WAYS OF KNOWING IN NURSING based on Barbara Carper (1978), Christopher Johns (2000) Shows the complexity and diversity

of nursing knowledge.

Scientific, evidenced based – the framework for the The “art” of nursing. = what is good nursing? exploration of quantitative methods. Traditional, logical, rationale, positivist. Measures, predicts, generalizes. Theory Provides the framework for the exploration of qualitative development. methods – alls for recognition of patterns in phenomena eg the individual ways that a nurse would care for two clients awaiting surgey. ETHICAL KNOWING Morals, knowing right from wrong, nursing ethics, research ethics. Informed consent in research, confidentiality, privacy, respect for human rights. PERSONAL KNOWING Knowing oneself, nurses' awareness of self, knowing the self of others. Experiential, intuitive. Based in fundamentals of existentialism – the capacity for change and the value placed on becoming. Being genuine and authentic in research studies, awareness of one's beliefs and how they influence qualitative inquiry. Nature of human interactions is based on subjective knowledge. SOCIO-POLITICAL KNOWING


The practice of unknowing, reflecting on experience by Issues of power, whose voice is heard, whose voice is suspending judgement and exploring situations from a silent, helps nurses understand when and how they might deeper level = Praxis. Reflect on practice to reveal habitual act in the context of nursing. Need Reflection in Action. actions, examine strengths and weaknesses, open up the possibilities of learning by developing the art of unknowing.