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David W. Graham EE 327

Continuous-Time Signals • Continuous-Time Signals – Time is a continuous variable – The signal itself need not be continuous • We will look at several common continuous-time signals and also operations that may be performed on them 2 .

Unit Step Function 1 u (t ) = 0 1 u(t) t≥0 t<0 t 0 • Used to characterize systems • We will use u(t) to illustrate the properties of continuous-time signals 3 .

3. 4.Operations of CT Signals 1. Time Reversal Time Shifting Amplitude Scaling Addition Multiplication Time Scaling y(t) = x(-t) y(t) = x(t-td) y(t) = Bx(t) y(t) = x1(t) + x2(t) y(t) = x1(t)x2(t) y(t) = x(at) 4 . 6. 2. 5.

and perform time reversal Solution: Find y(t) = u(-t) Let “a” be the argument of the step function u(a) 1 u (a ) = 0 a≥0 a<0 1 t 0 5 Let a = -t.1. and plug in this value of “a” 1 u (− t ) = 0 t≤0 t>0 . Let x(t) = u(t). Time Reversal • Flips the signal about the y axis • y(t) = x(-t) ex.

y(t) equals what x(t) was td seconds ago 6 . Time Shifting / Delay • y(t) = x(t – td) • Shifts the signal left or right • Shifts the origin of the signal to td • Rule Set (t – td) = 0 (set the argument equal to zero) Then move the origin of x(t) to td • Effectively.2.

Time Shifting / Delay ex.2. Sketch y(t) = u(t – 2) Method 1 Let “a” be the argument of “u” 1 y (a ) = 0 a≥0 1 = a < 0 0 t −2≥0 1 = t − 2 < 0 0 t≥2 t<2 1 1 2 0 t Method 2 (by inspection) Simply shift the origin to td = 2 7 .

3. Sketch y(t) = 5u(t) 5 t 0 8 . Amplitude Scaling • Multiply the entire signal by a constant value • y(t) = Bx(t) ex.

Addition of Signals • Point-by-point addition of multiple signals • Move from left to right (or vice versa). and add the value of each signal together to achieve the final signal • y(t) = x1(t) + x2(t) • Graphical solution – Plot each individual portion of the signal (break into parts) – Add the signals point by point 9 .4.

plot each of the portions of this signal separately • x1(t) = u(t) Simply a step signal • x2(t) = –u(t-2) Delayed step signal. move from one side to the other. multiplied by -1 Then.2) 1 2 0 t 10 .4. Sketch y(t) = u(t) – u(t – 2) First. Addition of Signals ex. and add their instantaneous values x1(t) = u(t) 1 y(t) 1 1 -1 2 t x2(t) = -u(t .

Multiplication of Signals • Point-by-point multiplication of the values of each signal • y(t) = x1(t)x2(t) • Graphical solution – Plot each individual portion of the signal (break into parts) – Multiply the signals point by point 11 .5.

plot each of the portions of this signal separately • x1(t) = u(t) Simply a step signal • x2(t) = u(t-2) Delayed step signal Then. and multiply instantaneous values 1 x1(t) = u(t) x2(t) = -u(t . Sketch y(t) = u(t)·u(t – 2) First. move from one side to the other.5.2) 1 2 t y(t) 1 1 2 t 12 . Multiplication of Signals ex.

Time Scaling • Speed up or slow down a signal • Multiply the time in the argument by a constant • y(t) = x(at) |a| > 1 |a| < 1 Speed up x(t) by a factor of “a” Slow down x(t) by a factor of “a” • Key Replace all instances of “t” with “at” 13 .6.

Time Scaling ex. plot x(t) x(t) 1 Turns on at 2t ≥ 0 t≥0 No change Turns on at 2t .6. Let x(t) = u(t) – u(t – 2) Sketch y(t) = x(2t) Replace all t’s with 2t y(t) = x(2t) = u(2t) – u(2t – 2) y(t) 1 2 t First.2 ≥ 0 t≥1 1 1 2 t This has effectively “sped up” x(t) by a factor of 2 (What occurred at t=2 now occurs at t=2/2=1) 14 .

plot x(t) x(t) 1 Turns on at t/2 ≥ 0 t≥0 No change Turns on at t/2 .6.2 ≥ 0 t≥4 1 1 2 3 4 t This has effectively “slowed down” x(t) by a factor of 2 (What occurred at t=1 now occurs at t=2) 15 . Let x(t) = u(t) – u(t – 2) Sketch y(t) = x(t/2) Replace all t’s with t/2 y(t) = x(t/2) = u(t/2) – u((t/2) – 2) y(t) 1 2 t First. Time Scaling ex.

Combinations of Operations • Combinations of operations on signals – Easier to Determine the final signal in stages – Create intermediary signals in which one operation is performed 16 .

ex. Time Scale and Time Shift Let x(t) = u(t + 2) – u(t – 4) Sketch y(t) = x(2t – 2) Can perform either operation first -2 -1 1 2 3 4 t x(t) 1 Method 1 Shift then scale Time shifted version of x(t) 1 v(t) = x(t . shift by 2. then scale by 2 a=2 b=2 1 2 3 4 5 6 t 17 .2) at – b = 2t – 2 (Match powers of t) Therefore.2) Let v(t) = x(t – b) Then y(t) = v(at) = x(at – b) Replace “t” with the argument of “v” Match up “a” and “b” to what is given in the problem statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 t y(t) = v(2t) = x(2t .

b = 1 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 1 t y(t) = v(t . then shift by 1 a=2 ab = 2.ex.1)) x(2t . scale by 2.1) = x(2(t . Time Scale and Time Shift Let x(t) = u(t + 2) – u(t – 4) Sketch y(t) = x(2t – 2) Can perform either operation first -2 -1 1 2 3 4 t x(t) 1 Method 2 Scale then shift Time scaled version of x(t) 1 v(t) = x(2t) Let v(t) = x(at) Then y(t) = v(t – b) = x(a(t – b)) = x(at – ab) Replace “t” with the argument of “v” Match up “a” and “b” to what is given in the problem statement at – ab = 2t – 2 (Match powers of t) Therefore.2) 1 2 3 4 t 18 -2 -1 .

Time Scale and Time Shift • Note – The results are the same • Note – The value of b in Method 2 is a scaled version of the time delay – td = 2 – Time scale factor = 2 – New scale factor = 2/2 = 1 19 .ex.

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