 158) cites Du Fay and Binchois as founders of a new art.. 1400 Polyphonic settings of Mass Ordinary texts The Old Hall manuscript (HWM Figure 8. 2. Solo and choral sections alternate. Composed for service in the Sarum rite (English liturgy) Chant voice in the middle Lowest voice a third below Top voice a parallel fourth above the chant voice The result is a stream of parallel 6-3 sonorities.

Belgium. including the Duke of Bedford. Any polyphonic Latin-texted piece Sometimes also applied to music using texts in other languages III. 1419-67). f. 1363-1404).y y y C. Duchy of Burgundy (see HWM Figure 8. who was Regent of France in 1422 The English composer most often cited as influencing continental composers His compositions are preserved chiefly in manuscripts copied on the continent. Band of Minstrels (see HWM Figure 8. b. Homorhythmic A few streams of 6-3 sonorities lead to cadences. d. Redefining the motet (see HWM Figure 8. From 1419-35 Burgundy was allied with England during the Hundred Years' War. 1450 New definition by 1450: any setting of a chant text. D. b. The chant melody can be a cantus firmus in the tenor or placed in the top voice. John Dunstable (ca. twelve isorhythmic motets. c. d. and northeastern France. and over twenty other sacred works in Latin. Rhythmic variety. NAWM 32) From the sixteenth century on: a. Most of the musicians came from Flanders and the Low Countries (Belgium and the Netherlands). typical of Dunstable's style Melodies by stepwise motion or by thirds When placed in the top voice the melody is paraphrased. By 1445 the chapel had 23 singers under Philip the Good (r. 4. 2. 4. HWM Figure 8. c. with decorative notes added around chant notes. 6.g. b." NAWM 31 has two burdens. Previous definition: any work with texted upper voices above a cantus-firmus Isorhythmic motet a. A preference for thirds with fifths and sixths is evident.. whether the original melody was used or not (e. e. Biography a. b. 1. Regina caeli laetare) a.g. 3. b. Three-voice settings of chant (e. Quam pulchra es a. Refrain was called the "burden. established a chapel in 1384. c. 3. Music in the Burgundian Lands A. HWM Example 8. d. Old-fashioned by ca. b.3. Stanzas were all to the same music. Chapel a. b. 3.3) 1. including today's Holland. 1400 Disappeared by ca. 4.2) 1. 5.1 is an isorhythmic motet by Dunstable (Veni Sancti Spiritus) a. 2. Philip the Bold (r. c. The tenor voice has the chant melody in isorhythm. His works include settings of the Mass Ordinary. 2. the first duke of Burgundy. Dukes traveled among regional centers rather than maintain a permanent residence. NAWM 32.4) . Burgundy held many territories. The duke of Burgundy's influence was nearly equal to that of the king of France. Original music using setting of the words of an antiphon Each of the three voices is equal in importance. 1390-1453) Sometimes also spelled "Dunstaple" The most highly regarded English com poser of the first half of the fifteenth century Served many noble patrons.

and secular songs. 1400-1460. 4. Cadences a. The musicians were imported from France. 4. 3.5) a. Cantus. 3. Portugal Instruments included trumpets. b. shawms.a. His works were widely copied and imitated by others. Worked for Philip the Good at the Burgundian court. and HWM Figure 8. page 181. 1397-1474) A. sometimes with the additional under-third decorative note. Guillaume Du Fay (ca. sometimes also employing hemiola (three quarter-notes against the duple division of the meter). in Binchois's compositions there is the rhythmic interest within a 6/8 meter. The contratenor moves from a fifth below the tenor to a fifth above it. e. d. Traveled widely throughout his career. motets. 5. c. Rondeaux the most popular Ballades for special occasions C. leaving much of the duchy to be absorbed into France. 1427-1453 His works include mass movements. Binchois and the Burgundian chanson 1. forming counterpoint against the cantus in thirds and sixths. The most famous composer of his time (see HWM biography. b. Motets Magnificats Settings of the Mass Ordinary Three-voice texture a. 2. and bagpipes. 8. serving as chapel musician in Italy and southwestern France His early training was in Cambrai. Germany. 6. Composed around 1425 Like Dunstable's. and HWM Figure 8. NAWM 33. 7. organ. contained the melody. c. about a sixth lower Each line had a distinct role. e. IV. b. giving the modern ear the impression of a dominant-tonic cadence. 1467-77) a. The cantus declaims the text in a mostly syllabic setting. d. which he visited often and where he later settled. Genres and texture 1. spanning a wide range. b. b. c. 2. which influenced music in other regions. he spent some time in the service of an English earl who was part of the forces occupying France. Known as Binchois. Tenor and contratenor within the same range. 2. B. Italy. b. . but his name was Gilles de Bins Before working for the duke of Burgundy. The cantus-tenor relationship moves from a sixth to an octave. vielles. c. drums. Four principal types of polyphonic composition Secular chansons with French texts a. b. see HWM biography. Any polyphonic setting of a French secular poem Stylized love poems in the courtly tradition Rondeau (ABaAabAB) was the most popular form. The contratenor leaps to fill in the harmony. Visits from foreign musicians helped forge a cosmopolitan style. The tenor is smooth but slower moving. Binchois (ca. De plus en plus a. Charles the Bold (r. harps. b. page 179. Chanson in the fifteenth century a. Amateur instrumentalist and composer He died without a male heir.6) 1.

Eventually all five of the main items were composed as a cycle. 2. sixths. Nuper rosarum flores. Commemorated the meeting of Pope Eugene with King Sigismund of Hungary Alternates sections in the isorhythm. Dunstable and English composer Leonel Power (d. c. psalms.3. 1. b. 3. polyphonic settings of the Ordinary texts were usually composed as separate pieces. 1. Two isorhythmic tenor voices. C. For solemn public occasions.5) Dissonant ornamental notes Too difficult for an untrained singer Italian elements a. composers began to set the Ordinary as a coherent whole. Rapid notes in various divisions of the beat Cross-rhythms between the parts (see HWM Example 8. and free counterpoint V. not aab). fauxbourdon. At first only two sections would be linked together.e. 2. Fauxbourdon 1. b. 3. Only the even-numbered stanzas were sung polyphonically. was composed for the dedication of the dome of the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence (see Figure 8. 5. 4. antiphons. NAWM 36a. D. c. b. During the fifteenth century. who officiated at the dedication. 2. 2. The Polyphonic Mass A. Smooth melodies Melismas on the last accented syllable of each line of text Meter change for the "B" section C.. A style probably inspired by English faburden Only the cantus and tenor were written out. b. not fixed (i. 1436. both based on the same chant. Sometimes compilers put movements together into groups. producing a stream of 6-3 sonorities. d. Phrases are brief. 2. Plainsong mass . The tenor is as tuneful as the cantus. 1445) led the development. Consonant harmony. moving mostly in parallel sixths and cadencing on an octave. Se la face ay pale 1. c. Supremum est mortalibus bonum (1433) a. a. favoring thirds. b. 4. Conditor alme siderum a. d. Isorhythmic motets 1. Resvellies vous. reflect the use of two vaults to support the dome. 1423 1. Ballade. Machaut's mass was an exception. 3. E. the odd-numbered stanzas were sung as chant. and triads (though the term had not yet been coined) Form is freely composed. B.7). 2. An unwritten third voice sang a parallel fourth below the cantus. Until 1420. and canticles NAWM 35. B. b. Du Fay was in the service of Pope Eugene IV. composed ten years after Resvellies vous English elements added to the French and Italian traits a. such as hymns. His wide travels made it possible for him to absorb many styles and stylistic traits. The chant is paraphrased. Composed while working in Italy to celebrate his patron's wedding Ballade form (aab with refrain) Ars Subtilior characteristics a. 3. Used for settings of simpler office chants. composers continue to use the then-archaic isorhythmic motet. NAWM 34.

b. L'homme armé's popularity may be connected to the Order of the Golden Fleece. Popularity of the cantus-firmus mass a. dedicated to the Virgin Mary. 5. the mass is called an imitation mass.1. Sometimes also employs a unifying head-motive Began in England and became the principal type of mass on the continent by the mid-fifteenth century Cantus-firmus treatment a. A part added below the tenor served as a harmonic foundation. One of the most popular cantus firmus melodies was L'homme armé (The Armed Man). later "soprano. b. especially thirds and sixths These elements continued to predominate in European music through the nineteenth century. 1. B. 3. is the basis for all five movements a. HWM Example 8. but it is only easily recognized in the third appearance because the first two are in longer durations. b. Mass in which the same cantus firmus. c.7. 3. 4. Motto mass 1. the original rhythm is used. now "alto" in English. The top voice was called superius (highest). Gloria) a. French concern for structure and rhythmic interest Italian emphasis on lyrical melodies English preference for consonant sonorities. Composers working between the 1420s and the 1450s forged a cosmopolitan musical language. Composers proved their compositional skill in this form. Du Fay creates variety by contrasting textures of two. d. 2. c. D. Tinctoris and Martin Le Franc acknowledged the newness of this musical language. c. 7. and four voices. Specific cantus-firmus melodies linked the Mass to location or event. d. 2. three. 2. When the cantus firmus is the tenor of a secular song. Settings of the Mass Ordinary were often commissioned for specific occasions. later simply altus. Many were written to be sung at a Lady Mass. The Musical Language of the Renaissance A." 6. Mass in which each movement is based on an existing chant for that text Machaut's mass is an example. d. 3.6 and NAWM 36a). The cantus firmus could be a chant or the tenor from a polyphonic secular song. Borrowing in multiple voices makes the work a cantus-firmus/imitation mass. Four-voice texture became standardized by the mid-fifteenth century a. b. usually in the tenor. but not at the original tempo. . now "bass" in English. When other voices from a polyphonic chanson are also used. The cantus firmus appears three times. 4. as in the isorhythmic motet." the tenor sings the final melisma from the original tenor. Ockeghem's Missa mi-mi E. The contratenor above the tenor was called contratenor altus (high contratenor). e. Du Fay's Missa Se la face ay pale (NAWM 36b. and the other voices borrow from the original as well. VI. Mass in which each movement begins with the same melodic motive Called a motto mass when that opening motive (called head-motive) is the primary linking device Example in chapter 9. b. When the cantus firmus is sacred the rhythm is usually isorhythmic. an association of knights at the Burgundian court. The cantus firmus is the tenor of his own earlier ballade (HWM Example 8. The lower voice was called contratenor bassus (low contratenor) and later simply bassus. 2. 3. Cantus-firmus mass (also called tenor mass) 1. At the end of "Amen. c.

born around 1450 and active through about 1520. and Spanish America Conquered the Moors. Bohemia. b. centralized state. and his own style elements Known for his unique masses C. Germany. HWM Figure 9. Binchois. taking over southern Spain Expelled the Jews from Spain Sponsored Columbus's journey. Hapsburg Empire 1. France 1. the Low Countries. b. for a short time Served the kings of France from the 1450s to his retirement a. Political Change and Consolidation (see map. B. Spain. but was not as cosmopolitan as Du Fay Composed relatively few works a. imagery. synthesizing past.1) A. By ca. ca. Ockeghem and Busnoys were the most renowned composers of their generation. France was a strong. 1525. 3. Jean de (or Johannes) Ockeghem. 2.CHAPTER 9 FRANCO FLEMISH COMPOSERS 1450-1520 The latter fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries saw the continuing prominence of composers from northern France. United with Spain through marriage in the sixteenth century Ruled Austria. The following generation. present. 3. c. Entered the service in 1451 1454-1465: Held the post of chaplain 1464: Became a priest After 1465: Was master of the chapel Traveled a little. Ockeghem and Busnoys A. brought an end to the formes fixes. Spain 1. c. B. who served courts and cities throughout France. southern Italy. duke of Bourbon. and the Netherlands. Masses. The marriage of Queen Isabella of Castile and Léon and Ferdinand of Aragon united northcentral and eastern Spain. c. 1420-1497 (see HWM biography. 5. b. 2. II. D. and had contact with Du Fay. 2. 3. such as theformes fixes. cantus-firmus structure. Antoine Busnoys (or Busnois. Spain. 1430-1492) 1. and HWM Figure 9. greater equality between voices. Chapter Outline: I. ca. and Austria. C. Their newer style was marked by wider ranges. Italy. the Low Countries. Isabella and Ferdinand in 1492 a. beginning the era of European colonization Defeated England in the Hundred Years' War The duchy of Burgundy came under control of the king of France. Invaded by France in 1494 Continued to be composed of independent city-states and dominated by foreigners until the nineteenth century Wealthy Italian courts continued to hire musicians trained in the north. Italy 1. chansons Developed his own style. The generation of composers born around 1420 and active until the 1490s inherited both the new international language and some surviving medieval traits. and a new focus on fitting music to words with appropriate declamation. Sang in the Antwerp cathedral choir Served Charles I. Served the Hapsburg Empire Known for his chansons . motets.2) 1. d. and increased use of imitation. Flanders. 2. a growing interest in imitative and homophonic textures. and expression. and stratified counterpoint based on a structural tenor. and Busnoys. 2. 2. page 193. 4.

or retrograde. D. Ockeghem's masses A. also in different meters Canon (Latin. Cantus-firmus treatment (NAWM 37 or HWM Example 9. with few cadences and elision to smooth them. b.2) 1. Ockeghem and Busnoys were influenced by Du Fay. a different one in each voice a.3) 1. 2. full texture resulting from the lower. a. Deriving two or more voices from a single melody Voices may be delayed. Smooth.D. Ockeghem's Missa de plus en plus paraphrases the tenor. arching melody employing a wide range Constantly changing rhythms The contratenor is more singable than in Du Fay's style. III. b. Superius and alto sing the same music but in different meters Tenor and bass sing another melody. 5. b. Double canon is when there are two melodies treated according to a rule. b. 3. 2. 3. 3. Three-voice texture in treble-dominated style Use the formes fixes. Vocal ranges (see HWM Example 9. 4. V. 2. c. 4. c. or 7 using different clef combinations and musica ficta. Four-voice texture with a wide range Bassus voice goes a fourth lower than in Du Fay's generation. Je ne puis vivre by Busnoys a. D. 5. 3. 2. especially rondeau Characteristics from Du Fay's generation are still evident (smooth melodies. Mensuration canon is when the "rule" is meter. Masses A. Comparison with Du Fay 1. e. b. Chansons 1. B. Missa prolationum (Prolation Mass. careful dissonance treatment) New features a. HWM Examples 9. 2. C. Passages in two. B. E.or three-voice texture contrast the dark. Technical tour de force Notated in two voices but sung in four Uses all four prolation signs. Phrases are long. "rule") a. C. Each voice sings a span of a twelfth or thirteenth. 4.4a and 9. Both of Busnoys' masses and seven of Ockeghem's are cantus-firmus masses. inverted. Du Fay quoted from Ockeghem and Busnoys' Missa L'homme armé when he composed his mass on the same tenor. wider ranges.4b) 1. Several motto masses One plainsong mass Requiem mass (also plainsong) Missa cuisvis toni (mass in any mode) can be sung in mode of 1. The Next Generation of Franco-Flemish composers . preference for thirds and sixths. Rhythm not exactly the same as in the song Adds decorative notes IV. Missa prolationum is both a mensuration canon and a double canon. d.1. Longer melodies More imitation Greater equality between the voices More frequent use of duple meter HWM Example 9. d. c.

O Welt. f. 3. Singable parts Each voice equal Bass became the foundation voice. d. Henricus Isaac 1.A. Worked for Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence and Emperor Maximilian I in Austria Works a. b. ich muss dich lassen a. b. 1450-1521) 1. ich musss dich lassen (O world. Thirty-five masses Fifty motets Choralis Constantinus. Later became a chorale. Isaac encountered homophonic song in the carnival tradition of Florence. Lieder) Composed for court or elite circles but in a folk or popular style Homophonic with melody in the superius Strophic Cadences resolve to triads. Clear tonal center. I now must leave thee) E. c.6). Imitation a. b. General traits 1. Text-setting 1. Jacob Obrecht (see HWM Figure 9. Lieder) include homophonic texture borrowed from Florentine tradition. Italian. c. 5. Born in the Low Countries Trained in the Low Countries Traveled widely B. 4. 1450-1517). 4. 6. Sacred genres: mass and motet Secular genres no longer limited to formes fixes More untexted (presumably instrumental) works C. Henricus Isaac (ca. His songs in German (Lied. 2. Innsbruck. Full triadic sonorities throughout. d. 7. Three composers born at about the same time: Jacob Obrecht (1457 or 1458-1505). Clarity a. 2.3) 1. . e. c. German secular song: Lied (pl. pl. 3. Homophonic texture became part of the sixteenth-century style. e. cycle of settings for the Proper for most of the church year Secular songs in French. 3. 2. confirmed by cadences Clearly audible structure Used more often than in previous generation Point of imitation: quick series of imitative entrances (HWM Example 9. b. sometimes using triads at cadences Borrowed melodies are distributed through all the voices. 3. e. c.5) Thirty cantus-firmus masses Twenty-eight motets Many chansons Songs in Dutch Instrumental works D. This generation was concerned with fitting music to the words. b. 2. b. and German Untexted works (probably instrumental) Homophonic texture a. 8. d. and Josquin des Prez (ca. NAWM 38 (and HWM Example 9. Works a.

d. . "O mother of God. The text structure defines the musical sections. Motets (NAWM 39. b. 7. Josquin composed masses using a variety of techniques. Publishers falsely attributed works to him in order to boost sales of their books. In Josquin's time. 3.e. D. Probably born in northern France Served in the chapel of the duke of Anjou in the 1470s Ca. Two meter changes provide contrast. 8. c. 4. e. possibly for King Louis XII 1503: appointed maestro di cappella to Duke Ercole I d'Este in Ferrara for a noble court and earned the highest salary in that court's history 1504: left Ferrara. 5. but this motet is often performed by choirs today. b. remember me. this would have been performed by one to a few singers per part. not based on chant Clarity in phrasing. phrases of text could be grasped as an uninterrupted thought." are set in simple harmonies in homophonic texture. 3. 1484-89: singer in the duke's chapel in Milan 1489-95 or later: singer for the Sistine Chapel in Rome 1501-03: worked in France. In their compositions. C. VI. 3. His works were performed for almost a century after his death. B. Careful declamation of text Text depiction and expression: Josquin was the first major composer to use music to depict the meaning of the text. . Ave Maria . 4. 2. and total organization Textures include imitation and homophony and are transparent throughout. 6. Ave Maria . 6. Biography (see HWM biography. form.4) 1. 2. where he remained until his death. page 203. e. d. 4." a technique he probably learned from Ockeghem). 1450-1521) A. Printed and handwritten music now had to be more precise in text underlay. Eighteen masses Over fifty motets Sixty-five chansons (ten instrumental) Many other works attributed to him were probably composed by others. The final lines. and HWM Figure 9. 5. Glareanus compared him to Homer. Works 1. g. 3. . . Josquin's masses 1. E. One of his earliest motets (1485) and one of his most popular Texture begins with point of imitation then constantly shifts in number of voices and between imitation and homophony. 2. Fame (see HWM Source Readings. i. .2. 2. virgo serena (NAWM 39) a. Composers emulated his style. "des Prez" was a nickname. page 204) 1. Amen. Style characteristics consistent with his generation: a. Most influential composer of his time His given name was Josquin Lebloitte. then took a position as provost at the church of Notre Dame at Condé-sur-l'Escaut. 9. c.. Rhythmic activity accelerates toward the conclusion of the first section ("drive to the cadence. possibly to escape the plague. Cosimo Bartolo (1567) compared him to Michelangelo. f. Josquin Des Prez (ca. virgo serena) 1. with each couplet or strophe given unique treatment. 3. Martin Luther called him "Master of Notes" in 1538. Texts drawn from Mass Proper or other sources Music freely composed.

3. d. New style in this generation a. Paraphrase mass: Missa Pange lingua (NAWM 40) 1. Strophic texts. imitative or homophonic. 1520 F. 1520 Each new phrase of text receives its own particular treatment. e. 4. Most use a secular tune as a cantus firmus. e. Imitation mass a. Missa L'homme armé super voces musicales transposes the cantus firmus to successive degrees of the hexachord for each movement.. b. b. Chansons 1. Based on a plainchant a. a characteristic of Josquin's style The Credo highlights important words with homophony. Resemblance to the original is strongest at the beginning and end of the new work. Became the most common type of mass after ca.a. c. b. Mille regretz a. Phrases from the original generate motives for the new work. 2. Attributed to Josquin though perhaps not by him Representative of his style ca.e. c. Sometimes also called "parody mass" Josquin's Missa Malheur me bat borrows from all voices of the original polyphonic song. This technique works best when the source is composed for equal voices. c. HWM Example 9. . Missa Hercules dux Ferrariae uses a soggetto cavato dalle vocali("subject drawn from the vowels" of the hexachord syllables) as the theme. c. b.8 sets one phrase in paired imitation and the next in four-voice imitation. Source chants chosen for their context. e. All four voices sing the source chant at some point. c. all voices meant to be sung All parts equal Employ imitation and homophony NAWM 41..or five-voice texture. i.g. G. to honor a patron or a saint Imitation in paired voices.g. 2. d. with virtually no use of the formes fixes Four.. b. The original chant is paraphrased. 2.