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A comparison of such word combinations as ³iron gate´ and ³iron will´, ³temir darvoza´ and ³temir iroda´.

In the first case ³iron´ is logical attribute denoting a special type of gates, whereas in ³iron will´ ³temir iroda´- iron serves as an epithet and denotes an ³unyielding will´. The same refers to ³green meadow´ ³green old age´, ³green thoughts´, Steel weapon, steel will,ham tarvuz ,xom yigit, polat sim, polat qala ets. An erithet has always an emotional meaning or connotation. This meaning may be com bined with denotatinal meaning or it may exist independently. After the long usage epithets form fixed word combinations which established in the language and enter the group of set expressions; true-love, merry mind, lagy gay, sweet smile, heated discussions, ogir yigit, engiltak juvon, ogir yuk, qora quzgun. Individual epithets depend on the authors stile and his artistic purpose. Eg; He looked shy and embarrassed and wild hope came to me (G. Green) Oyni kutgan oqshomgi kokda beshik-beshik bulut yurardi. (Oybek) Semantic criterion gives us the right to distinguish associated and unassociated epithets. Associated epithets single out a feature which is essentially typical, inherent in the concept of the object they describe; the red sunset, the towering woods, dark clouds, pokiza yoshlik, ola chipor koylak, ochilgan guncha. Unassociated epithets characterize the object through a feature which is not typical and alien for this object. Such association immediately brings surprising effect, attracts the readers attention. Eg; elegant books, smiling year, dim roar, the wild moon, osmon upar uylar, shaftoli gul kuylak, sargaygan dunyo, ichakuuzdi latifalar. These adjectives indicate properties which are associated with other notions; elegant manners, smiling child, dim light, qiziq latifalar. In present day English epithets can be by various morphological and syntactical categories. Very often and epithet is expressed in the form of an adjective in the attributive function. Eg; Bold shadows, shallow sorrows, golden autumn day. Adjectival epithets are expressed by compounds consisting of; 1) Noun+adjective; Stone-cold water, steel-grey cloud. 2) Noun+participle: The house had a snow-beaten look. 3) Adjective (adverb+participle: much-traveled cousin. 4) Noun+adjective (derived from a noun): the key-eyed boy, her high, long-legged dreams, potbellied man, gun-coloured overalls. 5) Very often an epithet is expressed by a participial attributes: the gray boiling sea burst on to the sand. In the examples given above epithets are expressed by nouns in the function of a prepositive attribute which denotes qualities such as colour, shape, consistency etc. While speaking about epithets we must distinguish different structural types such as: simple compound, string, phrase, sentence epithets and reversed epithets. Here are the illustrations: Simple epithets: a brainless animal, a sensible. Stroke, buyuk xasis, tengsiz mumlik, qarsillagan kulgu, mexmondo`st odam, sofdil kishilar. Compound epithets stand very close to compound adjectives: weak-minded ideas, cast-iron opinion, a shamed-looking dog, a carefully thought out curses String epithets, the structural attributes describe the object from different points of view. Very often string epithets constitute gradation. Eg: Moving magically to fresh and strange and exciting places; a miserable, long-nosed, dirty-looking scoundrel. Prase epithets (sentence epithets): a life-and-death struggle; Her mother ran up, and came into the bad-room with a worrid-end-of-the-world frown on her face (E. O`. Brien). Baxtingga tasadduq zaminu olam, ko`ngli oq va o`zi qora qoshyurtim! Such constructions serve to the reversed epithet consists of two nouns connected by an ³of phrase´, a claw of fear, a day of happiness. These are called metaphorical epithets. The essence (nature) of transferred epithets lies in the fact that it is associated with a noun other than to which it grammatically belongs: She put her careful, not her foot.) Mr. Baker stirred with a thoughtful spoon. (Mr. Baker was thoughtful, not his spoon) (Azizbek) Boshlab fuqaroga salom berdi, so`ngra siniq va ojiz qolgan bir tovush bilan xalqqa uzr aytdi. From what have been said above it is quite clear that the stylistic function of epithets is to give subjective evaluation of things and notions. In most cases it is the writer's subjective attitude to what he describes.

ey malagim. Many Nicknames of historical or public characters are based on the use of such characterization. and sculptor can be used to denote his work: ³A Titian-haired girl´. From the semantic point of view the authors stress the prominent features of a person and stick these features to his name: Miss Sharp. Erkin 1) Xar qanday to`siq. Mr. -son. Chopin's beautiful sorrow. a person who moves about restlessly. Eg: It was with an almost cruel joy. Miss. oydinli (oydin kecha) 2) aniq. a man who pays too much care to his clothes and personal appearance. xamma yoq oy nuri bilan yorigan. Old Hickory (Andrew Jackson. Pinch wife. Morison. it is often used together with epithets. Jon son. Oydin 1) oy chiqib. The stylistic effect is based on the fact that the denotational meaning of the attribute is not entirely lost. a beautifully ugly face. Bu erdan ketaylik.Oxymoron. iqtisodiy xuquqiy mustaqillikka ega bo`lgan. brawling love´ ³ishbilarmon dangasa´ ³achiq kulgi´. I'm terrible glad. Oxymoron as a rule has the following structural model: adjective+noun or adverb adjective. Antonomasia is associated with other SDs. a generous miser. 2) Siyosiy. Lord Nobody. jo`shqin xarakat va jamiatdagi. er. tur o`rningdan tur. Chaster. Of course an oxymoron always expressed the author's subjective attitude: Come to me in the silence of the night Come in the speaking silence of a dream. Sparkish. Mr. Qovoq Devona. shows of impatience. ravshan. the reference is made to the paintings of the world's greatest Italian painter Titian. manufacturer or after the place where it is produced: Channel. bilinib turgan. the seventh President of the USA). the US President's residence and office. Bordeaux (white or red wine from the Bordeaux region of France). xur. not in form. one who strikes violently (compare with the verb to lash). ard. Mr. Mr. This SD is based on the immediate interplay between logical and nominal meanings of a word which is realized in the text. The Iron Duke (the first Duke of Wellington). Choakumchild (one who can stop the breath of a child) Aka-uka baliqchilar tolmas va qo`rqmas qaytmasovlar. the former prime Minister of Great Britain. Uyg`on.6 Stylistic Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and Nominal Meanings Antonomasia. monelikdan xoli bo`lgan bemalol. 2. The realization of only one meaning does not give a SD. Eg. lalaygan. Dr. Backbite. busy idleness. ko`rinib. Bernard. a dandy. Suddenly she felt the need to speak. The same refers to Mcfission. Wall street. Thacher. Howard. Good fell. Antonomasia is lexical stylistic device in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun or vice versa. Atala Maxsum (Bo`shashgan. the Iron Lady (M. For example. The wordy silence troubled her: It was a relief to be on board and no longer alone together. Speaking about epithets we have underlined that it denotes certain qualities of a person. Oxymoron is the use of an epithet or in attributive phrase that is contradictory to the noun it modifies. Eg. Mr. Antonomasia stands close to epithets. the white House. Nina Ricci (French scent). faqat ketaylik. Second meaning is his -tuyg`u. g`ov. Herbert. An Oxymoron is used to give a figurative characterization of a notion to reveal its inner complicated nature. The name of a painter. This closeness is traced in nature. one who hurts his wife by pinching. Murdstone. Eg. lanj odam xaqida). Sometimes in the English language capital letters are the only marks maks of the use of antonomasia and the implication which such antonomasia carries in the text. Sir Fidget. ichki kechinma. writer. If it had been lost the word combination would resemble those attributes with only emotional meaning such as: It's awfully nice of you. ozod. the chief financial center of the USA. This kind of names exists in the Uzbek language also: To`lqinprimary meaning is qattiq chayqalib turgan suv betidagi ko`rtana. Here are Uzbek examples. Oxymoron is lexical device the syntactic and semantic structures of which come to clashes eg: ³cold fire´. . McFaul (compare with the verb to fail. women in his pictures are generally red -haired. Another type of antonomasia is metonymic antonomasia which is based on the relation of contiguity. A product can be named after the inventor. xayotdagikuchli xarakat. Here are some illustrations of antonomasia widely used in emotive prose and drama: Mclash. It may serve to denote a temporary feature of a notion. Otashin muzlarda isinaylik yur Yong`inli daryoda quloch otaylik. Traditionally proper name are built according to certain morphological patterns: noun+suffixes.

qutirgan bo`riday. like.Galperin. yarog`-aslaxali ikki tora zinada qaqqaydi. what is conventional. Romeo and Juliet. qop-qora eding. Eg. He is a regular Sherlock Holms. Shamol kuchaygan sari. so far untouched. Two human being are compared. Therefore in building up a definition the definer tries to single out the most essential features of the object. In a metaphor an idea is expressed by a word used in a figurative meaning. as clear as crystal. Men seni olganimda. Simile finds one or several features which are common to the objects compared: The sun was as red as ripe new blood. muzday sovuq. In order to understand the linguistic nature of the SDs of this group it is necessary to clear up some problems. I crawled like a mole onto my bed. tuxumdek silliq tortib ketding «. as. tulkiday ayyor. the Government. it olgan tulkiday. suvga tushgan mushukday. In the fourth group of stylistic devices. seem etc. Comparison implies estimation of two objects which belong to one class of object. but in simile both ideas are denoted by word used in their direct meaning: Della's beautiful hair fell about her ripping and shining like a cascade of brown water « Arbab quyning mayib bo`lganini ko`tib qaynar qozondek toshdi. Yosh oybeklar. Eshik ochilib. don kixotlar. My heart is like a singing bird. Boshimdan laptarlardek uchdi ming-minglab xayol. Things are best of all learned by simile V. However. its growth and its changes. Sherlok Xolmsning o`zginasi sinkov kishi xaqida. amali kattami deyman-da? Stylistic Devices of Descriptive Character. Endi to`lishib. Its purpose is to show the features which bring these objects together. Stylistics. the building where US Army head quarters are placed. These are pinned down by the definer through a long period of observation of the object. Steinbek). Abdulla xech kim kutmagan gapni topib keldi. In the first sentence the word ³cascade´ ³qaynar´ has retained its direct meaning. We must not confuse ordinary comparison and simile as a SD. olqindi?-so`radi u omontoydan. The stylistic function of simile may be different: 1) Imaginative characterization of a phenomenon. uning kabi pochonli. as if. blind as a bat. 1. Umumiy tushunchani ifodalovchi avvaldan mavjud bo`lgan va qo`llanib keladigan tilningbu xususiati antonomasiaga xosdir. busy as a bee. The nature of simile is to compare two (or several) objects which belong to different class of things. a deeper penetration into the ontology of the object will always reveal some hither to unknown qualities and features. the body was tensed as a strong leaf spring. -xali jiblojibon boru. in the second examples it is used in a figurative meaning as a metaphor. bolday shirin. Belinsky. may be said about an observant person. if he is like his mother he must be a good-looking boy. Grundy say. Here Uzbek examples.the Pentagon. introduce similes and comparison. to sleep like a dog. Here are Uzbek examples. (J. which we now come to. shop mo`ylov. qo`yday yuvosh. -Yangilikdan xabaring bormi. no definition can comprise all the inner qualities of the object and new combinations of it with other objects as well. such as. Shunisi muximki. We distinguish metaphoric antonomasia which is usually considered to be a clich . Eg.S. ja-a.R. street in London with official residences of the Prime Minister. go`shtdor yuzidan zaxar tomchilagan Mocholov bilan birga. its functioning. Jiblajibon-mayda qadam tashlab. dedi Jamoliddin Nuriga. xipcha ayol. If we compare a simile with a metaphor we can see that a metaphor is also based on the similarity of two ideas. yong people who love each other. (Down fell in ripples her hair). ko`pirar. Down rippled the brown cascade of her hair. qaynar. actions. we find they one of the qualities of the object in question is made to sound essential. Such formal elements as. These phraseological units are trite similes and have become clich s. Simile. Oradan ych-to`rt kun o`tdi. oftobda qurigan turshakdek butishgan. I. noz-qarashma qilib yuradigan nozik. endi bu zo`larning ba`zilari kichik xarf bilan yoziladi. U quyosh nurida cho`g`dek lovillab turardi. What will Mrs. qora qarg`aday.M ³H. dengiz chayqalar. . zamonamiz farxodlari. like a streak in lighting. manners. Simile reveals the most essential features of an object or person and draws a comparison between two different things.G. Similes enrich English phraseology: like a squirrel in a cage. Tonnalab paxta terib Tursunay bo`lay deyman.´. 1977. Different features may be compared in simile: the state. Downing street. of definition can point out only one or two properties of a phenomenon.

qon to`kkanmiz. All these word combinations are synonyms by nature and have become phraseological units. oymoma. kesilib ketdi-qamaldi. He jumped to his feet. to cross the bar. said Miss Hand forth. hairless as a boiled onion. metaphors or periphrases. poetical. Eg. Maugham). Hyperbole.Bennett). kolxoz osnginatuzilmagan. Toychoqqinam. She wondered a little to and fro. ³qizamiq´ ³gul. In ³Come on´. qurbon bo`moq. Five weeks of perfect liberty « would have prepared her for the day of bells (for the day of wedding). Such periphrasis is based on one of the original features of the object: The sun was beginning to yawn and edge towards his bed. benom. Immensely obliged. to die. Hyperbole as a SD must be distinguished from exaggeration as every exaggeration cannot be regarded as a SD. Death: the journey's end. In the first group of periphrasis the logical notion prevailes while in the second group-the figurative notion is leading and periphrasis is based on some image. Euphemisms do not live for a long time. behind the far mountains (S.I ought to be shot for not recognizing it. The origin of the term ³euphemism´ discloses the aim of the device very clearly. For example. which is used to rename an unpleasant word or expression. rattled his throat. «boshi oshlangan teriday silliq. perspiration-sweat. the sun was setting. qoshlari quay tushgan po`stakdeksiyrak sex boshlig`i Periphrasis. terminological inexactitudes. (K. to hop off the twig. Instead of saying ³a liar´ in the political sphere we usually come across such expressions as. ³aqli qisqa´ instead of ³axmoq´ qulog`I og`ir instead of kap. My mother was shocked to morrow of her bones by the thought. osmonga ustun bo`1armiding. but still with marked success. The logical periphrasis constitutes the essence of traditional dictionary periphrasis: to turn over a new leaf (make a new. ³chayon´ ³oti yo`q. Many of such word combinations are used in the language of mass media. and mental hospital.e. medical.Jerome). one's better half (one's wife). to possess a vivid imagination. Biroq qizi tushmagurning xusnimi. besh bo`g`in´. We trace periodic changes in terminology: the madhouse. ³No tongue can tell´ means ³it is very difficult to express by means of the language´. to make the statement milder. Instead of saying ³to lie´ people usually use such expressions as: to tell stories. A nice old man. ³qulog`ini kar´xech narsani eshita olmaydigan. religious. . Euphemism is a periphrasis. osmondan kelmoq. Are common colloquial phrases used in every day speech. Intoxication drunkenness. qulog`ni kar. One of the stylistic functions of euphemisms-is to produce a humorous effect or to distort the truth. xaymoma´. jon bermoq instead of o`lmoq. ³ishsizlar´ ijtimoiy-foydali mexnat soxasida band bo`magan kishilar. planted firmness on his brows and mouth « that his blood might be lively at the throne of understanding (his brains). xar qalay G`iyossiddinning til-jag`ini bog`lab. Seni deb o`lib turibdi. distort the political events. Some of them are spread in the language of official style because they have become clich s. to tie the knot (to marry). I don't know any of my relations. to join the majority. A hyperbole is employed for direct quantitive exaggeration: ³Do you think we have anything to say one another?´-She asked quickly-³miles´. bir dunyo narsa oldik. Usually individual hyperboles constitute a SD. ko`zini ko`r qilib qo`ygan edi. speaking well-from Greek -eu=well+-pheme=speaking. are they many? -³Tons´ Hyperbole may be expressed in a periphrastic descriptive way: What I suffer in that way no tongue can tell. moral. a better start).2) To produce a humorous effect by its unexpectedness. I. maintaining her balance on those two tiny supports (A. Periphrasis is the nomination of an object or action through exhibiting certain features of this object or action. ³ko`zi ko`r´xech narsa ko`rmaydigan. Erga yo`shab soldi qishga ko`rpacha´ ³Oppoq mo`ylovini burab kelar qish´ One of the stylistic functions of periphrasis is to produce a satirical or humorous effect sarcastic description. standing on her little feet. ³has the cat got your tongue?´ (Can you speak?). Figurative periphrasis is often based on the use of a metaphor or metonymy. the House of God (the church or chapel) ³til jag`ini bog`lab´ gapira olmaydigan. Periphrases are divided into to group: logical and figurative. shirin so`zlarimi. perhaps clumsily. The political euphemisms always delude public opinion. Eg. Usually euphemisms are defined as words or phrases which produce some mild effect. ³Yoz bo`yi elpig`an elpig`ichini. In emotive prose euphemisms are usually expressed by metonymy. olamdan o`tmoq. We distinguish the following groups of euphemisms. the following expressions: Haven't seen you for ages. qo`li egri instead of o`g`ri. tomog`ini moyladi-pora berdi. I`m dying to see it. lunatic asylum.

b) Oxymoron joins two antonymous words into one syntagm. I'd have been out there days ago-days ago. hyperbolic metaphors. III. the dark swallowed him. the former Prime Minister of G. Daryo oqar. to be in the same boat. this virus carried a gun. hyperbolic similes: His mind began to move like lighting. Periphrasis is the nomination of an object or action through exhibiting certain features of this object or action. SD based of the interaction of dictionary and contextual Logical Meanings. Uzb. Ishbilarmon dangasa. The SD based on the principle of substitution of one object for another is called metonymy and the SD based on contrary concepts is called irony. SD of descriptive character. Lord Nobody. Miss Careless Uzb. Ex: Eng. most frequently attribute or adverbial. a flight of imagination: the ladder of fame. Eng. and SD of both languages are similar in many cases. Hyperbole may be found in repetition. Sometimes for a specialreason one of the features of the thing is made the most essential.In this case hyperbole is based on metonymy (tongue) Hyperbole may be used in combination with other SD.B) Uzb. Mendek dangalchiga xam shunaqa tuxmat qilasizlarmi oshnalar? Menman degan xo`kizning shoxini sindirishga xam kuchim etadi-ya. ularning safari qoridi. head of a nail. green old age. The following metaphors enriched English phraseology. Language can be called the ³dictionary of faded metaphors´. Eg. She was as grace full as a meridian of longitude. . The interplay between the logical and nominal meanings of a word is called antonomasia Ex: Eng. Shouted silently Uzb. Pokiza yoshlik. leg of a chair. blind window. Here Uzbek examples o`q yomg`iri. The stylistic device based on the principle of identification of two objects is called a metaphor. Uzb. Boshimdan kaptarlardekuchdi ming-minglab xauol. Ex: Eng. Mrs.M. describes some detail and intensifies it. ³Onasini aytganini bajaradi´o`rniga In conclusion I'd like to say that in many cases lexical E. Gullar go`yo eshitar ta`zim. a) The epithet is a stylistic device which is built on the interplay of two meanings of a word: emotive and logical. o`lim do`li buloq ko`zi.Tcatcher. to fish for complements. Examples of genuine metaphors: The lips were tight little traps the whole space was a bowl of heat. less frequently of other patterns. primitive and isolated entombed by the mountains. Gradually he was becoming acclimatized to the strange town. He showed satisfaction as he took possession of his well-earned reward. qo`rqmas. Such periphrasis is based on one of the original features of the object. Atala Maxsum Qovoq Devona. Examples of trite metaphors: The salt of life. Conclusion In the conclusion section I'd like to write brief in formations about lexical stylistic devices of the Uzbek and English languages with examples. Small`s eyes boiled with excitement. SD. Xademay. The Iror Lady (M. There is an opinion that a metaphor is a productive way of building up new meanings and new words. Tolmas. to burn with passion (anger). instead of ³He grinned as he´ pocketed the coin. Eng. the words seemed to dance «. Based on the interaction of lexical and emotive meaning. foot of a bed. Onasini chizgan chizig`idan chiqmaydi. umr oqar paydar-pay. vaqt oqar.

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y The usefulness of a primary auxiliary verb for stylistic analysis may depend on the aspectual function it serves in relation to the lexical verb: for example. will not be regarded as inviolable or exhaustive. the use of the present tense in a narrative written in the past tense. and slows down the action in the text. for example. Lexical Sets In analysing the adjectives. you may have noticed that there are quite a few adjectives which are problematic. speed. size. and are not done on objects. A lot of adjectives may however make the style of the text ornate (or flowery). while the frequent use of transitive verbs may signify the opposite of this. become abstract in their significance. and this may be a point of interest in your interpretation of the passage). judgments of certainty. These verbs may be of concern in relation to the accuracy of our analysis of time in the literary work. and shows the interest the text has in relating the qualities of something to those of another thing. It needs to be emphasised here that in literary stylistics. whereas the non-finite verbs do seem to have. but because they are used to describe abstract nouns. y The interpretation of the significance of tense in a literary work is by no means confined to determining whether an event is in the past or the present: notice for example. whereas a lack of them may result in descriptive sparseness or thinness. or whether they are used sparingly. in the sense that: y You may want to place them in terms of certain categories. y The modal auxiliaries are usually a rich source for the interpretation of opinions. (we will go back to these in the lecture on mood and modality later this semester). the issuing of commands etc. male / female etc. Superlatives may also serve the same purpose. shape. you may also want to try (if it is possible) to put them in lexical sets. animate / inanimate entities. as one feels that one has to concentrate one's attention on the details of static entities or phenomena. or of goods and services. y Whether comparatives or superlatives are used. no longer functioning etc. which may indicate that the situation described is imaginary. however. things or people. one of the first questions one asks is y Whether there are many of them in a text. or in relating them to an assumed yardstick (this of course gives rise to another question: the basis for the assumed yardstick. 'red' or 'squarish' is concrete. and you may want to analyse them accordingly. our primary interest is not on the various categories we can put these verbs into. y The finite verbs can be regarded as being anchored to a more definite time. it is hoped. concrete or abstract nouns. but how the verbs function in the given work or abstract. especially when used colloquially. or by time adverbials. ditransitive verbs quite often indicate the conveyance (or exchange) of information. y The use of a lot intransitive verbs in a text may indicate the description of actions which exist by themselves. such as adjectives describing colour. so. feelings and of emotional reactions. As you may know. but they may reveal the interest the text has in viewing things in terms of extremes (a few of these superlatives. hypothetical. one of the main functions adjectives serve is to give more description to the entities found in a text. you may notice that this distinction may also apply in relation to some of the adjectives themselves. y You may also want to look at the lexical sets of the nouns. comparatively speaking. whether an action is still going on. There are no easy formulas here. of universal significance. one needs to be warned here that this linkage may be indicated or implied by the tensed verb to which the non-finite verb grammatically relates. However. y In relation to the abstract / concrete division. etc. The use of comparatives is self-explanatory. but 'thoughtful' or 'regretful' is abstract. and related in more definite ways to their subjects.Words of Advice on the Analysis of Adjectives in Literary Stylistics As regards the analysis of adjectives in stylistics. and whether there is a variation in the use of the adjectives in relation to them: eg. etc. which you may want to question in your analysis). many in fact appear to be concrete. . evaluations. the use of more adjectives will result in the descriptive richness of the text. but we can make some very brief preliminary general observations which. may even be exaggerated. a less certain linkage to time and person.