Understanding the impact of the Fulbright experience on the life, work and network of artists

Rohini Dandavate
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UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF THE FULBRIGHT EXPERIENCE ON THE LIFE, WORK AND NETWORK OF ARTISTS A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for The Degree Master of Arts in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University

By Rohini Dandavate, B.A.

The Ohio State University 2000

Master's Examination Committee Dr. Margaret Wyszomirski, Advisor Dr. Wayne Lawson Dr. Georgianna Short Approved by Adviser Graduate Program in Arts Policy and Administration

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ABSTRACT

This thesis focuses on understanding the impact of the Fulbright experience on artists. This study analyzes the changes that occur in the attitude of artists, in their work and in their network of friends and colleagues. . The Fulbright Exchange Program was established in 1946 under legislation introduced by the late Senator J William Fulbright. The objective of Act is to enable the government of the United States to increase mutual understanding between the people of United States and people of other countries through educational and cultural exchange. The United States Information Agency (USIA) is the principal administrator of the Fulbright Program. The Fulbright Program is funded primarily by Congressional annual appropriation. This thesis reviews the importance of cultural diplomacy in building international relations and discusses the purposes of conducting cultural diplomacy. After comparing the evolution of cultural diplomacy in Europe and in the U.S, this study discusses various tools for conducting cultural diplomacy. It reviews the history, implementation and objectives of the Fulbright Program and the Strategic Plan of USIA. The Plan outlines the types of data and information that are being collected on an ongoing basis to study whether the programs are achieving USIA's performance objectives.

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The measures of impact of this research study were drawn from three types of data sources described in the Strategic Plan of USIA. They are: • Number, duration quality and value of personal and instituional linkages (government, business, academic) created or enhanced as a result of international exchange and training activities. • Quality and quantity of subsequent activities and achievements of USIA program participants and their audiences in applying knowledge and perspectives gained during program. • Degree of change in the knowledge, opinions and attitudes of USIA program The study of creative minds by Howard Gardner (1993) also influenced design of the framework for understanding the impact of the Fulbright experience. Gardner’s(1993) framework consists of three core elements : a) a creating human being, b) an object or project on which that individual is working, and c) the other individuals who inhabit the world of the creative individual (Gardner 1993). According to Gardner (1993), the superstructure needed to account for creative activity is based on these three core elements and on the relationships among them. Therefore this research seeks to understand the changes that occur a) in an artist's life, b) changes in work and c) changes in network as a result of his/her participation in the Fulbright Exchange Program. Data was collected using a research tool-kit. It consisted of a scrapbook designed to document their memories of the Fulbright experience, a collage exercise developed to

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understand the emotional changes that they experienced and a request for photo-essay that allowed them to pictorially narrate the changes in their life, work and network. Research findings suggest Fulbright participants' perspective of life and the world changed more than his/her work. Apparently the Fulbright experience transformed participants into empathizers of other cultures rather than influencing their own work or promoting U.S. culture abroad.

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Dedicated to my brother Dipak

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I received immense encouragement and support from my faculty, friends and my family. I would like to thank my adviser, Dr. Wyszomirski for her guidance and advice. She taught me to be alert and make the best of every opportunity that came my way to learn more about international exchange. Working with her was never a dull moment. Dr. Lawson's work in the field of international exchange at the Ohio Arts Council was always an inspiration for me. I thank Dr. Short and Dr. Anand Desai for their patience and time. I am very grateful to Dr. Don Krug and the Department of Art Education at OSU for providing funding to me for the three years of my Masters education, which enabled me to do this work. I have benefited greatly from all my faculty members in the department of Art Education and in the School of Public Policy and Management. I feel privileged to have had this opportunity to work and learn from them. . My friends, the team at Sonic Rim, never hesitated to burn the midnight oil and create the research tool kit and the graphical presentation of the research data. The input from the Sonic Rim team and the availability of their technological infrastructure helped relieve stress. I am forever grateful to my family. My sincere thanks to my husband, Uday and my daughter Isha. Their continuous support, patience, and encouragement was always there for me throughout my education at the Ohio State University.

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VITA. June 26, 1958 1979 1979 Cuttack, India. B.A. English Literature, Utkal University. Diploma in Tourism and Travel Management, Rajendra Prasad Insititute of Communication and Manangement Internship. Trade Wings, Mumbai Officer Trainee, The Employers Federation of India Executive Assistant, Association of Indian Engineering Industy Program Officer, Dance Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi Odissi dance performer Artist in Residence, Arts in Education Program, Ohio Arts Council. Graduate Teaching Associate, The Ohio State University PUBLICATIONS Articles 1. Dandavate, Rohini; "Dance Education in India the Guru Shishya Parampara." Ohio Dance Newsletter, Fall 1996,Volume 20 Issue1.

1980 1981-82 1982-85 1987-89 1973-present 1994- present 1998-present

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2. Dandavate, Rohini; "Mudras: The Language of Hand Gestures." Ohio Dance Newsletter, Spring 1996,Volume 19.Issue 3. 3. Dandavate, Rohini; "Odissi: Temple Dance of India." Ohio Dance Newsletter, Winter 1996,Volume 19,Issue 2.

FIELDS OF STUDY Major Field: Other Fields: Arts Policy and Administration Public Policy and Management Cultural Diplomacy

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract Dedication Acknowledgments Vita List of Tables List of Figures Chapters:. 1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 Personal Motivation Why The Fulbright Program 01 01 03 05 05 07 08 09 09 11 13 13 16 21 23 ii v vi vii xi xii

2. Statement of the Problem 2.1 2.2 2.3 Context of the Problem The Problem Research Question

3 Literature Review 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Understanding Cultural Diplomacy Building International Relations through Cultural Diplomacy Purpose of Cultural Diplomacy Evolution of Cultural Diplomacy in Europe Cultural Diplomacy in the U.S. Inception of the Fulbright program Present Perspective

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4. Methodology 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Design of the Study Participants/Location of Research Methods of Data Collection Methods of Data Analysis

27 27 29 30 31 32 32 33 34 36 37 37 38 38 39 40 41

5 What did we find? 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 References Appendices Appendix A: Invitation to Fulbright Scholars Appendix B: Letter Accompanying the Research Kit Appendix C: Collage Images and Words Appendix D: Implementation Scenario of the Fulbright Program Appendix E: The Scrapbook From the Rating scales From the Collage From the Scrapbook How did they change How did their work change How has their world changed? Implications Limitations of this Research Reflections Conclusion

44 46 47 53 54

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Fulbright Awards Distribution

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2 Organizational History of the State Department Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Graph –How did things change as a result of my Fulbright Experience 2 Collage of How things changed as a result of my Fulbright Experience 3 The Scrapbook 4 Changes in Me 5 Changes in my Work 6 Changes in my World 7 Collage Image Set #1 8 Collage Image Set #2 9 Collage Image Set #3 10 Collage Image Set #4 11 Collage word Set #1 12 Collage word Set #2 Page 32 33 34 36 37 37 47 48 49 50 51 52

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Personal Motivation My motivation for this thesis evolved from my experience as an international student and a visiting artist in schools in the U.S. As a graduate student in the Ohio State University I lived in the international students’ family housing. In daily interactions with people from diverse cultures, I experienced a sequence of phases: a) initial culture shock, b) need for adjustment to an unfamiliar culture, and c) absorption of intercultural experiences. This process helped me discover a new comfort level in this community of diverse nationalities. Outside of campus, I am an artist in residence in the Arts in Education Program of the Ohio Arts Council. I get opportunities to visit educational institutions and present Odissi dance, one of the Indian classical dance styles, to students. After my first few lecture demonstrations/workshops, I recognized the need to develop new methods of presentation to make it enjoyable and meaningful to the new audience. The dance always evoked curiosity in my audience. They had many questions about the dance form, especially the symbolism of physical form and the meaning of the ritual. My response to their curiosity helped them to think and talk about the cultural context of the dance form. In an effort to continue to keep the interest of my audience I had to develop new ways of presenting my dance. I had to first understand the cultural practices and expressions of the people in America. Then I had to think deeper about my own culture and its influence on my art. This process of understanding and learning about both American and my own cultural practices helped me draw parallels from both cultures.

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For example, while the devotional sentiment of my presentation was derived from the rituals in the temples of Orissa, I wanted my audience to derive their emotional framework from their personal experience of devotion from everyday experience to appreciate the ritual of Odissi dance. My narration was intended to help them make connections between the expression in my art and the source of their own emotions. This process of drawing comparisons and contrasts made my presentations more meaningful. I was able to reflect over these experiences even more when I started teaching a course, Ethnic Arts - A Means to Intercultural Communication, at the Ohio State University. This course is designed to help students understand the cultural diversity of North America through the study of art, artists and their artwork. All these experiences led me to think about the changes that occurred in me, in my work and in my network of friends and colleagues. I realized that the change was more painful when I viewed the unfamiliar experience with my original perspective and expected others to adapt to my views. The change became easier and more enjoyable when I focused on the needs of my audience from diverse cultures and allowed the content and presentation of my art to evolve. In effect, sharing of my art helped me to easily adapt to changes occurring within me. My personal experiences in and around the Buckeye Village (international student housing) made me think about the fast expanding Global Village. I recognized how the act of sharing art with people from a different country can help build international understanding. This awareness led me to read literature about international exchange of artists.

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1.2 Why The Fulbright Program? In reading relevant literature I was inspired by Senator William Fulbright's prophetic vision of cultural diplomacy in the emerging multi-polar world. He conceptualized his vision at a time when diplomacy was conducted in a bi-polar political environment. Randall Bennett Woods,(1995) in his book Fulbright: A Biography wrote: ….at the core of his ideal, America was a meritocracy based on education and equality of opportunity. True to his emotional and intellectual roots, he created an academic exchange program intended to break down the barrier of ignorance, nationalism and xenophobia. Out of this experience he was convinced, would come educators and political figures determined to forge a world in which individuals, corporations and nations could live out lives of enlightened self interest. Senator William J Fulbright's goal in introducing the Fulbright Program was to build long term international relations with other countries using the exchange program as a tool. The Fulbright Program is a global enterprise with many different components, each with its own focus. The United States Information Agency (USIA) is the principal administrator of the program worldwide. The Institute of International Education assists the USIA in conducting the program at both predoctoral and postdoctoral levels and in giving grants to citizens of participating countries primarily for: university teaching, advanced research, graduate study, and teaching in elementary and secondary schools.

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Comparing the Fulbright Program with other programs that support international exchange of artists, it became clear to me that the Fulbright program is the most expansive international exchange program. It's objectives, implementation and impact have been widely discussed, researched, analyzed and documented. My personal experiences in the U.S. as an artist and as an international student prompted me to examine how the participation and exchange of artists contributes to the objectives of the Fulbright Program.

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CHAPTER 2

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 2.1 Context of the Problem On reviewing literature on cultural diplomacy and international relations in the U.S. I feel that the Fulbright Exchange Program is one of the most effective tools of cultural diplomacy. In the words of the Executive Director of the Fulbright Commission in Colombia, “ It is a pleasant and useful two- way route to understanding another culture." It facilitates the creation of a new and enlightening prism to view the world. (Fulbright Voices) Gunnar Adler-Karlsson,(1993) one Fulbright exchange scholar, expresses his 'Fulbright Kick' in the following words: What culture can do seems more stochastic, influential but in a random way. During a long train ride, for example, one may chance to meet an interesting person so stimulating that it changes one's behavior in a lasting manner, provoking us to exert innate abilities more than before, perhaps even giving a new direction to one's life and work. In the strongest case, it can be something like a religious conversion. What culture can do, at it's best, is give us a kick. I see the Fullbright Program as a systematic attempt to provide such kicks, perhaps in both senses of the word. Another Fullbright scholar, Dr Tavares da Silva, one of Portugal's leading fighter's for women's rights said that during her stay at a small U.S. college studying American Literature in the early sixties, she encountered two unexpected forces which left a mark on her: a) the New Frontier and b) the beginnings of the American feminist movement. After the seed was planted, she never remained the same. Upon the death of the Salazar when liberalization began, she was ready to step into a major role, the first in

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Portugal, as a leading player in the politics of equality for women. In the words of Professor Tiziano Bonazzi,(1993) an Italian historian: …the Fulbright Program, as a tool of cultural diplomacy, put Italian grantees directly in touch with American society and provided access to its deeper levels of meaning. It gave them the possibility of reacting freely, negatively if necessary, to their perceptions of a diverse and complex society. The program has helped create the possibility for the American past to become relevant to the self -analysis of another culture. Much like my own experiences in assimilating the cultural experiences in America, I feel that the Fulbright Program is a great opportunity to understand and explore an unfamiliar culture and to expand one's boundaries in every facet of life. I also believe that the Fulbright Program is an effective tool for building international relations. The Program brings together communities of people who practice and share similar professions, aspirations and passions from different parts of the world. New associations and different cultural experiences help them to build bridges of understanding across cultures. In the process of adapting to a different culture, Fulbright scholars learn more about another culture as well as their own traditions and their beliefs. In the long run, these communities of Fulbright scholars and many others who expose themselves to similar diverse experiences contribute in facilitating better international relations. Jennifer Williams (1996) in her book Across the Street Around the World: A Handbook for Cultural Exchange very appropriately states: "Cultural exchange is about communication and mutual enrichment through new perspectives and new ideas and can help sustain a living discussion about diversity" (p. 9).

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2.2 The Problem The Review of the 1997-98-99 Fulbright Awards distribution, published by the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, indicates that the number of artists exchanged under the Fulbright exchange program are fewer than those from other disciplines. The Table 1 shows the number of scholars exchanged in the field of arts and a few other disciplines.

Discipline Music Theater/Dance Art Art history Engineering Economics Education Business Administration American literature Communication and Journalism

1997-98 07 12 11 07 37 34 46 44 64 49

1998-99 15 07 14 09 18 30 29 29 50 29

Table 1. U.S. Scholars visiting other countries By studying the impact of the Fulbright experience on artists I have tried to focus on how the participation of artists can contribute to the objective of building cultural relations between nations. Through this research I would also like to address the problem of under-representation of artists in the Fulbright program.

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2.3 Research Question My research is focussed on the following question: What is the impact of the Fulbright experience on participating artists? Specifically, I analyzed the impact of the Fulbright exchange experience on artists from the U.S. who visited another country as measured by: 1. changes in their attitudes 2. changes in their work 3. changes in their involvement with other people(e.g. professional colleagues) and organizations (e.g. professional, academic or philanthropic institutions) from the visiting country and in the U.S..

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CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1 Understanding Cultural Diplomacy In the context of emerging climate of global interdependence, interactions between nations have acquired new meaning. More and more people are pursuing global aspirations by setting up homes beyond their own national boundaries, giving rise to multi-cultural and multi-national communities. Simultaneously, more and more countries are recognizing the need to depend on other countries for sharing of resources (e.g. financial, technological, human, and informational) and expertise to support their own progress. There are two types of communities in the emerging scenario, one set of communities continue to follow the traditional path of building an independent sovereign nation and building its own power base in global competition. The other type is driven by the aspirations to find their niche in the wider global community. A major difference between the two is that the traditional model has brought about competition, strife, mistrust, wars and espionage, while the emerging global communities recognize the needfor cooperation and peaceful coexistence for economic development and prosperity. In the words of Thomas Friedman: If the defining perspective of the Cold War world was “division,” the defining perspective of globalization is “integration.” The symbol of the Cold war system was a wall, which divided everyone. The symbol of the globalization system is the World Wide Web, which unites everyone. The defining document of the Cold War system was “the treaty.” The defining document of the globalization system is “The deal.” (Friedman,1999 p.8 ).

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As participants in the new system of globalization, it is becoming necessary for people and nations to observe, understand, and connect with each other’s culture. Federico Mayor, Director General of UNESCO, at the launching of the World Decade for Cultural Development, said: The experience of the last two decades has shown that culture cannot be dissociated from development in any society, what ever its level of economic growth, or its political and economic orientation. Wherever a country has set itself the target of economic growth without reference to its cultural environment, grave economic and cultural imbalances have resulted and its creative potential has been seriously weakened. Genuine development must be based on the best possible use of the human resources and material wealth of a community. Thus in the final analysis the priorities, motivations, and objectives of development must be found in culture. Mayor's perspective gives rise to the need for introducing and expanding policies and programs that provide opportunities for people to experience, explore and harness global cultures. The importance of cultural sensitivity in public administration is well illustrated in the statecraft practiced by Emperor Akbar in ancient India. He was the third generation Mughal emperor of India (1556-1605). His grandfather invaded India and secured the position of Emperor by force. Akbar was a Muslim. He was aware that for him to be successful as a ruler of India, it was not enough to strengthen his power through military might and political maneuvers. He would have to gain confidence of theHindu population. He could rule the Hindu majority only through acceptance and cooperation. He won the allegiance of the Rajputs, the most belligerent Hindus, by a shrewd blend of tolerance, generosity, and force. He himself married two Rajput princesses. In addition, Akbar, although illiterate sought advice and knowledge from 'nine jewels' he appointed in his court. The nine jewels were learned men of diverse faiths and disciplines. He made

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his court a center of arts and letters. The learned men advised him on various issues in the establishment of an efficient administrative system that not only held the empire together but also stimulated trade and economic development. Akbar's primary objective in appointing these scholars was to develop an administration which was sensitive and responsive to the cultural difference between the rulers and the citizens. Recognizing the importance of cultural understanding in inter-cultural and international relations, many countries have established cultural divisions in their embassies. Jennifer Williams (1996) summarizes the value of cultural understanding: Inadequate knowledge of a culture can lead to misunderstanding, mistrust and even fear. International exchange can play an important role in the active development of tolerance and flexibility. It can help people to examine their own identity more closely and at the same time help to gain insight into other people's lives. (Williams,p.9) Cultural exchanges, one of the important tools of cultural diplomacy, provides the setting for sharing and understanding the meaning of life and the value of differences between people and cultures. 3.2 Building International Relations through Cultural Diplomacy In reviewing literature on international relations I observed that cultural diplomacy provides a special dimension to the process of governing and maintaining relations between nations. Even when nations negotiate economic, political and traderelated issues they pay attention to the cultural background of the negotiators. From reading history one finds that wherever civilization exists, cultural diplomacy exists. Sometimes cultural diplomacy was practiced by giving gifts, sometimes through marriages between the kings and princesses from different empires, and in a more recent history through establishing educational institutions like the Alliance

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Francais, the Gothe Institute, and informational institutions like the United States Information Services. The American Political Dictionary (5th Ed) defines diplomacy as" the total process by which states carry on political relations with each other". Diplomacy contributes to an orderly system of international relations and is the key technique used in the peaceful settlement of international disputes. Culture can be defined as the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. These patterns, traits, and products are considered the expression of a particular period, class, community or population. The World Decade for Cultural Development launched by UNESCO on January 21, 1988, defines culture as "to cultivate": It is something elaborated by humankind: expression of our creativity, including our language, architecture, literature, music and art. Past this it is also the way we live, we think, the way we see our world: our beliefs, attitudes, customs, and social relations. Culture transmits to us its own intrinsic understanding of the way the world works, as well as to lead us to see what is important within the world - in a word, our values. Often "cultural diplomacy" is misunderstood as instrument of "propaganda”. Kevin Mulcahy(1982) in his essay " Cultural Diplomacy: Foreign Policy and the Exchange Programs", has cautioned against pursuing narrow political objectives through cultural diplomacy: What the exchange programs seek to facilitate is a better understanding of American society by exposing other nationals to the diversity of cultural activities found here. In this sense, cultural programs (faculty and student exchanges, performing arts productions, museum shows, book exhibits, lectures) should be distinguished from those activities designed to explain and defend American political objectives abroad or

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to counteract communist propaganda. The exchange programs represent "Cultural diplomacy" while the later activities are a part of "Informational diplomacy" (Mulcahy,1982, P.269) 3.3 Purpose of Cultural Diplomacy A brief review of cultural diplomacy in Europe indicates that the overall process of conducting cultural diplomacy in earlier times was guided by • a need to create a culturally conducive environment for their own people engaged in trade/academic/political activities in another country or • to cultivate and spread their own cultural influence in the host country In both situations the motivations for cultural diplomacy were self-serving rather than aimed at creating common cultural grounds for bilateral or multi-lateral co-operation. 3.4 Evolution of Cultural Diplomacy in Europe France and Germany established Alliance Francais and the Goethe Institute respectively for language education. These institutions also provided information about their country to people in the host country. Besides establishing language institutions, France and Germany also provided aid to people in developing countries through churches. By giving financial aid they were trying to build a self-image and earn goodwill. According to McMurrey and Lee(1947): France first among modern nations recognized the advantages of a large-scale program of cultural relations with other countries. During the latter half of the nineteenth century the French Government, through the French Catholic teaching missionaries, carried on extensive religious, educational and philanthropic works in the Near and in the Far East. Schools hospitals, orphanages, dispensaries, and agricultural institutions were established in the eastern countries especially in the Mediterranean Basin (McMurrey and Lee,p.30) To propagate the French language in the colonies and in the other foreign lands, the Frenchmen in 1883 founded the "Alliance Francaise." Although the original function

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of French schools was to provide education to French children living in foreign lands, soon more and more children in countries of lower educational level were attracted to study in French schools. The first exchange initiative was taken by France through an Agreement signed between the Ministries of France and England for the exchange of assistants. These assistants taught their own language and something about their country in the school to which they were sent, and in turn, they studied the language of the host country which they were supposed to teach on return to their country. Similar agreements followed in 1906 with Scotland, in 1907 with Saxony and Austria, in 1912 with Bavaria and Hessen. France became a republic much before Germany and Italy and the structure of their policies and programs were established soon enough. The political situation in Europe just before the World War 1 clearly dictated the need for creating a self-image in the different parts of the world. The French identified different ways of forming relationships and earning goodwill,( e.g. with powerful colonies like Great Britain they signed agreements for cultural exchanges, whereas with smaller and less developed countries they provided aid and in turn gained their support). The Alliance Francais, for example in the process of providing language education, was also spreading cultural information. Learning from the French example, Germany began intensifying efforts. to keep alive a sense of Germanism among Germans living in foreign countries. As early as 1829, a German archaeological institute was founded in Rome by private initiative and soon gained the patronage of the future King William IV of Prussia. Between 1830 and 1870 about 38 German schools were established in foreign countries. In 1870 the

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archaeological Institute in Rome was adopted by the government, which also began to subsidize schools and churches abroad. A Section for Art and Science was established in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1896, and a schools section followed in 1906. An exchange of university professors between Germany and the United States was initiated in 1905. After the Treaty of Versailles, the number of Germans living in other countries increased and so in October, 1919, Dr Bauer, the German Chancellor, said: In all areas of culture, in the realm of science, in the social realm, in so far as personal relations and social intercourse are concerned, we will give practical proof of our community of interest and foster the feeling of unity. This is the task of the German Reich. ( Quoted by McMurrey and Lee,1947,p.32 ) This statement assumes more significance when considered within the context of Germany's defeat in World War I when it became necessary to erase the old impressions of Germany in people's minds and promote a better image of the country. Italian schools were established in foreign countries in 1880. In 1889 a number of prominent Italians drew up a manifesto for active propagation of Italian culture in other countries. From this was born the Dante Alighieri Society. The Society succeeded in maintaining large-scale operations without a government subsidy until 1960, when it obtained financial support from the government. The French, the Germans, the Italians and the British all built schools in countries where they had expatriate communities. They also sent missionaries to developing countries. In addition, France and Germany initiated another step in cultural diplomacy when they made institutional and budgetary provisions within their Ministry of Foreign Affairs to further encourage cultural activities in foreign countries. It can be said that these countries made initial strides to build cultural relations by first establishing

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institutions of language education and through missionaries to the churches. Soon these private institutions became centers of information and cultural exchange. Later still these centers received regular governmental allocations to strengthen long-term cultural relations. At one level the educational institutions focused on providing education to their own people but on a different level these institutions also fostered relationships and information exchange among the local population. This kind of information exchange created opportunities for interaction and discussion for trade, travel and immigration as well as opened new windows for building relations and exploring opportunities for cooperation. 3.5 Cultural Diplomacy in the US The U.S. cultural diplomacy efforts from the beginning followed a "start and stop approach" (Sablosky 1999). In the article" Reinvention, Reorganization, Retreat: American Cultural Diplomacy at Century's End1978-1998", Sablosky states that " American cultural diplomacy has been marked by a degree of policy incoherence, organizational instability, popular indifference and political vulnerability unusual even in the turbulent generally sphere of foreign affairs" (1999,p.31). From the very beginning building cultural relations was not a priority for the US. Cultural relations were always subordinated to whatever foreign policy operation was important at that point in time. Cultural exchange as a vehicle for mutual understanding were rarely judged to be useful. The cultural programs focused on short term foreign policy goals while failing to deal with the long-term objectives of foreign policy. Constant change in the organizational structure also contributed to the intermittent approach in cultural diplomacy.

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Richard Arndt, a diplomat and an author of innumerable books on this subject, in his paper "Cultural Diplomacy - A Functional Theory " states that American policy is not made "it gets made" by the powerful pressures of the private sector. And therefore the way diplomacy happens depends on foreign policy and the situational policies." In the words of Sir William Hayter a British diplomat (1960), " the factors lowering the ratio of American diplomatic successes to failures were historical, constitutional and psychological". George Washington's(1732-1799) desire to keep America disentangled from Europe and his views on anti colonialism became a part of the early American's makeup. This attitude inhibited the freeplay of U.S. diplomacy. Constitutionally, the doctrine of the separation of powers in foreign affairs limited the executive control in making appropriate decisions (e.g. of appointing officials abroad). The necessity of Senate confirmation many times became an obstacle because some senators were not fully aware of the need or the situation and their biased opinions led to non approval and non confirmation. Finally a psychological impediment was the disdain and distrust Americans had for foreigners. According to Hayter: The disdain in the American mind arose from the feeling that the foreigners represented that part of the world which they repudiated and their distrust came from the suspicion that the foreigners were after their dollars and that they may be smart enough to get them (Hayter,1960). Comparing the activities of cultural diplomacy of the U.S. to European countries, it becomes obvious that international cultural relations and cultural diplomacy in the U.S. evolved as a reaction to political events rather than developing as a socio-political behavior rooted in the cultural history of the civilization. Cultural exchange was solely

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prompted by the needs of the times keeping in view the political forces and the trade opportunities. The first step taken by America towards building international cultural relations was a Convention for the promotion of Inter-American Cultural Relations at the Pan American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace in Buenos Aires, 1938. In response to Nazi Germany's "cultural offensive" in Latin America during the 1930's, the American government’s objective was to counter Germany's propaganda activities. The convention provided for the exchange of university professors, graduate students, and teachers under joint governmental sponsorship. It was assumed that the exchange would build cultural relations and intellectual cooperation between the United States and other countries as well as improve the American image abroad and consolidate the country's international political objectives. The cultural exchange program had decided political overtones. From 1938 - 1978, the administrative section of the State department went through a lot of reorganization.

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The following table summarizes the organizational history of the State Department Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.

Year 1938-44 1944-46 1946-47 1947-48 19481952-53 1953 1953-58 1958-61 1961 1961 1961-781978 1982 1999

Event Division of Cultural Relations Division of Cultural Cooperation Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs Office of International Information and Educational Exchange Passage of Smith-Mundt Act Office of Educational Exchange International Information Administration Creation of United States Information Agency International Educational Exchange Service Bureau of International Cultural Relations Passage of Fulbright-Hays Act Appointment of Assistant Secretary for Educational Cultural Affairs Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Creation of the United States International Communication Agency Reestablishment of USIA. USIA is merged into the Department of State

Table 2: Organizational History of the State Department Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. Source: Adapted from J. Manuel Espinosa, Landmark Events in the History of CU (Washington, D.C. Department of State, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs,1973),pp.15-18. The landmark in strengthening the exchange program was the passing of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act, called the Fulbright-Hays Act in 1961. The purpose of this Act was to enable the Government of the United States: 1. To increase mutual understanding between...countries by means of educational and cultural exchange;

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2. To strengthen the ties which unite with other nations by demonstrating the educational and cultural interests, developments and achievements of the people of the United States and nations . 3. To promote cultural advancement; and thus to assist in the development of friendly, sympathetic, and peaceful relations between the United States and the countries of the world. The Act consolidated various U.S. International educational and cultural exchange activities but did not lay down administrative and policy directions. It expanded other cultural and athletic exchanges, translation of books and periodicals, as well as U.S. representation in international fairs and expositions. The Office of the International Arts Affairs encouraged museum exchanges and assisted performing arts groups in touring abroad. The Act also established government operation of cultural and educational centers abroad. The United States Information Agency (USIA) was designed to propagate U.S. foreign policy and to explain life in the U.S. to people in other countries. In other words USIA was meant to be a public relations agency. Finally on April 1, 1978, the functions of two organizations, the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs and the USIA were consolidated into The International Communications Agency (USICA). Educational and cultural exchanges were organized under the following program areas: Academic, Foreign Leaders, American Specialists, Performing Arts, Grants-in-aid, and East-West Center. In August 1982 USICA's name was again changed to USIA when President Reagan signed the Public law 97-241, the Agency's annual authorization bill for FY

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1982-83. In October, 1998 President Clinton signed the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring that abolishing the USIA effective October 1, 1999. The agency's elements were merged into the Department of State except the International Broadcasting Bureau. 3.6 Inception of the Fulbright program The Fulbright exchange program, was an outcome of William J Fulbright's experience as a scholar abroad, a chance conversation, and a little known incident of history. After the Second World War, much U. S. war equipment - tractors, trucks, monkey wrenches, telephones hospitals, boats, railroad lines, and wire were left overseas. In the course of conversation with Senator Fulbright, a U.S. senator mentioned the dilemma of surplus American war equipment overseas. It seemed the US had no intention of bringing the equipment back to the post war economy but was not ready to leave it behind. In the wake of this situation Senator Fulbright felt that arguments with other countries over the equipment would create another rift, and so with the guidance of Herbert Hoover he proposed a plan to convert the surplus war property abroad into a student exchange program. The plan was that the equipment would be sold to X country, which would pay in its own currency. The funds would remain in X, and be used to pay for the tuition, books, and living expenses of American students (chiefly GI's) who would wish to study there. This method was viewed not only as an easy solution for surplus war equipment, but was also conceived with the motive of making friends abroad using the exchange programs as the tool. The bill was introduced by Senator Fulbright and was referred to a subcommittee on surplus property of the Military Affairs Committee. Though he presented the issue as

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a formula to solve the dilemma of surplus war equipment, Senator Fulbright also expressed optimistically: My belief in the program is based on the assumption that when foreigners come to our shores what they will see will be good. In spite of our occasional aberrations, I believe that America is a great country, that its virtues outweigh its faults. If people of the world can understand us, they will throw in their lot with us. (Fulbright quoted by Woods,1995) The State Department approved the bill. Although the Pentagon wanted to consider return of the equipment, Senator Fulbright negotiated his way out and the bill was passed by the Senate without dissent and breezed through the House. According to Lowi's classification of distributive policies, the introduction of the Fulbright Program, as a policy for conducting educational and cultural exchanges was also "an highly individualized decision", and "conferred direct benefits upon one or more groups". In the words of Lasswell and Kaplan the Fulbright Program was " a program of goal values and practices". With his experience and skill Senator Fulbright gained the strong support of his colleague, Herbert Hoover, (who had earlier experimented with a similar exchange with Burma and was keen on enlarging this concept). With ease and less conflict Senator Fulbright presented the agenda for consideration. His well worded and apt presentation to the committee gave a feeling that it was a solution to an issue which, if not settled, would result in loss of money and goodwill. Introducing the Fulbright Exchange Program did not bring in much opposition and controversy because it was perceived as a solution which could help avoid a national loss and would also in the long run create an opportunity to make friends in other countries. The process of agenda setting for the consideration of introducing the Fulbright Exchange Program was similar to that of John Kingdon's garbage can model. Problems,

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politics, participants and choice opportunities were all dumped together. The problem, war equipment lying in other countries, either needed to be brought back or left there. Senator Fulbright, a very able statesman, as the policy entrepreneur chose the opportunity and provided the solution to the problem for the decision-makers and this opened a policy window giving the solution a structure for implementation. As John Kingdon states, in the garbage can model of agenda setting, when a policy window opens due an event, there are policy entrepreneurs who in the pursuit of their goals "couple solutions to problems, problems to political forces, and political forces to proposals". Senator Fulbright coupled this solution to his long term goal of introducing the exchange programs using his influence and political power. This legislation made the exchange programs a recognized tool in the official foreign relations. 3.7 Present Perspective During the post Cold War period, the Fulbright exchange program served as a solution to a policy issue. However in the present information age, it has become a necessary tool for building mutual understanding and international relations between the U.S. and other countries. Samuel P Huntington (1997) in his book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order states: Global politics in the post Cold War world has become multipolar and multicivilizational. Cultural commonalities and differences shape the interests, antagonisms, and associations of states. Culture and cultural identities, which at the broad level are civilization identities, are shaping the patterns of cohesion, disintegration, and conflict. So avoidance of a global war of civilizations depends on world leaders accepting and cooperating to maintain the multi-civilizational character of global politics. (p. 21) Huntington(1997) also reiterates how, in the 1950's, Lester Pearson warned that humans would move into “an age when different civilizations will have to learn to live

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side by side in peaceful interchange, learning from each other, studying each other's history and ideals and art and culture, mutually enriching each others' lives."(Pearson cited by Huntington, 1997, p.321) According to Vaclav Havel (cited by Huntington,1997) "Cultural conflicts are increasing and are more dangerous today than anytime in history"(p.28) Jacques Delors (Delors cited by Huntington,1997) agrees that " future conflicts will be sparked by cultural factors rather than economics or ideology," (p.28) The war in Bosnia, ethnic strife in Indonesia, revolt by Tamils in Jafna, Sri Lanka and Hindu-Muslim conflicts in India are all examples of cultural conflicts causing grave social and economic crisis in national economies. Here I would like to emphasize that artists can be effective ambassadors of their culture and they, through their artworks, can contribute to containing strife and to fostering cultural understanding. Samuel Huntington (1997) states that: With diminishing role of ideology as a driving force in global politics, American policy makers have the opportunity to harness the awesome powers of imagination and apply the quintessential qualities of the artists- creativity and innovation- to the practice of their craft. During its 51 years, the Fulbright Program has exchanged a quarter of a million people. More than 70,000 Americans have studied or done research in other countries and more than 130,000 people from other countries have engaged in similar activities in the United States. Thousands of school teachers from around the U.S. have been exchanged with teachers in foreign countries through the Fulbright Program. However there is a low representation of artists compared to other categories. Professionals and academicians

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who have expertise in economic, political and military processes have received higher representation than artists. The following incidents illustrate how the arts can help facilitate inter-cultural understanding in ways other disciplines cannot. For example: A group of Zivli dancers from Columbus, Ohio visited Serbia to perform for people in the refugee camps in Bosnia. On arrival at the camp, they were told by one of the inhabitants of the camp that the refugees were angry with Americans visiting them. After watching the group perform, the same woman who had expressed displeasure, walked to the performers and said " Tell your government what happened to us today is better for us than bread. You have given us one happy day. You have fed our souls in a way that bread does not." In another incident, Artist Lily Yeh, a Chinese-American, moved into a tough North Philadelphia neighborhood in the mid 1980s.In a vacant lot near her studio, she began to build a sculpture garden. Eventually children and local people of all ages started to join her, resulting in not only a beautiful collaborative art work but also a center of focus and pride for the neighborhood(Williams,1996). These incidents illustrate how artists and their art can help people overcome bias and differences and come together as a community. In the words of John Wilton "perceptions of individuals are at the root of their biases. We can not fight perceptions. They can be changed through slow and organized cultivation of minds". The Fulbright Program provides the opportunity and setting for helping the artist and the audience explore, experience, understand and widen their view of the world. One

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of the artists in my research sample group described her Fulbright experience in the following words: The Fulbright experience was like a mirror that helped me reflect over my own life, culture and country. It was like shining a strong light on yourself, your teaching, your own artistry and your own culture - you got to see that which had been obscured - it makes you grow in every way.(Jeannie Woods, 1999) We no longer need to use culture as a solution to political problems. Instead it can be used as a tool for international understanding. The facilitators of this process are the artists. This research examined the impact of the Fulbright experience on artists by analyzing the change in the artist's attitude, work and their world of friends and colleagues. The assumption was that when individuals who have influence over larger population change, their experience permeates to a wider population, thereby creating a more positive psychological environment for inter-cultural relations.

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CHAPTER 4

METHODOLOGY

4.1 Design of the Study The model of the Objectives-Oriented Evaluation techniques (Tyler,1942, 1950).was used in this study. James H. McMillan and Sally Schumacher in their book Research in Education quoted Tyler's definition of this methodology in the following words: "Objectives - Oriented Evaluation determines the degree to which the objectives of a practice are attained by the target group. In other words, the evaluation measures the outcomes of the practice" (p.548). McMillan and Schumacher (1997) explain that the discrepancy between the stated objectives of a practice and its outcomes may be used to measure programmatic success. The practice may be a curriculum, in-service teacher training, in-school suspension program, parent education or the like. The target group whose behavior is expected to change, may be students, parents, teachers, or others. According to McMillan and Schumacher(1997) an Objectives-Oriented Evaluation study measures concrete objectives not abstract goals. The objectives are specific statements that are attainable through experiencing the intervention. This model was appropriate to my research because I studied the impact of a Fulbright experience on artists participating in the Fulbright Exchange program. Outcomes of the exchange experience, measured were: • how the artist changed his/her attitude towards understanding the other culture,

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• how this experience influenced his/her work and • how his/her involvement with people and cultural organizations in the visited country changed subsequent to the Fulbright experience. The measures of impact were drawn from the discussion of similar studies conducted by the USIA. The strategic plan of USIA outlines the types of data and information that are being collected on an ongoing basis in the field posts as well as in the Bureaus to determine whether progress is being made in achieving USIA's performance objectives: Three types of data sources described in the strategic plan inspire the design of this study: • Number, duration quality and value of personal and instituional linkages (e.g. government, business, academic) created or enhanced as a result of international exchange and training activities. • Quality and quantity of subsequent activities and achievements of USIA program participants and their audiences in applying knowledge and perspectives gained during program. • Degree of change in the knowledge, opinions and attitudes of USIA program participants and their audiences following their participation in an exchange or training program determined through post debriefings and participant surveys. The study of creative minds by Howard Gardner(1993) also influenced design of the framework for understanding the impact of the Fulbright experience. Gardner's work on Multiple Intelligence is acclaimed as a breakthrough in understanding of human psychology, In his recent book, Creating Minds (1993), Gardner studied the anatomy of creativity seen through the lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Martha

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Graham and Mahatma Gandhi. He suggested three core elements underpin creativity: a) a creating human being, b) an object or project on which that individual is working, and c) the other individuals who inhabit the world of the creative individual (Gardner, 1993,p.8). According to Gardner(1993), the superstructure needed to account for creative activity is based on these three core elements and on the relationships among them. I find a distinct parallel between the data sources defined in the USIA strategic plan and the elements of framework suggested by Howard Gardner. If the Fulbright program is about bringing individuals with potential for influencing the global experience, then the model of study suggested by Howard Gardner seems very relevant to this study. Therefore it was decided to conduct research to understand the changes that occur in an artist's life, work and network as a result of his/her participation in the Fulbright Exchange Program. It was assumed that by developing understanding of the impact of the Fulbright experience on the individual participant, we would be able to infer the influence of that individual on the domain, community or the nation to which he/she belongs. A research tool-kit consisting of a scrapbook was designed to document participants' memories of the Fulbright experience. A collage exercise was developed to understand the emotional changes that participants experienced, and a request for photoessay was included which allowed participants to pictorially narrate the changes in their life, work and network. 4.2 Participants/Location of Research The research study was conducted in the U.S. Fulbright artists were from U.S. and were visiting another country. Forty Fulbright scholars were sent letters with a request to

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participate. Ten confirmed participation. Finally I received only six complete sets and one incomplete set. In the group of seven artists who participated in this research, two participants from the disciplines of dance and theatre, and three from music. The host countries were Finland, Ghana, Germany, Lithuania, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. With the exception of one artist who received her Fulbright scholarship in the year 1994, the other six artists received their Fulbright scholarship during the years 1998-99. 4.3 Methods of Data Collection The instruments of data collection utilized were: A Scrapbook:. A survey was conducted in the form of a scrapbook, which had questions focusing on understanding how the Fulbright experience influenced the participants' themselves, their work and their world. The participants were asked to supply photographs to support their answers. Numerical Scale: A rating scale was used to provide quantitative measure of the changes that occurred in them as a result of the Fulbright experience. Collage: The collage making kit included a list of 116 pre-selected words and 60 pre-selected images on self-adhesive stickers. The kit included a 11x17 size paper on which participants were asked to create a collage using the images and words to depict their Fulbright experience. Participants were asked to depict how they felt about their country, themselves and the host country before and after the Fulbright experience. The area on the collage sheet was clearly demarcated in six zones, to enable them to represent different categories described above.

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4.4 Methods of Data Analysis The changes that happened in their experience, as described in the workbook, were entered in a multi-relational database (4th dimension software). Comparing participants' response to open ended questions in each experience category (their life, their work and their network) revealed many insights. The selections of pre-selected image and word stimuli for the collage set were entered in an Excel spreadsheet in six categories: 2. Me Before the Fulbright experience 3. The host country before the Fulbright experience 4. My country before the Fulbright experience 5. Me after the Fulbright experience 6. The host country after the Fulbright experience 7. My country after the Fulbright experience. If over 25% of the participants used a particular image or word it was included in the representative collage of the Fulbright experience. The rating scales from the workbook were entered in Excel spreadsheets. Mean ratings or the rated representation of the changes that occurred in their life, work and network were plotted on a bar chart to visually depict the relative importance of the self reported changes in their experience.

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CHAPTER 5 WHAT DID WE FIND? 5.1 From the Rating Scales It is observed from the results in the graph that the fulbright experience led the participants to appreciate their own country more and they got an opportunity to look into themselves and know more about their hidden skills and capabilities. While living in the host country they were also able to experience, understand and learn more about the host

I visit host county to teach Things that inspire my work have changed I visit host county to collaborate I have developed a new audience for my art I have changed my presentation techniques I have added new themes to my work I continue to keep in contact with organizations in the host country I continue to keep in contact with individuals in the host country I have changed my atitude regarding the host country I have learned new things about myself I have learned new things about my own country

Not true at all

Very true

country. This led them to change their attitude towards the host country. Figure 1: How did things change as a result of my Fulbright Experience?

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5.2 From the Collage: The summary collage depicts how participants felt about their own country, the host country and themselves before and after the Fulbright experience.

My Fulbright Experience

Figure 2: Collage of How things changed as a result of the Fulbright experience

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5.3 From the scrapbook

Figure 3: The scrapbook • they were motivated to apply for the Fulbright scholarship with a desire to explore new opportunities, seek new inspirations and challenges and to get away from the feeling of "burnout". • Before their participation in the program they perceived the people of the host countries as conservative, rigid, and formal. After the experience they discovered that the people were in fact very warm, gracious, hardworking, and had the ability to rise above the limitations of their environment and traditions. • The life experiences that excited them prior to the Fulbright experience were their family, their work, their career, travel and money. After the experience they began to enjoy the company of other people, their rituals, traditions, other art forms, and travel. • They were initially concerned about their health, hygiene and comfort and were also concerned about leaving their families behind. After the Fulbright experience they developed a greater awareness of their own survival skills and their ability to create

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cooperative environments in an unfamiliar culture, and learned to worry less about the family back home. • Upon returning, their personal network of friends extended to people with origins in the host country. • Their interest and participation in cross-cultural activities increased after their returning to the U.S. • They were seeking connections with new art forms and with different people besides their old network of family and friends. • • They felt they should have had this experience when they were younger The Fulbright experience was like a mirror that helped them reflect over their own life, culture and country.

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Overall the changes articulated by the participants were: 5.4 How did they change?

Figure 4: Changes in Me • • • • Developed more appreciation of their own family Experienced increase in physical and emotional endurance Developed greater tolerance for cultural differences Increased awarenessn sensitivity and responsibility toward the vulnerability of the planet especially on environmental issues. • • • Had a sense of accomplishment. Gained greater appreciation for the political and social life in the U.S. Developed greater appreciation for democracy.

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5.5 How did their work change?

Figure 5: Changes in My Work • • • Gained appreciation of an aesthetic different from their own Inspiration for their work now includes their experiences in the host country. Gained insights about universally meaningful themes.

5.6 How has their world changed?

Figure 6: Changes in My World • • Developed feeling of connection to a wider world Enhanced comfort with a culturally diverse network of people.

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A sense of responsibility for encouraging friends and students to undergo similar experiences.

5.7 Implications: • After having gone through the Fulbright experience the participants' perspective/experience of life and the world changed more than his/her work. • The experience transformed the participants into empathizers of other cultures rather than promoters of their own. • Use of visual tools and scrapbook technique helped people to reflect over their Fulbright experience in new ways. • There is an opportunity to integrate use of new tools with the traditional methods of measuring the impact of the Fulbright program. 5.8 Limitations of this research: • This is a small sample group. (Forty Fulbright scholars were sent letters with a request to participate. Ten confirmed participation. Finally I received only six complete sets and one incomplete set). • The sample group comprised of American scholars visiting a host country. The experience of visiting scholars is not documented. • Most scholars did not have adequate photo documentation of their Fulbright experience. • The participants were not available for personal interviews. People from the host country were not participants in this research.

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5.9 Reflections: Understanding a nation's culture was long regarded by policy makers as something of an ornament or even a luxury. It was associated with the more important issues of trade and politics. However in our global village, learning to appreciate differences through expression and experience of culture has become necessary for peaceful coexistence. In establishing international relationships, it is important to be sensitive to the intellectual, religious, artistic and other non-political issues. International cooperation that aims at development must have consideration to the cultural context in which the development will be achieved. This research was conducted to understand how the community of artists can contribute in building bridges of understanding with people from another culture. Jennifer Williams’ (1996) remarks summarize the value of artists’ participation in a cultural exchange program. There is something magical and vital about the existence of arts and artists. The arts provide us with profound and lasting reflections on the human condition. Artists illuminate our history and shape our visions of the future. Art is not just about aeshetics. It influences and is influenced by every aspect of life. As such there is great potential for partnerships between the arts and other sectors of society: educational, social, economic and political. Yet the nature and scope for such partnerships is not always fully appreciated and developed. The arts are inseparable from the broader cultures and environments that spawn them. When the arts are created in one culture and presented in another, what occurs is a ‘cultural’ and not simply an ‘ artistic’ exchange.(p.8) The contribution of artists in building international relationships is not something that can be measured in a short time. The results are not quantifiable however the effect of their work can be observed or felt only over time.

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5.10 Conclusion Many research studies are conducted as part of USIA's regular evaluation processes there are to understand whether the goals and objectives of the Fulbright Program are being achieved. While many research studies have been conducted to study the changes in students/ teachers after going through the Fulbright experience, none specifically addressed the impact of artists participating in the exchange program. Considering that the number of artists exchanged under the Fulbright Program are fewer in comparison to scholars from other dsiciplines, this study will hopefully promote research into the experiences and impact of artists exchanged in the Fulbright Program. It is neither scholarly discourse nor artistic expression that is responsible for the building of the understanding. Engagement in activities that generate interactivity. between the Fulbright scholar and the people from the host country facilitate mutual understanding. I suggest that the medium of art has great potential to create such interactivity. Therefore there is a need for greater participation of artists in Fulbright exchange programs. Photographic story telling, collage and scrapbook are unique tools used in this research. These tools allow researchers to access deep emotional experiences of people which are not easily articulated in traditional survey methods. Any research that is focused on people’s experience can benefit from such tools and methodologies.

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References

"Akbar," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 97 Encyclopedia. (c) 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation. Arndt, Richard T. & David Lee Rubin(Eds.)(1993)The Fulbright Difference 1948-1992. New Brunswick: Rubin Publisher Transaction Publishers. Arndt, R.(November1996). Cultural Diplomacy: A Functional Theory. Unpublished article. Billington, J. (1991). The Intellectual and Cultural Dimensions of International Relations: Present Ironies and Future Possibilities. Washington D C: President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities. Coffin T., (1966). Senator Fulbright - Portrait of a Public Philosopher. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. Inc. Cohen, Raymond. (1997). Negotiating Across Cultures: International Communication in an Interdependent World. (Rev.ed.). Washington D.C:United States Institute of Peace Press Coplin, William, D., O'Leary, Michael K. (eds) Basic Policy Study Skills (1978) Corton-on-Hudson, New York: Policy Studies Associates. Department of State, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, (April 1966) Fact Sheet on International Educational Exchange Programs. Washington DC Dudden, Arthur, Power, and Russel R. Dynes. ( eds. ) (1987) The Fulbright Difference 1946-1986. New Brunswick: Rubin Publisher Transaction Publishers. Friedman,Thomas, L. (1999). The Lexus and The Olive Tree. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fisher, Roger, & Ury William, (1983). Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. New York: Penguin Books.

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Gannon, Martin J. (1994). Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys through Seventeen Countries. Thousand Oaks:Sage Publications . Gardner, Howard. (1993) Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen Through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham and Gandhi. New York:Basic Books: a division of Harper Collins Publishers. Gardner, R. N. (1983). Selling America in the marketplace of ideas. The New York Times, vol. p44. Haigh A. (1974). Cultural Diplomacy in Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Hayter, Sir William. (1959) The Diplomacy of the Great Powers. London:Hamish Hamilton. Huntington, Samuel, P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York. A touchstone book. Simon & Schuster. Katz, Stanley. (1985) History, Cultural Policy and International Exchange in the Peforming Arts. Performing Arts Journal. Volume IX/ Numbers 2&3. New York. pp.-76-88. Kertesz, Stephen, D. ((1959). Diplomacy in a Changing World, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. Manuel Espinosa, (1976).Inter-American Beginnings of U.S. Cultural Diplomacy. Washington DC: Department of State Publication 8854,pp. 96-97 Mulcahy, Kevin V., and Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane. (1995) America's Commitment to Culture. Boulder: Westview Press. Mulcahy, K. V., & Swaim C. R . (1982). Public Policy and the Arts. Boulder: Westview Press . Nagel, Stuart S., Dunn, William, N. (Eds.) Policy Theory and Policy Evaluation. Evaluation & Program Planning v.13 n3 p275-329. Ninkovich, Frank, A. (1981) The Diplomacy of Ideas: US Foreign Policy and Cultural Relations, 1938-1950. London: Cambridge University Press.

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Salisbury, Wilma, (2000, June) Zivli dances for peace in Bulgaria. Dance Magazine. P.41. Stassen-Berger, Rachel, E. (1997, September 14) Healing deep wounds with the dance of life. Chicago Tribune. Pp. 1, 6. Szabo, Stephen, F. (1992). The Diplomacy of German Unification. New York. St. Martin's Press. U.S. Department of Health, Education & Welfare, Office of Education The Opening Decades, 1946-1968 - A Report of the Board of Foreign Scholarships U.S. Department of Health, Education & Welfare. Office of Education. Open Doors (1973) - Report on International Exchange. New York: Institute of International Exchange Williams, Jennifer(1996). Across the Street Around the World - A Handbook for Cultural Exchange. London: British American Arts Association. Wristen, Henry, M. (1956) Diplomacy in a Democracy. New York: Harper & Brothers Woods, R. B, (1995). Fulbright-A Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .

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APPENDIX A INVITATION TO FULBRIGHT SCHOLARS

November 15, 1999 Dear I am a graduate student in the Arts Policy and Administration program at The Ohio State University. My graduate research is focussed on understanding the changes that happen in the life experiences and work of artists after undergoing the Fulbright experience. I am writing to request your participation in my research. As a part of my research I will send you a small journal. This journal contains a number of interesting exercises. Besides answering a few simple questions, the journal will include an exercise which will involve reviewing your personal photo album from your Fulbright experience and sharing some of your memories with me. I am also going to send you a set of images and words from which you will create a collage. In reviewing the Fulbright exchange program for scholars I find that there is a need to define the importance of including more artists in the international exchange program. Your participation in this study is very important from this perspective. As a student I can not afford to compensate you for your participation in this study. However I would be glad to send you the postage stamps and the envelope for returning the material. I would also be glad to return your journal

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to you once I have had the opportunity to document the contents for my research. At the end of this research you will have created a fine documentation of memoirs of your Fulbright experience in this journal. You can use the journal to share your Fulbright experience with your friends and family I am a classical dancer from India and have been in the US since 1993. I continue to share my art form with multicultural communities in the US. I have observed that my art has evolved as a result of my interactions with artists and with exposure to many other art forms that were unfamiliar to me. My stay in the US for my graduate study, besides contributing to my academic achievements, has enriched my knowledge of people around the world and their art forms. My research focus is an extension of this learning. Please indicate in the slip given below whether you would be willing to participate in my research and return the slip in the self addressed envelope by November 30, 1999. Thanking you, Sincerely Rohini Dandavate
PLEASE TEAR HERE ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Your Name: Email address Telephone No.(optional) I would like to participate in your research. _________________ I would not like to participate in your research. _______________

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APPENDIX B LETTER ACCOMPANYING THE RESEARCH KIT Janurary 23, 2000 Dear Catlin, Thanks for agreeing to participate in my research. I sincerely appreciate your gesture. I have included a scrabook in this packet. I hope you will enjoy writing in it. This book was created to help you document your excitement and memories of the Fulbright experience. Separately I have also included a collage kit. The collage kit includes pictures and words printed on sticker sheets. Please refer to the workbook for instructions for the collage. In case you need more information, please feel free to either email me at dandavate.2@osu.edu or call me at (614) 688 0095. Enclosed is also a stamped self-addressed envelope for you to return the materials. I would request you to send me the packet by February 20, 2000. Sincerely Rohini Dandavate ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Please mark an appropriate box and return the slip below with your packet. Please return my photographs Please return my workbook You can keep the workbook and the photographs

Your Name------------------------------------------------------

Date ----------------------------------

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APPENDIX C COLLAGE IMAGES AND WORDS

Figure 7: Collage Image set #1

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Figure 8: Collage Image set # 2

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Figure 9: Collage Image set # 3

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Figure 10: Collage Image set # 4

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Figure 11: Collage word set #1

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Figure 12: Collage word set #2

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APPENDIX D IMPLEMENTATION SCENARIO OF FULBRIGHT PROGRAM:

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APPENDIX E THE SCRAP BOOK The following pages have been reproduced from the scrapbook sent to the participating Fulbright scohalrs. The original scrapbook had printing on both the sides of the paper. In this appendix the sheets are printed only on one side of the page due to the formatting rules of the graduate school.

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