THE UNIFICATION OF ENGLAND

1. The first kings of the English
The ancient kingdom of West Saxons had been transformed into a kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons by King Alfred the Great (849-899). One of the most relevant in the history of the British Isles is the political development process in the ninth and tenth centuries from the kingdom of the West Saxons to the Kingdom of the English. Alfred’s kingdom was spread across the river Thames until the ‘English’ Mercia, creating the ‘kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons’. His successor was his son Edward the Elder (899-924) spread West Saxon control over the Danes of eastern England and the Mercians. The process was taken a step further by Edward’s son Aethelstan, who gained York in 927 and ruled over Northumbria, bringing a unified ‘kingdom of the English’ into existence. After the death of Aethelstan, in 939, the Dublin Norse re-established their links with York but it was thus not until the reign of King Edgar (959-975) that the unification of the kingdom of Britain was completed. When Edgar died, there was an external threat, so the English suffered the Danish conquest in the early eleventh century. Cnut (also known as Canute) took over the kingdom in 1016 and made it the centre of his ‘North Sea Empire’. He extended his rule over Denmark (1018), over Norway (1028), and into some parts of Sweden. The inheritance for Cnut’s successors, politically talking, was a kingdom divided into two earls: Godwin of Wessex and Leofric of Mercia. Another important figure is Queen Aelfgifu (Emma) who was the wife of King Aethelred the Unready (978-1013, 1014-1016), and the wife of King Cnut (1017-1035). Edward the Confessor (1003-1066), the son of Ethelred II, lived in exile in Normandy during the years when Cnut of Denmark and his successors rules England (1061-1041) with his brother, Alfred. He returned to England in 1041, and was recognized by Harthacnut, Cnut’s son, as heir to the thorne (10421066). When Harthacnut died, the following year, Edward was chosen king.

1.1. The Saintly King’s Legacy: Westminster Abbey
Edward lived in exile in Normandy. It was there that he first saw the architecture which inspired him to create a great abbey.When he returned to England and was recognised as a king he ordered the construction of a great abbey church at Westminster. He wanted it to be an abiding legacy the country over which he ruled. It was completely different from any other church in the kingdom and more magnificent. It was a builduing in the Romenesque style. He dedicated the minster to the glory of God and St Peter and all of God's saints. On December 28, the great abbey, although incomplete, was cosecrated, but Edward was too ill to be present. He died on the eve of Epiphany (January 5, 1066) and was buried the next day beneath a magnificent tomb in Westminster Abbey. A year after Edward was buried, another royal occasion occurred, William, conqueror of England was consecrated kin on Christmas Day 1066.

1.2. British Society on the Eve of the Norman Conquest
Edward the Confessor left behind him a prosperous and flourising kingdom. Much of England's wealth came from her rich farmland. Nobles lived on great manors and their duties were of military character. The bulk of the peasantry were not “unfree” A man owed to his lord unpaid work and rent in money and kind. He also paid his hearthpenny, a tax on erery dwelling to the Church. They were not allowed to bear arms and had limited legal rights. Town life also flourished. London, the largest city of the kingdom, had over 15,000 inhabitants. In towns men organised into trading guilds. Demographically, England experienced growth between 800-1300. Shires were divide into hundreds, and the legal work was transacted in the Hundred Courts. Freemen in the hundreds were arranged in “tithings”, groups of ten men who took corporate responsibility for the behavior of the men in their group. The responsible for the government was the king, who consulted powerful churchmen and laymen in his council. He imposed gelds or land taxes on his people. The coinage was the most stable in Western Europe. The king's reeve, the shire-reeve or sheriff, looked after the royal rights in each shire. The king's will was made known to the ealdormen and “ thegns” (lords) through solemn writs.

2. The Normans

moreover. William. develop the economy. Duke of Normandy. thank to vast stone castles such as the Tower of London. and built many monuments such as cathedrals and churches. They received feudalism. The basis of the claim was that Edward was a second cousin of William. such as London and Canterbury. The British gained from Europe new ideas in government. In 1066. they settled in northwest France. an Earl. Normandy started to expand. William confiscated Anglo-Saxon estates and gave them to his Norman followers. the last Anglo-Saxon king died childless. commanded by harsh. In 1042. was elected king. He taught better farming. In the middle of 11th century. in the heart of a hostile land. The Pope had blessed his claim. Edward died. Normandy was very well ruled. They adapted Frankish Law. and great cathedrals and abbeys stood up as citadels of Norman Christianity. in 10th century. of the House of Wessex. defeated the English king Harold at the Battle of Hasting. He dispossessed many of the Anglo-Saxon landowners. Normandy was a powerful dukedom.The Normans were originally Vikings of Scandinavian origin. They became Counts and later Dukes of Normandy. Harold Godwinson. whose daughter married Edward. They were prepared to contribute ideas of their own. . military tactics and French language. Robert Guiscard created the Norman Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the claim to the English throne: Edward the Confessor. they assaulted some European cities. art and war. put an end to Vikings raids. There were two acts of expansionism: In 1061. William the Conqueror was duke. in 9th century (851). religion. In 8th century. The consolidation of William’s might was obtain. a mixture of Scandinavian courage and French tactics. They were mainly Danes. they raided the Atlantic coast of France. 14 October 1066. Edward was crowned king of England and the court started to fill with Normans. The Normans army. By 1035. uncompromising prelates. He was extremely religious His predecessor Richard II imposed feudalism and order. was one of the best in Europe. pressed the peasantry into service on their new feudal territories and treated all the AngloSaxons subjects with contempt. Edward had promised him the throne of England an in a brief visit to England had forced Harold to acknowledge him as a successor.

recording details of the property owned by everyone from the king downwards. They faced him but the old rivalries between Saxons families became their downfall and finally William became renowned.1 The Norman Conquest and the Transformation of England. Saxon England’s leaders surrendered to William and he was crowned king of England in 1066 and the rebellion continued.His heir was William II Rufus. and that increased his authority and his cruelty was the basis of his success in establishing his rule over England. The earls of Mercia and Northumbria ( brothers Edward and Morcar) accepted him because he had overthrown the Godwin family and they thought that he wanted to conquest only Wessex. William proclaimed himself king of England and not all England had accepted him as king. After his death. Sussex and Essex) and some part of Mercia. The Norman conquest of England began in 1066 with the invasion of England by Duke of Normandy and his victory at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066 The invading Normans (1066). In 1068 Norman army was massacred in Durham and weeks later the Normans fled from York. Kent. he reigned for 13 years. This was the most serious defeat suffered by the Normans in England. vanquished the Anglo-Saxons under Harold Godwineson and William the Conqueror won his throne by force. The Norman Conquest led to changes: -in the way the country was policed (from castles) -in landholding patterns -at the top of the hierarchy -in the monastic orders developing in England The Domesday Book was ordered by William I in order to discover the future wealth of England. leaving it to be occupied by the rebels. Hereward the Wake launched a campaign against the Normans. William the Conqueror married Matilda who was a direct descendent of Alfred the Great. William the Bastard. It was one of the first censuses. The originals volumes were kept at Winchester and later at Westminster. His dominion was in the south (Wessex. the accession of Henry I to the throne was carried out. 2. The Isle of Ely. led by their duke. Hereward’s chief refuge was besieged by William’s army and the Conqueror and his army was more powerful. from 1087 to 1100 over a nation torn by aristocratic quarrels and trampled down by foreign mercenaries. .

its taxes and its feudal system spread within the highlands and sea boundaries. its parliament. Henry I ruled well and introduced important reforms and expanded the system of traveling justices in the shires. He did not married and his brother Henry (Henry I). 2. daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland.The Bayeux Tapestry It is embroidery which is in a tourist centre in Bayeux (France). His bellicose temperament and the dissolute court over that he presided. Scotland adopted some of the changes that Normans promoted in England. Henry I married Matilda.2 The Succession Problems After the Conqueror’s death. deserved him the hostility of the Church. who was hunting with him. the heir of the throne but Stephen. occupied the throne and started a civil war against her. but his skill as a soldier made him popular between the knightly classes. The succession was resolved a year before Stephen’s death when he designed Henry Plantagenet. in which interior monarchs are usually laying in state after his death. his daughter. as his heir. was unwilling to yield the crown to a woman. . He patronized buildings such as the Westminster Hall. In Henry’s reign the Exchequer came into existence (The Treasurer called on each Sheriff to give account of royal income in their shire and then questioned them concerning debts owed by private individuals). his son William II (1087-1100). achieved the throne and had to defend it against his other brother Robert. which tells the tale of William the Conqueror’s invasion of England through pictorial panels. By this time the feeling of belonging to the same nation which has its language. His reign was a time of anarchy and intermittent warfare with invasions of Mathilda and his son from France. William II was suspiciously killed by an arrow when he was hunting. The death of Henry I in 1135 made Mathilda. Henry’s nephew. “The William the Conqueror Centre”. Mathilda’s son. its law. who had made feudal submission to the Conqueror. was the heir of the thrown.

He paid dearly for his faraway campaigns and the huge ransom that secured his freedom. which limited royal power. especially the Common Law. and Duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine. which only ended with John's dead. even being Plantagenets.btinternet. In 127.Henry began by destroying the castles built by rebellious barons and regulating the power of the Church. his territories in France exceeded even those of the French king. Count of Anjou. Henry took full control of the government. In 1265 Simon de Montfort summoned the first English Parliament.com/~timeref/tree220. he wore a sprig of flowering broom as his personal badge. known as the Lionheart for his cruzading zeal and his chivalry. The greatest Plantagenet’s’ contribution was the development of English law.wikipedia. In 1215 they forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. only to see him return to France where he died. Richard I. John (1199-1216) acceded to the throne at the dead of his brother. The first Plantagenet king of England was Henry II. When Henry II (1154-1189) became king of England. Edward I (1272-1307) was the best king to rule medieval England: He tranformed the law of England and made his crown the richest and most .htm (family tree of William the Conqueror) http://es. the English barons. The following king was Richard I (1189-1199).org/ (The Exchequer and history of England) 3. father of Henry II. Thirteen more kings followed him in a dynasty that ruled for 331 years. He lost his French dominions and imposed a high level of taxation that had the nobility up in arms against him. the last 86 rival families struggling to seize the crown. he was already Count of Anjou and of Touraine. Henry III (1216-1272) crowned king at the age of nine. In 1258. The Plantagenets This name derives from the nickname borne by Geoffrey. They presented a list of grievances to Henry. who signed the Provisions of Oxford.Bibliografía: http://www. took the names of Lancaster and York. This led to civil war. England was ruled tenporarily by two regents. rebelled against Henry misgovernment. led by Simon de Montfort. guaranteeing their rights.

The old squared towers were replaced by round ones which had flew blind spots and deflected boulders more easily. some recollected and new. King John swore he should never come to England. The main aim of the Magna Carta was to curb the King and make him govern by the old English laws (before Normans came). Magna Carta Document that King John of England (1166-1216) was forced into signing. In 1209. Edward. the Pope excommunicated King John and banned all church services in all parish churches. Archbishop of Canterbury. He united the kingdoms of England and Scotland and conquered Wales. The Pope wanted: Stephen Langton (who draft it). ever since that time.1. Most of its clauses recited specific complaints against lawless behaviour of King John. Its content was drafted by Stephen Langton. His principal ambition was to unite Britain under one rule. Edward was in Wales and his wife Eleanor. His castles combined an outer curtain of massive walls and towers with a complex barbican protecting the gatehouse of the inner ring of defence. some copied and old. forced 7 English bishops to flee. the monarch's eldest son has received the title of Prince of Wales. gave birth to a son and heir. During that time John attacked the Church without mercy. it greatly reduce the power he held as the King. THE INVINCIBLE CASTLES The building of impregnable castles was an art that the English learnt on their Crusades to the Holy Land. 1215 There were some events that led up to King John to be forced into the signing of the Magna Carta: • • In 1205 King John quarrelled with Pope Innocent III about who should be archbishop of Canterbury. and the most Powerful Baron of England. . 3.The principle they brought back was the concentric idea. on June 15. And allowed for the formation of a powerful parliament. The main weapon these castles had to face was the siege catapult and the trebuchet. Edward I held up his son at a gathering of Welsh nobles and said: “Here is your Prince of Wales”. which became known as Magna Carta. confiscated part of its wealthy. Magana Carta was originally called the "Articles of the Barons” after that The Royal Chancery produce a formal royal grant. It was considered to be the beginning of constitutional government in England. and a promise that it would not be repeated. a device which could launch stones of a quarter of ton.powerful in Europe. It was a collection of 37 English laws. In 1284.

• If a monarch were to break the terms of the charter. but the fact that it was granted at all. the rebel Barons support him. His absence gave the barons enough time to plan their moves carefully In January 1215. the King left England to camping in France. • 3. but king . Anjou. The Magana Carta mixed specific complaints with some principles of law: John was no to levy unauthorised taxes or fine men excessive amounts for trivial offences. took King John by surprise at Windsor and agreed to a meeting at Runnymede in Egham. King John dies in October. King John signed and sealed the document. Wrested from the hands of a unwilling monarch. There was a powerful opposition. On June 10. In 1213. • His officers could no longer seize corps without pay for them • Knight were no tot be forced to served the king overseas • The Church could not be oppressed. there was a Barons war due to King’s nonconformity with the Magna Carta. the Barons turn on Price Luis and supports King John's son who became King Henry III of England.• • • • • • • • In1212 King John imposes taxes on the Barons in his attempts to regain the lost lands of Aquitaine. he would be overthrow. The western isles were divided for the Norwegians kings. Between 1215 and 1217. on June (2115) the Barons. • No one will we sell. 1215 The baron renewed the Oath of Fealty to King John. On June 15. and was proclaimed and accepted as King of England. they felt aggrieved at their exclusion from royal favours. The Independence of Scotland Between twelfth and thirteenth centuries.2. deny or delay right of justice • The King could no be above the law • The King must govern his subjects according to its terms and not according to his own whim. the English penetration was peaceable. King John quarrels with Barons. (Although not actually crowned) In 1216. there. The Magna Carta became the basis for the English citizen's rights and liberties it was considered to be the beginning of constitutional government in England and hence America Liberties. 1215. no its wealth confiscated. In 1216 Prince Louis son of the king of France invades England and arrived to London. The most important thing about this charter was not what it said. Poitou. Barons took up arms against King John and captured London in May 1215.

As Scotland's economy was good the wars of independence were not so damaging. Their great victory was in September 1297 at Stirling Bridge and Wallace became the master of Scotland. In 1322. Despite his coronation Bruce was soon in trouble. He climax was the Battle of Bannockburn. despite the costs of the fighting a war. formally too. drawn and quartered because he was charged with treason. marched to the north of Scotland and took over the country as an English colony. Wallace retook the castles that Edward had captured. Bruce tried and tried again and he conquered most of Scotland. which has engraved the date 1314 on the heart of Scottish patriots ever since.Magnus looked like pushing into the mainland. and the booty of Bannockburn. The English mustered 20. who was a friend and brother-in-law of the King Alexander. After the death of Scottish King Alexander. In 1327 negotiations for peace began again. 4. Robert I came south and burned Lancaster. Edward was English. King Edward I of England. Bruce had himself crowned king at Scone in March 1306. The English territories north of York and Lancaster became a reluctant but hapless supply source to the Scots. The defeated King Edward III of England could not quite admit that he was finished. In 1322 fighting in the area was so fierce. were so great that the wealth of Scotland actually increased. In 1320 the English king Edward II secured a two-year truce in these Northern provinces. The next Scot to fight for independence was Robert the Bruce.000 men. Wallace was hanged. the Earl of Carrick in Ayrshire and a trusted ally of Edward. attacked by Edward's men and forced to flee Scotland and hide on the island of Rathlin. and the Scotland must be free of the king called the Hammer of the Scots. After this. off the Irish coast. Bruce has 6000 and an inflexible determination. William Wallace (or Sir William Wallace) was driven by the conviction that he was Scottish. and by March 1328 they were concluded. The Houses of Lancaster and York . Edward III finally a treaty was signed in Edinburgh on 17 March and ratified by the English parliament at Northampton on 4 May. It may have been the case that the profits of raiding the farms and blackmailing the northern countries of England.

Until 1450’s. Medieval Society in the British Isles . which was briefly interrupted (1461-70. but in this time England enjoyed a leap forwards in national prosperity. But when the Hundred Years’ War. passions and quarrels from the soil of France to that of English itself. the energies of England’s great families have been spent in the French wars. together with the weak government of Henry VI. England was torn by a vicious and violent struggle between rival claimants to the throne. the Houses of York and Lancaster. From the sons of Edward III has sprung two great families. there came to the throne a new dynasty which was to reunite a divided land and lead back to the greatness: The House of Tudor. As the government of Henry VI became more inefficient. Henry IV. in the Tower of London. The House of Lancaster (1399-1461) was a short dynasty of the three kings. Richard III (1483-1485) succeeded his brother Edward IV after confining his two nephews. the seemingly triumphant Yorkists were challenged by the last oh the Lancastrian line. the country enjoyed a well-deserved period of peace. Henry V. Edward IV proved himself an able ruler. on Boswoth Field. Edward was proclaimed the first Yorkist king. 5. there was a growing clamour for Richard Plantagenet to govern the country. led to the outbreak of The War of the Roses. the last of the Plantagenets. The loss of the French possessions. Richard’s son. In 1460 Richard formally claimed the throne but he was killed in battle Wakefield. that can be seen can be seen quite simply as the military expression of an on-going family quarrel between two branches of the royal house of Plantagenet. ended in final defeat. The Lancastrians met defeat in their turn. The Yorkist dynasty only lasted until 1485. And with the death of Richard III. the young Prince Henry Tudor’s army in field just outside the Town of Marker Bosworth in Leicestershire. Edward took up his father’s cause. the nobles transferred their ambitions. 1461. On 22 August 1485. against France. 1471-1483). all named Henry. The conflict lay in the deep bitterness of dynastic rivalry. and after a few months the two brothers were never seen again. and when Edward seated himself upon the throne in Westminster hall on March 4. and during his reign.From the middle of the 15tn century. Richard III was king for barely two years.

The next social groups are free laity and secular clergy. They claimed to derive their authority from Heaven. Another of these free laymen was the free peasants who had a plot of land and who also had to perform some services on the lord’s domain. That created a conflict between Church and the State and the Archbishop Thomas Becket was involved in it. In 1129. the first Cistercian house was founded in England. lord’s property and had no public rights. Characteristics of the Middle Ages: universality and immobility. aristocracy and upper hierarchy (closed classes) who were landowning classes. Two types of immobility: horizontal (spatial) and vertical (social) The medieval society was agricultural and so that they had serious problems in orders to obtain a continuous supply of food. Henry II wanted to limit papal power in England. They were known as burgesses (inhabitants of the burg “town”). Some of the free laymen lived in towns and they were merchants. Agustine houses were the most numerous religious houses in England by the end of monastic period. Secular clergy was formed by parish priests who were under the centralisation of the Church government at Rome and they didn’t own any property.Middle Ages: from the V century (the fall of Rome) to 1492 ( European discovery of America). Thomas Becket was murdered in 1170. The next step in the pyramid was constituted by the lesser nobility (Knights and feudal lords) and regular clergy. Under these. 5. and the Pope. the sole monastic order available to Saxon England. Feudal lords owned lands laboured by their serfs.1. Rigidly hierarchized society: At the apex of medieval society were the king or the emperor. . The last group was the serfs who were unfree people. Knights were men of free birth following a nonservile-service to an aristocrat. New religious orders were introduced to England to increase the Benedictine houses. Those at the head of the English Church were wealthy. aristocratic and cosmopolitan ecclesiastics. by royal command apparently. the Monastic Orders and the Friars In the 13th century new orders of friars arrived. Regular clergy was a social group composed by clerks following a rule and forming a monastic society or a military order. The Medieval Church: the Secular Church.

There was a wide network of trading places created by Kings and lords whose main aim was to profit from trade. iron smelting and milling. man’s faith in the Christian religious was unshakeable. The Channel and the North Sea offered the greatest opportunities for the British Isles commerce. They attributed natural phenomena to a divine intervention.2. 5. The main port was London where important foreign companies had their British headquarters there. By 1350 a vast majority of towns in England had a convent of one or several orders of friars. The friars preached and thought in Christian doctrine and they institutionalised poverty. Archaeology has illuminated the diverse range of activities at monastic sites: masonry carving and tiling. The influence of trading links with Europe drew trade and prosperity towards the Southeast where international trade fairs and urban centers of the cloth trade were concentrated. which was regarded as a sign of God to punish King Harold for breaking an oath. Bulk goods traveled most cheaply by water so overseas commerce grew in importance. At least three-quarters of the population lived and worked on the land and landed wealth was the foundation of social status and political power. This is the case of Halley’s Comet in 1066. . In the 13th England and Scotland money supply grew faster than the population and monetized economy was introduced to the English lordship of Ireland. Groups of scribe produced fine manuscripts in Latin and Anglo-Saxon. The founding of Benedictine monasteries inspired a new age of book-making.Great monastic buildings were created. In 12 th and 13 th centuries the economy was agrarian: raw materials were exported and manufactured products were imports. The production of wool supported these activities. RELIGIOUS BELIEFS IN THE MIDDLE AGES In the middle Ages. The activities of friars confronted with the bishoprics when lay people preferred the churches of friars rather than their own parish churches. The Medieval Economy Economic activity in the British Isles was dominated by agriculture.

Landowner´s profits fell sharply as Labourers demanded 2 o 3 times their usual wages. These recurring outbreaks had a profound effect on slowing the population recovery in Europe (particularly in Ireland). men looked to God rather than to science for assistance. disease and death was a constant threat. a measure wich laid down the wages and tried to control prices. but the policy failed and the Peasant´s revolt explode in 1381. Horrible swellings of the glands appeared as the whole body turned black. It may have been carried by infected rats in ships and traveled in the merchandise. In times of peril. It is difficult to say to what extent the Black Death affected the Irish population but it penetrated all regions of the country. Once it reached Europe.3. In the countryside the population was halved in some places. The Black Death and Its Social and Economic Consequences In the middle Ages sickness. The trading links between Ireland and western coast of England caused that the plague filtered into Ireland in 1348. In 1351 this outbreak had run its course but there were outbreaks in following years. the bacillus was brought to the Europe. It was originated in Asia and the epidemic followed commercial trade routes. The plague created social problems. Violence increased in the towns and resentment against the clergy and the rich erupted into riots. Men were afraid to travel so little food reached the towns adding starvation to the sufferings. Its symptoms inspired terror. . With the opening up of the trade routes in the East. The government tried to intervene issuing the Labourers. The plague of the Black Death swept through England in 1348. The result was zero population growth for many years.5. One-third of the England´s population was destroyed. its progress was steady and rapid. The disease spread rapidly in every direction. The average Englishman lived only 38 years in the mid-14th. A plague without know cause or cure led many to go on pilgrimages that were the ideal conduit for the transmission of the plague. At the end of June the plague was spreading towards England.

rural dwellers left for larger manors. she was the wife of King Aelthered the Unready (978-1013. King Edgar ( 959-975) completed the unification of the kingdom of Britain. as heir to the throne. returned to England in 1041 and was recognised by Harthacnut(Cnut's son). Important political development from the kingdom of the West Saxon to th English kingdom. Edward the Elder ( Alfred's son) expanded the kingdom to the Danes eastern England and the Mercians.1. Alfred spread the kingdom across the river Thames. In 1016 the Danish king Cnut invaded Britain and took over the kingdom. towns and cities in pursuit of work and better opportunities.The plague disrupted work and living patterns. Cnut's successors inherited a kingdom divided between two earls: Godwin of Wessex and Leofric of Mercia. 1. The Saintly King’s Legacy: Westminster Abbey • Edward saw the Norman architecture which inspired him to create the great Westminster Abbey. 1014-1016) and the wife of King Cnut (1017-1035). Edward the Confessor (the son of Ethelred II) who lived in exile in Normandy. Another important figure at this time was Queen Aelfgifu. The first kings of the English • • • • • • • • • • 849-899 King Alfred the Great transformed the ancient kingdom of the West Saxons into the kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons. It engendered human migrations. . Edward's son Aethelstan gained York in 927. He promoted the idea of “Englishness”. SCHEMES 1.

Norman army (one of the best in Europe). (middle): Normandy→ powerful dukedom. the largest city was London. - Normandy started to expand: . Harold Godwinson.• • • • In 1041 he returned to England and was able to fulfil his ambition when he was named the throne's heir. of the House of Wessex→ elected king. In 1066. The shire-reeve looked after royal rights in each shire. Shires were divided into hundreds. In 1065. William the Conqueror was duke. the legal work was transacted in the Hundred Courts. they owed unpaid work. although incomplete. 1066 Edward died and was buried beneath a tomb in Westminster Abbey. The king was responsible for government. Edward: Normans). - 10th c. British Society on the Eve of the Norman Conquest • • • • • • • • Edward the Confessor left behind him a prosperous and flourishing kingdom.2. . Life in town also flourished.: settled in NW France (adopted Frankish Law).Edward the Confessor. crowned king of England (the court started to fill with ● 1066. Normandy→ very well ruled. was consecrated. They had limited rights. 11th c. 1. Earl. The Normans Normans: originally Vikings of Scandinavian origin (mainly Danes). 25 December William the Conqueror had himself consecrated king. rent in money and kind. The peasantry was not unfree. ● 1042. 2. By 1035. The England wealth came from her rich farmlands. Freemen within the hundreds were arranged in “tithings”. on 28 December the great abbey. On January 5. Edward died. (last Anglo-Saxon king died childless) claimed to the English throne (basis of claim: Edward was a second cousin of William).1061→ Robert Guiscard created the Norman Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The coin was the nost stable in Western Europe. .

Died in 1100. The Plantagenets This name derives from the badge worn by Goffrey.● William the Conqueror. 1070. 1066. • • • Henry II. etc. who usurped the throne. Duke of Normandy. 1087. the lionheart. 1085. 14 October 1066. it was a sprig of flowering broom.King William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book.William suppressed a Saxon revolt in the Southwest of England. 1068. Henry Plantagenet (Henry II).End of William’s reign 2. churches. William II was the king of England: detested by the Church but loved by knights. Stephen. the son of Mathilda. After his death a civil war broke between his heir and daughter Mathilda and Henry's nephew. 3. William built many monuments (cathedrals. Henry I (1100-1135) ruled well and introduced the Exchequer.087 to 1100. Count of Anjou. ●Accession of Henry I to the throne. his heir. 1051.Edward died and Harold Godwineson was chosen as his successor. William and his Norman army defeated the Saxon at the Battle of Hastings and William was crowned King of England. 2. defeated the English king Harold at the Battle of Hasting. . was designed king by Stephen and the war ended. His consolidation of might thank to vast stone castle (Tower of London). the first Plantagenet (1154-1189).1 The Norman Conquest and the Transformation of England.with large territories in France. duke of Normandy.2 The Succession Problems • • • From 1.).Hereward the Wake launched a campaign against the Normans. 1067.Norman army was massacred in Durham. Richard I. After 18 years of war and anarchy. died mysteriously when he was hunting with his brother Henry I. ● William II Rufus (Edward’s heir): reigned (1087-1100).Edward promised the throne to William. John (1199-1216) acceded at the throne at the death of his brother.

In 1265 Simon de Montfort summoned the first English Parliament. Barons´ time to plan. • On June 15. it reduce the power he held as the King. • In January 1215. Edward I (1272-1307). In 1227. King John signed and sealed the document. 3. which limited royal power. In 1258 the English barons led by Simon de Montfort rebelled against him. on June (2115) the Barons. and supports King John's son who became King Henry III of England. 1215 The baron renewed the Oath • Between 1215 and 1217 Barons war.1. The main aim of the Magna Carta was to curb the King and make him govern by the old English laws Events: • In 1205 King John quarrelled with Pope Innocent III • In 1209. • On June 10. John attacks church • In1212 King John imposes taxes on the Barons. He transformed the law of England and made his crown the richest and most powerful in Europe. Magna Carta Document that King John of England (1166-1216) was forced into signing.2. • In 1216 Prince Louis invades England the rebel Barons support him and was proclaimed as King of England • In 1216. 1215. 3. He attempted to unite the kingdoms of England and Scotland and conquered Wales. The Independence of Scotland • Around the twelfth and thirteenth: the English penetration was peaceable and Edward I marched to the north of Scotland. the lords forced the king to sign the Magna Carta. • In September 1297: great victory of Scots directed by William Wallace at Stirling Bridge. King John dies. the Barons turn on Price Luis. took full control of the government. King John excommunicated. They presented a list of grievances to him who signed the Provisions of Oxford. the King left England to camping in France. drawn and quartered because he was charged with treason. • In 1305: Wallace was hanged. In 1215. Henry III (1216-1272) crowned king at the age of nine. Barons took up arms against King John and captured London in May 1215. .• • Richard I. they felt aggrieved • In 1213. took King John by surprise at Windsor and agreed to a meeting at Runnymede in Egham.

The War of the Roses: the war between the houses of Lancaster and York. The Houses of Lancaster and York • • • • • From mid-15th: England torn in violent struggles between rivals claimants to the throne. Henry IV. Henry V and Henry VI. • On 4 May: ratified by the English parliament at Northampton. 4.The House of Tudor • • • • . Bosworth field: fall of the last York. Richard III. • In 1314: the Battle of Bannockburn where was the climax for Scottish. • In 1322: Robert I came south and burned Lancaster and the fighting in the area was so fierce. Richard III. two branches of the Plantagenets. • In 1320: the English king Edward II secured a two-year truce in these Northern provinces. Edward V. York: Edward IV. and by March 1328 they were concluded. The nobles transferred their ambitions to England. Richard III ------. The Hundred Year’s war: a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne (Valois and Plantagenets). Edward IV. Lancaster (1399-1461) York (1461-1485) Short dynasty of three kings. • In 1327: negotiations for peace began again. • On 17 March: Edward III finally a treaty was signed in Edinburgh. Cause: weak + inefficient government of Henry VI.• In March 1306: Bruce had himself crowned king at Scone.

which would last 30 years. On his death. to govern the country. The crown passed directly to Richard III because Edward V had been declared an illegitimate son of Edward IV. These were the Houses of Lancaster and York. a new dynasty. had lost the French possessions and his government was weak. a Lancaster king. The House of Tudor. Edward was proclaimed the first Yorkist king. Medieval Society in the British Isles . This lead to the Wars of Roses.(Henry VII) THE WAR OF ROSES • The different royal houses wanted to rule England. Most people wanted Richard. He took up arms against the king and claimed the throne. Henry VI. • • 5. the country lived a period of peace. During the kingdom of Edward IV. but he was killed in battle at Wakefield. Richard III was king for barely two years. came to the throne. Duke of York. Richard's son.

Henry II limited papal power in England. Monastic buildings created. Hierarchized society (pyramid of the feudal system): The king or the emperor The Pope Aristocracy Upper hierarchy Knights Feudal Lords Regular Clergy Laymen Secular Clergy Serfs 5. Agustine Houses. . Example: Halley’s Comet. Religious beliefs in the middle ages Man’s faith unshakeable. tiling.1. iron smelting and miling. New religious orders introduced to England: Benedictine Houses. New age of book-making. the Monastic Orders and the Friars Conflict between Church and the State. Cistercian Houses. Natural phenomena as divine intervention. Principal supporting the production of wool. Confrontation between churches of friars and parish churches. By 1350 the great majority of towns in England had a convent of one or several orders of friars. The Medieval Church: the Secular Church. Activities in monastic sites: masonry carving.From V Century to 1492.

The plague swept England in 1348. Labourers demanded 2 o 3 times their usual wages. Created social problems: violence increased against the clergy and the rich. followed commercial trade routes. The Medieval Economy Economic activity dominated by agriculture: foundation of social status and political power. .5. 5. Originated in Asia. Following outbreaks caused zero population growth for many years.3. The Black Death and Its Social and Economic Consequences The Englishman lived 38 years: Men looked to God for assistance.2. Pilgrimages spread it rapidly. Bulk goods traveled cheaply by water so overseas commerce grew. Monetized economy was introduced to the English lordship of Ireland. The influence of trading links with Europe drew trade and prosperity. The plague disrupted work and living patterns. Landowner´s profits fell. Main port London. The government tried to intervene issuing the Labourers but failed and the Peasant´s revolt explode in 1381. Countryside the population was halved in some places. One-third of the England´s population destroyed. Trading links filtered the plague into Ireland.