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REPORT OF

THE STEERING COMMITTEE
SECONDARY, HIGHER &
TECHNICAL EDUCATION
FOR
THE ELEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN
(2007-2012)
Government of India
Planning Commission
1
5
1. CHAPTER-I
2. CHAPTER-II
3. CHAPTER-'"
4. CHAPTER-IV
CHAPTER-V
6. CHAPTER-VI
7. CHAPTER-VII
6. APPENDIX-1
7. APPENDIX-II
8. APPENDIX-IV
9. APPENDIX-V
10. APPENDIX-VI
11. APPENDIX-VII
INTRODUCTION 0- 4
SECONDARY & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 5-16
HIGHER EDUCATION 17-29
TECHNICAL EDUCATION 30-38
DISTANCE LEARNING, INFORMATION AND
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY(ICT) AND
SCHOLARSHIP
39-41
DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION OF
SC,ST,MINORITIES, GIRLS AND OTHER
DISADVANTAGED GROUPS
LANGUAGE AND BOOK PROMOTION
CONSTITUTION AND TERMS OF REFERENCE OF
THE STEERING COMMITTEE FOR SECONDARY,
HIGHER & TECHNICAL EDUCATION
42-43
44-47
48-52
TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE WORKING
GROUP ON SECONDARY EDUCATION &
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
53-54
WORKING GROUP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 55-57
WORKING GROUP ON TECHNICAL EDUCATION 58-59
WORKING GROUP ON EDUCATION FOR
DISAVANTAGED SECTIONS
60-61
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND BOOK
PROMOTION
62-64
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FOREWORD
The beginning of the 21
st
century is witnessing a great thrust in the development of the
social sectors and education sector in particular has been assigned top priority. Central
Government funding for education in the XI Plan is to have a five fold increase over the X
Plan. With the success of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan we are faced with the challenge of
providing universal access to secondary education (SUCCESS). Accordingly, the XI Plan
sets the stage for universalisation of access to secondary education (SUCCESS) so as to
prepare young persons in the age group 14-18 for entry into higher education and also for
the world of work. It is proposed to rapidly expand secondary education by upgrading
infrastructure in 15,000 eleme;ntary schools, strengthening 44,000 secondary schools,
setting up 6,000 high quality model schools with costs to be shared by the Centre and the
States. There will be provision for adequate number of mathematics and science teachers
to ensure better academic achievement. The vocational educational programme will be
restructured in which pUblic/private systems of vocational educational collaborate to meet
the needs of industry and individuals.
The role of higher, technical and management education in human resource
development of the country is well recognized. Though the Indian higher education
system is one of the largest in the world, the Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) is low at about
10%. Although the number of universities has expanded, and many universities continue to
maintain high standards of education, it is a matter of serious concern that the expansion
in quality has been accompanied by a decline in standards. Modernization of syllabi,
examination reforms and issues of governance of universities and colleges, in particular,
require urgent attention.
The XI Plan objectives for higher & technical education are outlined as
expansion, inclusion and rapid improvement in quality by enhancing public spending,
encouraging private initiatives and initiating the long overdue major institutional and policy
reforms. Planned expansion with inclusion and excellence is the core of the XI Plan. GER in
rligher education is targeted to be increased to 15% by the end of 11
th
Plan. To achieve
this, the enrolments in universities/colleges have to be substantially raised at an annual rate
of 8.9%.
The Steering Committee on Secondary, Higher and Technical Education was
constituted by the Planning Commission to deliberate upon the future policies and plans
for these sub-sectors necessary at the beginning of the new millennium. The detailed
contributions made by the working groups on various sub-sectors of education have
provided useful material which has helped in finalizing the Eleventh Five Year Plan for
education. It is with great hope and expectation that we place the Steering Committee
Report in the hands of all the stakeholders of India's educational development.
I acknowledge the contribution made by all the members of the Steering Committee
and the Working Groups on Secondary and Vocational Education, Higher Education,
Technical Education, Languages and Book Promotion, and Development of Education of
SC/ST/Girls and other disadvantaged sections. I would also like to place on record a
special word of thanks to Secretary, % SEL and % Higher Education, IVIHRD for their
devoted interest in the preparation of this Report. I would also like to thank the officers and
staff of the Education Division of the Planning Commission for their support.
New Delhi (Prof. B.L. Mungekar)
Dated: 8
th
April, 2009 Member (Education)
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CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1. The role of education in facilitating social and economic progress is well recognized. It
opens up opportunities leading to both individual and group entitlements. Education, in
its broadest sense of development of youth, is the most crucial input for empowering
people with skills and knowledge and giving them access to productive employment in
future. Improvements in education are not only expected to enhance efficiency but also
augment the overall quality of life.
THRUST AREAS OF THE ELEVENTH PLAN
2. The thrust areas for the educational development in the XI Plan include:
• Achieve 80% literacy rate,
• Reduce gender gap in literacy to 10%,
• Reduce regional, social, and gender disparities,
• Extend coverage of NLM programmes to 35 + age group
• A special focus on SC's, ST's, minorities, and rural women.
• Focus also on low literacy States, tribal areas, other disadvantaged groups and
adolescents
• Universalisation of elementary education
• Achievement of full adult literacy
• Raising the quality of education at all levels
• Improving learner achievement
• Upliftment of the educational status of disadvantaged groups including SC/ST/giris
and disabled children
• Removing regional disparities
• Vocationalisation of education
• Renewal of curriculum to meet emerging challenges in information technology and
support for development of centers of excellences at the tertiary level
• Increase GER in higher education from 11% in 2006 to 15% by 2011-12 (and to 21%
by 2016-17)
• Expand higher education system rapidly with quality and inclusiveness
• Restructure and reorient higher education system to impart competitive skills and
capabilities of global standards
• Nurture institutions of excellence aspiring to the world class standards.
• To accelerate the annual intake capacity of technical education system from the
present rate of 10% to 15% per annum by 2011-12
• Restructuring of polytechnic education to accelerate vertical mobility and ensure
market relevance.
3. The Government has pledged to increase public spending on education to 6% of Gross
Domestic Product (GOP). This reflects the high priority being given to the education
sector by the Central Government. However, during the Tenth Plan, Central
Government has incurred an outlay of Rs 58624.08 crore for education sector. Of which
an outlay of Rs.46593.22 crore spent for elementary education and literacy (constitutes
79.48%), an outlay of RS.3808.51 crore spent for secondary education which constitutes
6.5%, and RS.7548.68 crore incurred for higher education (including technical
education) which constitute 12.88% of the over all education sector tenth plan outlay.
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Chapter-II
Secondary and Vocational Education
Secondary education serves as a bridge between elementary and higher
education and prepares young persons between the age group of 14-18 years for entry
into higher education and also for the world of work. Secondary education may be
considered as the crucial level of education as it nurtures the children in their most
critical age group(entry into adolescence).lt is vital because in this age group children
particularly the girl child is extremely vulnerable and is pushed into child labour, early
marriage or trafficking. Due to the sequential nature of education, good quality of higher
education depends on secondary education. More over, Secondary education is the
single largest supplier of labour force in most of the developing countries, including
India. This reinforces direct relationship between secondary education and economic
growth and necessitates for a systematic development of secondary education with life
skills.
Review of physical progress:
The population at the secondary and higher secondary level in the age group
14-18 years as per Census 2001 was 8.55 crore. As against this, the enrolments in
secondary and higher secondary (Classes IX-XII) was only 2.76 crore in 2000-01. In
2004-05, the estimated population of this age group was 9.50 crore and the enrolment
was 3.70 crore. The gross enrolment ratio for classes IX-XII in 2004-05 was 39.91 per
cent. About one crore children were brought into school system during 5 years period
i.e.2000-05. However, 60 per cent of eligible age group population for secondary and
higher secondary education were out of school system. The table given below shows
the status of enrolment and drop-out rates in classes IX-XII as on 30.9.2004,
Secondary Education - Enrolments
S. No. Indicators Boys Girls Total
1. Secondary - Enrolment (IX-X)
( Crore)
1.46 1.01 2.43
2. Higher Secondary --Enrolment Xl-XII)
(Crore)
0.74 0.53 1.27
3. Secondary -- Gross Enrolment Ratio
(IX-X) (%)
57.39 45.28 51.65
4. Higher Secondary -- Gross Enrolment Ra
(XI-XII) (%)
30.82 24.46 27.82
5. Dropout rate - (Class I - X) (%) 60.41 63.88 61.92
Source: Selected Educational Statistics (2004-05) - provisional data.
Lack of access to secondary and higher secondary schools may be principal
cause for low enrollment of children in the age group of 14-18 years. The All India
average of the number of secondary and higher secondary schools per 100 sq.km area
is only four and in several large states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya
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Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Jharkhand, this is much below the national average. There
were 1, 01,777 high schools and 50,272 higher secondary schools/institutions in the
country in 2004-05. Out of this 41.05 per cent has managed by government and local
bodies, 29.35 per cent were private aided schools and 29.60 percent by private unaided
schools. The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of boys and girls being 44.26 per cent and
35.05 percent. The gender gap is 9.2 percentage points. The GER for students
belonging to SCs is 34.68 percent and that for STs is even lower at 27.68 per cent. The
drop out rate in class I-X was 61.92 percent.
Review of Centrally Sponsored Schemes and Central Schemes:
Central Government operates four Centrally Sponsored Schemes Le. (i)
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in schools for providing assistance to
State Governments for computer education and computer aided education in secondary
and higher secondary schools, (ii) Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) for
assisting state governments and NGOs in main streaming the disabled children in
school education ,(iii) Access and Equity for providing assistance to NGOs to run girls'
hostels in the rural areas, and (iv) Quality Improvement in schools which included
provision of assistance to state governments for introduction of yoga, for improvement
of science education in schools, for environment education and for population education
in addition to supporting, science olympiads. A brief description of these centrally
sponsored schemes is given below,
Information and Communication Technology in Schools:
The main objective of the scheme is to establish an enabling environment to
promote the usage of ICT, especially, in secondary and higher secondary education in
government and government - aided schools in the rural areas. The present scheme
has essentially four components. The first one is the partnership with the state
governments and union territories for providing computer education and computer-aided
education. The second is the establishment of SMART schools, which shall be the
technology demonstrators. Universalisation of computer literacy through the networking
of Kendriya Vidyalayas and Navodya Vidyalayas with neighboring schools is the third
component. The fourth component relate to the activities of State Institutes of
Educational Training (SIETs) which are mandated to produce educational content in the
form of films, videos, audios, etc. Both KVs and NVs have identified the schools which
will be converted into a smart school. KVs and NVs have established 31 and 33 smart
school respectively. KVs have covered 1264 schools under the universalisation of
computer literacy. The scheme is likely to be merged with the new scheme viz.
Universal Access and Quality at Secondary Education (known as SUCCESS) during
11
th
Five Year Plan Period._
Integrated Education for the Disabled Children (IEDC):
The main objectives of the scheme are to provide educational opportunities for
the disabled children in common schools, to facilitate their retention in school system
and to integrate the disabled children placed in special schools once they acquire
communication and daily living skills at the functional level. The scheme is being
implemented through the states and UTs as well as through Non-Governmental
Organizations. Under the scheme of IEDC, 100% assistance is being provided under
various components including educational aids, assistive equipment, and salaries for
special teachers and facilities for children with disability suffering from mild to moderate
disabilities in schools. The present scheme is largely NGO driven. Over 250 NGOs were
implementing the scheme. By the end of the financial year 2005-06, a total of
approximately 2 lakh disabled children have been covered in nearly 85,000 schools.
Total budgetary provision during the 10
th
Five Year Plan is RS.200 crore.
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Access and Equity (Scheme for Strengthening of Boarding and Hostel Facilities
for Girl Students of Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools)
Under the scheme, financial assistance is extended to the societies and NGOs to
provide boarding and hostel facilities to the girls pursuing education at secondary and
higher secondary stage predominantly belonging to the rural, desert and hilly areas,
particularly those belonging to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and educationally
backward minorities. During 2004-05 a total of around RS.3.72 crore was granted to 89
voluntary organizations. During 2005-06 funds amounting to RS.3.46 crore have been
approved till 3-3-2006 for assistance to 73 NGOs to run girl hostels. It is presently under
review. The scheme is likely to be merged with the new scheme viz. Universal access
and quality at secondary education (known as SUCCESS) during 11
th
Five Year Plan
Period.
Quality Improvements in Schools (QIS):
During the Tenth Five Year Plan it was decided to introduce a composite
centrally sponsored scheme of 'Quality Improvement in Schools' by converging the
following five eXisting schemes as its components. The composite scheme covered (i)
Improvement of Science Education in Schools (ii)Promotion of Yoga in Schools
(iii)Environmental Orientation to School Education (iv) National Population Education
Project (v) International Science Olympiads. Improvement of science education in
schools has since been transferred to the state governments as state sector scheme
and remaining four components are being implemented by the NCERT. The Tenth Plan
outlay for this scheme is RS.115 cores and a budget provision of RS.1 0 crore was made
for the year 2005-06. The scheme could not make much progress since it was revised
at the end of tenth five year plan.
Review of Central Schemes
The central government is managing and funding fully four types of schools viz.
Kendriya Vidyalayas, Navodya Vidyalayas, Central Tibetan Schools, and Open Schools.
There are 972 functional Kendriya Vidyalayas with an enrolment of 9.54 lakh and staff
strength of about 45,000. The main objective of Kendriya Vidyalayas is to cater to
educational need of children of government and public sector employees. There are 520
functional Navodya Vidyalayas. The objective of Navodya Vidyalayas is to cater to the
meritorious students predominantly from rural areas. There are 21 Central Tibetan
Schools of which 8 are Senior Secondary Schools, 5 Secondary Schools and 8 Upper
Primary schools. The main objective of CTSA is to run, manage and assist institutions
set up for the education of Tibetan children living in India. The National Institute of
Open Schooling proVides opportunities for continuing education to those who have
missed opportunities to complete school education. At present, there are 14.00 lakh
students on rolls at the secondary and senior secondary stages. As against the Tenth
Plan outlay of Rs.2, 560 crore for these four Central Schemes, anticipated expenditure
is about Rs.3, 232 crore.
Review of Financial Progress:
Central Government has made an allocation of Rs.4325.00 crore for the X Five
Year Plan for implementing the above centrally sponsored schemes and central sector
programmes. As against this, the likely expenditure for secondary education is
RS.3749.26 crore which includes expenditure of four years expenditure and revised
outlay of 2006-07. Year- wise outlay and expenditure on secondary education during X
plan period is given in the following table.
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Progress of Outlay and Expenditure Tenth Five Year Plan
Secondary Education
(Rs.crore)
PlanlYear Outlay Expenditure
X Five Year Plan 4325.00 3749.26
Annual Plans:
2002-03 649.40 577.57
2003-04 719.00 645.08
2004-05 743.00 680.48
2005-06 895.00 885.83
2006-07 1067.00 960.30 RE
ELEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN
Strategy:
Universal Secondary Education is pursued through environment building and
generating public opinion in favor of universalisation of secondary education. Given the
emerging scenario of ever increasing globalization and India's emerging role as an
important global player, it is necessary to take a quantum jump rather than pursuing
incremental growth through piecemeal steps in secondary education. It is only through
environment building that the community can be mobilized. This is particularly
necessary to ensure participation of girls, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes; other
backward classes, cultural and linguistic minorities and the disabled.
The 11 th Plan aims to progressively raise the minimum level of education to high
school or class X level. The demand for secondary education will also expand
significantly as SSA reaches its goal of universal and complete elementary education. A
major initiative for expanding secondary education up to class X is initiated in the 11
th
Plan. The target during the 11
th
Five Year Plan is to provide a secondary school within 5
kilometers of every habitation and to provide a higher secondary school within a
distance of 7-8 kilometers of any habitation. It is to ensure reducing the drop out rate
and 100 per cent retention up to higher secondary stage.
In order to meet the challenge of secondary education, there is a need for a
paradigm shift in the conceptual design of secondary education. The guiding principles
in this regard are Universal Access, Equality and Social Justice, Relevance and
Development and Curricular and Structural aspects.. Universalisation of Secondary
Education gives opportunity, to move towards equity. During 11
th
Five Year Plan, a new
scheme viz. Universal Access and Quality at Secondary Education (SUCCESS) will be
introduced converging all the ongoing centrally sponsored schemes of Secondary
Education. The objectives of the scheme are (a) Universalizing access and (b)
improvement of quality of secondary education. The above objectives translate into the
targets for being achieved by the end of the XI Plan. They are
• Raising Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in secondary education from 52% in 2004­
05 to 75% by 2011-12 and the combined secondary and senior secondary GER from
40% to 65% in the same period
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• Major reduction in gender, social and regional gaps in enrollment, dropouts and
school retentions.
• Bringing down pupil-teacher ratio at the secondary stage to 25, and increasing
percentage of trained teachers to 100 percent.
• Improving quality of secondary education and pupils' achievement levels so that
pass percentage in X and XII Board examination improves to around 75%.
Projections of enrolments, classrooms and teachers:
Due to the thrust on universal elementary education through SSA, there is every
possibility of significant increase in demand for secondary education by 2010.
Projections made here are based on 75% success of SSA at the elementary level,
though the SSA envisages achieving the goal of UEE by 2010. As projected by the
CABE Committee on Universalisation of Secondary Education, the additional enrolment
during XI Plan period in Classes IX-X is 2.18 crore( Boys: 1.28 crore Girls 0.90 crore ).
In view of the projected enrolment in Classes IX-X, the total number of additional
classrooms required for five years period is 2.39 lakh and total number of additional
teachers required is 3.58 lakh. At higher secondary level, the projected enrolment is
50.00 lakh; additional classrooms 1.04 lakh and additional teachers 1.56 lakh during
Eleventh plan period.
Inputs and Quality Improvement
In the context of Universalisation of Secondary Education (USE) and expansion of
higher secondary education, large-scale inputs in terms of additional schools, teachers
and other facilities are to be provided to meet the challenge of numbers, credibility and
quality. It interalia requires assessment! provision of educational needs, physical
infrastructure, human resource, academic inputs and effective monitoring of
implementation of the programmes. The following measures (financial and non
financial) are required to be taken in this regard:
1. Mapping of secondary schooling provisions;
2. Assessment of enrolment and physical infrastructure;
3. Requirement of schooling facilities and learning resource centers including
Science and Maths laboratories and art and crafts laboratories; and
4. Training of in-service teachers
5. Curriculum development
6. Strengthening on going talent search programmes and introducing new talent
search schemes at state level.
7. Inputs for quality improvement
8. Expansion of Kendriya Vidyalayas and Navodya Vidyalayas in unserved areas
9. Introducing examination reforms
10. Setting up guidance and counseling centers in schools
11. Orientation of educational planners and administrators
Each Learning Resource Centre should be equipped with the input viz. provision for ICT
support, link with EDUSAT and library with separate room.
Education of Children from Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Minorities:
The following provisions are envisaged in the 11
th
Five Year Plan for education of
children of SCs, STs and Minorities.
• Up gradation of elementary schools to secondary schools be given priority in
areas with high concentration of SC, ST and Minority population and low female
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literacy rate. This will encourage these communities to send girls to schools and
retain them in schools.
• Inclusive education where all children study together should become the hallmark
of every school especially those located in rural areas so as to take care of the
children of disadvantaged groups.
• Setting up of only girls' schools in areas of concentration of minorities and
upgradation of KGBVs
• The first priority for establishment of new schools or up gradation of elementary
high schools should be in the locality with concentration of
SC/STIOBC/Minorities.
Education of Girls
Taking note of the fact that there is a gross shortage of Secondary Schools for
girls (both co-educational and girls schools combined), the dropout of girls is extremely
high mainly in northern states. Many girls in rural areas discontinue their schooling
because of shortage of girls' schools. The incentives for girls' education need to be
revisited. The measures taken need to be of such nature, force and magnitude that
they are able to overcome the obstacles such as poverty, domestic Isibling
responsibilities, girl child labour, low preference to girls education, preference to
marriage over education, etc. The suggested incentives are as follows.
• Providing transport facilities
• Construction of residential quarters for women teachers working in rural areas
• Provision of rural allowance for women teachers working in low female literacy
districts
• Provision of special scholarships to promote enrolment of girls
• Provision of incentive to girls for secondary education
• Introducing revised scheme of strengthening of boarding and hostel facilities for girl
students of secondary and higher secondary schools
• Upgrading KGBVs upto secondary level and also setting up required KGBVs
Education of Children with Disabilities:
Realizing that inclusion of children and youth with disabilities is not only a human
right, it is also good education and promotes the development of social skills, the
scheme of IEDC is being revised by the Ministry of Human Resource Development
(MHRD) as the Scheme of Inclusive Education for the Disabled at Secondary Stage
(IEDSS). The proposed new scheme would enable all students with disabilities
completing eight years of elementary schooling an opportunity to complete four years of
secondary schooling (classes IX-XII), in an inclusive and enabling environment. The
IEDSS will also support the training programmes for general school teachers to meet
the needs of children with disabilities.
Open Schooling System:
During the XI Plan, the thrust of the Open Schooling system should be on (i)
developing NIOS as a potential Resource Organization in open schooling at national
and international level, besides offering open schooling courses of study (ii) up scaling
of the programmes of the existing 10 state open schools, and (iii) setting up SOSs in
the remaining 19 States, including NCT of Delhi. The educational needs of the six
union territories may be looked after mainly by the concerned neighboring States and
NIOS.
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A Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) for promotion of open schooling is
required to be formulated and operationalised from the first year of the XI Plan. Among
other things, the CSS may make provision of (I) setting up and operationalisation of 19
new SOSs, (ii) up scaling of the programmes of 10 SOSs
In order to ensure quality in 'Open Schooling', a full time Coordinator with
ancillary staff may be provided in each Study Centre under the Open Schooling system.
The Open Schooling system will be required to cater to the educational needs of about
30 lakh students at Secondary stage during 2007-08 with 10% increase every year.
PLiblic Private Partnership
About 57% of high schools and 63% higher secondary schools are run by private
sector. Out of these 28.52% of high schools and 31.79% higher secondary schools are
classified as private unaided schools. Whereas private aided schools generally receive
almost full salary of the teaching staff from the respective state governments and have
to only provide for the capital expenditure, private unaided schools do not receive any
grant and have to be financially sustainable on their own. Therefore, there is a
difference in fee structure though some private unaided schools run on charity.
Otherwise unaided schools necessarily have to recover their cost from the school fees.
Encouraging such schools would cater only to the population which can pay, unless
there is a policy of cross subsidization of fees so that certain percentage of children
from the poorer sections of the society can be accommodated free or at subsidized
fees.
The public private partnership can be one way of saving public funds by
encouraging private sector to be involved in this important human development sector.
This can take the following paths:
• Private sector can be encouraged to invest part of its profit towards philanthropic
activities in the education sector by adopting Government schools for improvement
of infrastructure and resources like, library, science lab., audio-visual and ICT
infrastructure, art workshops, sports facilities, drinking water and toilet facilities etc.
• Outsourcing: Several functions of the government school can be outsourced through
private sector involvement. For example, entire computer education can be
outsourced from private sector that can provide computer and computer teachers for
a fee. Such an arrangement would work well for newly emerging or rapidly changing
subjects for which permanent teachers and resources can be avoided in a
government set up. Similarly transport arrangements for students particularly for girls
can be outsourced.
• Vocational schools: In this area, private sector can help greatly as most of the
teaching learning can take place profitably in the premises of private sector
companies and factories. Private sector should also be involved in designing
curriculum and in designing a testing and certification system so that the demand for
appropriate skill by the industry can be met.
• Participation on the school management: The corporate sector in the neighborhood
of schools may be represented in the school management committee so that they
could assist the schools in enhancement of its infrastructure and resources.
• Regulatory structure: The key to successful public-private sector participation is a
sound regulatory structure so that public and private sector are accountable to each
other in a transparent manner.
• Private sector may be encouraged to setup modal schools at bloc level in
collaboration with state governments.
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Vocational Education
Secondary and higher education are important terminal stages in the system of
general education because it is at these points that options are exercised by the youth
to enter the world of employment/go for technical training or pursue higher education.
Educationists and experts have consistently recommended that education at these
stages should be given a vocational bias to link it with the world of work. The Kothari
Commission which is the basis of the National Policy on Education in 1968 felt that is
should be possible to divert at least 50 percent of students completing 10 year
education to the vocational stream, reducing the pressure on the universities and also
preparing students for gainful employment. The vocational education scheme at 10+2
stage came into existence in the late 1970s. However, only handful of Sates and UTs
implemented the scheme. The NPE 1986 had set targets to cover 10 per cent higher
secondary students under vocational courses by 1990 and 25 per cent by 2000.
The National Working Group on Vocationalisation of Education (V.C
Kulandaiswamy Committee 1985) reviewed the VEP extensively and developed
guidelines for expansion of the programme, its recommendations led to the launching of
the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) on Vocationalisatiol1 of Secondary Education in
February 1988.
The CSS of Vocational Education is implemented through state and UTs and
NGOs in the formal and non-formal sector respectively. The scheme envisages
selection of vocational courses on the basis of assessment of manpower needs. It has
created so far infrastructure for 19608 sections in about 6800 schools with an enrolment
of 10 lakh students.
Funding of the programme is done on the sharing pattern between centre and
states. For 11 components mainly apprenticeships & training, district vocational
surveys, development of instructional material, equipment to schools, provision of
workshop/laboratory building, teacher training courses etc. 100 % assistance has given
by the center; 75% for vocational school staff. 50% assistance is given for vocational
wings of state directorates of education, District Vocational Wing, field visits by students
and for raw materials.
Weaknesses in the existing Vocational Education Scheme of the MHRD:
The CSS currently in operation has been a non starter. Against the envisaged
target of 25% of secondary students opting for the vocational stream, by the year 2000,
only 4.8 percent of the students were enrolled in vocational stream.
The reasons for above are as follows:
a) Low priority being accorded to vocational education by States.
b) Directorate of School Education by and large is found to be working in isolation
with little interaction with other relevant departments.
c) Reluctance shown by all states governments towards appointment of the full time
teachers because of unwillingness to take a long term commitments liability in
case of closure of the scheme.
d) No provision for training of vocational teachers.,
e) In most States there has been no serious adoption of curriculum designed by
NCERT/PSSCIVE.
f) Utilization of training seats by vocational pass outs is negligible as placements
are rarely available within one's own district.
g) Lack of linkages with trade, industry and business (IS8).
h) Old and outdated vocational courses being·taught with no linkage to employment
market.
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i) As corollary to above there is no scope for induction of new and emerging
technologies.
j) Lack of flexibility in vocational courses-no scope for vertical mobility for students
who wish to specialize in the same course or take up additional courses.
k) No scope for competency testing.
Approach in the Eleventh Plan:
During the XI Five Year Plan, Vocational Education and Training (VET) should be
provided to those who need skills for sustainable livelihood and to meet the challenges
of the world of work. The concept of Vocational Education and Training to All should be
promoted through the formal education system and non-formal education system. It
should cater to the needs of different target groups, with special provisions for
disadvantaged groups viz., girls/women, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, persons
with disabilities, and persons living in difficult circumstances. VET may be implemented
as a CSS, (with 100 % central government funding).
It is estimated that 1.5 crore youth need initial vocational training every year.
During XI FYP, capacity for about 0.5 crore persons should be created for providing
initial training through strengthening of existing VET Institutions and by setting up new
VET Institutions. The remaining 1.0 crore people should be trained through non­
formal/informal mode.
In India, about 4.21 crore persons are working in the informal sector. Only 5 % of
this population could receive skill training through the formal system. The remaining
about 4.0 crore unskilled and semi-skilled persons, who are already in the world of
work, should be given continuous or further training for up gradation of their skills
through a variety of delivery systems, including part-time, sandwich system, day release
system, block release system, open and distance learning system, etc.
The emphasis in VET would be on development of generic, specific, personal
and multiple skills so that persons may respond to changes due to technologies and
market demands. Generic skills that cut across a number of occupations would enable
an individual to transfer from one field to another during his/her working life.
VET programmes preparing for occupations in farming, artisan trades, crafts,
small and medium enterprises, particUlarly for self-employment, should include
entrepreneurship development and elementary training in information and
communication technology to enable persons to take responsibility for production,
marketing, management and rational organization of enterprise.
VET should be offered in flexible mode through modular courses of varying
durations, with credit transfer facility. Strategies for encouraging access to VET for
marginalized groups, including SCs, STs, OBCs, Minorities, girls, street children,
working children and differently-abled children, should be adopted.
Skill development in organizational planning, entrepreneurship, safe and
environmentally sound procedures related to materials and equipment, importance of
safe working conditions, first aid training, etc., as an integral part of all VET programmes
should be promoted.
13
Summary of financial requirements during 11
th
Five Year Plan (2007-12)
(Rs. in crore)
S.No. Items Projected
requirement
1. SECONDARY EDUCATION
1.1 Curriculum - Creation of new structures and
strengthening of existing structure
15.00
1.2 Total capital expenditure on expansion of Secondary
Education
3589.30
1.3 Total recurring expenditure on teachers &
inspection/supervision charges
19769.70
1.4 Learning Resources - recurring and non-recurring
expenditure on Science lab. and Art & Craft lab.
10547.52
1.5 Learning Resource Center -
1.5.1 ICT @ Schools 24160.0
1.5.2 EDUSAT facilities 300.00
1.5.3 Library facilities 2359.76
2. HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION 12078.00
3. SECONDARY & HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION
3.1 Incentives to the students belonging to
SC/ST/OBC/Minority communities similar to Sarva
Shiksha Abhiyan like free textbooks, uniforms, footwear,
stationeries etc.
6098.25
3.2 Provision of bicycles for students belonging to
SC/ST/OBC/Minority communities
6015.75
3.3 Boarding & lodging facilities for students belonging to
SC/ST/OBC/Minority communities (for boys)
*(2075.50)
3.4 Stipend for day scholars belonging to
SC/ST/OBC/Minority communities
*(8003.52)
3.5 One additional language teacher (Tribal Language) 1300.00
3.6 Transport facilities for girl students 1050.00
3.7 Residence scheme for Women teachers in rural areas 550.00
3.8 Rural allowance for Women teachers 150.00
3.9 Scheme for incentives to girls for Secondary Education 10990.0
3.10 Construction and running of Girls' Hostel 5523.70
3.11 Scheme of Inclusive Education for Disabled at
Secondary Stage (IEDSS)
26040.00
3.12 State Talent Search Scheme and Chacha Nehru
Scholarship for Artistic & Innovative excellence
125.00
3.13 National Science Talent Search Scheme 30.00
14
3.14 International Science Olympiad 10.00
3.15 QIS (As a component of Universalization of Secondary
Education) excluding International Science Olympiad
90.00
3.16 Adolescent Education Programme 381.50
3.17 Open Schooling System 1750.00
3.18 Scheme forout of school children (Over arching
scheme)
50.00
3.19 Student assessment and examination reforms 210.00
3.20 Guidance & Counseling 435.00
3.21 Capacity building (In-service training of teachers) 821.00
4. SCHOOL SUB-SYSTEM -
4.1 Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangthan (KVS) 4215.01
4.2 Navodya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS) 10425.80
4.3 Central Tibetan School Administration (CTSA) 44.00
5. NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
& TRAINING (NCERT)
500.00
6. JOINT INDO-MONGOLIAN SCHOOL 5.00
7. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 6876.30
GRAND TOTAL 166584.61
• May be considered in the budget provisions for Ministry of Social Justice &
Empowerment! Ministry of Tribal Affairs! Ministry of Minority Affairs.
15
Break up of Projected Requirement
JRs.crore)
S.No. Items Projected
requirement
1. SECONDARY EDUCATION 60741.28
2. HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION 12078.00
3. SECONDARY & HR. SECONDARY EDUCATION 71699.22
4. SCHOOL SlIB-SYSTEM 14684.81
5. NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL
RESEARCH & TRAINING (NCERT)
500.00
6. JOINT INDO-MONGOLIAN SCHOOL 5.00
7. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 6876.30
GRAND TOTAL 166584.61
**********
16
Chapter III
Higher Education
INTRODUCTION
Department of Higher Education - Overview - Tenth Plan
The Tenth Plan was in operation from April 2002 to March 2007. The following table
gives details of the allocation/expenditure under various sectors of the Department of
Higher Education. The corresponding allocation finalized for 2007-08 as well as
projections for the Eleventh plan is given in the table below:
SCHEME WISE ALLOCATION AND EXPENDITURE DURING TENTH PLAN AND
ANNUAL PLAN 2007-08
(Rs. crore)
S.No Name of the
Scheme
X Plan
2002-07
Allocation
Tenth Plan
Likely
Expenditure
Percentage
of
Expenditure
Over
Tenth Plan
Outlay
Annual
Plan
2007-08
Allocation
XI th
PLAN
Outlay
Proposed
by the
Working
Group$
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
DEPT. OF
HIGHER
EDUCATION
University and
Higher Education 4176.50 4262.02 102.05 2471.00* 47365.19
Distance
Learning
(including
scholarship) and
II ICT 624.00 14977.00
Technical
III Education 4700.00 3417.05 72.70 3240.00* 39402.50
Development of
IV Language 434.00 579.84 133.60 117.50 1884.13
V Book Promotion 67.00 52.67 78.61 11.50 37.85
Planning and
VI Administration 70.50 34.94 49.56 15.30
Secretariat
VII Social Services 1.20
Works outlay in
the Ministry of
VIII UD 2.50
TOTAL : Dept. of
Higher Edu. 9500.00 8369.02 88.09 6483.00 103666.67
NOTE: $ For consideration of the Steering Committee
* Includes OSC Recommendations
17
Review of Policies and future prescriptions
The Indian higher education system is one of the largest higher education systems in
the world. The sheer vastness of the higher education system can be gauged from
the fact that in the past five decades there has been an impressive growth in the
universities (from 25 to 367), colleges (from 700 to 18064) students from 1 lakh to
1121akh.
Higher education has made significant contribution to economic development, social
progress and political democracy in independent India. The most important role is
that this sector provides the beginnings for the creation of a knowleqge society. At
the beginning of the 21
st
century, global changes in demography and economy have
had their impact on India as well. Employment opportunity patterns are changing
and there is the challenge of providing skilled human power, which is confident,
flexible and equipped with the knowledge and technical skills needed to effectively
face the socio-economic realities of the new century. In nearly two decades from
now, 45% of Indians would be in their twenties. This would lead to a need for trained
persons who can compete at the national and global level.
Tenth Plan - Objectives and Key Issues
Raising the enrolment of the population in 18-23 age groups from 6% at the start of
Tenth Plan to 10% by the end of 2007 was a key objective of the Tenth Plan.
Among the other issues flagged were: improving the quality of education, adoption of
state specific strategies; liberalization of the higher education system; relevance of
the curriculum, vocationalisation, networking through information technology,
convergence of formal, non-formal education, increase in private participation;
research in frontier areas of knowledge and meeting the challenges of
internationalization of Indian education.
In addition to the above objectives of increasing access and improving quality of
education, the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the UPA
Government announced in June, 2004 gave stress on equity in higher education.
The following specific objectives illustrate this:
'The UPA government will amend the Constitution to establish a Commission
for Minority Educational Institutions that will provide direct affiliation for minority
professional institutions to central universities".
"The UPA government will take immediate steps to reverse the trend of
communalization of education. It will also ensure that all institutions of higher
learning and professional education retain their autonomy. The UPA will ensure that
nobody is denied professional education because he or she is poor".
"Academic excellence and professional competence will be the sole criteria for all
appointments to bodies like the Indian Council for Historical Research, Indian
Council for Social Science Research, University Grants Commission, National
Council for Educational Research and Training etc. Steps will be taken to remove
the communalization of the school syllabus that has taken place in the past five
years. A review committee of experts will be set up for this purpose".
18
The progress in the achievement of the Tenth Plan objectives:
(a) Enrolment
The Tenth Plan had projected an increase of enrolment rate in higher education
from 6 per cent to 10 per cent over the Plan period. This was the only quantifiable
target for the Tenth Plan. Increasing the access parameter from 6% to 10% over
the Tenth Plan period means that the enrolment in the university/colleges should
increase from 7.5 million in 2002 to 12.5 million in 2007. As on 31st March, 2006 the
No. of students enrolled- in higher education 11.2 million
(b) Expansion and increased access
Growth of higher education system in India ­
No. of Institutions Beginning of the tenth Status as on 31
st
Plan 2002 March, 2006
State/Central/Private 133 367
Universities
Deemed Universities 27 104
Colleges 12342 18064
Colleges Accredited by N.A. 2879 (as on
NAAC 31.3.2006)
Universities Accredited by N.A. 128 (as in 2007)
NAAC
No. of students enrolled 75 lakh 1121akh
During each year of the Tenth Plan there has been considerable enhancement in the
plan budget of the UGC enabling increased assistance to universities.
The Central Educational Institutions (Reservation in Admission) Act, has therefore,
been enacted and has been notified in January, 2007 in pursuance of the 93
rd
Amendment to the Constitution of India, t 0 provide statutory reservations to SCs,
STs and OBCs in Central Educational Institutions. Necessary resources have been
provided to the Central Educational Institutions, to augment their intake capacity by
54% in a maximum staggered period of three years in accordance with the Act,
ensuring that reservations would not lead to any reduction in the seats as were
available to unreserved categories before the coming into force of this Enactment.
Four new Central Universities have been created during 2006 through Act of
Parliament. Arunachal Pradesh (Rajiv Gandhi National University) and Tripura
University have been converted from State Universities into Central Universities,
while a new University of Sikkim has been created. A total of six Central
Universities have been created (including the Allahabad University and Manipur
University which were created by converting the existing State Universities) since
2004.
Initiatives taken in Tenth Plan for improvement in the quality of higher
education
The UGC has taken several steps in the Tenth Plan period to improve the quality of
education in universities and colleges.
19
Five universities - Jawaharlal Nehru University, University of Hyderabad, University
of Madras, Jadavpur University and the University of Pune have been identified for
granting the status of "Universities with potential for excellence".
During the first three years of the Tenth Plan, 51 Academic Staff Colleges continued
their orientation programme and refresher courses for in-service teachers and newly
appointed lecturers. A total of 296 orientation programmes/workshops and 1271
refresher courses have been approved in 117 universities.
The number of vocational courses for introduction in universities and colleges
identified by UGC has increased from 35 to 42 during the period under review. In
2002-03, an amount of Rs. 19.77 crore was paid to 335 colleges for implementation
of the Career Orientation to Education programme.
The UGC has taken a number of steps for leveraging the use of ICT. UGC
INFONET allows teachers and students to have access to a storehouse of
information in the form of e-formatted journals, besides links to other research. Since
the network will be run and managed by ERNET India. Information for Library
Network (INFLIBNET), an autonomous Inter-University Centre for UGC, is the nodal
agency for coordination and facilitation of the linkage between ERNET and
universities. States have agreed to encourage their universities, colleges and
technical institutes to become members of INFLIBNET and INDEST (Indian National
Digital Library for Engineering Sciences and Technology).
The UGC launched an e-journal, Consortium of Universities, in October 2003. The
Consortium will use the Internet to provide electronic access to scholarly literature in
all areas of learning. This programme is to cover the universities coming under the
UGC purview and it will be gradually extended to the colleges as well. The
programme needs to be accelerated
The National Accreditation Assessment Council (NAAC), an autonomous body under
the UGC, set up in 1994 was strengthened with the opening of four regional centres
so as to speed up the accreditation process. NAAC has so far completed the
process of accreditation of 128 universities and 2,780 colleges. According to the
UGC mandate, NAAC has proposed to review approximately 1000 colleges per year,
for the next five years.
The objective of granting autonomy to colleges is to provide academic freedom in
designing curricula, evolving new methods of teaching and research, prescribing
courses for study, setting examination papers, etc. In the Tenth Plan, the target was
to accord autonomous status to 10 per cent of eligible colleges. At present 132
colleges under 29 universities are autonomous. A study should be conducted to
assess the impact of autonomy in improving the quality of education and of
infrastructure in universities and colleges
Objectives and Policies for Higher Education for the XI Plan
The Tenth Plan had projected an increase of enrolment rate in higher education
from 6 per cent to 10 per cent over the Plan period. This meant that the enrolment in
universities/colleges should increase from 7.5 million in 2002 to 12.5 million in 2007.
31
st
As on March, 2006 the number of students enrolled in higher education was
11.2 million.
20
Enrolment targets for the XI Plan
The Eleventh Plan has proposed that the gross enrolment rate be raised by 5
percent as quickly as possible, i.e, 15% by the end of the XI Plan. T ~ l i s would
amount to increase in enrolment - by about 84 lakh students over a period of five
years. Despite the initiatives taken in the Tenth plan the quality of higher education
in India leaves a lot to be desired. For more than two decades fears have been
expressed at various fora about the deteriorating quality of Higher education in India.
The National Knowledge Commission in its Note 'on Higher Education submitted to
the Hon'ble Prime Minister in November 2006 spoke about "a quiet crisis in higher
education that runs deep.... " The Mid Term Appraisal to the Tenth Plan laments the
fact that hardly any Indian university ranks among the top world universities.
The basic problems facing higher education are inadequate infrastructure and
facilities, large vacancies in faculty positions and poor faculty, outmoded teaching
methods, declining research standards, unmotivated students and widespread
geographic income gender and ethnic balances. These problems are a reflection of
the poor 'quality of' higher education
The policies of the Government in the context of the higher education during the
Eleventh Plan period have been detailed in the Approach Paper to the Eleventh Five
Year Plan which has been approved by the NDC on December 9, 2006. These are
listed below:
While India has a well developed a comprehensive higher education system this is
now inadequate. The limited access parameter of 10% in the relevant age group
compares unfavorably with 20-25% in many developing countries. There is an
overwhelming need to undertake major expansion and raise the GER to 15% as
quickly as possible consistent with maintaining quality. The higher education system
suffers from serious problem of quality. While some of our institutions of higher
education have the potential to become comparable with the best in the world, the
average standard is much lower. High quality institutions are finding it difficult to get
quality faculty.
There are serious shortages of qualified research personnel in educational
institutions, in national laboratories and in industrial R&D units. These considerations
suggest that the 11
th
Plan must undertake a major effort to expand and improve the
quality of higher education system especially in Science and create an environment
that attracts bright students to careers in Science and in R&D. Unless these efforts
are made, we will run into skill constraints which will limit our ability to gain
competitive advantage in this area. India should aim to be a global innovation (R&D
Hub).
The regional divide in educational and R&D institutions is a matter of concern. Over
60% of these institutions are located in just about 6-8 States. The 11 th Plan must
address these disparities as they greatly influence distribution of employment
opportunities. New colleges/universities must be set up in educationally backward
districts to provide easier access to students. A specific plan for upgrading a few
select universities with potential for excellence must be formulated.
The strategy for expanding education must also pay attention to ensuring equitable
access. Reservation of seats in educational institutions for SCs/STs has been in
place for many years. The Centre is taking steps to introduce reservation for OBCs
21
in Central Universities and other Central institutions in such a way that there is no
reduction in the general category of seats.
The 11 th Plan must address the problems of varying standards, outdated syllabi and
inadequate facilities. It must address the need to create an environment that will
attract top class faculty to our universities.
While successive Annual Plans will have to provide rising levels of budgetary
support, these must be accompanied by internal resource generation by the
universities by realistically raising fees. Simultaneously efforts will be made to
develop wider merit-cum-means based loan and scholarship programmes through
the banking system and other agencies.
The open schooling programme should be strengthened and expanded.
The role of the private sector in providing high quality education also needs to be
recognized and a suitable facilitative environment created to allow such institutions
to support our objectives of expanding higher education
Working Group on Higher Education -XI Plan Proposals:
Requirement of Funds for the University and Higher Education Sector:
The total estimated outlay which will be required during the 11 th Plan period for the
University and Higher education sector (excluding Distance Education, ICT and
Scholarships) is Rs 47365.19 crore as is seen from the table below. This has been
estimated by the Working Group on Higher Education
(Rs. crore)
SI. Name of the Sector Proposed Outlay for the
No. XI Plan
UGC 43033.53
NCRI /IIRT 36.66
Minority Education 1525.00*
Higher Education Refinance Corporation 2500
Others- (ICSSR, ICHR, ICPR, liAS, Sri Guru 270.00
Granth Sahib, AIU, Dr ZHMC Trust)
Total 47365.19
* Includes Rs. 800 crore for Maulana Azad foundation and Rs. 725 crore
for Modernisation of Madarsas
Continuing Schemes of the Tenth Plan
A. UGC
The bulk of the outlay (nearly 90%) of the proposed outlay of Rs. 47365.19 crore is
for the programmes of UGC to the tune of Rs. 43033 crore. The UGC proposes to
strengthen on-going programmes and take up new initiatives. Details are as per
table in Annexure-I.
(i) Access
For enhancing access the Working Group on higher Education proposed to upgrade
20 State universities (one in each State) to the level of Central university at the rate
1
2
3
4
5
22
of Rs. 20 crore per university per year; strengthen infrastructure of existing 164 State
universities @ Rs. 10 crore per university and; set up new 150 State universities with
an outlay @ Rs. 10 crore per university. It also proposed to provide assistance @
Rs. 5 crore to 25 old deemed universities during the XI Plan period.
Five State Technological Universities would be provided Rs. 100 crore each for
infrastructure development.
The Working Group envisages strengthening infrastructure of 6000 existing colleges
and also set up new 6000 colleges.
(ii) Equity
The approach to the XI Plan flags the issue of concern regarding regional divide in
the matter of educational institutions. Keeping this in view the Department of Higher
Education proposes to set up universities/colleges in backward, rural, remote areas
and in small towns. Rs. 2050 crore is proposed to be allocated for assisting these
universities/colleges during the Plan period.
Proposals for providing education to the disadvantaged which include
SC/ST/Minorities/OBC and women, is a key stone during the XI Plan. Special
development grants will be provided to universities/colleges with a higher proportion
of SC/ST and minority students. Assistance to 20 universities at the rate of Rs. 10
lakh per university and 500 colleges at the rate of Rs. 5 lakh per college would be
provided. Universities/colleges with a higher proportion of SC/ST and minority
students would also be given grants for hostels. 250 universities would be provided
Rs. 1 crore each for setting up women hostels. Similarly 3000 colleges would be
given the same amount for women hostels.
(iii) Quality and Research
The Working Group proposes the following initiatives:
Improvement/increase in faculty, research and infrastructure upgradation also
provision of sports facilities (a new scheme) is on the agenda of the UGC. The three
presidency universities would be provided Rs. 100 crore each for Nano-science
centres.
Internal quality assurance cells are proposed to be set up in colleges and
universities. 5 new inter-university centres for linguistics, social sciences, life
sciences would be set up during the XI Plan.
An amount of Rs. 97.76 core is kept aside for NAAC during the XI Plan. The
Parliamentary Standing Committee on HRD in its 172
nd
Report has recommended
that the NAAC should start accrediting individual departments of universities in
addition to its overall grading, at the earliest. The Committee emphasizes the urgent
needs to identify efficient ways and effective strategies for expediting the
assessment and accreditation by NAAC within a stipulated time frame.
Setting up new autonomous colleges and strengthening Academic staff colleges,
establishment of five Regional institutes of professional development are some of the
steps for quality improvement.
A provision of Rs. 3000 crore for implementation of the recommendations of the MM
Sharma Committee on basic scientific research has been made for 250 universities.
23
Enhancement in the numbers and rates of Fellowships, teaching assistantships and
post-doctoral fellowships have been proposed.
New Schemes
Following four new initiatives are proposed by the Working Group on higher
education under the University Sector the XI Plan:
A. Establishment of international institute of rural technologies & research
(IIRT)
The MHRD has proposed establishment of the International Institute of Rural
Technologies & Research (IIRT) in India for providing opportunities for rural
technological studies to meet the society's rural needs.
THE CHARACTER OF IIRT
The Institute will be fully autonomous in all respects including academic matter to
attain a Deemed to be university status as a de-nova institution. NCRI will be the
nodal Agency for implementation of IIRT
While the Institute's operation are fully funded by the government of India, resources
would be generated through consultancies and project implementation for both
Indian and international clients. The Institute will also establish a corpus fund with
the help of the NCRI/ State Government donations form national and international
sources.
The institute will strive to integrate education in a fundamental sense with the rural
growth processes.
ORGANIZATION OF IIRT:
The institute will broadly consists of two distinct parts: (i) Schools of Study (ii)
a Gandhian Centre for Holistic Development.
B. Proposals for Students Belonging to Minority Communities in Higher
Education
As a follow-up of the recommendations of the Justice Rajinder Sachar Committee,
allocation for education for minorities is proposed to be enhanced during the XI Plan.
This has been recommended by the Working Group.
The National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA)
proposes to establish a Center for study of issues in minority education The NCERT
is required to build up a data bank and strengthen its educational information system
on the above subject.. The UGC is expected to provide special assistance to
State/Central/Deemed Universities and other institutions of higher learning to create
hostel facilities for girl students in all identified Muslim Concentrated districts. It is
also required to proVide development grants to colleges located in Muslim
Concentrated blocks in rural areas and smaller towns for building hostels,
strengthening infrastructure and other faculties. The expansion of the existing
capacities of the Aligarh Muslim University and the Maulana Azad National Urdu
University and enlargement of the scope of their activities is proposed with an
estimated expenditure of Rs. 800 crores in the 11
th
Five Year Plan.
24
For the Modernization of Madarsas and for the development of infrastructure of
minority educational institutions in areas where educational backward minorities
reside an outlay of Rs. 725 crores is proposed.
C. A new programme of Rs. 200 crore to encourage sports and related activities in
colleges/universities has been recommended by the Working Group.
D. A projected requirement of Rs. 2500 crore during the XI Plan is proposed for the
new central sector scheme, namely, Higher Education Refinance Corporation.
A token provision of Rs. 1 crore has been made in the Budget of 2007-08 of the
Department of Higher Education for the proposed Student Loan Scheme/Refinance
Corporation.
Annexure-I
Schemes to be funded through the University Grants Commission
SINo
A
1
2
3
4
5
6
B
7
8
Scheme
Enhancing Access
Upgrading
Universities to the level o@
Central Universities
Deemed Universities
Strengthening infrastructure
of existing State
Universities
New State Universities
Strengthening infrastructure6000 Colleges @
of existinQ ColleQes
New Colleges
Special Developmen
Grants to:
New
Departments/Faculties/
Centres
Faculties of Medical Studies~ I I Central Universities in
in All Central Universities 0
North Eastern ReQion
Rate ~ m o u n t
Rs. In
crores.
RS.20 Croresl
University/ year
25Universities @Rs.5
crores/University
164 Universities @
RS.10 crores / University
150 Universities
@Rs.1 Ocrore/ University
State20 Universities 2000.00
125.00
1640.00
1500.00
6000.00
6000.00
Rs....Crore / College
6000 Colleges @ RS.1
Crore
100 Departments @
RS.5 crores/ Department
North a€" Eastern
Reaion.750.00
500.00
Remarks.
One State
University in each
state to be
funded at the
level of Central
University.
ryo each old
deemed
universities.
For faculty
positions,
infrastructure &
research to help
hem effectively
compete with
premier
institutions.
25
SINo
9
10
11
C
12
13
D.
14
15
E.
16
17
18
19
20
Scheme
Commemorate
Education in
Kolkata & Madras
Universities.
5 State
Universities
Sports facilities
Universities
Promoting Inclusiveness
and Equity
Gender Equity:
1VV0men Hostel
Universities
Women Hostel for Colleges
Social Group Equity
(i)Special Developmen
Grants to:
Universities with relatively
higher proportion of SC/ST,
Minorities
Colleges with relatively
higher proportion 0
SC/ST/Minorities
Grant for Hostels
Universities with
higher proportion
SC/ST/Minorities/
students in hostels
Colleges with
higher proportion
SC/ST/Minorities/Poor
students hostel.
A© Development
Community Colleges
(ii) Special Grants for
Capacity Building Initiative
if
or SC/ST/OBC Minorities
0:
Schemes for persons with
Disabilities
Schemes for promotion 0
Higher Education to
minorities
Rate Amount Remarks.
Rs. In
crores.
Higher Universities @ RS.100 300.00 For rejuvenation
Mumbai crore/ University of infrastructure
Technologica15 Universities @ RS.100 500.00 For infrastructure
crores/ Universities development.
inAII Universities and 200.00 New Scheme
ColleQes
in250 Universities @ 250.00
RS.1.00 croret
University
3000 Colleges @ croret 3000.00
ColleQe
20 Universities @ RS.10 10.00
lakh/ Universities per
annum
500 Colleges @ RS.5 125.00
lakh/ College per annum
relatively20 Universities @ RS.10 10.00
0 lakh /Universities per
Poor annum
relatively500 Colleges @ RS.5 125.00
0 lakh/ College per annum
'0
500 colleges @Rs 25 125.00
Lakh per college
500.00 Infrastructure
Development,
~ e a c h i n g aids,
ifellowships etc
500.00 Fellowships,
Projects
Development and
26
Remarks.
Rs. In
crores.
other assistance.
Amount Rate SINo Scheme
Regional Equity
Special Development
assistance to:
21
F.
50.00
!Areas
Universities in Backward 50 Universities @ RS.1
crore /University
22 Colleges in Backward 1000 Colleges @ RS.50 500.00
lakh/College
23
~ r e a s
1000 Colleges @ Rs. 10 500.00
lakh /College per annum
24
Colleges in Rural Areas
500.00
(excluding CentraIlakh /College per annum
University)
25
Universities in emote areas 25 Universities @ RS.10
Universities in Small Towns 50 Universities @ RS.10 250.00
lakh/ University per
annum
26 Colleges in Small Towns 250.00
lakh /college
500 Colleges @ RS.10
27 To provide assistance for New Scheme Over a period 0
setting up B.Ed. Faculty in
150.00
ime due to
College/ Universities 0 under-investment
each District Headquarters. in higher
education.
IThese allocations
are made with
he commitmen
hat a similar sum
(plus allowance
or inflation)
would be made in
he XII Plan as
well.
G. Mitigation of Quality Gaps
in Colleges
28 Fulfillment of Quality Gaps IAssuming 50% covered 5584.47
in XI Plan and 40% as
Central Plan.
29 Faculty improvement @ RS.12 lakh/teacher for 240.00
Iprogramme (FI P) 2000 teachers
30 Catch up grants to young 500 colleges @ Rs 50 250.00
colleges lakh
31 Rejuvenation 0 500 colleges @ Rs 50 250.00
infrastructure in old colleges Lakh
32 Autonomous colleges @Rs 1 Crore/college 250.00
400 colleges)
33 New Autonomous colleges @Rs 1 Crore/colleoe 400.00
27
SINo Scheme Rate !Amount Remarks.
Rs. In
crores.
1'400 colleoes)
34 Universities with potentia110 Universities @ Rs 30 390.00
!For excellence Crores/university + 9 old
university @Rs 10 Crore
35 Colleges with potential for @ Rs 1 Crores/colleges 138.80
Excellence (100 New Colleges +
@Rs. 40 Lakh for 97 Old
ColleQes)
36 Implementation of the 250 Universities 3000.00 MM
recommendation of the Committee
Empowered Committee in recommendation
basic Scientific Research @ Rs.
crores aer annum
New Scheme
37 Exchange of junior faculty500 Teachers @ Rs 1 25.00
~ o institutions of Eminence Lakh/teacher per annum
38 IAcademic Staff College 250.00 Based on
GrouD report
39 Establishment of Regional Converting 5 Academic 50.00 New Schemes
Institutes for Professional Staff Colleges (ASC) on
Development experimental basis @Rs.
10 Crores/lnstitute
~ O Fellowship for doing30,000 Fellowships @Rs 1500.00
M.Phil./ Ph.d 1 Lakh p.a/ per fellow
~ 1 Teaching Assistantship for 150.00 New Scheme
Doctoral students (Non
Fellowship)
42 Postdoctoral Fellowships 1000 Fellowship @ Rs 3 150.00
Lakh per fellow/pa
43 NAAC 97.76 Based on
Sub-Group
Report
H. Internal Quality Assurance
Cells
f44 Universities 150 Universities @Rs 5 7.50
Lakh/universitv
f45 Colleges 14000 Colleges @Rs 2 80.00
Lakh/colleoe
f46 Establishment of New IUCs 5 New IUCs @ Rs.200 1000.00 (a) Linguistics;
crores. (b)
Education
Research
Policy & Planning
lA.© Life Sciences
(d) Humanities &
Social Sciences
(e) Rural
Education.
I. ICT Inteoration
Dioital Repository
28
Sharma
600.00
sUb-I
the
Higher
- for
Higher
SINo Scheme Rate !Amount
Rs. In
147 (a) Universities
crores.
250.00
48 (b) colleges 1080.00
49
50
51
ICT for Universities &
Colleqes
Special Assistance to ten 2000
Premier Universities
(a) One-time grant
(b) Recurring grant
(average 10 Science
departments per university) 50.00
~ o r five years 50.00
(i) Research (@Rs. 10 Lakh
p.a)
(ii) Teaching (@Rs.10 lakh
p.a.)
Summer schools for 30.00
undergraduate and
Ipostgraduate students
Total
150.00
2,100.00
30.00
143,033.53
Remarks.
Based on Sub-
Group report.
Based on X plan
report
29
Chapter IV
TECHNICAL EDUCATION
In the context of the robust economic growth in India, anticipating more than 8%
economic growth rate in the coming years, the technical education system will be
required to play a crucial role, in-terms of development of knowledge and skill­
oriented manpower capable of fulfilling the requirements of the various sectors of the
economy.
Tenth Plan objectives and Key Issues
The key issues relating to technical and management education during the Tenth
Plan were: a continuing focus on increased intake capacity; improving quality;
faculty development; optimization of resources through networking;
development of information technology education; improving the quality and quantity
of research in technologies; modernization/development of curriculum; international
benchmarking developing capacity in new and emerging technology areas; strategic
planning and management of the technical education system; and informal sector
development.
Progress during Tenth Plan:
Expansion of the system: The Tenth Plan period saw a phenomenal increase in
the number of institutions in the technical and manqgement education sector in the
country, mainly due to private sector initiatives. During this period, the number of
AICTE approved Degree Engineering / Technology institutions has risen from 1,057
to 1,522 and the annual intake has risen from 2,95,796 to 5,82,590. Similarly, the
numbers of Polytechnics have increased from 1203 in 2001-02 to 1244 in 2005-06
with corresponding rise in intake from 235,507 to 265,416.
Similarly, other sectors of technical education have also grown during the period.
Besides, with the upgradation of University of Roorkee to liT, the number of IITs
increased from 6 to 7 during the plan period. With a view to give fillip to science
education and related research two new institutes, i.e., Indian Institutes of Science
Education and Research (IISER) have started functioning and one more such
institute is being set up at Mohali in Punjab. Further during the period 17 RECs and
3 other institutions were upgraded to NIT level. A new Indian Institute of Information
Technology, Manufacturing and Design was established at Jabalpur making it the
third institute in the series. All the four Technical Teacher Training Institutes (TTTls)
were upgraded as National Institutes of Technical Teachers' Training and Research
NITTTR. Several Engineering colleges were conferred with Deemed to-be-University
status. Many Private Universities have become operational imparting technical
education through legislation of various State Governments. Efforts made during the
Plan for improving quality of technical education and increased usage of ICTs
To enhance opportunities for research in science and technology and improve of
quality of education, an access to electronic journals and data basis is being
provided to technical institutions. The AICTE and Indian Digital Library for Science
and Technology (INDEST) have joined hand to form a combined AICTE-INDEST
Consortium
30
To enhance learning effectiveness and to expand access to high quality education, a
National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) has been
launched. This would provide content support in the form of digital video-based
courses/web based courses/enrichment of programmes on a sustained
basis/enhance learning effectiveness. The ongoing Technical Education Quality
Improvement Programme with World Bank assistance aims at up scaling and
supporting ongoing efforts of the GOI to improve quality of technical education.
Challenges in Technical Education: There are many challenges before the
technical education system in the country. One hand, there are sectoral imbalances
in terms of availability of opportunities and on the other there is uneven density of
professional education institutions in some of the regions. Some states are lagging
behind national average in availability of seats for admission. Making available
adequate opportunities for admission and upgrading the technical education system
is a major challenge. Another area of concern is inadequate availability of faculty
both in terms of quality and in numbers. Promotion of R&D efforts, improvement in
employability of trained graduates and post-graduates are some of the areas which
need attention.
The above issues have been detailed in the Report of the Working Group on
Technical Education:
Expanding Technical Education: The Technical Education sector must be geared up
to meet the manpower requirement not only of the needs of Indian Industry, R&D
houses etc. within the country, but also for the global requirement of technical
manpower. For this purpose, the intake of technical education sector must grow at
15% rate. During the last plan period major rise in intake of institutions was due to
private initiatives it is proposed during Eleventh Plan that Government would take
initiative in expanding the system.
Assuring Quality of Technical Education: During the XI plan period, quality of
technical education sector continue to be the focus area with emphasis on Masters
and Doctorates level programmes to lead the technological revolution. While at
present it is estimated that about 450 Doctorates are produced in the country per
.annum in Engineering & Technology, these figures need to be increased by tenfold
to supply the much-needed trained manpower in the country and abroad. Similar
targets may be made for other disciplines too. Raising quality standards and
achieving world-class excellence by international benchmarking in the midst of big
expansion is a major challenge. .
Ensuring relevance to global/local market / industry needs and Improving
Employability: Relevance of technical education should be seen with reference to
marketability of the graduate and postgraduate students it produces and its
relevance for the socio-economic development of a society. Improving employability
of out-turn is a major challenge. In this direction, partnership between industry and
institutions needs to be emphasized in framing syllabi, enabling industry-oriented
student projects and promotion of mission-oriented R&D relevant to industrial needs.
Providing Access and Affordability: There is an urgent need for broadening
access to higher education by expanding it and by making it affordable.
Curriculum Development: Promoting curricular modernization / revisions /
innovations, for greater employability of graduates, in view of the stiff global
competition is a major challenge.
31
Addressing the shortage of qualified faculty: Shortage of qualified and competent
faculty is been identified as the most pertinent issue in the development of the
technical education system in the country.
Enabling Faculty Development: Attracting, retaining and developing faculty in
technical education sector, particularly in the emerging areas of technology is
crucially important
Facilitating Modernization: Modernization of technical education sector continue to
be a challenge with an objective to modernize laboratories and their equipment, set
up state-of-the-art laboratories in the frontier areas of technology, use leT in
education in improving teaching-learning process etc. Modernization of technical
institutions particularly those under State Government sector shall be a major
challenge.
Promoting R&D and Innovation: Research and development will be a challenge
with emphasis on research on problems of industrial relevance
Networking of Institution: Networking / sharing of knowledge / competency shall
be a major challenge for overall growth and development of technical education
system.
Facilitating inclusion of disadvantaged groups I areas I sections of society I
states and reducing imbalances: While the overall growth in technical education
has been impressive, it has also created severe regional imbalances as well as
sharp skew grossly in favour of a few disciplines neglecting many vital sectors. There
is tremendous imbalance in access to technical education in urban and rural areas.
Also, there are wide variations in per person expenditure on technical education
amongst various states of India. Improving access and equity in the North East and
J&K is needed. The four States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil
Nadu, have an intake capacity of over 3, 00,000 amounting to more than half of the
national capacity
Proposal for the Eleventh Plan
An outlay of RS.39402.50 crores has been proposed for the Technical Education
Sector for the Xlth Plan. The details are in the table given below:
Name of the Scheme S.N XI PLAN
0 2007-12
Proposed
A B
Outlay(Rs.
in crore) I
A.EXISTING SCHEMES
1 Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme 400
(Including Capacity Expansion, Upgradation and
Strenothening Capabilities)
2 Payment for Professional & Spl. Services -
3 Technology Development Mission -
'Meroed with IITs)
4 Research & Development -
32
5 MODROB -
6 Thrust Areas of Tech. Education -
7 Research & Information services -
8 National Prog. For HRD in IT (Soft. Manpower Dev.) -
9 National Programme for Earth Quake Engineering 20
10 National Prog..for Technology Enhanced learning 40
11 Community Polytechnics 100
12 Polvtechnic for Disabled 20
B Grants-in-aid to Institutions in Technical Education
1 AICTE 1500
2 Sant longowallnstitute of Engineering &Technology 25
3 IISc , Banqalore 500
4 IITs 1500
5 NITs 1200
6 IIMs 200
7 Investment in Ed Cil
-
8 North-Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology
"f\lERIST)
30
9 lilT Allahabad 100
10 IIITM, Gwalior 50
11 TTTls (NITTRs) 120
12 NITIE, Mumbai 40
13 NIFFT, Ranchi 30
14 SPA, New Delhi 35
15 ISM, Dhanbad 100
16 BOATS includinq Apprenticeship Traininq 150
17 Informal Sector Development
18 Support for National level Entrance Test Exam and
Competency based Assessment Services
19 Support for Dev. of Educational Administration.
20 National Mission for Tech. Education.
21 International Technical Cooperation (Collaboration/
Networking Programme in Technical Education)
10
22 Indian Institute of Information Technoloqy, Jabalpur 50
23 CIT, Kokrajhar 30
24 11M (North East), Shillong 265
25 lilT Design and Manufacturing Kanchipuram 200
26 3 Indian Institute of Science For Education and Research
!(Pune, Kolkata & Mohali)
Transformation of 7 State University Institutions to the level
of IITs
Setting up of 20 New Indian Institute of Information
Technology
Setting up of 5 new Indian Institute of Science For Education
and Research (includinq Bhopal arid Thiruvananthapuram)
1000
2100
2000
1500
Setting up of 2 New School of Planning and Architecture
!(Bhopal &Vijayawada)
Setting up of 8 New IITs (including in Rajasthan, Andhra
240
5200
33
Pradesh & Bihar)
Settinq up of 7 New IIMs
Settinq UP of 20 New NITs
Establishing 50 centers for training and research in frontier
areas(in existinq institutions)
Setting up of 125 New Polytechnics
Setting up of 50 new Polytechnics for Women
1750
1000
500
1537.50
615
Creation of Infrastructure facility in Polytechnics for
Manufacturinq Sector
Strenqtheninq the Base for Research
Promotion of Innovations and Transfer of Technologies
(including 20 New Centers for Innovation & Technology
Transfer)
Faculty Augmentation and Development
Innovations in Teaching and Learning
Enhancing Knowledge Resource Base
Reducing Regional Imbalances and Social Inequities
(Schemes for disadvantaged groups and deficient areas /
States)
Technical Education Industrial Consortium Scheme
Virtual Technical University
Capacity expansion/Upgradation/Strengthening Capabilities
of technical Institutions (includinq State funded)
Reimbursement of accreditation fee to technical institutes
Implementation of aBC Reservation in Management &
Engineering Institutes (Moily Committee)
Total
400
500
500
1500
100
100
100
100
100
1000
125
10700
39,402.50
The Working Group on Technical Education has listed the following Goals and
Targets for the XI Five Year Plan:
Expansion of technical Education sector: The expansion of technical education is
needed to cater to the vital requirement of technical manpower for sector-wise
growth and overall GDP growth. In the last few years, GDP has been growing at 6 ­
8% which has been accompanied by the increase in intake at about 10%. Based on
this past trend, to keep pace with the target GDP growth of 10% in XI Plan, it is
proposed that the intake of technical education sector during the plan period shall be
targeted to grow at 15% annually.
The manpower output is required to be supply-driven rather than demand-driven in
order to over produce manpower for a post-GATS era.
Expansion of Capacities in eXisting World-class Institutions: The Intake
capacities capacity of existing IITs, IIMs, SPA, NIPER and other existing Institutions
of National importance needs to be increased at least twofold.
Upgrading existing Institutions to World-class level: At present, only IITs, IISc,
IIMs and very few other institutions can boast of world-class standards. To enable
34
the Indian technical institutions to compete with the best institutions all across the
globe, At least another 100 technical education institutions must are proposed to be
identified in a rational and proportionate manner from amongst the various fields of
technical education and brought upto world-class level in terms of faculty and
infrastructure in the 11 th plan. It is proposed that these select 100 institutions would
play the role of a lead institution in regional networks.
Modernizing State Government Technical Institutions: State Government funded
Technical Institutions suffer from poor infrastructure, laboratory, library, computer
facilities etc., even though they get the best students. Their modernization is crucial
to the enhancement of quality of technical education. Upgradation of 200 such
institutions is proposed.
Revitalization of Technician Education: It may be worthwhile to explore two
streams of engineers - one with emphasis on design science I knowledge and the
other on practical skill orientation, so as to provide manpower for two different needs
of industry.
A Greater Support for World Class R&D and Innovation: Research and
innovation are central to the economic competitiveness. In order to increase the
research capability and global standing of India, it is imperative to develop a National
Innovation Policy by the Government as well as Industry and academia. For visibility
of research outcome, steps must also be taken for creation I modernization of
research infrastructure. This will help identify broad based national research priorities
in select identified strategically important areas, improve excellence, relevance and
impact of research, and maintain I improve the international quality, diversity, impact
and industrial-societal relevance of research in various areas of technical education.
Furthermore, we must encourage high risk, but potentially high return, adventurous
research in at least some select areas.
Strategy for Implementation
In order to achieve the above goals and targets, it is proposed to
• Modernize I upgrade I expand I diversify I strengthen existing institutions to World
Class level, especially hitherto poorly funded state government institutions, by
providing funds, faculty and infrastructure of international standards
• Grant some degree of academic and administrative autonomy to selected
technical institutions,
• Address the problem of faculty shortage and development.
• Design and develop market oriented and design based curricula.
• Promote paradigm shift to learner centered technical education.
• Identify and excel in select high priority emerging thrust areas.
• Expand open and distance education and promote ICT
• Develop Technician Education
• Promote involvement of industry in curricula development, research etc.
• Facilitate international cooperation and global engagement
• Strengthen existing schemes for modernization of technical education for creation
of digital infrastructure for learning and teaching, e-connectivity, computing
facilities, smart classrooms, digital library and documentation services.
• Enhance Resource Allocation to Technical Education
35
NEW SCHEMES proposed by the Working Group:
A. Capacity Expansion and Upgradation of 100 technical institutions
The technical education sector should expand to meet the growing manpower
requirements of the industry, R&D and teaching both at the local Indian and the
global levels. For this purpose, the intake of technical education sector must at least
maintain the present growth rate of 15%. At the same time, there should be major
investments by the government, instead of abandoning the technical education to the
private investors. The government investments should help to upgrade about 100
technical institutions, apart from the existing centrally funded National Institutes of
Importance such as IITs, IISc and IIMs, of substantial intake capacity to world-class
standard.
B. Expansion of Centrally Funded Technical Institutions
Implementation of Recommendations of the Oversight Committee: The
recent recommendations of the Oversight Committee to increase the intake
capacities of the centrally funded technical institutions in the categories of IITs, NITs,
lilTs, NITTRs, and IIMs would provide for an opportunity for major capacity
expansion of high level technical and management institutions while providing for
social equity.
The expanded technical education capacity should offer substantial scope for Post­
Graduate and Doctoral level programmes. The present level of about 450 Doctorates
per annum in Engineering & Technology needs to be increased by tenfold within the
next five years. This would require considerable attention to develop the capabilities
of existing faculty and to attract competent faculty to the teaching profession.
C. Establishing 3 new IITs
The Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (SAC-PM) has strongly
recommended establishing three new IITs for Engineering Education and Research
during the Xlth Five Year Plan.
D. Setting up of 7 more new IIMs
In view of the growing requirements of the management education system in the
country, the working group feels that the present number of IIMs (i.e., 7) is quite
inadequate and recommends that seven more IIMs be established in the XI Plan so
that there is one 11M each in most of the major States by the end of the XI Plan.
E. Setting up of 20 more new NITs
It is proposed to set up 20 more NITs in the 11th Plan period mostly by converting
suitable State Government institutions.
F. Setting up of 5 new IISERs
Two IISERs have been set up in Pune and Kolkata. The third Institute in the chain of
IISERs has been approved to be set up at 1VI0haii in Punjab. Subsequently, the
Planning Commission has given approval for setting up two more IISERs in Bhopal
and Thiruvananthapuram during the Eleventh Plan. In the 11th Five Year Plan, it is
proposed to set up an additional three IISERs making it 5 new IISERs in all.
36
G. Setting Up Of 20 New Indian Institutes Of Information Technology (lilTs):
It is proposed to set up by the end of 11th Plan a new system of Indian Institutes of
Information Technology in India numbering a total of 24 lilTs with one in each state.
Out of these, four have already been set up.
H. Setting up 2 new SPAs
There is an urgent need for at least five Schools of Planning and Architecture spread
in the southern, eastern, central and western parts of the country.
The Planning Commission has accorded 'in-principle' approval for setting up of two
new schools of planning & architecture in the first instance and they are being set up
at Bhopal and Vijayawada.
I. Transformation of 7 Universities Institutions to the level of IITs
It is proposed to implement the recommendations of the Joshi Committee (followed
by the Anandakrishnan Committee Report) and enhance the capabilities and
facilities of seven select existing university/ institutions listed earlier in section 4.2.1
to the level of the IITs.
J. Strengthening Capabilities of 200 State Funded Institutions
The State Government Technical institutions attract the brightest students. However,
most of such institutions suffer from severe deficiencies in terms of academic
infrastructure, equipment, faculty, library, accommodation, physical facilities etc. For
the up-gradation of the State technical institutions, Central Government and State
Government may make funding available in the ratio of 75:25. A suitable one-time
grant may be made by the Central Government for each of about 200 State level
engineering colleges for modernization during the next five years.
K. Establishing 50 centers for training and research in frontier areas:
While it is necessary to expand, strengthen and modernize, we also need to diversify
into new emerging frontier areas of science and technology to make a meaningful
and powerful impact in the world marked. It is proposed to establish 50 centers of
excellence for advanced training and research in the following areas: Biotechnology,
Bio-informatics, Nano-materials and Nano-technologies, Mechatronics, MEMS, High
Performance Computing, Engineering ~ / Industrial Design, Chaos, Complexity and
Self-organizing systems, Professional / Business/ Technical/ Engineering Ethics,
Value Education and Consciousness Studies, Leadership, Communication,
Creativity, Innovation and Soft Life Skills Training and Development.
L. Revamping Polytechnic Education
There is an urgent need to restore the purpose of polytechnic education towards
strong skill content. The polytechnic education is a State subject. But the State
Governments have not been able to remove obsolescence and modernize the
laboratories and workshops of the existing Polytechnics. They, therefore, are not in a
position to establish new polytechnics. Ministry of HRD as a special drive may take
necessary steps to provide one time assistance for establishing polytechnics and
upgrading/ creating infrastructure facilities in the existing polytechnics. '
37
M. Strengthening the Base for Research in Technologies
In order to strengthen base for Research & Innovation, it is necessary to promote (i)
Institute Research Studentships (subject specific studentships, project studentships,
etc.) and Research Fellowships (e.g. postdoctoral, advanced, senior, industrial, etc.).
(ii) Promote Research/Project work at UG level (e.g., through awarding honors
degrees, UG research grants, summer research programme.
N. Promotion of Innovations and Transfer of Technologies
Rapid advances and changes in technologies as well as the changing patterns of
demand for products and processes necessitate specially trained manpower in
innovations techniques and introduction into the economy. Establishment of 20
mission oriented Centres for Innovation and Technology Transfer in various product
categories and regions will fulfill such needs.
O. Faculty Augmentation and Development
There is an acute shortage of teachers in the country in all areas covered under
technical education. The number of teachers required is as large as 152,590 in 1522
technical institutes with an enrollment capacity of 5, 82,590 in the year 2006-2007.
For a well planned and coordinated development of the faCUlty at the national level, it
is imperative fu fully implement the recommendations of the Rama Rao Committee
Report on Faculty Development 2006
38
Chapter V
Distance Learning, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and
Scholarship
S. No. Schemes XI Plan
1 IGNOU 8116.00
2. Scholarship for College and 1555.00
University Students
3. National Mission in Education 5306.00
through ICT
TOTAL 14977.00
Access to education through the Open and distance Learning system is expanding
rapidly. The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) now has a cumulative
enrolment of about 15 lakh. The University introduced 16 new programmes during
2006-07. The Distance Education Council (DEC), an authority of IGNOU is
coordinating the activities of 13 State Open Universities and 119 Institutes of
Correspondence Courses in conventional universities.
1. An outlay of Rs. 8116 crore during the XI Plan is proposed for IGNOU. This is for
strengthening of IGNOU and existing State Open Universities (SOUs) setting up new
SOUs, and strengthening CCls. as also for establishment of an independent
statutory authority, namely, the Distance Education Council.
Distance Education Council
The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Ministry of Human Resource
Development has recommended establishment of Distance Education Council as a
separate independent statutory authority. A provision of Rs. 700.00 crore is
proposed for DEC in the 11 th Plan.
Setting up of State open universities, Support to existing SOUs And GGls
The setting up of 8 more State Open Universities is envisaged under the Eleventh
Plan. In addition, another 100 CCls are proposed to be supported in their quality up­
gradation efforts through DEC Initiatives.
2. National Mission in Education through Information and Communication
Technology (ICT)
The MHRD has proposed a National Mission in Education through Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) with a proposed outlay of Rs. 5306.00 crore
during the XI Plan for which a provision of Rs. 502 crore has been made in the 2007­
08 bUdget of the Department of Higher Education.
The main objectives of the scheme are:
(i) To deliver the benefits of ICT enabled learning including academic, vocational and
life skills. The Mission would focus attention on six challenge areas with a view to
achieving technological breakthrough in the field of:
(a) very low cost, low power consuming access device and free bandwidth for
institutions
39
(b) research in pedagogical techniques and development of pedagogically efficient
learning modules for the entire spectrum of learners,
(c) standardization and quality assurance of contents to make them world class,
(d) research in the field of virtual laboratories,
(e) techniques and strategies for imparting digital literacy to every Indian, and
(f) creation of virtual technological university,
Projected Qut Comes of the proposed Mission:
Availability of e-books in English for various courses, Value addition to e-books by
experts to make them pedagogically effective, easy to understand with depth of
knowledge and assurance of high quality, Provision of reference books and research
papers from reputed publishers free of cost to students and teachers. Provision of
crucial software packages mostly from open domain for practice and value addition
in capabilities of students.
Spreading digital literacy, Virtual Technological University run by IITs to enable
students passing out from not so renowned institutions to get quality education.
Development of very low cost access device either in the form of a laptop or a mobile
phone coupled with a tiny projection display device so as to bring high speed internet
access to get relevant e-Iearning content being developed and hosted by us and
various other institutions within reach for large section of masses and students.
EduSAT teaching hub at each of the 100 Central Institutions. EduSAT Satellite
Interactive Terminals at each of the 100 Central Institutions of Higher Learning. Each
of the 18000 Institutions of Higher Learning in the Country (whether Govt funded or
Self Financing) would have 1 Satellite Interactive Terminal for providing network
connectivity.
3. Scheme of Scholarship for College and University students
A scholarship scheme is proposed to provide financial assistance to meritorious
students at Graduation level and Post Graduation level including professional
courses like MBBS, Engineering, etc. Students pursuing under-graduate studies
through NOU and SOU will not be eligible for scholarship under the Scheme.
Scholarship will be paid to students electronically through bank accounts opened by
them specifically for the purpose in any of the designated banks. Bank (s) will issue
co-branded ATM Cards to the awardees. This will include flexibility of
withdrawal of scholarship by the awardees through ATMs of all nationalized banks,
especially SBI and its subsidiaries.
The students who obtain at least 60% or more marks in XII of 10+2 pattern SSBE !
Intermediate! Pre-University will be considered for the scholarship based on Board­
wise merit list. Securing at least 60% of marks in the Annual examination of college!
university would be applicable for scholarships during subsequent years of
education. Selection of scholarship holders will be decided only once at the time of
passing out from class XII and thereafter the scholarship will be continued to be
renewed up to PG level. Those students who had been getting scholarship at the
school level (i.e. from Class XI to Class XII would also be considered provided they
meet other benchmark criteria.
It is estimated that a total of 70,000 (of which 50 % will be for girls) fresh scholarship
at the graduation level and 15000 scholarship at PG level will be awarded during first
year of the scheme. After the scheme has been in operation for a period of 5 years,
40
the number of scholarship being awarded every year would reach to 4, 20,000 in the
fifth year.
Rate of Scholarship
Graduation level Rs 1000 per month (for Engineering, MBBS, BE
and B)
Post Graduation level Rs 2000 per month
There will be parental income ceiling of Rs3 lakh per annum for eligibility of
scholarship.
Each Board will be allotted a specified number of scholarships. The Board will
accordingly issue eligibility certificate to the selected students coming in the Merit list
of the + 2 Exam of that Board. All such students may seek admission in any full time
1sl year Degrees ! proposed courses of their choice in any recog nized college!
university within the country. The allocation would be reviewed after every five years.
An outlay of Rs. 14 crore has been provided for the scheme of scholarships for
college and university students in the Annual Plan 2007-08. As the scheme was
forwarded separately by the Department of Higher Education to the Planning
Commission and has not been included in the Working Group recommendations,
the total estimates under the scheme for the Eleventh Plan has not been firmed up
yet.
41
Chapter VI
Development of Education of SC,ST, Minorities, Girls and other disadvantaged
groups ­
Recommendations of the Working Group on Development of Education of SCs, STs,
and other disadvantaged social groups in the higher education sector, including
technical education, are as follows:
• Deficiencies in the disaggregated data pertaining to the educational status of
social groups like SCs, STs, OBCs, Minorities and other disadvantaged
groups is a major handicap. The Working Group, therefore, recommended
that this data gap need to be addressed and that the Registrar General of
India (RGI) may be directed to ensure availability of disaggregated data for
OBCs, Backward Castes amongst minorities and other disadvantaged groups.
• All the universities should establish SC, ST/OBC/Disadvantaged Groups Cells
at the earliest, which could also function as anti-discrimination Cell.
• Government should regulate the fee structure in higher education and in order
to make higher education accessible by all, should introduce schemes like
fee-waiver, fee-reimbursements, scholarships, free textbooks, free hostel
accommodation and other facilities at subsidized rates for students belonging
to the disadvantaged groups (SC, ST, OBC, Minorities, Women).. This is
necessary in view of the increasing cost of higher education due to increasing
number of private higher educational institutions. Subsidized loan facilities for
the fees/hostel expenditure could also be considered as an option.
• Reservation being mandatory, government should cancel the
recognition/accreditation of the universities/institutions, which fail to implement
the reservation policy. Institutions of higher learning may have their own
autonomy but at the same time they need to provide protection under the law
in relation to reservation etc. UGC should make strict rules and regulations to
fill in the post of reserved category. Defaulting universities or affiliated
colleges should not be granted financial support or any grants.
• Special coaching should be provided to reserved category candidates for
successfully clearing SET or NET examination.
• UGC should prepare norms and guidelines for allocating students for Ph.D.
courses. The Professors guiding these Ph.D students should be sensitive to
their backgrounds. The quota for Ph.D. in technology for reserved category
candidates should be increased.
• Coaching schemes for SCs/STs and Minorities should be transferred to
IVIHRD from other Ministries.
• In respect of education of girls the Working Group recommended an increase
in hostel facilities for girls and women in existing educational institutions.
Further, a special scheme for construction of hostels especially for girls need
to be introduced. Besides, every institution should have women study centres.
Further, Day care centres should be made available in all institutions
42
especially where girls/women are studying / employed. More scholarships
should be extended to girls/women for taking up professional studies. A
programme of gender sensitization for the disabled girls and women should
be put in place.
• In respect of education of disabled/physically challenged students the
Working Group recommended barrier free facilities in all higher education
institutions. Disabled friendly facilities within a time frame of 3-5 years should
be made available. UGC should start a disability cell in all universities.
There should be an anti-discriminatory authority/ombudsman and an
institutionalized system for checks and balances and corrections required in
the system. More scholarships should be extended to disabled students for
taking up professional studies. As fees payable for technical education are
generally high, free ships, scholarships, subsidized fees and loan facilities
should be extended to all disabled students.
43
Chapter VII
Languages and Book Promotion
Progress during the Tenth Plan
The development of languages occupies an important place in the National Policy on
Education 1986 and the Programme of Action 1992. Promotion and development of
22 languages listed in the Schedule 8 of the Constitution, including classical
languages on the one hand and English and foreign languages on the other have
received due attention. Some of the important programmes that continued during
the Tenth Plan are promotion and development of Sanskrit and Hindi through
different institutions, training of Hindi teachers for non-Hindi speaking states;
Promotion and development of 22 languages listed in the Schedule 8 of the
Constitution, and the use of ICT in the sector.
Proposal for the Eleventh Plan
An outlay of RS.1921. 98 Crore for the Languages and Book Promotion Sectors has
been proposed by the Working Group on Languages and Book Promotion for the XI
Plan which includes Rs. 1884.13 crore for Languages and Rs. 37.85 crore for Book
Promotion.
A broad summary of the proposed outlay for the Languages Sector for the XI
Plan is in the table below:
Languages
(Rs. crore)
51. Schemes Allocation Proposed for Allocation
No the XI Plan Proposed for the XI
Plan - Total
A Continuing New
Schemes Schemes
1 Schemes for Development 521.16
of Languages
2 Schemes for Development 57.00
of Sanskrit
Total (A) 755.02 578.16 1333.18
B New Initiatives
1 National Translation - 250.00
Mission
2 Classical Languages (for - 80.00
Oriental Schools)
3 English and foreign - 1.00
Languages (NELTS)
4 Language Technology - 69.95
Applications
5. Central Institute of 150.00 --------­
Classical Tamil.
Total (B) 550.95 ----------­
Total (A+B) 755.02 1129.11 1884.13
C. Continuing Schemes for 27.85 27.85
44
Book promotion
Total © 27.85 27. 85
0 New Schemes 10.00 10.00
for Book Promotion
Total (D) 10.00 10.00
Total (C+D) 27.85 10.00 37.85
GrandTotal-Languages 782.87 1139.11 1921.98
and BookPromotion
(A+B+C+D)
The recommendations of the Working Group on Languages and Book
Promotion for the XI Plan in respect of four new schemes/initiatives are given below:
New Schemes:
1. Linguistic Survey of India
The MHRD proposes to undertake a New Linguistic Survey (NLSI) of India during XI
Plan as a Central Sector Scheme. The NLSI is proposed to commence from the
current month April, 2007. The original Linguistic Survey of India is more than 100
yeas old. It was supervised by Sir George Abraham Grierson who produced a
monumental document consisting of 19 volumes between 1894 to 1927. The
Grierson Linguistic Survey of India had identified 179 languages and 544 dialects.
Justification for New Linguistic Survey of India
During the last 100 years, ever since the first Census in 1891 there has been a
steady escalation of the number of languages and linguistic categories (such as
mother tongues vs. other tongues)
There has been a significant growth in the understanding of the complexity of issues
relating to linguistic mapping and in correlating linguistic and socio-political facts.
At the level of the individual/group, language is not simply a means of comparative
identification but a means by which an individual can secure self-expression,
education and access to resources.
With the development of tools, techniques and survey instruments and advanced
technology the time is ripe for a New Linguistic Survey of India
The theoretical advances in linguistics as well as he overall growth of social
sciences would equip the MHRD to take up the challenge of mapping languages in
a country which has the world's largest number of languages.
The Grierson's LSI provides information which is partial incomplete and of
questionable relevance as it is more than 100 years old.
Recent language studies by scholars have shown that the language situation of India
is far more variegated and complex than what Grierson's LSI recorded. While some
speech communities are as large as 338 million (as in the case of Hindi) there are
many smaller ones with as few as 10,144 as in the case of Maram in Manipur.
The proposed NLSI Survey would focus on 22 languages in the 8 Schedule and their
Geo-space but would also pay special attention to the top 15 Non-scheduled
45
Languages and also to the sign languages which are as complex as spoken
languages.
The Survey would be conducted by the CIIL, Mysore and the Departments in
select universities which have a strong base in sociology, anthropology, etc.
2. Promotion of Non-Scheduled Languages
At present there is no scheme or organization devoted exclusively for the prevention
and development of Non-Schedule 8 languages. Out of the numerous languages in
India only 22 languages are recognized by the 8
th
Schedule of the Constitution.
There are 122 other languages having at least 10,000 speakers and nearly 234
identifiable mother tongues (as per the figures given in the 2001 Census Report).
Linguists, anthropologists, historians and sociologists working on some of these
languages have indicated the cultural and linguistic significance of the Non­
scheduled languages in India
Against the above background, it is proposed to take up a new scheme for the
preservation and development of languages not covered by the 8
th
Schedule, namely
the Bharat Bhasha Vikas Yojana.
3. National Translation Mission
The MHRD has forwarded a proposal on the setting up of National Translation
Mission (NTM) during the XI Plan. This is a follow-up of the proposal prepared by
the National Knowledge Commission on the Translation Mission.
Justification for the National Translation Mission
Access to translated material is vital for increasing access to knowledge in many
critical areas and broadening and strengthening people's participation in education
and continuance learning.
There is an urgent need to expand quantity and improve quality of translation of
different types in different domains (literary, scientific, technical business etc.)
The current facilities available for translation are inadequate.
There is inadequate dissemination of good quality translations which would provide a
benchmark and create incentives for most private activities in this area.
The direct and indirect employment generation potential of translation activities is
high and can absorb a substantial part of educated youth.
Activities under the Translation Mission
(a). Translators Education:
Running short-term training programmes
Creating a course for translators as a part of language teaching programme
developing specialized courses in translation technology and related areas
Fellowship programmes
(a)Encouraging research projects
46
(b). Information dissemination
(c ). Promotion and dissemination of good quality translation
(d). Promotion of machine translation and machine aided translation:
Between English and Indian languages
One Indian language and another Indian language
Between Indian languages and major world languages
(e). Generation of high quality translation tools such as dictionaries and the sourcing
software for translation, memory, word net etc.
Constitution of the NTM
The NTM would be a stand alone institution without any support of any
existing organization. Simultaneously, it says that the NTM will be headed by an
Advisory Council of 7 members headed by the Minister of HRD or his nominee in the
chair. The Director (CIIL), Mysore will be the member-convener of the NTM. The
other 5 members will be nominated by the HRM. Over and above, these 7
members, JS (Languages), MHRD, Director (NBT) and Secretary (Sahitya Academy)
will be ex-officio members.
A Management Committee of the proposed NTM will look after the affairs of
the programme and would consist of members of participating lead institutions.
4. The Central Institute of Classical Tamil at Chennai will be set
up during the XI Plan It is also proposed to develop Tamil as a classical language.
5. Book Promotion
Under Book Promotion an outlay of Rs. 37.85 crore has been proposed for
the XI Plan. The main scheme under the sector is regarding the National Book Trust
(NBT) which undertakes the following:
• Promotion of Indian Books Abroad
• Assistance to authors and pUblishers
• Promotion of children's literature (National Centre for Children
Literature)
During the XI Plan, the NBT proposes to strengthen its three regional offices
at Bangalore, Mumbai and Calcutta to ensure wider reach of NBT Books in various
parts of the country. These regional offices hold book exhibitions, book fares and
arrange book releasing functions. It also proposes to strengthen its activities in the
North Eastern Region. The NBT has a subsidy project under which assistance to
authors and publishers for producing books of an acceptable standard at reasonable
prices for students and teachers of Indian universities and technical institutes.
Training courses in publishing, and Book Export promotion activities would be
stepped up. During the XI Plan the on-going scheme of assistance to voluntary
organizations for book promotional activities would continue.
47
Appendix-I
No. M-12015/5/2005-Edn.
Planning Commission
(Education Division)
Yojana Bhavan, Sansad Marg,
New Delhi-11 0001
Dated 1
st
March, 2006
ORDER
Subject: Formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-12 - Constitution of
Steering Committee on Secondary, Higher and Technical Education
for the Eleventh Five Year Plan
In the context of the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-12 for
the Education sector, it has been decided to set up a Steering Committee on
Secondary, Higher and Technical Education for Eleventh Five Year Plan.
2. The composition of the Steering committee is at Annexure-I
3. The Terms of Reference
a) To formulate broad objectives and identify thrust areas in the secondary,
higher and technical education sectors for the Eleventh Five Year Plan.
b) To provide all necessary guidance to the Working Groups
c) To work out financial requirements of Secondary, Higher and Technical
Education and suggest outlays based on Working Groups recommendations.
d) To work out an operational strategy for implementation of the
recommendations of the Working GroupslTask Force/Committees of MHRD
and to suggest changes, if any.
4. The expenses towards TAIDA of the official members in connection with the
meetings of the Steering Committee will be met by the respective
Governments/Departments/Institutions to which they belong. TAIDA to non-official
members will be paid by the Planning Commission as admissible to Grade-I officers
of the Government of India.
The Steering Committee should submit their report within six months.
Sd/­
(R. Sridharan)
JS(Administration)
48
Planning Commission
(Education Division)
List of Members of Steering Committee on Secondary, Higher and Technical
Education for the XI Plan.
1. Dr. B. L. Mungekar,
Member, Planning Commission
Yojana Bhavan, New Delhi-110001
Chairman
2. Secretary,
Department of Higher Education,
MHRD, Shastri Bhavan,
New Delhi
Member
3. Secretary,
Department of School Education & Literacy,
MHRD, Shastri Bhavan,
New Delhi
Member
4. Secretary,
Ministry of Information & Technology
Electronic Niketan,
CGO Complex,
New Delhi-11 0003
-do­
5. DG, NIC
'A' Block, CGO Complex,
Lodhi Road
New Delhi-110003
-do­
6. Chairman,
UGC, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg,
New Delhi-110002
- do­
7. Dr. R.A. Mashelkar,
DG (CSIR)
Anusandhan Bhavan
2, Rafi Marg, New Delhi
-do­
8. Shri Pratap Bhanu Mehta,
President and Chief Executive,
Centre for Policy Research,
Dharma Marg,Chanakyapuri, New Delhi
-do­
9. Dr. Deepak Nayyar, -do-
S-B, Friends Colony West,
New Delhi.
49
10. Shri Damodar Acharya,
Chairman, AICTE
Indira Gandhi Sports Complex,
I. P. Estate, New Delhi-11 0002
-do­
11. Shri Ashok Ganguly,
Chairman, CBSE
2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar
Delhi-110092.
-do­
12. Prof. Krishna Kumar,
Director, NCERT
Shri Aurobindo Marg,
New Delhi-110016
-do­
13. Prof. Ved Prakash,
Director, NUEPA,
17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg,
National University of Educational
Planning and Administration (NIEPA),
New Delhi-110016
-do­
14. Smt. Shyama Chona,
Principal,
Delhi Public School,
R.K. Puram, Sector-8,
New Delhi.
15. Smt. Latha Vaidyanathan,
Principal,
Modern School,
Barakhamba Road, New Delhi
16. Prof. Bipin Chandra,
Chairman,
National Book Trust
A 5, Green Park,
New Delhi-110016
-do­
17. Director
Central Institute of Indian Languages,
Department of Secondary & Higher Education,
MHRD, Manasagangothri, Hunsur Road,Mysore.
-do­
18. Chairman, FICCI
Federation House, Tolstoy Marg,
(Mandi House),
New Delhi
-do­
19. Chairman, CII,
24/26, Institutional Area, Lodhi Road,
New Delhi
-do­
50
20. Chairman, ASSOCHAM -do­
47, Jor Bagh,
New Delhi-110003
21. Vice-Chancellor, IGNOU -do-
Maidangarhi,
New Delhi-110068
22. Director,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kanpur-208016 -do­
23. Director -do-
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
Bangalore
24. Director -do-
Indian Institute of Management
Diamond Harbour Road, Joka
Kolkata - 700104
25. Dr. U. Kohli,
Chairman, Engineering Council of India,
701, Hemkunt Chamber, Nehru Place,
New Delhi.
26. Director, -do-
Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,
Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba
Mumbai
27. Director IAMR -do-
Plot No. 25, Sector 7 A,
Institutional Area, Narela,
Delhi-110040
28. Shri G. V. Siva Krishna Rao, Special Invitee
Associate Professor,Department of Electrical Engineering,
Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-3
29. Shri S.C. Khuntia, Member
JS (Secondary Education)
Department of Secondary and Higher Education
MHRD, Shastri Bhavan,
New Delhi
30. Shri Sunil Kumar -do-
JS (Higher Education)
Department of Secondary and Higher Education
MHRD, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
51
31. Shri Ravi Mathur,
JS (Technical Education)
Department of Secondary and Higher Education
MHRD, Shastri Bhavan,
New Delhi
-do­
32. Principal,
Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology ( NIT)
Nagpur-4400011 -do­
33. Senior Consultant (Education) - do­
52
Appendix-II
Secondary and Vocational Education
Dated 19th June 2006
In the context of the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12), it has
been decided to set up a Working Group on Secondary and Vocational Education
under the Department of Secondary & Higher Education, Ministry of Human
Resource Development.
Terms of Reference
1. To review the status of secondary education
2. To suggest measures for universalizing quality education upto class X and
subsequently class XII for all children in the relevant age group who are
willing to pursue education upto that stage.
3. To review eXisting schemes of secondary and senior secondary education
with a view to :
i. Improving their effectiveness in terms of increased enrolment,
improved quality and increased retention,
ii. Suggesting new schemes with focused targeting for increased access
and quality secondary and senior secondary education
4. To suggest measures for bringing girls, SC&ST, OBCs, Minorities, the
Disabled and other disadvantaged groups on par with the rest, in the area of
Secondary and Vocational Education.
5. To suggest measures for reducing gender, spatial (rural and urban), social
and other disparities, and focus targeting of marginalized groups.
6. To suggest measures for providing adequate financial and other support to (i)
talented and (ii) needy students, so that they are able to realise their full
potential, and no one desirous of pursuing SecondaryNocational Education is
deprived of it due to financial and other constraints.
7. Suggest measures for restructuring of Centre and State Secondary Boards
and elimination of unauthorized Boards.
8. To review the role of existing institutional arrangement which support
secondary education, namely, NCERT, Teacher Training Institutes, SCERTs,
NIEPA, NIOS with a view to redefine their role to the extent necessary
9. To assess the financial requirements for existing and proposed schemes and
programmes in secondary education for the XI Plan period.
10. To suggest a long term vision for improving access and quality of secondary
education and for re-orienting this to the needs of the coming generation and
the knowledge economy.
11. To define the role of the private sector in providing secondary education in the
XI plan, and in the 10/1g term, including examination of incentives required for
increased contribution of the private sector.
12. To define the role of open and distance learning in universalizing access and
providing education of satisfactory quality to students who cannot pursue
formal education.
13. To suggest measures for improvement of vocational education in the
secondary /senior secondary school system and identify which subjects can
be included in the curriculum, and which should be excluded.
14. To examine how best the employees or end users of vocational education can
be included in the process.
53
II. The Composition of the Working Group.
1. Secretary (S&HE) - Chairman
2. AS (S&HE)
3. Director, NCERT
4. Director, NIEPA
5. Chairman, CBSE
6. Joint Secretary (Vocational Education), Department of S&HE, MHRD
7. Chairman, NIOS
8. Chairman, NCTE
9. Vice-Chancellor, IGNOU
10. Director (Education), Planning Commission
11. Economic Adviser (P), Department of S&HE, MHRD
12. Vice-Chancellor, Jamia-Millia University, New Delhi
13. Joint Director, PSSCIVE, Bhopal
14. DDG (Trg.), DGE&T, Ministry of Labour
15. Shri C. K. Mathew, Principal Secretary, Education, Rajasthan
16. Dr. M.M...Iha, Principal Secretary, Education, Bihar
17. Chairman, Maharashtra Board of Secondary Education
18. Prof. Arvind Kumar, Director, Homi Bhabha Center for Secondary Education,
Mumbai
19. Shri Bhau Gawande, lVIaharashtra State Project Coordinator (Education)
20. Shri Krishan Khanna, Chairman, i Watch, 305 Olympus, Altamount Road,
Mumbai-200026, Fax: 022-23536782; e-mail: krishan@vsnl.com
21. Prof. A. K. Sharma, Former Director, NCERT, A-I 8, Sector-33, Noida, UPs
22.5hri Jalaluddin, Rtd. JD, NCERT, C-31-C, Gangotri Apartments, Pocket-C,
Alaknanda, New Delhi
23. Shri Anil Bordia, Chairperson, Foundation for Education and Development C­
113, Shivaji Marg, TilakNagar, Jaipur-302004 Phone: 0141-2624820
24. Shri Anwar Arif Jafri, "Eklavya", Bhopal
25. Shri Lalit Pande, Uttarakhand Seva Nidhi Paryavaran Shiksha Sansthan,
Jakhan Devi, Mall Road, Almora-263601; Phone: 91-5962-234430 Email :
usnpss@sancharnet.in
26. Dr. Kiran Karnik, President, NASSCOM
27. Dr. R. Govinda, Sr. Fellow, NIEPA
28. Mr. Luis Miranda, President & CEO, IDFC Private Equity Company Limited,
17, Vaswani Mansion, 3
r
Floor, Dinshaw Vachha Road, Churchgate, lVIumbai­
400020. Tele No: 91 2222021413. email: luis@idfcpe.com
29. Joint Secretary (SE) - Member-Secretary
The Chairman of the Working Group may, if deemed necessary, constitute sub­
groups and/or co-opt additional members.
The expenditure on TAIDA etc. of the official members in connection with the
meetings of the Working Group will be borne by the parent Department/Ministry/
Organization to which the official belongs as per the rules of entitlement applicable to
them.
The non-official members of the Working Group will be entitled to TAIDA as
permissible to Grade I officers of the Government of India under SR 190(a) and this
expenditure will be borne by the Planning Commission.
The Working Group will finalise its report by 30
th
September, 2006.
54
Appendix-III
Working Groups for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012)
Higher Education
Dated 24th July 2006
In the context of the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12), it has
been decided to set up a Working Group on Higher Education under the Department
of Secondary & Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development.
I. The Terms of Reference of the Working Group.
1. To review the present status of higher education in the country with a
particular focus on the future development perspective between 2007-12
2. To examine critically the issues of access, quality, relevance and equity in the
higher education system
a To increase enrolment in higher education in the relevant age group
a To ascertain how far conventional/open universities system has
reached educationally backward districts
a Improve quality of teaching, with focus on upgrading of infrastructure,
filling up of vacant faculty positions, greater use of ICTs, provision of
broadband connectivity, revision/modernization of syllabi to take care
of emerging needs.
3. To assess the academic and infrastructure standards of the State Universities
with a view to minimize variation in standards and in fund releases.
4. To suggest measures for bringing girls, SC&STs, OSCs, Minorities, the
Disabled and other disadvantaged groups on par with the rest, in the area of
Higher Education.
5. To critically examine the role of the UGC and Association of Indian
Universities as regulatory bodies.
6. To suggest measures for providing adequate financial and other support to (i)
talented and (ii) needy students, so that they are able to realize their full
potential, and no one desirous of pursuing Higher Education is deprived of it
due to financial and other constraints.
7. To suggest measures for internal and external resource generation in the
higher education system
8. Suggest measures for upgrading a few existing selected universities with a
"potential for excellence" in the XI Plan.
9. Suggest measures to tackle the problem of regional imbalances in access to
higher education.
10. To examine service conditions of teachers to attract the best talent in teaching
and research.
11. To suggest measures to enhance enrolment of women students.
12. To suggest a long-term vision and short term proposals for creating
infrastructural facilities for differently abled students.
13. To suggest measures for coordination between the UGC and other
Professional Councils.
14. To examine the issue of internal generation of resources and the
recommendations made by the CASE Committee on Financing of Higher and
Technical Education that the upper limit of cost recovery by student fees shall
not be more than 20%.
55
II. The Composition of the Working Groups
1. Secretary (S&HE), Department of Secondary & Higher Education, MHRD,
Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi - Chairman
2. Prof. Sukhadeo Thorat, Chairman, UGC, 2, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New
Delhi
3. Prof. Ved Prakash, Director, NIEPA, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi.
4. Prof. H.P. Dikshit, VC, IGNOU, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi
5. Prof. Fr. Xavier Alphons, Director, MCRDCE, Gokul Village, A Block, Flat No.
S-5 & S-6, RK. Mutt Road, R.A. Puram, Chennai-600 028 Fax: 044­
24612695
6. Prof. Kolaskar, Former Vice-Chancellor, Prof. Bio-informatics Department,
Pune University, Pune-411007 Phone - 020-25690250
7. Prof. Mushirul Hasan, VC, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
8. Prof. Syed E. Hasnavi, VC, Hyderabad University, Andhra Pradesh
9. Prof. R Harshe, VC, Allahabad University, Uttar Pradesh,
10. Prof. V.S. Prasad, Director, National Assessment and Accreditation Council,
Bangalore.
11. Dr. N. R. Madhava Menon, Director, National Judicial Academy, Bhopal
12. Prof. Vibha Dhawan, VC, The Energy and Research Institute (TERI), India
Habitat Centre, New Delhi
13. Prof. N.R Banerjee, VC and Director, Bhopal Engineering College, Bhopal
14. Prof. Tapas Majumdar, Jawaharlal Nehru University (..INU), New Delhi
15. Prof. Jayati Ghosh, Jawaharlal Nehru University (..INU), New Delhi
16. Prof. Sanjay Dhande, Director, liT, Kanpur
17. Prof. Balakrishnan, Deputy Director, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
18. Ms. Mahashweta Devi, 50-B, Prince Ghulam Shah Road, Kolkata-700032.
19. Principal Secretary of Higher Education Government of Karnataka. Secretariat
Bangalore.
20. Principal Secretary of Higher Education Government of Chattisgarh. Raipur.
21. Economic Adviser (P), Department of S&HE. MHRD. Shastri Bahavn. New
Delhi.
22. Prof. J.B.G. Tilak, Sr. Fellow, NIEPA. Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi - 16.
23. Director (Education), Planning Commission
24. Prof. M. Ananda Krishna, Chairman, Madras Institute of Development
Studies. Chennai.
25. Prof. Govardhan Mehta, Director, NAAC, 2/4, Dr. Rajkumar Road, P. O. Box
No. 1075, Rajajinagar, Bangalore - 560 010.
26. Dr. Ravi Shankar Srivastava, Member, National Commission on
Enterprises in Unorganised Sector, 19
th
Floor, Jawahar Vyapar Bhavan, 1,
Tosltory Marg, New Delhi-11 0001. Fax: 23701234
27. Prof. Sydney Rebeiro, A-681 , Sarita Vihar, New Delhi - 110076.
sydneyrebeiro@yahoo.com - Member
28. Joint Secretary (HE), Deppt. Of S&HE - Member-Secretary
The Chairman of the Working Group may, if deemed necessary constitute subgroups
and/or co-opt additional members.
The expenditure on TAIDA etc. of the official members in connection with the
56
meetings of the Working Group will be borne by the parent Department/Ministryl
Organization to which the official belongs, as per the rules of entitlement applicable
to them.
The non-official members of the Working Group will be entitled to TAIDA as
permissible to Grade I officers of the Government of India under SR 190(a) and this
expenditure will be borne by the Planning Commission.
The Working Group will finalise its report by 30
th
September, 2006
57
Appendix-IV
Working Groups for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012)
Technical Education
Dated 21st June 2006
In the context of the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12), it has
been decided to set up a Working Group on Technical Education under the
Department of Secondary & Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource
Development.
I. The Terms of Reference of the Working Group
1. To review the status of technical education in the country with a particular
focus on the future development perspective between 2007-12
2. To critically examine the issues of access, quality and relevance
3. To suggest measures for increased capacity expansion in technical
institutions, improvement in quality, revamping of courses, provision of
adequate trained faculty, and removal of obsolescence and modernization of
laboratories/ workshops/ libraries/computing facilities, international
benchmarking and effective transparent accreditation
4. To suggest measures for bringing girls, SC&STs, OBCs, Minorities, the
Disabled and other disadvantaged groups on par with the rest, in the area of
Technical Education.
5. To assess the progress and achievements of new institutions set up in the
Tenth Plan
6. To suggest measures for providing adequate financial and other support to (i)
talented and (ii) needy students, so that they are able to realize their full
potential, and no one desirous of pursuing Technical Education is deprived of
it due to financial and other constraints.
7. To suggest policy measures for private sector participation
II. The Composition of the Working Group.
1. Secretary (S&HE), Department of Secondary & Higher Education, IVIHRD,
Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi - Chairman
2. Dr. Damodar Acharya, Chairman, AICTE, I.P.Estate, New Delhi
3. Prof. M.S. Ananth, Director, Indian Institute of Technology (liT), Chennai­
600036
4. Prof. R. P. Dahiya, Director, NIT, Malviya Nagar, Jaipur
5. Prof. Devi Singh, Director, 11M, Lucknow, Prabandh Nagar, Off Sitapur Road,
Lucknow- 226013. Fax: 2734005
6. Prof. M. Anandakrishnan, Madras Institute of Development Studies (MIDS),
Chennai
7. Prof. (Dr.) S.C. Naik, President, Institute of Engineers, 08, Gokhale Road,
Kolkata, West Bengal
8. Principal Secretary (Technical Education), Government of Karnataka
9. Principal Secretary (Technical Education), Government of Rajasthan
10. Director (Technical Education), Government of Bihar, Department of Science
and Technology, Patna-800001
11. Prof. Antony Thomas, Principal, College of Engineering, Trivandrum, Kerala
12. Director (Education), Planning Commission, New Delhi
58
13. Economic Adviser (Planning), Deptt. of S&HE, MHRD, Shastri Bhavan, New
Delhi
14. Dr. Rajeev Sangal, Director, HIT Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.
15. Dr. K. Vijaya Raghavan, Director, National Center for Biological Sciences,
Bangalore
16. Prof. C. S.,lha, former Director, liT, B-1 80, Sector 31, Noida, Uttar Pradesh
17. Shri N.R. Banerjee, VC, Bengal Engineering College, Shibpur, Howrah, West
Bengal
18. Prof. S.K. Sarangi, Director, NIT, Rourkela, Orissa-769008
19. Joint Secretary, M/o Information and Communication Technology, Electroniki
Niketan, CGO Complex, New Delhi
20. Joint Secretary, Department of Science and Technology Qutab Institutional
Area, New Delhi.
21. JS (Technical), Deptt. of S&HE, MHRD, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi ­
Member-Secretary
The expenditure on TAIDA etc. of official members in connection with the meetings
of the Working Group will be borne by the parent Department/Ministry/Organization
to which the official belongs, as per the rules of entitlement applicable to them.
The non-official members of the Working Group will be entitled to TAIDA as
permissible to Grade I officers of the Government of India under SR 190(a) and this
expenditure will be borne by the Planning Commission.
The Working Group will finalise its report by 30
th
September, 2006.
59
Appendix-V
Development of Education of SC/ST/ Minorities/ Girls/and other Disadvantaged
Groups
Dated 21st June 2006
In the context of the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12), it has
been decided to set up a Working Group on Development of Education of SC/ST/
Minorities/ Girls/and other Disadvantaged Groups under the Department of
Secondary & Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development.
I. Terms of Reference
1. To assess the extent of gap in terms of access, participation and learning
achievements of the students belonging to SC/ST/OBCs/Minorities/ Girls and
other disadvantaged groups vis-a-vis students of other groups.
2. To assess the effectiveness of the relevant existing schemes for the
education of the above groups and to identify their strengths and weaknesses.
3. Suggest a comprehensive strategy along with schemes and programmes
(including new schemes and modification of existing schemes) so as to bridge
the gap between the disadvantaged groups and other groups by the end of
the XI Plan.
II. The Composition of the Working Group.
1. Secretary, (S&HE)/Secretary (EE&L), MHRD, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi - Co
Chairpersons
2. Joint Secretary (EE-I), Department of Elementary Education & Literacy,
MHRD, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
3. Joint Secretary ((EE-II), Department of Elementary Education & Literacy,
MHRD, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
4. Joint Secretary (AE), Department of Elementary Education & Literacy, IVIHRD,
Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
5. Joint Secretary (Administration), Department of Secondary & Higher
Education, MHRD, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
6. Joint Secretary (SE), Department of Secondary & Higher Education, MHRD,
Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
7. Joint Secretary (HE), Department of Secondary & Higher Education, MHRD,
Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
8. Joint Secretary (Technical Education), Department of Secondary & Higher
Education, MHRD, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
g. Joint Secretary (Languages), Department of Secondary & Higher Education,
MHRD, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
10. Add!. Secretary, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, MHRD, Shastri
Bhavan, New Delhi
11. Joint Secretary, Ministry of Tribal Affairs, IVIHRD, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
12. Joint Secretary, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Jeevan Prakash Building, gth
Floor, 25 Kasturba Gandhi Road, New Delhi
13. Joint Secretary, Department of Women and Child Development, IVIHRD,
Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
14. Chairman, UGC, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi-11 00012
15. Chairman, AICTE, LP. Estate, New Delhi
60
16. Director, I\JCERT, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-110016
17. Director, NIEPA, 17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-110016
18. Shri Baldev Chand, Principal Secretary (SC/ST), Secretariat, Government of
Andhra Pradesh.
19. Smt. Jaya Dasgupta, Secretary (SC/ST), Government of West Bengal
20. Dr. Bhupender Singh, Ex-Special Commissioner for STs, Sector-C, Pocket­
8/8680, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi
21. Prof. Zoya Hassan, Chairperson, Centre for Political Studies, 139 Uttra
Khand, JNU, N.Delhi-110067
22. Ms. Teesta Seetalvad, Editor, Communalism Combat, Sabrang
Communications & Pvt. Ltd. P.B. No. 2853, Juhu, Mumbai-400049
23. Shri Javed Abidi, National Centre for Promotion & Employment for Disabled
People,A-77, South Extension, Part-II, New Delhi-110049
24. Ms. Mithoo Alur, Founder Chairperson, National Resource Centre for
Inclusion, Spastic Society of India, K.C. Marg, Bandra Reclamation, Mumbai­
40005
25. Prof. Nanchariah, Vice Chancellor, Dr. Ambedkar Central University, Lucknow
26. Prof. K.S. Chalam, Director, Academic Staff College, Vishakhapatnam
27. Dr. Gail Omvedt, Fellow, Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, New Delhi
28. Shri M. Lakshmiah, Fellow, Centre for Dalit Studies, Barkatpara, Hyderabad
29. Director (Education), Planning Commission.
30. Shri P.S. Krishnan (former Member, National Commission for SC/ST),
Appartment No. 1513-B, Beverly Park II, DLF City - Phase I, MG Road,
Gurgaon
31. Shri P.M.Gaikwad, Former Principal, Dr. Ambedkar College of Commerce and
Economics, lVIumbai-400037
32. Shri B.S. Mhaske, Department of Economics, Babasaheb Ambedkar
Marathwad University, Aurangabad - 431001
33. Economic Adviser, Department of Secondary & Higher Education - Member­
Secretary
The Chairman of the Working Group may, if deemed necessary, constitute sub­
groups and/or co-opt additional members.
The expenditure on TAIDA etc. of official members in connection with the meetings
of the Working Group will be borne by the parent Department/Ministry/Organization
to which the official belongs, as per the rules of entitlement applicable to them.
The non-official members of the Working Group will be entitled to TAIDA as
permissible to Grade I officers" of the Government of India under SR 190(a) and this
expenditure will be borne by the Planning Commission.
The Working Group will finalise its report by 30
th
September, 2006
61
Appendix-VI
Working Groups for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012)
Language Development and Book Promotion
Dated 25th July 2006
In the context of the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12), it has
been decided to set up a Working Group on Language Development and Book
Promotion under the Department of Secondary & Higher Education, Ministry of
Human Resource Development.
I. The Terms of Reference of the Working Group.
1. To review the performance of existing schemes and institutional structures for
the development of Indian languages, and for teaching, research etc. in
English and Foreign Languages vis-a-vis the objectives for which they were
set up.
2. To formulate goals, objectives and targets for the XI Plan period in respect of:
i. Development of Indian languages (including preservation of folk, tribal
and endangered languages) and
ii. Teaching, research etc. in English and foreign languages.
3. To suggest (a) changes in the existing schemes and institutional structures (b)
new schemes and structures, to the extent necessary for the achievement of
the XI Plan goals.
4. To assess the financial and other resources required for the XI Plan period, in
the light of 2 and 3 above.
5. To review the present status of book promotion and to provide a focus for the
development perspective for this sector for the XI Plan.
6. To make suggestions for the future direction of the programme in this sector
including their expansion and qualitative upgradation in terms of standards,
facilities and attainments and with special reference to the backward
regions/districts and weaker sections.
7. To suggest measures for utilization of the modern computer and
communication technologies in the development and future direction of this
sector.
8. To examine critically the resource requirement under different
activities/programmes in this sector.
9. Suggest measures for involving the community/NGOs for the effective
implementation of the programmes in this sector.
10. To examine the strategy for involving the Raj Institutions for the
village, taluka/block and district levels and the municipal bodies in the urban
areas, with a view to achieving the goals set for book promotion.
11. To review the existing schemes to ensure special emphasis for SC/ST Girls
and other disadvantaged groups.
II. The Composition of the Working Group.
1. Secretary, Ministry of HRD, Department of Secondary & Higher Education ­
Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi.- Chairman.
2. Director, Central Institute of Indian Languages, Manasagangotri, Mysore ­
570006.
62
3. Prof. B.N. Patnaik, Fellow CIIL, Manasgangotri, Mysore - 570006.
4. Prof. Pushpak Bhattacharya, Computer Science Department, liT-Bombay, PO
liT, Powai, Mumbai - 400 076.
5. Prof. Ganesh Devy, Bhasha Research and Publication Centre, Near Dinesh
Mills, Vadodara- 390007, Gujarat.
6. Prof. Ram Dayal Munda (formerly VC Ranchi Univ.) Ranchi (..lharkhand) Res:
Behind Ranchi College, Morabadi, Ranchi - 834008, ..Iharkhand.
7. Prof. Tista Bagchi, Prof. Department of Linguistics, Art Faculty Extension,
University of Delhi, Delhi-110007.
8. Prof. T.B. Subba, Department of Anthropology, North Eastern Hill University,
NEHU Campus PO, Shillong-793022.
9. Prof. B.A. Vivek Rai, VC, Kannada University, Hampi Vidyaranya - 583276,
Hospet Taluk, Bellary District, Karnataka.
10. Prof. Rajesh Sachdeva, Deputy Director, Central Institute of Indian
Languages, Manasgangotri, Mysore - 570006. Phone: 0821-2345020. Fax:
0821-2515032. Email: rajesh@ciil.stmpy.soft.net
11. Prof. Amiya Dev (formerly VC Bidyasagaar Univ.), EE 108, Salt Lake, Flat No.
7, Kolkata-700091.
12. Prof. Kamala Prasad, Vice Chairman, Governing Council Kendriya Hindi
Sansthan, M-31, Niraala Nagar, Bhadabhada Road, Dhushyant Marg, Bhopal­
462003.
13. Prof. V.N. Jha, Director, Centre of Advanced, Study in Sanskrit, University of
Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411007. Email: vnjha@unipune.ernet.in /
cass@unipune.ernet.in
14. Vice-Chancellor, Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages, (CIEFL)
Hyderabad - 500007. Phone: Office: 040-27098402
15. Director Kendriya Hindi Sansthan, Kendriya Hindi Sansthan Mars, Agra ­
282005.
16. Chairman. National Book Trust, India, A-5, Green Park, New Delhi-110016.
17. Economic Adviser, Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi.
18. Vice Chairman. National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (NCPUL),
Ministry of HRD, West Block-1, RK. Puram, New Delhi-110066
19. Vice-Chancellor, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, New Delhi.
20. Vice-Chancellor, Sri Lai Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha,
New Delhi.
21. Shri Suresh Keswani, Vice-chancellor, National Council for Promotion of
6
th
Sindhi Language, NCPSL, Floor, Darpan Building, RC. Dutt Road,
Alkapuri, Vadodara-390007.
22. Chairman, Sahitya Academy Ferozshah Road, Mandi House. New Delhi.
23. Ms. Mahashweta Devi. 50-B, Prince Ghulam Shah Road, Kolkata-700032.
24. Prof. U.R Ananthamurthy , Chairman, Film and Television Insititute of India
(FTII), Pune -411004.
25. Prof. Sydney Riberio, A-681 , Sarita Vihar, New Delhi - 110076.
26. Mr. Luis Miranda, President & CEO, IDFC Private Equity Company Limited,
17, Vaswani Mansion, 3
rd
Floor, Dinshaw Vachha Road, Churchgate, Mumbai
-400020. Tele No : 91 2222021413. email: luis@idfcpe.com
27. JS (Languages), Ministry of HRD, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi.- (Member­
Secretary)
The Chairman of the Working Group may, if deemed necessary, constitute sub­
groups and/or co-opt additional members.
63
The expenditure on TNDA etc. of the official members in connection with the
meeting of the Working Group will be borne by the parent
Department/Ministry/Organization which the official belongs, as per the rules of
entitlement applicable to them.
The non-official members of the Working Group will be entitled to TNDA as
permissible to Grade I officers of the Government of India under SR 190(a) and this
expenditure will be borne by the Planning Commission.
The Working Group will finalise its report by 30
th
September, 2006
64

1. 2. 3. 4. 5

CHAPTER-I CHAPTER-II CHAPTER-'" CHAPTER-IV CHAPTER-V

INTRODUCTION SECONDARY & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION HIGHER EDUCATION TECHNICAL EDUCATION DISTANCE LEARNING, INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY(ICT) AND SCHOLARSHIP DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION OF SC,ST,MINORITIES, GIRLS AND OTHER DISADVANTAGED GROUPS LANGUAGE AND BOOK PROMOTION CONSTITUTION AND TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE STEERING COMMITTEE FOR SECONDARY, HIGHER & TECHNICAL EDUCATION TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE WORKING GROUP ON SECONDARY EDUCATION & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION WORKING GROUP ON HIGHER EDUCATION WORKING GROUP ON TECHNICAL EDUCATION WORKING GROUP ON EDUCATION FOR DISAVANTAGED SECTIONS LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND BOOK PROMOTION

0- 4 5-16 17-29 30-38 39-41

6.

CHAPTER-VI

42-43

7. 6.

CHAPTER-VII APPENDIX-1

44-47 48-52

7.

APPENDIX-II

53-54

8. 9.

APPENDIX-IV APPENDIX-V

55-57 58-59 60-61

10. APPENDIX-VI

11. APPENDIX-VII

62-64

2

FOREWORD
The beginning of the 21 st century is witnessing a great thrust in the development of the social sectors and education sector in particular has been assigned top priority. Central Government funding for education in the XI Plan is to have a five fold increase over the X Plan. With the success of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan we are faced with the challenge of providing universal access to secondary education (SUCCESS). Accordingly, the XI Plan sets the stage for universalisation of access to secondary education (SUCCESS) so as to prepare young persons in the age group 14-18 for entry into higher education and also for the world of work. It is proposed to rapidly expand secondary education by upgrading infrastructure in 15,000 eleme;ntary schools, strengthening 44,000 secondary schools, setting up 6,000 high quality model schools with costs to be shared by the Centre and the States. There will be provision for adequate number of mathematics and science teachers to ensure better academic achievement. The vocational educational programme will be restructured in which pUblic/private systems of vocational educational collaborate to meet the needs of industry and individuals. The role of higher, technical and management education in human resource development of the country is well recognized. Though the Indian higher education system is one of the largest in the world, the Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) is low at about 10%. Although the number of universities has expanded, and many universities continue to maintain high standards of education, it is a matter of serious concern that the expansion in quality has been accompanied by a decline in standards. Modernization of syllabi, examination reforms and issues of governance of universities and colleges, in particular, require urgent attention. The XI Plan objectives for higher & technical education are outlined as expansion, inclusion and rapid improvement in quality by enhancing public spending, encouraging private initiatives and initiating the long overdue major institutional and policy reforms. Planned expansion with inclusion and excellence is the core of the XI Plan. GER in rligher education is targeted to be increased to 15% by the end of 11 th Plan. To achieve this, the enrolments in universities/colleges have to be substantially raised at an annual rate of 8.9%. The Steering Committee on Secondary, Higher and Technical Education was constituted by the Planning Commission to deliberate upon the future policies and plans for these sub-sectors necessary at the beginning of the new millennium. The detailed contributions made by the working groups on various sub-sectors of education have provided useful material which has helped in finalizing the Eleventh Five Year Plan for education. It is with great hope and expectation that we place the Steering Committee Report in the hands of all the stakeholders of India's educational development. I acknowledge the contribution made by all the members of the Steering Committee and the Working Groups on Secondary and Vocational Education, Higher Education, Technical Education, Languages and Book Promotion, and Development of Education of SC/ST/Girls and other disadvantaged sections. I would also like to place on record a special word of thanks to Secretary, % SEL and % Higher Education, IVIHRD for their devoted interest in the preparation of this Report. I would also like to thank the officers and staff of the Education Division of the Planning Commission for their support.

New Delhi Dated: 8th April, 2009

(Prof. B.L. Mungekar) Member (Education)
3

THRUST AREAS OF THE ELEVENTH PLAN 2. in its broadest sense of development of youth. The thrust areas for the educational development in the XI Plan include: • Achieve 80% literacy rate. 4 .7548.48%). • Extend coverage of NLM programmes to 35 + age group • A special focus on SC's. Of which an outlay of Rs. is the most crucial input for empowering people with skills and knowledge and giving them access to productive employment in future. other disadvantaged groups and adolescents • Universalisation of elementary education • Achievement of full adult literacy • Raising the quality of education at all levels • Improving learner achievement • Upliftment of the educational status of disadvantaged groups including SC/ST/giris and disabled children • Removing regional disparities • Vocationalisation of education • Renewal of curriculum to meet emerging challenges in information technology and support for development of centers of excellences at the tertiary level • Increase GER in higher education from 11% in 2006 to 15% by 2011-12 (and to 21% by 2016-17) • Expand higher education system rapidly with quality and inclusiveness • Restructure and reorient higher education system to impart competitive skills and capabilities of global standards • Nurture institutions of excellence aspiring to the world class standards. • Reduce regional. 3. Central Government has incurred an outlay of Rs 58624. Education. However. and gender disparities. Improvements in education are not only expected to enhance efficiency but also augment the overall quality of life. and rural women. The Government has pledged to increase public spending on education to 6% of Gross Domestic Product (GOP). It opens up opportunities leading to both individual and group entitlements. This reflects the high priority being given to the education sector by the Central Government. ST's.88% of the over all education sector tenth plan outlay.22 crore spent for elementary education and literacy (constitutes 79. and RS. during the Tenth Plan. • Focus also on low literacy States.46593.3808.CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1. The role of education in facilitating social and economic progress is well recognized. social. • Reduce gender gap in literacy to 10%.51 crore spent for secondary education which constitutes 6. minorities.5%. an outlay of RS. • To accelerate the annual intake capacity of technical education system from the present rate of 10% to 15% per annum by 2011-12 • Restructuring of polytechnic education to accelerate vertical mobility and ensure market relevance. tribal areas.68 crore incurred for higher education (including technical education) which constitute 12.08 crore for education sector.

27 51.55 crore. the estimated population of this age group was 9. 3.lt is vital because in this age group children particularly the girl child is extremely vulnerable and is pushed into child labour.82 (XI-XII) (%) Dropout rate . Review of physical progress: The population at the secondary and higher secondary level in the age group 14-18 years as per Census 2001 was 8.39 0. The All India average of the number of secondary and higher secondary schools per 100 sq. Secondary .82 61. Lack of access to secondary and higher secondary schools may be principal cause for low enrollment of children in the age group of 14-18 years.Enrolment (IX-X) ( Crore) 2.km area is only four and in several large states like Bihar.92 0.46 Girls 1.41 24.74 57.Gross Enrolment Ra 30. Indicators 1.76 crore in 2000-01. including India.2004. However. early marriage or trafficking.43 Source: Selected Educational Statistics (2004-05) . The gross enrolment ratio for classes IX-XII in 2004-05 was 39.Chapter-II Secondary and Vocational Education Secondary education serves as a bridge between elementary and higher education and prepares young persons between the age group of 14-18 years for entry into higher education and also for the world of work.01 Total 2. This reinforces direct relationship between secondary education and economic growth and necessitates for a systematic development of secondary education with life skills.65 Boys 1. 60 per cent of eligible age group population for secondary and higher secondary education were out of school system.70 crore.Enrolments S. More over.28 1. the enrolments in secondary and higher secondary (Classes IX-XII) was only 2.Gross Enrolment Ratio (IX-X) (%) 4. As against this. About one crore children were brought into school system during 5 years period i. Higher Secondary --Enrolment Xl-XII) (Crore) Secondary -.provisional data. Madhya 5 . The table given below shows the status of enrolment and drop-out rates in classes IX-XII as on 30.e.2000-05. good quality of higher education depends on secondary education. Secondary Education .X) (%) 60. Uttar Pradesh.53 45. Secondary education is the single largest supplier of labour force in most of the developing countries.9.91 per cent.88 27.(Class I .46 63. In 2004-05.50 crore and the enrolment was 3. Rajasthan. No. Secondary education may be considered as the crucial level of education as it nurtures the children in their most critical age group(entry into adolescence). 5. Higher Secondary -. Due to the sequential nature of education.

Out of this 41.272 higher secondary schools/institutions in the country in 2004-05. and (iv) Quality Improvement in schools which included provision of assistance to state governments for introduction of yoga. Both KVs and NVs have identified the schools which will be converted into a smart school. Information and Communication Technology in Schools: The main objective of the scheme is to establish an enabling environment to promote the usage of ICT. science olympiads. a total of approximately 2 lakh disabled children have been covered in nearly 85. to facilitate their retention in school system and to integrate the disabled children placed in special schools once they acquire communication and daily living skills at the functional level.aided schools in the rural areas.2 percentage points.26 per cent and 35. especially. A brief description of these centrally sponsored schemes is given below. Total budgetary provision during the 10th Five Year Plan is RS.05 percent. The present scheme is largely NGO driven. The first one is the partnership with the state governments and union territories for providing computer education and computer-aided education.92 percent. The gender gap is 9. KVs have covered 1264 schools under the universalisation of computer literacy.(iii) Access and Equity for providing assistance to NGOs to run girls' hostels in the rural areas. The GER for students belonging to SCs is 34. The fourth component relate to the activities of State Institutes of Educational Training (SIETs) which are mandated to produce educational content in the form of films. Chattisgarh and Jharkhand. KVs and NVs have established 31 and 33 smart school respectively. 6 .05 per cent has managed by government and local bodies. Over 250 NGOs were implementing the scheme. this is much below the national average. for environment education and for population education in addition to supporting.35 per cent were private aided schools and 29. 01. which shall be the technology demonstrators. Universalisation of computer literacy through the networking of Kendriya Vidyalayas and Navodya Vidyalayas with neighboring schools is the third component. _ Integrated Education for the Disabled Children (IEDC): The main objectives of the scheme are to provide educational opportunities for the disabled children in common schools. videos.200 crore. There were 1. (ii) Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) for assisting state governments and NGOs in main streaming the disabled children in school education . By the end of the financial year 2005-06.777 high schools and 50. audios.68 percent and that for STs is even lower at 27. (i) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in schools for providing assistance to State Governments for computer education and computer aided education in secondary and higher secondary schools.Pradesh. The scheme is being implemented through the states and UTs as well as through Non-Governmental Organizations. 29. The present scheme has essentially four components.60 percent by private unaided schools. The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of boys and girls being 44. 100% assistance is being provided under various components including educational aids. The second is the establishment of SMART schools. and salaries for special teachers and facilities for children with disability suffering from mild to moderate disabilities in schools.000 schools. in secondary and higher secondary education in government and government . etc. The drop out rate in class I-X was 61. assistive equipment. The scheme is likely to be merged with the new scheme viz. Universal Access and Quality at Secondary Education (known as SUCCESS) during 11 th Five Year Plan P e r i o d . for improvement of science education in schools. Under the scheme of IEDC. Review of Centrally Sponsored Schemes and Central Schemes: Central Government operates four Centrally Sponsored Schemes Le.68 per cent.

1 0 crore was made for the year 2005-06. There are 520 functional Navodya Vidyalayas. It is presently under review. Review of Financial Progress: Central Government has made an allocation of Rs. During 2005-06 funds amounting to RS. The objective of Navodya Vidyalayas is to cater to the meritorious students predominantly from rural areas. 7 . At present.2.3.3. financial assistance is extended to the societies and NGOs to provide boarding and hostel facilities to the girls pursuing education at secondary and higher secondary stage predominantly belonging to the rural. Quality Improvements in Schools (QIS): During the Tenth Five Year Plan it was decided to introduce a composite centrally sponsored scheme of 'Quality Improvement in Schools' by converging the following five eXisting schemes as its components.Access and Equity (Scheme for Strengthening of Boarding and Hostel Facilities for Girl Students of Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools) Under the scheme.wise outlay and expenditure on secondary education during X plan period is given in the following table. Improvement of science education in schools has since been transferred to the state governments as state sector scheme and remaining four components are being implemented by the NCERT. There are 972 functional Kendriya Vidyalayas with an enrolment of 9. Review of Central Schemes The central government is managing and funding fully four types of schools viz. The main objective of CTSA is to run. The main objective of Kendriya Vidyalayas is to cater to educational need of children of government and public sector employees. The scheme is likely to be merged with the new scheme viz.00 lakh students on rolls at the secondary and senior secondary stages. Central Tibetan Schools. During 2004-05 a total of around RS.3.72 crore was granted to 89 voluntary organizations.54 lakh and staff strength of about 45. The National Institute of Open Schooling proVides opportunities for continuing education to those who have missed opportunities to complete school education.26 crore which includes expenditure of four years expenditure and revised outlay of 2006-07.46 crore have been approved till 3-3-2006 for assistance to 73 NGOs to run girl hostels. As against this.3749. 560 crore for these four Central Schemes. Year. The Tenth Plan outlay for this scheme is RS.4325.000. The composite scheme covered (i) Improvement of Science Education in Schools (ii)Promotion of Yoga in Schools (iii)Environmental Orientation to School Education (iv) National Population Education Project (v) International Science Olympiads. Scheduled Tribes and educationally backward minorities. As against the Tenth Plan outlay of Rs. particularly those belonging to Scheduled Castes. and Open Schools. manage and assist institutions set up for the education of Tibetan children living in India. There are 21 Central Tibetan Schools of which 8 are Senior Secondary Schools. 5 Secondary Schools and 8 Upper Primary schools.115 cores and a budget provision of RS. the likely expenditure for secondary education is RS. anticipated expenditure is about Rs. The scheme could not make much progress since it was revised at the end of tenth five year plan. Navodya Vidyalayas. Universal access and quality at secondary education (known as SUCCESS) during 11 th Five Year Plan Period. Kendriya Vidyalayas. desert and hilly areas. there are 14.00 crore for the X Five Year Plan for implementing the above centrally sponsored schemes and central sector programmes. 232 crore.

Progress of Outlay and Expenditure Tenth Five Year Plan Secondary Education (Rs.crore) PlanlYear X Five Year Plan Annual Plans: 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 ELEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN Strategy: Universal Secondary Education is pursued through environment building and generating public opinion in favor of universalisation of secondary education. Given the emerging scenario of ever increasing globalization and India's emerging role as an important global player, it is necessary to take a quantum jump rather than pursuing incremental growth through piecemeal steps in secondary education. It is only through environment building that the community can be mobilized. This is particularly necessary to ensure participation of girls, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes; other backward classes, cultural and linguistic minorities and the disabled. The 11 th Plan aims to progressively raise the minimum level of education to high school or class X level. The demand for secondary education will also expand significantly as SSA reaches its goal of universal and complete elementary education. A major initiative for expanding secondary education up to class X is initiated in the 11 th Plan. The target during the 11 th Five Year Plan is to provide a secondary school within 5 kilometers of every habitation and to provide a higher secondary school within a distance of 7-8 kilometers of any habitation. It is to ensure reducing the drop out rate and 100 per cent retention up to higher secondary stage. In order to meet the challenge of secondary education, there is a need for a paradigm shift in the conceptual design of secondary education. The guiding principles in this regard are Universal Access, Equality and Social Justice, Relevance and Development and Curricular and Structural aspects.. Universalisation of Secondary Education gives opportunity, to move towards equity. During 11 th Five Year Plan, a new scheme viz. Universal Access and Quality at Secondary Education (SUCCESS) will be introduced converging all the ongoing centrally sponsored schemes of Secondary Education. The objectives of the scheme are (a) Universalizing access and (b) improvement of quality of secondary education. The above objectives translate into the targets for being achieved by the end of the XI Plan. They are • Raising Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in secondary education from 52% in 2004­ 05 to 75% by 2011-12 and the combined secondary and senior secondary GER from 40% to 65% in the same period 649.40 719.00 743.00 895.00 1067.00 577.57 645.08 680.48 885.83 960.30 RE Outlay 4325.00 Expenditure 3749.26

8

• Major reduction in gender, social and regional gaps in enrollment, dropouts and school retentions. • Bringing down pupil-teacher ratio at the secondary stage to 25, and increasing percentage of trained teachers to 100 percent. • Improving quality of secondary education and pupils' achievement levels so that pass percentage in X and XII Board examination improves to around 75%.
Projections of enrolments, classrooms and teachers:

Due to the thrust on universal elementary education through SSA, there is every possibility of significant increase in demand for secondary education by 2010. Projections made here are based on 75% success of SSA at the elementary level, though the SSA envisages achieving the goal of UEE by 2010. As projected by the CABE Committee on Universalisation of Secondary Education, the additional enrolment during XI Plan period in Classes IX-X is 2.18 crore( Boys: 1.28 crore Girls 0.90 crore ). In view of the projected enrolment in Classes IX-X, the total number of additional classrooms required for five years period is 2.39 lakh and total number of additional teachers required is 3.58 lakh. At higher secondary level, the projected enrolment is 50.00 lakh; additional classrooms 1.04 lakh and additional teachers 1.56 lakh during Eleventh plan period.
Inputs and Quality Improvement

In the context of Universalisation of Secondary Education (USE) and expansion of higher secondary education, large-scale inputs in terms of additional schools, teachers and other facilities are to be provided to meet the challenge of numbers, credibility and quality. It interalia requires assessment! provision of educational needs, physical infrastructure, human resource, academic inputs and effective monitoring of implementation of the programmes. The following measures (financial and non financial) are required to be taken in this regard: 1. Mapping of secondary schooling provisions; 2. Assessment of enrolment and physical infrastructure; 3. Requirement of schooling facilities and learning resource centers including Science and Maths laboratories and art and crafts laboratories; and 4. Training of in-service teachers 5. Curriculum development 6. Strengthening on going talent search programmes and introducing new talent search schemes at state level. 7. Inputs for quality improvement 8. Expansion of Kendriya Vidyalayas and Navodya Vidyalayas in unserved areas 9. Introducing examination reforms 10. Setting up guidance and counseling centers in schools 11. Orientation of educational planners and administrators Each Learning Resource Centre should be equipped with the input viz. provision for ICT support, link with EDUSAT and library with separate room.
Education of Children from Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Minorities:

The following provisions are envisaged in the 11 th Five Year Plan for education of children of SCs, STs and Minorities. • Up gradation of elementary schools to secondary schools be given priority in areas with high concentration of SC, ST and Minority population and low female 9

literacy rate. This will encourage these communities to send girls to schools and retain them in schools. • Inclusive education where all children study together should become the hallmark of every school especially those located in rural areas so as to take care of the children of disadvantaged groups. • Setting up of only girls' schools in areas of concentration of minorities and upgradation of KGBVs • The first priority for establishment of new schools or up gradation of elementary high schools should be in the locality with concentration of SC/STIOBC/Minorities.
Education of Girls

Taking note of the fact that there is a gross shortage of Secondary Schools for girls (both co-educational and girls schools combined), the dropout of girls is extremely high mainly in northern states. Many girls in rural areas discontinue their schooling because of shortage of girls' schools. The incentives for girls' education need to be revisited. The measures taken need to be of such nature, force and magnitude that they are able to overcome the obstacles such as poverty, domestic Isibling responsibilities, girl child labour, low preference to girls education, preference to marriage over education, etc. The suggested incentives are as follows. • Providing transport facilities • Construction of residential quarters for women teachers working in rural areas • Provision of rural allowance for women teachers working in low female literacy districts • Provision of special scholarships to promote enrolment of girls • Provision of incentive to girls for secondary education • Introducing revised scheme of strengthening of boarding and hostel facilities for girl students of secondary and higher secondary schools • Upgrading KGBVs upto secondary level and also setting up required KGBVs
Education of Children with Disabilities:

Realizing that inclusion of children and youth with disabilities is not only a human right, it is also good education and promotes the development of social skills, the scheme of IEDC is being revised by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) as the Scheme of Inclusive Education for the Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS). The proposed new scheme would enable all students with disabilities completing eight years of elementary schooling an opportunity to complete four years of secondary schooling (classes IX-XII), in an inclusive and enabling environment. The IEDSS will also support the training programmes for general school teachers to meet the needs of children with disabilities.
Open Schooling System:

During the XI Plan, the thrust of the Open Schooling system should be on (i) developing NIOS as a potential Resource Organization in open schooling at national and international level, besides offering open schooling courses of study (ii) up scaling of the programmes of the existing 10 state open schools, and (iii) setting up SOSs in the remaining 19 States, including NCT of Delhi. The educational needs of the six union territories may be looked after mainly by the concerned neighboring States and NIOS. 10

Therefore. there is a difference in fee structure though some private unaided schools run on charity. Similarly transport arrangements for students particularly for girls can be outsourced. Out of these 28. • Participation on the school management: The corporate sector in the neighborhood of schools may be represented in the school management committee so that they could assist the schools in enhancement of its infrastructure and resources. • Private sector may be encouraged to setup modal schools at bloc level in collaboration with state governments. private unaided schools do not receive any grant and have to be financially sustainable on their own. 11 .79% higher secondary schools are classified as private unaided schools.. a full time Coordinator with ancillary staff may be provided in each Study Centre under the Open Schooling system. private sector can help greatly as most of the teaching learning can take place profitably in the premises of private sector companies and factories. Otherwise unaided schools necessarily have to recover their cost from the school fees.A Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) for promotion of open schooling is required to be formulated and operationalised from the first year of the XI Plan. Whereas private aided schools generally receive almost full salary of the teaching staff from the respective state governments and have to only provide for the capital expenditure. Encouraging such schools would cater only to the population which can pay. (ii) up scaling of the programmes of 10 SOSs In order to ensure quality in 'Open Schooling'. the CSS may make provision of (I) setting up and operationalisation of 19 new SOSs. art workshops. library. • Regulatory structure: The key to successful public-private sector participation is a sound regulatory structure so that public and private sector are accountable to each other in a transparent manner. The public private partnership can be one way of saving public funds by encouraging private sector to be involved in this important human development sector. • Outsourcing: Several functions of the government school can be outsourced through private sector involvement. entire computer education can be outsourced from private sector that can provide computer and computer teachers for a fee. The Open Schooling system will be required to cater to the educational needs of about 30 lakh students at Secondary stage during 2007-08 with 10% increase every year. audio-visual and ICT infrastructure. Among other things. drinking water and toilet facilities etc. This can take the following paths: • Private sector can be encouraged to invest part of its profit towards philanthropic activities in the education sector by adopting Government schools for improvement of infrastructure and resources like. sports facilities. PLiblic Private Partnership About 57% of high schools and 63% higher secondary schools are run by private sector. science lab. Private sector should also be involved in designing curriculum and in designing a testing and certification system so that the demand for appropriate skill by the industry can be met.52% of high schools and 31. unless there is a policy of cross subsidization of fees so that certain percentage of children from the poorer sections of the society can be accommodated free or at subsidized fees. For example. • Vocational schools: In this area. Such an arrangement would work well for newly emerging or rapidly changing subjects for which permanent teachers and resources can be avoided in a government set up.

The CSS of Vocational Education is implemented through state and UTs and NGOs in the formal and non-formal sector respectively. provision of workshop/laboratory building. Directorate of School Education by and large is found to be working in isolation with little interaction with other relevant departments. District Vocational Wing. Reluctance shown by all states governments towards appointment of the full time teachers because of unwillingness to take a long term commitments liability in case of closure of the scheme. 100 % assistance has given by the center. It has created so far infrastructure for 19608 sections in about 6800 schools with an enrolment of 10 lakh students. 50% assistance is given for vocational wings of state directorates of education.8 percent of the students were enrolled in vocational stream. reducing the pressure on the universities and also preparing students for gainful employment.C Kulandaiswamy Committee 1985) reviewed the VEP extensively and developed guidelines for expansion of the programme. its recommendations led to the launching of the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) on Vocationalisatiol1 of Secondary Education in February 1988. 12 d) e) f) g) h) . Old and outdated vocational courses being·taught with no linkage to employment market. For 11 components mainly apprenticeships & training. The NPE 1986 had set targets to cover 10 per cent higher secondary students under vocational courses by 1990 and 25 per cent by 2000. The vocational education scheme at 10+2 stage came into existence in the late 1970s. Against the envisaged target of 25% of secondary students opting for the vocational stream.Vocational Education Secondary and higher education are important terminal stages in the system of general education because it is at these points that options are exercised by the youth to enter the world of employment/go for technical training or pursue higher education. Funding of the programme is done on the sharing pattern between centre and states. by the year 2000. only handful of Sates and UTs implemented the scheme. only 4. teacher training courses etc. equipment to schools. The reasons for above are as follows: a) b) c) Low priority being accorded to vocational education by States. field visits by students and for raw materials. development of instructional material. No provision for training of vocational teachers. The National Working Group on Vocationalisation of Education (V. industry and business (IS8). Educationists and experts have consistently recommended that education at these stages should be given a vocational bias to link it with the world of work. district vocational surveys. Utilization of training seats by vocational pass outs is negligible as placements are rarely available within one's own district. 75% for vocational school staff. Weaknesses in the existing Vocational Education Scheme of the MHRD: The CSS currently in operation has been a non starter. Lack of linkages with trade. The Kothari Commission which is the basis of the National Policy on Education in 1968 felt that is should be possible to divert at least 50 percent of students completing 10 year education to the vocational stream. In most States there has been no serious adoption of curriculum designed by NCERT/PSSCIVE.. However. The scheme envisages selection of vocational courses on the basis of assessment of manpower needs.

about 4. VET may be implemented as a CSS. day release system. safe and environmentally sound procedures related to materials and equipment. STs. crafts. The emphasis in VET would be on development of generic. The remaining about 4. The concept of Vocational Education and Training to All should be promoted through the formal education system and non-formal education system. Generic skills that cut across a number of occupations would enable an individual to transfer from one field to another during his/her working life.. The remaining 1. with credit transfer facility. etc. importance of safe working conditions. During XI FYP. scheduled castes. OBCs.5 crore youth need initial vocational training every year. Only 5 % of this population could receive skill training through the formal system. particUlarly for self-employment. management and rational organization of enterprise. personal and multiple skills so that persons may respond to changes due to technologies and market demands. and persons living in difficult circumstances. girls/women.0 crore people should be trained through non­ formal/informal mode. (with 100 % central government funding). as an integral part of all VET programmes should be promoted. girls. open and distance learning system. should be adopted. Skill development in organizational planning. specific. including part-time. In India. should be given continuous or further training for up gradation of their skills through a variety of delivery systems. VET programmes preparing for occupations in farming. Lack of flexibility in vocational courses-no scope for vertical mobility for students who wish to specialize in the same course or take up additional courses. including SCs.i) j) k) As corollary to above there is no scope for induction of new and emerging technologies. artisan trades. sandwich system..5 crore persons should be created for providing initial training through strengthening of existing VET Institutions and by setting up new VET Institutions. persons with disabilities. who are already in the world of work. entrepreneurship. etc. capacity for about 0. working children and differently-abled children. It is estimated that 1. 13 . street children. block release system. Minorities. VET should be offered in flexible mode through modular courses of varying durations. with special provisions for disadvantaged groups viz. scheduled tribes.0 crore unskilled and semi-skilled persons. should include entrepreneurship development and elementary training in information and communication technology to enable persons to take responsibility for production. It should cater to the needs of different target groups. first aid training. small and medium enterprises. Strategies for encouraging access to VET for marginalized groups. Approach in the Eleventh Plan: During the XI Five Year Plan. marketing. Vocational Education and Training (VET) should be provided to those who need skills for sustainable livelihood and to meet the challenges of the world of work. No scope for competency testing.21 crore persons are working in the informal sector.

1 1.5.6 3.00 125.0 300.No.4 3.5.00 2359.5 1.00 150.recurring and non-recurring expenditure on Science lab.00 14 . Learning Resource Center ICT @ Schools 15. stationeries etc.13 6015.00 3589.2 3. Provision of bicycles for students belonging to SC/ST/OBC/Minority communities Boarding & lodging facilities for students belonging to SC/ST/OBC/Minority communities (for boys) Stipend for day scholars belonging to SC/ST/OBC/Minority communities One additional language teacher (Tribal Language) Transport facilities for girl students Residence scheme for Women teachers in rural areas Rural allowance for Women teachers Scheme for incentives to girls for Secondary Education Construction and running of Girls' Hostel Scheme of Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS) State Talent Search Scheme and Chacha Nehru Scholarship for Artistic & Innovative excellence National Science Talent Search Scheme 3.00 1.00 1050.50) *(8003.Summary of financial requirements during 11 th Five Year Plan (2007-12) (Rs.75 *(2075. 3.00 30.00 550.00 10990.3 3. footwear. HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY & HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Incentives to the students belonging to SC/ST/OBC/Minority communities similar to Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan like free textbooks.8 3.30 19769. uniforms.9 3.3 Library facilities 2.10 3.11 3.76 12078.4 1. 1.5 3.0 5523.70 10547.12 3.2 1.Creation of new structures and strengthening of existing structure Total capital expenditure on expansion of Secondary Education Total recurring expenditure on teachers & inspection/supervision charges Learning Resources .5.2 EDUSAT facilities 1.1 6098.52) 1300. and Art & Craft lab.70 26040.7 3. in crore) S.1 24160.52 Projected requirement 1.3 1.25 3. Items SECONDARY EDUCATION Curriculum .

00 500.00 50.00 821.14 3.18 3. 7.61 May be considered in the budget provisions for Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment! Ministry of Tribal Affairs! Ministry of Minority Affairs.2 4.00 5.30 & TRAINING (NCERT) JOINT INDO-MONGOLIAN SCHOOL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION GRAND TOTAL • 166584.80 44. 6.00 4215. 4.00 6876.3 5.00 210.00 435.01 10425.00 381.20 3.19 3.00 90.15 3.50 1750.21 4. International Science Olympiad QIS (As a component of Universalization of Secondary Education) excluding International Science Olympiad Adolescent Education Programme Open Schooling System Scheme forout of school children (Over arching scheme) Student assessment and examination reforms Guidance & Counseling Capacity building (In-service training of teachers) SCHOOL SUB-SYSTEM Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangthan (KVS) Navodya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS) Central Tibetan School Administration (CTSA) NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 10.16 3. 15 .1 4.17 3.3.

2. 166584.00 5.00 71699. 4.No. 3.61 16 .28 12078. 6.00 6876. Items SECONDARY EDUCATION HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY & HR.22 14684.30 1. SECONDARY EDUCATION SCHOOL SlIB-SYSTEM NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH & TRAINING (NCERT) JOINT INDO-MONGOLIAN SCHOOL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION GRAND TOTAL ********** Projected requirement 60741.Break up of Projected Requirement JRs. 7.81 500.crore) S. 5.

00* 47365.05 2471.56 3240.20 2.Overview .50 4262. The corresponding allocation finalized for 2007-08 as well as projections for the Eleventh plan is given in the table below: SCHEME WISE ALLOCATION AND EXPENDITURE DURING TENTH PLAN AND ANNUAL PLAN 2007-08 (Rs.00 67.50 15.67 34.30 1.19 II III IV V VI 624. OF HIGHER EDUCATION University and Higher Education Distance Learning (including scholarship) and ICT Technical Education Development of Language Book Promotion Planning and Administration Secretariat Social Services Works outlay in the Ministry of UD TOTAL : Dept.02 102.61 49.00 14977.02 88.00 434.00* 117.50 3417. of Higher Edu.94 72.84 52.09 6483.00 8369.70 133.60 78.No X Plan Annual XI th Name of the Tenth Plan Percentage PLAN Plan 2002-07 of Scheme Likely Allocation Expenditure Expenditure 2007-08 Outlay Allocation Proposed Over by the Tenth Plan Working Outlay Group$ 1 2 DEPT.00 4700. crore) S.Tenth Plan The Tenth Plan was in operation from April 2002 to March 2007.85 VII VIII 103666.50 9500.00 70.50 1884.Chapter III Higher Education INTRODUCTION Department of Higher Education .00 39402.05 579. The following table gives details of the allocation/expenditure under various sectors of the Department of Higher Education. 3 4 5 6 7 4176.50 11.67 NOTE: $ For consideration of the Steering Committee * Includes OSC Recommendations 17 .13 37.

The UPA will ensure that nobody is denied professional education because he or she is poor". The following specific objectives illustrate this: 'The UPA government will amend the Constitution to establish a Commission for Minority Educational Institutions that will provide direct affiliation for minority professional institutions to central universities". adoption of state specific strategies. The most important role is that this sector provides the beginnings for the creation of a knowleqge society. Higher education has made significant contribution to economic development. 2004 gave stress on equity in higher education. Employment opportunity patterns are changing and there is the challenge of providing skilled human power. colleges (from 700 to 18064) students from 1 lakh to 1121akh. Tenth Plan .Review of Policies and future prescriptions The Indian higher education system is one of the largest higher education systems in the world. convergence of formal. The sheer vastness of the higher education system can be gauged from the fact that in the past five decades there has been an impressive growth in the universities (from 25 to 367). which is confident. 18 . liberalization of the higher education system. non-formal education. relevance of the curriculum. A review committee of experts will be set up for this purpose". Steps will be taken to remove the communalization of the school syllabus that has taken place in the past five years. the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the UPA Government announced in June. networking through information technology. social progress and political democracy in independent India. This would lead to a need for trained persons who can compete at the national and global level. At the beginning of the 21 st century. research in frontier areas of knowledge and meeting the challenges of internationalization of Indian education. University Grants Commission. vocationalisation. 45% of Indians would be in their twenties.Objectives and Key Issues Raising the enrolment of the population in 18-23 age groups from 6% at the start of Tenth Plan to 10% by the end of 2007 was a key objective of the Tenth Plan. "The UPA government will take immediate steps to reverse the trend of communalization of education. It will also ensure that all institutions of higher learning and professional education retain their autonomy. Among the other issues flagged were: improving the quality of education. Indian Council for Social Science Research. increase in private participation. National Council for Educational Research and Training etc. flexible and equipped with the knowledge and technical skills needed to effectively face the socio-economic realities of the new century. global changes in demography and economy have had their impact on India as well. In addition to the above objectives of increasing access and improving quality of education. In nearly two decades from now. "Academic excellence and professional competence will be the sole criteria for all appointments to bodies like the Indian Council for Historical Research.

Necessary resources have been provided to the Central Educational Institutions. been enacted and has been notified in January.A. A total of six Central Universities have been created (including the Allahabad University and Manipur University which were created by converting the existing State Universities) since 2004. of students enrolled. Arunachal Pradesh (Rajiv Gandhi National University) and Tripura University have been converted from State Universities into Central Universities.5 million in 2007. has therefore. while a new University of Sikkim has been created. Increasing the access parameter from 6% to 10% over the Tenth Plan period means that the enrolment in the university/colleges should increase from 7.A.The progress in the achievement of the Tenth Plan objectives: (a) Enrolment The Tenth Plan had projected an increase of enrolment rate in higher education from 6 per cent to 10 per cent over the Plan period.in higher education 11. STs and OBCs in Central Educational Institutions. 2006 the No. Initiatives taken in Tenth Plan for improvement in the quality of higher education The UGC has taken several steps in the Tenth Plan period to improve the quality of education in universities and colleges. NAAC Universities Accredited by N. NAAC No. The Central Educational Institutions (Reservation in Admission) Act.5 million in 2002 to 12. As on 31st March.2 million (b) Expansion and increased access Growth of higher education system in India ­ No. of Institutions State/Central/Private Universities Deemed Universities Beginning of the tenth Status as on 31 st Plan 2002 March.3. t 0 provide statutory reservations to SCs. to augment their intake capacity by 54% in a maximum staggered period of three years in accordance with the Act. 2006 133 367 27 104 18064 2879 (as on 31. This was the only quantifiable target for the Tenth Plan. of students enrolled 75 lakh During each year of the Tenth Plan there has been considerable enhancement in the plan budget of the UGC enabling increased assistance to universities. ensuring that reservations would not lead to any reduction in the seats as were available to unreserved categories before the coming into force of this Enactment. 19 .2006) 128 (as in 2007) 1121akh Colleges 12342 Colleges Accredited by N. 2007 in pursuance of the 93 rd Amendment to the Constitution of India. Four new Central Universities have been created during 2006 through Act of Parliament.

In 2002-03. Consortium of Universities.Jawaharlal Nehru University. 51 Academic Staff Colleges continued their orientation programme and refresher courses for in-service teachers and newly appointed lecturers. According to the UGC mandate. The Consortium will use the Internet to provide electronic access to scholarly literature in all areas of learning. The objective of granting autonomy to colleges is to provide academic freedom in designing curricula. This programme is to cover the universities coming under the UGC purview and it will be gradually extended to the colleges as well. evolving new methods of teaching and research. This meant that the enrolment in universities/colleges should increase from 7. University of Hyderabad. Information for Library Network (INFLIBNET).780 colleges. is the nodal agency for coordination and facilitation of the linkage between ERNET and universities. NAAC has so far completed the process of accreditation of 128 universities and 2. In the Tenth Plan. besides links to other research. As on 31 st March. etc. The UGC launched an e-journal. The number of vocational courses for introduction in universities and colleges identified by UGC has increased from 35 to 42 during the period under review. A total of 296 orientation programmes/workshops and 1271 refresher courses have been approved in 117 universities. 19.2 million. an amount of Rs. At present 132 colleges under 29 universities are autonomous.Five universities . 20 . Since the network will be run and managed by ERNET India.77 crore was paid to 335 colleges for implementation of the Career Orientation to Education programme. University of Madras. UGC INFONET allows teachers and students to have access to a storehouse of information in the form of e-formatted journals. in October 2003. 2006 the number of students enrolled in higher education was 11. prescribing courses for study. colleges and technical institutes to become members of INFLIBNET and INDEST (Indian National Digital Library for Engineering Sciences and Technology). the target was to accord autonomous status to 10 per cent of eligible colleges. The programme needs to be accelerated The National Accreditation Assessment Council (NAAC). for the next five years. The UGC has taken a number of steps for leveraging the use of ICT. NAAC has proposed to review approximately 1000 colleges per year. States have agreed to encourage their universities.5 million in 2007. setting examination papers. A study should be conducted to assess the impact of autonomy in improving the quality of education and of infrastructure in universities and colleges Objectives and Policies for Higher Education for the XI Plan The Tenth Plan had projected an increase of enrolment rate in higher education from 6 per cent to 10 per cent over the Plan period. set up in 1994 was strengthened with the opening of four regional centres so as to speed up the accreditation process. During the first three years of the Tenth Plan.5 million in 2002 to 12. an autonomous body under the UGC. Jadavpur University and the University of Pune have been identified for granting the status of "Universities with potential for excellence". an autonomous Inter-University Centre for UGC.

large vacancies in faculty positions and poor faculty.. the average standard is much lower. High quality institutions are finding it difficult to get quality faculty.e. For more than two decades fears have been expressed at various fora about the deteriorating quality of Higher education in India. India should aim to be a global innovation (R&D Hub). The Centre is taking steps to introduce reservation for OBCs 21 . 2006. in national laboratories and in industrial R&D units. T~lis would amount to increase in enrolment . The basic problems facing higher education are inadequate infrastructure and facilities. The strategy for expanding education must also pay attention to ensuring equitable access. There is an overwhelming need to undertake major expansion and raise the GER to 15% as quickly as possible consistent with maintaining quality..by about 84 lakh students over a period of five years. The National Knowledge Commission in its Note 'on Higher Education submitted to the Hon'ble Prime Minister in November 2006 spoke about "a quiet crisis in higher education that runs deep . Reservation of seats in educational institutions for SCs/STs has been in place for many years. Over 60% of these institutions are located in just about 6-8 States. New colleges/universities must be set up in educationally backward districts to provide easier access to students. Despite the initiatives taken in the Tenth plan the quality of higher education in India leaves a lot to be desired.Enrolment targets for the XI Plan The Eleventh Plan has proposed that the gross enrolment rate be raised by 5 percent as quickly as possible. The limited access parameter of 10% in the relevant age group compares unfavorably with 20-25% in many developing countries. The 11 th Plan must address these disparities as they greatly influence distribution of employment opportunities. The regional divide in educational and R&D institutions is a matter of concern. There are serious shortages of qualified research personnel in educational institutions. 15% by the end of the XI Plan. outmoded teaching methods." The Mid Term Appraisal to the Tenth Plan laments the fact that hardly any Indian university ranks among the top world universities.. While some of our institutions of higher education have the potential to become comparable with the best in the world. A specific plan for upgrading a few select universities with potential for excellence must be formulated. we will run into skill constraints which will limit our ability to gain competitive advantage in this area. Unless these efforts are made. The higher education system suffers from serious problem of quality. i. These problems are a reflection of the poor 'quality of' higher education The policies of the Government in the context of the higher education during the Eleventh Plan period have been detailed in the Approach Paper to the Eleventh Five Year Plan which has been approved by the NDC on December 9. These considerations suggest that the 11 th Plan must undertake a major effort to expand and improve the quality of higher education system especially in Science and create an environment that attracts bright students to careers in Science and in R&D. unmotivated students and widespread geographic income gender and ethnic balances. These are listed below: While India has a well developed a comprehensive higher education system this is now inadequate. declining research standards.

While successive Annual Plans will have to provide rising levels of budgetary support. The role of the private sector in providing high quality education also needs to be recognized and a suitable facilitative environment created to allow such institutions to support our objectives of expanding higher education Working Group on Higher Education -XI Plan Proposals: Requirement of Funds for the University and Higher Education Sector: The total estimated outlay which will be required during the 11 th Plan period for the University and Higher education sector (excluding Distance Education. Sri Guru Granth Sahib. 1 UGC 2 NCRI /IIRT 3 Minority Education 4 Higher Education Refinance Corporation 5 Others. This has been estimated by the Working Group on Higher Education (Rs. Simultaneously efforts will be made to develop wider merit-cum-means based loan and scholarship programmes through the banking system and other agencies. The 11 th Plan must address the problems of varying standards. The open schooling programme should be strengthened and expanded. (i) Access For enhancing access the Working Group on higher Education proposed to upgrade 20 State universities (one in each State) to the level of Central university at the rate 22 . liAS. ICT and Scholarships) is Rs 47365. outdated syllabi and inadequate facilities.(ICSSR. Name of the Sector No. Details are as per table in Annexure-I. 725 crore for Modernisation of Madarsas Continuing Schemes of the Tenth Plan A. 800 crore for Maulana Azad foundation and Rs. crore) SI.19 * Includes Rs. AIU. It must address the need to create an environment that will attract top class faculty to our universities.00* 2500 270. these must be accompanied by internal resource generation by the universities by realistically raising fees. ICHR.66 1525.in Central Universities and other Central institutions in such a way that there is no reduction in the general category of seats. UGC The bulk of the outlay (nearly 90%) of the proposed outlay of Rs.19 crore as is seen from the table below. 43033 crore. The UGC proposes to strengthen on-going programmes and take up new initiatives.00 47365. 47365.19 crore is for the programmes of UGC to the tune of Rs. Dr ZHMC Trust) Total Proposed Outlay for the XI Plan 43033.53 36. ICPR.

5 lakh per college would be provided. strengthen infrastructure of existing 164 State universities @ Rs. life sciences would be set up during the XI Plan.76 core is kept aside for NAAC during the XI Plan. 5 crore to 25 old deemed universities during the XI Plan period. 100 crore each for infrastructure development. Universities/colleges with a higher proportion of SC/ST and minority students would also be given grants for hostels. 3000 crore for implementation of the recommendations of the MM Sharma Committee on basic scientific research has been made for 250 universities. 23 . The Parliamentary Standing Committee on HRD in its 172nd Report has recommended that the NAAC should start accrediting individual departments of universities in addition to its overall grading. 97. Similarly 3000 colleges would be given the same amount for women hostels. 5 new inter-university centres for linguistics. It also proposed to provide assistance @ Rs. Internal quality assurance cells are proposed to be set up in colleges and universities. 2050 crore is proposed to be allocated for assisting these universities/colleges during the Plan period. 20 crore per university per year. Rs. (iii) Quality and Research The Working Group proposes the following initiatives: Improvement/increase in faculty. 250 universities would be provided Rs. The Committee emphasizes the urgent needs to identify efficient ways and effective strategies for expediting the assessment and accreditation by NAAC within a stipulated time frame. 100 crore each for Nano-science centres. Keeping this in view the Department of Higher Education proposes to set up universities/colleges in backward. 10 crore per university. (ii) Equity The approach to the XI Plan flags the issue of concern regarding regional divide in the matter of educational institutions. An amount of Rs. The Working Group envisages strengthening infrastructure of 6000 existing colleges and also set up new 6000 colleges. A provision of Rs. social sciences. research and infrastructure upgradation also provision of sports facilities (a new scheme) is on the agenda of the UGC. 1 crore each for setting up women hostels. 10 lakh per university and 500 colleges at the rate of Rs. 10 crore per university and. at the earliest. Assistance to 20 universities at the rate of Rs.of Rs. rural. Setting up new autonomous colleges and strengthening Academic staff colleges. The three presidency universities would be provided Rs. set up new 150 State universities with an outlay @ Rs. remote areas and in small towns. Proposals for providing education to the disadvantaged which include SC/ST/Minorities/OBC and women. Five State Technological Universities would be provided Rs. is a key stone during the XI Plan. establishment of five Regional institutes of professional development are some of the steps for quality improvement. Special development grants will be provided to universities/colleges with a higher proportion of SC/ST and minority students.

The UGC is expected to provide special assistance to State/Central/Deemed Universities and other institutions of higher learning to create hostel facilities for girl students in all identified Muslim Concentrated districts. Establishment of international institute of rural technologies & research (IIRT) The MHRD has proposed establishment of the International Institute of Rural Technologies & Research (IIRT) in India for providing opportunities for rural technological studies to meet the society's rural needs. teaching assistantships and post-doctoral fellowships have been proposed. Proposals for Students Belonging to Minority Communities in Higher Education As a follow-up of the recommendations of the Justice Rajinder Sachar Committee. 24 . It is also required to proVide development grants to colleges located in Muslim Concentrated blocks in rural areas and smaller towns for building hostels. resources would be generated through consultancies and project implementation for both Indian and international clients. The expansion of the existing capacities of the Aligarh Muslim University and the Maulana Azad National Urdu University and enlargement of the scope of their activities is proposed with an estimated expenditure of Rs. The Institute will also establish a corpus fund with the help of the NCRI/ State Government donations form national and international sources. The institute will strive to integrate education in a fundamental sense with the rural growth processes.Enhancement in the numbers and rates of Fellowships. NCRI will be the nodal Agency for implementation of IIRT While the Institute's operation are fully funded by the government of India. The National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) proposes to establish a Center for study of issues in minority education The NCERT is required to build up a data bank and strengthen its educational information system on the above subject. strengthening infrastructure and other faculties. B. ORGANIZATION OF IIRT: The institute will broadly consists of two distinct parts: (i) Schools of Study (ii) a Gandhian Centre for Holistic Development. New Schemes Following four new initiatives are proposed by the Working Group on higher education under the University Sector the XI Plan: A. 800 crores in the 11 th Five Year Plan. This has been recommended by the Working Group. allocation for education for minorities is proposed to be enhanced during the XI Plan.. THE CHARACTER OF IIRT The Institute will be fully autonomous in all respects including academic matter to attain a Deemed to be university status as a de-nova institution.

ryo Deemed Universities 25Universities @Rs. A 1 Enhancing Access State 2000.00 Croresl 25 Upgrading State 20 Universities Universities to the level o@ RS.00 Crore Special Developmen Grants to: New 100 Departments @ 500. Annexure-I Schemes to be funded through the University Grants Commission SINo Scheme Rate ~mount Remarks. crores. Higher Education Refinance Corporation..20 Central Universities University/ year 2 3 4 5 6 B 7 8 . 200 crore to encourage sports and related activities in colleges/universities has been recommended by the Working Group.00 One University in each state to be funded at the level of Central University.750.00 existing State RS. Crore / College New Colleges 6000 Colleges @ RS.For the Modernization of Madarsas and for the development of infrastructure of minority educational institutions in areas where educational backward minorities reside an outlay of Rs.. 725 crores is proposed.1 6000. A token provision of Rs.00 of existinQ ColleQes Rs. 2500 crore during the XI Plan is proposed for the new central sector scheme. A new programme of Rs.1 Ocrore/ University Strengthening infrastructure 6000 Colleges @ 6000. Strengthening infrastructure 164 Universities @ 1640. namely.. In Rs. A projected requirement of Rs. RS.10 crores / University of Universities New State Universities 150 Universities 1500. C.00 @Rs.00 For faculty Departments/Faculties/ positions.00 each old crores/University deemed universities.5 125. Faculties of Medical Studies ~II Central Universities in in All Central Universities 0 North a€" Eastern North Eastern ReQion Reaion.5 crores/ Department Centres & infrastructure research to help hem effectively with compete premier institutions. 1 crore has been made in the Budget of 2007-08 of the Department of Higher Education for the proposed Student Loan Scheme/Refinance Corporation. D.

Development '0 500 colleges @Rs 25 Community Colleges Lakh per college (ii) Special Grants for Capacity Building Initiative ifor SC/ST/OBC Minorities 0: 10.00 20 Schemes for promotion 0 Higher Education to minorities 500.00 ColleQe Social Group Equity (i)Special Developmen Grants to: Universities with relatively 20 Universities @ RS.5 125. In Rs.00 Infrastructure Development.00 For rejuvenation of infrastructure Mumbaicrore/ University Madras Rate 500. crores.1.SINo Scheme 9 10 11 Commemorate Education in Kolkata & Universities.00 University Women Hostel for Colleges 3000 Colleges @ croret 3000. ~eaching aids.00 in250 1VV0men Universities croret RS. Technologica15 Universities @ RS. 16 Promoting Inclusiveness and Equity Gender Equity: Hostel Universities @ 250.100 5 State crores/ Universities Universities and facilities inAII Universities Sports ColleQes Universities Amount Remarks. 14 15 E.00 higher proportion 0 lakh/ College per annum SC/ST/Minorities Grant for Hostels Universities with relatively 20 Universities @ RS.10 10.00 200.10 higher proportion 0 lakh /Universities per Poor annum SC/ST/Minorities/ students in hostels Colleges with relatively 500 Colleges @ RS. New Scheme C 12 13 D. ifellowships etc Fellowships.00 For infrastructure development. lakh/ Universities per Minorities annum with Colleges relatively 500 Colleges @ RS.100 300.00 higher proportion of SC/ST.5 higher proportion 0 lakh/ College per annum SC/ST/Minorities/Poor students hostel. Projects Development and 26 .00 19 Schemes for persons with Disabilities 500. Higher Universities @ RS.00 17 125.00 18 A© 125.

12 lakh/teacher for 240. G.00 500.00 Iprogramme (FI P) 2000 teachers Catch up grants to young 500 colleges @ Rs 50 250.00 27 To provide assistance for New Scheme setting up B. crores.00 250.00 22 23 24 25 26 Backward 1000 Colleges @ RS.10 lakh/ University per annum Colleges in Small Towns 500 Colleges @ RS.00 Over a period 0 due ime to under-investment in higher education. 10 Colleges in Rural Areas lakh /College per annum Universities in emote areas 25 Universities @ RS. 150. other assistance.00 400 colleges) New Autonomous colleges @Rs 1 Crore/colleoe 400.00 infrastructure in old colleges Lakh Autonomous colleges @Rs 1 Crore/college 250.Ed.00 colleges lakh Rejuvenation 0 500 colleges @ Rs 50 250. 21 Regional Equity Special Development assistance to: Universities in Backward 50 Universities @ RS.10 lakh /college Colleges in 500.00 250.00 27 . Faculty in College/ Universities 0 each District Headquarters. IThese allocations are made with he commitmen hat a similar sum (plus allowance inflation) or would be made in he XII Plan as well. Faculty improvement @ RS.00 500.47 in XI Plan and 40% as Central Plan.50 lakh/College ~reas 1000 Colleges @ Rs. In Rs. F.SINo Scheme Rate Amount Remarks.10 (excluding CentraIlakh /College per annum University) Universities in Small Towns 50 Universities @ RS.1 crore /University !Areas 50. 28 29 30 31 32 33 Mitigation of Quality Gaps in Colleges Fulfillment of Quality Gaps IAssuming 50% covered 5584.

00 MM Implementation of the 250 Universities Committee recommendation of the recommendation Empowered Committee in @ Rs.for Policy & Planning lA. 34 35 36 37 38 39 ~O ~1 42 43 H.00 ~o institutions of Eminence Lakh/teacher per annum 250.© Life Sciences (d) Humanities & Social Sciences (e) Rural Higher Education.SINo Scheme Rate !Amount Remarks.80 Excellence (100 New Colleges + @Rs. crores.00 New Schemes Establishment of Regional Converting 5 Academic Institutes for Professional Staff Colleges (ASC) on Development experimental basis @Rs. Education Research .Phil.00 basic Scientific Research crores aer annum New Scheme Exchange of junior faculty 500 Teachers @ Rs 1 25. Establishment of New IUCs 5 New IUCs @ Rs.00 New Scheme Doctoral (Non students Fellowship) Postdoctoral Fellowships 1000 Fellowship @ Rs 3 150. 40 Lakh for 97 Old ColleQes) Sharma 3000. 600.50 Lakh/universitv Colleges 14000 Colleges @Rs 2 80. f44 f45 f46 I.00 Lakh per fellow/pa NAAC 97. In Rs.00 Lakh/colleoe Linguistics.00 !For excellence Crores/university + 9 old university @Rs 10 Crore Colleges with potential for @ Rs 1 Crores/colleges 138.00 1 Lakh p./ Ph.a/ per fellow M.000 Fellowships @Rs 1500. 10 Crores/lnstitute Fellowship for doing 30.200 1000. ICT Inteoration Dioital Repository 28 .00 (a) Higher (b) crores.d Teaching Assistantship for 150.00 Based on sUb-I IAcademic Staff College GrouD report 50. 1'400 colleoes) Universities with potentia110 Universities @ Rs 30 390.76 Based on the Sub-Group Report Internal Quality Assurance Cells Universities 150 Universities @Rs 5 7.

00 Based on X plan report 2.00 undergraduate and Ipostgraduate students Total !Amount Remarks.00 51 30. 1080.00 150.) Summer schools for 30.10 lakh p.53 29 . In Rs.a.00 (i) Research (@Rs.00 Based on SubGroup report. 10 Lakh p. 250.100.033.00 ~or five years 50.00 143. crores.SINo Scheme Rate 147 48 49 50 (a) Universities (b) colleges ICT for Universities & Colleqes Special Assistance to ten 2000 Premier Universities (a) One-time grant (b) Recurring grant 10 (average Science departments per university) 50.a) (ii) Teaching (@Rs.

with the upgradation of University of Roorkee to liT. and informal sector development. Manufacturing and Design was established at Jabalpur making it the third institute in the series.416. Similarly. Progress during Tenth Plan: Expansion of the system: The Tenth Plan period saw a phenomenal increase in the number of institutions in the technical and manqgement education sector in the country. Efforts made during the Plan for improving quality of technical education and increased usage of ICTs To enhance opportunities for research in science and technology and improve of quality of education. faculty development. the numbers of Polytechnics have increased from 1203 in 2001-02 to 1244 in 2005-06 with corresponding rise in intake from 235.. A new Indian Institute of Information Technology.590. Many Private Universities have become operational imparting technical education through legislation of various State Governments.507 to 265. i. the number of IITs increased from 6 to 7 during the plan period. Similarly. Further during the period 17 RECs and 3 other institutions were upgraded to NIT level.796 to 5. Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER) have started functioning and one more such institute is being set up at Mohali in Punjab. Besides.95. other sectors of technical education have also grown during the period. improving the quality and quantity of research in technologies. the number of AICTE approved Degree Engineering / Technology institutions has risen from 1. in-terms of development of knowledge and skill­ oriented manpower capable of fulfilling the requirements of the various sectors of the economy. development of information technology education.522 and the annual intake has risen from 2. Several Engineering colleges were conferred with Deemed to-be-University status. Plan were: a continuing focus on increased intake capacity. an access to electronic journals and data basis is being provided to technical institutions. strategic planning and management of the technical education system.Chapter IV TECHNICAL EDUCATION In the context of the robust economic growth in India. With a view to give fillip to science education and related research two new institutes. international benchmarking developing capacity in new and emerging technology areas. mainly due to private sector initiatives. All the four Technical Teacher Training Institutes (TTTls) were upgraded as National Institutes of Technical Teachers' Training and Research NITTTR. During this period.82. optimization of resources through networking. the technical education system will be required to play a crucial role.e. The AICTE and Indian Digital Library for Science and Technology (INDEST) have joined hand to form a combined AICTE-INDEST Consortium 30 . anticipating more than 8% economic growth rate in the coming years.057 to 1. Tenth Plan objectives and Key Issues The key issues relating to technical and management education during the Tenth improving quality. modernization/development of curriculum.

there are sectoral imbalances in terms of availability of opportunities and on the other there is uneven density of professional education institutions in some of the regions. Similar targets may be made for other disciplines too. The ongoing Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme with World Bank assistance aims at up scaling and supporting ongoing efforts of the GOI to improve quality of technical education. Ensuring relevance to global/local market / industry needs and Improving Employability: Relevance of technical education should be seen with reference to and its marketability of the graduate and postgraduate students it produces relevance for the socio-economic development of a society. Some states are lagging behind national average in availability of seats for admission. Curriculum Development: Promoting curricular modernization / revisions / innovations. In this direction. . One hand. R&D houses etc. The above issues have been detailed in the Report of the Working Group on Technical Education: Expanding Technical Education: The Technical Education sector must be geared up to meet the manpower requirement not only of the needs of Indian Industry. a National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) has been launched. partnership between industry and institutions needs to be emphasized in framing syllabi. in view of the stiff global competition is a major challenge. these figures need to be increased by tenfold to supply the much-needed trained manpower in the country and abroad. improvement in employability of trained graduates and post-graduates are some of the areas which need attention. but also for the global requirement of technical manpower. enabling industry-oriented student projects and promotion of mission-oriented R&D relevant to industrial needs. Assuring Quality of Technical Education: During the XI plan period. the intake of technical education sector must grow at 15% rate. Making available adequate opportunities for admission and upgrading the technical education system is a major challenge. While at present it is estimated that about 450 Doctorates are produced in the country per . Challenges in Technical Education: There are many challenges before the technical education system in the country.annum in Engineering & Technology. This would provide content support in the form of digital video-based courses/web based courses/enrichment of programmes on a sustained basis/enhance learning effectiveness. Promotion of R&D efforts. Improving employability of out-turn is a major challenge.To enhance learning effectiveness and to expand access to high quality education. for greater employability of graduates. Raising quality standards and achieving world-class excellence by international benchmarking in the midst of big expansion is a major challenge. quality of technical education sector continue to be the focus area with emphasis on Masters and Doctorates level programmes to lead the technological revolution. 31 . Another area of concern is inadequate availability of faculty both in terms of quality and in numbers. For this purpose. within the country. Providing Access and Affordability: There is an urgent need for broadening access to higher education by expanding it and by making it affordable. During the last plan period major rise in intake of institutions was due to private initiatives it is proposed during Eleventh Plan that Government would take initiative in expanding the system.

Promoting R&D and Innovation: Research and development will be a challenge with emphasis on research on problems of industrial relevance Networking of Institution: Networking / sharing of knowledge / competency shall be a major challenge for overall growth and development of technical education system.39402. Upgradation and Strenothening Capabilities) Payment for Professional & Spl.Addressing the shortage of qualified faculty: Shortage of qualified and competent faculty is been identified as the most pertinent issue in the development of the technical education system in the country. Kerala. particularly in the emerging areas of technology is crucially important Facilitating Modernization: Modernization of technical education sector continue to be a challenge with an objective to modernize laboratories and their equipment.N Name of the Scheme 0 A A. 00. and Tamil Nadu. use leT in education in improving teaching-learning process etc. Services Technology Development Mission 'Meroed with IITs) Research & Development 32 . The four States of Andhra Pradesh. it has also created severe regional imbalances as well as sharp skew grossly in favour of a few disciplines neglecting many vital sectors.000 amounting to more than half of the national capacity Proposal for the Eleventh Plan An outlay of RS. Facilitating inclusion of disadvantaged groups I areas I sections of society I states and reducing imbalances: While the overall growth in technical education has been impressive. have an intake capacity of over 3.50 crores has been proposed for the Technical Education Sector for the Xlth Plan. in crore) I 2 3 4 Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme 400 (Including Capacity Expansion. set up state-of-the-art laboratories in the frontier areas of technology. retaining and developing faculty in technical education sector. Enabling Faculty Development: Attracting. There is tremendous imbalance in access to technical education in urban and rural areas. Modernization of technical institutions particularly those under State Government sector shall be a major challenge. Karnataka. Also.EXISTING SCHEMES 1 B PLAN XI 2007-12 Proposed Outlay(Rs. The details are in the table given below: S. Improving access and equity in the North East and J&K is needed. there are wide variations in per person expenditure on technical education amongst various states of India.

Mumbai 40 NIFFT. Manpower Dev. Gwalior 50 TTTls (NITTRs) 120 NITIE. National Mission for Tech. Ranchi 30 SPA. Kokrajhar 30 11M (North East). Dhanbad 100 BOATS includinq Apprenticeship Traininq 150 Informal Sector Development Support for National level Entrance Test Exam and Competency based Assessment Services Support for Dev.for Technology Enhanced learning Community Polytechnics Polvtechnic for Disabled Grants-in-aid to Institutions in Technical Education AICTE Sant longowallnstitute of Engineering & Technology - 20 40 100 20 1500 25 IISc .) National Programme for Earth Quake Engineering National Prog . Shillong 265 lilT Design and Manufacturing Kanchipuram 200 3 Indian Institute of Science For Education and Research 1000 !(Pune.. New Delhi 35 ISM. Education.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 MODROB Thrust Areas of Tech. Kolkata & Mohali) Transformation of 7 State University Institutions to the level 2100 of IITs Setting up of 20 New Indian Institute of Information 2000 Technology Setting up of 5 new Indian Institute of Science For Education 1500 and Research (includinq Bhopal arid Thiruvananthapuram) Setting up of 2 New School of Planning and Architecture 240 !(Bhopal & Vijayawada) Setting up of 8 New IITs (including in Rajasthan. Banqalore 500 IITs 1500 NITs 1200 IIMs 200 Investment in Ed Cil North-Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology 30 "f\lERIST) lilT Allahabad 100 IIITM. For HRD in IT (Soft. Education Research & Information services National Prog. International Technical Cooperation (Collaboration/ 10 Networking Programme in Technical Education) Indian Institute of Information Technoloqy. Andhra 5200 - 33 . Jabalpur 50 CIT. of Educational Administration.

Based on this past trend. Expansion of Capacities in eXisting World-class Institutions: The Intake capacities capacity of existing IITs. SPA. The manpower output is required to be supply-driven rather than demand-driven in order to over produce manpower for a post-GATS era. it is proposed that the intake of technical education sector during the plan period shall be targeted to grow at 15% annually. to keep pace with the target GDP growth of 10% in XI Plan.402. only IITs. Upgrading existing Institutions to World-class level: At present.Pradesh & Bihar) 1750 Settinq up of 7 New IIMs 1000 Settinq UP of 20 New NITs Establishing 50 centers for training and research in frontier 500 areas(in existinq institutions) 1537. To enable 34 . IISc. GDP has been growing at 6 ­ 8% which has been accompanied by the increase in intake at about 10%.50 The Working Group on Technical Education has listed the following Goals and Targets for the XI Five Year Plan: Expansion of technical Education sector: The expansion of technical education is needed to cater to the vital requirement of technical manpower for sector-wise growth and overall GDP growth. IIMs. NIPER and other existing Institutions of National importance needs to be increased at least twofold.50 Setting up of 125 New Polytechnics 615 Setting up of 50 new Polytechnics for Women Creation of Infrastructure facility in Polytechnics for 400 Manufacturinq Sector Strenqtheninq the Base for Research 500 Promotion of Innovations and Transfer of Technologies 500 (including 20 New Centers for Innovation & Technology Transfer) 1500 Faculty Augmentation and Development Innovations in Teaching and Learning 100 100 Enhancing Knowledge Resource Base Reducing Regional Imbalances and Social Inequities 100 (Schemes for disadvantaged groups and deficient areas / States) 100 Technical Education Industrial Consortium Scheme 100 Virtual Technical University Capacity expansion/Upgradation/Strengthening Capabilities 1000 of technical Institutions (includinq State funded) Reimbursement of accreditation fee to technical institutes 125 Implementation of aBC Reservation in Management & 10700 Engineering Institutes (Moily Committee) Total 39. In the last few years. IIMs and very few other institutions can boast of world-class standards.

Modernizing State Government Technical Institutions: State Government funded Technical Institutions suffer from poor infrastructure.one with emphasis on design science I knowledge and the other on practical skill orientation. Furthermore. steps must also be taken for creation I modernization of research infrastructure. laboratory. At least another 100 technical education institutions must are proposed to be identified in a rational and proportionate manner from amongst the various fields of technical education and brought upto world-class level in terms of faculty and infrastructure in the 11 th plan. improve excellence. e-connectivity. but potentially high return. computing facilities. it is proposed to • Modernize I upgrade I expand I diversify I strengthen existing institutions to World Class level. A Greater Support for World Class R&D and Innovation: Research and innovation are central to the economic competitiveness. faculty and infrastructure of international standards • Grant some degree of academic and administrative autonomy to selected technical institutions. Revitalization of Technician Education: It may be worthwhile to explore two streams of engineers . relevance and impact of research. It is proposed that these select 100 institutions would play the role of a lead institution in regional networks. For visibility of research outcome. especially hitherto poorly funded state government institutions. library. • Facilitate international cooperation and global engagement • Strengthen existing schemes for modernization of technical education for creation of digital infrastructure for learning and teaching. Upgradation of 200 such institutions is proposed. digital library and documentation services. • Promote paradigm shift to learner centered technical education.the Indian technical institutions to compete with the best institutions all across the globe. adventurous research in at least some select areas. so as to provide manpower for two different needs of industry. computer facilities etc. smart classrooms. by providing funds. we must encourage high risk. impact and industrial-societal relevance of research in various areas of technical education. • Enhance Resource Allocation to Technical Education 35 . • Expand open and distance education and promote ICT • Develop Technician Education • Promote involvement of industry in curricula development. • Design and develop market oriented and design based curricula.. • Identify and excel in select high priority emerging thrust areas. and maintain I improve the international quality. In order to increase the research capability and global standing of India. Their modernization is crucial to the enhancement of quality of technical education. it is imperative to develop a National Innovation Policy by the Government as well as Industry and academia. research etc. diversity. Strategy for Implementation In order to achieve the above goals and targets. • Address the problem of faculty shortage and development. even though they get the best students. This will help identify broad based national research priorities in select identified strategically important areas.

E.. the intake of technical education sector must at least maintain the present growth rate of 15%. For this purpose.e. The expanded technical education capacity should offer substantial scope for Post­ Graduate and Doctoral level programmes. The government investments should help to upgrade about 100 technical institutions. D. 7) is quite inadequate and recommends that seven more IIMs be established in the XI Plan so that there is one 11M each in most of the major States by the end of the XI Plan. of substantial intake capacity to world-class standard. it is proposed to set up an additional three IISERs making it 5 new IISERs in all. Subsequently. Expansion of Centrally Funded Technical Institutions Implementation of Recommendations of the Oversight Committee: The recent recommendations of the Oversight Committee to increase the intake capacities of the centrally funded technical institutions in the categories of IITs.NEW SCHEMES proposed by the Working Group: A. R&D and teaching both at the local Indian and the global levels. NITTRs. The present level of about 450 Doctorates per annum in Engineering & Technology needs to be increased by tenfold within the next five years. Setting up of 20 more new NITs It is proposed to set up 20 more NITs in the 11th Plan period mostly by converting suitable State Government institutions. and IIMs would provide for an opportunity for major capacity expansion of high level technical and management institutions while providing for social equity. Setting up of 7 more new IIMs In view of the growing requirements of the management education system in the country. Capacity Expansion and Upgradation of 100 technical institutions The technical education sector should expand to meet the growing manpower requirements of the industry. the working group feels that the present number of IIMs (i. In the 11th Five Year Plan. This would require considerable attention to develop the capabilities of existing faculty and to attract competent faculty to the teaching profession. there should be major investments by the government. IISc and IIMs. lilTs. B. NITs. 36 . the Planning Commission has given approval for setting up two more IISERs in Bhopal and Thiruvananthapuram during the Eleventh Plan. apart from the existing centrally funded National Institutes of Importance such as IITs. C. instead of abandoning the technical education to the private investors. F. At the same time. Establishing 3 new IITs The Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (SAC-PM) has strongly recommended establishing three new IITs for Engineering Education and Research during the Xlth Five Year Plan. Setting up of 5 new IISERs Two IISERs have been set up in Pune and Kolkata. The third Institute in the chain of IISERs has been approved to be set up at 1VI0haii in Punjab.

Value Education and Consciousness Studies. Complexity and Self-organizing systems.2. Out of these. Strengthening Capabilities of 200 State Funded Institutions The State Government Technical institutions attract the brightest students. we also need to diversify into new emerging frontier areas of science and technology to make a meaningful and powerful impact in the world marked. Revamping Polytechnic Education There is an urgent need to restore the purpose of polytechnic education towards strong skill content. L. Ministry of HRD as a special drive may take necessary steps to provide one time assistance for establishing polytechnics and upgrading/ creating infrastructure facilities in the existing polytechnics. Communication. High Performance Computing. Professional / Business/ Technical/ Engineering Ethics. Setting up 2 new SPAs There is an urgent need for at least five Schools of Planning and Architecture spread in the southern. library. However.G. Innovation and Soft Life Skills Training and Development. A suitable one-time grant may be made by the Central Government for each of about 200 State level engineering colleges for modernization during the next five years. Bio-informatics. eastern. Setting Up Of 20 New Indian Institutes Of Information Technology (lilTs): It is proposed to set up by the end of 11th Plan a new system of Indian Institutes of Information Technology in India numbering a total of 24 lilTs with one in each state. Engineering ~/ Industrial Design. are not in a position to establish new polytechnics. I. Leadership. It is proposed to establish 50 centers of excellence for advanced training and research in the following areas: Biotechnology.1 to the level of the IITs. Mechatronics. Establishing 50 centers for training and research in frontier areas: While it is necessary to expand. accommodation. The polytechnic education is a State subject. Central Government and State Government may make funding available in the ratio of 75:25. For the up-gradation of the State technical institutions. J. most of such institutions suffer from severe deficiencies in terms of academic infrastructure. physical facilities etc. Creativity. Nano-materials and Nano-technologies. MEMS. central and western parts of the country. Transformation of 7 Universities Institutions to the level of IITs It is proposed to implement the recommendations of the Joshi Committee (followed by the Anandakrishnan Committee Report) and enhance the capabilities and facilities of seven select existing university/ institutions listed earlier in section 4. Chaos. They. four have already been set up. equipment. H. The Planning Commission has accorded 'in-principle' approval for setting up of two new schools of planning & architecture in the first instance and they are being set up at Bhopal and Vijayawada. faculty. strengthen and modernize. therefore. K. ' 37 . But the State Governments have not been able to remove obsolescence and modernize the laboratories and workshops of the existing Polytechnics.

project studentships. etc. postdoctoral. through awarding honors degrees. (ii) Promote Research/Project work at UG level (e. etc..g. it is necessary to promote (i) Institute Research Studentships (subject specific studentships. Faculty Augmentation and Development There is an acute shortage of teachers in the country in all areas covered under technical education. senior. For a well planned and coordinated development of the faCUlty at the national level.) and Research Fellowships (e. N.g.590 in 1522 technical institutes with an enrollment capacity of 5. 82. advanced. UG research grants. Strengthening the Base for Research in Technologies In order to strengthen base for Research & Innovation. Establishment of 20 mission oriented Centres for Innovation and Technology Transfer in various product categories and regions will fulfill such needs.M.). O.590 in the year 2006-2007. The number of teachers required is as large as 152. summer research programme. it is imperative fu fully implement the recommendations of the Rama Rao Committee Report on Faculty Development 2006 38 . industrial. Promotion of Innovations and Transfer of Technologies Rapid advances and changes in technologies as well as the changing patterns of demand for products and processes necessitate specially trained manpower in innovations techniques and introduction into the economy.

vocational and life skills. Schemes IGNOU Scholarship for University Students National Mission through ICT TOTAL XI Plan College in 8116. 1.00 Access to education through the Open and distance Learning system is expanding rapidly. Support to existing SOUs And GGls The setting up of 8 more State Open Universities is envisaged under the Eleventh Plan.00 14977.Chapter V Distance Learning. another 100 CCls are proposed to be supported in their quality up­ gradation efforts through DEC Initiatives. A provision of Rs. and strengthening CCls. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Scholarship S. The Mission would focus attention on six challenge areas with a view to achieving technological breakthrough in the field of: (a) very low cost.00 and 1555.00 crore ­ during the XI Plan for which a provision of Rs. The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) now has a cumulative enrolment of about 15 lakh. 2. No.00 Education 5306. The main objectives of the scheme are: (i) To deliver the benefits of ICT enabled learning including academic. an authority of IGNOU is coordinating the activities of 13 State Open Universities and 119 Institutes of Correspondence Courses in conventional universities. 3. National Mission in Education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) The MHRD has proposed a National Mission in Education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) with a proposed outlay of Rs. 8116 crore during the XI Plan is proposed for IGNOU. An outlay of Rs. 1 2. namely. In addition. 502 crore has been made in the 2007 08 bUdget of the Department of Higher Education. 5306. 700. as also for establishment of an independent statutory authority. The University introduced 16 new programmes during 2006-07. Distance Education Council The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Ministry of Human Resource Development has recommended establishment of Distance Education Council as a separate independent statutory authority. low power consuming access device and free bandwidth for institutions 39 . Setting up of State open universities. the Distance Education Council. The Distance Education Council (DEC). This is for strengthening of IGNOU and existing State Open Universities (SOUs) setting up new SOUs.00 crore is proposed for DEC in the 11 th Plan.

Provision of reference books and research papers from reputed publishers free of cost to students and teachers. and (f) creation of virtual technological university. especially SBI and its subsidiaries. Development of very low cost access device either in the form of a laptop or a mobile phone coupled with a tiny projection display device so as to bring high speed internet access to get relevant e-Iearning content being developed and hosted by us and various other institutions within reach for large section of masses and students. Scholarship will be paid to students electronically through bank accounts opened by them specifically for the purpose in any of the designated banks. Projected Qut Comes of the proposed Mission: Availability of e-books in English for various courses. It is estimated that a total of 70. Selection of scholarship holders will be decided only once at the time of passing out from class XII and thereafter the scholarship will be continued to be renewed up to PG level. After the scheme has been in operation for a period of 5 years. (d) research in the field of virtual laboratories. etc. from Class XI to Class XII would also be considered provided they meet other benchmark criteria. This will include flexibility of withdrawal of scholarship by the awardees through ATMs of all nationalized banks. Students pursuing under-graduate studies through NOU and SOU will not be eligible for scholarship under the Scheme. Spreading digital literacy. Each of the 18000 Institutions of Higher Learning in the Country (whether Govt funded or Self Financing) would have 1 Satellite Interactive Terminal for providing network con nectivity. Those students who had been getting scholarship at the school level (i. (e) techniques and strategies for imparting digital literacy to every Indian. Securing at least 60% of marks in the Annual examination of college! university would be applicable for scholarships during subsequent years of education. easy to understand with depth of knowledge and assurance of high quality. Virtual Technological University run by IITs to enable students passing out from not so renowned institutions to get quality education.000 (of which 50 % will be for girls) fresh scholarship at the graduation level and 15000 scholarship at PG level will be awarded during first year of the scheme. Provision of crucial software packages mostly from open domain for practice and value addition in capabilities of students. Bank (s) will issue co-branded ATM Cards to the scholars~lip awardees. The students who obtain at least 60% or more marks in XII of 10+2 pattern SSBE ! Intermediate! Pre-University will be considered for the scholarship based on Board­ wise merit list.(b) research in pedagogical techniques and development of pedagogically efficient learning modules for the entire spectrum of learners.e. (c) standardization and quality assurance of contents to make them world class. EduSAT Satellite Interactive Terminals at each of the 100 Central Institutions of Higher Learning. Engineering. EduSAT teaching hub at each of the 100 Central Institutions. 3. Scheme of Scholarship for College and University students A scholarship scheme is proposed to provide financial assistance to meritorious students at Graduation level and Post Graduation level including professional courses like MBBS. Value addition to e-books by experts to make them pedagogically effective. 40 .

BE and B) Rs 2000 per month There will be parental income ceiling of Rs3 lakh per annum for eligibility of scholarship. 41 . MBBS. Rate of Scholarship Graduation level Post Graduation level Rs 1000 per month (for Engineering. The Board will accordingly issue eligibility certificate to the selected students coming in the Merit list of the + 2 Exam of that Board. All such students may seek admission in any full time 1sl year Degrees ! proposed courses of their choice in any recog nized college! university within the country. Each Board will be allotted a specified number of scholarships. An outlay of Rs. 14 crore has been provided for the scheme of scholarships for college and university students in the Annual Plan 2007-08.000 in the fifth year. The allocation would be reviewed after every five years. the total estimates under the scheme for the Eleventh Plan has not been firmed up yet. As the scheme was forwarded separately by the Department of Higher Education to the Planning Commission and has not been included in the Working Group recommendations. 20.the number of scholarship being awarded every year would reach to 4.

therefore.. STs. OBC. Further.D. OBCs. which could also function as anti-discrimination Cell. Minorities and other disadvantaged groups is a major handicap. recommended that this data gap need to be addressed and that the Registrar General of India (RGI) may be directed to ensure availability of disaggregated data for OBCs. The quota for Ph. UGC should make strict rules and regulations to fill in the post of reserved category. Minorities. • Reservation being mandatory. Defaulting universities or affiliated colleges should not be granted financial support or any grants. • UGC should prepare norms and guidelines for allocating students for Ph. and other disadvantaged social groups in the higher education sector. The Working Group. Subsidized loan facilities for the fees/hostel expenditure could also be considered as an option. • Government should regulate the fee structure in higher education and in order to make higher education accessible by all. Institutions of higher learning may have their own autonomy but at the same time they need to provide protection under the law in relation to reservation etc. Women). government should cancel the recognition/accreditation of the universities/institutions. Besides.ST.D. • In respect of education of girls the Working Group recommended an increase in hostel facilities for girls and women in existing educational institutions. every institution should have women study centres. free hostel accommodation and other facilities at subsidized rates for students belonging to the disadvantaged groups (SC. including technical education. ST/OBC/Disadvantaged Groups Cells at the earliest. STs. Backward Castes amongst minorities and other disadvantaged groups. should introduce schemes like fee-waiver. The Professors guiding these Ph. ST. Girls and other disadvantaged groups ­ Recommendations of the Working Group on Development of Education of SCs. • All the universities should establish SC. free textbooks. fee-reimbursements. in technology for reserved category candidates should be increased.Chapter VI Development of Education of SC. Day care centres should be made available in all institutions 42 . • Special coaching should be provided to reserved category candidates for successfully clearing SET or NET examination. a special scheme for construction of hostels especially for girls need to be introduced. scholarships. which fail to implement the reservation policy.D students should be sensitive to their backgrounds. Further. This is necessary in view of the increasing cost of higher education due to increasing number of private higher educational institutions. • Coaching schemes for SCs/STs and Minorities should be transferred to IVIHRD from other Ministries. are as follows: • Deficiencies in the disaggregated data pertaining to the educational status of social groups like SCs. Minorities. courses.

free ships. subsidized fees and loan facilities should be extended to all disabled students. As fees payable for technical education are generally high. Disabled friendly facilities within a time frame of 3-5 years should be made available. More scholarships should be extended to girls/women for taking up professional studies. scholarships. More scholarships should be extended to disabled students for taking up professional studies.especially where girls/women are studying / employed. authority/ombudsman and an There should be an anti-discriminatory institutionalized system for checks and balances and corrections required in the system. A programme of gender sensitization for the disabled girls and women should be put in place. UGC should start a disability cell in all universities. 43 . • In respect of education of disabled/physically challenged students the Working Group recommended barrier free facilities in all higher education institutions.

Some of the important programmes that continued during the Tenth Plan are promotion and development of Sanskrit and Hindi through different institutions.85 crore for Book Promotion.Total New Continuing Schemes Schemes Schemes for Development 521.1921.11 1884. 37.85 Schemes 44 .00 Oriental Schools) English and foreign 1.00 Mission Classical Languages (for 80.85 27. and the use of ICT in the sector. A broad summary of the proposed outlay for the Languages Sector for the XI Plan is in the table below: Languages (Rs.02 578. Total (B) ----------­ 550. C. training of Hindi teachers for non-Hindi speaking states. No A 1 2 B 1 2 3 4 5. 98 Crore for the Languages and Book Promotion Sectors has been proposed by the Working Group on Languages and Book Promotion for the XI Plan which includes Rs.16 1333.95 Applications Central Institute of 150.00 Languages (NELTS) Language Technology 69. Allocation Proposed for Allocation the XI Plan Proposed for the XI Plan .00 --------­ Classical Tamil.18 New Initiatives National Translation 250.Chapter VII Languages and Book Promotion Progress during the Tenth Plan The development of languages occupies an important place in the National Policy on Education 1986 and the Programme of Action 1992. Promotion and development of 22 languages listed in the Schedule 8 of the Constitution.95 Total (A+B) 755.13 Continuing Schemes for 27.16 of Languages Schemes for Development 57. 1884. Proposal for the Eleventh Plan An outlay of RS.13 crore for Languages and Rs. including classical languages on the one hand and English and foreign languages on the other have received due attention. Promotion and development of 22 languages listed in the Schedule 8 of the Constitution. crore) 51.02 1129.00 of Sanskrit Total (A) 755.

The proposed NLSI Survey would focus on 22 languages in the 8 Schedule and their Geo-space but would also pay special attention to the top 15 Non-scheduled 45 . ever since the first Census in 1891 there has been a steady escalation of the number of languages and linguistic categories (such as mother tongues vs. The original Linguistic Survey of India is more than 100 yeas old. Recent language studies by scholars have shown that the language situation of India is far more variegated and complex than what Grierson's LSI recorded. education and access to resources. It was supervised by Sir George Abraham Grierson who produced a monumental document consisting of 19 volumes between 1894 to 1927.00 10.98 The recommendations of the Working Group on Languages and Book Promotion for the XI Plan in respect of four new schemes/initiatives are given below: New Schemes: 1. While some speech communities are as large as 338 million (as in the case of Hindi) there are many smaller ones with as few as 10.11 27.144 as in the case of Maram in Manipur. With the development of tools.85 GrandTotal-Languages 782.00 10. 2007. Linguistic Survey of India The MHRD proposes to undertake a New Linguistic Survey (NLSI) of India during XI Plan as a Central Sector Scheme. At the level of the individual/group. Justification for New Linguistic Survey of India During the last 100 years. other tongues) There has been a significant growth in the understanding of the complexity of issues relating to linguistic mapping and in correlating linguistic and socio-political facts.00 1139.00 37.85 1921.85 New Schemes for Book Promotion Total (D) Total (C+D) 27. 85 10. The Grierson's LSI provides information which is partial incomplete and of questionable relevance as it is more than 100 years old. language is not simply a means of comparative identification but a means by which an individual can secure self-expression.87 and BookPromotion (A+B+C+D) 10. The Grierson Linguistic Survey of India had identified 179 languages and 544 dialects. The NLSI is proposed to commence from the current month April. techniques and survey instruments and advanced technology the time is ripe for a New Linguistic Survey of India The theoretical advances in linguistics as well as he overall growth of social sciences would equip the MHRD to take up the challenge of mapping languages in a country which has the world's largest number of languages.0 Book promotion Total © 27.00 10.

scientific. There is inadequate dissemination of good quality translations which would provide a benchmark and create incentives for most private activities in this area. The Survey would be conducted by the CIIL. Promotion of Non-Scheduled Languages At present there is no scheme or organization devoted exclusively for the prevention and development of Non-Schedule 8 languages. There is an urgent need to expand quantity and improve quality of translation of different types in different domains (literary. anthropology. Activities under the Translation Mission (a). National Translation Mission The MHRD has forwarded a proposal on the setting up of National Translation Mission (NTM) during the XI Plan. Translators Education: Running short-term training programmes Creating a course for translators as a part of language teaching programme developing specialized courses in translation technology and related areas Fellowship programmes (a)Encouraging research projects 46 .Languages and also to the sign languages which are as complex as spoken languages. it is proposed to take up a new scheme for the preservation and development of languages not covered by the 8th Schedule. 3. namely the Bharat Bhasha Vikas Yojana. The direct and indirect employment generation potential of translation activities is high and can absorb a substantial part of educated youth. etc.) The current facilities available for translation are inadequate. anthropologists. Mysore and the Departments in select universities which have a strong base in sociology. historians and sociologists working on some of these languages have indicated the cultural and linguistic significance of the Non­ scheduled languages in India Against the above background.000 speakers and nearly 234 identifiable mother tongues (as per the figures given in the 2001 Census Report). Linguists. 2. Justification for the National Translation Mission Access to translated material is vital for increasing access to knowledge in many critical areas and broadening and strengthening people's participation in education and continuance learning. There are 122 other languages having at least 10. Out of the numerous languages in India only 22 languages are recognized by the 8th Schedule of the Constitution. This is a follow-up of the proposal prepared by the National Knowledge Commission on the Translation Mission. technical business etc.

Generation of high quality translation tools such as dictionaries and the sourcing software for translation. Simultaneously. JS (Languages). The Director (CIIL).85 crore has been proposed for the XI Plan.(b). 5. During the XI Plan the on-going scheme of assistance to voluntary organizations for book promotional activities would continue. The Central Institute of Classical Tamil at Chennai will be set up during the XI Plan It is also proposed to develop Tamil as a classical language. 37. Director (NBT) and Secretary (Sahitya Academy) will be ex-officio members. Promotion and dissemination of good quality translation (d). book fares and arrange book releasing functions. and Book Export promotion activities would be stepped up. Mysore will be the member-convener of the NTM. memory. Constitution of the NTM The NTM would be a stand alone institution without any support of any existing organization. A Management Committee of the proposed NTM will look after the affairs of the programme and would consist of members of participating lead institutions. Mumbai and Calcutta to ensure wider reach of NBT Books in various parts of the country. Training courses in publishing. Promotion of machine translation and machine aided translation: Between English and Indian languages One Indian language and another Indian language Between Indian languages and major world languages (e). The NBT has a subsidy project under which assistance to authors and publishers for producing books of an acceptable standard at reasonable prices for students and teachers of Indian universities and technical institutes. Information dissemination (c ). These regional offices hold book exhibitions. these 7 members. MHRD. word net etc. 4. It also proposes to strengthen its activities in the North Eastern Region. The other 5 members will be nominated by the HRM. it says that the NTM will be headed by an Advisory Council of 7 members headed by the Minister of HRD or his nominee in the chair. 47 . The main scheme under the sector is regarding the National Book Trust (NBT) which undertakes the following: • Promotion of Indian Books Abroad • Assistance to authors and pUblishers • Promotion Literature) of children's literature (National Centre for Children During the XI Plan. Book Promotion Under Book Promotion an outlay of Rs. Over and above. the NBT proposes to strengthen its three regional offices at Bangalore.

Sansad Marg. The Steering Committee should submit their report within six months. Planning Commission (Education Division) Yojana Bhavan. The composition of the Steering committee is at Annexure-I The Terms of Reference a) To formulate broad objectives and identify thrust areas in the secondary. b) To provide all necessary guidance to the Working Groups c) To work out financial requirements of Secondary. 3. Higher and Technical Education for the Eleventh Five Year Plan In the context of the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-12 for the Education sector. TAIDA to non-official members will be paid by the Planning Commission as admissible to Grade-I officers of the Government of India. Higher and Technical Education for Eleventh Five Year Plan. it has been decided to set up a Steering Committee on Secondary.Constitution of Steering Committee on Secondary. New Delhi-11 0001 Dated 1st March. 2006 ORDER Subject: Formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-12 . Sd/­ (R. 4. Higher and Technical Education and suggest outlays based on Working Groups recommendations. d) To work out an operational strategy for implementation of the recommendations of the Working GroupslTask Force/Committees of MHRD and to suggest changes. Sridharan) JS(Administration) 48 . M-12015/5/2005-Edn.Appendix-I No. higher and technical education sectors for the Eleventh Five Year Plan. 2. if any. The expenses towards TAIDA of the official members in connection with the meetings of the Steering Committee will be met by the respective Governments/Departments/Institutions to which they belong.

Shastri Bhavan. Mashelkar. CGO Complex. New Delhi-110002 Dr. New Delhi Secretary. Lodhi Road New Delhi-110003 Chairman. CGO Complex. Member 3. New Delhi Secretary. Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. Dr. Department of School Education & Literacy. Mungekar. New Delhi Chairman 2.do ­ 7. -do­ 5. Friends Colony West. New Delhi Shri Pratap Bhanu Mehta. Member 4. MHRD. Shastri Bhavan. New Delhi-11 0003 DG. DG (CSIR) Anusandhan Bhavan 2. B. President and Chief Executive. Rafi Marg. 1.Planning Commission (Education Division) List of Members of Steering Committee on Secondary. New Delhi-110001 Secretary. UGC. Higher and Technical Education for the XI Plan. -do­ 6. Dharma Marg. Planning Commission Yojana Bhavan. -do- 49 . Ministry of Information & Technology Electronic Niketan. -do­ 9. -do­ 8. S-B. Centre for Policy Research. R. L. New Delhi. Member. Deepak Nayyar. Dr. MHRD. Department of Higher Education.Chanakyapuri. NIC 'A' Block.A. .

-do­ 11. 24/26. CBSE 2. -do­ 13. (Mandi House). NUEPA. -do­ 18. Ved Prakash. Shri Damodar Acharya. New Delhi -do­ 19. Institutional Area. 16. P. R. Chairman. NCERT Shri Aurobindo Marg. Hunsur Road. New Delhi-110016 Smt. Modern School. Lodhi Road. -do­ 17. I. Shyama Chona. -do­ 12.10. Prof. National Book Trust A 5. -do­ 50 .Mysore. CII. 15. -do­ 14. Department of Secondary & Higher Education. AICTE Indira Gandhi Sports Complex. New Delhi. Estate. Puram. Barakhamba Road. Krishna Kumar. Delhi Public School. Latha Vaidyanathan. Director. Smt. Principal. Tolstoy Marg. FICCI Federation House. New Delhi-11 0002 Shri Ashok Ganguly. Chairman. New Delhi-110016 Director Central Institute of Indian Languages. National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA). Principal. Bipin Chandra.K. New Delhi-110016 Prof. Director. Community Centre. Manasagangothri. New Delhi Chairman. MHRD. Green Park. 17-B. Sri Aurobindo Marg. Chairman. New Delhi Prof. Preet Vihar Delhi-110092. Chairman. Sector-8.

Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. -do- 51 . Kohli. Joka Kolkata . Institutional Area. Sector 7 A. Delhi-110040 Shri G. Hemkunt Chamber. Director.700104 Dr. New Delhi. Shastri Bhavan. 24. New Delhi Shri Sunil Kumar JS (Higher Education) Department of Secondary and Higher Education MHRD. 26. 25. Colaba Mumbai Director IAMR Plot No. Engineering Council of India. -do- 25. ASSOCHAM 47. New Delhi-110003 Vice-Chancellor. -do- 22. -do­ -do- 23. Nehru Place. -do- 27. Siva Krishna Rao. U. New Delhi -do­ 21. Indian Institute of Technology. Chairman. Shastri Bhavan. -do- 28. Associate Professor. Narela. Kanpur-208016 Director Indian Institute of Science. Chairman. Khuntia. New Delhi-110068 Director. IGNOU Maidangarhi.20. Bangalore Bangalore Director Indian Institute of Management Diamond Harbour Road. Special Invitee 29. Andhra University. Homi Bhabha Road. 701. Member 30. V.Department of Electrical Engineering. JS (Secondary Education) Department of Secondary and Higher Education MHRD. Jor Bagh. Visakhapatnam-3 Shri S.C.

Shastri Bhavan. Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology ( NIT) Nagpur-4400011 Senior Consultant (Education) -do­ 32. JS (Technical Education) Department of Secondary and Higher Education MHRD.31. Shri Ravi Mathur. 52 . -do­ . New Delhi Principal.do­ 33.

NIEPA. OBCs. 7. and which should be excluded.Appendix-II Secondary and Vocational Education Dated 19th June 2006 In the context of the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12). Minorities. To assess the financial requirements for existing and proposed schemes and programmes in secondary education for the XI Plan period. social and other disparities. Ministry of Human Resource Development. To define the role of open and distance learning in universalizing access and providing education of satisfactory quality to students who cannot pursue formal education. 5. Terms of Reference 1. To examine how best the employees or end users of vocational education can be included in the process. To suggest measures for universalizing quality education upto class X and subsequently class XII for all children in the relevant age group who are willing to pursue education upto that stage. To review eXisting schemes of secondary and senior secondary education with a view to : i. ii. 12. and no one desirous of pursuing SecondaryNocational Education is deprived of it due to financial and other constraints. and focus targeting of marginalized groups. 11. Teacher Training Institutes. spatial (rural and urban). 6. To suggest measures for bringing girls. To define the role of the private sector in providing secondary education in the XI plan. To suggest a long term vision for improving access and quality of secondary education and for re-orienting this to the needs of the coming generation and the knowledge economy. To review the status of secondary education 2. 8. namely. NCERT. the Disabled and other disadvantaged groups on par with the rest. including examination of incentives required for increased contribution of the private sector. 13. improved quality and increased retention. Improving their effectiveness in terms of increased enrolment. in the area of Secondary and Vocational Education. To suggest measures for improvement of vocational education in the secondary /senior secondary school system and identify which subjects can be included in the curriculum. 10. NIOS with a view to redefine their role to the extent necessary 9. so that they are able to realise their full potential. SC&ST. Suggest measures for restructuring of Centre and State Secondary Boards and elimination of unauthorized Boards. and in the 10/1g term. To review the role of existing institutional arrangement which support secondary education. Suggesting new schemes with focused targeting for increased access and quality secondary and senior secondary education 4. To suggest measures for reducing gender. 14. 3. To suggest measures for providing adequate financial and other support to (i) talented and (ii) needy students. it has been decided to set up a Working Group on Secondary and Vocational Education under the Department of Secondary & Higher Education. 53 . SCERTs.

lVIumbai­ 400020. Shri Krishan Khanna. Gangotri Apartments. Dinshaw Vachha Road. "Eklavya". Bhopal 25. TilakNagar. Prof. Economic Adviser (P). Vice-Chancellor. NIEPA 5. MHRD 7. Rajasthan 16. Pocket-C. M. Ministry of Labour 15. President. 305 Olympus. Joint Secretary (Vocational Education). i Watch. Chairman. DGE&T. Mumbai 19. 1. A-I 8. C-31-C. Shri Bhau Gawande. NCERT. Dr. NIEPA 28. Churchgate. Shri C.. PSSCIVE. Almora-263601. Govinda. Altamount Road. Kiran Karnik. New Delhi 23. Sector-33. NASSCOM 27. if deemed necessary. AS (S&HE) 3. Principal Secretary. The expenditure on TAIDA etc. Mr. Jakhan Devi.com 29. Prof.. JD. Bhopal 14. Shri Lalit Pande. Planning Commission 11. e-mail: krishan@vsnl. K. Maharashtra Board of Secondary Education 18. Fellow. Former Director. Rtd. NCERT. constitute sub­ groups and/or co-opt additional members. 54 . Jaipur-302004 Phone: 0141-2624820 24. The non-official members of the Working Group will be entitled to TAIDA as permissible to Grade I officers of the Government of India under SR 190(a) and this expenditure will be borne by the Planning Commission. Chairman. MHRD 12. New Delhi 13. Foundation for Education and Development C­ 113. Dr. A. 3r Floor. K.Member-Secretary The Chairman of the Working Group may. Dr. Department of S&HE. Director. lVIaharashtra State Project Coordinator (Education) 20. Chairman. Sharma. NCTE 9. Fax: 022-23536782. Education. DDG (Trg. Chairperson. 17.in 26.com 21. Vaswani Mansion. The Working Group will finalise its report by 30th September. Chairman. email: luis@idfcpe. Department of S&HE. Tele No: 91 2222021413. Bihar 17. The Composition of the Working Group. Vice-Chancellor. R. 2006. Arvind Kumar. Jamia-Millia University. IDFC Private Equity Company Limited. Uttarakhand Seva Nidhi Paryavaran Shiksha Sansthan. NCERT 4. Chairman.). Principal Secretary. Shivaji Marg. Mumbai-200026. Director. President & CEO. CBSE 6. Joint Director.Chairman 2.Iha. Secretary (S&HE) . Noida. UPs 22. Mall Road.M. Shri Anwar Arif Jafri. Alaknanda. NIOS 8. Director. Education.II.5hri Jalaluddin. Sr. Joint Secretary (SE) . Homi Bhabha Center for Secondary Education. Mathew. Phone: 91-5962-234430 Email : usnpss@sancharnet. Luis Miranda. Shri Anil Bordia. Director (Education). IGNOU 10. of the official members in connection with the meetings of the Working Group will be borne by the parent Department/Ministry/ Organization to which the official belongs as per the rules of entitlement applicable to them.

filling up of vacant faculty positions. To examine critically the issues of access. To review the present status of higher education in the country with a particular focus on the future development perspective between 2007-12 2. To suggest measures for coordination between the UGC and other Professional Councils. 5. it has been decided to set up a Working Group on Higher Education under the Department of Secondary & Higher Education. 4. To suggest measures for bringing girls. revision/modernization of syllabi to take care of emerging needs. To assess the academic and infrastructure standards of the State Universities with a view to minimize variation in standards and in fund releases. 6. 14.Appendix-III Working Groups for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012) Higher Education Dated 24th July 2006 In the context of the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12). To suggest measures to enhance enrolment of women students. To examine the issue of internal generation of resources and the recommendations made by the CASE Committee on Financing of Higher and Technical Education that the upper limit of cost recovery by student fees shall not be more than 20%. in the area of Higher Education. so that they are able to realize their full potential. 55 . the Disabled and other disadvantaged groups on par with the rest. relevance and equity in the higher education system a To increase enrolment in higher education in the relevant age group a To ascertain how far conventional/open universities system has reached educationally backward districts a Improve quality of teaching. quality. 7. I. To suggest measures for providing adequate financial and other support to (i) talented and (ii) needy students. To examine service conditions of teachers to attract the best talent in teaching and research. provision of broadband connectivity. 13. 1. greater use of ICTs. 11. 3. Suggest measures for upgrading a few existing selected universities with a "potential for excellence" in the XI Plan. 9. To suggest measures for internal and external resource generation in the higher education system 8. Suggest measures to tackle the problem of regional imbalances in access to higher education. and no one desirous of pursuing Higher Education is deprived of it due to financial and other constraints. To suggest a long-term vision and short term proposals for creating infrastructural facilities for differently abled students. 12. Minorities. 10. Ministry of Human Resource Development. To critically examine the role of the UGC and Association of Indian Universities as regulatory bodies. SC&STs. OSCs. The Terms of Reference of the Working Group. with focus on upgrading of infrastructure.

NIEPA. Bhopal 14. Bhopal 12. Ved Prakash. Hasnavi. 26. The expenditure on TAIDA etc. Prof.110076. Prof.INU). Department of Secondary & Higher Education. Director (Education). Pune University. 23. 11. Director. Gokul Village. 2/4. Ms. Jamia Millia Islamia. A-681 .R Banerjee. 4.Member-Secretary The Chairman of the Working Group may. 1075. Puram. Andhra Pradesh 9. Fellow. Tapas Majumdar. VC. Prof. Sri Aurobindo Marg. Secretary (S&HE). Allahabad University. Chennai-600 028 Fax: 044­ 24612695 6. Mushirul Hasan. Bangalore . New Delhi . Sr.Chairman 2. Director. New Delhi 15. UGC. Chennai. MHRD.B. Xavier Alphons. Prof. RK. 19. Prasad. The Composition of the Working Groups 1. Sukhadeo Thorat. Prof. Prof. Bhopal Engineering College. H. Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg.G. Kolaskar. New Delhi 13. NAAC.16. Syed E. Director. Prof. R. Raipur. Tilak. Planning Commission 24. New Delhi-11 0001. Prof.S.com . Mahashweta Devi. Prof. Mutt Road. liT. Member. IGNOU. Dr. Flat No. Sydney Rebeiro. J. National Commission on Enterprises in Unorganised Sector. Sanjay Dhande. Director. National Assessment and Accreditation Council. Jawaharlal Nehru University (. Fr. Fax: 23701234 27. of the official members in connection with the 56 . NIEPA. O. 22. Prof. 21. Deputy Director. R Harshe. Shastri Bhavan. Principal Secretary of Higher Education Government of Chattisgarh.II. VC and Director. Joint Secretary (HE).. Prof. 1. Prof. Balakrishnan. Prince Ghulam Shah Road. Prof.. MHRD. 50-B. Director. Deppt.INU). Department of S&HE. Uttar Pradesh. V. N. New Delhi 16. Bangalore. VC. Dr. Rajajinagar. New Delhi. New Delhi 8. 19th Floor. Director. Former Vice-Chancellor. Prof. Hyderabad University. 2. N. Prof.020-25690250 7. Madhava Menon. Bangalore 18. A Block. MCRDCE. Vibha Dhawan. Ananda Krishna.Member 28. Dikshit. Of S&HE . Dr. The Energy and Research Institute (TERI). Prof. Sri Aurobindo Marg. Jayati Ghosh. VC. Maidan Garhi. sydneyrebeiro@yahoo. Ravi Shankar Srivastava. Prof. Principal Secretary of Higher Education Government of Karnataka. New Delhi 3. New Delhi . 20.A. Secretariat Bangalore. India Habitat Centre. S-5 & S-6. M. National Judicial Academy.560 010. 10. Prof. VC. Kanpur 17. Prof. New Delhi . P.P. Madras Institute of Development Studies. Economic Adviser (P). New Delhi 5. Chairman. Chairman. Prof. New Delhi. Govardhan Mehta. Box No. R. Jawahar Vyapar Bhavan. VC. if deemed necessary constitute subgroups and/or co-opt additional members. Shastri Bahavn. Tosltory Marg. Bio-informatics Department. Jawaharlal Nehru University (. Pune-411007 Phone . Rajkumar Road. 25. Indian Institute of Science. Sarita Vihar. Kolkata-700032.

The non-official members of the Working Group will be entitled to TAIDA as permissible to Grade I officers of the Government of India under SR 190(a) and this expenditure will be borne by the Planning Commission. 2006 57 .meetings of the Working Group will be borne by the parent Department/Ministryl Organization to which the official belongs. as per the rules of entitlement applicable to them. The Working Group will finalise its report by 30th September.

Government of Karnataka 9. Prof. President. Off Sitapur Road. 5. so that they are able to realize their full potential. the Disabled and other disadvantaged groups on par with the rest. Government of Bihar.C. Kolkata. Minorities. To suggest policy measures for private sector participation II. Principal Secretary (Technical Education). R. Naik. Principal. (Dr. Prof. Prabandh Nagar. Director. improvement in quality. Director (Technical Education). To review the status of technical education in the country with a particular focus on the future development perspective between 2007-12 2. Prof. Secretary (S&HE). revamping of courses. and removal of obsolescence and modernization of laboratories/ workshops/ libraries/computing facilities. in the area of Technical Education. New Delhi . Prof. Jaipur 5. Director (Education). provision of adequate trained faculty. Madras Institute of Development Studies (MIDS). Lucknow. Indian Institute of Technology (liT). 1. I.226013. Chairman. Department of Science and Technology. Director. Damodar Acharya. New Delhi 58 . Department of Secondary & Higher Education. Patna-800001 11. Ananth. Ministry of Human Resource Development. The Terms of Reference of the Working Group 1. quality and relevance 3.Chairman 2.) S. Prof. M. Dahiya. international benchmarking and effective transparent accreditation 4. IVIHRD. To suggest measures for increased capacity expansion in technical institutions. SC&STs. Gokhale Road. Kerala 12. P. Shastri Bhavan. To assess the progress and achievements of new institutions set up in the Tenth Plan 6. NIT. Antony Thomas. Prof. West Bengal 8. The Composition of the Working Group. Principal Secretary (Technical Education).Estate. To critically examine the issues of access.P. M. 7. Planning Commission. To suggest measures for providing adequate financial and other support to (i) talented and (ii) needy students. New Delhi 3. Director. Institute of Engineers. AICTE. Chennai 7.S. Chennai­ 600036 4. Fax: 2734005 6. To suggest measures for bringing girls. I. 11M. Government of Rajasthan 10. it has been decided to set up a Working Group on Technical Education under the Department of Secondary & Higher Education. 08. OBCs. Devi Singh. Trivandrum. College of Engineering. and no one desirous of pursuing Technical Education is deprived of it due to financial and other constraints. Dr. Lucknow. Anandakrishnan. Malviya Nagar.Appendix-IV Working Groups for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012) Technical Education Dated 21st June 2006 In the context of the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12).

Prof. West Bengal 18. K. Director. Banerjee. Deptt. 2006.13. Uttar Pradesh 17. New Delhi ­ Member-Secretary The expenditure on TAIDA etc. Dr. B-1 80. CGO Complex. MHRD. Shibpur. Bangalore 16. Shri N. S. The Working Group will finalise its report by 30th September. NIT. MHRD. M/o Information and Communication Technology. Joint Secretary. HIT Hyderabad. Electroniki Niketan. of official members in connection with the meetings of the Working Group will be borne by the parent Department/Ministry/Organization to which the official belongs. 59 . Andhra Pradesh. Rajeev Sangal. Director. New Delhi 20. Sector 31.. Shastri Bhavan. 21. Prof. Economic Adviser (Planning). Director. as per the rules of entitlement applicable to them. Joint Secretary. Deptt. Noida.K. of S&HE. Rourkela. Sarangi. S. former Director. liT. New Delhi. of S&HE. VC. Dr. JS (Technical). New Delhi 14.R. National Center for Biological Sciences. Vijaya Raghavan. Bengal Engineering College. Department of Science and Technology Qutab Institutional Area. Orissa-769008 19. Shastri Bhavan. 15. The non-official members of the Working Group will be entitled to TAIDA as permissible to Grade I officers of the Government of India under SR 190(a) and this expenditure will be borne by the Planning Commission. C.lha. Howrah.

New Delhi 10. Joint Secretary. New Delhi 12. it has been decided to set up a Working Group on Development of Education of SC/ST/ Minorities/ Girls/and other Disadvantaged Groups under the Department of Secondary & Higher Education. Ministry of Tribal Affairs. MHRD. Department of Secondary & Higher Education. New Delhi 13. Department of Secondary & Higher Education. Shastri Bhavan. Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. Department of Secondary & Higher Education. New Delhi-11 00012 15. MHRD. New Delhi 11. New Delhi 60 . Secretary. New Delhi 6. Joint Secretary. Jeevan Prakash Building. To assess the effectiveness of the relevant existing schemes for the education of the above groups and to identify their strengths and weaknesses. UGC. New Delhi 14. IVIHRD. New Delhi 4. Shastri Bhavan. Chairman. MHRD. IVIHRD. AICTE. Joint Secretary (AE). Joint Secretary (Technical Education). Department of Secondary & Higher Education. New Delhi 5. Joint Secretary (EE-I). Ministry of Minority Affairs. New Delhi 7. New Delhi g. Terms of Reference 1. MHRD. Shastri Bhavan.Co Chairpersons 2. Add!. Suggest a comprehensive strategy along with schemes and programmes (including new schemes and modification of existing schemes) so as to bridge the gap between the disadvantaged groups and other groups by the end of the XI Plan. Joint Secretary (Languages). Chairman. Ministry of Human Resource Development. MHRD. Shastri Bhavan. Shastri Bhavan. Department of Elementary Education & Literacy. Estate. MHRD. To assess the extent of gap in terms of access. Shastri Bhavan. Joint Secretary ((EE-II). New Delhi . 1. IVIHRD. participation and learning achievements of the students belonging to SC/ST/OBCs/Minorities/ Girls and other disadvantaged groups vis-a-vis students of other groups. gth Floor. Department of Elementary Education & Literacy. MHRD. LP. MHRD.Appendix-V Development of Education of SC/ST/ Minorities/ Girls/and other Disadvantaged Groups Dated 21st June 2006 In the context of the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12). Shastri Bhavan. The Composition of the Working Group. Joint Secretary (HE). Shastri Bhavan. Secretary. Shastri Bhavan. I. Shastri Bhavan. MHRD. Joint Secretary (SE). 25 Kasturba Gandhi Road. Department of Elementary Education & Literacy. II. New Delhi 8. New Delhi 3. Joint Secretary. Joint Secretary (Administration). Shastri Bhavan. Department of Women and Child Development. Department of Secondary & Higher Education. Shastri Bhavan. 3. 2. (S&HE)/Secretary (EE&L).

S. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Jaya Dasgupta.M. New Delhi-110049 24. 139 Uttra Khand. Gail Omvedt. K. New Delhi-110016 17. Founder Chairperson. Marg. Planning Commission. Ms. South Extension. Vishakhapatnam 27. Ambedkar Central University.Delhi-110067 22. Shri Baldev Chand. Ex-Special Commissioner for STs. Centre for Dalit Studies. Vasant Kunj. Department of Secondary & Higher Education . Economic Adviser. Barkatpara. Government of West Bengal 20. Dr. Dr. Dr. Director (Education). Nanchariah. Ltd. National Centre for Promotion & Employment for Disabled People. Zoya Hassan. Fellow. Chairperson. P.431001 33. Centre for Political Studies. National Commission for SC/ST). Lucknow 26. Chalam. The expenditure on TAIDA etc. Department of Economics. DLF City . Nehru Memorial Museum and Library. Communalism Combat. Krishnan (former Member. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwad University. Mhaske. Former Principal. New Delhi-110016 18. Mithoo Alur. JNU. Shri M. Sri Aurobindo Marg. Part-II. Director. 1513-B. 19. constitute sub­ groups and/or co-opt additional members. Teesta Seetalvad. Shri P. Appartment No. Shri P. Mumbai­ 40005 25. if deemed necessary. Editor. Juhu. Smt.Phase I.C. No. Secretariat. 2006 61 .S.B. Shri Javed Abidi. Aurangabad .16.A-77. Fellow. Prof. Sri Aurobindo Marg. Sector-C. New Delhi 21. 17-B. Beverly Park II. Principal Secretary (SC/ST).Member­ Secretary The Chairman of the Working Group may. as per the rules of entitlement applicable to them. The non-official members of the Working Group will be entitled to TAIDA as permissible to Grade I officers" of the Government of India under SR 190(a) and this expenditure will be borne by the Planning Commission.Gaikwad. of official members in connection with the meetings of the Working Group will be borne by the parent Department/Ministry/Organization to which the official belongs. MG Road. Director. Hyderabad 29. Lakshmiah. K. I\JCERT. Mumbai-400049 23. NIEPA. Bhupender Singh. Gurgaon 31. Bandra Reclamation. 2853. lVIumbai-400037 32. Director. The Working Group will finalise its report by 30th September. Prof. Vice Chancellor. Pocket­ 8/8680. Ambedkar College of Commerce and Economics. Academic Staff College.S. 30. Sabrang Communications & Pvt. New Delhi 28. National Resource Centre for Inclusion. Spastic Society of India. Secretary (SC/ST). Prof. Shri B. Ms. N. Dr.

10. To suggest measures for utilization of the modern computer and communication technologies in the development and future direction of this sector. in the light of 2 and 3 above. in English and Foreign Languages vis-a-vis the objectives for which they were set up. 62 . 2. To formulate goals. 11. To suggest (a) changes in the existing schemes and institutional structures (b) new schemes and structures. To review the existing schemes to ensure special emphasis for SC/ST Girls and other disadvantaged groups. To review the present status of book promotion and to provide a focus for the development perspective for this sector for the XI Plan. 2. 1. with a view to achieving the goals set for book promotion. To review the performance of existing schemes and institutional structures for the development of Indian languages. 7. Department of Secondary & Higher Education ­ Shastri Bhavan. tribal and endangered languages) and ii. taluka/block and district levels and the municipal bodies in the urban areas. Director. it has set up a Working Group on Language Development and Book the Department of Secondary & Higher Education. research etc. The Composition of the Working Group. Central Institute of Indian Languages. 8. 1. and for teaching. 4. Development of Indian languages (including preservation of folk. facilities and attainments and with special reference to the backward regions/districts and weaker sections. Secretary. Suggest measures for involving the community/NGOs for the effective implementation of the programmes in this sector. Teaching.. To assess the financial and other resources required for the XI Plan period. 6. 3. 9. The Terms of Reference of the Working Group. objectives and targets for the XI Plan period in respect of: i. to the extent necessary for the achievement of the XI Plan goals. I. To examine critically the resource requirement under different activities/programmes in this sector. II. research etc. To examine the strategy for involving the P~nchayati Raj Institutions for the village.Chairman. 5. Ministry of Development. Mysore ­ 570006. To make suggestions for the future direction of the programme in this sector including their expansion and qualitative upgradation in terms of standards. New Delhi. Ministry of HRD. Manasagangotri. in English and foreign languages.Appendix-VI Working Groups for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012) Language Development and Book Promotion Dated 25th July 2006 In the context of been decided to Promotion under Human Resource the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12).

Puram. 7. 22. 7. Prof. 25. Mandi House. University of Pune.570006. Pune . 23. Rajesh Sachdeva.A.110076. Computer Science Department. India. Prof. constitute sub­ groups and/or co-opt additional members. NEHU Campus PO. Gujarat. Prof. A-681 . Bhasha Research and Publication Centre. Prof. Pushpak Bhattacharya. Ministry of HRD. New Delhi . Central Institute of Indian Languages. Vice-chancellor.B. Amiya Dev (formerly VC Bidyasagaar Univ. Vice-Chancellor. Manasgangotri. Mumbai -400020. Near Dinesh Mills. Phone: Office: 040-27098402 15. RK. 9.390007. Ministry of HRD.3.net 11. Governing Council Kendriya Hindi Sansthan.ernet. Bellary District. New Delhi. Study in Sanskrit.in / cass@unipune. Email: vnjha@unipune. 63 . 17. JS (Languages). Bhadabhada Road. Bhopal­ 462003. V. New Delhi-110066 19. Mahashweta Devi. Tele No : 91 2222021413. Powai.. Chairman. Fellow CIIL. Dutt Road. Churchgate. Vice Chairman. New Delhi. 5. Luis Miranda. Delhi-110007. Vivek Rai. Dhushyant Marg. Alkapuri. 3rd Floor.500007. Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages. Ganesh Devy. Sahitya Academy Ferozshah Road. 20. Vice-Chancellor. Prof. Department of Linguistics. . Darpan Building. Film and Television Insititute of India (FTII). 12. B.N. 4. Shastri Bhavan. Department of Anthropology. Prof. Patnaik. 26.411007. Prof. Agra ­ 282005. T. Kolkata-700032.Iharkhand.com 27. NCPSL.N. New Delhi-110016. Vice Chairman. Director. Economic Adviser. Prof. PO liT. RC.ernet. 8. 24. Ram Dayal Munda (formerly VC Ranchi Univ. Ms. 6th Floor. Hampi Vidyaranya . Fax: 0821-2515032. liT-Bombay. Tista Bagchi.R Ananthamurthy . Director Kendriya Hindi Sansthan. West Block-1. Email: rajesh@ciil. Dinshaw Vachha Road. University of Delhi. Shillong-793022. Mysore . VC. Prof.834008. Kannada University.soft. Morabadi.lharkhand) Res: Behind Ranchi College. Green Park. 18. 21. Sarita Vihar. Vadodara.in 14. Prof.. Vadodara-390007. Ganeshkhind. National Book Trust.400 076. New Delhi. 13.) Ranchi (. 17. Karnataka. Sri Lai Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha.570006. Phone: 0821-2345020. (CIEFL) Hyderabad . Sydney Riberio. EE 108. Chairman. Pune -411004. Mumbai . if deemed necessary. Jha. Salt Lake.583276. Hospet Taluk. President & CEO.(Member­ Secretary) The Chairman of the Working Group may. Deputy Director. Flat No. Mysore .stmpy. Ranchi . 6. Shri Suresh Keswani. M-31. Manasgangotri. email: luis@idfcpe. Mr. Prof. U. Vice-Chancellor. North Eastern Hill University. Subba.. New Delhi. Niraala Nagar. Chairman. 50-B. Prof. Centre of Advanced. Kendriya Hindi Sansthan Mars. 16. New Delhi. 10. Ministry of Human Resource Development. Kamala Prasad. National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (NCPUL). Prof.). Prof. Vaswani Mansion. Kolkata-700091. National Council for Promotion of Sindhi Language. Art Faculty Extension. Prince Ghulam Shah Road. Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan. IDFC Private Equity Company Limited. A-5. B.

of the official members in connection with the Group will meeting of the Working be borne by the parent Department/Ministry/Organization which the official belongs. as per the rules of entitlement applicable to them. 2006 64 . The non-official members of the Working Group will be entitled to TNDA as permissible to Grade I officers of the Government of India under SR 190(a) and this expenditure will be borne by the Planning Commission. The Working Group will finalise its report by 30th September.The expenditure on TNDA etc.