The Bacchants of Mathura: New Evidence of Dionysiac Yaksha Imagery from Kushan Mathura Author(s): Martha L.

Carter Source: The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art, Vol. 69, No. 8 (Oct., 1982), pp. 247-257 Published by: Cleveland Museum of Art Stable URL: . Accessed: 20/05/2011 09:07
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact

Cleveland Museum of Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art.

I:; *:2:


,,-. ._?I?Fa-a?dlS




9.: :r

The Bacchants of Mathura: New Evidence of Dionysiac Yaksha Imagery from Kushan Mathura
To theGreek historians who documented the campaigns of Alex ander theGreat inAsia, the "India" of his conquests was a re gion where the grapevine flourished, introduced, they explain ed, by the god Dionysos when he conquered India in earlier times. When the Macedonians reached a city called Nysa, Alex ander spared it in deference to its immortal founder and visited nearby shrines on the god's sacred peak, Mt. Meros.2 Dionysos had named this mountain, so itwas claimed, after the Greek word for thigh (meros) inhonor of his second birth from the thigh of Zeus.3 This name is undoubtedly aGreek corruption of its true name, Mt. Meru, well-known in Indianmythology as the fabu lous World Mountain, pillar between the earth and the heavens. On its slopes grew the laurel, ivy, and grapevine so familiar to the homesick Greeks who were allowed to linger there and to at tend bacchanalian celebrations.4 According to his biographer Philostratus, the sage Apollonius of Tyana visited India in themid-first century AD and left the fol lowing description of the worship of Dionysos there: On climbing [themountain] they found an area conse crated to Bacchus, which the god himself had planted round with laurels, encircling ground enough for a small temple, and hadmarried ivy and grapevines to the laurels and set up his own image in the center, knowing that in time the treeswould meet to form a roof, which has now become so closely woven that it lets in neither wind nor rain upon the shrine. Inside it are sickles, and baskets, and wine vats, with all their belongings, made of gold and silver, and sacred toBacchus as god of the vintage. The statue of Bacchus shows him as an Indian lad, carved inwhite stone, and when he begins his or gies he shakes themountain, and the towns set about its foot join in the revelry.5 So too, itwould seem thatmembers of thewine god's cortege have been transformed into voluptuous Indian bacchantes in this remarkable relief acquired some time ago by The Cleveland Mu seum of Art (Cover and Figure 1). This work takes the form of a carved railing pillar of mottled Sikri sandstone approximately 80 centimeters inheight, in this case a corner post of a type known to


2. Detail,

right face central


of Figure


1. Railing Pillar. Cover and Figure inches (80 cm.). India, Sikri sandstone, H. 31-1/2 late second century AD. Mathura, Kushan Period, John L. Severance Fund. CMA 77.34 Purchase,

OF ART (ISSN MUSEUM THE BULLETIN OF THE CLEVELAND 0009-8841), Volume LXIX, Number 8, October 1982. Published monthly, ex cept July and August, by The Cleveland Museum of Art. Subscriptions: $8.00 per year for Museum members; $10.00 per year for non-members. Single copies: $1.00. Copyright 1982 by The Cleveland Museum of Art. Postmaster send address changes to CMA Bulletin 11150 East Boulevard, Cleveland, Ohio 44106. Second-class postage paid at Cleveland, Ohio. Museum photography by Nicholas Hlobeczy; design by Merald E. Wrolstad.


Figure 3. Detail, right face upper portion
of Figure 1.



Detail, right face, lower portion
of Figure 1.



5. Detail,

left face central


of Figure


pas. Although its exact provenance is unknown, its red speckled stone strongly suggests the region of ancientMathura some fifty miles south of Delhi.6 The character of the relief presents an unusual blend of stock Hellenistic elements combined with the ripe, rounded volumes of early Indian sculpture of the Mathuran School. The period to which it belongs can only be that of theKushan Empire which flourished between the first and third centuries AD and, at its height, stretched from theOxus to theGanges. This dynasty, of Central Asian origin, followed the Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms and those of earlier Central Asian Scythians and Par thians in the northwest borderlands and Afghanistan, as well as native Indian states in the Punjab, to unite a diverse population in an era of increased trade and commercial prosperity.7 Under the alien but culturally eclectic Kushans, Buddhism was encouraged to thrive, gaining many new adherents from a non-Brahmanical, ethnically heterogeneous merchant class. At this time also, nu merous developments took place which served to broaden the base of Buddhism to transform it into a trulypopular internation al faith. So too, its visual imagery mirrored changes within. A Buddha image was created where only symbols of his presence had been allowed before.8 The concept of the Bodhisattva, the active Buddha deity offering salvation, was developed along with an ever widening pantheon of supporting lesser deities gar nered from rich sources inpopular folk religon. It is to this latter class thatourMathuran bacchantes belong. The right face of the pillar (Figure 2) shows a pair of half draped female revelers. One in a typically Hellenistic three- : quarter back view holds her robe coquettishly in front of her; her partner carries a festive palm branch while unsteadily balancing a cup on her head, as if giddy from the effects of its contents. Be tween them on the ground stands a large vessel resembling a Greek kantharos, the vessel especially associated with Dionysos. Above the ladies we see half-figures of musicians (Figure 3), one with castanets similar to themodern manjira of northern India, while the other plays a triangular harp known as a trigonus, an ancientNear Eastern instrument common inHellen izedAsia.9 As if to underscore the bacchanalian implications of the scene, the background above them is filled with growing grapevines. The lower segment of the pillar's face (Figure 4) is framed by a rocky landscape and shows a nude horse-headed fe male kneeling as if in supplication before a boy clad in a leaf loin cloth and clutching an axe. On the adjoining side of the pillar (Figure 5) we find twomore female revelers, one again seen from the back in three-quarter

have surrounding Buddhist early belonged to stonerailings stu-; -,< :




6. Detail,

left face upper portion

of Figure


Railing. Figure 8. Section of Monolithic Red mottled standstone, H. 21 inches (53.3 cm.). second century AD. Kushan Period, Mathura, from the J. H. Wade Fund, CMA 43.71 Purchase


7. Detail,

left face

lower portion

of Figure


view, but here playing pan pipes, another instrument recalling Greek prototypes but well documented in India from at least the first century BC.10 The second bacchante is unfortunately not well preserved, but again is shown frontally with one arm raised holding a clapper, perhaps similar to the kartal still used to ac company dancing in Orissa."I Both figures are shown amid growing vine stalks. A ewer, a large two-handled cup, and an animal-headed types common in Hellenistic rhyton-all Asia-are shown at their feet.12Above them (Figure 6) twomore female musicians play a typicalGreek lyre and a form of Indian lute known as a kacchapi, which was probably a very early im port from Iran or Central Asia.13 In the rocky landscape below (Figure 7), a hunchbacked female ladles out a drink from a vat similar to a kantharos into a cup held by a corpulent, curly haired, large-headed being who holds an unidentifiable object in his left hand. The total effect of this sculpture is that of a strongly Helleniz ing treatment of style and form that is basically Mathuran. It is very likely the creation of an Indian sculptor of theMathuran School during theKushan era, but one who, for specific reasons, had chosen non-Mathuran elements in terms of pose, costume, drapery treatment, and proportion, while additionally emphasiz ing these exotic elements with foreign musical instruments, ves sel forms, and above all the grapevine itself, which was never in digenous toGreater India but which was found only on itsnorth west frontiers inGandhara, Swat, Kashmir, and the valleys of theHindu Kush.14 Such Graeco-Roman features must certainly have been borrowed from Kushan Gandhara. It seems clear, however, that this isno Gandharan work. Not only do the type of stone and the pillar's shape reflect aMathuran origin, but the sty Mathuran with a consciously exotic veneer. The listic essence is reason for this tourdeforce is tobe found in the nature of its sub ject matter. The beings illustrated here derive from thedramatis personae of ancient popular Indian folk religion, assimilated by Buddhism as it attracted a larger following among the laity. A number of identifiable types are often lumped together as minor deities of the Yaksha class, including among others Nagas (serpent de ities), Gandharvas (celestial musicians), Kinnaras (heavenly singers), Guhyas (earth gnomes), and Raksasas (malevolent spirits).15The female Yakshis or Devatas were favorite subjects Mathuran School, as seen in an forBuddhist railing pillars of the example of a smallmonolithic railing section from theCleveland Museum collection (Figure 8) and another of a salabhanjika ("female-and-tree") motif very common to early Indian sculp ture (Figure 9).16Generally Yakshas were spirits of fecundity in



'~~~~~~~~~9"1~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


It? ?ar;


1 17~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~J~Sd, J ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~j

L~~~~~pP~~~~~~ ~~~~~-B~~~~~~a,~~k




Figure 9. Railing Pillar with a Salabhanjika. Red sandstone, H. 27-3/4 inches (70.5 cm.). Mathura, Kushan Period, second century AD. Purchase, Andrew R. and Martha Holden Jennings Fund, CMA 65.250

nature, capable of both good and ill, who also functioned as pro tectors of the riches of the earth and as local guardian spirits. Their ruler Kubera, also called Jambhala, was God of Wealth and one of themost significant popular deities to be recruited to theBuddhist cause in an era of growing prosperity. He iswell represented among Kushan works from Mathura as a portly, regal figure holding a drinking vessel and often a bag of gold, and occasionally appearing inebriated enough to require the support of Yaksha attendants. Just such an image, found in 1836 by Col. L. R. Stacy and designated a "Grecian Silenus" by its discover er, was the first piece of ancientMathuran sculpture brought to light inmodern times.17 This work, although in a poor state of preservation, appears to have formed the pedestal of a large stone offering bowl placed inor near a Buddhist shrine.' Anoth er contemporary pedestal, the Palikhera Block (Figure 10), shows Kubera seated on an omphalos-like throne holding a tan kard, while attended by his Yaksha court, one of whom holds a bunch of grapes. Behind these figures a rich background of vege tation is indicated, probably meant to represent one of the gar dens of theYaksha king in his mountain realm on themythical Mt. Kailasa, perhaps the famed Caitraratha where the treeswere said tohave jeweled leaves and beautiful girls as fruits. 19 The pe culiar throne of Kubera is symbolic of themountain itself. In a similar vein, a Kushan Mathuran stone pedestal from Maholi (Figure 11) portrays an inebriated Yakshi sinking helplessly to her knees as she is assisted by Yaksha revelers. Although such bacchanalian activities on the part of Yakshas and related beings might seem frivolous or ill-suited toBuddhist imagery, it is important to stress that, likeDionysos and his cor tege, Kubera and theYakshas were essentially primitive lords of all "wet and gleaming" nature in its very essence (rasa) as con tained in rain, dew, sap, blood, semen, and spiritous liquor (sura).20Beings of theYaksha class were regularly offered meat and strong drink, an important aspect of their cult immediately setting it apart from all forms of Brahmanical worship of the time.21Not only were theYakshas thought to be imbibers but al so guardians of the liquid essence of fecundity-the aqua vitae or amrita substance which they carried in cups and flasks, prefigur ing the vessel of the spiritual elixir of immortality (amrita kalasa) carried by the future BuddhaMaitreya and later by other Bodhisattvas.22 Thus it becomes evident that the cult of the Yakshas was al most inevitably destined to take on a Dionysiac coloring in re gions where the grapevine flourished andwhere strongHellenis tic influences molded the art of the Kushan Period. Indeed,Alex ander's homesick Macedonians thought that they had seen evi

Figure 10. Palikhera Block. Red sandstone, Kushan inches (153.7 cm.). Mathura, H. 60-1/2 no. C 2. Mathura Museum,


(101.6 cm.). Mathura, Kushan Period, second centuryAD. MathuraMuseum, no. 2800.


11. Maholi




H. 40


A .7-eXA




dence of the cult of their own Dionysos in rites of indigenous Yaksha worship there. The rusticmountain shrine of Dionysos, described by Apollonius as a vine-covered bower containing vin taging implements and a stone image, coincides with what we might have existed in a may reconstruct of a Yaksha shrine as it of India in themid-first century AD.23The vine-producing region image that the sagemistook for the IndianDionysos might have been theYaksha king himself. Perhaps the Bactrian Greek invaders of northern Indiawere the first actively to foster a syncretism involving Dionysos and his bacchants with Kubera and his Yakshas. InKushan Gandhara this phenomenon gave a strongly Dionysiac cast to themultitude of accessory Yakshas, Nagas, and relatedminor deities who ap

pear in the carved decoration of Buddhist monuments. One such relief shows an actual winemaking scene presided over by a seated prince, very likely a Yaksha lord, perhaps Pancika, Kubera's alter ego inGandhara (Figure 12). Another similar re lief shows a Naga king and his queen toasting each other with
wine cups as female servants carry in wine vessels and a Naga

porter empties the contents of a huge wineskin into a large footed krater (Figure 13).An interestingGandharan statue base shows a pair of amorous couples drinking together (Figure 14). The poses of thewomen showing their bare backs are similar to those seen on the Cleveland pillar, and here too we very probably see the amorous dalliance of Yaksha pairs (mithuna). Another sig nificant work, recently acquired by theLos Angeles County Mu 253

Scene. From Jamal Garhi. Figure 12. Winemaking Gandhara, Kushan Period, Peshawar Museum.


H. 7-1/4



cm.), W.






13. Relief

of Bacchanalian






British Museum.

Scene on Statue Base. Schist, W. Figure 14. Bacchanalian no. 1914. Gandhara, Kushan Period. Lahore Museum






15. Hariti. Gray schist, H. 43-1/2 inches 2nd-4th century AD. Los Angeles cm.). Swat Valley, of Art. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Larry Lenart. County Museum Figure (110.5

Figure 16. TutelaryCouple, Pancika and Hariti.
Schist. From Takht-i-Bahi. British Museum.



seum of Art shows theYaksha queen, Hariti, Pancika's spouse, holding a cluster of grapes (Figure 15). A characteristic repre sentation of theGandharan Tutelary Couple, Pancika andHariti, depicts theYaksha queen andmother of legions of baby Yakshas holding the symbol for bounty in Greek art, the cornucopia, while her husband Pancika holds a wine cup (Figure 16). Buddhist literary echoes of the connection of Yakshas with the grape and itsproducts may be found in the Sarvata Vinaya. It re counts an episode in the life of the Buddha when he was lodged and entertained by a pious Buddhist Yaksha, and allowed his dis ciples to eat grapes "purified by fire" (raisins?) and drink non alcoholic grape juice brought to them in offering by worshipful Yakshas from Kashmir.24 To return to theCleveland railing pillar, itappears most prob able that theMathuran sculptorwho executed thiswork allowed himself to be strongly influenced by Gandharan imagery inorder to depict more authentically the exotic Yaksha paradise far away among the snowy peaks of the northwest where grapevines flour

ished to provide their amrita substance, thewine of the grape. There in the fabled groves of theYaksha king, beautiful Yakshis danced and cavorted to celestial music. Several centuries later the great Indian poet and dramatist Kalidasa described a similar scene in his lyric poem "The Cloud Messenger" (Meghaduta), as a sadYaksha banished from Kubera's paradise recalls happy pastimes drinking wine from kalpa trees in the company of fair ladies.25 In the illustration from the Cleveland pillar the Yakshas' refreshment is specifically grape wine, but otherwise the setting is similar. The rocky outcropping below the feet of the Yakshis represents the lower slopes or caves of Kubera's moun tain. The horse-headed Yakshi kneeling before aYaksha guard is perhaps pleading for a drink of their favorite vintage or entry into themarvelous vineyard. She belongs to a special class of being called valava-rupa (mare-shaped), or more accurately valava makha (mare-faced), mentioned in the early Buddhist Mahavam sa and in the Padakusalamanava Jataka, which tells of a horse headed demoness who abducted a Brahmin boy and held him 255

Figure 17. Yakushi.Bronze. Japan,Nara, Yakushi-ji, late seventh century.

taken in earlier times.29 Itwas during theT'ang era that the cul tural expansion of China molded the art of nascent Buddhism in Japan. In the late seventh century amonumental bronze image of the Buddha of Healing, Yakushi (Skt. Bhaisajyaguru) was cre ated forYakushi-ji, a temple atNara.30 The deity is shown seated in repose on the World Mountain (Mt.Meru or Sumeru) which is shaped vaguely like a stepped altar, wider at the top and base and tapering to a narrower shaft (Figure 17). Although the form has lost all of its naturalistic elements, becoming essentially an elab orate pedestal for the seated image, the top band of decoration is an elegant vine scroll. On its central shaft, potbellied curly haired beings with fangs are seen peering from openings. In this work we see again the vinecladWorld Mountain of northwest In dia transformed into the seat of theHealing Buddha. It is also sig nificant that the deity represented is theLord of Healing, recall ing the similar if grosser character of theYaksha king and his subjects as Lords of Life, both guardians and bestowers of their immortal essence, wine of the grape.

Madison, Wisconsin

1. Arrian,


i. 1-8; Arrian,



1; Diodorus


Bibliothekis, ii. 38.4; Q. CurtiusRufus,De rebusgestisAlexandri Mag ni, viii. 10. 2. Anabasis, v. 1.6, v.2.5-7; Indica, i.6.
vi.22.23. to Julius Solinus, there was a 3. Pliny, Historia, According where Dionysos was nourished cave on Mt. Meros (Collectanea, tells us that the mountain has three peaks, one called 52.17). Polyaenos the other two Kondraske and Korasibie Meros, i.I.2). The (Strategica, actual mountain has been identified with the triple-peaked Mt. Koh-i

prisoner in a cave.26Although the scene on thepillar may suggest this tale, it ismore likely a simple rendering of two of the lesser denizens of Kubera's kingdom. The other rock-enframed scene containing a hunchbacked female and a large-headed dwarf is probably non-narrative as well. Here again are two characters from popular folklore, one a witch-like crone, and the other a portly Guhya (earth gnome) who resembles Kubera himself as Guhyapati (Lord of Gnomes).27 With the decline of Buddhism in the northwestern borderlands following the fall of theKushan dynasty, itwould seem that the imagery of Kubera's vine-covered mountain paradise might dis appear totally. Yet the grape cluster remained inBuddhism as an attribute of the Central Asian Avalokitesvara.28 Although the grape was not native toChina, viticulture and decorative grape vine motives became popular during the seventh and eighth cen turies of the T'ang dynasty. Both were imports across the trade routes of Central Asia, the same path thatBuddhism itself had 256

Mor inSwat (Cambridge History of India, I, 353-354).
4. Stabo, Geography, xv. 1.8. The earliest references

Indiacome from Panini (Ashtadhyayi,iv.2.99), who noted thata wine was importedfrom theKapisa regioncalled kapisayani.He mentioned
from the Kabul valley (v. two other varieties, kalika and avadatika, times is substantiated by Kautilya who 4.3). The use of wine inMaurya noted that the best vintages were harahuraka and kapisayani (Arth

to grape wine


asastra, ii.25.25).
5. Philostratus, TheLife and Times ofApollonius of Tyana, II, no. 1 (Stanford, Publications, Eells, Stanford University trans. C. P. 1923), p. 40

inches (80 Railing Pillar, Sikri sandstone, H. 31-1/2 Kushan Period, late second century AD. Pur India, Mathura, cm.). Fund. Publication: Gazette des Beaux-Arts, chase, John L. Severance XCI (March 1978), no. 178, repr. p. 38; Exhibition: The Cleveland Mu seum of Art, 1978: Year in Review for 1977 (cat., CMA Bulletin, LXV [January 1978]), no. 151, repr. 6. CMA 77.34

Masterpieces of Mathura Sculpture (Varanasi, 1965); Stanislaw
Czuma, "Mathura Sculpture in the Cleveland culture Museum Collection,"

CMA Bulletin, LXIV(March1977), 83-114.
7. For the background on Kushan see J. Rosenfield, TheDynas

" no. 1165 (February 1966), plement a La "Gazette Des Beaux-Arts, no. 154, repr. p. 38. Exhibition: of Art, 1965: The Cleveland Museum for 1965 (cat., CMA Bulletin, LII [November Year in Review 1965]),

no. 87, repr.
of a Relic of Grecian Sculp 17. L. R. Stacy, "A Note on the Discovery ture inUpper India," with additional note by James Princep, Journal of Growse, "A Supposed Greek Sculpture from Mathura,"

ticArts of theKushans (Berkeley,Los Angeles, 1967), pp. 7-121.

"The Origin of the Buddha Image,"' Art 8. See A. K. Coomaraswamy, The Evolution of IX, no. 4 (1926-1927), 287-328; B. Rowland, Bulletin, the Buddha Image (New York: Asia Society, 1968); "A Note on the In vention of the Buddha Image," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, II

theAsiatic Society of Bengal, V (1836), 567-570, pl. XXXI;F. S.
Journal of the Calcutta, no. M

Asiatic Society of Bengal, XLIV (1875), pls. XII,XIII;J. Ph. Vogel, La
sculpture de Mathura, 1, H. 44 inches). p. 118, pl. LVII (Indian Museum,

Buddha, ed. D. L. Snellgrove (Lon (1948), 181-186; The Imageof the don, 1978), pp. 13-45.
9. See B. Chaitarya Deva, Musical Instruments of India (Calcutta, of the trigonus see W. van 1978), p. 55, fig. 5.11. For representations in Bishapour, vol. VIII (Par "Les mosaiques sassanides," Ghirshman, see the stair riser relief in The is, 1956), pl. V. For its use in Gandhara Sir John Marshall, of Art (CMA 30.328); Cleveland Museum Taxila,

18. See Carter, "Dionysiac Aspects," um, no. C 2, H. 60-1/2 inches). 19. 20. publ. See Coomaraswamy, Ibid., 1948 Yaksas, II, 13-14; F. D. K. Bosch, in Dutch), pp. 59-60.

pp. 122 ff, n. 5 (Mathura Muse

also Arbor, 1939), pl. XXXVI; R. Ingen,Figurines from Seleucia (Ann

I, 6-7. The Golden Germ: An Introduc discussion of Bac

tionto IndianSymbolism(S'Gravenhage: Mouton& Co., 1960;orig. S.
See also Plutarch's

Hm (Cambridge,1951), pl. 144, no. 65.
10. See Chaitarya Deva, Musical Instruments, pp. 106, 110, figs. 7.8,

chus inIsis andOsiris (35.365a); alsoCarter, "DionysiacAspects," p. 141.
See Jataka, no. 113, describing a Yaksha festival with liquor offer ings, and no. 146 inwhich liquor offerings are made to Nagas. See also of meat and wine are Kathasaritsagara (Chap. CV) where offerings The Dynastic Art of made to Yakshas on the wedding day; Rosenfield, the Kushans, to the Laws ofManu (xi.96), a p. 315, n. 160. According Brahmin was forbidden to partake of offerings to Yakshas. 21.

7.15. 11. Ibid., pp. 55-59, fig. 5.19.
The Panagyurishte 12. See especially I. Venedikov, Gold Treasure (Sophia, 1961), nos. 1-3. The gold rhyta in the form of stag heads are this treasure dates from the third century BC, extremely close. Although its Graeco-Iranian traditions carried on through Parthian and Sasanian times in the Near East.

22. Carter, "DionysiacAspects," pp. 143-145.
23. See Coomaraswamy, Yaksas, I, 17-28. The shrine of the Yaksha was usually in a grove or on amountain. The center generally included a tree with an altar or stone dais beneath it and possibly a statue. See also 0. Viennot, Le culte de l'arbre dans I'Inde ancien (Paris, 1954), pp.

13. Chaitarya Deva,Musical Instruments, 161, fig. 3.1. This instru p.
ment was known inGandhara as well (see H. Ingholt, Gandharan Art in

Pakistan [Connecticut,1971], figs. 3, 367).
14. See M. L. Carter, "Dionysiac talis, VII (1968), 136-138. Aspects of Kushan Art, " Ars Orien

113-115;Carter, "DionysiacAspects," pp. 140-141. 24. Cited by T. Watters in On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, 15. See Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, Yaksas (Washington,D.C., 629-645AD (London, 1904), I, 237. I,4 ff. 1928), 25. Meghaduta, ii.3. See Carter, "DionysiacAspects," p. 130. 16. Czuma, "Mathura Sculptures," pp. 91-94. CMA43.71 Sectionof aMonolithicRailing, redsandstone, 21 in ix. 10, cited in Coomaraswamy, 26. Mahavamsa, H. Yaksas, I, 10, 16. For the Jataka see N. P. Joshi, Mathura ches (53.3 cm.). India, Mathura, Kushan Period, second centuryAD. Sculptures, p. 54. Purchase from the J.H. Wade Fund. Publications: Alice N. Heerama 27. See Coomaraswamy, Yaksas, I, 8. neck,Masterpieces of IndianSculpture from theFormer Collections of 28. See A. A Catalogue Recovered of Paintings from Tun Waley, Nasli M. Heeramaneck (Verona, Italy: Alice N. Heeramaneck, 1979), A. huang by Sir Aurel Stein (London, 1931), pp. 54-59, no. XXXV; no. 20, repr.; Czuma, "MathuraSculpture," p. 92, fig. 15;H. C. Old Stein, Serindia, IV (Oxford, 1921), pl. LXIII; ChineseArt, ed. T. Hollis, "Three IndianBuddhist Sculptures," CMA Bulletin, XXXI Misugi (Osaka, 1961), no. 63. (March1944), repr. p. 35;Alvan Eastman,Catalogue oftheHeerama 29. See S. Cammann, "The Lion and Grape Pattern on Chinese Bronze neckCollectionof Early IndianSculptures,Paintings,Bronzes and Tex tiles (NewYork, 1934), no. 5. Exhibitions:Detroit Instituteof Arts, Mirrors," ArtibusAsiae, XVI (1953), 265-291; B. Gyllensvard, "T'ang 1942:BuddhistArt, no. 3, repr. p. 40; New York, 1936: College Art Gold and Silver," The Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities Bulletin XXIX (1957);Potteryand Metalwork inT'angChina,Col (Stockholm), of Early Indian and six other locations, Loan Exhibition Association, Asia, Sir PercivalDavid Foundation loquiesonArt andArchaeology in Sculptures,PaintingsandBronzes, cat. by A. K. Coomaraswamy and of Chinese Art, ed.W. Watson (London, 1970), pp. 12-17. N. Heeramaneck, 1935, no. 1.
CMA 65.250 red sandstone, H. Railing Pillar with a Salabhanjika, 27-3/4 inches (70.5 cm.). India, Mathura, Kushan Period, late second century AD. Purchase, Andrew R. and Martha Holden Jennings Fund. See J. E. Kidder, Early Buddhist Japan (New York, 1972), pp. 106 ff.; K. Machida, Yakushi-ji (Tokyo, 1960); T. Kuno and T. Inoue, "A Acta Asiatica, I Study of the Yakushi Triad in the Kondo Yakushi-ji," 30.

Publications:Czuma, "MathuraSculpture," p. 93, figs. 16, 17; "Art

(1960), 98-108.


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful