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Submitted by


in partial fulfillment of the award of the degree of






Cerified that this is a bonafide record of seminar entitled

done by the following student

of the viith semester,Computer Science and Eengineering in the year 2008 in partial fulfillment of the requirements to the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering of Cochin University of Science and Technology.


Dr. David Peter S Head of the Department



I thank my seminar guide Mrs. Dhanya k sudheesh, Lecturer, CUSAT, for her proper guidance, and valuable suggestions. I am indebted to Mr. David Peter S, the HOD, Computer Science division & other faculty members for giving me an

opportunity to learn and present the seminar. If not for the above mentioned peopl my seminar would never have been completed successfully. I once again extend my sincere thanks to all of them.


In this presentation an attempt is made to present the basic features of the image authentication techniques. Video data acquired by the automatic video surveillance system can be recorded and presented as a proof in front of court law.ABSTRACT Automatic video surveillance (AVS) systems are used for continuous and effective monitoring of dangerous and remote sites. which are 1. There a two types of authentication schemes. 2. But digital video data lacks legal validity due to the ease to manipulate them without leaving any trace of modification. Cryptographic data authentication. . Watermarking-based authentication. Image authentication is the process of giving a legal validity to the video data. By authentication technique content tampering can be detected and we can indicate the true origin of the data.



2 IMAGES PAGE NO 2 4 6 12 17 Automatic Visual Surveillance System Encryption and Decryption Cryptogarphic Method Types of Watermarking Watermark Detection .1 6.LIST OF FIGURES SI NO 2.1 4.1 7.1 5.

NO. ITEM AVSS VS DEFINITION Automatic Visual Surveillance System Visual Surveillance 1 2 .List of Symbols. Abbreviations and Nomenclature SI.

The validity of visual data acquired. in order to take processed and possibly stored by the VS system . Therefore the true ch origin of the data m ust be indicated to use them as legal proof. as a proof in front of a court of law w ithout leaving any visible trace of the m odification.Image Authentication Techniques 1. since doubt would always exist that they had been intentionally created artificially by computerized techniques su as morphing. By data authenticat indicating their true origin. S or im age data have no o digital one of such issues. Som e practical issues m ust be taken in to account. by the automatic video surveillance system. the video data ca m ean here a procedure capable of ensuring that data have not been tam pered w ith Division of Computer Engineering 1 . Besides. Automatic video surveillance systems are dangerous sites. INTRODUCTION This paper explores the various techniques used to authenticate the visual data rec used for continuous and effective monitoring and reliable control of remote and advantage of the potentiality of VS system. tam pered with to incrim inate or exculpate the defendant. But visual data can be m odified using sophisticated processing t value as legal proof.

provider. If the stored digital video sequences have of law Division of Computer Engineering 2 . AUTOMATIC VISUAL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM Automatic Visual Surveillance system is a self monitoring system which consists of a video camera unit.(figure) 2. The central unit is in charge of analyz the sequence and generating an alarm w henever a suspicious situation is detected. the police departm ent or a security guard unit. Som ewhere in the system unit also transm its the video sequences to an intervention centre such as security service video sequence or som e part of it m ay be stored and w hen needed the stored seque to be legally credible. central unit and transmission networks.1 Automatic Visual Surveillance System A pool of digital cameras is in charge of frame the scene of interest and sent corresponding video sequence to central unit.Image Authentication Techniques 2. som e m eans m ust be envisaged to detect content tam pering reliably trace back to the data origin can be used as a proof in front of court .

This digest is us public key of the camera. th not techniques must indicate the malicious modifications include removal or insertion o certain fram es. prove data integrity or to trace back to their origin. Cameras calculate a digital summary (digest) of the video by means of hash functio Then they encrypt the digest with their private key.based authentication W aterm arking data authentication is the m odern approach to authenticate visual da imperceptibly embedding a digital watermark signal on the data. thus obtaining a signed digest which is transm itted to the central unit together w ith acquired sequences. tim e and background etc. use of asymmetric key encryption and the digital Hash function. change of faces of individual.Image Authentication Techniques 3. AUTHENTICATION TECHNIQUES Authentication techniques are perform ed on visual data to indicate that the data is forgery. Division of Computer Engineering 3 . Only a prope for authenticating video data.1 Cryptographic Data Authentication It is a s tra ig h t fo rw a rd w a y to p ro v id e v id e o a u thnean tic a tio nthrough the joint m e ly . They are as follows authenticated video data has got the value as legal proof. they should dam age visual quality of the video data.2 Watermarking. At the sam e tim e. There are two m ajor techni 3. The inform ation em bedded is called ‘waterm arks Digital waterm arks are ‘. Signed digest can only read by u 3. difficult to rem ove without noticeably degrading the content and are a covert m ean situation where copyright fails to provide robustness. Digital w aterm arking is the art and science of em bedding copyright inform ation in the original files.

I ♦ Encryption ♦ Decryption The purpose of encryption is to render a docum ent unreadable by all except those w authorize to read it.1 Encryption and Decryption Division of Computer Engineering 4 . Cryptography is the science of transform ing docum ents. Plain text is converted in to cipher form using an algorithm and a variable or ke PLAIN TEXT CIPHER TEXT ENCRYPTION KEY ENCRPTION ALGORITHEM DECRYPTION KEY DECRYPTION ALGORITHEM CIPHER TEXT PLAIN TEXT 4. text. CRYPTOGRAPHY M ounting concern over the new threats to privacy and security has lead pread s to wide mainly two functions adoption of cryptography.Image Authentication Techniques 4. Cryptographers refer to the content of the original docum ent as p The key is a randomly selected string of numbers.

Image Authentication Techniques Only after decoding the cipher text using the key the contentdocum ent is revealed the of to the common people. 2. Encryption schemes are classified in to : 1. Symmetric encryption In which the same key is used to both encode and decode the document. A file encrypted w ith one key of a pair can be decrypted w ith other k Division of Computer Engineering 5 . Public key or asymmetric encryption It requires a pair of keys: one for encrypting the plain text and the other for decrypting the same pair the cipher text.

This property is used to provide center authentication that is to trace back to origin of the true the data. with private key hardwired within the cameras. The digest is the D o C u . pair.1 Cryptogarphic Method Before sending the video sequence to the central unit. cameras calculate a digital sum m aryor digest of the video by m eans of a proper hash function. A document encrypted with the 5.Image Authentication Techniques 5. CRYPTOGRAPHIC DATA AUTHENTICATION To authenticate visual data each video cam era is assigned a different public or priva key private key of any particular camera can be decrypted with its own public key.

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Later the signal digest is used to prove data integr to trace back to their origin. Value of the visual data can be added by tying each fram e to the particular label of of creation of each frame. check if it corresponds to the digest derived from the decrypted video content using Any m anipulation the data w ill change the calculated im age digest derived from the of decrypted data.Image Authentication Techniques encrypted with their private key. digest indicate that the data has been tam pered. This can be achieved by printing date and Division of Computer Engineering 7 . Encryption is done by considering the digitized val the brightness of each pixel. Any modification of either the date time could be easily or revealed since it would change the locally calculated image digest. w ith identical digest indicates that instant the fram e has been produced yet. Any discrepancy between the decrypted digest and calculated imag data is genuine. The signed digest thus obt is then transmitted to the central unit together with the acquired visual sequence. The ity or signed digest is read using the public key of the cam era which produce the video an same hash function. Digital signal is a sequence ofzeros and ones and it is encrypted with the private key using a proper algorithm .

the video cam era should perform the com pres high computation as storage requirements. This is harmful in system where the timely generation of alarm is critica Division of Computer Engineering 8 . 4.Knowledge of private key If the manipulatorknows the private key of the camera. Innocuous modifications include compression of the video involve the m odifications he had m ade on the actual sequence.Image Authentication Techniques 5. So on com press To avoid the above discussed problem . he can change the digest to a thing is very small because the private key is hardwired within the camera. 3.Impossible to distinguish between malicious and innocuous modification It is difficult to distinguish between malicious and innocuous manipulations if cryptography is used. These m odifications are usual ly perform ed by the central unit w hereas diges correspondence between the digest and data would be lost. They are as follows: 1. But the possibility o sequences. High requirements of video camera is calculated on the basis of the uncom pressed data by the cam era. Delay in transmission Digest calculations and encryption introduces a delay in transmission of video of the video sequences prior to digest calculation.1 DRAWBACKS OF CRYPTOGRAPHIC AUTHENTICATION Even though cryptographic data authentication is highly resistant to content tam per suffers from few drawbacks. This requires the video cam era to documents. 2.

Protecting privacy is difficult calculated digest.Image Authentication Techniques 5. A part of the program cannot be rem oved for privacy reasons since it will alte Division of Computer Engineering 9 .

Watermark detection:-in which the signal is received and extracted from possibly corrupted image. Watermark task consists of two main steps but also provides the legal benefit of having a source signature persist during video 1. w) 2. Digital w aterm ark is a signal which added to a docum ent to authenticate it and to p the ow nership. th a t is in w a te rm a rk c a s tin g a n e n c o d etakesca host image r fu n tio n ‘f’ and a watermark ‘w’ and generate a new image Fw= (f. W aterm ark casting:-in w hich the signal represented by the w aterm ark is transm it o v e r th e c h a n n e l. WATERMARKING A digital waterm ark is a signal that is im perceptibly em beddeddigital data.Image Authentication Techniques 6. A com m only encountered w aterm ark is the logo m ost television digital signal can be detected or extracted by m eans of com putations to m ake som e assert channels display on the top of the television screen. This within about the host data. D i o C p r E n n . Not only does it advertise the c recording.

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com puted and is inserted w ithin video sequence. The Division of Computer Engineering 11 .ie its presents can still be detected after nondestru Fragile waterm arking refers to the case w here w aterm ark inserted w ithin the data is is taken as evidence that data has been tam pered w ith. Fragile watermarking 2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF WATERMARKING AUTHENTICATION SCHEMS The characteristics of waterm arking system largely depend on its application scenar For instant copy w rite protection application require that the w aterm ark is robust ag transform ation of host docum ent.Image Authentication Techniques 6. To prove data integrity the information conveyed by the mismatch is taken as an evidence of data tampering. Tw o approaches for w aterm arking data authe ntication are possible: 1. Robust watermarking m ost com m on data m anipulation. Inform ation about the data origin i the w aterm ark is recovered and com pared w ith the actual content of the sequence. whereas the inform ation co within data used to demonstrate data origin or altered as soon as host data undergoes any m odification. W aterm ark loss or alter In case of robust w aterm arking a sum m ary of the candidate fram e or video sequenc also with the summary. The capability to localize the manipulation will depend on the summary of which is embedded in to the image.

Im age authentication by m eans of robust waterm arking is very prom ising w ith regar technique depends on the number of bits that can be hidden in to the image.1.1 Types of Watermarking 6.Image Authentication Techniques WATERMARKING FRAGILE WATREMARKING ROBUST WATERMARKIN G INVISIBLE WATERMARKIN G VISIBLE WATERMARKING DUAL WATERMARKIN G 6. The robustness of s D i o C p r E n n . the distinction betw een m alicious and innocuous m anipulations. Tam per localizat easier in fragile watermarking but it is difficult to distinguish between malicious and innocuous manipulations.1 ROBUST VERSUS FRAGILE WATERMARK Sem i fragile w aterm ark is m ore m ature than robust waterm arking.



m ust acquired to visual data. persons. Let us consider the m common requirements for watermarking authentication techniques. VS data acquired by inexpensive. The authentication technique m ust not deteriorate the visual quality of data. 2.g. V Division of Computer Engineering 13 . 6. low quality devices.2. e.1 THE INVISIBILITY CONSTRAINT The requirem ent on the deterioration ofvisual quality of authenticated data is usuall the referred to us as invisibility constraint. 4. 3. The authentication checking procedure should be easily performed by authorized By considering particular cases the requirem ent for the authentication of VS data ar following.2 REQIREMENTS OF WATERMARKING BASED VS DATA AUTHENTICATION In order to highlight the peculiarities of VS data authentication. 1.. im age compression and zooming.Image Authentication Techniques 6. The authentication technique should not consider innocuous m anipulation. The authentication technique should be able to identify any unauthorized process 5. as valid authentication attacks. The authentication technique not deteriorate the visual quality of data quality. In this case how ever this is not crucial issue since VS do not exhibit a com parable that of quality visual data used in a m edia. The authentication checking procedure should localize data tampering. It should be difficult for unauthorized person to forge an authenticated image. 6.

This kind of processing as to be considered as m alicious w hen inform ation that is im portant for a court law is rem ov A solution to this problem is offered by authe ntication techniques capable of localizing to decide if it is malicious of innocuous. the same processing procedure as to be m anipulations. before it is stored.g.2 MALICIOUS VERSUS INNOCUOS MANIPULATIONS The authentication technique should be able to identify any nonauthorized or m alicious consider innocuous manipulation Eg: Image compression or Zooming. E. rather than on their visual quality. To satisfy privacy com plaints.Image Authentication Techniques analysis w ould possibly be carried out in a low court will focus on the sem antic conten of the image. it w ill be up to the court Division of Computer Engineering 14 . On the other side. for obscuring the faces of person considered as innocuous. Besides the authentication technique should on the authenticated video. Once the m odification is precisely localized. 6.2. processing occurred to the visual data. as valid authentication techniques. som e processing is which are unimportant on the law point of view. W hen data com pression is done in central unit the authentication is perform ed before com pression and m ust survive it.

fram e rem oval or fram e substitution can be easily detected as non auth g 1 (f(x ) . the detection should first know the fram e num ber in sequence which is always zero. The w aterm ark key used for waterm arking a specific fram e in the sequence is com p provides the advantage of producing frame–dependent watermarks. To perform authenticity check. WATERMARKING ALGORITHM A watermarking algorithm for VS data authentication based on semi-fragile watermarking of each frame of the video sequenceis described in this section. The various steps for the watermarking process are as follows. waterm ark key corresponds to the im age owner o The In the proposed m ethod as indicating in the figure the waterm ark generation by usin pseudo random number generator and appropriate thresholding. n (x ))if w(x) =-1 D ivision of Co m p uter E ngineerin g 15 .1 WATERMARK GENERATION AND EMBEDDING Watermark generation aims at producing a binary or ternary watermark W(X) using cam era that has captured the im age. digital key K and host im age f(x). The block diagram of w aterm ark generation a embedding is shown below. Fw(x) = f(x) if w(x) = 0 of the cam era id and fram e num ber. 7.Image Authentication Techniques 7. Watermark embedding is performed by altering all the pixels of the original frame according to the following formula. Generating the w aterm ark key using fram e num In this case.

produces the watermark w(x). D (fw(x). n(x) denotes a function that depends on neighborhood of x. w hen applied to t Division of Computer Engineering 16 .Image Authentication Techniques g2 (f(x). N(x)) = w(x) inverse detection function. D (fw(x). n(x) if w(x) =1 Where g1g2 are suitably designed function based on x. The function g1g2 are called em bedding function and are selected so as to detect th watermarked image fw(x). The detection function. n(x)).

n(x)) Now we frame the false detection image given by A detection function D is defined such that by applying the detection function to the E w (x ) = 1if w(x) 0 and w(x) d(x) 0 otherwise Division of Computer Engineering 17 . To do so. the id num ber of cam era that produce the sequence 7. d(x) = D (fw(x).2 WATERMARK DETECTION In the w aterm ark detection procedure. the detector generates first the water m ark f the frame number are needed.Image Authentication Techniques 7.2 Watermark Detection watermarked image a detection image d(x) is produced. fram e to be checked.

A first level decision on im age authentic is taken by com paring the w aterm ark detection of the text im age w ith a pre specified threshold T.3 AUTHENTICATION CHECK Authentication check is a tw o level process. alternations m ade on the im age are concentrated in certain regions (Malicious tam p or one spread on the image (innocuous alternations). D i o C p r E n n . If the first level decision test indicates that the im age is som ehow altered but authe second level decision test should be performThis test indicates whether the ed.Image Authentication Techniques The false detection image has value 1 if a watermarked pixel is falsely detected and otherw ise. 7. The w aterm arked detection ratio is given by the ratiocorrectly detected of the pixel to the sum of the watermarked pixels in the image.

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OTHER APPLICATIONS 1. By using image score watermarking we can prevent this.Customers receive easily. m usic in digital data form at and such data can be pirated and redistributed ve Division of Computer Engineering 19 .Image Authentication Techniques 8. 1. Digital piracy is a serious concern to the musical industry. It canbe used for everything from sending e-m ail and storing m edical record and legal contracts to conducting on-line transactions. To protect the intellectual property right of a music publisher who distributes music scores over digital media.

4. 3. Watermark embedding and detection can be performed in real time for digital data. Robustness to high quality lossy image compression. 2. Controllable visualdeterioration of the VS sequence by varying the watermark embedding power. Division of Computer Engineering 20 . Automatic discrimination between malicious and innocuous manipulations. ADVANTATGES 1.Image Authentication Techniques 9.

The detector should know the fram e num ber in order to perform authenticity che Division of Computer Engineering 21 . Frame independent watermark can be easily found by comparative analysis of all image sequence frames and then could be easily added again to fake frames. 2.Image Authentication Techniques 10. DISADVANTAGES 1.

Division of Computer Engineering 22 . Cryptography and watermarking based authenticating techniques are quite safe and efficient for this and they are likely purpose to remain for quite for some while. CONCLUSION In these modern eras. the importance of authenticating their content is very high. 11.Image Authentication Techniques . So for such situations. The video data acquired system are form ing by VS vital evidence for several legal situations. visual surveillance system finds application in almost all fields ranging from com m ercial to defense.

M. 5. 4.Image Authentication Techniques 12. 2. M. April 2002.Fabri. October 2001. REFERENCES 1. G. www. “Image Authentication Techniques for VS”.ctr. “Encryption wars”. C. January 2003.columbia.Yeung and F. Proceedings IEEE. Ragazoni. 3. ”. “Digital Watermarking for protecting piracy Electronics for you.Mintzer “A watermark for digital image” IEEE Division of Computer Engineering 23 . IEEE Spectrum. April 2000.