A Study of the Stress Management Strategies of University Academia in Pakistan

Submitted by Muhammad Irshad Session 2006-08

The Islamia University of Bahawalpur

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST MERCIFUL THE MOST BENEFICIENT

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ABSTRACT The major purpose of the study was to analyze the stress management among university teachers in Pakistan. For this purpose a 39 items questionnaire was administered to 576 teachers of the nine Pakistani public universities. The research tool was mainly based on the six constructs: professional stressors, work related stressors, behavioual stressors, discipline and motivation as stressors, professional dissatisfaction and stress coping strategies. Four hundred and ninety participants returned the completed questionnaires. The responses were rated on strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree type four points scale. A weighted frequency and percentage of the agree-disagree sets of the responses was calculated. The demographic effects were also worked out through independent sample t test and one way ANNOVA followed by Bonferoni as a post hoc test. It was found that there was a lot of paper work in the teaching profession. There was less time for making academic preparation. Even they were not overcommitted. There was low motivation among students for learning new things. At the same time most of the teachers found themselves under security threats. They seemed helpless in this situation. This situation appeared as a major cause of stress among more than half of the teachers. There was partial impact of the demographic variables such as gender and academic qualifications on the situation of stress at all the sampled universities. The suggestions for policy and practice were made.

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I certify that this dissertation has not already been accepted in substance for any other degree nor it is being submitted concurrently in candidature for any other degree.DECLARATION I hereby declare that this research has not been conducted at anywhere in the world up to my knowledge and is the result of my independent effort. _______________________ Muhammad Irshad (The Researcher) 4 .

without the prior permission of the researcher.ALL RIGHTS RESERVED All rights of this thesis are reserved. No part of this thesis can be translated or copied either by hand or by computer or photocopier or through any other method. 5 .

Prof. Akhtar Ali 6 . __________________________ Supervisor Assist. Dr. Muhammad Irshad under my supervision is hereby submitted to the Islamia University of Bahawalpur for the partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Philosophy in Education.THE SUPERVISIOR’S CERTIFICATE This research thesis entitled “A Study of the Stress Management Strategies of University Academia in Pakistan” by Mr.

APPROVAL CERTIFICATE

This thesis entitled “A Study of the Stress Management Strategies of University Academia in Pakistan” is hereby approved for the award of M. Phil in Education

Supervisor: Chairman: External Examiner: Internal Examiner Date:

______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

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DEDICATION Dedicated to ALMIGHTY ALLAH Who is more merciful and beneficent for all human beings and whose blessings and beneficence cleared all the hurdles, problems and difficulties of my path and enabled me to complete this difficult task. I dedicate my research to my wife who contributed a lot to complete this study. Without her help I will not be able to complete my research. God may bless her in whole of her life.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The present research thesis has been completed after a long, continuous effort of three years. First of all I pay hearty thanks to Almighty Allah whose great beneficence gave me courage and will power to complete my research work. I would like to pay thanks to Assist. Prof. Akhtar Ali for all of his best supervision and support that he has given me throughout the writing of this thesis. I consider myself fortune to have an opportunity to work in the supervision of such phenomenal scholar and expert in research. Finally I would like to pay my heartiest thanks to all the teachers of the Universities of Pakistan who not only co-operated with me but also gave me a lot of help to complete this study. They all guided me in the straight path which proved very fruitful for the completion of my study.

July 2009, Muhammad Irshad

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Table of Contents 10 .

List of Tables 11 .

The meager rise in salaries on annual basis has no match with the everyday rise in the market prices of the things of daily use. Most of the students seemed in search of shortcuts. This problem is more serious in developing countries like Pakistan where every field of life is full of stress. In this period of high inflation their salaries seemed inadequate. It has adverse effects on various aspects of human life. This gulf is being widened day by day.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Now a day everyday life is full of stress. People belonging to the middle class predominantly service men are the major victim of this situation. Those who either can’t do unfair or don’t want to get their livelihoods through unfair means are facing more difficulties. A person has to face some serious consequences of leading life continuously under stress. Government and public representatives are showing their undue involvement in the academic matters. University authorities have become more demanding. high inflation rate. The poor are becoming poorer. University academia seemed much concerned about this situation. serious energy crisis and corruption have badly affected everyday life. As a result most of the teachers feel themselves under stress. They feel helpless in this situation. Almost everybody feels one or other type of stress. The sensitive security situation. There is uneven distribution of wealth in the country. The society is expecting more from the teachers. Majority of the teachers try to do their jobs in an honest manner. 12 . Many of the serious diseases such as muscular problems are the result of stress.

The academia in Pakistan can benefit from the findings of the study by knowing appropriate ways to deal with the stress phenomena. To explore the level of stress among the university teachers in the country. This study is an attempt to find out the strategies used by the University academia in the country to cope with the academic stress. To know the types of the academic stress among the university teachers in Pakistan. As a result of the study they can also avoid the causes of stress. It is expected that the teaching learning situation and teachers’ efficiency will be improved by implanting the recommendations of the research. To make gender based comparisons among the academia regarding level of stress.Statement of the Problem The nature and type of the academic stress has been widely investigated all over the world. It is important to know the causes of the various types of stresses among university teachers in Pakistan. This study has also explored the causes of stress among the university teachers in the country. Significance of the Study Through this study an attempt was made to identify the major stressors in the life of university academia in Pakistan along with the prevailing strategies to cope with these stresses. To find out the strategies used by the academia to deal with the academic stress. Objectives of the Study The study focused the following objectives: To identify the cause of the stress among academia at university level in Pakistan. The findings of the research will be shared with the 13 .

University authorities. Majority of the students in Pakistan were enrolled in general universities. Methodology of Research Looking at the nature of problem descriptive method of research was used. Now Higher Education Commission (HEC) is playing a vital role in the functioning of the universities. A representative sample of nine general universities was selected from this group of the universities. The data was collected by administering a four points Likert type questionnaire to the sampled teachers. Delimitations of the Study This research was delimited to the University faculty of Pakistan only. The institutions of higher learning functioning in the country before the switch over of UGC to HEC were the target population of the study. This research focused general universities. The research tool was administered to sixty four teachers from each university. As the public sector Universities was a larger and significant group so the study was confined to these strata. Sample All the universities working in the country was the population of the study. Teacher’s organizations in the country and Higher Education Commission with a view to provide peace of mind to the faculty in Pakistan. After the change of University Grants Commission (UGC) into HEC a number of new 14 . Among the Universities a cluster of the general public sector institutions of higher learning was processed. This would automatically lead to improve the quality of teaching learning process at the high seats of learning in the country.

Data Collection The data was collected by administering a questionnaire to the subjects through personal meetings. decided to include public sector universities established before 2002 in the study. The list of the teachers working in these universities was got from the Registrar office of each university. A random selection of fifty teachers was made form each university. The respondents were given an opportunity to respond to the open ended questions. For this purpose a four point Likert type scale was designed and validated through both logical and empirical means. therefore. It was.general public sector universities have been established in the country. The Questionnaire Depending on the diversified nature of the sample questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. Majority of the newly established universities were passing through the process of development. It was decided to include universities from all the provinces of the country. 15 . So the nine higher learning institutions were through selected through stratified sampling.

It has also penetrated into the life of university academia (Quick. his/her reactions appear in the form of stress. Causes of Stress among Employees The academic stress is mainly associated with University organization (Roger. Such lack of control over various situations might produce adverse effects on human beings which appear in the form of tensions and various muscular diseases. 1987). The researchers at the Duch University identified emotional exhaustion. Siu and Spector 2000). factors associated with teaching. Leung. current practices of teaching. availability of finances. This state of affairs may negatively affect the normal functioning of human body and mind. 2009. relationship between home and work environment. health complaints and withdrawal behaviour such as lower level commitment with the university as the important causes of the stress among the teachers the law 16 . The association between an individual and its environment has been emerged as the major cause of stress. Appreciation level. the external locus of control was also emerged another significant cause of stress among university teachers (Cheng-Ping. and new challenges in the teaching-learning process were appeared as the main causes of stress among university academia in China and Hong Kong. 2009).CHAPTER 2 A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE Concept of Stress Stress has profound effect on human life. Generally when a person feels difficulty to meet environmental demands. Moreover. and Mei-Ya.

2009). the United Kingdom. Wilhelmsen. personal and professional achievements. teachers’ self esteem. There was positive association between time pressure and the performance of the teachers (Sandra and Fritz. Impacts of Stress Stress has significant impact on the performance of individuals.al. The teachers with more loads of work and less resources were found at the higher level of stress. 17 . physical environment of the workplace. Italy. After thorough investigation with health in Hungary. Zu Lin and Cooper. dissatisfaction with the nature of work and politics at the work place (Forlin (2001). 2002. and the United States. commitment with job. leadership expectations from the workers. Johansson. Wong. Schreurs and Silfhout. Another challenge for the teachers is time pressure. It was noted that the withdrawal behavior have negative relationship with resources and high job demands. Glazer and Beehr (2005) arrived at the conclusion that this stressor was more or less common at all the places and dangerous for the organization. They showed low level emotional commitment with the organization. Under this situation the individual sometimes think to lose the job. academic performance of teachers. 2003. 2004). leadership behaviour. Chen. Job demands depend on the number of students in the class (Taris. Lappas.department. Rosengren. There were some serious health problems with such type of teachers (Schaufeli and Bakker. Gersch et. The other stressors include employees’ professional competence. interaction between job and family. 2002). 2001). 2005. The individuals usually could not perform up to the satisfaction level of the organization due to institutional politics. Various types of conflicts among employees and employees versus institutions were found significant stressors for the job related persons. This resulted in the form of employees’ absenteeism from the job (Eran. Karatzias etal. safety.

Randall and Albertsen. Both the psychological and the biological remedies might be the contributory factors in this regard. effective use of talent and feedback were crucial factors for the job satisfaction of the teachers (Holman. After intensive research work the team of Australian investigators noted the negative effect of stress on energy levels. Lensworth and Livingston. As a result of the study on the job preferences of the self recruited academic 18 . Physical and mental exhaustion was another side effect of the academic stress (Schaufeli and Bakker. job satisfaction. 2004). The passive nature of job was the cause of irritation among employees in Israel ( Kushnir and Melamed. Arnetz and Berg. Forster.and Galit 2010). Nahum and Smita.al. et. 2007). Still and Cooper. organizational security and organizational commitment (Bellman. It has come to know after analyzing data collected through the nine months longitudinal quasi-experimental study on job redesign that flexible job control. The University teachers at India could not perform due to health related stressors (Chamundeswari. 2000). 1987). The persons have to face serious type of skin irritation due to the prolonged use of computer at the work place (Wiholm. The researchers concluded that empowering the employees and practicing transformational leadership style indicated decline in job stress among the employees in India (Amarjit. 2009). 2007). Likewise the teachers with high job satisfaction in Denmark were found with little stress (Nielsen. 2009). 2003). Stress Management among University Academia The effective precautionary measures in the shape of comfortable learning environment for the teaching-learning process can help to avoid stress (Quick. Vasanthi and Parvathi 2009).. (2006) concluded that a chronic nature stress was harmful for both the physical as well as mental health of the individuals. intrinsic motivation.

. The job satisfaction was found to be strongly associated with the commitment of the teachers. After taking part in the stress management interventions the chronic stress patients having joint problems showed significant improvements on measures of helplessness. It is an urgent need to equip the people with the knowledge of various social and environmental factors for making appropriate changes in their life style. There was a considerable improvement among the patients of stress (employee absenteeism and performance ratings) after passing through the muscle relaxation training (Murphy and Sorenson. self-efficacy. It appears from the above discussion that throughout the globe the university academia 19 . Arnetz and Berg. It was noted that there was a high frequency of skin problems among the persons associated with computer for the long time.employees extrovert persons gave indications of decreased stress levels. 2006). pain.2004). 2006). etal. 2007). and health status (Parker. The chronic nature stress adversely affected the health of people. As a result there was a considerable stress reduction (Andrew. There was a significant increase in the job satisfaction among teachers with low job satisfaction (Stefansdottir and Sutherland. In this regard health education can contribute a lot for reducing the stress from everyday life. 2006). Furthermore. coping. The significant relief among such patients was recorded after attending the formal training ( Wiholm. 2010). excursion trips were considered essential for giving relief to the teachers from the feelings of an academic fatigue ( Schaufeli and Bakker. 2000). It was noted that the satisfaction of self-esteem played a key role for winning the emotional commitment with job among university academia in Egypt. A course on health education and stress might serve this need (Livingston.

CHAPTER NO 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 20 .feel under one or other type of stress. As Pakistan is not apart from the world so from time to time the teachers and students here also express strong feelings of stress due to some known or unknown reasons. The need was felt to explore the causes and stress management strategies among stakeholders of the higher seats of learning in Pakistan.

2 Sample and Sampling Multistage sampling was practiced to select the sample. It was difficult to survey all the population. From this list the universities working under public sector were identified. This problem was mainly concerned with the current status of the stress among academia. 124 institutions of higher learning were functioning in Pakistan. Available time and resources were the major constraints in this regard. 21 .The present study deals with the analysis of the major stressors among university teachers and the strategies to cope with these stressors. 3. First of all a list of all the universities was downloaded from the site of Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.1 Population All the university teachers were the population of this piece of research. 3. A 39 items 4 point agree disagree type questionnaire was administered by approaching 576 teachers of the nine public sector general universities of Pakistan. As per HEC site information in 2008. Survey method was adopted to elicit relevant information from the target population. so descriptive method of research was considered appropriate for the study. It was more than three stage sampling technique. Due to the scattered geographical nature of the participants stratified sampling was exercised to get true replica of the target population.

Science and arts department were equally represented in the sample. Subsequently sixteen departments were randomly picked up from this list. In this way 64 teachers were included in the sample from each university. Subsequently ten sample universities were selected through stratified sampling from all over the country. The final sample consisted of 640 faculty members.1 Details of the Sample 22 .1. Later on the departments having at least four teachers on their faculty list were listed. Table No 3. Finally four teachers were randomly picked up from this stratum.Then a cluster of the general universities was processed. The detail of the sample is given in table 3.

F. five research tools were downloaded from various websites.No 1 Province Baluchistan 2 Punjab 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sind N.2. In response to the mail three questionnaires received. The colleagues of international repute who had expertise in the field were requested to send the research tools through e. Looking at all the possibilities a 50 items 23 . Moreover. All the relevant research tools were identified.W.mail attachment.S.P Federal 9 Punjab Total 3.1 Name of Science Arts Sample University Departments Departments size University of 8 8 64 Baluchistan Quetta The Islamia University 8 8 64 of Bahawalpur Bahauddin Zikria 8 8 64 University Multan The University 8 8 64 of Punjab Lahore The University 8 8 64 of Karachi University of Sind 8 8 64 Jamshoro University Of Peshawar 8 8 64 International Islamic 8 8 64 University Islamabad Fatima Jinnah 8 8 64 University Rawalpindi 72 72 576 Research Tool Development An extensive literature review was made on the area of interest.

In addition to that two open ended items on the major causes and strategies to cope the stressors were included at the end of the measuring instrument. 5 (27-30. Inappropriate items were removed from the questionnaire. A demographic section was added to this questionnaire. The items getting approval from all the experts retained on the research tool. 6 (1-6). The final version of the research tool consisted of 39 items. This questionnaire was used for data collection. 12). 37). 15). discipline and motivation as stressors. professional dissatisfaction and stress coping strategies. behavioural. 6 (31-35. All the items were put on random arrangement. professional dissatisfaction stressors and stress coping strategies. 36). work related. 24 .2. associated with time management. This questionnaire was piloted on 20 teachers of a public sector university. behavioual stressors. Those items on which there was agreement among three experts were revised in the light of the critical comments of the experts.2 Validation of Research Tool A panel of four experts was requested to establish face validity and content validity of the questionnaire. This scale was based on the six conceptual variables: professional stressors.8. 5(22-26) were respectively on professional. discipline and motivation associated. 6 (16-21) and 5 (7-10. Among these 4 items (item no 11. work related stressors. A calculated value of Cronbach Alpha reliability of the research was . Some more revisions were made in the light of the inadequacies in the responses. 13. A four points agree-disagree Likert type scale was attached to record the responses.questionnaire was developed. 3. 14.

The response rate varied from department to department and university to university. Some of the female teachers did not co-operate due to their domestic work and possessive behavior of their males. The respondents were approached at their department.4 Difficulties faced by the researcher 1. 25 .3 Data Collection All the research sites were personally visited by the researcher.2. A copy of the questionnaire was given to each respondent with a request to have honest respond on all the items. The response rate was 85%. In total sixty four teachers from sixteen departments of each of the sampled university were in the study. The very first difficulty faced by the researcher during this study was not to locate the departments as mentioned the address in the given list from the registrar office. Four hundred and ninety questionnaires could reach to the researcher after completion. 2.3. The questionnaires were distributed among 576 teachers of the nine public sector universities of Pakistan. Enough time was given to complete the research tool.2. Some of the male and female teachers did not agree to give the response because they thought that why I am collecting this data and for what purpose. 3.

The results are given in the form of the following tables in chapter 4. CHAPTER 4 Analysis of Data 26 . Some times teachers did not co-operate with the teacher when researcher reached in the department for data collection. Subsequently cumulative frequency and percentage first on each agree and disagree side of the scale. 3. mostly teachers were not found in their departments. For example strongly agree point on the scale was treated as 4 and not 1 likewise strongly disagree category was taken as 1 and not 4. agree. Paired sample t test was employed to test the significance of difference between agree and disagree sets of responses. 3.3 Data Analysis The responses were coded by putting the value of strongly agree. The weighted frequencies of the items falling under each aspect of the stressors and stress management strategy such as professional dissatisfaction of the academia” were added by adding strongly agree and agree categories into agree group of responses whereas strongly disagree and disagree set of responses collectively give rise disagree set of views.3. then total frequency of both the sides of the scale on the item. total frequency and percentage for all the items under each group of items respectively for agree and disagree side of scale and finally total frequency for all the items of the scale was worked out. 2 and 1. The weighted frequency was calculated according to the position in which the responses occur. 4. Sometimes after a long travel when the researcher reached in the university. disagree and strongly disagree scale points with the respective frequency 4.

disagree and strongly disagree categories with the respective frequency 4. agree. Then cumulative frequency and percentage first individually on each agree and disagree side of the scale.This chapter deals with the data collected through a questionnaire. 2 and 1. Then the responses were weighted according to the position in which they occur. then total frequency of both the sides of the scale on the item. The views were coded by changing strongly agree. The weighted frequencies of the items falling under each aspect of stress management strategy such as “teachers’ perspective on professional investment” were added by merging strongly agree and agree categories into agree group of responses whereas strongly disagree and disagree set of responses collectively give rise disagree side of responses. The results are given in the form of the following tables Table 4. total frequency and percentage for all the items under each group of items independently for agree and disagree side of scale and finally total frequency for all the items of the scale was worked out.1 Professional Stressors among University Academia 27 . Paired sample t test was employed to test the significance of difference between agree and disagree sets of responses. For example strongly agree point on the scale was treated as 4 and not 1 likewise strongly disagree category was taken as 1 and not 4. 3.

Item # 11 13 14 Items I lack recognition for the extra work I do.26 Tab. they lacked control over decisions regarding university matters as viewed by 53% participants. Table 4.08 53.80 Total Frequency 733 720 723 15 339 43. Paired Sample t test showed no significant difference between agree and disagree groups of responses on the professional investment of teachers. Disagree Frequency 390 381 334 Disagree % 53. Fifty six percent teachers had no emotional attachment with the job.19 Agree Frequency 343 339 389 Agree % 46. I have no say in making academic decisions. However. In total 51% teachers were not committed with teaching profession.425 df=3 Sig=.35 1504 51% Agree Mean=376 Agree Standard Deviation=44.91 46.699 Total Paired Sample t test 1444 49% Disagree Mean=361 Disagree Standard Deviation=28. I lack control over decisions made about the university matters.91 433 56. I am not emotionally stimulated on the job.08 772 2948 t=.4.20 52.79 47.1 indicates that more than 52% teachers received recognition for the extra work they do and had some role in making academic decisions.2 Work Related Stressors among University Academia 28 .

574 df= 4 Sig=.000 Total Paired Sample t test 2394 58% Agree Mean=274. There is little time to prepare for my lectures.50 39.23 294 41.35 Total Frequency 645 690 697 733 680 54.2 shows that more than sixty four percent teachers have to do a lot of work as their workload is too big. There is significant impact of work related stressors on the lives of university teachers as revealed by paired sample t’ test.49 60. There is too much paper work in the job of 51% teachers.64 Agree Frequency 229 272 337 Agree % 35.42 48.60 Disagree Standard Deviation=26. My personal priorities are shortly changed due to time demands.35 711 4156 t= -15.20 Agree Standard Deviation=17. They have to change their personal priorities due to time demand.64 336 294 45. More than 54% participants have little time to prepare for their lectures as the pace of university day is too fast for them.51 1762 42% Disagree Mean=551. Disagree Frequency 416 418 360 397 386 417 Disagree % 64.76 58. My workload is too big.66 Table 4. 29 .83 43. The pace of the University day is too fast.16 56.Item # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Items I have too much work to do. In total work is the major stressor among 58% university teachers.57 51. There is too much paperwork in my job.

124 3915 t= -3. I think about irrelevant matters in the conversation.58 59.01 53.14 64.85 35.98 46. Disagree Frequency 362 324 286 331 352 Disagree % 46. more than 53% teachers feel physical exhaustion and do irrelevant conversation as a result of stress.37 Agree Frequency 418 469 527 439 407 Agree % 53. I sleep more than usual.41 40.Table 4.62 Total Frequency Frequency 780 793 813 770 759 Total Paired Sample t test 1655 42% Disagree Mean=331 Disagree Standard Deviation=229.025 Regarding table 4. Paired sample t test indicated a significant impact of stress on the behavior of the university teachers.3. 30 . More than fifty seven percent teachers feel mental exhaustion and rush towards their speeches due to this stress.3 Behavioural Stressors among University Academia Item # 27 28 29 30 36 Items I feel physical exhaustion.513 df= 4 Sig=. I feel mental exhaustion.82 57. I rush in my speech.17 42. As a result of this stress 64% teachers sleep more than their usual routine.478 2260 58% Agree Mean=452 Agree Standard Deviation=48.

I have to try doing more than one thing at a time.06 Total 2206 51% Paired Sample t test Disagree Mean=367.58 I have little time to enjoy the time of day. 360 49.06 Total Frequency 740 741 726 363 50. Paired sample t test showed no significant difference between agree and disagree sides of the scale on the time management. Disagree Frequency 367 370 366 Disagree Agree % Frequency 49.93 2154 49% Agree Mean=359 Agree Standard Deviation=12. 384 52. they feel uncomfortable in wasting time.048 343 47.4 Time Management as a Cause of Stress among University Academia Item # 31 32 33 34 Items There is not enough time to get the things done. 359 51.18 727 723 703 4360 t=1.Table 4.93 50.41 373 371 360 49.946 Table 4.81 35 I easily over commit my self. 31 .40 50. More than fifty two percent teachers could not enjoy due to the stress.66 Disagree Standard Deviation=9.211 df= 5 Sig=.20 344 48. do not overcomit themselves and become impatient if others do things very slowly.4 reveals that about fifty percent teachers do not have enough time to get the things done.79 37 I feel uncomfortable wasting time.28 Agree % 50. I become impatient if others do things too slowly.59 49.

74 68.25 31.5 shows that more than fifty three percent teachers lack opportunities for their professional development.152 df =5 Sig =.77 57.009 2851 60% Agree Mean= 475.90 Total Frequency 751 742 762 824 799 827 4705 t=-4.82 65. 32 . Sixty percent teachers seem helpless in this situation.17 34. More than sixty eight percent respondents feel insecure and depress in their departments due to this stress.16 Agree Standard Deviation =67. I have to deal the students with negative social behaviors. Paired sample t test indicated significant impact of discipline and motivation on the stress among academia.Table 4.20 60. I have to teach too poorly motivated students.79 53.419 Table 4.5 Impact of Discipline and Motivation on Stress among university Academia Item # 16 17 18 Items I lack opportunities for professional development. they have to teach poorly motivated learners and deal with negative behaviours of the students.009 19 20 21 Total Paired Sample t test 1854 40% Disagree Mean =309 Disagree Standard Deviation =31.09 Disagree % 44.79 39. I feel insecure at the department I respond to stress by feeling vulnerable I feel depress at the department Disagree Frequency 332 343 322 262 313 282 42.22 Agree Frequency 419 399 440 562 486 545 Agree % 55.20 46.

Paired sample t.06 329 47.091 df= 4 Sig=.13 47. Disagree Frequency 372 347 376 386 Disagree Agree % Frequency 53.80 Disagree Standard Deviation=20. I do not need more status on my job.35 415 55.26 Total Frequency 701 725 716 732 753 3627 t= . test showed no significant difference between agree and disagree group of responses on the professional distress.6 shows that more then fifty two percent teachers lack promotion in their job as they are not progressing in their job as rapidly as they like.48 47.60 Agree Standard Deviation=34. 33 .73 378 340 346 Agree % 46.11 1808 50% Agree Mean=361.93 52. Fifty five percent teachers receive an inadequate salary for the work they do in the university. They need more status on their jobs. Their personal opinions are not sufficiently aired.97 Table 4.51 52.88 1819 50% Disagree Mean=363. I am not progressing in my job as rapidly as like.86 52.6 Professional Dissatisfaction among University Teachers Item # 7 8 9 10 12 Items I have sufficient opportunities in my job.Table 4. I receive an inadequate salary for the work I do. My personal opinions are sufficiently aired.932 Total Paired Sample t test 338 44.

In total 67% respondents’ revealed negative impact of stress on their lives. Disagree Frequency 258 259 301 278 Disagree Agree % Frequency 30.Table 4. I do not bother about the academic problems.98 562 542 540 Agree % 69.7 points out that more than sixty six percent teachers have to use the prescribed drugs as they feel stomach pain and pass the university day with shallow breath.21 522 65.45 64.64 68.01 Total Frequency 850 821 843 818 797 4129 t=-13. Sixty four percent respondents do not bother about the academic problems. In case of 64% participants’ high blood pressure was reported.54 35. Paired sample t’ test showed significant difference between agree and disagree group of responses in favour of agree side.704 df=3 Sig=. 34 .70 33. I have stomach pain of extended duration.49 2758 67% Agree Mean=559 Agree Standard Deviation=24. I have to pass the University day with shallow breath.7 Stress Coping Strategies among University Academia Item # 22 23 24 25 26 Items I have to use prescribed drugs.35 592 31.29 66.50 1371 33% Disagree Mean=274 Disagree Standard Deviation=20.001 Total Paired Sample t test 275 34.13 Table 4. I feel increased blood pressure.

time related stressors and professional frustrations. international research publications and name of the university served as demographic variables for this piece of research. motivation. experience. 35 .289.Effects of Demographic Variables on the Stress Management Demographic variables provide base to the research variables of the measuring instrument. female mean 2. discipline. Male standard deviation . teaching and research experience.897. designation. designation. Academic qualification. The effects of the qualification. t -2. female standard deviation . The results are as follows: It was noted that the female faculty members do not have much control over university related decisions (Male mean 2. international research publications of teachers and university on the core variables were worked out by One Way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni as Post Hoc test. gender. behavioural. df 269.916.023).05. p .30. An independent sample t test was employed to calculate the effects of gender on the professional.

15 Female Mean 1.008 5 The pace of the University day is too fast.8 reveals that the male teachers have little time to prepare lectures as they have to do more paper work in their job as compared to the female teachers.82 Gender Standard Deviation Male Standard Deviation . Male Mean 2.762 Male Standard Deviation .21 Female Mean 1.2033 Female Mean 1.855 Female Standard Deviation .05033 Female Standard Deviation .82 3.8833 7. Male Mean 2. 36 .341 2 .10970 T 3.666 273 . University day passes more quickly for male faculty than female academia. Gender Mean Male Mean 2.810 Female Standard Deviation .Table 4.734 Male Standard Deviation .25 Female Mean 2.952 df 272 p .522 273 .000 4 There is little time to prepare for my lectures.8 Effects of Gender on Work Related Stressors Item # 3 Items There is too much paperwork in my job. In total both the genders were significantly different on work related stressors.757 Female Standard Deviation .001 Overall impact Male Mean 2.018 Table 4. Male teachers were more under work stress than their female colleagues.01 2.694 Male Standard Deviation .

Effects of Academic Qualifications on Stress Management Professional qualification could not produce any significant impact on the professional stressors. There is little time to prepare for my lectures.171 2. degree holding faculty. Mean Difference in Qualification M. discipline and motivation. 37 .039 .A.Sc. In case of the former faculty the pace of the university day is faster than the latter ones.Sc.-M.Sc.865 3.Sc.017 . . professional frustration.Male and female faculty members were found at the same level on the behaviour related stressors.Phil qualification has less time to prepare for teaching as compared to M.A.Phil-M. .-M. Table 4.522 df 273 274 274 p . . time management. The academia with M. degree in their credit.A.367 M. The pace of the University day is too fast.030 It appears from the above table that the teachers holding M.Sc qualification has much paper work in their job as compared to the faculty having M.9 Effects of Academic Qualification on Work Related Stressors Item # 3 4 5 Items There is too much paperwork in my job.471 M.415 F 3.

qualification. .001 .11 38 .466 274 29 I sleep more than usual.002 28 I feel mental exhaustion.571 df 274 p .Phil-PhD .A.000 . The teachers with M.A.560 M. The teachers with M.527 M. 7.A.A.-M. .010 6.Sc.000 .10 Effects of Academic Qualification on Behavioural Stressors Item # 27 Items I feel physical exhaustion. .Table 4. .493 M.Phil-PhD .Phil-M.602 F 7.700 274 .002 .Phil qualification reported more physical exhaustion as compared to their colleagues having M.Phil-M.Phil qualification in their credit reported more than usual sleep and mental exhaustion than all the other teachers with M. and PhD qualification. Table 4.A.10 the science faculty feels more physical exhaustion than teachers from arts departments.635 M. Regarding table 4.-M. .649 M.Sc.024 .Phil-M. Mean Difference in Qualification M.Sc. /M.Phil.715 M.A.

661 (1-5)-(16-20) .007 .252 3.854 (1-5)-(6-10) . 39 .820 272 272 .043 Table 4. I rush in my speech.11 reveals that the teachers with 26-30 years teaching experience reported more physical exhaustion than those with 6-10 years teaching experience.022 29 30 I sleep more than usual.552 (1-5)-(6-10) . The teachers with 1-5 years teaching experience reported rush in their speech and slept more than usual as compared to all the other faculty members.02 . 2. Mean Difference in Experience (26-30)-(6-10) .015 df 272 p .673 F 2.732 (1-5)-(21-25) .Effects of Teaching Experience on Behavioural Stressors Item # 27 Items I feel physical exhaustion.002 .

005 . Table 4. University of Punjab and Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi. The faculty at University of Sindh Hyderabad and International Islamic University Islamabad were less motivated on the job than their colleagues at Bahauddin Zakariya University Mulatan.954 University of SindhUniversity of Punjab . University of Karachi.12 Effects of University on Professional Stressors Item # 11 Items I lack recognition for the extra work I do.166 335 .613 University of SindhBahauddin Zakariya . According to table 4.639 University of SindhFatima Jinnah 1.Table 4.044 .001 .12 the academia at Bahauddin Zakariya University reported less recognition for the extra work than their colleagues at University of Karachi and Fatima Jinnah Women University.659 Bahauddin ZakariyaUniversity of Karachi .01 15 I am not emotionally stimulated on the job.908 International IslamicFatima Jinnah .012 .573 df 335 p . Mean Difference between Universities Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah .000 .188 University of SindhUniversity of Karachi .13 40 .810 F 4.000 4.

006 .009 .722 University of Balochistan-Fatima Jinnah F 7. .000 .502 University of PunjabUniversity of Karachi .854 University of PunjabUniversity of Sindh .251 333 .01 3 There is too much paperwork in my job. Mean Difference between Universities University of the Punjab-Bahauddin Zakariya .008 .578 Bahauddin ZakariyaUniversity of Karachi .039 .772 International IslamicFatima Jinnah .007 .020 df 336 p . .003 11.013 7.216 336 .Effects of University on Work Related Stressors Item # 1 Items I have too much work to do.861 Fatima JinnahUniversity of Karachi .778 University of PunjabIslamia University .922 University of PunjabUniversity of Sindh .000 .042 41 .753 Bahauddin ZakariyaUniversity of Sindh .742 Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah .575 University of PunjabUniversity of Karachi .000 .641 University of PunjabInternational Islamic .000 .000 .607 Bahauddin ZakariyaInternational Islamic .000 2 My workload is too big.722 University of PunjabFatima Jinnah .

.512 334 .004 .717 Bahauddin ZakariyaUniversity of Karachi .449 334 .029 . .619 Bahauddin ZakariyaUniversity of Karachi .904 Islamia UniversityUniversity of Karachi .588 Bahauddin Zakariya- .000 .823 Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah .003 6 My personal priorities are shortly changed due to time demands.001 5 The pace of the University day is too fast.101 335 .450 International IslamicFatima Jinnah .000 6.728 University of PunjabUniversity of Karachi .020 6.000 10.4 There is little time to prepare for my lectures.765 University of PunjabFatima Jinnah .016 .004 .003 .772 University of Balochistan-Fatima Jinnah .822 University of PunjabFatima Jinnah .558 University of PunjabUniversity of Karachi . 42 .000 .867 Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah .003 .000 .643 Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah .577 Islamia UniversityFatima Jinnah .582 Islamia UniversityFatima Jinnah .742 Bahauddin ZakariyaUniversity of Karachi .002 .000 .609 University of PunjabUniversity of Sindh .

606 University of PunjabFatima Jinnah . The teachers at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan and University of Punjab Lahore had to change their personal priorities as compared to their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah University Rawalpindi and University of Karachi.000 Table 4. Those at Fatima Jinnah University Rawalpindi also had too much work to do than their University of Karachi colleagues. There was little time with teachers for lecture preparation at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan and Islamia University Bahawalpur than their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi and University of Karachi. University of Punjab Lahore. The workload of the academia at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan and University of Punjab Lahore was too big than the faculty members at rest of the sample universities. Islamia University Bahawalpur. Balochistan University Quetta and University of Punjab Lahore as compared to the teaching staff of the other universities.University of Karachi and University of Sindh Hyderabad.589 . There was more paper work in the job of the faculty at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.University of Karachi . International Islamic University Islamabad and University of Balochistan Quetta as compared to the faculty members at Fatima Jinnah University Rawalpindi and University of Karachi. The pace of the university day was faster for the faculty members at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. 43 .571 University of PunjabUniversity of Karachi .000 .13 reveals the teachers at University of Punjab Lahore had to do too much work as compared to those of Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.003 .

031 .003 .242 df 334 p . .14 Effects of University on Behavioural Stressors Item # 27 Items I feel physical exhaustion.003 3.918 University of Balochistan-Fatima Jinnah .518 University of PunjabFatima Jinnah .044 .015 University of Karachi-Fatima Jinnah .672 International IslamicFatima Jinnah .094 Islamia UniversityFatima Jinnah .001 .018 .774 University of Balochistan-Fatima Jinnah 1.719 International IslamicFatima Jinnah 1. .970 International IslamicBahauddin Zakariya . Mean Difference Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah .857 International IslamicUniversity of Punjab .781 Islamia UniversityFatima Jinnah .747 334 .905 University of Balochistan-Fatima Jinnah .002 .002 002 .941 University of SindhFatima Jinnah .639 International IslamicFatima Jinnah .830 F 4.000 .005 7.003 29 I sleep more than usual.Table 4.000 44 .001 28 I feel mental exhaustion.604 334 .

663 University of SindhFatima Jinnah .048 3.010 .016 .30 I rush in my speech.969 .002 . Teachers at International Islamic University Islamabad.304 334 .730 Islamia UniversityUniversity of Punjab . University of Karachi and University of Punjab Lahore feel more physical exhaustion and physical weaknesses than their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah Women University.596 332 . Islamia University Bahawalpur and University of Balochistan Quetta speak faster than the faculty at Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi.869 Islamia UniversityUniversity of Karachi . University of Karachi and University of Punjab Lahore.903 University of Balochistan-Fatima Jinnah . University of Balochistan Quetta.14 indicates that the faculty at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.000 5. International IslamicUniversity of Karachi . University of Balochistan Quetta and University of Sindh Hyderabad sleep more than their fellows at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. International Islamic University Islamabad. University of Punjab Lahore and Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi.007 Table 4. 36 I think about irrelevant matters in the conversation.733 Islamia UniversityFatima Jinnah . The teaching staff at University of Sindh Hyderabad thinks more about irrelevant conversation than the teachers of Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi. Islamia University Bahawalpur. 45 .830 International IslamicFatima Jinnah .006 . Islamia University Bahawalpur. The faculty members at International Islamic University Islamabad.

566 University of PunjabFatima Jinnah .641 University of PunjabUniversity of Balochistan . 46 . University of Balochistan and University of Punjab Lahore had lesser time to enjoy than their colleagues at University of Sindh Hyderabad and University of Karachi. University of Punjab Lahore and International Islamic University Islamabad feel more uncomfortable in wasting time than their colleagues at University of Balochistan Quetta.063 University of PunjabUniversity of Karachi .582 International IslamicUniversity of Karachi .282 332 .344 df 332 p .003 . University of Karachi .462 I feel uncomfortable wasting Bahauddin Zakariyatime.926 university of PunjabUniversity of Karachi .008 .Table 4. University of Karachi .849 University of BalochistanUniversity of Sindh 1.000 As reflected through table 4.017 .508 University of BalochistanUniversity of Karachi .767 F 4.15 Effects of University on Time Management as a Stressor Item # 34 Items Mean Difference I have little time to enjoy Bahauddin Zakariyathe time of day.022 . The faculty members at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.009 .019 6.003 .006 37 . Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi and University of Karachi.15 the teaching faculty at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.

034 .001 4.312 International IslamicUniversity of Karachi .732 University of Balochistan.000 .219 8.797 332 .257 333 330 .111 Islamia UniversityFatima Jinnah .000 .529 Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah .010 20 I respond to stress by feeling Bahauddin Zakariyavulnerable Fatima Jinnah 47 .000 .000 University of PunjabFatima Jinnah .001 .764 University of SindhFatima Jinnah 1.052 F 6.16 Effects of University on Discipline and Motivation as a Stressor Item # 16 Items I lack opportunities for professional development.028 17 19 I have to teach too poorly motivated students.092 University of SindhUniversity of Punjab 1.892 International IslamicUniversity of Punjab .Fatima Jinnah 1. Mean Difference Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah .008 University of SindhFatima Jinnah 1.Table 4.851 University of SindhUniversity of Karachi 1.024 .000 .558 International IslamicFatima Jinnah 1.000 . I feel insecure at the department .771 University of SindhUniversity of Karachi 1.608 df 335 p .001 .003 2.341 University of PunjabFatima Jinnah .000 .001 .

742 International IslamicUniversity of Punjab .017 7.952 Islamia UniversityFatima Jinnah .000 .000 . The facuty at University of Punjab Lahore in comparison with those of Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi has to teach poorly motivated students.006 .221 International IslamicUniversity of Karachi .845 University of SindhFatima Jinnah .901 University of Balochistan-Fatima Jinnah . University of Sindh Hyderabad. The teachers at 48 .865 University of SindhUniversity of Karachi .002 .020 University of SindhFatima Jinnah 1.000 .008 .032 .21 I feel depress at the department .045 International IslamicFatima Jinnah 1.943 University of SindhUniversity of Punjab 1.136 333 .000 .986 International IslamicBahauddin zakariya .001 Regarding table 4.002 . University of Balochistan Quetta and University of Punjab Lahore lacked opportunities for professional development with respect to Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi and University of Karachi.640 International IslamicFatima Jinnah .844 University of SindhBahauddin Zakariya 1.065 .16 the teachers at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.000 .

University of Balochistan Quetta and University of Sindh Hyderabad responded to stress by feeling more helpless as compared to their women colleagues at Fatima Jinnah University. The academia at University of Sindh Hyderabad and International Islamic University Islamabad were found more depress at their departments than their colleagues from Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. University of Karachi. 49 . University of Punjab and Fatima Jinnah Women University. The teaching staff at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. University of Karachi and University of Punjab Lahore. Islamia University Bahawalpur feel much insecure at their department as compared to their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi. Islamia University Bahawalpur. International Islamic University Rawalpindi. University of Sindh Hyderabad.Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. International Islamic University Islamabad.

721 335 .022 2.044 .17 Effects of University on Professional Dissatisfaction as a Stressor Item # 7 Items I have sufficient opportunities in my job. I receive an inadequate salary for the work I do.040 4.595 University of Balochistan-Fatima Jinnah .760 University of PunjabFatima Jinnah .551 University of BalochistanUniversity of Karachi 1.462 Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah . 10 12 3. University of Punjab Lahore and University of Balochistan were not progressing in their jobs according to their desires with 50 .130 335 .914 University of SindhUniversity of Punjab .922 University of SindhUniversity of Karachi .668 University of PunjabFatima Jinnah .009 .309 Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah .17 indicates that the teaching staff at University of Sindh Hyderabad had more opportunities in job than their colleagues at University of Punjab Lahore. The academia at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. My personal opinions are sufficiently aired.688 International IslamicFatima Jinnah .525 F 3.015 9 I do not need more status on my job.014 .001 . .012 8 I am not progressing in my job as rapidly as like.97 df 335 p .026 .331 3.204 334 335 . Mean Difference University of SindhFatima Jinnah .Table 4. University of Sindh Hyderabad and Fatima Jinnah University.044 Table 4.

Table 4. The personal opinions of the teaching faculty at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan are more aired than their counterparts at Fatima Jinnah University whereas the teachers at University of Punjab Lahore and International Islamic University Islamabad were receiving less salaries for their work than their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah University. The teachers at University of Balochistan Quetta with reference to their Colleagues University of Karachi did no want more status on their present job.18 Effects of University on Stress Coping Strategies 51 .respect to the teaching staff at Fatima Jinnah University.

035 .871 Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah .000 .001 .025 .175 University of Balochistan-Fatima Jinnah 1.526 International IslamicFatima Jinnah .047 .318 University of PunjabFatima Jinnah .049 F 2. Mean Difference International IslamicFatima Jinnah 1.000 .565 University of SindhFatima Jinnah 1.Item # 22 23 Items I have to use prescribed drugs.187 334 . 24 I feel increased blood pressure.008 6.915 International IslamicUniversity of Karachi .893 10.436 University of Karachi-Fatima Jinnah .000 .000 .003 .001 .741 University of Balochistan-Fatima Jinnah 1. I have to pass the University day with shallow breath.381 Islamia UniversityFatima Jinnah 1.641 International IslamicFatima Jinnah 1.000 .776 Islamia UniversityFatima Jinnah .740 International IslamicBahauddin Zakariya .538 df 333 331 p .816 University of BalochistanUniversity of Karachi .028 .030 .001 52 .131 Bahauddin ZakariyaFatima Jinnah .

The teachers at University of Sindh Hyderabad and Islamia University Bahalpur told that they bother less about academic problems than their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah Women University.272 333 .004 University of SindhFatima Jinnah . The faculty at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.817 .010 .001 . University of Karachi and University of Punjab Lahore. University of Sindh and University of Balochistan complained more increase in their blood pressure than their teaching fellows at Fatima Jinnah University and University of Karachi.075 International IslamicUniversity of Karachi .024 . University of Karachi. Intenational Islamic University Islamabad.033 . International Islamic University Islamabad.046 Table 4. University of Punjab Lahore. Islamia University Bahawalpur.790 University of SindhUniversity of Karachi . 53 .26 I do not bother about the academic problems.889 Islamia UniversityFatima Jinnah 1.011 5. University of Sindh Hyderabad and University of Balochistan Quetta spent their days at their respective Universities with more shallow breath than their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah University whereas the teachers at International Islamic University Islamabad had to use prescribed drugs for coping stress.001 .18 shows that the teachers at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.912 Islamia UniversityUniversity of Punjab .590 University of SindhUniversity of Karachi .909 Islamia universityUniversity of Karachi . University of SindhFatima Jinnah 1.001 .

CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS DISCUSSION CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 54 .

The teachers had little time for preparing their lectures. FINDINGS The extra work of more than 52% teachers was recognized and they were consulted in academic decision making. The work load for more than sixty four percent teachers was too big. they were not considered as a final authority in deciding university matters. In the light of the conclusions recommendations were made. As a result they did irrelevant conversation and slept more than their usual. More than one half of the teachers at most of the universities were found under stress. According to teachers the majority of the students were poorly motivated frequently charged with negative behaviours. They neither overcomit themselves nor like to waste their time and show impatience over the laziness of other people. A fairly high number of teachers 53% reported fewer opportunities for their professional development.This chapter is mainly concerned with the findings extracted from the data. They reported physical exhaustion. Majority of the 55 . About 50% teachers had shortage of time to do the things. They had to do a lot of paper work. They were unable to enjoy due to the stress. As a result work appeared as a major stressor in their life. They had to prefer professional things over personal ones. More than half teachers did not show any emotional attachment with the job as they were not committed with teaching profession. However. After discussing the findings some conclusions were drawn.

The male teachers had little time for preparations as they were more involved in paper as compared to the female teachers. teaching and research experience.teachers (68%) reported security problems at their departments. They were more under work stress than their female colleagues.30. A vast majority of teachers 66% reported stomach pain and high blood pressure. designation.289. They had to use the prescribed drugs for getting relief from these complaints. t -2. Male standard deviation . About more than one half of the teachers (52%) lacked promotion in their job.916. Their university day passed more quickly than female academia. df 269. gender. research publications and name of the university were calculated on the professional. motivation. Effects of Demographic Variables on the Stress Management The impacts of the academic qualification. female mean 2. They wanted more status. Both the genders were significantly different on work related stressors. discipline. As compared to their work their salary was inadequate.897. They spent their day at university with shallow breath.023). 56 . time related stressors and professional frustrations either by employing independent sample t test (for gender only) or by One Way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni as Post Hoc test. behavioural. p . In total teachers’ revealed negative impact of stress on their lives. female standard deviation . The results are as follows: It was noted that the female faculty members do not have much control over university related decisions (Male mean 2.05. They complaint depression as they seem helpless in this situation.

degree holder colleagues.A. The faculty at University of Sindh Hyderabad and International Islamic University Islamabad showed less motivation towards their job than their colleagues at Bahauddin Zakariya University Mulatan.Male and female faculty members were found at the same level on the behaviour related stressors. disciplines and motivation. Islamia University Bahawalpur. time management. and PhD qualification.Sc.A. The academia with M. University of Karachi. University of Balochistan 57 .Sc. The teachers holding M. The science teachers reported more physical exhaustion than their colleagues from arts departments. The teachers having 26-30 years teaching experience reported more physical exhaustion than those with 6-10 years teaching experience. The teachers with 1-5 years teaching experience reported rush in their speech and slept more than usual as compared to all the other faculty members. Bahauddin Zakariya University academia complained less recognition of the extra work than those of University of Karachi and Fatima Jinnah Women University. The faculty at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. /M. qualification had to do more paper work than their M. Likewise the teachers having M. Effects of Academic Qualifications on Stress Management Professional qualification could not produce any significant impact on the professional stressors.Sc. International Islamic University Islamabad. degree holding faculty.Phil qualification in their credit agreed more than usual sleep and physical weaknesses than rest of the faculty members with M. professional frustration. University of Punjab and Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi.Phil qualification has less time to prepare for teaching as compared to M.

University of Punjab Lahore. Teachers at International Islamic University Islamabad.Quetta. University of Balochistan Quetta and University of Sindh Hyderabad sleep more than their fellows at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. The teaching staff at University of Sindh Hyderabad thinks more about irrelevant conversation than the teachers of Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi. There was more paper work in the job of the faculty at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. Balochistan University Quetta and University of Punjab Lahore as compared to the teaching staff of the other universities. Islamia University Bahawalpur. The teachers at University of Punjab Lahore had to do too much work as compared to those of Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. University of Karachi and University of Punjab Lahore feel more physical exhaustion and physical weaknesses than their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah Women University. International Islamic University Islamabad and University of Balochistan Quetta as compared to the faculty members at Fatima Jinnah University Rawalpindi and University of Karachi. University of Punjab Lahore and Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi. There was little time with teachers for lecture preparation at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan and Islamia University Bahawalpur than their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah Women University 58 . The faculty members at International Islamic University Islamabad. The workload of the academia at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan and University of Punjab Lahore was too big than the faculty members at rest of the sample universities. University of Karachi and University of Punjab Lahore.University of Karachi and University of Sindh Hyderabad. The pace of the university day was faster for the faculty members at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. Those at Fatima Jinnah University Rawalpindi also had too much work to do than their University of Karachi colleagues. Islamia University Bahawalpur. Islamia University Bahawalpur and University of Balochistan Quetta speak faster than the faculty at Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi.

There was more depression among academia at University of Sindh Hyderabad and International Islamic University Islamabad than their colleagues from Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. The teachers at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. The faculty members at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. Islamia University Bahawalpur also had some security problems than their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi. The teachers at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. University of Karachi.Rawalpindi and University of Karachi. International Islamic University Islamabad. The staff members at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. University of Sindh Hyderabad. Islamia University Bahawalpur. University of Balochistan Quetta and University of Punjab Lahore had fewer opportunities for professional development as compared to their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi and University of Karachi. The teachers at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan and University of Punjab Lahore had to change their personal priorities as compared to their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah University Rawalpindi and University of Karachi. University of Punjab and Fatima Jinnah Women University. University of Karachi and University of Punjab Lahore. They did not like to waste their time. They had to teach poorly motivated students as opined by the faculty at University of Punjab Lahore. International Islamic University Rawalpindi. University of Sindh Hyderabad. University of Balochistan Quetta and University of Sindh Hyderabad felt helpless in the state of stress as compared to their women colleagues at Fatima Jinnah University. University of Balochistan Quetta and University of Punjab Lahore had less leisure time as compared to their colleagues at University of Sindh Hyderabad and University of Karachi. 59 .

Four points scale was used to record the responses. University of Karachi and Fatima Jinnah University whereas the academia at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. Discussion and Conclusions This study was conducted to explore major stressors in the job of university teachers and the ways how they deal with these stressors.University of Sindh Hyderabad academia enjoyed more rapid job promotion as compared to the faculty at University of Punjab Lahore. University of Punjab Lahore and University of Balochistan were not progressing in their jobs according to their desires with respect to the teaching staff at Fatima Jinnah University. There was low motivation among students for learning new things. Islamia University Bahawalpur. There was less time for making academic preparation. It was noted that there was a lot of paper work in the teaching profession. For a fairly high number of teachers the pace of the university day was very fast. At the same time most of the 60 . University of Sindh Hyderabad and University of Balochistan Quetta spent their time at their respective University with more shallow breath than their colleagues at Fatima Jinnah University. The faculty at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. University of Punjab Lahore. They had to sacrifice their personal commitments over the cost of professional ones. Even they were not overcommitted. University of Sindh and University of Balochistan complained high blood pressure than their teaching fellows at Fatima Jinnah University and University of Karachi. University of Karachi. International Islamic University Islamabad. The data was collected by administering a questionnaire to the faculty members at their respective university departments. However. Intenational Islamic University Islamabad. The teachers at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. The teachers at International Islamic University Islamabad had to use prescribed drugs for coping stress. more weight age was given to the personal opinions of the teaching faculty at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan than their counterparts at Fatima Jinnah University.

The further research might address the situation of teachers’ stress at the universities working under private sector in the country. There should be serious 61 . Government should improve security situation of the high seats of learning. They seemed helpless in this situation. physical and mental irregularities and many other problems. Higher Education authorities and Government of Pakistan. The causes of the stress must be eliminated from the academic circles of the high seats of learning so that the university teachers might devote themselves for developing the market based learning skills among the future leadership of the country. Their salaries seemed inadequate. So generalization of these findings might be claimed for all the public sector universities in the country. On the other hand the high inflation rate in the country had badly affected the purchasing power of most of the teachers. salary structure and academic environment was almost similar at all the high seats of learning in the country. Academic culture. university management. There was partial impact of the demographic variables on the situation of stress at all the sampled universities. They complained high blood pressure. The situation was so serious that many of the teachers had to use prescribed drugs on regular basis. There were meager career development opportunities in this profession as revealed by the majority of teachers. Implications The existing situation of the stress among university academia in Pakistan demands serious considerations on the part of the parents. In this situation many teachers felt under stress. With slight differences more or less same type of situation prevailed at all the institutions of higher learning in the country. The deserving teachers should be given timely promotion. University authorities should do serious efforts to reduce paper work from the job of the teachers.teachers found themselves under security threats. the nature of students’ body.

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