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advertising appeal

Definition: Distinctive claim of an advertising. the appeal of an advertisement to the intended audience Creating advertising appeal for a good or service begins with identifying a reason for people to buy it. Advertising agencies then build advertising campaigns around this appeal.

Types of Advertising Appeals Advertising intends to promote the sales of a product or service and also to inform the masses about the highlights of the product or the service features. It is an efficient means of communicating to the world, the value of the product or the service. Advertising utilizes different media to reach out to the masses and uses different types of appeals to connect to the customers across the globe. The various types of advertising appeals harness different means of highlighting the features of a product and drawing the attention of the masses towards it. Here is an overview of the different types of advertising appeals.
Different types of Advertising Appeals
Audio-Visual Media Advertising: In this advertising technique, the advertisers use the very popular audio and visual media

to promote a product. It is the most widely used media that can effectively influence the masses. Television and radio have always been used to achieve a mass appeal. Bandwagon: This advertising appeal aims to persuade people to do a certain thing because the masses are doing it. It is a human tendency to do as the masses do. Bandwagon technique of advertising captures exactly this psychology of human beings to induce them to use a certain product or service. Black and White Fallacy: In this advertising appeal, only two choices are presented before the audiences, thus compelling them to buy the product being advertised. Card Stacking: This advertising appeal involves the display of a comparative study between two competing products. The facts in favor of the product to be advertised are selected. They are put forth in comparison with those of a competing product to make the product appear better than its competitors. Classified Advertising: This type of advertising makes use of newspapers and periodicals to make public appeals about the products or services to be advertised. Know about going global with classified advertising.
Corporate Advertising: Corporate advertising is an advertising appeal wherein corporate logos and company message are

publicized on a large scale. Hot air balloons are commonly used in advertising a product. Some companies propose to place their logos on booster rockets and space stations to achieve a wide publicity of the company. Covert Advertising: This is the practice of achieving an indirect publicity of the product by advertising it through movies and TV shows. TV actors and characters in movies are often shown using certain products. Covert advertising is an indirect way

of advertising a product by featuring it in films and television shows. Demonizing the Enemy: In this advertising appeal, the advertisers make the people with an opposing point of view appear unacceptable. The people bearing certain ideas are made to appear among the disliked individuals of society. This form of advertising involves the idea of encouraging an idea by discouraging the ideas contrary to it. It is like proving a theorem by disproving its inverse! Direct Order: When the advertisers appeal the masses by showing them the steps to take, in order to opt for a particular product or service, they are said to be using direct order. This advertising appeal often communicates the steps to choose a certain product or service and presents them to the audiences in a simplistic manner. Disinformation: This technique involves a purposeful dissemination of false information. In the context of military, this technique is used to mislead the enemy. It commonly includes forging of documents and the spread of rumors.
Email Advertising: This is a relatively new advertising appeal that makes use of emails to advertise products.

Advertisements are sent through emails, thus bringing out communication with a wide range of audiences.
Emotional Words: This advertising appeal makes use of positive words to generate positive feelings in the minds of the

people about a certain product. The advertisers often use the words like 'luxury', 'comfort' and 'satisfaction' to create positive vibes among the masses to attract them towards the product being advertised. Euphoria: The use of positive events characterizes this advertising appeal. Declaration of a great discount or sale on a holiday and making luxury items available at affordable prices are often used to aim mass appeal. Flag-waving: The advertising appeal that makes use of the patriotic flavor to publicize a product is known as flag-waving. In case of flag-waving, the advertisers try to justify certain actions on the grounds of patriotism. The masses are persuaded to choose a particular product because doing so will be an exhibit of patriotism. Glittering Generalities: In this form of advertising, advertisers make use of logical fallacies. They use appealing words without giving any concrete idea about what is being advertised. Half Truth: In this advertising appeal, the advertisers use deceptive statements to publicize their product. They often use double-meaning words or statements to convey their message to the masses. Interactive Advertising: This advertising appeal makes use of the interactive media to reach out to the target audiences. Advertisers often hold exhibitions or trade-shows and offer rewards in the forms of discounts and free gifts to increase the sale of their product. Distribution of free samples of a newly launched product and publicity of a product through interactive means are some examples of interactive advertising. Have you participated in contests intended to promote products? Have you come across websites offering free products to users? The free stuffs are popularly known as freebies. Know more about Freebies.
Internet Advertising: It is a relatively recent form of advertising appeal. Internet has become one of the most influential

media of the modern times. Websites attract thousands of users everyday and expose them to the advertisements on the websites. Labeling: With an intent to increase or diminish the perceived quality of a product, the advertisers use labeling or categorization. Categorizing a product under a group of associated entities makes it appealing or unappealing to the masses. Name-calling: This advertising appeal makes use of direct or indirect attack on the products in competition with the product being advertised. Direct name-calling involves making a direct attack on the opponent while indirect name-calling makes use of sarcasm to demean the products of the competitors.
Outdoor Advertising: Outdoor advertising is a popular advertising appeal that uses different tools to attract the customers

outdoors. Billboards, kiosks and tradeshows are some of the commonly used means of outdoor advertising. Fairs, exhibitions and billboards that draw in the passersby are often used in outdoor advertising. Performance-based Advertising: In performance-based advertising appeal, the advertisers pay only for the results. The advertising agency assumes the entire risk and hence ensures that the advertisement is pitched well.

Plain Folks: This advertising appeal aims at attracting the masses by using common people to advertise a product. Bombastic words may not always appeal the common folks. They can rather be attracted by communicating with them in their language. The use of homey words, as they are called, and purposeful errors while speaking to give a natural feel to the speech, is characteristic to this advertising appeal. Print Media Advertising: The print media is one of the most effective means of advertising. Many advertising appeals make use of the print media to reach out to the masses. Media like newspapers, brochures, manuals and magazines are used for publicizing the products. Public Service Advertising: This advertising technique is used to convey socially relevant messages to the masses. Social messages on issues like poverty, inequality, AIDS awareness and environmental issues such as global warming, pollution and deforestation are conveyed by the means of appeals to the public through public service advertising. Quotes Out of Context: This advertising appeal makes use of popular quotes. The advertisers using this advertising appeal alter the widely known quotes to change their meaning. This technique is used in political documentaries.
Relationship Marketing: This form of advertising focuses on the retention of customers and customer satisfaction.

Advertisers appeal to the target audiences with information that suits their requirements and interests. Repetition: This advertising appeal uses the technique of repeating the product name several times during an advertisement. Jingles are often used in this advertising technique to linger the product name in the minds of the masses. Scientific Evidence: This technique attempts to appeal the masses to use the advertised product, by providing the audiences with survey results. The advertisers often use statistical evidences and market surveys to publicize their product. Shockvertising: This advertising appeal makes use of shocking images or scenes to advertise a product. The name is derived as a combination of the two words, ‘shocking’ and ‘advertising’. Slogans: Slogans, as we all know, are striking phrases used to convey important information of the product to be advertised in an interesting manner. There are lot many famous advertising slogans that we are familiar with. Snob Appeal: Snob appeal is an exact reverse of the bandwagon technique. In this advertising appeal, people are induced to buy a certain product so that they can stand out of the crowd. It is often indicated that buying the product will make them look different from the rest. It is often indicated that the product is not affordable for the common masses by attaching a 'sense of exclusivity' to such products. Stereotyping: This advertising appeal is also known as name-calling or labeling and attempts to categorize the advertised object under the class of the entities, which the masses fear.
Subliminal Advertising: This advertising appeal makes use of subliminal messages, which are intended to be

subconsciously perceived. Subliminal signals go undetected by the human eye. However, they are perceived at a subconscious level. Subliminal appeal often makes use of hidden messages and optical illusions. Surrogate Advertising: In cases where advertising of a particular product is made illegal, the product companies come up with other products with the same brand name. Advertising the legal products with the same brand name reminds the audiences of their legally banned products as well. Testimonial: People tend to relate to their favorite figures in the glamor industry. People attracted to their idols often tend to adopt what their idols do. They want to emulate the people they relate to. Testimonial makes use of this human tendency by using the words of an expert to recommend their products. Celebrities are used as ambassadors for products in order to promote the sale. Transfer: This advertising appeal is implemented in two ways. In a positive transfer, a product is made to associate with a respected individual of society. However, in case of a negative transfer, the advertisers state an analogy between a product and a disliked figure in society. Unstated Assumption: When the idea behind the product or service being advertised is repeatedly implied, it is known as an unstated assumption. In case of using this advertising appeal, the advertisers do not state the concepts explicitly. They

• • • • an activity that involves the public promotion of goods and services. A well known brand not only has a good customer base but it is a great ground to introduce new products under the same banner. When advertising creates awareness. This advertising appeal intends to achieve a speedy publicity of a product similar to the spreading of a pathological or a computer virus! Word-of-Mouth Advertising: It can turn out being a very effective advertising appeal. The second importance is that the product which is sold under the banner of a specific brand also becomes a household name. from the above definition it can be concluded that advertising is a task that involves making the public aware and conscious about the subject that is being advertised. Importance of Advertising Advertising is an important aspect of promoting almost any product. brand. there is a very high probability that people are going to purchase the new product out of curiosity. Neo-classical economists and modern economists often criticize advertising by calling in a profession that creates awareness about a product in the consumer's brain. advertising not just optimizes sales and product promotion but the goodwill of the specific brand that is earned is an important asset. Same is the case of Pepsi. It can achieve phenomenal success to an extent where a brand is equated to a common noun. Advertising ensures that the sales of the business increase. The aim of the advertiser is to market the product on a very large scale. product. Creation of awareness is the primary objective of any advertisement. they pay attention to its newer advertisements and the probability that the person will buy the product will increase. service. The logic behind that is simple. This maximization results into a lot of revenue and profits for the company. This continual process that is bought about by advertising eventually leads to increasing demand and eventual scarcity of resources. It is often said that reputation gained and maintained due to advertising helps out the business through out the life time. Importance of Advertising in Business From the business point of view. ‘petroleum jelly’. service or brand. Such a customer base also introduces the product and brand to many other people. which eventually leads to a craving to own that product. people become aware about its existence and as mentioned above. ‘Vaseline’ became synonymous with the product name. In such a case. when any product is advertised. Advertising appeals used by a company are important determinants of its success. To conclude the paragraph it can be said that advertising helps business gain loyal customers as well as a good platform in the entire market. a need and craving to purchase and own the commodity. Many of the popularly used products and services of today have gained popularity thanks to the advertising techniques that were implemented for their publicity. Moving on to importance of advertising… Why is Advertising Important? The aim of any business is to maximize the sales of that business. person. people know about the product and when they known about the product. For example. company or firm) Thus. Coke or coca-cola is a house hold brand name. Vaseline can be sited as one of the excellent examples of wordof-mouth publicity. Such popular brand names have huge customer base that is loyal to the brand and continues to purchase the product for a prolonged time period. establishment. or a brand or a company or an establishment a business of drawing public attention to goods and services and their merits a process that calls attention to a particular good or service a process that makes publicity for a said subject (such as a good. This was an overview of the different advertising appeals that advertisers around the world use to market their products and services. Importance of Advertising in Marketing . Viral Advertising: It can take the form of word-of-mouth publicity or of Internet advertising. Most of the dictionaries also refer to advertising as.rather imply their ideas in various ways. where the company name. Thus.

new introduction sales. Offers such a buy 2 get 1 free or discounts are introduced to the consumers successfully through advertising. Advertising thus. advertising is often successful in marketing the brand and conveying financial details about the brand to the consumers. starts ticking in the person's mind. With your advertisement being present on the web. . his first reaction is to search the web. In fact. there is a high possibility that the consumer is going to purchase your product. Importance of Advertising on the Internet There is a significant importance of online advertising due to the fact that an online advertisement results into global awareness.Apart from gaining a loyal customer base. The pricing details often generate an interest and the process of money planning. re-release sales. financially speaking online marketing services are much more convenient for consumers and cheap for producers as it drastically brings down the cost of advertising. Such offers result into a spurt of sales and are quite instrumental for clearance sales. when a person feels the need to purchase something. plays quite a comprehensive role in marking policies. Today. The manifold advantages of advertising have been observed for a long period of time. etc. the intensity and importance of advertising have greatly increased due to the technological advancements of the modern era. However.

ads placed in newspapers and magazines are a time-honored method of reaching the target audience. Short television commercials designed to amuse as well as inform tend to make an impression on the viewer and are highly likely to entice a significant . television and radio commercials remain a viable means of attracting the attention of buyers and creating demand for various products and services. The ads usually are designed to pique the interest of readers and entice them to learn more about the topic of the ad. The campaign theme is the central message that will be communicated in the promotional activities. While specifics vary from one advertising campaign to another. Both print and electronic media are often used to generate attention and enthusiasm for the subject of the campaign. With electronic media. In terms of print media used in an advertising campaign.Advertising campaign An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). The critical part of making an advertising campaign is determining a champion theme as it sets the tone for the individual advertisements and other forms of marketing communications that will be used. Advertising campaigns appear in different media across a specific time frame. For example. that component now includes tools such as online banner ads. The exact structure of the advertising campaign will often depend on the nature of the product or cause and the target audience that the campaign is designed to reach. While in time past. the print advertisements will often appear in print media that is geared toward those consumers. text messaging. cause. An advertising campaign is a specific course of action designed to advertise a company. The end purpose of any ad campaign is to boost awareness of the subject matter and generate demand. some of the same tools are used in just about any campaign. often with the logical and timely launch of different tools at specific points in the overall campaign. software that is designed to keep track of sales leads and existing clients may appear in a magazine that caters to sales and marketing professionals. In order to ensure that the desired consumers are reached. or product that employs an intentional and carefully coordinated series of marketing tools in order to reach the target audience. and email advertisements. The campaign themes are usually developed with the intention of being used for a substantial period but many of them are short lived due to factors such as being ineffective or market conditions and/or competition in the marketplace and marketing mix. electronic media referred more to television and radio broadcasts.

In like manner. The advertising campaign cost has to be managed to bring the highest return on those advertising dollars. For the most part. As an alternative. When coordinated with other tools as part of an overall advertising campaign. Learning from the experience of past campaigns makes it possible to strengthen upcoming campaigns and move closer to achieving the goals set by the advertiser. a telephone service provider may notify existing customers of upcoming specials on bundled services by sending a text message to the client’s cell phone. the overall approach can be reworked slightly for the remainder of the campaign. Spending a lot of money is also not the answer because there is the economics law of diminishing returns to contend with. the recent release of Toy Story 3 and Tangled all had merchandise tie ins like toys of the characters as well as t shirts. After a certain point additional advertising gains will not be made. For example. Licensing of products related to Disney movies is always done to capitalize on the success of the film. Spending a lot of money on advertising without strategically seeking the right markets in which to advertise does not yield the most effective results. Many companies design advertising campaigns to current clients that rely on such tools as text messaging or email advertising. an advertising campaign will set specific goals that must be realized in a given period of time. . or the information gained during the current campaign can be used to create a more effective follow-up advertising campaign strategy. In the event that the campaign does not quite meet the goals. it may be possible to upsell current clients to generate more revenue as well as gain a significant number of new customers. Along with traditional methods of creating an advertising campaign. This cross promotion is like a free advertising campaign for the movie because the merchandise sold is sold at a profit and they remind the consumer about the movie. For example: Disney also promotes its marketing advertising campaigns regarding its movies. the service provider may notify the customer of upcoming sales or new products and services via an email. an advertising campaign may also include short radio commercials that catch the ear of the listener and help to conjure up visual images that create demand for the product. For example. newer tools are making it possible to reach consumers in new ways.number of consumers to purchase the products displayed in the ad.

The client brief should contain all your most fundamental requirements such as: "our home must be open plan and be an extension of the backyard". in this case.CLIENT BRIEF The client brief is a document that is used as a starting point in designing a home. samples (paints. Note that a client brief does not have to be a lengthy document. you. fabrics etc). Need for a Brief ○ ○ It leads to better. You should collect any pictures. "the house must be clean and airy". ○ Research revealed that 99% of agencies and 98% of clients agree that: “Sloppy briefing and unclear objectives wastes both time and money” It makes remuneration fairer 1. It is essential that your wishes and essential requirements are understood as clearly as possible right from the very beginning. more effective and measurable work It saves time and money 1. Over 90% of agencies and 84% of clients agree that: “ Payment by results is impossible without fully agreed business objectives & the brief is one of the tools that helps us in measuring results” 3. its marketing strategy and what it wants to get out of PR It should/ usually contains key nuggets of information ○ ○ ○ 2. or "our holiday home will be a haven from city life". The client brief will act as a guide throughout the design process and will help form the "foundation" of your home design. ○ The brief is the most important piece of information issued by the client to the agency It is the statement of the problem/opportunity It emphasizes on clarity and a succinct summation of the company’s positioning. but your brief should be seriously discussed with the other people in your life who will have a vested interest in the home before design work begins. Components o f a Good Brief . and is formed first by the client and then refined with the help of a building designer or. and any other items that will act as a visual prompt during the design process and give everyone involved a general feel for what you want. often one page will be enough.

For example. Manufacturers. How will it achieve this objective. a good PR insight and an effective solution objectives. pre-national/global distribution. The opportunity to discuss this at a subsequent verbal briefing. Early advertisers quickly learned to adapt their messages to themes which prominently influenced the psychology of their prospects.-Written Briefs 1. merchandisers. Seasons and holidays have traditionally presented time-oriented opportunities. Research shows that 94% of clients and 98% of agencies believe that “A combination of written and verbal briefing is the ideal”. it’s the one whose clarity and focus creates the platform for a great strategic leap. To mark the specialness of holiday events. goals & strategy. If the items failed to yield these emotions. Because of the passion involved. Reasons: The discipline of writing a brief ensures some rigour on the part of the agency. . the concept of “harvest specials” was originally based on the validity of local. marketers and advertisers found it only natural to tie into the public’s temporal awareness. the search went on to fill the emotional void with more items. -Clearly Defined Objectives      For Example: If the objective is indeed to attract & retain talent for XYZ company then : Objectives must be crystal clear The business problem should be clearly defined Concrete business objectives rather than woolly intermediate objectives are essential  Good briefs leave you with a clear understanding of what you are trying to do in terms of   Explain the desired objective that XYZ company wants to achieve. the items often became cherished heirlooms and the practice of creating and enjoying them became traditions. even with sensitive reflection by its purchaser. Those without talents to produce such items but who could afford to buy them. would purchase the items expecting that the sentiment that went into creating them would somehow have been imbued in the item. Avoids the significant waste of time and resources -Clarity of Thinking  A good brief is not the longest or most detailed. What is the medium of communication – PR specific? If the objective is achieved – how does one measure it? AD CAMPAIGN THEME Your ad campaign’s theme: Is it a product promotion or a party? Use of buzz words have invaded every area of communication and how their proper use or misuse can either clarify or confuse a message. Commercialization by season and holiday proved a lucrative pursuit. peasants would incorporate rare luxuries or would spend valuable time fashioning creations for their celebrations.

but holidays themselves were manipulated to lend their identities to specific products regardless of their origins. don’t use it. Each condition could not be met until the underlying condition was achieved. These ads are displayed and/or aired within a specific period of time. Themes of ad campaigns involve the use of specific colors. slogans. Sales of specific categories of merchandise were not only timed to take advantage of the positive emotions associated with celebration of a holiday. They are. Sharing the associated emotions is the core of sporting and cultural events. .The top two tiers of the pyramid. esteem and finally. and radio ad campaigns. what is Thanksgiving without a turkey and cranberry sauce – even in Arizona! Themed events that did not occur as a result of season or holiday were born out of the same practice – the desire for an event to deliver a special feeling. It is natural for the fashion industry to release their clothing lines on a seasonal basis. a seeking of self. from the pyramid’s base up: survival. Ad Themes The most important aspect of creating a new advertising campaign is to determine the campaign theme. Psychologist Abraham Maslow’s pyramid proposed that our motivations are structured on a sequence of conditions being met. is what makes people promote and want to experience special events with others. Themes make for pleasant parties and events and there is nothing intrinsically wrong with themed commercial promotion as a vehicle to conveying the features and benefits of a product. competitions and awards ceremonies. and advertising text. Merchandisers promote sales such as “Spring. ad campaign) is a promotional program which involves the act of distributing series of ads. belonging. Christmas gifts. internet. television. Valentine cards and.a. self-actualization. Marketers and advertisers carried this core concept of tapping public awareness from a seasonal to a holiday time frame. or they can be set just for a limited time only. Fall or Winter Clearance Sales” to clear space for newly released clothing tailored for the following season. of course. security. This is usually one by way of newspaper. The most common purpose of an advertising campaign is to introduce a new product or service and to increase the sales of an existing product or service. The themes center around ideas relevant to the particular product or service being promoted.It mutated and is now also applied to all forms of nonperishable items.k. designs. Campaign themes can be designed for use over a long period of time. These themes will become the recurring message being sent out to consumers after the new ad campaign is launched. If a theme doesn’t naturally apply to the market or the product. Summer. Advertising campaign An advertising campaign (a.

An example of an ineffective at would be if a TV commercial rambled on while showing a beautiful scenic mountainside tourist spot and then announce its award-winning plaque killing toothpaste. service. while others have short lived themes that are only used one season out of the year. idea. or company. Therefore. it is best to choose one that both fits the time of year that the product should be sold. because a customer can benefit from the use of these products all year round. For example. In addition. . However. Therefore. some advertisements will have themes that are used year round. the theme must be relevant to what is being advertised. Ad scenes that are unrelated to the product being sold are very confusing. The same applies for household items such as laundry detergent. Effective ads The key to effective ad campaign planning is to design when to start marketing a particular product. trying to sell Christmas ornaments in the spring or Valentine's Day cards in June will only be a waste of money. ads for computers and software systems can be promoted year round. or even pet foods. when choosing an advertising theme. as well as the product being advertised. macaroni and cheese. service or idea can be marketed for. Effective ad campaigns are the key to a company's success.Ad campaign duration The duration of an ad campaign all depends on how long a particular product.

Similarly. planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for its clients. or e-business/e-commerce consulting. directresponse. the advertiser who uses limited-service agencies usually takes greater responsibility for the strategic planning function. ensuring that their separate activities are well-ordered and -coordinated. An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies and sales promotions for its clients. medical. search engine marketing. non-profit organizations and government agencies. multi-agency conglomerates such as Omnicom Group. investment. and exercises greater control over the product of these specialized agencies. Such specialist advertising agencies are also usually "full-service. the subject is technical and requires that writers and artists have training in order to write meaningful advertising messages about it. gives greater strategic direction to specialist creative or media agencies. industrial. financial. peripheral advertising services related to their area of specialization.Advertising agency An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating. Interpublic Group of Companies and Havas. and billing. Publicis. Often. retail. such as medical or industrial advertising. Limited-Service Advertising Agencies: Some advertising agencies limit the amount and kind of service they offer. and so on. yellow pages. for example. travel. large independents such as SMART and multinational. specialized media or media uses are involved that require knowledge and expertise not ordinarily found in a general-line agency. Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations. help-wanted. Agencies may be hired to produce an advertising campaign. it must assume some of the advertising planning and coordination activities that are routinely handled by the full-service advertising agency. small to medium sized agencies. Specialist Advertising Agencies: In addition to the full-service. Interactive agencies . some "media-buying services" offer media planning service but concentrate on media buying. although some agencies that specialize in "creative" also offer strategic advertising planning service. theatrical/entertainment. general-line advertising agencies." in that they offer all the basic advertising agency services in their area of specialization plus other. their basic interest is in the creation of advertising. Types of advertising agencies Ad agencies come in all sizes and include everything from one or two-person shops (which rely mostly on freelance talent to perform most functions). there are also agencies that specialize in particular kinds of advertising: recruitment. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client's products or services. Specialization occurs in such fields for a variety of reasons. Such agencies usually offer only one or two of the basic services. classified. placement. internet advertising/marketing. In-House Advertising Agencies: Some advertisers believe that they can provide such advertising services to themselves at a lower cost than would be charged by an outside agency. When the advertiser chooses to use limited-service advertising agencies. Interactive agencies: Interactive agencies may differentiate themselves by offering a mix of web design/development. WPP Group. Thus. In other cases. For example. as in recruitment advertising.

CD-ROMs. For example. interactive agencies provide: digital lead generation. These agencies typically specialize in one of two areas: • • Promotional education . pay per click (PPC) and search engine optimization (SEO) firms have been classified by some as 'agencies' because they create media and implement media purchases of text based (or image based. Interactive agencies function similarly to advertising agencies.accredited education and training materials created for continuing physician and medical professional education. interactive video brand experiences. most notably ADVAMED and PHARMA. the most successful interactive agencies are defined as companies that provide specialized advertising and marketing services for the digital space. video. The digital space is defined as any multimedia-enabled electronic channel that an advertiser's message can be seen or heard from.rose to prominence before the traditional advertising agencies fully embraced the Internet. interactive marketing and communications strategy. email marketing. although some have downsized just as rapidly due to changing market conditions. design. disgruntled customers can quickly and easily damage a company's reputation via social networking sites. new types of companies are doing reputation management. The creation of sites such as MySpace. Reputation management companies help stem the negative information or misinformation that might proliferate in their absence. e-learning Tools. and fulfillment reporting. Search engine agencies: Lately. Medical education agencies: Medical education agencies specialize in creating educational content for the Healthcare and Life Science industries. DVDs. however with the creation of ads (either text or image) and media purchases. microblogs etc. creative. Due to the social networking explosion. but all signs point to online networking as the future of brand marketing and Interactive being the core of Brand's Communication and Marketing Strategy. SEO/SEM services. The 'digital space' translates to the Internet. PSP. content management services. deployment. This relatively young industry has been slow to adopt the term 'agency'. Social media agencies: Social media agencies specialize in promotion of brands in the various social media platforms like blogs. some of the interactive agencies grew very rapidly. and mobile).education and training materials tied to the promotion of a given product or therapy Continuing medical education . Offering a wide range of services. This type of agency is especially important if a company needs online damage control. web application development.0 website design and development. programming (Flash and otherwise). and lifestyle devices (iPod. management. social networking sites. Often. The recent boost in the interactive agencies can also be attributed to the rising popularity of web-based social networking and community sites. Facebook and YouTube have sparked market interest. and overall data mining & ROI assessment.S. they do technically qualify as 'advertising agencies'. development. in some instances of search marketing) ads. It still may be too early to tell how agencies will use this type of marketing to monetize client ROI. They deliver services such as strategy. PPC campaign management. rich media campaigns. These agencies distinguish themselves through an understanding of the strict labeling and marketing guidelines mandated by the U. discussion forums. Other agencies: . Today. as some interactive agencies have started offering personal and corporate community site development as one of their service offerings. Web 2. digital brand development. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and industry group guidelines. kiosks. The two key services of social media agencies are: • • social media marketing online reputation management Healthcare communications agencies: Healthcare communications agencies specialize in strategic communications and marketing services for the Healthcare and Life Science industries. although they focus solely on interactive advertising services. Q&A sites.

The art director and copywriter report to a creative director. The creative brief often includes information about the target audience and their attitudes and behaviors. Other departments and personnel: . The student-run advertising agency model. Creative teams may be permanent partnerships or formed on a project-by-project basis. outdoor. they both generate creative ideas to represent the proposition (the advertisement or campaign's key message). The account manager will develop a creative brief. when dealing with the major media (broadcast media. Modern advertising agencies usually form their copywriters and art directors into creative teams. enterprise technology agencies often work in tandem with advertising agencies to provide a specialized subset of services offered by some interactive agencies: Web 2. etc. and other intuitive technology solutions for the web. The production department. one does not necessarily write the words and the other draw the pictures.. However. ensures the TV commercial or print ad. this work is usually outsourced to a media agency which can advise on media planning and is normally large enough to negotiate prices down further than a single agency or client can. gets produced. the creative team will concept ideas to take to their creative director for feedback. Media services: The media services department may not be so well known. but its employees are the people who have contacts with the suppliers of various creative media. The creative process forms the most crucial part of the advertising process. mobile devices and emerging digital platforms. Creativity and marketing acumen are the needed area of the client service people. Although copywriters have the word "write" in their job title. Account services: Agencies appoint account executive to liase with the clients. which mainly operates out of university classrooms or as a student groups. Creative departments may employ production artists as entry-level positions. provides free advertising services to clients in exchange for the educational opportunity. In some agencies. in essence. senior producers are known as "executive producers" or "content architects". and the press). photographers and design studios in the case of the print advertising or direct mailers).0 website design and development. and art directors have the word "art". They can often be restrained by the client's budget. Once they receive the creative brief from their account team.While not advertising agencies. Production: Without the production department. web application development. Content management systems. in which. usually a creative employee with several years of experience. This can often be a back and forth process. the media strategy will inform the creative team what media platform they'll be developing the ad for. For example. as well as for operations and maintenance. Agency departments Creative department: The people who create the actual ads form the core of an advertising agency. The account executives need to be sufficiently aware of the client’s needs and desires that can be instructed to the agency’s personnel and should get approval from the clients on the agency’s recommendations to the clients. occurring several times before several ads are set to present to the client. Producers are involved in every aspect of a project. develop original copy and graphics depending on media strategy. They work closely with the specialists in each field. aware of their parameters. the ads created by the copywriter and art director would be nothing more than words and pictures on paper. from the initial creative briefing through execution and delivery. Creative departments frequently work with outside design or production studios to develop and implement their ideas. which does all the spot's planning and placements. Modern agencies might also have a media planning department integrated. The creative team will take the brief and. They are responsible for contracting external vendors (directors and production companies in the case of TV commercials. usually about a page that gives direction to the creative team. they will be able to advise upon and negotiate with printers if an agency is producing flyers for a client.

for example. such as large consumer products companies. but integral. with only one of the client’s product lines. Creative Team –The principle role of account managers is to manage the overall advertising campaign for a client. Internships at advertising agencies most commonly fall into one of five areas of expertise: account services. Larger agencies attract people who specialize in one or the other. These responsibilities include locating and negotiating to acquire clients. For large accounts one task account managers routinely delegate involves generating ideas. Internet advertising. for example. During their internship. gathering cost estimates and answering the phone. For smaller accounts an account manager may simultaneously manage several different. incomplete information sharing. In small agencies without a dedicated traffic manager. though noncompeting. An often forgotten. Advertising interns are typically university juniors and seniors who are genuinely interested in and have an aptitude for advertising. department within an advertising agency is traffic. accounts. media. Advertising Agency Functions (From another source) Professionals at advertising agencies and other advertising organizations offer a number of functions including: • Account Management – Within an advertising agency the account manager or account executive is tasked with handling all major decisions related to a specific client. which generally becomes the responsibility of the agency’s creative team. inappropriate job initiation. The traffic department regulates the flow of work in the agency. Large agencies may have a traffic department of five or more employees. It is typically headed by a traffic manager (or system administrator). brochure and broadcast or communications project from beginning to end. as well as presenting findings in verbal/written form with recommendations • Involvement in internal meetings and. public relations and traffic.In small agencies. interactive. where they may be charged with creating and managing a website as well as developing an advertising campaign. when appropriate. Traffic increases an agency's efficiency and profitability through the reduction of false job starts. designing concepts and creating the final advertisement. client meetings • Assisting account services in the management of creative projects Interns often take part in the internal creative process. planning.and under-cost estimation and the need for media extensions. possibly. an advertising agency may assign an account manager to work full-time with only one client and. customer product or service. the intern will experience the development of an ad. and indeed include a number of people in specialized positions: production work. competition. During the internship. For very large clients. employees may do both creative and account service work. over. University students working on the creative side can find internships as a assistant art director or assistant copywriter. the account manager works closely with the client to develop an advertising strategy. An agency’s creative • . Once the client has agreed to work with the agency. or research. one employee may be responsible for managing workflow. the intern should be exposed to as much as possible within the agency and advertising process. which often includes delegating selective tasks to specialists. An internship program in account services usually involves fundamental work within account management as well as offering exposure to other facets of the agency. Functions of the account management intern may include: • Research and analysis: Gathering information regarding industry. Hands on projects such as these help interns learn how strategy and well-developed marketing are essential to a sound advertising and communications plan. The primary responsibility of this position is to assist account managers.

But in marketing. it must be placed through an appropriate advertising media. Media Planners – Once an advertisement is created.g. For instance. of which there are thousands. Each advertising media. • Researchers – Full-service advertising agencies employ market researchers who assess a client’s market situation. etc.. size of ad). Public Service Advertising . different requirements for accepting ad designs (e. and much more..g. who looks for the best media match for a client and also negotiates the best deals..).. and also are used to test creative ideas. Image Advertising 3. including understanding customers and competitors.e. copywriting.e. television ad. Researchers are also used following the completion of an advertising campaign to measure whether the campaign reached its objectives. in the early stages of an advertising campaign researchers may run focus group sessions with selected members of the client’s target market in order to get their reaction to several advertising concepts. Product-Oriented Advertising 2. Advocacy Advertising 4. type of advertising refers to the primary "focus" of the message being sent and falls into one of the following four categories: 1. radio ad.g. different ways placements can be purchased (e. film and audio production. direct contact with media or through third-party seller). computer programming.. has its own unique methods for accepting advertisements. what it costs marketers to place an ad). when ad will be run). Types of Advertising • If you ask most people what is meant by "type" of advertising. Understanding the nuances of different media is the role of a media planner. such as different advertising cost structures (i.team consists of specialists in graphic design. and different time schedules (i. invariably they will respond by defining it in terms of how it is delivered (e.

Ad Testing Ad Testing or more correctly "Advertisement Testing". persuasiveness. and brand integrity. Ad Testing can test ads in any advertising media including print. perception. or testing competing advertisements in a deeper way by the use of face to face depth interviews or focus groups. Attributes most often tested include memorability. and to correct expensive cultural gaffes that may occur when an advertisement developed in a different country is being used in another country or cultural target group. TV/Cable. It can be used at any stage of the advertisement development process including conceptualization. This also provides guidelines for the final design of the advertisements. Advertisement Testing is most frequently used however to decide on the most effective advertisement from a series of alternatives at design stage. consumer identification with settings or situations. a general survey on advertisement recall and recognition in a specific market. or final stages.which generally tests communications in a broader campaign. liking (or "affect"). Some Advertisement Testing focuses on competitive aspects (the effectiveness of the advertisement compared to competing advertisements). Logos or tag lines can be tested in a similar manner. or targeting of a series of. or a single advertisement in a given market. story board. It is also related to Promotion Testing "promo testing" . understanding of the appeal. radio. . Some competitive Advertisement Testing techniques include asking respondents to browse a magazine and then being asked to remember what advertisements they saw and what was most memorable about them. billboard or others. refers to various methodologies focusing exclusively on measuring the effectiveness.

The criteria used to judge the acceptability of a test market region or group include: 1. Page content and sales message. likes. and 2. Split-run testing enables you to test different marketing strategies and identify the elements contributing to the success of your online marketing and advertising campaigns and more importantly. and evaluation of ads by consumers. ranking. As face-to-face research. Split-Run Testing is the only way to measure a potential buyer's preferences and responses to your online marketing strategy. dislikes and voting preference or intention. relative isolation from densely populated media markets so that advertising to the test audience can be efficient and economical. different images or even different web site designs can all be tested. Once identified these can all be incorporated into your online product advertising to maximise your conversion rate and return on investment (ROI). attitudes. Scientific split-run testing enables you to test the variables that make up your sales offer and identify which elements are the more successful. is impossible. in an online environment. is a geographic region or demographic group used to gauge the viability of a product or service in the mass market prior to a wide scale roll-out. maximise your online sales. Split-Run Testing What is important is what works for your product or service. a population that is demographically similar to the proposed target market. different headlines. Split-Run Testing Elements Any element of a marketing or promotional campaign can be tested:• • Page/sales content/copy Length of copy . Test market A test market. in the field of business and marketing. Testing highlights which variables or combination of variables outperform others. Market & Scientific Research Market research is carried out in all areas of business and public life to measure consumer views.Consumer Jury Test : A testing method for advertisements that involve the comparison.

OMSA (Online Marketing & Scientific Analysis) ensures that each new or returning visitor receives the same and only one test variable subject regardless of the number of visits made before . any results obtained still provide an indication. and are subjected to the testing process. The more visitors your site receives. the more visitors your site attracts the more critical it is that you test their experience of your marketing strategy. More importantly and significantly. However. In this context 'size' is certainly important. It is important that when a potential buyer visits your site and takes part in the testing process they are not presented with different versions of the test variable if they return before completing the full test procedure eg they buy or fulfill the object of the test on visit 2. If this were not controlled the collected data would be inaccurate and largely meaningless. test and apply research data to refine their sales message and presentation to provide their visitors and potential purchasers with the information they need to complete the buying process. the higher the number of visitor the shorter the test analysis cycle necessary to achieve statistically significant results. relevant and meaningful. The most successful marketers monitor. lower visitor numbers is not a reason to forego proper testing. Although the testing cycle will be longer. Statistical Significance The value of testing is dependent on the validity of the data and that is largely dependent on sample size. Also. however rough.• • • • • • • Page design/layout Price offers Popup windows Web site design Headlines Font style. sizes. 3 or more. Test Subject Relevance To ensure that your results are not flawed proper split-testing techniques need to be employed to ensure test results are valid. colour Site navigation Two or more of any of these elements can be setup for testing and over a period of a few weeks or months (depending on visitor numbers) scientifically collected data can be analysed to provide real-world results showing which tested elements of your marketing strategy are actually working and providing real returns for your sales & marketing effort. the more statistically valid will be the test results. If not testing your visitor's experience then you're severely limiting the performance of your web site Testing is the key to enhance your visitor's experience. and is much better than having no idea at all. reduce associated sales costs helping to build and maximise your online income and revenue earning potential. Without proper testing and analysis the value of your hard earned visitor numbers is being lost.

in response to collected data regarding particular elements of a campaign. If it doesn't.in fact. This ensures that all and any test results reflect the response to variable being tested. Recognition test Alternative term for readership test. Any change to your web site can be tested to monitor the effect on visitor experience and site aims and objectives. The test subjects are shown the advertisement (or hear the recorded commercial) and are then asked if they saw (or heard) it before. Aided recall test Definition Marketing research technique for testing the 'memorability' of an advertisement or commercial. readership test Definition Evaluation of the advertising effectiveness of print media in which a random sample of readers (of a particular issue of a publication) are asked if they noticed or read a particular advertisement. drop it and test another element. keep it. If the change has a positive effect. As results are analysed and marketing strategy developed.. "Aided recall" measures the extent to which a brand name is remembered when the actual brand name is prompted.. you can test each and every element of your web site systematically and scientifically. .completion of test process. further refinement can be undertaken with other elements of the promotional offer or indeed other new or unrelated campaigns . If a visitor leaves before completing the full test and returns at a later date they will always be presented with the same test object originally presented.

brand recognition is the extent to which a brand name is recognized when prompted with the actual name. This technique is used by research services to test readership. aided recall research technique used to test audience memory retention of advertisements.and as a subset of brand recall. In this case. . Verbal aids are also used to prompt recall. and listenership.In some cases brand recognition is defined as aided recall . viewership. The respondents are prompted by being shown a particular advertisement and then asked to remember their previous exposure to it.

which range from security to self-actualization. while this model is intuitively appealing. In the view of Gough and Doyal. or they can be subjective and psychological. Needs are distinguished from wants because a deficiency would cause a clear negative outcome. needs are sometimes controversial. each person has an objective interest in avoiding serious harm that prevents the endeavor to attain his or her vision of what's good.e.Need A need is something that is necessary for organisms to live a healthy life. such as the need for selfesteem.. no matter what that is exactly. A person who does not have his or her needs fulfilled—i. Psychological definition: To most psychologists. giving purpose and direction to behavior. he also published A Theory of Human Need. need is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a goal. More specifically. he proposed that people have a hierarchy of psychological needs. Understanding needs and wants is an issue in the fields of politics. it has been difficult to operationalize it experimentally. The academic study of needs was at its zenith in the 1950s. This attempt requires the ability to participate in the societal setting in which an individual lives. each person needs to . One person's view of need may easily be seen as paternalistic by another. Their view goes beyond the emphasis on psychology: it might be said that an individual's needs are representative of the costs of being human within society. and philosophy. such as dysfunction or death. However. One of the problems with a psychological theory of needs is that conceptions of "need" may vary radically between different cultures or different parts of the same society. He has published on the subject of human needs in the context of social assistance provided by the welfare state. One exception is Richard Sennett's work on the importance of respect. With medical ethics professor Len Doyal. Needs can be objective and physical. social science. a "needy" person—will function poorly in society. In his theory. On a societal level. The most widely known academic model of needs was proposed by psychologist Abraham Maslow. It receives less attention among psychologists today. Objective definition: A second view of need is represented by the work of political economy professor Ian Gough. such as food. It was further developed by Clayton Alderfer.

Economic security 11. A supply of clothing 5. They are thus more able to escape or avoid poverty. This requires mental health. Those with more capabilities fulfill more of their needs. This theory should be compared to the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum.. A safe environment for working 4. 8. In his 1844 Paris Manuscripts.Appropriate basic and cross-cultural education. and democratic decision-making. The latter refers to the capacity to make informed choices about what should be done and how to implement that. How are such needs satisfied? Doyal and Gough point to eleven broad categories of "intermediate needs" that define how the need for physical health and personal autonomy are fulfilled: 1. A safe physical environment 6. etc. physical strength. Karl Marx famously defined humans as "creatures of need" or "needy creatures" who experienced suffering in the process of learning and working to meet their needs. humans develop new needs. This idea is discussed in more detail by the Hungarian philosopher . cognitive skills.. sanity. Significant primary relationships with others 9. more available choices. the use of the actual experience of individuals in their everyday lives. These needs were both physical needs as well as moral. emotional and intellectual needs. How are the details of needs satisfaction determined? The authors point to rational identification of needs using the most up-to-date scientific knowledge.g. and chances to participate in society's activities and collective decision-making.e. Those with more internal "assets" or "capacities" (e.have both physical health and personal autonomy. Physical security 10. According to Marx.) have more capabilities (i. The satisfaction of human needs cannot be imposed "from above". human development is characterized by the fact that in the process of meeting their needs. Adequate protective housing 3. Security in childhood. Adequate nutritional food and water 2. Other views: The concept of intellectual need has been studied in education.Safe birth control and child-bearing 12. more positive freedom). education. implying that at least to some extent they make and remake their own nature. Appropriate health care 7.

also known as Nonviolent Communication (NVC) makes the distinction between universal human needs (what sustains and motivates human life) and specific strategies used to meet these needs. which makes a human being a universal natural being capable to turn the whole nature into the subject of his/her needs and his/her activity. and e) human beings are free. that the definition of poverty threshold. Human beings are also free entities able to accomplish. during their lifetime. just like many other logical positivists. of the essential human forces. is an arbitrary action of researchers. is mediated to the satisfaction of needs (an animal who manufactures tools to produce other tools or his/her satisfactors). Freedom should be understood both in a negative (freedom to decide and to establish relationships) and a positive sense (dominion over natural forces and development of human creativity. Rosenberg's model does not place needs in a hierarchy. professor Julio Boltvinik Kalinka asserts that the ideas exposed by David Wiggins about needs are correct but insufficient: needs are of a normative nature but they are also factual.Ágnes Heller in A Theory of Need in Marx (London: Allison and Busby. In contrast to Maslow. To sum up. the essential interrelated traits of human beings are: a) work is their vital activity. but not only by work as it is not possible to live a human being without a relationship with others: work is social because human beings work for each other with means and abilities produced by prior generations. A human being's conditions as a social being are given by work. Political economy professor Michael Lebowitz has developed the Marxian interpretation of needs further in two editions of his book Beyond Capital. 1976).[8] In this model. b) human beings are conscious beings. These "gross ethical concepts" (as stated by Hilary Putnam) should also include an evaluation: Ross Fitzgerald's criticism of Maslow's ideas rejects the concept of objective human needs and uses instead the concept of preferences. socialuniversal and universal conscious entities. an assumption which implies a narrow view of poverty. work. feelings are seen as indicators of when human needs are met or unmet. In his texts about what he calls "moral economics". a historical-universal being. and develops his/her needs and abilities (essential human forces) and develops himself/herself. which tend to universality (the universal conscious being). Professor György Márkus systematized Marx's ideas about needs as follows: humans are different from other animals because their vital activity. c) human beings are social beings. Marshall Rosenberg's model of Compassionate Communication. thus generating the possibility of human conscience and self-conscience. d) human beings tend to universality. that values cannot be rational and assert. on the basis of their conscious decisions. One of the intended outcomes of Rosenberg's model is to support humans in developing an awareness of what life-sustaining needs are arising within them and others moment by moment so that they may more . the objective possibilities generated by social evolution. They[who?] assume. therefore. which manifests in the three previous traits and make human beings natural-historical-universal. a task charged with values. Work generates the breach of the animal subject-object fusion.

" Maslow studied the healthiest 1% of the college student population. This is an example of metonymy in language and presents with the logical problem of reification. Eleanor Roosevelt. and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy. for a certain government program or entity. . Jane Addams. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology.effectively and compassionately find strategies to meet their own needs as well as contribute to meeting the needs of others. writing that "the study of crippled. all of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein. Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology. proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation. and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. stunted. Such needs might include demand for a particular type of business. immature. People also talk about the needs of a community or organization. or for individuals with particular skills.

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and they want to take actions to obtain their goal. In secular societies want might be considered similar to the emotion desire. such as the stomach's need for food. socialscientific or objectively psychological reality of human existence. When a person desires something or someone. whereas a want is simply something that a person would like to have. either by showing a celebrity or model with the product. The motivational aspect of desire has long been noted by philosophers. which might alternatively be termed "desire". The same sense is expressed by emotions such as "craving" or "hankering".Want The idea of want can be examined from many perspectives. While in modern secular societies "want" is considered a purely economic. While some advertising attempts to give buyers a sense of lack or wanting. a want is something that is desired. Some economists have rejected this distinction and maintain that all of these are simply wants. many religious or spiritual traditions prescribe or advise with lessons on want and wanting. which can be studied scientifically through the disciplines of psychology or sociology. their sense of longing is excited by the enjoyment or the thought of the item or person. with varying levels of importance. but limited resources. Marketing and advertising companies have used psychological research on how desire is stimulated to find more effective ways to induce consumers to buy a given product or service. Hobbes (1588–1679) asserted that human desire is the fundamental motivation of all human action. Desire (emotion) Desire is a sense of longing for a person or object or hoping for an outcome. psychologists often describe desires as different from emotions. whereas emotions arise from a person's mental state. Thus. Wants are often distinguished from needs. wants and needs can be understood as examples of the overall concept of demand. . It is said that every person has unlimited wants. While desires are often classified as emotions by laypersons. In economics. other types of advertising create desire associating the product with desirable attributes. Desire is the fire that sets action aflame. By this viewpoint. A need is something that is necessary for survival (such as food and shelter). psychologists tend to argue that desires arise from bodily structures. people cannot have everything they want and must look for the most affordable alternatives.

the potential buyer already has the desire for the product before they enter the store. The role of the salespeople in these cases is simply to guide the customer towards making a choice. have managed to create a desire for life insurance . Desire is NOT an emotion. or. Desire for a product is stimulated by advertising. and the anterior cingulate cortices. and so the company has to create the sense of desire. In store retailing. Research also shows that the orbitofrontal cortex has connections to both the opioid and dopamine systems. though. Life insurance companies. While the "neuroscience of happiness and well-being is still in its infancy". and radio advertising. whereas. such as the stomach which needs food. For psychologists. they share the same brain circuit. Studies showed that a chemical called dopamine is the brain's "pleasure chemical".Psychology and neurology: While desires are often classified as emotions by laypersons. psychologists often describe desires as different from emotions. desires arise from bodily structures. the potential buyer does not have a desire for the product or service. A 2008 study entitled "The Neural Correlates of Desire" showed that the human brain categorizes any stimulus according to its desirability by activating three different brain areas: the superior orbito-frontal. emotions arise from a person's mental state. on the other hand. A 2008 study by the University of Michigan indicated that while humans experience desire and fear as psychological opposites. which attempts to give buyers a sense of lack or wanting. and so on. TV. Nike's "Just Do It" ads for sports shoes are appealing to consumers' desires for selfbetterment. An example of this situation is for life insurance. feelings originate from the cerebral cortex. either by showing a celebrity using or wearing the product. Emotions originate from the limbic system in the brain. In other cases. so they are not naturally thinking about how they need to have accidental death insurance. or by giving the product a "halo effect" by showing attractive models with the product. the blood needs oxygen. the mid-cingulate. as in the case of a decorating buff entering their favorite furniture store. desire is created by giving the potential buyer a sense of lacking ("Are you still driving that old car?") or by associating the product with desirable attributes. In marketing: In the field of marketing. in the case of clothes or jewellery. merchants attempt to increase the desire of the buyer by showcasing the product attractively. In some cases. by offering samples. Most young adults are not thinking about dying. they do not have to try and "sell" the general idea of making a purchase. because the customer already wants the products. desire is the human appetite for a given object of attention. research on the "distant cousins" of pleasure and desire show that reward is a key element in creating both of these states. and stimulating this cortex is associated with subjective reports of pleasure. Desire is a FEELING. for food stores. With print.

that have clear objects. the drives toward Life and Death. after seeing commercials depicting the social undesirability of flakes on the shoulder. Examples include what Freud called Eros.". respectively. now it may be expected that the other of the two 'heavenly forces. motivations. drive theory was used by Robert Zajonc in 1965 as an explanation of the phenomenon of social facilitation. drive tends to increase over time and operates on a feedback control system. or of bad breath. it created a desire to resolve these fears. drive is reduced and the organism returns to a state of homeostasis and relaxation. However. Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents was published in Germany in 1930 when the rise of fascism in that country was well under way. and the warnings of a second European war were leading to opposing calls for rearmament and pacifism. which occurs when the buyer develops a sense that if they felt the need for the type of product in question. and what is now widely known as Thanatos. Another example is personal hygiene products. Prior to the introduction of commercials advertising anti-dandruff shampoo or mouthwash. such as anti-dandruff shampoo and mouthwash. The audience effect notes that in some cases the presence of a passive audience will facilitate the better . Freud wrote "In face of the destructive forces unleashed.with advertising that shows pictures of children and asks "If anything happens to you. According to the theory. the advertised product is what would quench their desire. Drive theory The terms drive theory and drive reduction theory refer to a diverse set of motivational theories in psychology.' eternal Eros. or instincts. will put forth his strength so as to maintain himself alongside of his equally immortal adversary. much like a thermostat. Drive theory is based on the principle that organisms are born with certain physiological needs and that a negative state of tension is created when these needs are not satisfied. Against this background. who will pay for the children's upkeep?". it is unlikely that consumers had an intrinsic desire to use these products. drive theory refers to the theory of drives. Psychoanalysis: In Freudian psychoanalysis. Social psychology: In social psychology. Marketing theorists call desire the third stage in the hierarchy of effects. When a need is satisfied.

performance of a task. However. then the social pressure produces an improved performance. This arousal creates a "drive" that causes us to enact the behaviors that form our dominant response for that particular situation. If the dominant response is "correct" (that is to say. then social presence produces an impaired performance. if the task we are to perform is subjectively perceived as being easy). . if the dominant response is "incorrect" (the task is difficult). Drive theory states that due to the unpredictable nature of people. Our dominant response is the most likely response given our skills at use. there is a clear evolutionary advantage for an individual's presence to cause us to be in a state of alert arousal. a person performing a task rarely knows for certain what others are going to do in response. while in other cases the presence of an audience will inhibit the performance of a task. Therefore. Increased arousal (stress) can therefore be seen as an instinctive reaction to social presence.