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African Crop cience Conference Proceedings, Vol. 6. 138-148 Printed in Uganda.

All rights reserved ISSN 1023-070X $ 4.00 © 2003, African Crop Science Society

Farmer-participatory on-farm evaluation of Striga hermonthica management options in the Nigerian northern guinea savanna pilot site of the SP-IPM
A.M. EMECHEBE1, B. JAMES2, T.K. ATALA3 & I. KUREH3 M.A. HUSSAINI3, B.B.SINGH1, A. MENKIR4, A.C.ODUNZE3, J.P. VOH3, S.G. ADO 3, & S.O. ALABI International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kano Station, PMB 3112, Kano, Nigeria. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Biological Control Center for Africa, Cotonou, Benin. 3Institute for Agriculture Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 4International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Oyo Road, PMB 5320, Ibadan.
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Abstract The Systemwide Program on Integrated Pest Management (SP-IPM), established in 1996 by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), launched in 2000, its “partnership for IPM adoption” initiative in order to place promising IPM technologies into the hands of farmers, for further testing, adaptation and wide adoption. The initiative used pilot sites (representing a range of cereal-legume production systems in Africa) where partner organizations could develop effective farm-research-extension teams, using participatory techniques to introduce and evaluate promising IPM technologies. The Nigerian northern Guinea savanna pilot site of the SP-IPM was implemented from 2000-2002 by stakeholders’ partnership consisting of farmers and farmer groups; government extension agency (Kaduna State Agricultural Development Project); Sasakawa Global 2000, an international NGO; the Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (predominant NARI in the study area); and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). The stakeholders in each of three villages used participatory approaches to prioritize crops; production systems and their constraints; farmers’ techniques for addressing the constraints; farmers’ perception of existing IPM options; and “best bet” options for on-farm testing. They used agreed criteria to choose lead farmers. In all villages, the farmers unanimously agreed on the following two entry points for the pilot site trials and demonstration plots: (i) Striga hermonthica management in maize and sorghum, and (ii) soil fertility enhancement in the legume-cereal production system. All these were taken into consideration in choosing the following four trials for participatory implementation by farmers, extensionists and researchers: (i) Comparison of two S. hermonthica tolerant maize varieties – an open pollinated variety (Acr.97TZLComp.1-W) and a hybrid (Oba Super 1) – with farmers’ own varieties. (ii) Strip cropping comprising two rows of Acr.97TZLComp.1-W and four rows of a legume, namely soybean (TGX1448-2E), cowpea (IT93K-452-1 followed by IT81D-994, in the same season), or groundnut (RMP12), compared with sole crop of farmers’ own maize varieties. (iii) Legume trap crop-cereal rotation consisting of trap crop of soybean or cowpea in 2000 followed by hybrid maize in 2001, compared with growing two successive crops of Oba Super 1. (iv) Double cropping of 60-day cowpea (IT-93K-452-1) followed (in the same rain-fed season) by extra-early maize (95 TZEE-W) compared with a double crop of 95 TZEE-W, or a natural fallow followed by 95 TZEE-W in the same season. Only trials (i) to (iii) were continued in 2001 and only trial (iii) in 2002. After crop harvest each year, farmers’ perception of the technologies tested was determined; costbenefit analysis was done only in 2000 and 2001. The results of these activities and the lessons learnt are presented and discussed. Key words Adoption, farmer technologies, testing

particularly by application of nitrogen fertilizer. In addition. 1989). Saerborn (1991) estimated an annual cereal grain loss of more than 4 million tones (worth about US$480 million). The infested area has been variously estimated.Introduction The parasitic angiosperm. planting host seed not contaminated by Striga seeds. hermonthica (Del. 1989. The initiative centres on the development of pilot sites where partner organizations gain experience in developing effective farmer-extensionist-researcher teams. is an obligate root parasite which infects cereal and legume crops in sub-Saharan Africa. it has been generally accepted that Striga control in cereals is more likely to be achieved by combining a range of individual component technologies into integrated programmes to provide more flexible and sustainable control over a wide range of biophysical and socio-economic environments (Berner et al.. especially sorghum. 2001. Sumberg et al. fallows have become shorter or have been abandoned. 1996).) Benth. This paper reports the activities of Nigerian pilot site implemented from 2000 to 2002 in order to achieve the above objectives of the SP-IPM. Striga. S. Examples of control options for S. 1991). Earlier. launched in 2000 its “partnerships for IPM adoption initiative” in order to place research information and promising options into the hands of farmers in sub-Saharan Africa for further testing. using participatory techniques to increase farmers’ capacity to learn and promote IPM technologies. often causing yield losses in excess of 50% (Parker. 2000). physical destruction of Striga plants by hand pulling and hoe weeding. Striga research in Africa has a long history and a range of effective component control technologies has been identified (Parker and Riches.. (1991) estimated that about 50 million out of about 73 million ha are severely infested. Lagoke et al. farmers have traditionally grown cereals. representing annual loss of cereals worth about U. hermonthica include use of trap crops (which stimulate suicidal germination of Striga seeds and therefore reduce the seed bank). under increasing demographic pressure. and then relied on long periods of natural fallow to restore soil fertility as well as to deplete soil populations of parasitic weeds. and improving soil fertility. 1993).. endemic in Africa... Lagoke et al. the FAO estimated annual crop losses in cereals due to Striga in sub-Saharan Africa at 40%. One of the SP-IPM pilot sites was the Nigerian pilot site located in the Northern Guinea Savannah Benchmark Area of the Ecoregional Program for Humid and Sub-humid Tropical Africa (EPHTA). especially Striga hermonthica. the real test of whether Striga control options are appropriate is whether farmers adapt and adopt them beyond the experimental plots (Douthwaite et al. this intensification of production is unsustainable. . use of resistant host crop cultivars. These losses adversely affect the lives of about 300 million people in sub-Saharan Africa (M’Boob. the Systemwide Program on Integrated Pest Management (SPIPM) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research [CGIAR]. However. The potentials for Striga control options have been demonstrated under controlled researcher-managed conditions. However. constitutes the most important biological constraint to cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa (M’Boob. $7 billion (M’Boob.S. losses of up to US$3 billion would occur if all the host cereal crops in sub-Saharan Africa were to be infested. in the absence of adequate strategies for maintaining soil fertility and managing pests. In this area. While Sauerborn (1991) estimated the actual Striga infested area in Africa at 21 million ha (with 44 million ha potentially at risk of infestation). These pilot sites also act as foci for IPM impact assessment and advocacy to encourage decision makers to include IPM in the mainstream of agricultural development efforts. intercropped with cowpea. both as staple food and as a profitable cash crop for sale to growing urban markets. 1991). 2002). 1989). In this regard. adaptation and wider adoption (Anon. and maize has become increasingly important. However.

the farmer’s variety was sandwiched between the two improved varieties. (iv) Effect of legume-cereal double cropping onStriga infection in maize and on soil fertility. As in Trial 1. IT93K-452-1 (cowpea) and RMP 12 (groundnut). this test was considered adequate since there were only three means. levels of responsibilities for management of trials. particular attention was given to: (i) Striga management in maize. Trial 2. 1-W and a tolerant hybrid (Oba Super 1. (iii) Effect of legume-cereal rotation onStriga infection in maize. at 2 WAS they were thinned to two per hill. At two weeks after sowing (WAS) maize was thinned to one plant per hill. the following were implemented: (1) Review of appropriate research results and experiences by the scientists and extensionists of the implementing research and extension and institutions. The gross and net plot sizes were 150m2 and 96m2. hermonthica) strip-cropped with Acr. (4) Training of research technicians. All trials were planted and managed by farmers under the guidance of VEAs and scientific oversight of scientists from IAR/ABU and IITA. Weeding in maize was by hoe weeding at 2 and 6 WAS and hand pulling at 8 WAS while the legumes were hoe-weeded at 4 and 8 WAS. (iv) participatory research and learning approaches. Data were collected and analyzed as described in Trial 1. (iii) cowpea pest management. 97 TZL Comp. (v) pilot site characterization. Ahmadu Bello University (IAR/ABU). The trial was conducted at each of the three pilot site villages. Zaria (the national agricultural research institute with national mandate for farming system research in the study area). using NPK (15:15:15) and 60 KgN/ha at 6 WAS. Kayawa and Layin-Taki): (i) Evaluation of reactions of three maize cultivars to Striga hermonthica infection under sole crop conditions. Acr. the trial was conducted for the first time in 2000. using NPK (15:15:15) mixed with single super phosphate (SSP). sorghum and cowpea. Trials on Striga Management in Maize. The pilot site activities were implemented by researchers. The plots were hoe. .140 A. The legume cultivars used were TGX 1448-2E (soybean). 97TZLComp. EMECHEBE et al. The legumes were fertilized at 2 WAS at the rate of 20. earthened up at 6 WAS. extensionists. and weeded carefully by hand pulling of weeds other than Striga at 8 WAS. Data collected included the number of emerged Striga at tasselling and harvest. (ii) soil fertility enhancement. and grain yield.Maize. Soybean was drilled at 5 cm spacing. In each field. village-level extension agents (VEAs) and farmers. S. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means were compared using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). the Institute for Agricultural Research. The improved technologies evaluated were sole crop of Striga resistant/tolerant OP maize variety (Acr. the implementers of pilot site activities (farmers. cowpea and groundnut were sown at two seeds per hill on 75-cm ridges at intra-row spacing of 25cm. 1-W) and a legume crop (cowpea. (3) Meetings with farmers of participating villages. respectively. The 2001 trial was conducted on the plots used in the 2000 trial in such a way that the maize rows in the intercrop were sown in rows planted with legume in 2000 while the four legume rows included the two rows planted with maize in 2000. The principal research and extension institutions comprised the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). The trials were established on five farmers’ fields at each village. Two maize seeds were planted on 75cm ridges at a spacing of 25cm. fertilizer was applied at the rate of 60Kg N/ha. P2O and K2O (at 2 WAS) using NPK (15:15:15) and 60 Kg/haN (at 6 WAS). P2O5 and K 2O. These were compared with sole crop of farmer’s maize variety. open-pollinated (OP) maize variety. 8326-18) were compared with a farmer’s maize cultivar. at these meetings unanimous agreement was reached on entry points. (ii) Effect of legume-maize strip cropping on Striga infection in the 2000 and subsequent crops of maize. 40 and 20 Kg/ha of N. criteria for selection of experimental farmers. using urea. hermonthica resistant/tolerant. with each field constituting a replicate. using urea. Trial 1: Evaluation of reactions of three maize cultivars to Striga hermonthica infection under sole crop conditions. an international NGO. and mechanisms for monitoring. and researchers) agreed to conduct the following four trails in each of the three pilot site villages (Detu. Before the commencement of pilot site trials on farmers’ fields. After full discussions and considerations. and the Sasakawa Global 2000 (SG2000).. Effect of legume-maize strip cropping on Striga infection on the 2000 and the 2001 crops of maize. 97 TZL Comp. the Kaduna State Agricultural Development Project (KADP). Maize was fertilized at 60 Kg/ha of N. At each farm. Striga damage severity rating (on a 1-9 scale) at harvest. groundnut or soybean) cultivar (with capacity to induce suicidal germination of S . (2) Appraisal of farmers’ perception of the Striga problem and its control. in five farmers’ fields at each of the three pilot site villages. and (vi) selection of pilot site villages . evaluation and scaling out. the government extension agency in the area. extensionists and farmers. 1-W (two rows of maize alternating with four rows of legume).M.. Materials and methods Problem Identification and Joint Action Planning Workshops . 60Kg P2O 5 /ha and 60Kg K2O/ha at 2 WAS. At this workshop.weeded at 2 WAS. In order to enhance the tolerance of the improved maize varieties.

groundnut and cowpea. In 2002. At separate meetings with farmers of each of the three villages. planting tolerant varieties. On the other hand. Oba Super 1 (8326-18). (iii) the cropping system included at least one legume. By contrast. (ii) sole cop of soybean cultivars. important potential trap crops against the parasite grown by farmers include soybean. (iv) as far as was possible. the farmer was the owner of the land. The farmers used the following criteria to select the 60 experimental farmers (the farmers that conducted the trials): (i) maize or sorghum was a dominant crop in the farm. respectively. The trial was conducted on five farmers’ fields in each of the three villages. Scaling Out and Up Activities. A mass field day was conducted at Layin-Taki for Kayawa and Layin-Taki villages on August 24. The trial was conducted on five farmers’ fields in each of the three villages. 2000 while a mini field day was held at Detu village a week later. hermonthica. and (iv) farmers’ solutions to the problems. the experimental farmers were trained on the protocols of the four trials by the VEAs who had earlier been trained by the scientists of IITA. (v) the farmer was willing to fully participate in the new approach. For example. respectively. one half of the 2000 sole crop plots of soybean or cowpea was planted with tolerant hybrid maize while the other was planted with the crop grown on it in 2000. and data collection and analysis were as described earlier. cowpea fungal diseases and insect pests were controlled by spraying with benomyl and cypemetrin. These crops are grown either in mixtures or as sole crops. application of farm yard manure. sorghum and millet were the two most important crops in the three villages while maize was not ranked among the important crops (data not presented). Effect of legume-cereal double cropping on Striga infection in maize. pests and diseases were identified as the main constraints to the production of cowpea and groundnut while lodging and pod shattering constrained soybean production. Perception studies were conducted in 2000 and 2001 to determine participating farmers’ perception of the improved technologies validated in their farms. methods for controlling Striga damage in maize and sorghum included 3-5 years rotation with groundnut or sorghum. .141 Farmer-participatory on-farm evaluation of Striga hermonthica management options in the Nigeria Trial 3. (iii) major constraints to the production of the major crops. The constraints to the production of six of the crops identified by farmers are given Table 2 which shows that Striga hermonthica damage and high cost of fertilizers are major constraints to the production of maize and sorghum but not pearl millet for which the major constraints were early season drought. (iii) natural fallow followed by extra early maize. and (vii) the farmer was willing to share knowledge and experience with others and was acknowledged to be so by the farming community and relevant extension and NGO personnel. The results of the four trials are summarized below. and (iii) double crop of two cowpea cultivars. (ii) reasons for ranks given to crops. respectively. Trials on Striga Management in Maize. or had a long term lease of not less than 5 years. The gross and net plot sizes were 300m2 and 216m2 . (ii) the cereal crop had major pest problem. Trial 4. crop management. and earthening up. Field operations. All these cereals crops are susceptible to infection by Striga hermonthica. The sole maize plots were sown with maize. bird damage and seed rot. Cost-benefit analysis was done in 2000 and 2001. The following were the treatments in 2000: (i) 60-day cowpea (IT93K-452-1) followed by extra early maize (95 TZEE-W). Effect of legume-cereal rotation on Striga infection in maize. In 2001. As a result of subsequent meetings with the farmers. However. Results Problem Identification and Joint Action Planning Workshops . IT93K-452-1 followed by IT81D-994. all plots of the selected fields were planted with maize. application of N fertilizers. (ii) extra early maize followed by extra early maize (95 TZEE-W). (i) sole crop of Striga-tolerant hybrid. IAR/ABU and the senior extension personnel of KADP and SG2000. All field operations. The contents of a structured questionnaire were carefully explained to the farmers by the VEAs who subsequently recorded their answers. crop management. The farmers had different solutions to the constraints. hoe weeding and hand pulling. Having been selected. the soybean was sandwiched between the sole crops of maize and cowpea. and data collection and analysis were as described earlier. Socio-economic Studies. (vi) the farm was accessible at all seasons throughout the year. especially Striga. at flower bud formation and 50% podding. Farmer exchange visits were organized for both participating and other farmers in each of the three villages in 2000 and 2001. The three treatments in each field in 2000 comprised. In each farm. The results (Table 1) showed that the first and second most important crops in all three villages in 2000 were maize and sorghum. In addition. TGX 1448-2E. the farmers freely and actively discussed and agreed on the: (i) ranking of their crops in 2000 and 1990. it was unanimously agreed that the entry points for solving the important production constraints were: (i) Striga hermonthica management in maize and sorghum and (ii) soil fertility enhancement in the cereal-legume production system. 10 years earlier (1990). The trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of legume-cereal double cropping on Striga infection in subsequent maize and to assess the acceptability of the double cropping to farmers in the northern Guinea savanna. capable of inducing suicidal germination of S .

although they were relay-planted into the first crop with the aim of increasing the length of the rain-fed growing season. respectively higher grain yield than the farmers’ varieties grown under farmers’ practice. It was attended by about 2000 persons. Although the number of emerged Striga per plot in all plots was relatively low. in 2001. 2000. The second maize crop of this treatment and that of maize following extra early cowpea or early season fallow did not reach maturity. state and federal governments.M. 97TZL Comp. 1-W. supported significantly (P≤0. Detu village significantly (P≤0. Across maize varieties and strip cropping arrangements. in 2001 the sole crop of Acr. Kano. Trial 3: Effect of one-year legume-maize rotation on Striga infection in subsequent maize.. Trial 1: Reaction of three maize cultivars to Striga hermonthica infection under sole crop conditions. A survey conducted at the end of the 2000 season indicated that on the average each of the 60 participating farmers discussed their trials during the growing season with about 12 non-participating farmers from their own and other villages. Across locations in 2000.05) fewer Striga shoots and were significantly (P≤0. the continuous crop of S . Trial 2: Effect of legume-maize strip cropping on Striga infection in the 2000 and the 2001 crops of maize.05) at Layin-Taki than at Detu and Kayawa (Table 6).05) had lower number of emerged Striga. The effects of legume-maize strip cropping in 2000 and 2001 on Striga infection and yield of maize are summarized in Table 5 and 6. It is important to note that the Representative of the Federal Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development used the opportunity to announce that his ministry was planning to launch a national IPM program because (now launched) of the importance of IPM in sustainable food production. respectively than the farmers’ maize varieties which were grown under farmers’ practice which was evaluated only in 2001. the improved OP and hybrid maize cultivars supported 43% and 46% fewer Striga shoots. 1-W under improved management conditions in 2000 but not in 2001. hermonthica infection parameters in maize and maize yield components were obtained in 2000 only from the first of the double crop of extra early maize followed by extra early maize.05) higher than those in sole crop of improved Striga resistant/ tolerant maize variety (Acr.05) lower grain yield than Oba Super 1 but not Acr. Also. respectively. However. 1-W outyielded significantly (P≤0. However. Furthermore. with the former producing 157% higher yield than the latter. It is noted that the 2001 data for Layin-Taki were missing. Oba Super 1. 97TZL Comp. Katsina). including representatives of the local. the farmers varieties produced significantly (P≤0. A major scaling out and up activity was the mass field day conducted at Kayawa on August 24. the number of emerged Striga and Striga damage rating in sole crop of farmers’ maize variety were significantly (P≤0. Trial 4: Effect of legume-cereal double cropping on Striga infection in maize. and maize hybrid. Across locations also. 1-W. representatives of relevant organized private sector. maize planted at Detu village produced 78% and 30% higher grain yield than maize planted at Kayawa and Layin-Taki villages.142 A. including seed companies. the sole crop maize grain yields of the improved and the farmers’ varieties were not significantly different in 2000. The effect of one crop each of soybean and maize or double crop cowpea in 2000 on S . farmers from four states (Kaduna. the Striga resistant/tolerant OP maize cultivars. 1-W) or maize strip cropped with any of the three legumes (Table 5). Acr. Maize grain yields were also relatively low but maize in 2001 following 2000 soybean crop yielded 16% higher than continuous maize which had the same yield as maize subsequent to the 2000 double cowpea crop. In 2001. Data on S. 97TZL Comp. By contrast. hermonthica tolerant maize hybrid (Oba Super 1) had 100% and 44% more emerged Striga than double cowpea crop in 2000 followed by maize in 2001 and single soybean crop in 2000 followed by maize in 2001. hermonthica infection in the 2001 crop of maize is presented in Table 7. it is noted that the maize strips in 2001 were planted on rows planted with one of the legumes in 2000. in 2001.05) the sole crop of the farmers’ variety. EMECHEBE et al. The project’s demonstration plots (not reported here) were . Jigawa. including the BBC and the VOA. and reporters from a broad spectrum of local and international mass media. lower Striga damage rating and higher grain yield in 2000 than Kayawa and Layin-Takin villages (Table 4). The farmers had so much difficulty with establishing the second maize crop that they requested researchers to re-examine the technology onstation since the possibility of intensification and Striga management by legume-cereal double cropping remained attractive to farmers. Acr. the differences among the treatments in the two parameters were not significantly different. 176% and 136%. Combined analysis of data obtained in 2000 and 2001 revealed that across sites. farmers’ varieties and Oba Super 1 under improved management practices produced 209%. Scaling Out and Up. 97TZL Comp. the number of emerged Striga plants and the Striga damage rating at harvest in 2000 were significantly higher (P≤0.05) less damaged by Striga than the farmers’ varieties under improved management in 2000 but not in 2001 (Table 3). 97TZL Comp. 2000 was attended by about 150 persons. The mini field day at Detu on August 26. respectively. researchers and extensionists from the implementing institutions. Across maize varieties.

143 Farmer-participatory on-farm evaluation of Striga hermonthica management options in the Nigeria .

M. . EMECHEBE et al.144 A..

145 Farmer-participatory on-farm evaluation of Striga hermonthica management options in the Nigeria .

Trial 4 (cowpea-maize double cropping. using farm gate prices of produce. The farmers were highly impressed by Discussion The farmers in the three villages ranked maize and sorghum as their two most important crops and considered Striga damage and high costs of fertilizers as the major constraints to the production of the two crops. 0. The farmers were particularly happy with the double crop of cowpea. 313 kg of cowpea.42. visited by 868 non-participating farmers from within and outside the research villages. extra early maize and cowpea varieties). Farmers’ Perception of Technologies Evaluated in Trials in 2000 Trial 1 technologies (maize varieties): Using 17 characteristics of the maize crop. one soybean cultivar. In this regard. However. less damaged by Striga and higher yielding than plots planted with maize in both years. 0. total variable costs were compared with total revenue to obtain net profit as a measure of economic performance. the short maturity periods of the 60-day cowpea variety and the extra early maize. Striga emergence reduction. EMECHEBE et al. Trial 3 (hybrid maize.Farmers scored all the new technologies higher than those they had before the project (even though these were not included in the trial). harvesting and threshing. Striga emergence reduction and Striga control. Results obtained in 2001 for trials 1 and 3 were comparable to those of 2000.25 and 0. 163 kg of soybean and 27 kg of groundnut.09 naira was obtained as the net gain. the hybrid and the farmer’s in variety in trial 1. The unprecedented demand for these cultivars has continued in 2003. OPV. The farmers’ varieties had the least scores in respect of disease resistance. cowpea. For trial 1 in 2000. About 83% of the farmers were willing to adopt the improved crop varieties. maize exhibited a negative net return when grown in mixture with soybean. Comparable results were obtained in trials 3 and 4. as were nonparticipating farmers that visited the trial from within and outside the three villages. However. 0. they scored the improved varieties as “excellent” or “good” while their varieties were rated as “good” or “fair”. The cowpea variety. Also maize planted in 2001 on plots that had either cowpea or soybean in 2000 were considered by farmers to be more vigorous. also in 2000. and Layin-Taki. Comparative costs and returns analysis was done for the trials conducted at each of the three villages (Detu. The local maize varieties were scored low in respect of Striga reduction and control.22 naira respectively was realized as profit. For each trial. Costs and Returns Analysis. for every naira spent in production of the OPV. response to fertilizer application. On the whole a total of 1. and two cowpea varieties). The cost components included costs of land preparation. groundnut and soybean). 1. In trial 2. respectively. planting. the farmers’ were satisfied with the performance of the improved cultivars of maize. fertilizer application.146 A. weeding. The OPV (Acr. Space limitations do not permit detailed presentation of the analysis.47 and 0. they rated the performance of soybean (2000) followed by maize (2001) as “excellent” in several characteristics to continuous maize or cowpea followed by maize each of which was rated as “good” in the same characteristics.. Striga control and soil improvement. All participating farmers were willing and eager to adopt the crop varieties and the legume-cereal rotation. the soybean variety TGX14482E. and farmers’ variety.M. 97TZL Comp 1-W had become so popular that demands for their seeds across several states of Nigeria outstripped what was produced by private and governmental seed companies in 2001 and 2002. 1-W and the farmer’s variety. As in 2000. The total amount of seed given out by the experimental farmers to other farmers in 2000 were 626 kg of OPV maize variety. cowpea and soybean. the new technologies were scored highest with respect to reduced Striga damage. Acr. the participating farmers rated the improved maize varieties (OPV and hybrid) superior to their own varieties. For example. there was a large demand for improved seed.52. Kayawa. cowpea or groundnut while for every naira invested in production of sole crop of Acr. About 92% of the farmers were willing to adopt the technologies. for every one naira invested on hybrid. they requested researchers to reconsider the double cropping of cowpea followed by maize. 97 TZL Comp. they were willing to adopt two crops of the 60-day cowpea variety but not the double crop of the cowpea and maize because the maize crop had not matured by the end of the season. Perception study was done only for trial 3 in 2001. seeds. Kroschel (1999) attributed the .Farmers considered the improved crop varieties as superior to the varieties they were growing before the project. on these characteristics. grain cookability and compatibility with legume intercrops. Trial 2 technologies (improved varieties of maize. 0.48 naira were realized. IT93K-452-1. and the OP maize variety. At the end of the season.146 non-participating farmers requested seeds from the experimental farmers in 2000. Farmers’ Perception of Technologies Evaluated in Their Farms in Trial 3 in 200. All the participating farmers indicated willingness to adopt both the OPV and the hybrid.97TZL Comp 1-W) was rated higher than the hybrid (Oba Super 1).09 and 0.

cereal/legume rotation . Kroschel. Systemwide Program on Integrated Pest Management. Our perception study has shown that rotation of legumes (soybean or cowpea) with maize was popular with both participating and non-participating farmers and 100% of the participating farmers were willing to adopt it. 97TZL Comp. such technologies are either rejected outright or are re-examined by research. Reduction of Striga hermonthica parasitism in maize . 1996). Finally. is the legume-maize intercropping. was adopted principally for its earliness rather than its suitability for S. had been reported to support fewer number of Striga shoots and suffer less damage than most commercial and farmers’ cultivars (Kureh et al. Parker and Riches (1993) have reviewed the mechanisms Striga of control obtained by intercropping.. hermonthica management in maize in West and Central African (Berner et al. Experimental Agriculture 30 (3): 349-358. One of the farmers’ methods of controlling Striga in maize and sorghum . 1998-2000. 1-W. IT93K-452-1. 2000. soybean appeared to be the most effective in reducing Striga emergence. hermonthica control in cereals. Dogget. A. For example. 1994. 1-W) and the legume-cereal rotation has indicated that farmers may readily adopt productionenhancing technologies for reasons other than those for which they were introduced by extension and research. Acknowledgement We are grateful to the SP-IPM of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research for funding this project. 1996). Related to legume-maize rotation. Carsky. Dashiell. Shulz. 2003. Singh and R. Its popularity was attributed to its earliness (which has enabled production of two crops in the same growing season some farmers actually experimented with and produced three crops in 2003 and high yields with only two sprays of pyrethroids Striga-resistant maize varieties are another important component of integrated S.. 1988. Recent studies have demonstrated significant reduction in Striga attack by using legume-cereal rotation (Carsky et al. R. References Anon.. At the same time. which also had not matured by the end of the rains in 2000. Singh. 97 TZL Comp. these include induction of suicidal germination of Striga. Dasheill. 2000.. Ibginnoca. Kling. K. the success of the system apparently depends on early planting of the first 60-day cowpea crop by the third week of May so that the extra-early maize could be sown by early to mid August. Progress Report.g. implementation. Outlook on Agriculture 25 (3):157-164. production of Striga seed germination inhibitor. A land management based approach to integrated Striga hermonthica control in sub-Saharan Africa. This system is receiving attention by researchers. including the Federal Capital Territory.. hermonthica control in both the rotation and intercropping trials. the OPV. the demand for its seed exceeded supply by all seed producers. We thank Mr. the legume-cereal double cropping of the present study) may not perform well in farmerparticipatory on-farm trials.J. It is noted that farmers rejected the legume-cereal double cropping mostly because of difficulty in establishing the second crop.M. monitoring and evaluation. the cowpea variety. hermonthica control. 1996.is one of the major components of integrated S. Carky. 2000. Ahmadu Bello University. Zaria. R. K.B. hermonthica management being promoted in West and Central Africa (Berner. A drastic change in the farming system from shifting cultivation to more or less continuous monocropping of host plants (with little or no fallow to host crops) is mainly responsible for the increase in Striga infestation and damage (Berner et al. 97TZL Comp. Manyong. unpublished data). if necessary by relay-planting (Dr. 2003). Suppression of Striga hermonthica in sorghum using a cowpea intercrop. Danbaba for training and supervising research technicians and village extension agents (VEAs). D. The rapid adoptions of the 60-day cowpea variety (IT93K-452-1). R. we thank the research technicians of the Institute for Agricultural Research. Shulz et al.. Berner. 2003). Regardless of its performance in S. Ayuba A. Acr. Berner. Ndikawa. and S. Shulz et al. 1996. Several workers (e. technologies suggested by farmers for participatory evaluation (e. among the legumes. has been widely adopted by farmers not only in Kaduna State (where the present study was conducted) but also in other neighbouring states. However. The effect of this cropping system in reducing Striga infection in maize was apparent even in the first year of our study. J. 1996). 2000. Oyewole. 1999). Acr. 1-W. received unprecedented massive adoption right from the first year. The maize hybrid. 1997. In 2001 and 2002. Oba Super 1 and the OPV. and addition of nitrogen due to N2-fixation by the legume. Abdulrahman Danbaba of the Sasakawa Global 2000 and Mr..J. Carsky et al. L. As a result of the present and other related on-farm studies. Rotation with legume trap crops reduce Striga infection and improve maize yields by depleting Striga seed bank and improving soil nitrogen status (Kim..147 Farmer-participatory on-farm evaluation of Striga hermonthica management options in the Nigeria increased Striga problem in Africa to both environmental and anthropogenic factors. and V. 2003) have reported the effectiveness of using legume-cereal intercropping for S. B. 2000. Carsky. these reports agree with our findings.. Nigeria and the VEAs of KADP for their assistance. Shenew of the Kaduna State Agricultural Development Project (KADP) for their pivotal roles in project planning. D. we are grateful to Mr.5. IT93K-452-1. Kuchinda et al. B.G.K. In particular. the OP maize variety (Acr. 1994.g. reduction in host germination stimulant production. the 60day cowpea variety.

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