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TITLE PAGE – Define Presentation topic – Tell them what to expect INTRODUCTION

First Documented Flight in 17th Dec. 1903

– Leonardo Da Vinci is also attributed for inventions of flight. – Kitty Hawk London, North Carolina. – Little Scientific & Engineering Foundation – Many Factors Considered when Developing Newer & Modern A/c. – AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROCESS – Customer Requirements Reviewed – Concept Design Phase – size, thrust, configuration – Preliminary Design Phase – Best concept design is chosen. – Detailed Design Phase – Structural & system design drawings and installations. – Development Phase – The mass production begins (Manufacturing and Assy.)

THE WRIGHT FLYERS – Considered the pioneers of aviation – After several flight, they set the record of the highest altitude in 1908 -360ft PROBLEMS OF THE WRIGHT FLYER – So Unstable – Structural Problems on Full Scale Aircraft – Control and Propulsion Problems. DESIGN EXPLORATION – Many aircraft were built & Tested during the war period – Monoplanes, Biplanes and Tri planes were used. – Water cooled engines of 4-12 cylinders were used. DESIGN REVOLUTION – GOLDEN AGE – Development accelerated in mid 20’s – 4 increased safety, laws governing licensing of pilots n aircraft were enacted. – NACA investigated Aerofoils, stability & Control, loads n structures of a/c. – Millitary sponsored application of technology & generation of new & useful O.S’s.


A/c evolved from low powered biplanes to sleek high powered monoplanes made of aluminum.

– WW 1 experienced pilots were eager to show off their skills – This led to Development of Air shows, Air races & Acrobatic stunts….etc – These resulted in development of Airframes and Engines. DESIGN REFINEMENT – WW 2 led to drastic Increase in Dev. & prod of a/c – All countries involved in the war stepped up the Dev. & Prod. Of – A/c. – Flight based weapon delivery systems – New Tech. like Radar allowed more coordinated n controlled deployment of A/c. THE COLD WAR – After WW 2, commercial Aviation grew rapidly since most ex-millitary A/c were used. – There was a surplus of Heavy n Super-heavy Bomber A/c

– B-29 – Lancaster THE DC - 3 – The DC-3 A/c takes off in a funny way… – Made it easier for longer commercial flights.
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Accommodated Max. Speed

21 - 32 Pax. 381Km/h

Cruise Speed 240 Km/h Service Ceiling 24,000ft

TECHNOLOGY OF THE JET AIRPLANE – THE JET AGE – The Harrier is a British Designed Jet. – Capable of V/STOL
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Flew in

1969 877 Km/h

Max Speed

TURBOFAN & TURBOJET SYSTEMS – The first Men on the Moon – Apollo 11 Mission (1975) – B747 was launched. Largest Commercial Pax A/c.

Concorde also made it’s Maiden Flt that year.


Between 4062 (X4) Cruise Speed 988 km/h

416 - 524 Pax. 913 Km/h

Engines Max Speed


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21st Century – Retirement (26TH NOV 2003) Max Speed M 2.04

Cruise Speed Mach 2 Maximum Range 3,371 nm Service Ceiling Seating 60,000 ft


– Forced to fly over the Oceans – if they wanted to break the Sonic Barrier. – Concorde was Fuel Hungry, – Carried limited No. of Pax coz of its streamlined design
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Nevertheless, it made huge profits for BA. 1ST Quarter of 21st Century saw a slow pace of advancement.

– Steady improvement of the Avionics.


Maximum speed: 800.0 km/h Cruise speed: 650 km/h Endurance: 65,000 ft 36 hours Service ceiling:

– NASA uses it for Research n monitoring Airspace. – Flies where others can only imagine. EMBRACING DIGITAL AIRCRAFT TECHNOLOGY – Represented by A380 and B787 – NG A/c are intelligent and Connected – Digital A/c Comm. Requires new Network solutions. THE B787 - DREAMLINER – The first 787 was unveiled on July 8, 2007 – Employed Composite materials on fuselage, carbon fiber on engines saves 4000 lbs

consumes 20% less fuel than the similarly-sized Boeing 767. four-panel windshield, noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles, and a smoother nose contour Between 210 -330 Pax

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Cruise speed 913 Km/h

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Max Speed Service Ceiling Engines Range

954 Km/h 43,000 ft

General Electrics GENx (×2) 14,200 - 15,700 km

THE AIRBUS A380 – A380 made its maiden flight on 27 April 2005 – Built in France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom.
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Between Max speed

525 - 853 Pax 1020 km/h

Cruise Speed 945 km/h Service ceiling 43,028 ft

NEW AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS – Enhanced Vision System (EVS) – Global Positioning System (GPS) – Airborne Internet – In-flight Entertainment System (IFE) – Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)

ENHANCED VISION SYSTEM (EVS) -Aid in Precision & Non Precision approaches during landing in:

Rain, Snow, Night, Fog

– Poor visibility conditions to reduce CFIT(Controlled Flight Into Terrain) – Aids in Situational awareness during ground Ops – Less Runway collisions GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) – Give position reports over a satellite network – Info is accessed from a web based mapping interface. – Current and Historical Info can be viewed.

Can be as - Portable Device – Fixed Installations.

IN-FLIGHT ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEM – Entertainment available to PAX during flight. – Offers:Lounge, dining room, Bar, food and drink services Audio entertainment

Video entertainment-Movies, Games & Personal Televisions Moving-map systems Data communication & Mobile Comm. Wi-Fi Internet services.

FIRST CLASS – EMIRATES – Offer Food & Drinks Services – Private Cabin – Data connection services BUSINESS CLASS – ETIHAD AIRWAYS – Offer Food & Drinks Services

Cinema Experience, Data connection services

TCAS – Designed to Reduce Mid Air Collisions – Monitors airspace around the A/c – Uses a Transponder which warns pilots of the presence of other A/c – Mandated by ICAO for all A/c over 5700 Kg

Research has been ongoing since 1950’s

IMPORTANCE OF TCAS -Confusion of the ATC & TCAS. – Lack of Proper Communication. – TCAS aided avoid the collision – ICAO superceeded the command of TCAS FUTURE EXPECTATIONS – Breakthrough in Airframe & Propulsion designed assist A/c to fly:– –

Quieter, Greener Fuel Efficient, More Pax Comfortable

DESIGNS:– Ultra Modern Shapes – Composites & Self healing skin

Fiber Optic Cabling

– Hybrid Electric Engines – Virtual Reality Windows……e.g B787 SATS

Smaller planes, Less Drag,

– Faster with fuel economy

B797 – Concept A/c not yet in the Production line. – Flying wing. – Faster with less drag – Less Fuel Consumption. HITS – Graphical flight path – Indicated at the cockpit – Virtual path to follow – 3D view of terrain and Obstructions. – 2D moving map. Showing other A/c, Weather conditions, Restricted Airspace and Airports – Flying will be easy, safer and definitely faster than Cars QUESTION

Explain the Graph, Food for thought.

SKYCAR – Henry Ford 1940.


He Said ” Mark my word: A combination of airplane and motor car is coming. You may smile. But it will come ”

AVIATION TECHNOLOGY STAGES – Hub Lock – Many Aircraft Depending on few Airports.
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SATS - Small Aircraft Transportation Systems. HITS - Highway In The Sky. Sky CarFrom Previous Slide.

AVIATION TECHNOLOGY STAGES – Hub Lock – Many Aircraft Depending on few Airports.
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SATS - Small Aircraft Transportation Systems. HITS - Highway In The Sky. Sky CarFrom Previous Slide.

CONCLUSION -Exploiting New Technology will change Rules of the game. -It will permit very amazing solutions to the Aviation Development. – Leads to Increased Air Safety.

– Future A/c will need Unconventional Design Configurations. – A/c Designers, Scientists and Computer Specialists will have to work together.

QUOTES OF THE WEEK – “Necessity is the Mother of Invention & Change occurs Faster when need is Greater!”