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1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
For any organization to perpetuate itself, through growth, there is a need for developing its manpower resources. It is one thing to possess knowledge but yet another thing to put it to effective use. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between Psychological climate and organizational commitment. The first is what is psychological climate? The second question is, what does it look like? Within the climate literature there has been much debate and discussion, over a series of decades, on the climate concept. The intention of this study is to contribute to this discussion through; first, using the existing literature to establish a clear definition of psychological climate, and the factors that is related with psychological climate, the second part of the study is about organizational commitment and the factors which are related with that and the primary objective of the study is to find whether any relationship between psychological climate and organizational commitment. And the result showed a positive correlation between the two variables psychological climate and organizational commitment. Different questionnaires are assigned to study about the employee psychological climate with in the organization and commitment towards the organization. The participants of this study is 100 employees from HLL Lifecare Ltd Peroorkada. The employees are from different functional departments such as HR, Finance, Production.

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1.2 INDUSTRY PROFILE
India is second largest populated country in the world, the first being China has adopted many measures to control the increasing population rate. India is developing country and is striving hard to prevent the population growth. It will be very difficult for the country to develop economically and available resources will be unproductive and viable to contribute fully to the growth if no population prevention control measures are taken. Because of the rise in population index it leads to unemployment and adversely affects the savings and capital formation. It is the time to take a solid action to come to these situations as a result the government has been introduced certain measures which has considerably helped on the reduction of the population index. On of the measure is the family planning programme, with the help of this programme they educate the mass and provide essential backup services through easy availability of popular spacing aids like condoms, contraceptive pills, sterilization etc Contraception is the use of any of various methods to prevent pregnancy. family planning, in contract, involves the use of contraception or other measures to limit the number of children and plan the timing and spacing of births. India is one of the fastest growing countries in the world, but the main problem faced by India is the population. after the independence, India was still tottering with an enormous population of 540 million and more than 25000 of babies were adding everyday. Private organizations and the international bodies like WHO are helping the countries to setup birth control programs. India being second largest country in the world having highest population. There growths of population will the entire nation, making the situation worst by increasing the rate of unemployment and increasing the level of poverty

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The government of India adopted the policy of family planning as for back in 1952, initially it was taken up in the modest way. Family planning programme has been described as the “king pin” of the population policy it has been given high priority and has been made time bound and targets oriented. Development in the field of science and technology and in the field of medicine helped to make more scientifically approved contraceptives. The use of condoms for birth control have greater significance. The consumption of the condoms is the most popular method of birth control. Easy reversibility is one of the main significance of this method of family planning. In addition to its use as method for prevention of pregnancy, the spreading of deadly diseases including AIDS can be minimized by the use of condoms. Thus the marketability of this product possess greater significance in the recent years. India is a nation where birth control techniques have a greater significance in population control. The condom industry in India makes a significant role and vested in the hands of HLL Lifecare Ltd, TTK PHARMA, JK CHEMICALS and POLAR LATEX LTD

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Intra Uterine Devices. effecting considerable savings in foreign exchange. in these Plants too. HLL Lifecare Ltd also took up the modernization of its older Plants.1. Oral Contraceptive Pills – steroidal. and Tubal Rings. It is today a multi-product. The company commenced its commercial operations on 5th April 1969. This effort was undertaken indigenously with minimal imports. multi unit organization addressing various public health challenges facing humanity. Surgical Sutures. HLL Lifecare Ltd is the only company in the world manufacturing and marketing the widest range of Contraceptives. The Plant was established in technical collaboration with M/s Okamoto Industries Inc. Tissue Page 4 of 126 . non-steroidal and emergency contraceptive pills. With this. Hydrocephalus Shunt. The second stage expansion in 1985 saw the introduction of the latest condom technology from Okamoto Industries. HLL Lifecare Ltd was set up in the natural rubber rich state of Kerala for the production of male contraceptive sheaths for the National Family Planning Programme. Japan and had a production capacity of 144 million pieces. one at Thiruvananthapuram and the other at Belgaum. Its Health care product range include: Blood Collection Bags. Auto Disable Syringes. Two most modern Plants were added. These Units had a production capacity of 144 million pieces each. The total production thus rouses to 800 million pieces. to raise their production capacities and to also incorporate the latest technical advances. including Female Condoms. It is unique in that it provides a range of Condoms. 1966.3 COMPANY PROFILE AND PRODUCT PROFILE The journey of HLL Lifecare Ltd started with its incorporation as a corporate entity under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India on March 1. Contraceptive Cream. This was doubled to 288 million pieces in 1976.

UNHCR. HLL Lifecare Ltd has over the past four decades stood to uphold its Page 5 of 126 . HLL Lifecare Ltd’s products are today exported to over 70 countries. Female Health Company. and Oral Dehydration Salts. in the remotest corners of India. Needle Destroyers. PSI and IDA. HLL Lifecare Ltd is today a leading provider of Contraceptives and Health Care Products to various global public health programmes managed by international agencies like UNFPA. USA. The Company set up a decade back. HLL Lifecare Ltd’s Peroorkada Plant was also awarded the OHSAS 18001 Certification for its efficient Occupational Health and Safety Management System. and Beijing Zizhu Pharma of China. Iron and Folic Acid Tablets. the not-for-profit organization. the HLL Lifecare Ltd Family Planning Promotion Trust (HLFPPT). Blood Bank equipment. Over the past fifteen years HLL Lifecare Ltd has steadily set up a strong and sound infrastructure for direct marketing. HLFPPT is today India’s top social marketing organization. Finishing Enterprises. WHO. ISO 14001 quality and environmental management system certification respectively. Sanitary Napkins. Women Empowerment and HIV prevention and control activities. with the objective of creating planned social change. particularly in the area of Reproductive Health. UNOPS. and several world leaders as partners. including over a lakh villages. Products manufactured at its Plants also have the ‘CE’ marking. for the purpose of designing and implementing social sector intervention projects. UK. HLL Lifecare Ltd’s association with world leaders includes those with Okamoto of Japan. Becton and Dickinson. With nearly 1900 highly skilled and learned manpower. Medicated Plasters. HLL Lifecare Ltd has put in place a vast distribution network covering the length and breadth of the country. USA. HLL Lifecare Ltd HLL Lifecare Ltd today reaches out to over half a million-retail outlets.Expanders. HLL Lifecare Ltd has three state of the art manufacturing facilities with ISO 9001.

marketing alliances and joint ventures.1 Objectives of HLL Lifecare Ltd 1. To maintain and improve the existing cordial relationship between employees and management and to further improve efficiency of executives. Page 6 of 126 . To make continuous effort for up gradation of technology and quality to be inter naturally competitive. 8. 7. 1. HLL Lifecare Ltd in its future through technical collaborations. employees. 2. To take up social marketing projects. With a vast array of innovative products and social programmes HLL Lifecare Ltd is day after day taking a step closer to “Innovating for Healthy Generations”. 5. To increase the profitability of the company and to maximize generation of surpluses to enable HLL to finance its diversification projects. To improve substantially direct market for all products. These are . To maximize capacity utilization of the existing plants. business. 3. and focus on five key thrust areas to achieve its vision. 6. industry. 4. To explore possibilities for strategies for diversification.3. wishes to keep alive the dream of all humanity – of a healthier world. and social initiatives. To maximize cost reduction.customers.mission to achieve and sustain a high growth path.

with focus on five key areas.3. 10.9.2 MOTTO. education and communication aimed at enhancing the out reach of contraceptives in remote areas. 1. Mission: To accomplish the corporate vision. namely • • • • Business leadership Customer focus employee satisfaction social initiatives Page 7 of 126 . To strengthen information. To be an active player in realization of the objectives set forth in the National Population Policy (NPP) – 2000. through a process of continuous innovation and participatory approach in order to• • • Provide best value to the customer Be an employer of choice Promote the cause of family health in general and women’s health in particular. VISION AND MISSION OF HLL Motto: “Innovating for healthy generations” Vision: HLL Lifecare Ltd will establish itself as the leader in its core activities. HLL Lifecare Ltd has outlined a mission to be world class health care company by the year 2010.

Wilderom. 1992. 1992.2. two of the earliest and most criticized approaches to climate formation are the structural and perceptual approaches. Reichers & Schneider. Reichers & Schneider. climate theory and the focus of climate research shifted to a perceptual approach in which the individual was perceived to be the core factor in climate formation. Rentsch.1. who argued that climate is an attribute of organisational characteristics such as size. while climate theory is primarily focused on the process through which such homogeneity occurs (Moran & Volkwein.1 THE FORMATION OF CLIMATE Climate research has a long history in the fields of industrial and organisational psychology and was first used in the industrial context by Lewin. Climate theory has evolved considerably over the past twenty-five years. structure. 1990). 1980). leadership style and systems complexity (Moran & Volkwein.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2. as will be discussed in the following sections. Page 8 of 126 . Such criticisms provided the impetus for the development of the interactive approach to climate formation (Moran & Volkwein. & Peterson. Rentsch. From these origins. Zohar. 2000. Climate represents a relatively homogenous set of beliefs and perceptions toward the organisation. 1992.g. These two approaches. were widely criticized. 1990). As discussed previously. 1992. hierarchy and size) were theorized to be the dominant contributors to climate (Moran & Volkwein. 1980). Lippitt and White in the late 1930s (Ashkanasy. The structural approach was initially proposed by Payne and Pugh (1976). 1990. Zohar. 1990). stemming from the structural approach where organisational dimensions (e.

the individual is the source of the climate. a shared set of perceptions or climate is generated. simplistic. imposing meaning on the organisation and its components (Moran & Volkwein. a shared set of meanings are created.Whilst it is acknowledged in the structural approach that individual personality will play a role in the development of homogenous attitudes and perceptions (i. Organisations and individuals are complex and dynamic. A more appropriate approach is that of the interactive approach. 1983). climate is defined as the aggregated effect of the interaction Considering only one side of this process is too Page 9 of 126 . the creation of homogenous beliefs and perceptions). 1983). Therefore. This In the approach argues that through the interaction between the individual and their interactive approach. 1992). the climate). Schneider. In this approach. between the characteristics of the person and the organisation.e. The interactive approach to climate formation is a considerable advancement from the structural and perceptual approaches because it addresses many of the primary criticisms made of each of the previous approaches (Moran & Volkwein. 1983) for each considering only one side of what is a relatively complex process (i. environment. The perceptual or selection-attraction-attrition approach to climate formation proposes that climate originates from within the individual. changing and evolving over time to reflect the interaction that occurs between the two (Moran & Volkwein. Schneider. 1992. The structural and perceptual approaches have both been criticized (Moran & Volkwein. through various common experiences and conversations. it is argued that exposure to similar organisational characteristics and experiences that plays the dominant role (Schneider & Reichers. 1992).e. 1992). 1992. Climate is created through the interaction between members of the organisation and the exchange of information through communication (Moran & Volkwein.

1974. as is the case with job satisfaction (Koys & De Cotiis. Koys & De Cotiis. Such conceptual distinctions have not been sufficiently supported within the literature to be applied here.P. 1991). James. 1979. 1991). 2003). 1992. 1985.2.A. 1985. Schneider & Reichers. 1983). however. L. L. persistent and stable over time (Moran & Volkwein. 1991) that are relatively homogenous. these issues will be reviewed in the following section. 1983). 1983. Schneider & Reichers.. The key issues surrounding the distinction between psychological climate and organizational climate concern either a focus on conceptual distinctions or through employing different data treatment techniques.2 PSYCHOLOGICAL CLIMATE Definitions The psychological climate concept is defined as being a multidimensional construct representing shared individual perceptions (Koys & De Cotiis. and is a set of perceptions that describe experiences as opposed to being an affective reaction. Parker et al. 1982). Schneider.R. The conceptual distinctions are based on the argument that there is a conceptual difference between psychological climate and organizational climate (Glick. James & Jones. 1996. Jones & James. Psychological climate guides behaviors with the aim of meeting organizational objectives (L.R. The discussion and debate surrounding the distinction between the terms psychological climate and organizational climate has considerable longevity but does not appear to have reached consensus (C. whilst psychological climate is a multidimensional construct there is Page 10 of 126 . The data treatment issues that are drawn from to distinguish between psychological climate and organizational climate are associated with the unit of analysis and aggregation or composition theory (Glick. Additionally. James & McIntyre.

Parker et al. p.an argument that the dimensions can be converted into a higher order factor. Parker et al. (2003) did. Page 11 of 126 . 1989. 1989. leadership style. in part. and relationships with co-workers and supervisors. 1073). for example work structure. Prithard and Karasick. role clarity. The authors commented that the range of psychological climate dimensions covered most aspects of the individual’s work environment.” In the process of conducting a meta-analytic review of the psychological climate literature. James and James. however. 1996. the physical environment. (2005. 383) stated that “this diffuse pattern of result is likely to be due. Kozlowski and Dohery. supportive management. comment on the usefulness of the measure developed by Jones and James (1979 because of its use of situational characteristics as referents and because it has remained aligned with the notion of tapping into the individuals’ cognitive representation of their work environment. to the variety of methods of assessment of climate the inability to draw clear research conclusions [is a result a lack of theory and subsequent inconsistent operationalisation. These differences and issues will be discussed in turn. and decision centralization and leader goal facilitation (Brown and Leigh. Reflecting on the research conducted by Wilderom et al. (2000). team work. The Jones and James (1979) measure has been employed in this research. (2003) commented that there are a staggering number of dimensions employed with psychological climate research. Patterson et al. including characteristics of their job. as will the specific application of the psychological climate construct in this research. Researchers have assessed an array of psychological climate dimension.

Difference between psychological climate and organizational climate The aim of many researchers employing the psychological climate concept is to carefully define the term and differentiate it from organizational climate conceptually. Hater. the purpose of the climate construct is not to measure organisational characteristics such as technology. The second distinction is in accordance with one of Koys and De Cotiis’ (1991) criteria that psychological climate should not include any aspect of organisational task or structure. 1989. climate is aimed at measuring how these factors and other organisational characteristics are interpreted and assigned meaning by the individual (L. the psychological climate variable will impact the extent to which the individual engages or disengages with their workplace (L. Gent and Bruni (1978) emphasizes the importance of the psychological meaning and significance Page 12 of 126 Therefore. 1982). First. Koys and DeCotiis (1991) identified three defining criteria of psychological climate as being: (a) that the concept is perceptual. Rather. Therefore. control or hierarchy. A definition of climate provided by James. (b) that it must describe. psychological climate is conceptually different from organisational climate because it emphasizes a value laden perspective of the organization that encompasses issues or characteristics the individual considers as psychologically meaningful. as opposed to evaluate issues. 1990). size. In the literature. James & James. as was suggested by Glick (1985). and span of . The perceptions also relate to the extent that the characteristics contribute to the individual’s sense of well being and psychological safety.A.R. and (c) that it cannot encompass any aspect of organisational task or structure. James. Kahn. there are two key points made about the conceptual distinction between organisational and psychological climate.

To this point. Glunk. Wilderom. making the organization the organisational appropriate unit of analysis. Another of the key conceptual problems with the climate literature is a lack of consensus on the domains and dimensions that are encompassed within the climate construct. is not sufficiently established or supported for it to be argued that difference can be argued to be conceptual. 1981). L. Therefore. that there is a conceptual difference between organisational climate and psychological climate. The argument presented in the literature.A. James & Sells. and Maslowski (2000) conducted a review of Page 13 of 126 . climate is important to the development of higher-order schemata or beliefs about situations. The representations generated by the individual are generally more meaningful than the objective situation in the prediction of many important dependent variables (L. as opposed to psychological climate. Joyce & Slocum. 1991. The way in which the individual understands or ‘knows’ their environment is a cognitive construction subject to filtering.R. 1989. James et al. L. 2005). generalization and interpretation. a clear conceptual difference remains missing from the literature with the bulk of the contemporary climate literature.of situations to the individual. 1979. abstraction. Jones & James. Patterson et al.. Glick (1985) argued that it was important for researchers to begin to make clear distinctions between organisational climate and psychological climate based on conceptual differences. (2005) that the bulk of climate theory in contemporary research focuses on organisational climate. 2002. The point was also made by Patterson et al. 1978. 1984. James & James. Koys & De Cotiis. The psychological climate domains and dimensions reflect the definitions of climate that focus on psychological meaningfulness and the importance of situations to the individual as recommended by a range of authors in the field (Glisson & James. understanding This shift is a reflection of the prevailing interest in performance..

goals and priorities. Innovation: the perception that change and creativity are encouraged. Trust: the perception of freedom to communicate openly with members at higher organizational levels about sensitive personal issues with the expectation that the integrity of such communication will not be violated. Pressure: the perception of time demands with respect to task completion and performance standards. Recognition. Pressure. and Recognition. Innovation. Fairness. Fairness. It is based of certain factors such as Cohesion. Pressure. 2. Trust. Cohesion: the perception of togetherness of sharing with in the organization setting. Recognition: Support including the willingness to let members learn form their mistakes without fear of reprisal reorganization is acknowledged.1 Major factors affecting psychological climate The major factors affecting psychological climate are Cohesion.2. including Page 14 of 126 . Innovation. including the willingness of members of provides material aid. Trust.the climate literature and were not able to reach a clear conclusion on which of the dimensions employed in research could be considered core. Fairness: the perception that organizational practices are equitable and no arbitrary or capricious. The approach taken in the study is based on the research of koys and Decottis (1991) in which psychological climate is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of self determination with respect to work procedures.

3 ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT Although job satisfaction has received the most attention of all work related attitudes organizational commitment has become increasingly recognized in the organizational behavior literature. 2005) and positively to job satisfaction (Cooper-Hakim and Viswesvaran. motivation (Mathieu and Zajac. Organizational commitment means employees. Over the past three decades.. Mottaz (1986) investigated the relationship between education and Page 15 of 126 . 2005). loyalty and willingness to contribute to the organization. 2005). In the literature of which we are aware.. Where as satisfaction is mainly concerned with employee’s attitude toward the job and commitment is at the level of organization. impressive research efforts have been devoted to understanding the antecedent of organizational commitment. The low level of commitment is associated with low levels of morals (Decotiis and Summers.risk taking into new areas or areas where the members have little or no prior experience. because high levels of commitment lead to several favorable organizational outcomes. 1998). 1989). only little research on organizational commitment in relation to educational organizations has been conducted.. absenteeism (Farrel and Stam. This literature has also dealt with effects of commitment on performance (Meyer et al. 2. The low level of commitment from employees to their employers may harm reputation of the organization and affect the organization’s ability to recruit high-equality employees (Mowday et al. 2002). organizational or occupational commitment (Mueller et al. 1990) and organizational citizenship behaviors (Riketta. Most of these research efforts have been focused on industrial. 1987) and altruism and compliance (Schappe. Met analyses of commitment studies indicate that commitment is related negatively to turnover (Cooper-Hakim and Viswasvaarn. 1982). 1988) and counterproductive behaviors (Dalal. Employee commitment is of great importance. 1992).

3. but a direct negative effect when work rewards are held constant. 2001. In this study the relationship between education and organizational commitment in a variety of occupational groups has been analyzed. 301). of employees. and the values. commitment is the total capacity to act in ways that meet the organization's goals and interests. and/or derives his or her identity from. might seem contrary to their self-interest. Loyalty is argued to be an important intervening variable between the structural conditions of work. and expectations. in the case of organizational commitment. for instance. Commitment. The problem is that commitment has now been defined in a number of widely varying ways. it is inadequate. “Affective commitment”. develops when an individual becomes involved in. and their decision to stay. Page 16 of 126 . in fact. can lead to persistence in a course of action even in the face of conflicting motives or attitudes. or leave Commitment has recently been defined as “a force that binds an individual towards a course of action” (Meyer and Herscovitch. In one view. in particular.1 DEFINITIONS Herscovitch and Meyer’s definition states that the degree to which an employee identifies with the goals and values of the organization and is willing to exert effort to help it succeed’. Although a simple enough definition. 2. one’s employer. from the perspective of neutral observers. Results indicated that education has an indirect positive effect on organizational commitment by increasing work rewards. can lead individuals to behave in ways that.organizational commitment. The study of commitment is relevant because commitment influences behavior independently of other motives and attitudes and. p. recognizes the value-relevance of. association with an entity or pursuit of a course of action such as.

Page 17 of 126 . Alternative involvement is a lack of commitment. based on positive and intense orientation to the organization. Again.The sociologist Etzioni argues that commitment and the authority that organizations have over members is rooted in the nature of involvement in organization. it can be enhanced by having employees publicly renounce previous social ties or engage in ceremonies that enhance group cohesion. Involvement takes one of three forms. occurring when members feel constrained by circumstances to belong to the organization but do not belong with it The management guru Kanter takes a different view of commitment. It exists when employees believe that the organization's norms and values are Important guides to their behavior. People become committed to an organization to the extent that they perceive some beneficial or equitable exchange relationship. Cohesion commitment is attachment to social relations in an organization. ranging from total commitment to no commitment at all. Calculative involvement is less intense and rests on an exchange relationship between the individual and the organization. and norms. involvement takes three forms. results from internalization of the organization's values. goals. but here the forms may be interrelated. Control commitment is a member's attachment to the norms of an organization that shape behavior in desired ways. Continuance commitment has to do with a member's dedication to the survival of the organization and results from having people make sacrifices for and investments in the organization. arguing that different types of commitment result from different behavioral requirements placed on members by the organization. Moral involvement.

affective. This is commitment viewed primarily from the standpoint of the organization. Social psychologists study behavioral commitment. focusing on how a person's behavior serves to bind him to the organization. and non-profit sector. (c) characteristics of the employee’s job and role. such as responsibility and (d) personal characteristics of the employee such as age. Mowday et al (1979. commitment-related attitudes and commitment-related behaviors. 1974. job tenure”. 1978. Organizational commitment has been studied in the public. This is in part due to the vast number of works that have found relationships between organizational commitment and attitudes and behaviors in the workplace (Porter et al. Once behavior shows commitment. which then influence their subsequent behavior. Angle and Perry.Organizational researchers and social psychologists view commitment quite differently. focusing on how employees identify with the goals and values of the organization. Organizational commitment has an important place in the study of organizational behavior. people must adjust their attitudes accordingly.. and more recently internationally. Koch and Steers. Hall. and cognitive constructs such as job satisfaction. 1977). 1981. Thus a cycle begins: behavior shapes attitudes and the shaped attitudes in turn shape behavior. Organizational researchers study attitudinal commitment. Page 18 of 126 . 1976. 1981). A variety of antecedents and outcomes have been identified in the past thirty years (Angle and Perry. private. Batemen and Strasser (1984) state that the reasons for studying organizational commitment are related to “(a) employee behaviors and performance effectiveness. (b) attitudinal. Early research focused on defining the concept and current research continues to examine organizational commitment through two popular approaches.

and normative commitment. According to Buchanan (1974) most scholars define commitment as being a bond between an individual (the employee) and the organization (the employer). affective commitment. and a definite desire to maintain organizational membership”. (2) a willingness Page 19 of 126 .Bateman and Strasser state that organizational commitment has been operationally defined as “multidimensional in nature. Porter et al . O’Reily & Chatman). though his own definition of commitment Meyer and Allen (1991) and Dunham et al (1994) identified three types of commitment. Normative commitment is a relatively new aspect of organizational commitment having been defined by Bolon in 1993. Sheldon (1971) defines commitments as being a positive evaluation of the organization and the organizations goals. identification. discuss three major components of organizational commitment as being “a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals. Meyer& Allen. Affective commitment is defined as the emotional attachment. willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization. and desire to maintain membership” (p. involving an employee’s loyalty to the organization. degree of goal and value congruency with the organization. 1993. a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization. Porter et al (1974) further characterize affective commitment by three factors (1) “belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values. Steers. continuance commitment. Mowday. and Porter (1979) identified commitment-related attitudes and commitment-related behaviors. 1997.95). and involvement that an employee has with its organization and goals (Mowday et al.

and (3) a desire to maintain organizational membership”. Weiner discusses normative commitment as being a “generalized value of loyalty and duty”. Continuance commitment is the willingness to remain in an organization because of the investment that the employee has with “nontransferable” investments. Meyer and Allen (1991) supported this type of commitment prior to Bolon’s definition. Continuance commitment also includes factors such as years of employment or benefits that the employee may receive that are unique to the organization (Reichers. Meyer and Allen (1997) continue to say that employees retain membership out of choice and this is their commitment to the organization. Normative commitment can be explained by other Page 20 of 126 . Mowday et al (1979) further state that affective communication is “when the employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals in order to maintain membership to facilitate the goal” (p. 1993) is the commitment that a person believes that they have to the organization or their feeling of obligation to their workplace. 1985). with their definition of normative commitment being “a feeling of obligation”.to focus effort on helping the organization achieve its goal’s. relationships with other employees. Normative commitment (Bolon. or things that are special to the organization (Reichers. In 1982. 1985). It is argues that normative commitment is only natural due to the way we are raised in society.225). Nontransferable investments include things such as retirement. Meyer and Allen (1997) further explain that employees who share continuance commitment with their employer often make it very difficult for an employee to leave the organization.

those with a strong continuance commitment remain because they have to. Meyer & Allen (1997) define a committed employee as being one “stays with an organization. therefore when it comes to one’s commitment to their place of employment they often feel like they have a moral obligation to the organization (Wiener. and others studying organizational behavior. private. There are numerous studies on both the antecedents and the outcomes of organizational commitment and both of these variables offer highly desired information to managers. religion. and nonprofit sector. write Meyer et al (1993) continue to say that generally the research shows that those employee’s with a strong affective commitment will remain with an organization because they want to. protects corporate assets. & Smith (1993) say that the three types of commitment are a psychological state “that either characterizes the employee’s relationship with the organization or has the implications to affect whether the employee will continue with the organization”. etc. and those with a normative commitment remain because they fell that they have to. Affective and communicative commitment has been studied much more then normative commitment. puts in a full day and more. and believes in the organizational goals”. All three types of commitment have been studied in both the public. attends work regularly. There are two significant variables that are studied in terms of commitmentrelated attitudes and commitment-related behaviors. This employee positively contributes to the organization because of its commitment to the organization. Meyer. Often research examines one or two types of commitment. Page 21 of 126 . though there is much more research completed on employees in the private and public sector. 1982).commitments such as marriage. family. the variables being antecedents and outcomes. Allen.

the employee must be able identify alternatives. Florkowsi and Schuster. 1997. They look to understand the development of the psychological Page 22 of 126 . Studies examining different types of work sectors have found that government employees have higher levels of continuance commitment then other sectors (Perry. many public employees appreciate the relatively secure job situation associated with public employment and consider it a major reason for their organizational commitment”. Normative commitment because it is the more recently defined type of commitment does not have a lot of research identified. found a positive relationship between profit sharing and job satisfaction and commitment. Meyer and Allen (1997) recognize that in order for there to be continuance commitment between the employee and organization. 1987. argued that a commitment profile does not exist therefore there can be no connection between one’s personal characteristics and their commitment to an organization. or effort. However though. These studies often look at investments such as time.DeCotis and Summers. Continuance commitment studies two antecedents: investments and alternatives. Meyer & Allen (1997) began to examine normative commitment in their most recent research. Because public sector employees in the past have high levels of commitment to the organization and its goals because it is argued hat they are a different type of employee. Steers (1977). 1997). This is due to the antecedents of public service motivation. all investigated the role of personal characteristics and found that the characteristics and experiences that a person brings to an organization can predict their commitment to the organization. 1997). 1992. with strong ethics as well as job security (Perry. Meyer & Allen. Lio (1995) states “facing today’s difficult times. money. Mowday et al (1992).

Meyer and Allen (1997) argue that the different components of commitment relate to different types of outcomes. Reichers (1985) says that “though the literature is fairly clear with respect to the outcomes of commitment. (1994) both find that committed employees had high expectations of their performance and therefore performed better. organizational citizenship. Some of the factors include the seriousness with which supervisors value the appraisal process. continue to describe reasons why performance and commitment may not be related. Research on commitment outcomes examines whether the different components of commitment have certain consequences. the employee and the organization. This is due to the numerous studies which have found a correlation between turnover and commitment (Porter et al. 1974. Meyer & Allen.contract between the employee and the organization. attendance. Porter et al (1974) found that employees with lower levels of commitment were more likely to leave then their counterparts. Meyer et. Various research studies take place examining the outcomes of employee commitment. the antecedents of commitment seem to be much more varied and inconsistent due to the several different ways in which commitment has been defined and operationalized”. Retention of employee appears to be one of the most studied outcomes of organizational commitment. therefore influencing their obligation to the organization (Meyer & Allen. However. 1997). 1997). Psychological contracts are the beliefs that a person has about what will be exchanged between them. the value of job performance by an organization and the amount of employee control over Page 23 of 126 . Al (1993) and Baugh & Roberts. and job performance are commitment outcomes that are widely studied. therefore continuance commitment may or may not relate to employee performance. Employee retention. Meyer & Allen (1997).

and are more innovative. have greater involvement in the organization. These correlations bring to light the importance of having strong managers and their roles in the overall organization. it could be argued that this would then affect their levels of commitment to the organization. Management styles can influence the commitment level of employees. Page 24 of 126 . Though there was no direct connect between commitment. or extra-role behavior. Nierhoff et al (1990) found that the “overall management culture and style driven by the top management actions are strongly related to the degree of employee commitment” (p. Eisenberger et al (1990) discuss that those employee’s who feel that they are cared for by their organization and managers also have not only higher levels of commitment. but that they are more conscious about their responsibilities.outcomes. Koopman (1991) studied how leadership styles affected employees and found those employees who favored their manager’s style also favored the organization more. Managers and organizations must reward and support their employees for the work that they do because this perceived support allows for more trust in the organization. Research has also found that those employees who are committed to their profession also have higher levels of commitment to the organization. Citizen behavior. has also been studied in regards to organizational commitment. 344).

“organizational commitment is a “multidimensional construct” (Morrow. and job satisfaction. (1998) found no significance between the relationships. Loui (1995) reported positive relationships with organizational commitment.12).3. an ability to be involved with the job.2. From the early stages of definition to now. Other studies have found that there was a negative relationship between commitment and citizen behavior (Shore and Wayne. In general. 1997. Meyer et al (1993) found a positive relationship between commitment and extra role behavior. In particular. and organizational goals” (Meyer & Allen. perceived trust in the supervisor. tenure. In all three areas. 1993). identifying antecedents and outcomes. job involvement. turnover. Page 25 of 126 . More specifically. absenteeism. Loui (1995) examined the relationship between the broad construct of organizational commitment and the outcome measures of supervisory trust. Overall. organizational commitment is considered a useful measure of organizational effectiveness (Steers. Lio (1995) concluded that “workers’ organizational commitment is significantly correlated to their perceived job security”. p. This topic does not lack in the amount of literature. while Van Dyne & Ang.2 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND DIFFERENT VARIABLES. there have been numerous studies of organizational commitment. and feelings of job satisfaction were major determinants of organizational commitment. 1975). in a study involving 109 workers. 1993) that has the potential to predict organizational outcomes such as performance. For example.

Their participants included 56 insurance agents and 85 staff professionals. Page 26 of 126 . their commitment to the overall organization will be higher Angle & Perry (1991) undertook a study to determine the effect that organizational commitment had on turnover.Throughout the workplace employees must be given numerous opportunities to feel committed to the organization. employees who intended to leave the job were not committed to the organization. In a study examining a group of nurses Somers (1995) found those nurses with lower levels of commitment had higher levels of absences.244 bus drivers. The participants included 1. Gellatlly (1995) found that continuance commitment was related with the how often an employee was absent. In short. Jermier & Berkes (1979) collected data on organizational commitment from over 800 police officers. Employee attendance is the most positively related outcome to affective commitment. Findings revealed a negative relationship between turnover and organizational commitment. Wiener & Vardi (1980) looked at the effect that organizational commitment had on commitment to the job and career commitment. Meyer & Allen. (1997). Findings revealed that employees who were more satisfied with their job had higher levels of organizational commitment. Steers (1997) found that employee commitment was highly related to the attendance of workers. They discuss they idea that if employees are directly committed to their group. found that employees that have a good relationship with their immediate work group have higher levels of commitment. The researchers reported positive relationships between organizational commitment and the two other types of commitment. The researchers were investigating the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

1993. Page 27 of 126 .66) between organizational commitment and organizational climate was discovered.413 employees from forty-two countries of origin. and job performance. and Hall et al. 1987). 1974.Baugh and Roberts (1994) found that those employees who were committed to both their organization and their profession had high levels of job performance. turnover.8 percent response rate yielded 1. A 97. DeCotiis & Summers (1987) undertook a study of 367 managers and their employees. The researchers examined the relationship between organizational commitment and the outcome measures of individual motivation. Allen & Meyer. A significant correlation (. (1977) have found there to be a positive relationship to between an employee’s age and time with the organization and their level of commitment.: Buchanan. desire to leave. It was observed that there were not that much studies conducted by relating the two variables psychological climate and organisational commitment. Studies have also found that employee traits such as leadership and communication styles have an affect on organizational commitment (Decottis & Summers. Blau and Boal (1987) studied a group of insurance workers and found also found that those employees who had higher levels of commitment had lower levels of absenteeism and turnover A study on relationship between organizational commitment and organizational climate conducted in Australian automotive component manufacturing companies with 1.382 usable questionnaires.

2.1 Primary objective: 1 To study the relationship between psychological climate and organizational commitment among the employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd. To find whether there is any relation between age and organizational commitment among the employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd Page 28 of 126 .3. To find whether there is any relation between gender and organizational commitment among the employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd 2.1. the present study bears the following objectives 2.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The present study is to investigate the relationship between 2 variables in order to understand the role of perceived Psychological climate in affecting the organizational commitment among the workers of HLL Lifecare Ltd and it is expected that the findings of this study may have practical implications for organizational development To be specific. 2 Secondary objectives: 1.1.

Identification with the goals and values of the organization. Social psychology on the other hand refers to the study of the way in which attitudes. The willingness to display effort on behalf of the organization. 2. The scope of the study is confined to HLL Lifecare Ltd. The desire to belong the organization. Organizational commitment is the Psychological attachment of an employee towards and organization. behavior and motivations of an individual both influence and in turn are influenced by social groups. 3. personality.3. To find whether there is any relation between year of experience and organizational commitment among the employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd 4. To find the factors related with organizational commitment among the employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd. Page 29 of 126 . behaviors and core values. 1. To find the factors related with psychological climate among the employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd 5. 3. It can be measured by the following factors. The study helped to understand the relationship between psychological climate and organizational commitment.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The term psychological climate refers to the prevailing psychological atmosphere along with all that it encompasses such as mindset. In organizational psychology the term psychological climate is usually used to refer to work environment perceptions.

3 METHODOLOGY 1. observations and discussions with the respondents. Sample design Population Page 30 of 126 . 3. Sources of data There are mainly two sources of data they are. Secondary data was collected from annual reports. company manuals. Sources of primary data.Definition of the problem The study is entitled on “Relationship between psychological climate and organizational commitment among employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd” 2. official website and journals provide by the company. The data was collected from the employee with the help of a questionnaire. Sources of secondary data.3.

T Mowday and R. chi square test. It is used in making comparison between two or more series of data. has the same probability of being selected. Page 31 of 126 . steers. Questionnaire for psychological climate is taken from Gema cissoid’s working paper Aug 2006. Percentage analysis: Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. L. This type of sampling is also known as chance sampling or probability sampling where each and every item in the population has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample and each one of the possible samples. Peroorkada.M. Sampling scheme: Sampling scheme employed was random sampling. 5. Sample size A total number of 100 employees were selected from HLL Lifecare Ltd.W Porter. Department of management. The questionnaire consists of 30 questions. in case of finite universe. Monash University and organizational commitment is taken from the journal of vocational behavior by R. correlation. 4. Tools for data collection The main tool for data collection was a structured questionnaire (included in appendix). Tools for analysis of data The tool used was percentage analysis. Data were reduced in the standard form with equal base to 100 which helps in relative comparison.The population of the study includes all the employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd.

This test is employed for testing hypothesis when distribution of population is not known and when nominal data is analyzed. Tools for projections of findings Tools like pie diagrams. graphs and histogram were used to express the relationship between variables and to project findings.square: Chi-square test is a non-parametric test. It is used most frequently in marketing researches to test hypothesis. Page 32 of 126 . (χ2) =∑ [(O – E) 2/E] Correlation test Correlation is a statistical technique that can show whether and how strongly pairs of variables are related.Chi. R= nΣxy-(ΣxΣy)/ √nΣx2-(Σx) 2 √ nΣy2-(Σy) 2 6.

3. Therefore the time was not sufficient for a thorough study. The period of the study was limited to 45 days. Unwillingness of the employees to give their true opinions 4. Page 33 of 126 . The main limitation of the study was the respondents were biased.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 1. Sample size is less compared to the population hence the result cannot be generalized. 2. 3.

1 Gender details of the respondents Gender female male No: of Respondents 28 72 Percentage 28 72 Page 34 of 126 .1.1 PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS 4.4. 4.1 ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS The study is structured in a way to analyze the relationship between psychological climate and organizational commitment among the employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd.

Table no:1 male female Chart no:1 Out of the 100 respondents 28% of them are female and 72% are male 4.2 Age details of the respondents Age <25years 25-35years 35-45years 45-55years Total No: of respondents 8 17 24 30 100 percentage 8 17 24 30 100 Page 35 of 126 .1.

4.1. 21% of the respondents are more than 55 years 17% of them are between 25-35 years and the rest 8% are below 25 years. 24% of the respondents are from age category 35-45 years.3 Year of experience of the respondents Page 36 of 126 .Table no:2 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of respondents <25years 25-35years 35-45years 45-55ears 55years and more Chart no:2 Out of the 100 respondents 30% of the workers included in 45-55years.

Year of experience <5years 5-15years 15-25years 25-35years Total No: of respondents 15 25 40 20 100 Table no:3 percentage 15 25 40 20 100 Page 37 of 126 .

Page 38 of 126 .40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of respondents <5years 5-15years 15-25years 25-35years Chart no:3 Out of the 100 respondents 15% of the employees are from less than 5 years experience. 25% of the respondents are with 5-15 year experience. 40% of the respondents are with 15 to 25 year experience 20% of them are between 25-35 years experience.

1.4.4 Some times I am not sure how to complete all tasks I have been assigned Employee Response No: of Percentage 2 4 26 14 32 22 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 2 Slightly agree 4 Moderately agree 26 Neither agree nor disagree 14 Slightly disagree 32 Moderately disagree 22 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 Table No:4 Page 39 of 126 .

On the other hand 6% of respondents moderately agree.35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart No:4 From the survey it was found that among the 100 respondents 32% of them slightly disagree and 22% moderately disagree and 14% of then neither agree nor disagree to it. 4% slightly agree and 2 % strongly agree with the opinion that they are not sure about how to complete their task. Page 40 of 126 . This analysis reveals that majority of the respondents are sure about completing their tasks.

1.4.5 At times I feel quality of my work suffers in order to meet work quantity demands Employee Response No: of Percentage 0 2 6 12 34 22 24 100 Respondents Strongly agree 0 Slightly agree 2 Moderately agree 6 Neither agree nor disagree 12 Slightly disagree 34 Moderately disagree 22 Strongly disagree 24 Total 100 Page 41 of 126 .

22% moderately disagree. 2% slightly agree.Table No: 5 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart No:5 The above chart shows the analysis on if quality of work suffers in order to meet work quantity demands. 24% strongly disagree. 34% of them slightly disagree. Page 42 of 126 . Out of the 100 respondents none of them strongly agree. 12% neither agree nor disagree and 6% moderately agree with this.

I understand how my job contributes to the achievement of workplace objectives Employee Response Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No: Respondents 27 13 44 16 0 0 0 100 of Percentage 27 13 44 16 0 0 0 100 Page 43 of 126 .1.6.4.

Table No: 6 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Chart No: 6 Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Page 44 of 126 .

4.1. It means majority of them know the importance of their job for the fulfillment of the work place objectives. 13% slightly agree and the remaining 16% of them neither agree nor disagree to this opinion.7 I understand the standard of performance expected of my position Employee Response No: of Percentage 19 38 18 25 0 0 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 19 Slightly agree 38 Moderately agree 18 Neither agree nor disagree 25 Slightly disagree 0 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 Page 45 of 126 . it was analyzed that out of the 100 respondents 44% of them moderately agree with the opinion that they are understand about how much their job contributes towards the achievement of the organizational objectives. 27% of them strongly agree.As per the table.

Table No:7 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:7 Page 46 of 126 .

19% strongly agree and 18% of them moderately agree with this argument.8 I regularly receive feedback on how well I’m doing my job Employee Response Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No: Respondents 10 22 48 20 0 0 0 100 of Percentage 10 22 48 20 0 0 0 100 Page 47 of 126 . 4. 25% neither agree nor disagree.According to the survey it was observed 38% of respondents are slightly agreed that they know thoroughly about the standard of performance which is expected form their position.1.

Table No:8 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart No: 8 Page 48 of 126 .

9 My job requires me to use the full range of my skills Employee Response No: of Percentage 68 14 10 8 0 0 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 68 Slightly agree 14 Moderately agree 10 Neither agree nor disagree 8 Slightly disagree 0 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 Page 49 of 126 . 22% slightly agree. 4. 20% neither agree nor disagree and 10% of them strongly agree with the opinion that the receive feed back regularly on how well they perform their job.While analyzing the above data it was found that out of the 100 respondents 48% of them moderately agree. It shows most of the respondents receive feedback regularly on their work done.1.

Table No: 9 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Page 50 of 126 .

68% of respondents strongly agree.1. This conveys to us that most of the respondents are doing their job by utilizing full range of skills. 4. 10% moderately agree and 8% of them neither agree nor disagree. 14% slightly agree.10 At times I feel overloaded with the amount of work I am required to do.Chart No: 9 As per the survey the workers have to use full range of skills for doing their job. Employee Response No: of Percentage 0 24 45 16 15 Page 51 of 126 0 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 0 Slightly agree 24 Moderately agree 45 Neither agree nor disagree 16 Slightly disagree 15 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 .

Table No:10 Page 52 of 126 .

11 My workmates and I discuss work problems and expectations freely Page 53 of 126 . 16% neither agree nor disagree and the rest 15% of them shows slightly disagrees that they required to do overload amount of work. among the 100 respondents 45% moderately agree. 2 % slightly agree. It denote that majority of them required to do overload work 4.1.45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart No:10 While analyzing the response of the workers about their overload work.

Employee Response No: of Percentage 62 12 26 0 0 0 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 62 Slightly agree 12 Moderately agree 26 Neither agree nor disagree 0 Slightly disagree 0 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 Table no:11 Page 54 of 126 .

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart No:11 Based on the above chart it is realized that out of the 100 respondents 62% of them strongly agree. 12% of them slightly agree. Page 55 of 126 . 26% moderately agree that they discuss their work problems and expectation freely with their work mates.

12 Often I am not informed about changes to policies and procedures until after they have been implemented Employee Response No: of Percentage 0 0 10 20 28 32 10 100 Respondents Strongly agree 0 Slightly agree 0 Moderately agree 10 Neither agree nor disagree 20 Slightly disagree 28 Moderately disagree 32 Strongly disagree 10 Total 100 Table no:12 Page 56 of 126 .1.4.

20% neither agree nor disagree and 10 % of them each moderately agree and strongly agree that they are not informed about the changes to policies and procedure until after the have been implemented. 28% slightly disagree.35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart No:12 From the above table it was found that 32% of respondents moderately disagree. From the evaluation it is obtained that majority of them try to inform the changes to policies and procedures before they have been implemented. Page 57 of 126 .

13 I feel that the organizational hierarchy or chain of authority is clearly defined Employee Response No: of Percentage 38 42 12 8 0 0 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 38 Slightly agree 42 Moderately agree 12 Neither agree nor disagree 8 Slightly disagree 0 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 Page 58 of 126 .4.1.

Table no:13 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Page 59 of 126 .

38% strongly agree and 12% of them moderately agree that the chain of authority is clearly defined in their organization.1. 4.Chart no:13 On the basis of the above data it was analyzed that among 100 respondents 42% of them slightly agree.14 I feel that all organizational policies are applied fairly to all organization members Employee Response No: of Percentage 24 12 42 22 0 0 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 24 Slightly agree 12 Moderately agree 42 Neither agree nor disagree 22 Slightly disagree 0 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 Page 60 of 126 .

24% strongly agree and 12% of respondents Page 61 of 126 .Table no:14 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree No: of Respondents Chart no:14 According to the table it was observed that 42% of the respondents moderately agree that all organizational policies are applied fairly to all the members. 22% of them neither agree nor disagree.

4.15 My workplace provides me with opportunity to further develop my skills and abilities Page 62 of 126 .slightly agree.1. From this analysis it is clear that most of the respondents agreed that the organizational policies are applied fairly to all the members in the organization.

Employee Response No: of Percentage 21 23 36 13 7 0 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 21 Slightly agree 23 Moderately agree 36 Neither agree nor disagree 13 Slightly disagree 7 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 Table no:15 Page 63 of 126 .

21% strongly agree. 13% neither agree nor disagree and the 17% of them slightly disagree with the opinion that they get opportunities for further development of their skills. 23% of them slightly agree.40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:15 Above table reveals that 36% of the respondents moderately agree. Page 64 of 126 . Here it shows that majority of the respondents are agreed with the agreement that they get opportunity to develop their skills and ability.

16 I feel that my supervisor cares about the problems I have with my job Employee Response Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No: Respondents 12 18 28 25 17 0 0 100 of Percentage 12 18 28 25 17 0 0 100 Table no:16 Page 65 of 126 .4.1.

Among 100 respondents 28% of them moderately agree. 25% neither agree nor disagree. 18% slightly agree.30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:16 From the above table it was found that majority of respondents agreed that their supervisors cares about the problems they have with their job. Page 66 of 126 . 17% slightly disagree and 12$% of them strongly agree with this opinion.

17 My supervisor plans work to ensure that it is complete with the highest possible standard? Employee Response Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No: Respondents 83 4 13 0 0 0 0 100 of Percentage 83 4 13 0 0 0 0 Page 67 of 126 100 .4.1.

Table no:17 Page 68 of 126 .

43% moderately agree and 4% slightly agree that the supervisor plans work to ensure that it complete with highest standard. Page 69 of 126 .90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:17 Among the 100 respondents 83% of hem strongly agree.

1.4.18 I trust my supervisor to effectively represent my views in meetings with other managers Employee Response No: of Percentage 6 4 44 27 14 5 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 6 Slightly agree 4 Moderately agree 44 Neither agree nor disagree 27 Slightly disagree 14 Moderately disagree 5 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 Table no:18 Page 70 of 126 .

14% slightly agree and 6% strongly agree that the supervisors effectively represents the workers view in meeting other managers. Here it shows that towards this argument majority of respondents agreed to it.45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:18 From the chart it was analyzed that 44% of the workers moderately agree. Here it shows view in meeting with other managers. Page 71 of 126 . 27% neither agree nor disagree.

4.1.19 My supervisor shows trust in my ability to perform my job Employee Response No: of Percentage 16 64 8 10 2 0 0 0 Respondents Strongly agree 16 Slightly agree 64 Moderately agree 8 Neither agree nor disagree 10 Slightly disagree 2 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 Page 72 of 126 .

Table no:19 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:19 As per the survey the report shows the supervisor trust in workers ability to perform their job. 64% of respondents slightly agree. It denote that majority of workers agree with argument that majority of worker agree with the argument that supervisor have trust in their ability to perform job. Page 73 of 126 . 16% strongly agree. 8% moderately agree and 10% neither agree nor disagree and 2% slightly disagree with this.

1.20 When I communicate my ideas to members of my work team they listen and are supportive. Employee Response No: of Percentage 0 14 72 8 6 Page 74 of 126 0 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 0 Slightly agree 14 Moderately agree 72 Neither agree nor disagree 8 Slightly disagree 6 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 .4.

Table no:20 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Page 75 of 126 .

On the other hand 8% neither agree nor disagree and 6% slightly disagree towards this.Chart no:20 According to this survey. 4.21 I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond what is normally expected in order to help this organization be successful Employee Response No: of Percentage 18 22 48 12 0 0 0 Page 76 of 126 100 Respondents Strongly agree 18 Slightly agree 22 Moderately agree 48 Neither agree nor disagree 12 Slightly disagree 0 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 . it was realized that 22% of respondents moderately agree and 14% slightly agree that the ideas communicated by the workers are carefully listen by the other members of work team.1.

Table no: 21 Page 77 of 126 .

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents

Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree

Chart no:21

While analyzing the above table, it was observed that 48% of respondents moderately agree, 22% slightly agree, 18% strongly agree and 12% of respondents neither agree nor disagree to put a great deal of effort beyond what is normally expected in order to help the organization.

Page 78 of 126

4.1.22 I talk up this organization to my friends as a great organization to work for Employee Response No: of Percentage 34 18 28 20 0 0 0 100

Respondents Strongly agree 34 Slightly agree 18 Moderately agree 28 Neither agree nor disagree 20 Slightly disagree 0 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100

Table no:22

Page 79 of 126

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents

Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree

Chart no:22 From the table it was found that most of the respondents say that this is a better organization to work. 34% strongly agree, 28% moderately agree, 20% neither agree nor disagree and 18% slightly agree with this view of workers 4.1.23 I feel very little loyalty to this organization Employee Response No: of Percentage 0 0 0 0 22 46 32 100

Respondents Strongly agree 0 Slightly agree 0 Moderately agree 0 Neither agree nor disagree 0 Slightly disagree 22 Moderately disagree 46 Strongly disagree 32 Total 100

Page 80 of 126

4. This shows that all the respondents are always loyal to the organization. 32% strongly disagree and 22% of them slightly disagree with the.24 I find that my values and the organization values are very similar Employee Response Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No: Respondents 16 22 18 30 14 0 0 100 of Percentage 16 22 18 30 14 0 0 100Page 81 of 126 .Table no:23 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:23 Based on the survey among 100 respondents 46% of them moderately disagree.1.

Table no:24 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:24 Page 82 of 126 .

16% strongly agree and 4 % slightly disagree.25 I am proud to tell others that I am a part of this organization Page 83 of 126 .1. 22% slightly agree. 18% moderately agree. 4.Above chart reveal that out of the 100 respondents 30% of them neither agree nor disagree. It means that majority of them viewed that heir values and organizational values are similar. With the respondents findings the organizational values and their values are similar.

Employee Response Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No: Respondents 72 12 16 0 0 0 0 100 of Percentage 72 12 16 0 0 0 0 100 Table no:25 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:25 Page 84 of 126 .

From the survey it is clear that out of the 100 respondents 72% of them strongly agree. 12% slightly agree and 16% of them moderately agree that they are very proud to say that they are part of the organization.1. 4.26 I will be ready to work in a different organization if the type of work is similar Employee Response Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No: Respondents 0 12 16 40 24 8 0 100 of Percentage 0 12 16 40 24 8 0 100 Page 85 of 126 .

8% moderately disagree. Page 86 of 126 . It denotes that most of the workers are not willing to work in different organization even if the work is similar.Table no:26 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:26 According to the table it shows that 40% of respondents neither agree nor disagree. 24 % slightly disagree. 16% slightly agree and 12% moderately agree with this opinion it shows that they are not willing to work in different organization.

4.1.27 This organization really inspires the very best in me in the way of job performance Employee Response Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No: Respondents 64 25 11 0 0 0 0 100 of Percentage 64 25 11 0 0 0 0 100 Table no:27 Page 87 of 126 .

28 I am extremely glad that I chose this organization to work for over others I was considering at the time I joined Employee Response Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No: Respondents 0 18 22 25 8 17 0 100 of Percentage 0 18 22 25 8 17 0 100 Page 88 of 126 . 4.1.70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:27 The table shows that out of the 100 respondents 64% of them strongly agree. 25% slightly agree and 11% moderately agree with that the organization inspires the workers in the way of job performance.

On the other hand 8% of respondents slightly Page 89 of 126 . 22% moderately agree and 18% strong agree that they are happy to choose this organization to work.Table no:28 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree No: of Respondents Strongly disagree Chart no:28 As per the survey it was analyzed that 25% of respondents neither agree nor disagree.

4.disagree and 17% moderately disagree with this. It shows that most of the workers are extremely happy for selecting this organization to work.1.29 There is not too much to be gained by sticking with this organization indefinitely Page 90 of 126 .

Employee Response Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No: Respondents 0 0 6 14 26 36 18 100 of Percentage 0 0 6 14 26 36 18 100 Table no:29 Page 91 of 126 .

14% neither agree nor disagree and only 6% slightly agree with this. 18% strongly disagree. Page 92 of 126 . 26% of them slightly disagree. Therefore majority of them responds that they are fairly gained by sticking with this origination.40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no: 29 Above table reveals that 36% of respondents moderately disagree with the opinion that they gained too much by sticking with the organization.

1.4.30 Often I find it difficult to agree with these organizations policies on important matters relating to its employees Employee Response Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No: Respondents 0 0 16 44 8 13 19 100 of Percentage 0 0 16 44 8 13 19 100 Table no: 30 Page 93 of 126 .

employees. 13% moderately disagree and 8% slightly disagree with the organizations policies on important matters relating to its employees. It means that majority of respondents agree with the organization policies on matters relating to its Page 94 of 126 .45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:30 From the table it was found that among the 100 respondents 44% of them neither agree nor disagree. 16% moderately agree. 19% strongly disagree.

1.31 I really care about the fate of this organization Employee Response No: of Percentage 78 13 9 0 0 0 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 78 Slightly agree 13 Moderately agree 9 Neither agree nor disagree 0 Slightly disagree 0 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 Page 95 of 126 .4.

Table no:31 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Page 96 of 126 .

13% of them slightly agree and 9% moderately agree to it. It denotes that almost all the workers are very careful about the fate of the organization. 4.Chart no:31 As per the survey it was defined that 78% respondents strongly agree that the care about the fate of the organization.32 For me this is the best of all possible organization for which to work Employee Response No: of Percentage 88 2 10 0 0 0 0 100 Respondents Strongly agree 88 Slightly agree 2 Moderately agree 10 Neither agree nor disagree 0 Slightly disagree 0 Moderately disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 Total 100 Page 97 of 126 .1.

4.Table no:32 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:32 It is clearly analyzed from the above chart that 88% of workers strongly agree.1. 10% of them moderately agree and 2% of them slightly agree that this is the best possible origination for the workers to work.33 Deciding to work for this organization was definite mistake on my part Page 98 of 126 .

Employee Response No: of Percentage 0 0 0 0 78 12 20 100 Respondents Strongly agree 0 Slightly agree 0 Moderately agree 0 Neither agree nor disagree 0 Slightly disagree 78 Moderately disagree 12 Strongly disagree 20 Total 100 Table no:33 Page 99 of 126 .

on their decision to work for this organization was mistake.80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No: of Respondents Strongly agree Slightly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Chart no:33 According to the table it shows that among the 100 respondents 78% of them slightly disagree 12% moderately disagree and 20% of them strongly disagree with the opinion. It conveys us that majority of the workers viewed that they decided to work for the organization was better decision taken by them Page 100 of 126 .

H1: There is significant relation between gender and organizational commitment.2 HYPOTHESIS TESTING 4. Observation table Organizational commitment Page 101 of 126 .4.1 Chi square test 1 Test to analyze the relationship between gender of the respondents and organizational commitment Ho: There is no significant relation between gender and organizational commitment.2.

1009 .689 6.0555 1.4669 Total Table no:35 O= Observed frequencies. E= Expected frequencies Page 102 of 126 .36 18 O-E 1.689 6.64 27.2547 .64 -1 (O-E) 2 2.36 10.969 1 O-E2 /E .969 1 2.654 .64 -2.64 7 26.64 2.1428 .259 .Gender Female Male Total High 12 25 37 Moderate 8 30 38 Table no:34 Low 8 17 25 Total 28 72 100 O 12 8 8 25 30 17 E 10.64 1 -1.

991 The calculated value is greater than the table value So we accept Ho INTERPRETATION Therefore the two attributes gender and organizational commitment among employees independent and there is no significant relation with in them Page 103 of 126 .χ = Σ(O-E ) /E =1.4669 2 2 Degree of freedom (r-1) (c-1) (2-1) (3-1) =2 Table value of χ2 for 2 degree of freedom at 5% level of significance is 5.

Test to analyze the relationship between age of respondents and organizational commitment Ho: There is significant relation between age and organizational commitment.2. Observation table Organizational commitment Table no:36 Moderate Age High Low Total 8 25years 2 2 4 25-35years 8 3 6 17 35-45years 10 8 6 24 45-55years 15 10 5 30 55years 16 3 2 21 Total 51 26 23 100 Page 104 of 126 . H1: There is no significant relation between age and organizational commitment.

71 5.4 4.016 4.612 1.5231 2.67 -1.09 4.05 O-E2 /E 1.2 -1.08 2.4561 1.0769 2.1171 .017 3.91 12.76 .5356 .6656 0.08 1.08 -.O 2 2 4 8 3 6 10 8 6 15 10 5 16 3 E 4.46 O-E -2.52 15.9 5.4964 .98 6.48 -0.3 2.3 7.2304 .84 3.9 10.4489 2.0517 .29 -2.24 1.326 6.24 6.8 6.24 5.46 (O-E) 2 4.0417 5.4099 .09 -2.42 3.6205 .08 2.84 8.0976 .108 Page 105 of 126 .42 2.0602 3.61 27.67 4.368 5.882 .16 -0.

2

4.83

-2.83

8.009

1.658 21.65

Total
Table no:37

O= Observed frequencies, E= Expected frequencies

χ = Σ(O-E )/E
2 2

=21.65
Degree of freedom (r-1) (c-1) (5-1) (3-1) =8 Value of χ2 for 8 degree of freedom at 5% level of significance is 15.507

The calculated value is greater than the table value So we reject Ho

INTERPRETATION Therefore the two attributes age and organizational commitment of the employees are having significant relation among them.

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3. Test to analyze the relationship between year of experience of the
respondents and organizational commitment

Ho: There is significant relation between year of experience of the employees
and organizational commitment.

H1: There is no significant relation between year of experience of the employees
and organizational commitment.

Observation table
Organizational commitment

Page 107 of 126

Year of experience <5years 5-15years 15-25years 25-35years Total

High

Moderate

Low

Total

3 15 22 12 52

5 6 10 6 27 Table no:38

7 4 8 2 21

15 25 40 20 100

Page 108 of 126

6 0.2 -0.2 (O-E) 2 43.9025 14.36 4.8225 4 0.02 0.22 4.4 5.8 4.95 3.75 -1.07 1.64 .31 0.8 -0.2 O-E -4.06 0.07 0.4 4.44 .8 8.15 12.16 2.8 0.71 0.O 3 5 7 15 6 4 22 10 8 12 6 2 E 7.8 10.5625 1.04 0.4 10.85 2 -0.05 3.25 20.78 Total Table no:39 Page 109 of 126 .25 1.025 0.296 0.08 0.56 0.75 5.5625 1.84 O-E2 /E 4.95 0.15 13 6.4 1.6 -5.

4.78 Degree of freedom (r-1) (c-1) (4-1) (3-1) =6 Table value of χ2 for 6degree of freedom at 5% level of significance is 12.O= Observed frequencies. Factors Pressure Support Recognition Fairness Innovation cohesion Psychological climate 80 40 22 16 8 17 Organizational commitment 60 22 34 10 8 10 Page 110 of 126 . E= Expected frequencies χ2 = Σ(O-E2 )/E =12.2 Correlation test to evaluate the “Relationship between psychological climate and organizational commitment” among the employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd.592 The calculated value is greater than the table value So we reject Ho INTERPRETATION Therefore there is significant relation between year of experience of the employees and organizational commitment.2.

Table no:40 X 80 40 22 16 8 17 183 Y 60 22 34 10 8 10 147 XY 4800 880 748 160 64 170 6822 X2 6400 1600 484 256 64 100 8904 Y2 3600 484 1369 100 64 100 5717 Table no:41 R= nΣxy-(ΣxΣy)/ √nΣx2-(Σx) 2 √ nΣy2-(Σy) 2 6*0.6822-183*147 / √6*8904-1832√6*5717-1472 14031/ √19935√12693 Page 111 of 126 .

877 INTERPRETATION The above statement reveals that correlation between psychological climate and organizational commitment is .1 FINDINGS The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the “relationship between psychological climate and organizational commitment” among the employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd. For evaluating the relationship data were collected from 100 Page 112 of 126 .877 which shows a positive correlation.0. This means that psychological climate and organizational climate is interrelated and interdependent 5.

2. Out of the 100 respondents 15% of the employees are from less than 5 years experience. and correlation to arrive at the following findings. There is no significant relationship between gender and organizational commitment as the value 4. Chi square. 40% of the respondents are with 15 to 25 year experience 20% of them are between 25-35 years experience. 5. 3. There is significant relationship between year of experience of the employees and organizational commitment. 25% of the respondents are with 5-15 year experience. 6. Page 113 of 126 . 21% of the respondents are more than 55 years 17% of them are between 25-35 years and the rest 8% are below 25 years. 7. 24% of the respondents are from age category 35-45 years. 8. Out of the 100 respondents 30% of the workers included in 45-55years.employees. 1. It is observed that among the 100 respondents 32% of them slightly disagree with the opinion that they are not sure how to complete their tasks. It was observed that Out of the 100 respondents 28% of them are female and 72% are male. Primary objective of this study is to evaluate the “relationship between psychological climate and organizational commitment” among the employees of HLL Lifecare Ltd.877 which showed a positive correlation which means that psychological climate and organizational climate is interrelated and interdependent. The data collected were analyzed through different statistical methods such as percentage study. The value obtained in correlation test is . There is significant relationship between age of the employees and organizational commitment.

34% of the respondents slightly disagree with that the quality of work suffers in order to meet work quantity demands. 12. 16. Out of the 100 respondents 38% of them slightly agree that they know thoroughly about the standard of performance expected form their position. 48% of the respondents moderately agree that they receive feed back regularly on their work done. 11. 13. From the analysis among the 100 respondents 62% of them strongly agree that hey communicate their work problems with their work mates.9. 18. 10. 15. Page 114 of 126 . About 42% of the workers slightly agree with that the chain of authority is clearly defined in the organization. 45% of the respondents moderately agree with the opinion that the have to do overloaded amount of work 14. 17. 32% of respondents moderately disagree with the argument that they are not informed about the change to policies and procedures until after the have been implemented. About 44% of the respondents moderately agree that they know about how much their job contributes towards the achievement of organizational objectives. About 68% of the respondents strongly agree they utilize their full range of skills for doing their job. It is observed that 42% of respondents moderately agree that all the organisational policies are applied fairly to all the members. It was found that among the 100 respondents 36% of them moderately agree that they get opportunities for further development of their skills.

19. 28% of the respondents moderately agree that their supervisors care about the problems the have with their job. 20. Out of the 100 respondents 83% of them strongly agree that the supervisor plans work to ensure highest standard. 21. It was found that 44% of workers moderately agree that their views are effectively represented by the supervisors in the meeting with other manager. 22. It was discovered that 64% of the respondents slightly agree with the argument that supervisors have trust in workers ability to perform the job. 23. About 72% of the workers moderately agree that the ideas communicated by them, are carefully listen by the other members of the work team. 24. From the analysis, about 48% of the respondents put a great deal of effort beyond what is normally expected in order to help the organization. 25. It was identified that out of the 100 workers 34% strongly agree and others agreed that this is a better organization to work. 26. Out of the 100 respondents 46% of them moderately disagree with the opinion that they feel little loyalty to this organization. 26. 30% of the workers neither agree nor disagree and 22% slightly agree with the argument that their values and organizational values are similar. 28. 72% of the respondents strongly agree that they are very proud to say that they are the part of the organization. 29. About 40% of the respondents show neither agree nor disagree towards their willingness to work in different organization if the work is similar. 30. It was found that 64% of the workers strongly agree that the organization really inspires the best in workers, in the way of job performance.

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31. It was found that majority of the workers are extremely happy for selecting this organization to work. 32. About 36% of the respondents moderately disagree with the argument that they do not gained too much by sticking with this organization. 33. It was observed that majority of respondents agree with the organization policies on matters relating to its employees. 34. 78% of the respondents agrees that the care about the fate of the organization. 35. Out of the 100 respondents 88% of them strongly agree with that this is the best organization for them to work. 36. Among the 100 respondents, 78% of them slightly disagree with the argument that their decision to work for this organization was a mistake.

6.1 SUGGESTIONS
Based on the findings of the study conducted on the “The relationship between psychological climate and organizational commitment” following suggestions are made.

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1. Organization should create suitable psychological climate through effective communication system. 2. Organization should encourage superior subordinate relationship. 3. Should give respect to individual workers and their ideas. 4. Organization should develop organizational commitment among the workers by providing suitable psychological climate. 5. It should also give importance to develop excellent work culture. 6. Certain evaluation programs can be conducted to measure the psychological aspects of the employees and can take immediate actions to solve the problem, which will result in improving the organizational commitment of employees.

7.1 CONCLUSION

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More over out of three hypotheses which are formulated to check the relation between organizational commitment and demographic variables such as age. Page 118 of 126 . trust. two of them age and year of experience of the employees have significant relation and gender doesn’t have any relation. Thus we can come into a conclusion that the factors of psychological climate have strong relation with organizational commitment. support. recognition.. gender and year of experience. autonomy.The results support the hypotheses that an individual's perception of the psychological climate in the organization has a significant positive impact on his/her commitment towards the organization. pressure. The results of correlation analysis on the components of psychological climate i. fairness and innovation have significant effect on the explanation of variance of dimensions of organizational commitment. cohesion.e.

A. continuance. M.E. (1995). C.. Journal of Occupational Psychology. Journal of Vocational Behavior. J. & Meyer. On the discriminant validity of the Meyer and Allen measure of organizational commitment: How does it fit with the work commitment construct? Educational and Psychological Measurement.D. The measurement and antecedents of affective. Cohen. A Review and Reconceptualization of Organizational Commitment. N. and normative commitment to the organization. Borucki. & Kirchmeyer. Cohen. The measurement and antecedents of affective. (1996). N. A.. Page 119 of 126 . C. and normative commitment to the organization. (1985). 1-18 Allen.BIBILOGRAPHY Company manuals and Publications Company website www. Journal of Occupational Psychology. A multidimensional approach to the relations between organizational commitment and no work participation. Burke.C.. J. (2002). (1996).com Allen. & Meyer. J. continuance. Academy of Management Review. & Kaufman.J. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. Contemporary perspectives on the study of psychological climate: A commentary. 63.hindilatex. A. (1990).

M. & Bruni. Integrating work environment perceptions: Explorations into the measurement of meaning. T. Journal of Applied Psychology.Curphey.H. J.D. Dr O.R. R Krishnaswamy. P. Department of management.uk/careers/story. W. James. P. (1989). L.A. & Hausdorf.. A.. painlessly. (2002.A. (1974). (1985). M. (1987).P. Psychological Bulletin. Bycio. (1978). & James. Glick. Journal. J. M. Further assessments of Meyer and Allen's (1991) three-component model of organizational commitment. Himalaya publishing house Mumbai. (1994). T.. Perceptions of organizational climate. Gent. L. Guardian Unlimited. & Summers. & McIntyre. 1998 DeCotiis. & Jones. L.R. Hater. Implications from cognitive social learning theory and interactional psychology.. From public to private. Monash University Hackett. methodology of research in social science. James. L. L. April). 10 Gema clissold working paper Aug 2006.guardian. Journal of Applied Psychology. Organizational climate: A review of theory and research.. A path analysis of a model of the antecedents. Personnel Psychology James.. . James. Retrieved from http://society.co.. R. (1996). In Page 120 of 126 Psychological climate: Conceptualizing and measuring organizational and Academy of Management psychological climate: Pitfalls in multilevel research.

Morris J. (1992).. Human Relations. Human Relations.A.R. D. Academy of Management Journal.. 44 . T.P. (1984). Volkwein. & Sherman. E. Academy of Management journal. The Cultural Approach tothe Formation of Allen. Moran.). Psychological climate: Dimensions and relationships of individual and aggregated work environment perceptions. Academy of Management Journal. L. & De Cotiis. F. (1984). Page 121 of 126 . N. Jones. (1990). Murphy (Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Toward a psychology of situations: An interactional perspective (New Jersey: Lawrence disengagement at work. W.A. A. J. Joyce. J. Individual differences and behavior in organizations (pp. S. Meyer.). J. & Sells.J. Collective climate: Agreement as the basis for defining ggregate climates in organizations. D. H. (1979). Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. perspectives and empirical research. J.P.R.. W. James. Generalizability of and Organizational Commitment Model. Psychological conditions of personal engagement and Psychological climate: Theoretical In D. & Slocum.B. Magnusson (Ed. L. T.F. Testing the “Side-Bet Theory” of Organizational Some Methodological Considerations. Erlbaum. Inductive measures of psychological climate. (1991). Commitment: Psychology. Journal of Applied Organizational Climate.R. (1981). Kahn. (198 1).J. 416450).K. & James.. Koys.

Conceptualizing and Measuring Organizational and Psychological Climate: Pitfalls in Multilevel Research.M. steers. New Delhi. Salvaggio. Stevens. and Organizational Predictors of Managerial Commitment.. Schneider.T Mowday and R.C. J. C. Relations. Human R Kothari Research methodology New. M. D. (1988) ‘The Construction of Climate in Organizational Research’. J. (1972).. R. (1988). M. H..M. Hand book of Human resource planning Beacon Books. W. B.W Porter. M. in L. Robertson (eds) International Review Organizational Psychology. B. Cooper and I.Mottaz. Schneider. L. H. J. Academy Journal. Determinants of Organizational Commitment. Academy of Management Review. Assessing Personal. Beyer. Journal of Applied Psychology. of Industrial and Page 122 of 126 . & Subirats. 1997. A. M. Climate strength: A new direction for climate research. (1978). Chichester: Wiley. (2002). 467-482. Role. journal of vocational behavior Rousseau. Organizational Climate: Individual Preferences and Organizational Realities of Applied Psychology. (1985).international publishers -second edition 2003 Gordon Mcbeath.

Slightly agree 5. 2. 1) Some times I am not sure how to complete all tasks I have been assigned 1. Moderately 7. 6. 6. Slightly disagree 3. 5. 6. Strongly disagree Read the following questions and mark the appropriate check box that running from the extent to which you agree with each of the following statements on a scale running from Strongly agree to strongly disagree. Neither agree nor disagree disagree 2. 6. 5.QUESTIONNAIRE A Study on Relationship between Psychological Climate and Organizational Commitment among Employees in HLL Lifecare Ltd. Moderately agree 6. 3. 4. 3. 4. 4) I understand the standard of performance expected of my position 5) I regularly receive feedback on how well I’m doing my job 2. 7. 7. 7. demands 1. 5. 4. 7. 3. 3) I understand how my job contributes to the achievement of workplace 2. 2) At times I feel quality of my work suffers in order to meet work quantity Page 123 of 126 . 3. 5. 7. 2. 2. 1. objectives 1. 1. 4. Trivandrum Personal details Age Gender Education : <25yrs [ ] 25-35yrs [ ] 35-45yrs [ ] 45-55yrs [ ] 55yrs<more[] : Male [ ] Female [ ] : SSLC [ ] Diploma [ ] Graduate [ ] Others [ ] Year of Experience : <5yrs [ ] 5-15yrs [ ] 15-25yrs [ ] 25-35yrs [ ] 1. Strongly agree 4. 5. 4. 3. 6.

2. 2. 7. 1. 4. 5. 5. 7. 7. 2. 12) My workplace provides me with opportunity to further develop my skills and 2. Strongly disagree 6) My job requires me to use the full range of my skills 1. 1. 7. 7. 4. 6. 7) At times I feel overloaded with the amount of work I am required to do 8) My workmates and I discuss work problems and expectations freely 9) Often I am not informed about changes to policies and procedures until after they have been implemented 1. 4. 3. 1. 2. 5. 13) I feel that my supervisor cares about the problems I have with my job. 6. 7. 2. 3. 7. 3. Strongly agree 4. abilities 1. 2. 3. 7. 14) My supervisor plans work to ensure that it is complete with the highest possible standard? 1. Moderately agree 6. 4. 3. 6. 2. 5. 3. Moderately 7.1. 4. Slightly agree 5. 3. 6. 4. 7. 6. 1. 5. 6. 3. Slightly disagree 3. 4. 4. 3. 4. 5. 2. 5. 5. 6. members 1. 5. 10) I feel that the organizational hierarchy or chain of authority is clearly defined 11) I feel that all organizational policies are applied fairly to all organization Page 124 of 126 . 6. Neither agree nor disagree disagree 2. 6.

3. 1. 2. 6. 4. 2. Slightly disagree 3. 1. 5. 4. 2. 6. 2. 5. 7. 6. 3. 4. 5. 2. Slightly agree 5. 7. 6. 1. 4. 7. 5. 4. 3. 4. 3. 4. 18) I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond what is normally expected in order to help this organization be successful 1. 2. 4.1. 24) 1. 6. 7. 2. 7. 5. 6. 3. Page 125 of 126 performance . 7. 2. 5. 5. 4. Strongly agree 4. Neither agree nor disagree disagree 2. Moderately agree 6. 6. 19) I talk up this organization to my friends as a great organization to work for 20) I feel very little loyalty to this organization 21) I find that my values and the organization values are very similar 22) I am proud to tell others that I am a part of this organization 23) I will be ready to work in a different organization if the type of work is similar This organization really inspires the very best in me in the way of job 2. 6. Moderately 7. 3. 3. 3. 16) My supervisor shows trust in my ability to perform my job 17) When I communicate my ideas to members of my work team they listen and are supportive 1. Strongly disagree 15) I trust my supervisor to effectively represent my views in meetings with other managers 1. 4. 5. 1. 1. 5. 6. 7. 7. 1. 2. 3. 6. 5. 7. 7. 3.

6. 28) I really care about the fate of this organization 29) For me this is the best of all possible organization for which to work 30) Deciding to work for this organization was definite mistake on my part 2. 7. 5. Slightly agree 5. 6. 7. 4. 1. 4. 4. 1. Slightly disagree 3. 3. 2. 5. 3. 26) 1. 7. 5. 2. 4. Strongly disagree 25) I am extremely glad that I chose this organization to work for over others I was considering at the time I joined 1. 5. 2. There is not too much to be gained by sticking with this organization Page 126 of 126 . 1. Neither agree nor disagree disagree 2. 2. 5. indefinitely 2. 27) Often I find it difficult to agree with these organizations policies on important matters relating to its employees 1. Moderately 7. 3. 3. 4. Strongly agree 4. 6. 5. Moderately agree 6. 3. 6. 6. 6.1. 4. 3. 7. 7. 7.